WorldWideScience

Sample records for levels baseline concentrations

  1. Mercury baseline levels in Flemish soils (Belgium)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tack, Filip M.G.; Vanhaesebroeck, Thomas; Verloo, Marc G.; Van Rompaey, Kurt; Ranst, Eric van

    2005-01-01

    It is important to establish contaminant levels that are normally present in soils to provide baseline data for pollution studies. Mercury is a toxic element of concern. This study was aimed at assessing baseline mercury levels in soils in Flanders. In a previous study, mercury contents in soils in Oost-Vlaanderen were found to be significantly above levels reported elsewhere. For the current study, observations were extended over two more provinces, West-Vlaanderen and Antwerpen. Ranges of soil Hg contents were distinctly higher in the province Oost-Vlaanderen (interquartile range from 0.09 to 0.43 mg/kg) than in the other provinces (interquartile ranges from 0.7 to 0.13 and 0.7 to 0.15 mg/kg for West-Vlaanderen and Antwerpen, respectively). The standard threshold method was applied to separate soils containing baseline levels of Hg from the data. Baseline concentrations for Hg were characterised by a median of 0.10 mg Hg/kg dry soil, an interquartile range from 0.07 to 0.14 mg/kg and a 90% percentile value of 0.30 mg/kg. The influence of soil properties such as clay and organic carbon contents, and pH on baseline Hg concentrations was not important. Maps of the spatial distribution of Hg levels showed that the province Oost-Vlaanderen exhibited zones with systematically higher Hg soil contents. This may be related to the former presence of many small-scale industries employing mercury in that region. - Increased mercury levels may reflect human activity

  2. Baseline studies of radon/thoron concentration levels in and around the Lambapur and Peddagattu areas in Nalgonda district, Andhra Pradesh, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinay Kumar Reddy, K.; Sreenivasa Reddy, B.; Sreenath Reddy, M.; Gopal Reddy, Ch.; Yadagiri Reddy, P.; Rama Reddy, K.

    2003-01-01

    Studies conducted by Atomic Minerals Directorate of Exploration and Research (AMD) of Hyderabad, India had established the presence of higher concentrations of uranium in Lambapur and Peddagattu areas of Nalgonda district, AP, India and it was estimated that it could be a viable source for commercial extraction. The envisaged extraction process involves dispersion of radioactive particulate matter into atmosphere. Environmental radioactive studies in and around proposed mining areas at this point of time will be extremely useful for establishing base line data before a large scale uranium extraction process comes into existence. To this end, Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors were installed to evaluate indoor radon and thoron concentration levels in the dwellings of the area. The geometric means of radon and thoron concentration levels were found to be (7.1±0.2)x10 1 and (6.7±0.3)x10 1 Bq/m 3 , respectively. Simultaneously, natural background radiation measurements were also made and these levels are found to vary from 770 to 3995 μGy/y in the spatial distribution

  3. Mercury exposure may suppress baseline corticosterone levels in juvenile birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Garth; Ackerman, Joshua T; Herzog, Mark P

    2012-06-05

    Mercury exposure has been associated with a wide variety of negative reproductive responses in birds, however few studies have examined the potential for chick impairment via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The HPA axis regulates corticosterone levels during periods of stress. We examined the relationship between baseline fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations and mercury concentrations in down feathers of recently hatched (feathers (decreasing by 45% across the range of observed mercury concentrations) while accounting for stronger positive correlations between corticosterone concentrations and colony nest abundance and date. These results indicate that chronic mercury exposure may suppress baseline corticosterone concentrations in tern chicks and suggests that a juvenile bird's ability to respond to stress may be reduced via the downregulation of the HPA axis.

  4. Baseline Response Levels Are a Nuisance in Infant Contingency Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, W. S.; Weir, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The impact of differences in level of baseline responding on contingency learning in the first year was examined by considering the response acquisition of infants classified into baseline response quartiles. Whereas the three lower baseline groups showed the predicted increment in responding to a contingency, the highest baseline responders did…

  5. Baseline concentrations of nuclear fuel waste nuclides in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiro, B.D.

    1992-04-01

    Protection of the environment is a key issue in the disposal of long-lived radioactive wastes. To assess the implications of undergound disposal, transport models are commonly used to predict radionuclide concentrations in soil and water. However, an appropriate framework needs to be established to ensure that the predicted concentrations do not impose unacceptable environmental impacts. Here, we suggest baseline environmental concentrations of the most important radionuclides in nuclear fuel waste. We summarize background concentrations of the nuclides in soil and surface water, and suggest Environmental Increments (EI) that could be added to soil and water without causing detectable effects. The EI values are based mostly on natural variability, but some alternative methods are used for radionuclides that are very rare in nature. The background concentrations and EI values are most useful as a screening tool to help identify potentially unacceptable concentrations arising from a disposal concept. When available, we also report data on concentrations that have been measured in the environment without causing an observable effect. This review focuses especially on concentrations applicable to the Canadian Precambrian Shield, as part of the Canadian concept of nuclear fuel waste disposal in a deep, stable geological formation

  6. Analysis of baseline gene expression levels from ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of gene expression profiling to predict chemical mode of action would be enhanced by better characterization of variance due to individual, environmental, and technical factors. Meta-analysis of microarray data from untreated or vehicle-treated animals within the control arm of toxicogenomics studies has yielded useful information on baseline fluctuations in gene expression. A dataset of control animal microarray expression data was assembled by a working group of the Health and Environmental Sciences Institute's Technical Committee on the Application of Genomics in Mechanism Based Risk Assessment in order to provide a public resource for assessments of variability in baseline gene expression. Data from over 500 Affymetrix microarrays from control rat liver and kidney were collected from 16 different institutions. Thirty-five biological and technical factors were obtained for each animal, describing a wide range of study characteristics, and a subset were evaluated in detail for their contribution to total variability using multivariate statistical and graphical techniques. The study factors that emerged as key sources of variability included gender, organ section, strain, and fasting state. These and other study factors were identified as key descriptors that should be included in the minimal information about a toxicogenomics study needed for interpretation of results by an independent source. Genes that are the most and least variable, gender-selectiv

  7. Baseline metal concentrations in Paramoera walkeri from East Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, Anne S. . E-mail Anne.Palmer@utas.edu.au; Snape, Ian; Stark, Jonathan S.; Johnstone, Glenn J.; Townsend, Ashley T.

    2006-01-01

    Remediation of the Thala Valley waste disposal site near Casey Station, East Antarctica was conducted in the austral summer of 2003/2004. Biomonitoring of the adjacent marine environment was undertaken using the gammaridean amphipod Paramoera walkeri as a sentinel species [Stark, J.S., Johnstone, G.J., Palmer, A.S., Snape, I., Larner, B.L., Riddle, M.J., in press, doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2006.05.020. Monitoring the remediation of a near shore waste disposal site in Antarctica using the amphipod Paramoera walkeri and diffusive gradients in thin films (DGTs). Marine Pollution Bulletin and references therein]. Determination of uptake of metals and hypothesis testing for differences that could be attributed to contamination required the establishment of baseline metal concentrations in P. walkeri. Baseline metal concentrations from two reference locations in the Windmill Islands are presented here. P. walkeri was a found to be a sensitive bioaccumulating organism that recorded spatial and temporal variability at the reference sites. Measurement of metals in P. walkeri required the development of a simple digestion procedure that used concentrated nitric acid. For the first time, rare earth metals were determined with additional clean procedures required to measure ultra low concentrations using magnetic sector ICP-MS. Certified and in-house reference materials were employed to ensure method reliability

  8. Esophageal acid exposure decreases intraluminal baseline impedance levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessing, Boudewijn F.; Bredenoord, Albert J.; Weijenborg, Pim W.; Hemmink, Gerrit J. M.; Loots, Clara M.; Smout, A. J. P. M.

    2011-01-01

    Intraluminal baseline impedance levels are determined by the conductivity of the esophageal wall and can be decreased in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the baseline impedance in GERD patients, on and off proton pump inhibitor (PPI), and in

  9. Baseline concentrations of strontium and 90Sr in seawater from the northern Gulf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uddin, S.; Al Ghadban, A.N.; Behbahani, M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • This is the first baseline for strontium and 90 Sr from northern Gulf. • The total strontium concentration is much higher than reported for other oceans. • The Sr/salinity ratio correlates well with global averages. • High Sr might be due to increased salinity/CaCo 3 dissolution in acidifying Gulf waters. -- Abstract: Baseline concentration of strontium and Sr-90 in Gulf is presented. The strontium concentration is much higher than reported for other oceanic waters, while the Sr-90 concentration is low at 0.7–1.0 mBq l −1 , that represents the background level following nuclear tests and can be used as an effective tracer in case of any radioactive release in the region. The strontium concentration is primarily related to the increasing salinity off the Gulf coast

  10. Baseline Plasma C-Reactive Protein Concentrations and Motor Prognosis in Parkinson Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Umemura

    Full Text Available C-reactive protein (CRP, a blood inflammatory biomarker, is associated with the development of Alzheimer disease. In animal models of Parkinson disease (PD, systemic inflammatory stimuli can promote neuroinflammation and accelerate dopaminergic neurodegeneration. However, the association between long-term systemic inflammations and neurodegeneration has not been assessed in PD patients.To investigate the longitudinal effects of baseline CRP concentrations on motor prognosis in PD.Retrospective analysis of 375 patients (mean age, 69.3 years; mean PD duration, 6.6 years. Plasma concentrations of high-sensitivity CRP were measured in the absence of infections, and the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Part III (UPDRS-III scores were measured at five follow-up intervals (Days 1-90, 91-270, 271-450, 451-630, and 631-900.Change of UPDRS-III scores from baseline to each of the five follow-up periods.Change in UPDRS-III scores was significantly greater in PD patients with CRP concentrations ≥0.7 mg/L than in those with CRP concentrations <0.7 mg/L, as determined by a generalized estimation equation model (P = 0.021 for the entire follow-up period and by a generalized regression model (P = 0.030 for the last follow-up interval (Days 631-900. The regression coefficients of baseline CRP for the two periods were 1.41 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.21-2.61 and 2.62 (95% CI 0.25-4.98, respectively, after adjusting for sex, age, baseline UPDRS-III score, dementia, and incremental L-dopa equivalent dose.Baseline plasma CRP levels were associated with motor deterioration and predicted motor prognosis in patients with PD. These associations were independent of sex, age, PD severity, dementia, and anti-Parkinsonian agents, suggesting that subclinical systemic inflammations could accelerate neurodegeneration in PD.

  11. Baseline concentration of {sup 210}Po in Sargassum from the Northern Gulf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uddin, S.; Bebhehani, M.; Talebi, L. [Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (Kuwait)

    2014-07-01

    The concentration of the {sup 210}Po is of enormous interest because of its large contribution to the natural radiation dose received by marine organisms and human populations consuming seafood. In fact natural {sup 210}Po is responsible for higher radiation doses to humans consuming marine products than is plutonium and other man-made radionuclides. Many marine organisms are capable of concentrating {sup 210}Po in their tissues. {sup 210}Po is an alpha emitter in the {sup 238}U series, with 138-d half-life, that is supplied to seawater from atmospheric inputs and river runoff, however, the main source of {sup 210}Po in the environment is {sup 222}Rn exhalation from the ground. Assessing the impact of radionuclides in the environment requires the establishment of baseline levels in the environmental compartments. The objective of this study was to establish baseline levels in Sargassum. Two most common species of Sargassum found in the northern Gulf were analysed for {sup 210}Po. These macro-algae were collected from three different locations during January 2013. This study sets the baseline for {sup 210}Po concentration in northern Gulf, {sup 210}Po is absorbed from water and concentrated by Phytoplankton and macro-algae. This concentrated {sup 210}Po can then be passed along to the next trophic level of the marine food web. The {sup 210}Po concentration measured in Sargassum boveanum (4.405 - 4.952 BqKg{sup -1}) was significantly higher (p>0.084) than Sargassum oligocystum (3.838 - 4.358 BqKg{sup -1}). The {sup 210}Po concentration in these seaweeds from the Arabian/Persian Gulf were substantially lower than those found in various Phytoplankton and macro-algae species from other regions; this may be due to the lower background {sup 210}Po concentration in the Kuwait marine waters (0.282 - 0.382 mBq l{sup -1}). The {sup 210}Po concentrations in seawater measured at the 3 stations during January 2013 were less than those reported previously from the same region

  12. Baseline concentration of 210Po and 210Pb in Sargassum from the northern Gulf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uddin, S.; Aba, A.; Bebhehani, M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This is the first baseline for 210 Po and 210 Pb in Sargassum from northern Gulf. • 210 Po concentration in Sargassum boveanum is higher than Sargassum oligocystum. • 210 Pb concentrations in two Sargassum species was not statistically significant. • The concentration factor is microalgae is slightly higher than IAEA recommended value. - Abstract: This baseline study highlights the 210 Po and 210 Pb concentration in two species of the benthic macroalgae Sargassum from northern Gulf, also known as the ROPME Sea Area (RSA). Within the marine environment, 210 Po is initially absorbed from water and concentrated by phytoplankton and macroalgae, and this concentrated 210 Po can then readily be passed along to the higher trophic level of the marine food web. The 210 Po concentration measured in Sargassum boveanum (22.5–25.6 Bq kg −1 ) was higher than that in Sargassum oligocystum (20.2–22.5 Bq kg −1 ), but is not statistically significant (p > 0.064), where as the difference between 210 Pb concentrations in Sargassum boveanum (15.3–16.8 Bq kg −1 ) and Sargassum oligocystum (18.4–22.0 Bq kg −1 ) was statistically significant (p > 0.019). The measured concentration factor for 210 Po in Sargassum in the northern Gulf varied between 0.55 and 1.2 × 10 4 , values higher to the IAEA recommended value of 1 × 10 3 . The 210 Po enrichment is observed in both the species of Sargassum, 210 Po/ 210 Pb ratio was >1 at all the stations for all the samples

  13. Education Organization Baseline Control Protection and Trusted Level Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasim A. Al-Hamdani

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Many education organizations have adopted for security the enterprise best practices for implementation on their campuses, while others focus on ISO Standard (or/and the National Institution of Standards and Technology.All these adoptions are dependent on IT personal and their experiences or knowledge of the standard. On top of this is the size of the education organizations. The larger the population in an education organization, the more the problem of information and security become very clear. Thus, they have been obliged to comply with information security issues and adopt the national or international standard. The case is quite different when the population size of the education organization is smaller. In such education organizations, they use social security numbers as student ID, and issue administrative rights to faculty and lab managers – or they are not aware of the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA – and release some personal information.The problem of education organization security is widely open and depends on the IT staff and their information security knowledge in addition to the education culture (education, scholarships and services has very special characteristics other than an enterprise or comparative organizationThis paper is part of a research to develop an “Education Organization Baseline Control Protection and Trusted Level Security.” The research has three parts: Adopting (standards, Testing and Modifying (if needed.

  14. Soy food frequency questionnaire does not correlate with baseline isoflavone levels in patients with bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesar, Jill M; Pomplun, Marcia; Havighurst, Tom; Stublaski, Jeanne; Wollmer, Barbara; Kim, KyungMann; Tangrea, Joseph A; Parnes, Howard L; House, Margaret G; Gee, Jason; Messing, Edward; Bailey, Howard H

    2015-04-01

    The isoflavone genistein, a natural soy product with receptor tyrosine kinase-inhibiting activity, as well as phytoestrogenic and other potential anticarcinogenic effects, is being studied as an anticancer agent. Since isoflavones are commonly consumed in food products containing soy proteins, a method to control for baseline isoflavone consumption is needed. HPLC was used to evaluate baseline plasma and urine concentrations of isoflavone in fifty-four participants with bladder cancer enrolled on a phase II chemoprevention study of G-2535. The soy food frequency questionnaire was used to assess participant's baseline soy intake. The association between baseline isoflavone concentrations and intakes for genistein and daidzein was assessed by the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. The majority of participants had no detectable genistein or daidzein in plasma at baseline. The median and range of values were 0 (0-1480) nmol/L for genistein, and 0 (0-1260) nmol/L for daidzein. In urine, the median and range of values were 91.0 (0-9030) nmol/L for genistein and 623 (0-100,000) nmol/L for daidzein. The median and range of weekly estimated genistein intake was 0 (0-236) mg/wk; the median and range of weekly estimated daidzein intake was 0 (0-114) mg/wk. There was no relationship to soy intake as measured by the food frequency questionnaire and baseline isoflavone levels in plasma or urine and the Spearman's rank correlation coefficients were not significant. The soy food frequency questionnaire did not correlate with plasma or urine concentrations of either isoflavone. Alternative methods for controlling for soy consumption, including measuring plasma and urine concentrations, in isoflavone chemoprevention trials should be considered. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  15. CryoSat SAR/SARin Level1b products: assessment of BaselineC and improvements towards BaselineD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scagliola, Michele; Fornari, Marco; Bouffard, Jerome; Parrinello, Tommaso

    2017-04-01

    CryoSat was launched on the 8th April 2010 and is the first European ice mission dedicated to the monitoring of precise changes in the thickness of polar ice sheets and floating sea ice. Cryosat carries an innovative radar altimeter called the Synthetic Aperture Interferometric Altimeter (SIRAL), that transmits pulses at a high pulse repetition frequency thus making the received echoes phase coherent and suitable for azimuth processing. This allows to reach a significantly improved along track resolution with respect to traditional pulse-width limited altimeters. CryoSat is the first altimetry mission operating in SAR mode and continuous improvements in the Level1 Instrument Processing Facility (IPF1) are being identified, tested and validated in order to improve the quality of the Level1b products. The current IPF, Baseline C, was released in operation in April 2015 and the second CryoSat reprocessing campaign was jointly initiated, taking benefit of the upgrade implemented in the IPF1 processing chain but also of some specific configurations for the calibration corrections. In particular, the CryoSat Level1b BaselineC products generated in the framework of the second reprocessing campaign include refined information for what concerns the mispointing angles and the calibration corrections. This poster will thus detail thus the evolutions that are currently planned for the CryoSat BaselineD SAR/SARin Level1b products and the corresponding quality improvements that are expected.

  16. Imputation of Baseline LDL Cholesterol Concentration in Patients with Familial Hypercholesterolemia on Statins or Ezetimibe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruel, Isabelle; Aljenedil, Sumayah; Sadri, Iman; de Varennes, Émilie; Hegele, Robert A; Couture, Patrick; Bergeron, Jean; Wanneh, Eric; Baass, Alexis; Dufour, Robert; Gaudet, Daniel; Brisson, Diane; Brunham, Liam R; Francis, Gordon A; Cermakova, Lubomira; Brophy, James M; Ryomoto, Arnold; Mancini, G B John; Genest, Jacques

    2018-02-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is the most frequent genetic disorder seen clinically and is characterized by increased LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) (>95th percentile), family history of increased LDL-C, premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) in the patient or in first-degree relatives, presence of tendinous xanthomas or premature corneal arcus, or presence of a pathogenic mutation in the LDLR , PCSK9 , or APOB genes. A diagnosis of FH has important clinical implications with respect to lifelong risk of ASCVD and requirement for intensive pharmacological therapy. The concentration of baseline LDL-C (untreated) is essential for the diagnosis of FH but is often not available because the individual is already on statin therapy. To validate a new algorithm to impute baseline LDL-C, we examined 1297 patients. The baseline LDL-C was compared with the imputed baseline obtained within 18 months of the initiation of therapy. We compared the percent reduction in LDL-C on treatment from baseline with the published percent reductions. After eliminating individuals with missing data, nonstandard doses of statins, or medications other than statins or ezetimibe, we provide data on 951 patients. The mean ± SE baseline LDL-C was 243.0 (2.2) mg/dL [6.28 (0.06) mmol/L], and the mean ± SE imputed baseline LDL-C was 244.2 (2.6) mg/dL [6.31 (0.07) mmol/L] ( P = 0.48). There was no difference in response according to the patient's sex or in percent reduction between observed and expected for individual doses or types of statin or ezetimibe. We provide a validated estimation of baseline LDL-C for patients with FH that may help clinicians in making a diagnosis. © 2017 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  17. Baseline adiponectin levels do not influence the response to pioglitazone in ACT NOW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Devjit; Clement, Stephen C; Schwenke, Dawn C; Banerji, MaryAnn; Bray, George A; Buchanan, Thomas A; Gastaldelli, Amalia; Henry, Robert R; Kitabchi, Abbas E; Mudaliar, Sunder; Ratner, Robert E; Stentz, Frankie B; Musi, Nicolas; Reaven, Peter D; DeFronzo, Ralph A

    2014-06-01

    Plasma adiponectin levels are reduced in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and other insulin-resistant states. We examined whether plasma adiponectin levels at baseline and after pioglitazone treatment in impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) subjects were associated with improved insulin sensitivity (SI) and glucose tolerance status. A total of 602 high-risk IGT subjects in ACT NOW were randomized to receive pioglitazone or placebo with a median follow-up of 2.4 years. Pioglitazone reduced IGT conversion to diabetes by 72% in association with improved β-cell function by 64% (insulin secretion/insulin resistance index) and increased tissue sensitivity by 88% (Matsuda index). In pioglitazone-treated subjects, plasma adiponectin concentration increased threefold from 13 ± 0.5 to 38 ± 2.5 μg/mL (P < 0.001) and was strongly correlated with the improvement in SI (r = 0.436, P < 0.001) and modestly correlated with glucose area under the curve during oral glucose tolerance test (r = 0.238, P < 0.005) and insulin secretion/insulin resistance index (r = 0.306, P < 0.005). The increase in adiponectin was a strong predictor of reversion to normal glucose tolerance and prevention of T2DM. In the placebo group, plasma adiponectin did not change and was not correlated with changes in glucose levels. There was an inverse association between baseline plasma adiponectin concentration and progression to diabetes in the placebo group but not in the pioglitazone group. Baseline adiponectin does not predict the response to pioglitazone. The increase in plasma adiponectin concentration after pioglitazone therapy in IGT subjects is strongly related to improved glucose tolerance status and enhanced tissue sensitivity to insulin. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association.

  18. Indoor air quality in the Karns research houses: baseline measurements and impact of indoor environmental parameters on formaldehyde concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, T.G.; Fung, K.W.; Tromberg, B.J.; Hawthorne, A.R.

    1985-12-01

    Baseline indoor air quality measurements, a nine-month radon study, and an environmental parameters study examining the impact of indoor temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH) levels on formaldehyde (CH 2 O) concentrations have been performed in three unoccupied research homes located in Karns, Tennessee. Inter-house comparison measurements of (1) CH 2 O concentration, (2) CH 2 O emission rates from primary CH 2 O emission sources, (3) radon and radon daughter concentrations, and (4) air exchange rates indicate that the three homes are similar. The results of the nine-month radon study indicate indoor concentrations consistently below the EPA recommended level of 4 pCi/L. Evidence was found that crawl-space concentrations may be reduced using heat pump systems whose outdoor units circulate fresh air through the crawl-space. The modeled results of the environmental parameters study indicate approximate fourfold increases in CH 2 O concentrations from 0.07 to 0.27 ppM for seasonal T and RH conditions of 20 0 C, 30% RH and 29 0 C, 80% RH, respectively. Evaluation of these environmental parameters study data with steady-state CH 2 O concentration models developed from laboratory studies of the environmental dependence of CH 2 O emissions from particleboard underlayment indicate good correlations between the laboratory and field studies

  19. Baseline element concentrations in soils and plants, Bull Island, Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge, South Carolina, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, L.P.; Severson, R.C.; Jackson, L.L.

    1994-01-01

    Baseline element concentrations are given for Spanish moss (Tillandsia usneoides), loblolly pine (Pinus taeda), and associated soils. Baseline and variability data for ash, Al, Ba, C, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, La, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Nb, Nd, Ni, P, Pb, S, Sc, Sr, Th, Ti, V, Y, and Zn are reported; however, not all variables are reported for all media because, in some media, certain elements were below the analytical detection limit. Spatial variation in element concentration among and within 0.5 km grid cells are given for each of the media. In general, only a few elements in Spanish moss showed statistically significant landscape patterns, whereas several elements in loblolly pine and in soils exhibited differences among sampling grids. Significant differences in the concentration of three elements in Spanish moss and eight elements (including total S) in loblolly pine were observed between two sampling dates (November and June); however, the absolute amount of these differences was small. Except for perhaps Ni and Pb concentrations in Spanish moss, element levels in all sample media exhibited ranges that indicate natural rather than anthropogenic additions of trace elements.

  20. Baseline concentrations of radionuclides and heavy metals in soils and vegetation around the DARHT facility: Construction phase (1997). Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fresquez, P.R.; Haagenstad, H.T.; Naranjo, L. Jr.

    1998-06-01

    As part of the Department of Energy's Mitigation Action Plan for the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), baseline concentrations of radionuclides ( 3 H, 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 238 Pu, 239,240 Pu, 241 Am, and tot U) and heavy metals (Ag, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and Tl) in soil, sediment, and vegetation (overstory and understory) around the DARHT facility during the construction phase in 1997 were determined. Most radionuclides and heavy metals in soils, sediments, and vegetation, with the exception of 90 Sr in soils and sediments, were within upper (95%) limit background concentrations. Although the levels of 90 Sr in soils and sediments around the DARHT facility were higher than background, they were below LANL screening action levels ( -1 dry) and are of no concern

  1. Impact of an auditory stimulus on baseline cortisol concentrations in clinically normal dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gin, T E; Puchot, M L; Cook, A K

    2018-03-19

    Baseline cortisol concentrations are routinely used to screen dogs for hypoadrenocorticism (HOC); this diagnosis must then be confirmed with an ACTH stimulation test. A baseline cortisol concentration less than 55 nmol/L (2 μg/dL) is highly sensitive for HOC but lacks specificity, with a false positive rate >20%. Many dogs with nonadrenal disease are therefore subjected to unnecessary additional testing. It was hypothesized that exposure to an unpleasant auditory stimulus before sample collection would improve the specificity of baseline cortisol measurements in dogs with nonadrenal disease by triggering cortisol production. Twenty-eight healthy client-owned dogs were included in the study, with a median age of 4 yr (range 2-9 yr) and a median weight of 20 kg (range 10-27 kg). Dogs were ineligible for inclusion if they had received short- or long-acting glucocorticoids within the previous 30 and 90 d, respectively. Dogs were randomly assigned to group 1 (control; no noise; n = 7), group 2 (brief noise: n = 10), or group 3 (long noise: n = 11). Each dog and owner were directed to a secluded area for approximately 15 min. Group 1 sat in relative quiet, exposed only to the background sounds of a veterinary hospital. Group 2 were exposed to the sound of a wet-dry vacuum in an adjacent hallway during the first 3 min of this period. Group 3 were exposed to random bursts of wet-dry vacuum noise during this period. At the end of the test interval, each dog was escorted to an adjacent examination room for blood collection. Samples were processed within 15 min; serum was frozen at -80°C before measurement of cortisol concentrations. Median serum cortisol concentrations and the proportion of dogs with results dogs with apparently normal adrenal function was therefore rejected. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Baseline blood levels of manganese, lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc in residents of Beijing suburb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Long-Lian; Lu, Ling; Pan, Ya-Juan; Ding, Chun-Guang; Xu, Da-Yong; Huang, Chuan-Feng; Pan, Xing-Fu; Zheng, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Baseline blood concentrations of metals are important references for monitoring metal exposure in environmental and occupational settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the blood levels of manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) among the residents (aged 12–60 years old) living in the suburb southwest of Beijing in China and to compare the outcomes with reported values in various developed countries. Blood samples were collected from 648 subjects from March 2009 to February 2010. Metal concentrations in the whole blood were determined by ICP-MS. The geometric means of blood levels of Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd were 11.4, 802.4, 4665, 42.6, and 0.68 µg/L, respectively. Male subjects had higher blood Pb than the females, while the females had higher blood Mn and Cu than the males. There was no gender difference for blood Cd and Zn. Smokers had higher blood Cu, Zn, and Cd than nonsmokers. There were significant age-related differences in blood levels of all metals studied; subjects in the 17–30 age group had higher blood levels of Mn, Pb, Cu, and Zn, while those in the 46–60 age group had higher Cd than the other age groups. A remarkably lower blood level of Cu and Zn in this population as compared with residents of other developed countries was noticed. Based on the current study, the normal reference ranges for the blood Mn were estimated to be 5.80–25.2 μg/L; for blood Cu, 541–1475 μg/L; for blood Zn, 2349–9492 μg/L; for blood Pb, <100 μg/L; and for blood Cd, <5.30 μg/L in the general population living in Beijing suburbs. - Highlights: • Baseline blood levels of metals in residents of Beijing suburb are investigated. • BMn and BPb in this cohort are higher than those in other developed countries. • Remarkably lower blood levels of Cu and Zn in this Chinese cohort are noticed. • The reference values for blood levels of Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd are established

  3. Baseline blood levels of manganese, lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc in residents of Beijing suburb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Long-Lian, E-mail: Longlian57@163.com [Department of Occupational Diseases Control and Prevention, Fengtai Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100071 (China); Lu, Ling [Department of Occupational Diseases Control and Prevention, Fengtai Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100071 (China); Pan, Ya-Juan; Ding, Chun-Guang [Institute for Occupational Health and Poison Control in China Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Beijing 100050 (China); Xu, Da-Yong [Department of Occupational Diseases Control and Prevention, Fengtai Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100071 (China); Huang, Chuan-Feng; Pan, Xing-Fu [Institute for Occupational Health and Poison Control in China Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Beijing 100050 (China); Zheng, Wei, E-mail: wzheng@purdue.edu [School of Health Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Baseline blood concentrations of metals are important references for monitoring metal exposure in environmental and occupational settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the blood levels of manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) among the residents (aged 12–60 years old) living in the suburb southwest of Beijing in China and to compare the outcomes with reported values in various developed countries. Blood samples were collected from 648 subjects from March 2009 to February 2010. Metal concentrations in the whole blood were determined by ICP-MS. The geometric means of blood levels of Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd were 11.4, 802.4, 4665, 42.6, and 0.68 µg/L, respectively. Male subjects had higher blood Pb than the females, while the females had higher blood Mn and Cu than the males. There was no gender difference for blood Cd and Zn. Smokers had higher blood Cu, Zn, and Cd than nonsmokers. There were significant age-related differences in blood levels of all metals studied; subjects in the 17–30 age group had higher blood levels of Mn, Pb, Cu, and Zn, while those in the 46–60 age group had higher Cd than the other age groups. A remarkably lower blood level of Cu and Zn in this population as compared with residents of other developed countries was noticed. Based on the current study, the normal reference ranges for the blood Mn were estimated to be 5.80–25.2 μg/L; for blood Cu, 541–1475 μg/L; for blood Zn, 2349–9492 μg/L; for blood Pb, <100 μg/L; and for blood Cd, <5.30 μg/L in the general population living in Beijing suburbs. - Highlights: • Baseline blood levels of metals in residents of Beijing suburb are investigated. • BMn and BPb in this cohort are higher than those in other developed countries. • Remarkably lower blood levels of Cu and Zn in this Chinese cohort are noticed. • The reference values for blood levels of Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd are established.

  4. Baseline concentration of ²¹⁰Po and ²¹⁰Pb in Sargassum from the northern Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, S; Aba, A; Bebhehani, M

    2015-01-15

    This baseline study highlights the (210)Po and (210)Pb concentration in two species of the benthic macroalgae Sargassum from northern Gulf, also known as the ROPME Sea Area (RSA). Within the marine environment, (210)Po is initially absorbed from water and concentrated by phytoplankton and macroalgae, and this concentrated (210)Po can then readily be passed along to the higher trophic level of the marine food web. The (210)Po concentration measured in Sargassum boveanum (22.5-25.6 Bq kg(-1)) was higher than that in Sargassum oligocystum (20.2-22.5 Bq kg(-1)), but is not statistically significant (p>0.064), where as the difference between (210)Pb concentrations in Sargassum boveanum (15.3-16.8 Bq kg(-1)) and Sargassum oligocystum (18.4-22.0 Bq kg(-1)) was statistically significant (p>0.019). The measured concentration factor for (210)Po in Sargassum in the northern Gulf varied between 0.55 and 1.2×10(4), values higher to the IAEA recommended value of 1×10(3). The (210)Po enrichment is observed in both the species of Sargassum,(210)Po/(210)Pb ratio was >1 at all the stations for all the samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Baseline concentrations of radionuclides and heavy metals in soils and vegetation around the DARHT facility: Construction phase (1996)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fresquez, P.R.; Haagenstad, H.T.; Naranjo, L. Jr.

    1997-04-01

    As part of the Department of Energy's Mitigation Action Plan for the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), baseline concentrations of radionuclides ( 3 H, 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 238 Pu, 239 Pu, 241 Am, total U), and heavy metals (Ag, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se and Tl) in soil, sediment, and vegetation (overstory and understory) around the DARHT facility during the construction phase in 1996 were determined. Also, U and Be concentrations in soil samples collected in 1993 from within the proposed DARHT facility area are reported. Most radionuclides in soils, sediments, and vegetation were within current background and/or long-term regional statistical reference levels

  6. Baseline mercury and zinc concentrations in terrestrial and coastal organisms of Admiralty Bay, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues dos Santos, Isaac; Silva-Filho, Emmanoel Vieira; Schaefer, Carlos; Maria Sella, Silvia; Silva, Carlos A.; Gomes, Vicente; Passos, Maria Jose de A.C.R.; Phan Van Ngan

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides the first quantitative information on mercury in soil, coastal sediment, and in characteristic organisms of terrestrial and shallow coastal marine ecosystems from Admiralty Bay (King George Island, Antarctica). As expected for a remote area, mercury content is low in abiotic components of the ecosystem, and probably similar to natural levels. Mercury also occurs in very low concentrations in the vegetation, invertebrates and fish. These low mercury levels may be due to sulphide formation in reducing sediments of this environment. Higher concentrations of mercury occurred in bird feathers and mammal hair, indicating biomagnification. This was not found for Zinc. These results may be useful as a reference background to detect future inputs of trace elements in this remote area of the earth. Terrestrial vegetation and bird feathers are suggested as target regional biomonitors. - Low levels of mercury and zinc occurred in soil and plant samples from Antarctica, but high levels occurred in birds and mammals

  7. Low baseline levels of NK cells may predict a positive response to ipilimumab in melanoma therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietze, Julia K; Angelova, Daniela; Heppt, Markus V; Ruzicka, Thomas; Berking, Carola

    2017-07-01

    The introduction of immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) has been a breakthrough in the therapy of metastatic melanoma. The influence of ICB on T-cell populations has been studied extensively, but little is known about the effect on NK cells. In this study, we analysed the relative and absolute amounts of NK cells and of the subpopulations of CD56 dim and CD56 bright NK cells among the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of 32 patients with metastatic melanoma before and under treatment with ipilimumab or pembrolizumab by flow cytometry. In 15 (47%) patients, an abnormal low amount of NK cells was found at baseline. Analysis of the subpopulations showed also low or normal baseline levels for CD56 dim NK cells, whereas the baseline levels of CD56 bright NK cells were either normal or abnormally high. The relative and absolute amounts of NK cells and of CD56 dim and CD56 bright NK cell subpopulations in patients with a normal baseline did not change under treatment. However, patients with a low baseline of NK cells and CD56 dim NK cells showed a significant increase in these immune cell subsets, but the amounts remained to be lower than the normal baseline. The amount of CD56 bright NK cells was unaffected by treatment. The baseline levels of NK cells were correlated with the number of metastatic organs. Their proportion increased, whereas the expression of NKG2D decreased significantly when more than one organ was affected by metastases. Low baseline levels of NK cells and CD56 dim NK cells as well as normal baseline levels of CD56 bright NK cells correlated significantly with a positive response to ipilimumab but not to pembrolizumab. Survival curves of patients with low amounts of CD56 dim NK cells treated with ipilimumab showed a trend to longer survival. Normal baseline levels of CD56 bright NK cells were significantly correlated with longer survival as compared to patients with high baseline levels. In conclusion, analysis of the amounts of total NK cells

  8. [Diagnostic value of baseline serum luteinizing hormone level for central precocious puberty in girls].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou-Yang, Li-Xue; Yang, Fan

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic value of baseline serum luteinizing hormone (LH) level for central precocious puberty (CPP) in girls. A total of 279 girls with precocious puberty were subjected to assessment of growth and development, bone age determination, baseline LH test, and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) test, gonadotropin-releasing hormone stimulation test, and other related examinations. Of the 279 patients, 175 were diagnosed with CPP and 104 with premature thelarche (PT). The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to evaluate the diagnostic value of baseline LH and FSH levels and their peak levels for CPP, and the correlation between the baseline LH level and the peak LH level was analyzed. The CPP group had significantly higher bone age, baseline LH and FSH levels, peak LH and FSH levels, and ratio of peak LH level to peak FSH level than the PT group (Pbaseline LH level and peak LH level had good diagnostic values for CPP. Among the three bone age subgroups in the CPP group (7.0-9.0 years, 9.0-11.0 years, and >11.0 years), baseline LH level showed the best diagnostic value in the >11.0 years subgroup, with the largest area under the ROC curve. At a baseline LH level of 0.45 IU/L, the Youden index reached the peak value, and the sensitivity and specificity were 66.7% and 80% respectively, for the diagnosis of CPP. At a peak LH level of 9.935 IU/L, the Youden index reached the peak value, and the sensitivity and specificity were 74.8% and 100% respectively, for the diagnosis of CPP. The baseline LH level was positively correlated with the peak LH level (r=0.440, PBaseline LH level can be used as an primary screening index for the diagnosis of CPP. It has a certain diagnostic value for CPP at different bone ages, and may be used as a monitoring index during the treatment and follow-uP.

  9. Sediment baseline study of levels and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals in Lake Nicaragua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheibye, Katrine; Weisser, Johan Juhl; Borggaard, Ole K.

    2014-01-01

    Selected metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed in sediment samples from 24 sites in Lake Nicaragua sampled May 2010 to provide a baseline of pollution levels. Cu exceeded the Consensus-Based Sediment Quality Guideline (CBSQG) Threshold Effect Concentrations (TECs) at 21...... showed that the CBSQG TECs were exceeded by naphthalene at five sites. The sum concentrations of the 16 US EPA priority PAHs (∑PAH16) ranged from 0.01mgkg(-1)dw to 0.64mgkg(-1)dw. The highest ∑PAH16 concentration was found upstream in River Mayales and the PAH composition revealed a heavy PAH fraction (e....... This study concluded that areas of Lake Nicaragua represent an important pollution baseline for future studies in this lake and other tropical lakes....

  10. Changes in vitamin D supplement use and baseline plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration predict 5-y change in concentration in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluczynski, Melissa A; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Platek, Mary E; DeNysschen, Carol A; Hovey, Kathleen M; Millen, Amy E

    2012-09-01

    Few studies have prospectively examined predictors of change in plasma concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]. We sought to determine the predictors of 5-y change in 25(OH)D. Plasma 25(OH)D concentrations were assessed at baseline (1997-2000) and 5 y later (2002-2005) in 668 postmenopausal women enrolled in the Osteoporosis and Periodontal Disease Study. Baseline and changes in demographic, dietary, lifestyle, and health-related factors were tested as predictors of change in 25(OH)D concentrations by using multivariable linear regression. The mean 5-y change in 25(OH)D (mean ± SD) was 7.7 ± 0.7 nmol/L (P D concentrations and included baseline 25(OH)D, baseline and change in vitamin D supplementation and physical activity, change in season of blood draw, BMI, whole-body T score, and baseline hormone therapy use. Baseline 25(OH)D and change in vitamin D supplementation explained the most variation (25%) in 25(OH)D. Exploratory analyses showed a borderline significant interaction between tertiles of baseline 25(OH)D and change in vitamin D supplementation over time (P = 0.06). The greatest mean increase in 25(OH)D (22.9 ± 16.8 nmol/L), with adjustment for other statistically significant predictors, occurred in women whose baseline 25(OH)D concentration was ≤51.0 nmol/L (tertile 1) and who increased supplementation use over time. These results confirm the importance of supplementation in increasing 25(OH)D concentrations in aging women, even after other statistically significant predictors are controlled for. These data also suggest that this is especially true among aging women with inadequate 25(OH)D (e.g., <50 nmol/L).

  11. Effect of Crude Protein Levels in Concentrate and Concentrate Levels in Diet on Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinh Van Dung

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of concentrate mixtures with crude protein (CP levels 10%, 13%, 16%, and 19% and diets with roughage to concentrate ratios 80:20, 60:40, 40:60, and 20:80 (w/w were determined on dry matter (DM and organic matter (OM digestibility, and fermentation metabolites using an in vitro fermentation technique. In vitro fermented attributes were measured after 4, 24, and 48 h of incubation respectively. The digestibility of DM and OM, and total volatile fatty acid (VFA increased whereas pH decreased with the increased amount of concentrate in the diet (p<0.001, however CP levels of concentrate did not have any influence on these attributes. Gas production reduced with increased CP levels, while it increased with increasing concentrate levels. Ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N concentration and microbial CP production increased significantly (p<0.05 by increasing CP levels and with increasing concentrate levels in diet as well, however, no significant difference was found between 16% and 19% CP levels. Therefore, 16% CP in concentrate and increasing proportion of concentrate up to 80% in diet all had improved digestibility of DM and organic matter, and higher microbial protein production, with improved fermentation characteristics.

  12. Baseline concentrations of radionuclides and heavy metals in soils and vegetation around the DARHT facility: Construction phase (1997). Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fresquez, P.R.; Haagenstad, H.T.; Naranjo, L. Jr.

    1998-06-01

    As part of the Department of Energy`s Mitigation Action Plan for the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), baseline concentrations of radionuclides ({sup 3}H, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, {sup 241}Am, and {sup tot}U) and heavy metals (Ag, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and Tl) in soil, sediment, and vegetation (overstory and understory) around the DARHT facility during the construction phase in 1997 were determined. Most radionuclides and heavy metals in soils, sediments, and vegetation, with the exception of {sup 90}Sr in soils and sediments, were within upper (95%) limit background concentrations. Although the levels of {sup 90}Sr in soils and sediments around the DARHT facility were higher than background, they were below LANL screening action levels (<4.4 pCi g{sup {minus}1} dry) and are of no concern.

  13. Total mercury concentrations in anadromous Northern Dolly Varden from the northwestern Canadian Arctic: A historical baseline study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, L., E-mail: l5tran@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Reist, J.D. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N6 (Canada); Power, M., E-mail: m3power@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2015-03-15

    Previous research has documented the significance of total mercury (THg) as a northern contaminant in general and of fish in particular. While much research has been devoted to documenting both spatial and temporal changes in THg in consumed fish, little effort has been directed at understanding patterns of THg in Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma), a prized subsistence species throughout the western North American Arctic. Here we report historical THg concentrations for anadromous Dolly Varden from 10 populations in the Yukon and Northwest Territories sampled across a range of latitudes (67–69°N) and longitudes (136–141°W) between the years 1988–91. Unadjusted mean THg concentrations ranged from 15 to 254 ng/g wet weight. Length-adjusted THg concentrations were significantly different among sites, but were not related to latitude or longitude. Within and among populations, THg was significantly related to fork-length, age, δ{sup 15}N, and δ{sup 13}C, with the variation in THg found among populations being best explained by size. The data serve as an important baseline against which future changes in THg levels in this important subsistence fishery may be compared to determine the significance of any observed trends. - Highlights: • THg were measured in Dolly Varden from the Yukon and Northwest Territories. • Length-adjusted THg concentrations were not related to latitude or longitude. • Among-population variation in THg was best explained by fork-length. • Length-adjusted THg concentrations were related to age, δ{sup 15}N, and δ{sup 13}C. • Mean THg were below Health Canada’s consumption guideline for commercial fish.

  14. Total mercury concentrations in anadromous Northern Dolly Varden from the northwestern Canadian Arctic: A historical baseline study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, L.; Reist, J.D.; Power, M.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has documented the significance of total mercury (THg) as a northern contaminant in general and of fish in particular. While much research has been devoted to documenting both spatial and temporal changes in THg in consumed fish, little effort has been directed at understanding patterns of THg in Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma), a prized subsistence species throughout the western North American Arctic. Here we report historical THg concentrations for anadromous Dolly Varden from 10 populations in the Yukon and Northwest Territories sampled across a range of latitudes (67–69°N) and longitudes (136–141°W) between the years 1988–91. Unadjusted mean THg concentrations ranged from 15 to 254 ng/g wet weight. Length-adjusted THg concentrations were significantly different among sites, but were not related to latitude or longitude. Within and among populations, THg was significantly related to fork-length, age, δ 15 N, and δ 13 C, with the variation in THg found among populations being best explained by size. The data serve as an important baseline against which future changes in THg levels in this important subsistence fishery may be compared to determine the significance of any observed trends. - Highlights: • THg were measured in Dolly Varden from the Yukon and Northwest Territories. • Length-adjusted THg concentrations were not related to latitude or longitude. • Among-population variation in THg was best explained by fork-length. • Length-adjusted THg concentrations were related to age, δ 15 N, and δ 13 C. • Mean THg were below Health Canada’s consumption guideline for commercial fish

  15. Geochemical baseline level and function and contamination of phosphorus in Liao River Watershed sediments of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shaoqing; Wang, Jing; Lin, Chunye; He, Mengchang; Liu, Xitao

    2013-10-15

    The quantitative assessment of P contamination in sediments is a challenge due to sediment heterogeneity and the lacking of geochemical background or baseline levels. In this study, a procedure was proposed to determine the average P background level and P geochemical baseline level (GBL) and develop P geochemical baseline functions (GBF) for riverbed sediments of the Liao River Watershed (LRW). The LRW has two river systems - the Liao River System (LRS) and the Daliao River System (DRS). Eighty-eight samples were collected and analyzed for P, Al, Fe, Ca, organic matter, pH, and texture. The results show that Fe can be used as a better particle-size proxy to construct the GBF of P (P (mg/kg) = 39.98 + 166.19 × Fe (%), R(2) = 0.835, n = 66). The GBL of P was 675 mg/kg, while the average background level of P was 355 mg/kg. Noting that many large cities are located in the DRS watershed, most of the contaminated sites were located within the DRS and the riverbed sediments were more contaminated by P in the DRS watershed than in the LRS watershed. The geochemical background and baseline information of P are of great importance in managing P levels within the LRW. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Association of baseline vitamin D levels with clinical parameters and treatment outcomes in chronic hepatitis B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Henry Lik-Yuen; Elkhashab, Magdy; Trinh, Huy; Tak, Won Young; Ma, Xiaoli; Chuang, Wan-Long; Kim, Yoon Jun; Martins, Eduardo B; Lin, Lanjia; Dinh, Phillip; Charuworn, Prista; Foster, Graham R; Marcellin, Patrick

    2015-11-01

    The relationship between vitamin D levels and chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection and treatment outcomes are poorly elucidated. We measured pre-treatment serum vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D3; 25[OH]D3) levels and determined their association with clinical parameters and treatment outcomes in active CHB patients without advanced liver disease enrolled in a global clinical trial. Patients were randomly assigned to either 48 weeks of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) plus peginterferon alfa-2a (PegIFN), TDF plus PegIFN for 16 weeks followed by TDF for 32 weeks, PegIFN for 48 weeks, or TDF for 120 weeks. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to determine associations between vitamin D, baseline factors, and week 48 clinical outcome. Of 737 patients, 35% had insufficient (⩾20 but vitamin D levels. In univariate analysis, lower vitamin D levels were significantly associated with the following baseline parameters: younger age, lower uric acid levels, HBeAg-positive status, lower calcium levels, blood draw in winter or autumn, and HBV genotype D. On multivariate analysis, only HBV genotype, season of blood draw, calcium level, and age retained their association. High baseline level of vitamin D was associated with low HBV DNA, normal ALT and HBsAg at week 48 independent of treatment groups, but the association, with the exception of ALT, became statistically insignificant after adjusting for age, gender, HBeAg and HBV genotype. Abnormally low vitamin D levels are highly prevalent among untreated, active CHB patients. Baseline vitamin D levels are not associated with treatment outcomes, but were associated with normal ALT. Copyright © 2015 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Baseline levels of benzo(a)pyrene in southern California mussels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, B P [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver; Young, D R

    1976-12-01

    Marine mussels accumulate the carcinogen benzo(a)-pyrene from contaminated environments. Baseline studies in California indicate that levels of the carcinogen in mussels are at or near zero, except in areas of human activity. This finding runs counter to previous suggestions that benzo(a)pyrene is widely distributed in marine organisms.

  18. Data on subgroup specific baseline characteristics and serum sphingosine-1-phosphate concentrations in the Study of Health in Pomerania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen Moritz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this data article, we provide subgroup specific baseline characteristics and serum sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P concentrations for healthy individuals within the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-TREND cohort. After exclusion of subjects with cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, elevated liver enzymes and/or chronic kidney disease stadium III or IV, four subgroups were defined according to different limits for body mass index (BMI, alterations in blood lipid levels and smoking status. Tables show respective clinical and laboratory parameters stratified by gender. Serum S1P concentrations are also stratified by age groups. The data presented herein is related to the research article entitled “Reference intervals for serum sphingosine-1-phosphate in the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania” (E. Moritz, D. Wegner, S. Groß, M. Bahls, M. Dörr, S.B. Felix, T. Ittermann, S. Oswald, M. Nauck, N. Friedrich, R.H. Böger, G. Daum, E. Schwedhelm, B.H. Rauch, Clin Chim Acta. 468 (2017 25–31 [1].

  19. Experimental increase in baseline corticosterone level reduces oxidative damage and enhances innate immune response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csongor I Vágási

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoid (GC hormones are significant regulators of homeostasis. The physiological effects of GCs critically depend on the time of exposure (short vs. long as well as on their circulating levels (baseline vs. stress-induced. Previous experiments, in which chronic and high elevation of GC levels was induced, indicate that GCs impair both the activity of the immune system and the oxidative balance. Nonetheless, our knowledge on how mildly elevated GC levels, a situation much more common in nature, might influence homeostasis is limited. Therefore, we studied whether an increase in GC level within the baseline range suppresses or enhances condition (body mass, hematocrit and coccidian infestation and physiological state (humoral innate immune system activity and oxidative balance. We implanted captive house sparrows Passer domesticus with either 60 days release corticosterone (CORT or control pellets. CORT-treated birds had elevated baseline CORT levels one week after the implantation, but following this CORT returned to its pre-treatment level and the experimental groups had similar CORT levels one and two months following the implantation. The mass of tail feathers grown during the initial phase of treatment was smaller in treated than in control birds. CORT implantation had a transient negative effect on body mass and hematocrit, but both of these traits resumed the pre-treatment values by one month post-treatment. CORT treatment lowered oxidative damage to lipids (malondialdehyde and enhanced constitutive innate immunity at one week and one month post-implantation. Our findings suggest that a relatively short-term (i.e. few days elevation of baseline CORT might have a positive and stimulatory effect on animal physiology.

  20. Interactive Effects of Dopamine Baseline Levels and Cycle Phase on Executive Functions: The Role of Progesterone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmeralda Hidalgo-Lopez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Estradiol and progesterone levels vary along the menstrual cycle and have multiple neuroactive effects, including on the dopaminergic system. Dopamine relates to executive functions in an “inverted U-shaped” manner and its levels are increased by estradiol. Accordingly, dopamine dependent changes in executive functions along the menstrual cycle have been previously studied in the pre-ovulatory phase, when estradiol levels peak. Specifically it has been demonstrated that working memory is enhanced during the pre-ovulatory phase in women with low dopamine baseline levels, but impaired in women with high dopamine baseline levels. However, the role of progesterone, which peaks in the luteal cycle phase, has not been taken into account previously. Therefore, the main goals of the present study were to extend these findings (i to the luteal cycle phase and (ii to other executive functions. Furthermore, the usefulness of the eye blink rate (EBR as an indicator of dopamine baseline levels in menstrual cycle research was explored. 36 naturally cycling women were tested during three cycle phases (menses–low sex hormones; pre-ovulatory–high estradiol; luteal–high progesterone and estradiol. During each session, women performed a verbal N-back task, as measure of working memory, and a single trial version of the Stroop task, as measure of response inhibition and cognitive flexibility. Hormone levels were assessed from saliva samples and spontaneous eye blink rate was recorded during menses. In the N-back task, women were faster during the luteal phase the higher their progesterone levels, irrespective of their dopamine baseline levels. In the Stroop task, we found a dopamine-cycle interaction, which was also driven by the luteal phase and progesterone levels. For women with higher EBR performance decreased during the luteal phase, whereas for women with lower EBR performance improved during the luteal phase. These findings suggest an important

  1. Level III baseline risk evaluation for Building 3505 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostella, W.B. Jr.

    1994-12-01

    The Level III Baseline Risk Evaluation (BRE) for Building 3505, the ORNL Metal Recovery Facility, provides an analysis of the potential for adverse health effects, current or future, associated with the presence of hazardous substances in the building. The Metal Recovery Facility was used from 1952 through 1960 to process large quantities of radioactive material using the PUREX process for the recovery of uranium-238, plutonium-239, neptunium-237, and americium-241. The facility consists of seven process cells (A through G), a canal, a dissolver room, a dissolver pit, an office, locker room, storage area, control room, electrical gallery, shop, and makeup area. The cells were used to house the nuclear fuel reprocessing equipment, and the canal was constructed to be used as a water-shielded transfer canal. Currently, there are no known releases of radioactive contaminants from Building 3505. To perform the BRE, historical radiological survey data were used to estimate the concentration of alpha- and beta/gamma emitting radionuclides in the various cells, rooms, and other areas in Building 3505. Data from smear surveys were used to estimate the amount of transferable contamination (to which receptors can be exposed via inhalation and ingestion), and data from probe surveys were used to estimate the amount of both fixed and transferable contamination (from which receptors can receive external exposure). Two land use scenarios, current and future, and their subsequent exposure scenarios were explored in the BRE. Under the current land use scenario, two exposure scenarios were evaluated. The first was a worst-case industrial exposure scenario in which the receptor is a maintenance worker who works 8 hours/day, 350 days/year in the building for 25 years. In the second, more realistic exposure scenario, the receptor is a surveillance and maintenance (S ampersand M) worker who spends two 8-hour days/year in the building for 25 years

  2. Statin-related aminotransferase elevation according to baseline aminotransferases level in real practice in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H-S; Lee, S H; Kim, H; Lee, S-H; Cho, J H; Lee, H; Yim, H W; Kim, S-H; Choi, I-Y; Yoon, K-H; Kim, J H

    2016-06-01

    Higher rate of statin-related hepatotoxicity has been reported for Koreans than for Westerners. Moreover, statin-related aminotransferase elevation for those who show borderline levels of aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) (≤×3 of UNL) at baseline has not been fully investigated. Post-statin changes AST/ALT levels during the first year for 21 233 Korean outpatients at two large academic teaching hospitals from January 2009 to December 2013 were analysed using electronic health record data. The date of the first statin prescription was set as baseline. We also performed a comparative analysis of statin-related AST/ALT elevations according to the type of statin, followed by an analysis of clinical risk factors. The progression rate to abnormal AST/ALT values [>×3 the upper normal limit (UNL)] was significantly higher (2·4-16% vs. 0·3-1·7%, P ×1, but ≤×3 of UNL) compared with normal AST/ALT values at baseline. Those with normal baseline AST/ALT did not show significantly different progression rate between different statin medications (P = 0·801). However, patients taking pitavastatin (HR = 0·76, P = 0·657) were least likely to develop abnormal AST/ALT, whereas those taking fluvastatin (HR = 2·96, P = 0·029) were the most likely to develop abnormal AST/ALT compared with atorvastatin for patients who were with baseline borderline AST/ALT. However, given the small sample sizes and the observational nature of our study, these need further study. It is advisable to regularly monitor AST/ALT levels even in patients with AST/ALT increases >×1. Future studies should aim to determine the possible risk factors for each specific statin type by analysing various confounding variables. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Baseline and stress-induced levels of corticosterone in male and female Afrotropical and European temperate stonechats during breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apfelbeck, Beate; Helm, Barbara; Illera, Juan Carlos; Mortega, Kim G; Smiddy, Patrick; Evans, Neil P

    2017-05-22

    Latitudinal variation in avian life histories falls along a slow-fast pace of life continuum: tropical species produce small clutches, but have a high survival probability, while in temperate species the opposite pattern is found. This study investigated whether differential investment into reproduction and survival of tropical and temperate species is paralleled by differences in the secretion of the vertebrate hormone corticosterone (CORT). Depending on circulating concentrations, CORT can both act as a metabolic (low to medium levels) and a stress hormone (high levels) and, thereby, influence reproductive decisions. Baseline and stress-induced CORT was measured across sequential stages of the breeding season in males and females of closely related taxa of stonechats (Saxicola spp) from a wide distribution area. We compared stonechats from 13 sites, representing Canary Islands, European temperate and East African tropical areas. Stonechats are highly seasonal breeders at all these sites, but vary between tropical and temperate regions with regard to reproductive investment and presumably also survival. In accordance with life-history theory, during parental stages, post-capture (baseline) CORT was overall lower in tropical than in temperate stonechats. However, during mating stages, tropical males had elevated post-capture (baseline) CORT concentrations, which did not differ from those of temperate males. Female and male mates of a pair showed correlated levels of post-capture CORT when sampled after simulated territorial intrusions. In contrast to the hypothesis that species with low reproduction and high annual survival should be more risk-sensitive, tropical stonechats had lower stress-induced CORT concentrations than temperate stonechats. We also found relatively high post-capture (baseline) and stress-induced CORT concentrations, in slow-paced Canary Islands stonechats. Our data support and refine the view that baseline CORT facilitates energetically

  4. Baseline serum CXCL10 and IL-12 levels may predict severe asthmatics' responsiveness to omalizumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzukawa, Maho; Matsumoto, Hisako; Ohshima, Nobuharu; Tashimo, Hiroyuki; Asari, Isao; Tajiri, Tomoko; Niimi, Akio; Nagase, Hiroyuki; Matsui, Hirotoshi; Kobayashi, Nobuyuki; Shoji, Shunsuke; Ohta, Ken

    2018-01-01

    Omalizumab, a humanized anti-IgE monoclonal antibody, is the first molecularly targeted drug for severe asthmatics. However, responses to omalizumab vary widely among patients. This study aimed to assess the potential of baseline serum cytokine levels as predictors of responsiveness to omalizumab. Thirty-one patients with severe, persistent asthma were enrolled in this study and administered omalizumab for at least 1 year. Response to omalizumab was assessed based on the physician's global evaluation of treatment effectiveness (GETE) at 48 weeks of treatment. Blood samples were collected at baseline and 16 and 32 weeks after starting omalizumab and measured for 30 cytokines by Luminex 200 and ELISA. Exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) levels, peripheral blood eosinophil counts, pre-bronchodilator pulmonary functions and Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire scores were determined at baseline and 16, 32 and 48 weeks after starting omalizumab. The numbers of clinically significant asthma exacerbations in the previous year and during 48 weeks of treatment with omalizumab were assessed. GETE assessment showed 19 responders (61.3%) and 12 non-responders (38.7%). Responders showed significantly higher levels of CXCL10 and IL-12 at baseline compared to non-responders (CXCL10: responders, 1530.0 ± 315.2 pg/ml vs. non-responders, 1066.0 ± 396.8 pg/ml, P = 0.001; IL-12: responders, 60.2 ± 39.2 pg/ml vs. non-responders, 32.2 ± 26.3 pg/ml, P = 0.04). ROC curves to distinguish responders from non-responders using the baseline serum CXCL10 level showed a good AUC of 0.83. At 32 weeks of omalizumab therapy, serum CXCL10 tended to be increased (1350 ± 412.3 pg/ml at baseline vs. 1529 ± 637.6 pg/ml at 32 weeks, P = 0.16) and serum IL-12 tended to be decreased (49.4 ± 37.0 pg/ml at baseline vs. 43.9 ± 30.9 pg/ml at 32 weeks, P = 0.05). On the other hand, serum IL-5 and PDGF were significantly decreased (IL-5: 54.2 ± 13.8 pg/ml at baseline vs. 49

  5. Baseline element concentrations in soils and plants, Wattenmeer National Park, North and East Frisian Islands, Federal Republic of Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severson, R.C.; Gough, L.P.; van den Boom, G.

    1992-01-01

    Baseline element concentrations are given for dune grass (Ammophilia arenaria), willow (Salix repens), moss (Hylocomium splendens) and associated surface soils. Baseline and variability data for pH, ash, Al, As, Ba, C, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, La, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Nb, Nd, Ni, P, Pb, S, Sc, Se, Sr, Th, Ti, V, Y, Yb, and Zn are reported; however, not all variables are reported for all media because, in some media, certain elements were below the analytical detection limit. Spatial variation in element concentration between five Frisian Islands are given for each of the sample media. In general, only a few elements in each media showed statistically significant differences between the islands sampled. The measured concentrations in all sample media exhibited ranges that cannot be attributed to anthropogenic additions of trace elements, with the possible exception of Hg and Pb in surface soils.Baseline element concentrations are given for dune grass (Ammophilia arenaria), willow (Salix repens), moss (Hylocomium splendens) and associated surface soils. Baseline and variability data for pH, ash, Al, As, Ba, C, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, La, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Nb, Nd, Ni, P, Pb, S, Sc, Se, Sr, Th, Ti, V, Y, Yb, and Zn are reported; however, not all variables are reported for all media because, in some media, certain elements were below the analytical detection limit. Spatial variation in element concentration between five Frisian Islands are given for each of the sample media. In general, only a few elements in each media showed statistically significant differences between the islands sampled. The measured concentrations in all sample media exhibited ranges that cannot be attributed to anthropogenic additions of trace elements, with the possible exception of Hg and Pb in surface soils.

  6. Greater-than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste Program 1992 baseline strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    This baseline strategy document describes Department of Energy (DOE) goals, objectives, and strategy for fulfilling its responsibility to dispose of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) according to the requirements of Section 3(b) of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985, Public Law 99-240. This document describes the baseline strategy being employed at the end of FY 1992. The strategy for fulfilling the above responsibility consists of three tasks: interim storage of limited quantities of GTCC LLW at a currently operating DOE facility to eliminate a potential public health and safety threcceptance of GTCC LLW for storage in a DOE dedicated facility on an as-needed basis pending disposal; and disposal in a facility licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The objectives, assumptions, and strategies for each of these tasks are presented in this plan

  7. Baseline levels and trimestral variation of triiodothyronine and thyroxine and their association with mortality in maintenance hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuwese, Christiaan L; Dekker, Friedo W; Lindholm, Bengt; Qureshi, Abdul R; Heimburger, Olof; Barany, Peter; Stenvinkel, Peter; Carrero, Juan J

    2012-01-01

    Conflicting evidence exists with regard to the association of thyroid hormones and mortality in dialysis patients. This study assesses the association between basal and trimestral variation of thyroid stimulating hormone, triiodothyronine, and thyroxine and mortality. In 210 prevalent hemodialysis patients, serum triiodothyronine, thyroxine, thyroid stimulating hormone, and interleukin-6 were measured 3 months apart. Cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular deaths were registered during follow-up. Based on fluctuations along tertiles of distribution, four trimestral patterns were defined for each thyroid hormone: persistently low, decrease, increase, and persistently high. The association of baseline levels and trimestral variation with mortality was investigated with Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazard models. During follow-up, 103 deaths occurred. Thyroid stimulating hormone levels did not associate with mortality. Patients with relatively low basal triiodothyronine concentrations had higher hazards of dying than patients with high levels. Longitudinally, patients with persistently low levels of triiodothyronine during the 3-month period had higher mortality hazards than those having persistently high levels. These associations were mainly attributable to cardiovascular-related mortality. The association between thyroxine and mortality was not altered after adjustment for triiodothyronine. Hemodialysis patients with reduced triiodothyronine or thyroxine levels bear an increased mortality risk, especially due to cardiovascular causes. This was true when considering both baseline measurements and trimestral variation patterns. Our longitudinal design adds observational evidence supporting the hypothesis that the link may underlie a causal effect.

  8. Relationship status and relationship instability, but not dominance, predict individual differences in baseline cortisol levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Maestripieri

    Full Text Available We investigated variation in baseline cortisol levels in relation to relationship status (single or in a relationship, relationship characteristics (length, stability, presence or absence of clear dominance, or individual attributes (dominant or subordinate status, relative physical attractiveness, relationship worries. Study participants were 77 men and 75 women aged between 18 and 38 years. Individuals in romantic relationships had lower cortisol levels than singles. Individuals of African ethnicity, however, showed the opposite pattern. Individuals who perceived their relationship to be highly unstable had higher cortisol levels. Aside from African-Americans, married individuals reported the lowest relationship instability and the lowest cortisol levels, followed by individuals in long-term relationships, and by individuals in short-term relationships. The presence or absence of clear dominance in the relationship, dominance status, or relationship worries did not affect cortisol levels. Therefore relationship status and relationship instability were better predictors of variation in cortisol (presumably through stress-related mechanisms than individual attributes.

  9. Relationship status and relationship instability, but not dominance, predict individual differences in baseline cortisol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestripieri, Dario; Klimczuk, Amanda C E; Seneczko, Marianne; Traficonte, Daniel M; Wilson, M Claire

    2013-01-01

    We investigated variation in baseline cortisol levels in relation to relationship status (single or in a relationship), relationship characteristics (length, stability, presence or absence of clear dominance), or individual attributes (dominant or subordinate status, relative physical attractiveness, relationship worries). Study participants were 77 men and 75 women aged between 18 and 38 years. Individuals in romantic relationships had lower cortisol levels than singles. Individuals of African ethnicity, however, showed the opposite pattern. Individuals who perceived their relationship to be highly unstable had higher cortisol levels. Aside from African-Americans, married individuals reported the lowest relationship instability and the lowest cortisol levels, followed by individuals in long-term relationships, and by individuals in short-term relationships. The presence or absence of clear dominance in the relationship, dominance status, or relationship worries did not affect cortisol levels. Therefore relationship status and relationship instability were better predictors of variation in cortisol (presumably through stress-related mechanisms) than individual attributes.

  10. Level 3 Baseline Risk Assessment for Building 3515 at Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge, TN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollert, D.A.; Cretella, F.M.; Golden, K.M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)] [and others

    1995-08-01

    The baseline risk assessment for the Fission Product Pilot Plant (Building 3515) at the Oak Ridge National laboratory (ORNL) provides the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) Program at ORNL and Building 3515 project managers with information concerning the results of the Level 3 baseline risk assessment performed for this building. The document was prepared under Work Breakdown Structure 1.4.12.6.2.01 (Activity Data Sheet 3701, Facilities D&D) and includes information on the potential long-term impacts to human health and the environment if no action is taken to remediate Building 3515. Information provided in this document forms the basis for the development of remedial alternatives and the no-action risk portion of the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis report.

  11. High-Level software requirements specification for the TWRS controlled baseline database system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, S.G.

    1998-01-01

    This Software Requirements Specification (SRS) is an as-built document that presents the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Controlled Baseline Database (TCBD) in its current state. It was originally known as the Performance Measurement Control System (PMCS). Conversion to the new system name has not occurred within the current production system. Therefore, for simplicity, all references to TCBD are equivalent to PMCS references. This SRS will reference the PMCS designator from this point forward to capture the as-built SRS. This SRS is written at a high-level and is intended to provide the design basis for the PMCS. The PMCS was first released as the electronic data repository for cost, schedule, and technical administrative baseline information for the TAAS Program. During its initial development, the PMCS was accepted by the customer, TARS Business Management, with no formal documentation to capture the initial requirements

  12. Level 3 Baseline Risk Assessment for Building 3515 at Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge, TN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollert, D.A.; Cretella, F.M.; Golden, K.M.

    1995-08-01

    The baseline risk assessment for the Fission Product Pilot Plant (Building 3515) at the Oak Ridge National laboratory (ORNL) provides the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D) Program at ORNL and Building 3515 project managers with information concerning the results of the Level 3 baseline risk assessment performed for this building. The document was prepared under Work Breakdown Structure 1.4.12.6.2.01 (Activity Data Sheet 3701, Facilities D ampersand D) and includes information on the potential long-term impacts to human health and the environment if no action is taken to remediate Building 3515. Information provided in this document forms the basis for the development of remedial alternatives and the no-action risk portion of the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis report

  13. Cryosat Level1b SAR/Sarin: Improving the Quality of the Baseline C Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scagliola, M.; Fornari, M.; Tagliani, N.; Frommknecht, B.; Bouffard, J.; Parrinello, T.

    2014-12-01

    CryoSat was launched on the 8th April 2010 and it is the first European ice mission dedicated to monitoring precise changes in the thickness of polar ice sheets and floating sea ice over a 3-year period. Cryosat carries an innovative radar altimeter called the Synthetic Aperture Interferometric Altimeter (SIRAL), that transmits pulses at a high pulse repetition frequency thus making the received echoes phase coherent and suitable for azimuth processing. This allows to reach a significantly improved along track resolution with respect to traditional pulse-width limited altimeters. CryoSat is the first altimetry mission operating in SAR mode and continuous improvement in the Level1 Instrument Processing Facility (IPF1) are being identified, tested and validated in order to improve the quality of the Level1b products. Towards the release of the BaselineC of the CryoSat Level1b SAR/SARin products, that is expected at the end of 2014, several improvements have been identified: a datation bias of about -0.5195 ms will be corrected a range bias of about 0.6730 m will be corrected The range window size will be doubled with respect to BaselineB, so that the in Level1b products the waveforms will be doubled too Improved processing for 1Hz echoes to have sharper waveforms Surface sample stack weighting to filter out the single look echoes acquired at highest look angle, that results in a sharpening of the 20Hz waveforms Additional auxiliary information related to the mispointing angles of the instrument as well as to the stacks of single look echoes will be added This poster details the main quality improvements that are foreseen to be included in the CryoSat Level1b SAR/SARin products in BaselineC.

  14. CryoSat Level1b SAR/SARin: quality improvements towards BaselineC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scagliola, Michele; Fornari, Marco; Bouzinac, Catherine; Tagliani, Nicolas; Parrinello, Tommaso

    2014-05-01

    CryoSat was launched on the 8th April 2010 and it is the first European ice mission dedicated to monitoring precise changes in the thickness of polar ice sheets and floating sea ice over a 3-year period. Cryosat carries an innovative radar altimeter called the Synthetic Aperture Interferometric Altimeter (SIRAL), that transmits pulses at a high pulse repetition frequency thus making the received echoes phase coherent and suitable for azimuth processing. This allows to reach a significantly improved along track resolution with respect to traditional pulse-width limited altimeters. CryoSat is the first altimetry mission operating in SAR mode and continuous improvement in the Level1 Instrument Processing Facility (IPF1) are being identified, tested and validated in order to improve the quality of the Level1b products. Towards the release of the BaselineC of the CryoSat Level1b SAR/SARin products, that is expected during 2014, several improvements have been identified: • a datation bias of about -0.5195 ms will be corrected • a range bias of about -0.6730 m will be corrected • the waveform length in the Level1b product will be doubled with respect to BaselineB • improved processing for 1Hz echoes to have sharper waveforms • surface sample stack weighting to filter out the single look echoes acquired at highest look angle, that results in a sharpening of the 20Hz waveforms This poster details the main improvements that are foreseen to be included in the CryoSat Level1b SAR/SARin products in BaselineC.

  15. Do building wakes increase ground level concentrations?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, T.J.; Melbourne, W.H.

    1996-01-01

    As part of the EPRI Plume Rise and Downwash Project to develop and evaluate new mathematical algorithms representing plume rise and downwash, physical model studies were performed on the plume dispersion from Combustion Turbine Unit 4, (CT 4), at the Jersey Central Power and Light Sayreville Generating Station, Sayreville, New Jersey. Studies were performed both in neutral and stably stratified model atmospheric boundary layer conditions with the primary objective being to determine the behavior of the combustion turbine plume under high and low ambient wind speed conditions within the wake region produced by the combustion turbine itself. Field measurements were also performed at the site and to this end a base case wind direction of β = 335 degree was chosen for both the field and model studies in an attempt to minimize the effects of other building wakes on the plume. This paper looks at the flow and dispersion characteristics with and without these large structures in the model in an attempt to explain why the differences in concentration levels occurred

  16. Baseline ambient gaseous ammonia concentrations in the Four Corners area and eastern Oklahoma, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sather, Mark E; Mathew, Johnson; Nguyen, Nghia; Lay, John; Golod, George; Vet, Robert; Cotie, Joseph; Hertel, Terry; Aaboe, Erik; Callison, Ryan; Adam, Jacque; Keese, Danielle; Freise, Jeremy; Hathcoat, April; Sakizzie, Brenda; King, Michael; Lee, Chris; Oliva, Sylvia; San Miguel, George; Crow, Leon; Geasland, Frank

    2008-11-01

    Ambient ammonia monitoring using Ogawa passive samplers was conducted in the Four Corners area and eastern Oklahoma, USA during 2007. The resulting data will be useful in the multipollutant management of ozone, nitrogen oxides, and visibility (atmospheric regional haze) in the Four Corners area, an area with growing oil/gas production and increasing coal-based power plant construction. The passive monitoring data also add new ambient ammonia concentration information for the U.S. and will be useful to scientists involved in present and future visibility modeling exercises. Three week integrated passive ammonia samples were taken at five sites in the Four Corners area and two sites in eastern Oklahoma from December, 2006 through December, 2007 (January, 2008 for two sites). Results show significantly higher regional background ammonia concentrations in eastern Oklahoma (1.8 parts per billion (ppb) arithmetic mean) compared to the Four Corners area (0.2 ppb arithmetic mean). Annual mean ammonia concentrations for all Four Corners area sites for the 2007 study ranged from 0.2 ppb to 1.5 ppb. Peak ambient ammonia concentrations occurred in the spring and summer in both areas. The passive samplers deployed at the Stilwell, Oklahoma site compared favorably with other passive samplers and a continuous ammonia monitoring instrument.

  17. Esophageal baseline impedance levels in patients with pathophysiological characteristics of functional heartburn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinucci, I; de Bortoli, N; Savarino, E; Piaggi, P; Bellini, M; Antonelli, A; Savarino, V; Frazzoni, M; Marchi, S

    2014-04-01

    Recently, it has been suggested that low esophageal basal impedance may reflect impaired mucosal integrity and increased acid sensitivity. We aimed to compare baseline impedance levels in patients with heartburn and pathophysiological characteristics related to functional heartburn (FH) divided into two groups on the basis of symptom relief after proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). Patients with heartburn and negative endoscopy were treated with esomeprazole or pantoprazole 40 mg daily for 8 weeks. According to MII-pH (off therapy) analysis, patients with normal acid exposure time (AET), normal reflux number, and lack of association between symptoms and refluxes were selected; of whom 30 patients with a symptom relief higher than 50% after PPIs composed Group A, and 30 patients, matched for sex and age, without symptom relief composed Group B. A group of 20 healthy volunteers (HVs) was enrolled. For each patient and HV, we evaluated the baseline impedance levels at channel 3, during the overnight rest, at three different times. Group A (vs Group B) showed an increase in the following parameters: mean AET (1.4 ± 0.8% vs 0.5 ± 0.6%), mean reflux number (30.4 ± 8.7 vs 24 ± 6.9), proximal reflux number (11.1 ± 5.2 vs 8.2 ± 3.6), acid reflux number (17.9 ± 6.1 vs 10.7 ± 6.9). Baseline impedance levels were lower in Group A than in Group B and in HVs (p heartburn and normal AET could achieve a better understanding of pathophysiology in reflux disease patients, and could improve the distinction between FH and hypersensitive esophagus. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Water Quality and Heavy Metal Concentrations in Sediment of Sungai Kelantan, Kelantan, Malaysia: A Baseline Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, A.K.; Mushrifah, I.; Mohamad Shuhaimi Othman

    2009-01-01

    A study on water quality and heavy metal concentration in sediment at selected sites of Sungai Kelantan was carried out. Ten water samples were collected along the river for physical and chemical analysis and twenty-six water and sediment samples were collected for heavy metal analysis. Water was sampled at three different dates throughout the study period whereas sediments were collected once. In addition to heavy metal analysis, sediment samples were also analysed for texture, ph and organic content. The physical and chemical water quality analyses were carried out according to the ALPHA procedures. Result of water quality analysis (physico-chemical) indicated that Sungai Kelantan is characterised by excellent water quality and comparable to pristine ecosystems such as the National Park and Kenyir Lake. This river was classified into class I - class III based on Malaysian interim water quality standard criteria (INWQS). Heavy metals Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd was detected at low concentration in sediment samples, except for Fe and Mn. The presence of Fe and Mn in sediment samples was though to be of natural origin from the soil. Anthropogenic metal concentrations in sediment were low indicating that Sungai Kelantan has not experienced extreme pollution. (author)

  19. Background differences in baseline and stimulated MMP levels influence abdominal aortic aneurysm susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Matthew A.; Ruhlman, Melissa K.; Zhao, Shijia; Meisinger, Trevor; Gu, Linxia; Swier, Vicki J.; Agrawal, Devendra K.; Greiner, Timothy C.; Carson, Jeffrey S.; Baxter, B. Timothy; Xiong, Wanfen

    2015-01-01

    Objective Evidence has demonstrated profound influence of genetic background on cardiovascular phenotypes. Murine models in Marfan syndrome (MFS) have shown that genetic background-related variations affect thoracic aortic aneurysm formation, rupture, and lifespan of mice. MFS mice with C57Bl/6 genetic background are less susceptible to aneurysm formation compared to the 129/SvEv genetic background. In this study, we hypothesize that susceptibility to abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) will be increased in 129/SvEv mice versus C57Bl/6 mice. We tested this hypothesis by assessing differences in aneurysm size, tissue properties, immune response, and MMP expression. Methods Mice of C57Bl/6 or 129/SvEv background underwent AAA induction by periaortic application of CaCl2. Baseline aortic diameters, tissue properties and MMP levels were measured. After aneurysm induction, diameters, MMP expression, and immune response (macrophage infiltration and bone marrow transplantation) were measured. Results Aneurysms were larger in 129/SvEv mice than C57Bl/6 mice (83.0% ± 13.6 increase compared to 57.8% ± 6.4). The aorta was stiffer in the 129/SvEv mice compared to C57Bl/6 mice (952.5 kPa ± 93.6 versus 621.4 kPa ± 84.2). Baseline MMP-2 and post-aneurysm MMP-2 and -9 levels were higher in 129/SvEv aortas compared to C57Bl/6 aortas. Elastic lamella disruption/fragmentation and macrophage infiltration were increased in 129/SvEv mice. Myelogenous cell reversal by bone marrow transplantation did not affect aneurysm size. Conclusions These data demonstrate that 129/SvEv mice are more susceptible to AAA compared to C57Bl/6 mice. Intrinsic properties of the aorta between the two strains of mice, including baseline expression of MMP-2, influence susceptibility to AAA. PMID:26546710

  20. Relationship of Baseline Hemoglobin Level with Serum Ferritin, Postphlebotomy Hemoglobin Changes, and Phlebotomy Requirements among HFE C282Y Homozygotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ali Mousavi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. We aimed to examine whether baseline hemoglobin levels in C282Y-homozygous patients are related to the degree of serum ferritin (SF elevation and whether patients with different baseline hemoglobin have different phlebotomy requirements. Methods. A total of 196 patients (124 males and 72 females who had undergone therapeutic phlebotomy and had SF and both pre- and posttreatment hemoglobin values were included in the study. Results. Bivariate correlation analysis suggested that baseline SF explains approximately 6 to 7% of the variation in baseline hemoglobin. The results also showed that males who had higher (≥150 g/L baseline hemoglobin levels had a significantly greater reduction in their posttreatment hemoglobin despite requiring fewer phlebotomies to achieve iron depletion than those who had lower (<150 g/L baseline hemoglobin, regardless of whether baseline SF was below or above 1000 µg/L. There were no significant differences between hemoglobin subgroups regarding baseline and treatment characteristics, except for transferrin saturation between male subgroups with SF above 1000 µg/L. Similar differences were observed when females with higher (≥138 g/L baseline hemoglobin were compared with those with lower (<138 g/L baseline hemoglobin. Conclusion. Dividing C282Y-homozygous patients into just two subgroups according to the degree of baseline SF elevation may obscure important subgroup variations.

  1. Relationship of Baseline Hemoglobin Level with Serum Ferritin, Postphlebotomy Hemoglobin Changes, and Phlebotomy Requirements among HFE C282Y Homozygotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Seyed Ali; Mahmood, Faiza; Aandahl, Astrid; Knutsen, Teresa Risopatron; Llohn, Abid Hussain

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We aimed to examine whether baseline hemoglobin levels in C282Y-homozygous patients are related to the degree of serum ferritin (SF) elevation and whether patients with different baseline hemoglobin have different phlebotomy requirements. Methods. A total of 196 patients (124 males and 72 females) who had undergone therapeutic phlebotomy and had SF and both pre- and posttreatment hemoglobin values were included in the study. Results. Bivariate correlation analysis suggested that baseline SF explains approximately 6 to 7% of the variation in baseline hemoglobin. The results also showed that males who had higher (≥150 g/L) baseline hemoglobin levels had a significantly greater reduction in their posttreatment hemoglobin despite requiring fewer phlebotomies to achieve iron depletion than those who had lower (baseline hemoglobin, regardless of whether baseline SF was below or above 1000 µg/L. There were no significant differences between hemoglobin subgroups regarding baseline and treatment characteristics, except for transferrin saturation between male subgroups with SF above 1000 µg/L. Similar differences were observed when females with higher (≥138 g/L) baseline hemoglobin were compared with those with lower (baseline hemoglobin. Conclusion. Dividing C282Y-homozygous patients into just two subgroups according to the degree of baseline SF elevation may obscure important subgroup variations. PMID:26380265

  2. Baseline blood Pb levels of black-necked stilts on the upper Texas coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riecke, Thomas V.; Conway, Warren C.; Haukos, David A.; Moon, Jena A.; Comer, Christopher E.

    2015-01-01

    There are no known biological requirements for lead (Pb), and elevated Pb levels in birds can cause a variety of sub-lethal effects and mortality. Historic and current levels of Pb in mottled ducks (Anas fulvigula) suggest that environmental sources of Pb remain available on the upper Texas coast. Because of potential risks of Pb exposure among coexisting marsh birds, black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus) blood Pb concentrations were measured during the breeding season. Almost 80 % (n = 120) of 152 sampled stilts exceeded the background threshold (>20 μg/dL) for Pb exposure. However, blood Pb concentrations did not vary by age or gender, and toxic or potentially lethal concentrations were rare (study suggest the presence of readily bioavailable sources of Pb, although potential impacts on local stilt populations remain unclear.

  3. Increased Baseline C-Reactive Protein Concentrations Are Associated with Increased Risk of Infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zacho, Jeppe; Benfield, Thomas; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The acute-phase reactant C-reactive protein (CRP) increases rapidly during an infection. We tested the hypothesis that chronic low-level increases in CRP are associated with an increased risk of infectious disease. METHODS: We studied 9660 individuals from a prospective general...... population cohort, including 3592 in whom infectious disease developed, and another 60 896 individuals from a cross-sectional general population study, of whom 13 332 developed infectious disease; 55% were women, and the mean age was 57 years. Hospital diagnoses of infections in 1977-2010 were based....... RESULTS: Individuals with CRP >3 mg/L had 1.2 and 1.7 times increased risk of infectious disease, in the prospective general population cohort and the cross-sectional general population study, respectively, compared with individuals with CRP

  4. Retrieving CO concentrations from FT-IR spectra with nonmodeled interferences and fluctuating baselines using PCR model parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, J.

    2001-01-01

    It is demonstrated that good predictions of gas concentrations based on measured spectra can be made even if these spectra contain totally overlapping spectral features from nonidentified and non-modeled interfering compounds and fluctuating baselines. The prediction program (CONTOUR) is based...... solely on principal component regression (PCR) model parameters, CONTOUR consists of two smaller algorithms. The first of these is used to calculate pure component spectra based on the PCR model parameters at different concentrations. In the second algorithm, the calculated pure component spectra...... remains. The assumptions are that the background and analytical signals must be additive and that no accidental match between these signals takes place. The best results are obtained with the use of spectra with a high selectivity. The use of the program is demonstrated hg applying simple single...

  5. Investigation of the CCN Activity, BC and UVBC Mass Concentrations of Biomass Burning Aerosols during the 2013 BASELInE Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Ta-Chih; Ye, Wei-Cheng; Wang, Sheng-Hsiang; Tsay, Si-Chee; Chen, Wei-Nai; Lin, Neng-Huei; Lee, Chung-Te; Hung, Hui-Ming; Chuang, Ming-Tung; Chantara, Somporn

    2015-01-01

    Biomass-burning (BB) aerosols, acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), can influence cloud microphysical and radiative properties. In this study, we present CCN measured near the BB source regions over northern Southeast Asia (Doi Ang Khang, Thailand) and at downwind receptor areas (Lulin Atmospheric Background Station, Taiwan), focusing exclusively on 13-20 March 2013 as part of 2013 spring campaign of the Seven SouthEast Asian Studies (7-SEAS) intensive observation. One of the campaigns objectives is to characterize BB aerosols serving as CCN in SouthEast Asia (SEA). CCN concentrations were measured by a CCN counter at 5 supersaturation (SS) levels: 0.15%, 0.30%, 0.45%, 0.60%, and 0.75%. In addition, PM2.5 and black carbon mass concentrations were analyzed by using a tapered element oscillating microbalance and an aethalometer. It was found the number-size distributions and the characteristics of hygroscopicity (e.g., activation ratio and k) of BB aerosols in SEA have a strong diurnal pattern, and different behaviors of patterns were characterized under two distinct weather systems. The overall average value was low (0.05-0.1) but comparable with previous CCN studies in other BB source regions. Furthermore, a large fraction of UV-absorbing organic material (UVBC) and high Delta-C among BB aerosols were also observed, which suggest the existence of substantial particulate organic matter in fresh BB aerosols. These data provide the most extensive characterization of BB aerosols in SEA until now.

  6. A possible method using baseline hormonal levels to prescribe the appropriate oral therapeutic radioiodine dosage for Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajo, Masayuki; Tsuchimochi, Shinsaku; Jinguji, Megumi; Tanabe, Hiroaki; Umanodan, Tomoichi; Nakabeppu, Yoshiaki

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to retrospectively examine the correlations of hormonal ratios with radioiodine I-131 therapeutic parameters and the potentiality of prescribing the therapeutic I-131 target dosage for an individual patient with Graves' disease using baseline serum levels of thyroid hormones. Serum T3, T4, and FT4 levels 6 and 12 months after I-131 therapy/baseline levels (hormonal ratios) were calculated for a total of 68 therapeutic courses in 57 patients with Graves' disease. The therapeutic parameters were absorbed dose (Gy), dose concentration (μCi/g) and oral dose (mCi). Linear regression analysis was performed for correlating hormonal ratios (X) and therapeutic parameters (Y). Significant (P<0.05) negative correlations of the hormonal ratios were observed with absorbed dose (R -0.50 for T3, -0.61 for T4, and -0.46 for FT4 at 6 months, and -0.29 for T3, -0.44 for T4 at 12 months) and dose concentration (R -0.57 for T3, -0.58 for T4, and -0.49 for FT4 at 6 months and -0.27 for T3, -0.27 for T4 at 12 months), but not with oral dose at 6 months and 12 months or the absorbed dose and dose concentration for FT4 at 12 months. The correlations were higher at 6 months than at 12 months and in serum T4 than in serum T3 and FT4. The formulae for serum T4 at 6 months were as follows: Y (Gy)=109-53X and Y (μCi/g)=109-52X. These results suggest that the hormonal ratios are significantly correlated with the absorbed dose and dose concentration. The formulae for serum T4 at 6 months may serve to prescribe the individual oral dosage for Graves' disease, although the correlation coefficients are about -0.6. (author)

  7. Concentration of Uranium levels in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babu, M. N. S.; Somashekar, R. K.; Kumar, S. A.; Shivanna, K.; Krishnamurthy, V.; Eappen, K. P.

    2008-01-01

    The uranium isotopes during their course of their disintegration decay into other radioactive elements and eventually decay into stable lead isotopes. The cause of environmental concern is the emanation of beta and gamma radiation during disintegration. The present study tends to estimate uranium in groundwater trapped in granite and gneiss rocks. Besides, the study aims at estimating the radiation during natural disintegration process. The water samples were collected and analyzed following inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric technique while water sample collection was given to the regions of Kolar District, South India, due to the representation. The significant finding was the observation of very high levels of uranium in groundwater compared to similar assays reported at other nearby districts. Also, the levels were considerable to those compared to groundwater levels of uranium reported by other scientists, On the basis of this study, it was inferred that the origin of uranium was from granite strata and there was a trend of diffusion observed in the course of flow-path of water in the region

  8. Baseline AMH Level Associated With Ovulation Following Ovulation Induction in Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumford, Sunni L; Legro, Richard S; Diamond, Michael P; Coutifaris, Christos; Steiner, Anne Z; Schlaff, William D; Alvero, Ruben; Christman, Gregory M; Casson, Peter R; Huang, Hao; Santoro, Nanette; Eisenberg, Esther; Zhang, Heping; Cedars, Marcelle I

    2016-09-01

    Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) reduces aromatase activity and sensitivity of follicles to FSH stimulation. Therefore, elevated serum AMH may indicate a higher threshold for response to ovulation induction in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This study sought to determine the association between AMH levels and ovulatory response to treatment among the women enrolled into the Pregnancy in PCOS II (PPCOS II) trial. This was a secondary analysis of data from a randomized clinical trial in academic health centers throughout the United States Participants: A total of 748 women age 18-40 years, with PCOS and measured AMH levels at baseline, were included in this study. Couples were followed for up to five treatment cycles to determine ovulation (midluteal serum progesterone > 5 ng/mL) and the dose required to achieve ovulation. A lower mean AMH and AMH per follicle was observed among women who ovulated compared with women who never achieved ovulation during the study (geometric mean AMH, 5.54 vs 7.35 ng/mL; P = .0001; geometric mean AMH per follicle, 0.14 vs 0.18; P = .01) after adjustment for age, body mass index, T, and insulin level. As AMH levels increased, the dose of ovulation induction medication needed to achieve ovulation also increased. No associations were observed between antral follicle count and ovulation. These results suggest that high serum AMH is associated with a reduced response to ovulation induction among women with PCOS. Women with higher AMH levels may require higher doses of medication to achieve ovulation.

  9. Baseline studies of terrestrial outdoor gamma dose rate levels in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farai, I.P.; Jibiri, N.N.

    2000-01-01

    The outdoor γ radiation exposure dose rates due to the radioactivity concentration of 40 K, 238 U and 232 Th in the soil across different environments in Nigeria have been carried out using the low-cost method of in situ γ ray spectrometry. Measurements were made in 18 cities, spread across the three major zones of the country. The radioactivity concentrations of these radionuclides in the soil were used to determine their γ radiation absorbed dose rates in the air. The range of average total dose rate due to the three radionuclides in the Eastern zone is between 0.025 and 0.081 μGy.h -1 with an average of 0.040 ± 0.006 μGy.h -1 , 0.041 and 0.214 μGy.h -1 with a mean of 0.089 ± 0.014 μGy.h -1 for the Western zone and between 0.066 and 0.222 μGy.h -1 with a mean of 0.102 ± 0.032 μGy.h -1 for the Northern zone. The average annual outdoor effective dose equivalents of 51 ± 8 μSv.y -1 , 114 ± 18 μSv.y -1 and 130 ± 41 μSv.y -1 have been estimated for the Eastern, Western and Northern zones, respectively. The average annual effective dose equivalent for the country has been estimated to be 98 ± 15 μSv.y -1 and the collective effective dose equivalent as 9.7 x 103 man.Sv.y -1 . Measurements have been taken as representing the baseline values of natural radioactivity as no artificial radionuclide was detected at any of the sites surveyed. (author)

  10. Radon in soil concentration levels in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segovia, N.; Tamez, E.; Mena, M.

    1991-09-01

    Radon in soil surveys in Mexico have been carried out since 1974 both for uranium prospectus and to correlate mean values of the gas emanation with local telluric behaviour. The mapping includes the northern uranium mining region, the Mexican Neo volcanic Belt, the coastal areas adjacent to the zone of subduction of the Cocos Plate under the North American Plate, some of the active volcanoes of Southern Mexico and several sedimentary valleys in Central Mexico. Recording of 222 Rn alpha decay is systematically performed with LR115 track detectors. Using mean values averaged over different observation periods at fixed monitoring stations, a radon in soil map covering one third of the Mexican territory is presented. The lowest mean values have been found in areas associated with active volcanoes. The highest levels are found in uranium ore zones. Intermediate values are obtained in regions with enhanced hydrothermal activity and stations associated with intrusive rocks. (Author)

  11. Bio monitors for the determination of baseline concentrations of environmentally important elements and their use as reference material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes, Eduardo; Gras, Nuri

    1997-01-01

    The use of selected biomonitors could help to determine baseline concentrations of important elements and, at the same time, contribute with information as regards the pollution status of given areas. In this study, several types of molluscs, sediments, sea water, soil river water and vegetables were used as biomonitors. A number of chemical elements (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Pb, Sb, Sc, Se, V and Zn) were determine using neutron activation analysis, atomic absorption spectrometry inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy and stripping voltametry. The results indicated a good homogeneity of the samples for the elements As, Cu, Fe and Zn which are the most relevant analites for the area under study. A database with the analytical data and relevant information of the sampling site and meteorological conditions, is being implemented. To help the laboratories to reach the necessary accuracy and precision in these analyses, the Chilean Nucleae Energy Commission (CCHEN) have implemented a project aiming at the production of (secondary) reference materials (RMs) for quality control procedures. The matrices chosen initially as candidate RMs were molluscs since several laboratories are involved in the analysis of them. Samples of clamps and mussels were collected at three different bays in the coast of northern Chile, according to the information obtained from the baseline determination project. A sample preparation laboratory was implemented for handling samples of biological and environmental origins and to serve as a pilot laboratory for the preparation of modest amounts of RMs. The samples were handled and prepared according to the same protocols developed for baseline determination project. This preliminary effort has permitted to learn and develop procedures for the preparation of secondary RMs to satisfy the requirements of national laboratories

  12. Level 3 baseline risk evaluation for Building 3506 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golden, K.M.; Robers, S.K.; Cretella, F.M.

    1994-12-01

    This report presents the results of the Level 3 Baseline Risk Evaluation (BRE) performed on Building 3506 located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This BRE is intended to provide an analysis of the potential for adverse health effects (current or future) posed by contaminants at the facility. The decision was made to conduct a Level 3 (least rigorous) BRE because only residual contamination exists in the building. Future plans for the facility (demolition) also preclude a rigorous analysis. Site characterization activities for Building 3506 were conducted in fall of 1993. Concrete core samples were taken from the floors and walls of both the cell and the east gallery. These cores were analyzed for radionuclides and organic and inorganic chemicals. Smear samples and direct radiation measurements were also collected. Sediment exists on the floor of the cell and was also analyzed. To adequately characterize the risks posed by the facility, receptors for both current and potential future land uses were evaluated. For the current land use conditions, two receptors were evaluated. The first receptor is a hypothetical maintenance worker who spends 250 days (8 hours/day) for 25 years working in the facility. The remaining receptor evaluated is a hypothetical S and M worker who spends 2 days (8 hours/day) per year for 25 years working within the facility. This particular receptor best exemplifies the current worker scenario for the facility. The two current exposure scenarios and parameters of exposure (e.g., inhalation and ingestion rates) have been developed to provide a conservative (i.e. health protective) estimate of potential exposure.

  13. Level 3 baseline risk evaluation for Building 3506 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golden, K.M.; Robers, S.K.; Cretella, F.M.

    1994-12-01

    This report presents the results of the Level 3 Baseline Risk Evaluation (BRE) performed on Building 3506 located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This BRE is intended to provide an analysis of the potential for adverse health effects (current or future) posed by contaminants at the facility. The decision was made to conduct a Level 3 (least rigorous) BRE because only residual contamination exists in the building. Future plans for the facility (demolition) also preclude a rigorous analysis. Site characterization activities for Building 3506 were conducted in fall of 1993. Concrete core samples were taken from the floors and walls of both the cell and the east gallery. These cores were analyzed for radionuclides and organic and inorganic chemicals. Smear samples and direct radiation measurements were also collected. Sediment exists on the floor of the cell and was also analyzed. To adequately characterize the risks posed by the facility, receptors for both current and potential future land uses were evaluated. For the current land use conditions, two receptors were evaluated. The first receptor is a hypothetical maintenance worker who spends 250 days (8 hours/day) for 25 years working in the facility. The remaining receptor evaluated is a hypothetical S and M worker who spends 2 days (8 hours/day) per year for 25 years working within the facility. This particular receptor best exemplifies the current worker scenario for the facility. The two current exposure scenarios and parameters of exposure (e.g., inhalation and ingestion rates) have been developed to provide a conservative (i.e. health protective) estimate of potential exposure

  14. Long-term changes in lower tropospheric baseline ozone concentrations: Comparing chemistry-climate models and observations at northern midlatitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, D. D.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Naik, V.; Horowitz, L.; Shindell, D. T.; Staehelin, J.; Derwent, R.; Cooper, O. R.; Tanimoto, H.; Volz-Thomas, A.; Gilge, S.; Scheel, H.-E.; Steinbacher, M.; Fröhlich, M.

    2014-05-01

    Two recent papers have quantified long-term ozone (O3) changes observed at northern midlatitude sites that are believed to represent baseline (here understood as representative of continental to hemispheric scales) conditions. Three chemistry-climate models (NCAR CAM-chem, GFDL-CM3, and GISS-E2-R) have calculated retrospective tropospheric O3 concentrations as part of the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project and Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 model intercomparisons. We present an approach for quantitative comparisons of model results with measurements for seasonally averaged O3 concentrations. There is considerable qualitative agreement between the measurements and the models, but there are also substantial and consistent quantitative disagreements. Most notably, models (1) overestimate absolute O3 mixing ratios, on average by 5 to 17 ppbv in the year 2000, (2) capture only 50% of O3 changes observed over the past five to six decades, and little of observed seasonal differences, and (3) capture 25 to 45% of the rate of change of the long-term changes. These disagreements are significant enough to indicate that only limited confidence can be placed on estimates of present-day radiative forcing of tropospheric O3 derived from modeled historic concentration changes and on predicted future O3 concentrations. Evidently our understanding of tropospheric O3, or the incorporation of chemistry and transport processes into current chemical climate models, is incomplete. Modeled O3 trends approximately parallel estimated trends in anthropogenic emissions of NOx, an important O3 precursor, while measured O3 changes increase more rapidly than these emission estimates.

  15. NOAA GOES-R Series Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) Level 1b Radiances

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) instrument samples the radiance of the Earth in sixteen spectral bands using several arrays of detectors in the instrument’s...

  16. Why are models unable to reproduce multi-decadal trends in lower tropospheric baseline ozone levels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, L.; Liu, J.; Mickley, L. J.; Strahan, S. E.; Steenrod, S.

    2017-12-01

    Assessments of tropospheric ozone radiative forcing rely on accurate model simulations. Parrish et al (2014) found that three chemistry-climate models (CCMs) overestimate present-day O3 mixing ratios and capture only 50% of the observed O3 increase over the last five decades at 12 baseline sites in the northern mid-latitudes, indicating large uncertainties in our understanding of the ozone trends and their implications for radiative forcing. Here we present comparisons of outputs from two chemical transport models (CTMs) - GEOS-Chem and the Global Modeling Initiative model - with O3 observations from the same sites and from the global ozonesonde network. Both CTMs are driven by reanalysis meteorological data (MERRA or MERRA2) and thus are expected to be different in atmospheric transport processes relative to those freely running CCMs. We test whether recent model developments leading to more active ozone chemistry affect the computed ozone sensitivity to perturbations in emissions. Preliminary results suggest these CTMs can reproduce present-day ozone levels but fail to capture the multi-decadal trend since 1980. Both models yield widespread overpredictions of free tropospheric ozone in the 1980s. Sensitivity studies in GEOS-Chem suggest that the model estimate of natural background ozone is too high. We discuss factors that contribute to the variability and trends of tropospheric ozone over the last 30 years, with a focus on intermodel differences in spatial resolution and in the representation of stratospheric chemistry, stratosphere-troposphere exchange, halogen chemistry, and biogenic VOC emissions and chemistry. We also discuss uncertainty in the historical emission inventories used in models, and how these affect the simulated ozone trends.

  17. Estimating representative background PM2.5 concentration in heavily polluted areas using baseline separation technique and chemical mass balance model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shuang; Yang, Wen; Zhang, Hui; Sun, Yanling; Mao, Jian; Ma, Zhenxing; Cong, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Xian; Tian, Shasha; Azzi, Merched; Chen, Li; Bai, Zhipeng

    2018-02-01

    The determination of background concentration of PM2.5 is important to understand the contribution of local emission sources to total PM2.5 concentration. The purpose of this study was to exam the performance of baseline separation techniques to estimate PM2.5 background concentration. Five separation methods, which included recursive digital filters (Lyne-Hollick, one-parameter algorithm, and Boughton two-parameter algorithm), sliding interval and smoothed minima, were applied to one-year PM2.5 time-series data in two heavily polluted cities, Tianjin and Jinan. To obtain the proper filter parameters and recession constants for the separation techniques, we conducted regression analysis at a background site during the emission reduction period enforced by the Government for the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) meeting in Beijing. Background concentrations in Tianjin and Jinan were then estimated by applying the determined filter parameters and recession constants. The chemical mass balance (CMB) model was also applied to ascertain the effectiveness of the new approach. Our results showed that the contribution of background PM concentration to ambient pollution was at a comparable level to the contribution obtained from the previous study. The best performance was achieved using the Boughton two-parameter algorithm. The background concentrations were estimated at (27 ± 2) μg/m3 for the whole year, (34 ± 4) μg/m3 for the heating period (winter), (21 ± 2) μg/m3 for the non-heating period (summer), and (25 ± 2) μg/m3 for the sandstorm period in Tianjin. The corresponding values in Jinan were (30 ± 3) μg/m3, (40 ± 4) μg/m3, (24 ± 5) μg/m3, and (26 ± 2) μg/m3, respectively. The study revealed that these baseline separation techniques are valid for estimating levels of PM2.5 air pollution, and that our proposed method has great potential for estimating the background level of other air pollutants.

  18. Revised CDM baseline study on fuel use and manure management at household level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buysman, E.; Bryan, S.; Pino, M.

    2010-05-15

    This report presents the revised study of the original CDM baseline study conducted in 2006. The original study was conducted under the authority of the National Biogas Program (NBP), to study the potential GHG mitigation resulting from the adoption of domestic biodigesters. In the beginning of June 2006, a survey amongst 300 randomly selected households with the technical potential for a biodigester was conducted in the NBP's 6-targeted provinces (Kampong Cham, Svay Rieng, Prey Veng, Kampong Speu, Takeo and Kandal) in southeast Cambodia. The revised baseline study includes two additional provinces, Kampot and Kampong Chhnang. The survey showed that a significant proportion of the households have no access to basic sanitation and often have health problems. They consume mainly wood as cooking fuel and the majority use inefficient cooking stoves. The main lighting fuel is kerosene. The GHG emissions were calculated for each type of Animal Waste Management System (AWMS) and the baseline fuel consumption. The main methodology used is the GS-VER biodigester methodology and the IPCC 2006 guidelines to ex-ante estimate baseline, project and the emission reductions. The GHG emission from wood burning is only considered when it originates from a non-renewable source. The NRB analysis determined a NRB share of 70.7% for both collected and purchased wood. Total GHG emission is calculated by combining AWMS and wood fuels emissions. The annual baseline and project emission was estimated to be respectively 5.38 tCO2eq and 0.46 tCO2eq per average household, the emission reductions (ER) are therefore 4.92 tCO2eq/household/year.

  19. The effect of a motivational intervention on weight loss is moderated by level of baseline controlled motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tate Deborah F

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinic-based behavioral weight loss programs are effective in producing significant weight loss. A one-size-fits-all approach is often taken with these programs. It may be beneficial to tailor programs based on participants' baseline characteristics. Type and level of motivation may be an important factor to consider. Previous research has found that, in general, higher levels of controlled motivation are detrimental to behavior change while higher levels of autonomous motivation improve the likelihood of behavior modification. Methods This study assessed the outcomes of two internet behavioral weight loss interventions and assessed the effect of baseline motivation levels on program success. Eighty females (M (SD age 48.7 (10.6 years; BMI 32.0 (3.7 kg/m2; 91% Caucasian were randomized to one of two groups, a standard group or a motivation-enhanced group. Both received a 16-week internet behavioral weight loss program and attended an initial and a four-week group session. Weight and motivation were measured at baseline, four and 16 weeks. Hierarchical regression analysis was conducted to test for moderation. Results There was significant weight loss at 16-weeks in both groups (p p = 0.57 (standard group 3.4 (3.6 kg; motivation-enhanced group 3.9 (3.4 kg. Further analysis was conducted to examine predictors of weight loss. Baseline controlled motivation level was negatively correlated with weight loss in the entire sample (r = -0.30; p = 0.01. Statistical analysis revealed an interaction between study group assignment and baseline level of controlled motivation. Weight loss was not predicted by baseline level of controlled motivation in the motivation-enhanced group, but was significantly predicted by controlled motivation in the standard group. Baseline autonomous motivation did not predict weight change in either group. Conclusions This research found that, in participants with high levels of baseline controlled motivation

  20. The effect of a motivational intervention on weight loss is moderated by level of baseline controlled motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Webber, Kelly H; Gabriele, Jeanne M; Tate, Deborah F; Dignan, Mark B

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Clinic-based behavioral weight loss programs are effective in producing significant weight loss. A one-size-fits-all approach is often taken with these programs. It may be beneficial to tailor programs based on participants' baseline characteristics. Type and level of motivation may be an important factor to consider. Previous research has found that, in general, higher levels of controlled motivation are detrimental to behavior change while higher levels of autonomous mot...

  1. CryoSat Ice Processor: High-Level Overview of Baseline-C Data and Quality-Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannan, R.; Webb, E.; Hall, A.; Bouffard, J.; Femenias, P.; Parrinello, T.; Bouffard, J.; Brockley, D.; Baker, S.; Scagliola, M.; Urien, S.

    2016-08-01

    Since April 2015, the CryoSat ice products have been generated with the new Baseline-C Instrument Processing Facilities (IPFs). This represents a major upgrade to the CryoSat ice IPFs and is the baseline for the second CryoSat Reprocessing Campaign. Baseline- C introduces major evolutions with respect to Baseline- B, most notably the release of freeboard data within the L2 SAR products, following optimisation of the SAR retracker. Additional L2 improvements include a new Arctic Mean Sea Surface (MSS) in SAR; a new tuneable land ice retracker in LRM; and a new Digital Elevation Model (DEM) in SARIn. At L1B new attitude fields have been introduced and existing datation and range biases reduced. This paper provides a high level overview of the changes and evolutions implemented at Baseline-C in order to improve CryoSat L1B and L2 data characteristics and exploitation over polar regions. An overview of the main Quality Control (QC) activities performed on operational Baseline-C products is also presented.

  2. Indoor radon concentration levels in Amman, Zarka and Sault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatibeh, A.J.A.H.; Ahmad, N.; Matiullah, A.

    1997-01-01

    Indoor radon concentration levels in three main cities of Jordan have been measured using CR-39 polymeric nuclear track detectors. CR-39 detectors were placed in polyethylene bags and cups. These bag and cup dosimeters were installed in randomly selected houses. The average value of indoor radon concentration level in the city of Amman was found to be 41.3 Bq m -3 with cup dosimeters and 42.6 Bq m -3 with bag dosimeters. For the district of Zarka, the average value of indoor radon concentration level measured with bag dosimeters was 33.9 Bq m -3 , whereas with cup dosimeters the level was 30.7 Bq m -3 . For Sault and its suburbs, the average value of indoor radon concentration level was found to be 51.2 Bq m -3 with bag dosimeters and 49.8 Bq m -3 with cup dosimeters. (author)

  3. On the Mechanisms of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS: How Brain State and Baseline Performance Level Determine Behavioral Effects of TMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha Silvanto

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The behavioral effects of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS can change qualitatively when stimulation is preceded by initial state manipulations such as priming or adaptation. In addition, baseline performance level of the participant has been shown to play a role in modulating the impact of TMS. Here we examined the link between these two factors. This was done using data from a previous study using a TMS-priming paradigm, in which, at group level, TMS selectively facilitated targets incongruent with the prime while having no statistically significant effects on other prime-target congruencies. Correlation and linear mixed-effects analyses indicated that, for all prime-target congruencies, a significant linear relationship between baseline performance and the magnitude of the induced TMS effect was present: low levels of baseline performance were associated with TMS-induced facilitations and high baseline performance with impairments. Thus as performance level increased, TMS effects turned from facilitation to impairment. The key finding was that priming shifted the transition from facilitatory to disruptive effects for targets incongruent with the prime, such that TMS-induced facilitations were obtained until a higher level of performance than for other prime-target congruencies. Given that brain state manipulations such as priming operate via modulations of neural excitability, this result is consistent with the view that neural excitability, coupled with non-linear neural effects, underlie behavioral effects of TMS.

  4. Cortisol and politics: variance in voting behavior is predicted by baseline cortisol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Jeffrey A; Smith, Kevin B; Alford, John R; Guck, Adam; Birnie, Andrew K; Hibbing, John R

    2014-06-22

    Participation in electoral politics is affected by a host of social and demographics variables, but there is growing evidence that biological predispositions may also play a role in behavior related to political involvement. We examined the role of individual variation in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress axis parameters in explaining differences in self-reported and actual participation in political activities. Self-reported political activity, religious participation, and verified voting activity in U.S. national elections were collected from 105 participants, who were subsequently exposed to a standardized (nonpolitical) psychosocial stressor. We demonstrated that lower baseline salivary cortisol in the late afternoon was significantly associated with increased actual voting frequency in six national elections, but not with self-reported non-voting political activity. Baseline cortisol predicted significant variation in voting behavior above and beyond variation accounted for by traditional demographic variables (particularly age of participant in our sample). Participation in religious activity was weakly (and negatively) associated with baseline cortisol. Our results suggest that HPA-mediated characteristics of social, cognitive, and emotional processes may exert an influence on a trait as complex as voting behavior, and that cortisol is a better predictor of actual voting behavior, as opposed to self-reported political activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Cortisol and Politics: Variance in Voting Behavior is Predicted by Baseline Cortisol Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Jeffrey A.; Smith, Kevin B.; Alford, John R.; Guck, Adam; Birnie, Andrew K.; Hibbing, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Participation in electoral politics is affected by a host of social and demographics variables, but there is growing evidence that biological predispositions may also play a role in behavior related to political involvement. We examined the role of individual variation in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress axis parameters in explaining differences in self-reported and actual participation in political activities. Self-reported political activity, religious participation, and verified voting activity in U.S. national elections were collected from 105 participants, who were subsequently exposed to a standardized (nonpolitical) psychosocial stressor. We demonstrated that lower baseline salivary cortisol in the late afternoon was significantly associated with increased actual voting frequency in six national elections, but not with self-reported non-voting political activity. Baseline cortisol predicted significant variation in voting behavior above and beyond variation accounted for by traditional demographic variables (particularly age of participant in our sample). Participation in religious activity was weakly (and negatively) associated with baseline cortisol. Our results suggest that HPA-mediated characteristics of social, cognitive, and emotional processes may exert an influence on a trait as complex as voting behavior, and that cortisol is a better predictor of actual voting behavior, as opposed to self-reported political activity. PMID:24835544

  6. Do urban canyons influence street level grass pollen concentrations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peel, Robert George; Kennedy, Roy; Smith, Matt

    2014-01-01

    In epidemiological studies, outdoor exposure to pollen is typically estimated using rooftop monitoring station data, whilst exposure overwhelmingly occurs at street level. In this study the relationship between street level and roof level grass pollen concentrations was investigated for city cent...

  7. Association of baseline level of physical activity and its temporal changes with incident hypertension and diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Young; Ryu, Seungho; Sung, Ki-Chul

    2018-01-01

    Background The association between baseline and temporal changes in physical activity and incident hypertension or diabetes mellitus in initially non-hypertensive or non-diabetic subjects is rarely known. Methods Among individuals who underwent consecutive comprehensive health screenings, their physical activity level was measured using a self-reported international physical activity questionnaire. First, subjects were classified into four categories: no regular physical activity with a sedentary lifestyle; minimal physical activity (diabetes mellitus and arterial hypertension, respectively. After a multivariate adjustment, sufficient baseline physical activity was associated with significantly lower risk for incident hypertension (hazard ratio 0.89; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.81 to 0.97), but the difference was not significant, and showed a lower trend in diabetes mellitus incidence (hazard ratio 0.87; 95% CI 0.69 to 1.04) in reference to no regular physical activity group. Regardless of the baseline physical activity level, subjects with a temporal increase in physical activity showed significantly decreased risk for incident hypertension (hazard ratio 0.93; 95% CI 0.87 to 0.99) and diabetes mellitus (hazard ratio 0.83; 95% CI 0.74 to 0.92) compared with those with a temporal decrease in their physical activity level. Conclusion Both sufficient baseline physical activity level and its temporal increase were associated with a lower risk of incident hypertension and diabetes mellitus in a large, relatively healthy, cohort.

  8. Baseline estradiol concentration in community-dwelling Japanese American men is not associated with intra-abdominal fat accumulation over 10 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocarnik, Beverly M; Boyko, Edward J; Matsumoto, Alvin M; Fujimoto, Wilfred Y; Hayashi, Tomoshige; Leonetti, Donna L; Page, Stephanie T

    The role of plasma estradiol in the accumulation of intra-abdominal fat (IAF) in men is uncertain. Cross-sectional studies using imaging of IAF have shown either a positive or no association. In contrast, a randomised controlled trial using an aromatase inhibitor to suppress estradiol production found an association between oestrogen deficiency and short-term IAF accumulation. No longitudinal study has been conducted to examine the relationship between plasma estradiol concentration and the change in IAF area measured using direct imaging. This is a longitudinal observational study in community-dwelling Japanese-American men (n=215, mean age 52 years, BMI 25.4kg/m 2 ). IAF and subcutaneous fat areas were assessed using computerized tomography (CT) at baseline, 5 and 10 years. Baseline plasma estradiol concentrations were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Univariate analysis found no association between baseline estradiol concentration and baseline IAF, or 5- or 10-year changes in IAF area (r=-0.05 for both time points, p=0.45 and p=0.43, respectively). Multivariate linear regression analysis of the change in IAF area by baseline estradiol concentration adjusted for age, baseline IAF area, and weight change found no association with either the 5- or 10-year IAF area change (p=0.52 and p=0.55, respectively). Plasma estradiol concentration was not associated with baseline IAF nor with change in IAF area over 5 or 10 years based on serial CT scans in community-dwelling Japanese-American men. These results do not support a role for oestrogen deficiency in IAF accumulation in men. Copyright © 2015 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. All rights reserved.

  9. Retail Price Levels and Concentrations of Wholesalers, Retailers and Hypermarkets

    OpenAIRE

    Asplund, Marcus; Friberg, Richard

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines retail grocery price levels with a very large (unbalanced) panel of stores that operate in well-defined local markets. We explain price variation across grocery retailers by the concentration of wholesalers and retailers, and the market share of hypermarkets (and control for a number of store and region specific factors). Our most important result is that concentration at the wholesale level is an important determinant of retail prices. The price effect of retail concentra...

  10. Correlation between hypersensitivity induced by esophageal acid infusion and the baseline impedance level in patients with suspected gastroesophageal reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, A Young; Shin, Cheol Min; Kim, Nayoung; Yoon, Hyuk; Park, Young Soo; Lee, Dong Ho

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the relevance between the pH parameters and baseline impedance level or esophageal hypomotility in patients with suspected gastroesophageal reflux. The recordings of 51 patients with heartburn, acid regurgitation, globus or noncardiac chest pain were analyzed. Evaluation included a 24-h multichannel intraluminal impedance-pH test while on off-proton pump inhibitor therapy over 1 week, high-resolution manometry and Bernstein test. Mean baseline impedance level at the most distal portion of the impedance channel was assessed manually. Esophageal hypomotility was evaluated using transitional zone defect (TZD) and distal break (DB) length measurement. In the study subjects (n = 51), 6 had a DeMeester score of more than 14.7 and 14 had a positive symptom index. The Bernstein test was positive in ten patients. The baseline impedance level was inversely correlated with the acid exposure time % (r = -0.660, P reflux and weakly acid reflux time % measured by impedance monitoring showed a weak correlation with TZD + DB length (r = 0.327 and 0.324, P = 0.019 and 0.020, respectively). Although a positive Bernstein test has no relevance for the acid exposure time or acid-related symptoms as represented by the DeMeester score or symptom index, the baseline impedance level was significantly lower in patients with a positive Bernstein test than in those with a negative one (2,628.4 ± 862.7 vs. 1,752.2 ± 611.1 Ω, P = 0.004). A lower baseline impedance level is closely related to increased esophageal acid exposure. Hypersensitivity induced by esophageal acid infusion might be attributed to acid-induced mucosal changes of the esophagus.

  11. Cultural energy analyses of dairy cattle receiving different concentrate levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koknaroglu, Hayati

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of this study was to conduct cultural energy analyses of dairy cows receiving different levels of concentrate. Data were acquired by conducting a survey on 132 dairy farms selected by the stratified random sampling method. Dairy cattle farms were divided into three groups according to concentrate level and were analyzed. Accordingly concentrate levels were assigned as low (LLC) ( 50%, 44 farms). Cultural energy used for feed for cows was calculated by multiplying each ingredient with corresponding values of ingredients from literature. Transportation energy was also included in the analysis. Total cultural energy expended was highest for LLC (P < 0.05). Cultural energy expended for feed constituted more than half of the total cultural energy and was highest for LLC (P < 0.05). Cultural energy expended per kg milk and per Mcal protein energy was higher for LLC (P < 0.05). Efficiency defined as Mcal input/Mcal output was better for ILC and was worse for LLC (P < 0.05) and HLC was intermediate thus not differing from other groups. Results show that cultural energy use efficiency does not linearly increases as concentrate level increases and increasing concentrate level does not necessarily mean better efficiency. Thus optimum concentrate level not interfering cows performance should be sought for sustainable dairy production.

  12. Stack Characterization in CryoSat Level1b SAR/SARin Baseline C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scagliola, Michele; Fornari, Marco; Di Giacinto, Andrea; Bouffard, Jerome; Féménias, Pierre; Parrinello, Tommaso

    2015-04-01

    CryoSat was launched on the 8th April 2010 and is the first European ice mission dedicated to the monitoring of precise changes in the thickness of polar ice sheets and floating sea ice. CryoSat is the first altimetry mission operating in SAR mode and it carries an innovative radar altimeter called the Synthetic Aperture Interferometric Altimeter (SIRAL), that transmits pulses at a high pulse repetition frequency thus making the received echoes phase coherent and suitable for azimuth processing. The current CryoSat IPF (Instrument Processing Facility), Baseline B, was released in operation in February 2012. After more than 2 years of development, the release in operations of the Baseline C is expected in the first half of 2015. It is worth recalling here that the CryoSat SAR/SARin IPF1 generates 20Hz waveforms in correspondence of an approximately equally spaced set of ground locations on the Earth surface, i.e. surface samples, and that a surface sample gathers a collection of single-look echoes coming from the processed bursts during the time of visibility. Thus, for a given surface sample, the stack can be defined as the collection of all the single-look echoes pointing to the current surface sample, after applying all the necessary range corrections. The L1B product contains the power average of all the single-look echoes in the stack: the multi-looked L1B waveform. This reduces the data volume, while removing some information contained in the single looks, useful for characterizing the surface and modelling the L1B waveform. To recover such information, a set of parameters has been added to the L1B product: the stack characterization or beam behaviour parameters. The stack characterization, already included in previous Baselines, has been reviewed and expanded in Baseline C. This poster describes all the stack characterization parameters, detailing what they represent and how they have been computed. In details, such parameters can be summarized in: - Stack

  13. Prediction of short-term changes in symptom severity by baseline plasma homovanillic acid levels in schizophrenic patients receiving clozapine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumiyoshi, T; Hasegawa, M; Jayathilake, K; Meltzer, H Y

    1997-03-24

    The relationship between pretreatment levels of plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) and the outcome of clozapine treatment was studied in 18 male patients with schizophrenia who were resistant to treatment with conventional neuroleptics. After 6 months of clozapine treatment, 7 patients demonstrated > or = 20% decrease in the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) (responders), while 11 patients did not (non-responders). Responders and non-responders did not differ with respect to the baseline pHVA level. The BPRS Positive Symptom scores at 6 weeks and 3 months, but not those at baseline and 6 months, following initiation of clozapine treatment negatively correlated with pHVA levels for all patients. The correlations became stronger when only responders were included. No significant correlation between Positive Symptom scores and pHVA levels was observed for non-responders. The BPRS Total and Negative Symptom scores did not correlate with pHVA for all patients, responders or non-responders at any time. The percent decrease in the BPRS Positive Symptom scores from baseline at 6 weeks following clozapine treatment correlated significantly with pHVA levels in responders. These results suggest that pretreatment levels of pHVA can be used to predict relatively short-term changes in the positive symptoms of patients with schizophrenia receiving clozapine treatment, particularly for clozapine responders.

  14. Activity concentrations of primordial radionuclides in sediments of surface - water dams in southwest Nigeria - a baseline survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isinkaye, M.O.; Farai, I.P.

    2008-01-01

    The radionuclide contents of sediment samples collected from 20 surface-water dams in southwestern Nigeria have been determined by low-level gamma-spectroscopy. The average concentration of 40 K in each of the dams varied between 110.9±11.9 Bq kg-1 and 1025.9±36.8 Bq kg -1 with an overall mean (±SD) of 549.3 ± 247.6 Bq kg -1 while that of 238 U varied from 17.1±3.6 to 51.9±8.7 Bq kg -1 with an overall mean (±SD) of 27.6±8.5 Bq kg -1 and that of 232 Th varied from 26.2 ±3.6 Bq kg -1 to 130.1±23.7 Bq kg -1 with overall mean (±SD) of 62.0±26.1 Bq kg -1 . The variability of the values shows the wide disparity in the measured activity concentrations. The mean radium equivalent of 158.9 Bq kg -1 was calculated for the sediments in the dams. No artificial gamma emitting radionuclide was detected in the samples. (authors)

  15. Baseline radionuclide concentrations in soils and vegetation around the proposed Weapons Engineering Tritium Facility and the Weapons Subsystems Laboratory at TA-16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fresquez, P.R.; Ennis, M.

    1995-09-01

    A preoperational environmental survey is required by the Department of Energy (DOE) for all federally funded research facilities that have the potential to cause adverse impacts on the environment. Therefore, in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, an environmental survey was conducted over the proposed sites of the Weapons Engineering Tritium Facility (WETF) and the Weapons Subsystems Laboratory (WSL) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) at TA-16. Baseline concentrations of tritium ( 3 H), plutonium ( 238 Pu and 239 Pu) and total uranium were measured in soils, vegetation (pine needles and oak leaves) and ground litter. Tritium was also measured from air samples, while cesium ( 137 Cs) was measured in soils. The mean concentration of airborne tritiated water during 1987 was 3.9 pCi/m 3 . Although the mean annual concentration of 3 H in soil moisture at the 0--5 cm (2 in) soil depth was measured at 0.6 pCi/mL, a better background level, based on long-term regional data, was considered to be 2.6 pCi/mL. Mean values for 137 Cs, 218 Pu, 239 Pu, and total uranium in soils collected from the 0--5 cm depth were 1.08 pCi/g, 0.0014 pCi/g, 0.0325 pCi/g, and 4.01 microg/g, respectively. Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) needles contained higher values of 238 Pu, 239 Pu, and total uranium than did leaves collected from gambel's oak (Quercus gambelii). In contrast, leaves collected from gambel's oak contained higher levels of 137 Cs than what pine needles did

  16. Evaluation of radionuclide concentrations in high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehringer, D.J.

    1985-10-01

    This report describes a possible approach for development of a numerical definition of the term ''high-level radioactive waste.'' Five wastes are identified which are recognized as being high-level wastes under current, non-numerical definitions. The constituents of these wastes are examined and the most hazardous component radionuclides are identified. This report suggests that other wastes with similar concentrations of these radionuclides could also be defined as high-level wastes. 15 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs

  17. Concentration of High Level Radioactive Liquid Waste. Basic data acquisition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juvenelle, A.; Masson, M.; Garrido, M.H. [DEN/VRH/DRCP/SCPS/LPCP, BP 17171 - 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze Cedex (France)

    2008-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: In order to enhance its knowledge about the concentration of high level liquid waste (HLLW) from the nuclear fuel reprocessing process, a program of studies was defined by Cea. In a large field of acidity, it proposes to characterize the concentrated solution and the obtained precipitates versus the concentration factor. Four steps are considered: quantification of the salting-out effect on the concentrate acidity, acquisition of solubility data, precipitates characterisation versus the concentration factor through aging tests and concentration experimentation starting from simulated fission products solutions. The first results, reported here, connect the acidity of the concentrated solution to the concentration factor and allow us to precise the field of acidity (4 to 12 N) for the next experiments. In this field, solubility data of various elements (Ba, Sr, Zr...) are separately measured at room temperature, in nitric acid in a first time, then in the presence of various species present in medium (TBP, PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}). The reactions between these various elements are then investigated (formation of insoluble mixed compounds) by following the concentration cations in solution and characterising the precipitates. (authors)

  18. CryoSat Level1b SAR/SARin BaselineC: Product Format and Algorithm Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scagliola, Michele; Fornari, Marco; Di Giacinto, Andrea; Bouffard, Jerome; Féménias, Pierre; Parrinello, Tommaso

    2015-04-01

    CryoSat was launched on the 8th April 2010 and is the first European ice mission dedicated to the monitoring of precise changes in the thickness of polar ice sheets and floating sea ice. Cryosat carries an innovative radar altimeter called the Synthetic Aperture Interferometric Altimeter (SIRAL), that transmits pulses at a high pulse repetition frequency thus making the received echoes phase coherent and suitable for azimuth processing. This allows to reach a significantly improved along track resolution with respect to traditional pulse-width limited altimeters. CryoSat is the first altimetry mission operating in SAR mode and continuous improvements in the Level1 Instrument Processing Facility (IPF1) are being identified, tested and validated in order to improve the quality of the Level1b products. The current IPF, Baseline B, was released in operation in February 2012. A reprocessing campaign followed, in order to reprocess the data since July 2010. After more than 2 years of development, the release in operations of Baseline C is expected in the first half of 2015. BaselineC Level1b products will be distributed in an updated format, including for example the attitude information (roll, pitch and yaw) and, for SAR/SARIN, the waveform length doubled with respect to Baseline B. Moreveor, various algorithm improvements have been identified: • a datation bias of about -0.5195 ms will be corrected (SAR/SARIn) • a range bias of about 0.6730 m will be corrected (SAR/SARIn) • a roll bias of 0.1062 deg and a pitch bias of 0.0520 deg • Surface sample stack weighting to filter out the single look echoes acquired at highest look angle, that results in a sharpening of the 20Hz waveforms With the operational release of BaselineC, the second CryoSat reprocessing campaign will be initiated, taking benefit of the upgrade implemented in the IPF1 processing chain but also at IPF2 level. The reprocessing campaign will cover the full Cryosat mission starting on 16th July 2010

  19. Effect of water deprivation on baseline and stress-induced corticosterone levels in the Children's python (Antaresia childreni).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupoué, Andréaz; Angelier, Frédéric; Lourdais, Olivier; Bonnet, Xavier; Brischoux, François

    2014-02-01

    Corticosterone (CORT) secretion is influenced by endogenous factors (e.g., physiological status) and environmental stressors (e.g., ambient temperature). Heretofore, the impact of water deprivation on CORT plasma levels has not been thoroughly investigated. However, both baseline CORT and stress-induced CORT are expected to respond to water deprivation not only because of hydric stress per se, but also because CORT is an important mineralocorticoid in vertebrates. We assessed the effects of water deprivation on baseline CORT and stress-induced CORT, in Children's pythons (Antaresia childreni), a species that experiences seasonal droughts in natural conditions. We imposed a 52-day water deprivation on a group of unfed Children's pythons (i.e., water-deprived treatment) and provided water ad libitum to another group (i.e., control treatment). We examined body mass variations throughout the experiment, and baseline CORT and stress-induced CORT at the end of the treatments. Relative body mass loss averaged ~10% in pythons without water, a value 2 to 4 times higher compared to control snakes. Following re-exposition to water, pythons from the water-deprived treatment drank readily and abundantly and attained a body mass similar to pythons from the control treatment. Together, these results suggest a substantial dehydration as a consequence of water deprivation. Interestingly, stress-induced but not baseline CORT level was significantly higher in water-deprived snakes, suggesting that baseline CORT might not respond to this degree of dehydration. Therefore, possible mineralocorticoid role of CORT needs to be clarified in snakes. Because dehydration usually induces adjustments (reduced movements, lowered body temperature) to limit water loss, and decreases locomotor performances, elevated stress-induced CORT in water-deprived snakes might therefore compensate for altered locomotor performances. Future studies should test this hypothesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc

  20. Baseline monitoring of mercury levels in environmental matrices in the Limpopo Province

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Walters, Chavon

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available and HP 3396 Integrator. 32 Total Hg (TotHg) concentrations in surface sediment and freshwater fish samples were determined following 33 USEPA protocols (Method 7473; USEPA 2007). The TotHg in solid samples, i.e. sediment and freeze-dried 34 fish, were... and anonymous reviewers for giving us many constructive 13 comments that significantly improved the paper. 14 6. References 15 Andersson, I., Parkman, H. & Jernelov, A. (1990). The role of sediments as sink or source for environmental 16 contaminants: A case...

  1. Utility of baseline serum phosphorus levels for predicting remission in acromegaly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalin, G Y; Tanrikulu, S; Gul, N; Uzum, A K; Aral, F; Tanakol, R

    2017-08-01

    High GH and IGF I levels increase tubular phosphate reabsorption in patients with acromegaly. We aimed to investigate the utility of serum phosphorus levels as an indicator for predicting chance of remission in acromegaly patients. Fifty-one patients (n: 51; F: 24, M: 27) with diagnosis of acromegaly were included in the study. Plasma IGF-1, Phosphorus (P) and nadir GH levels on oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at the time of diagnosis were analysed retrospectively. Patients were classified into two groups according to their plasma P levels; P ≤ 4.5 mg/dl (Group-1, n: 23, 45.1%), P > 4.5 mg/dl (Group-2, n: 28, 54.9%). Two groups were compared according to remission status; remission (n: 27) and non-remission (n: 24). Remission was defined with absence of clinical symptoms, normal plasma IGF-1 (adjusted for age and gender) and GH levels (acromegaly patients. Further studies with wider spectrum are needed to make specific suggestions.

  2. Extended-release niacin/laropiprant significantly improves lipid levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus irrespective of baseline glycemic control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bays HE

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Harold E Bays,1 Eliot A Brinton,2 Joseph Triscari,3 Erluo Chen,3 Darbie Maccubbin,3 Alexandra A MacLean,3 Kendra L Gibson,3 Rae Ann Ruck,3 Amy O Johnson-Levonas,3 Edward A O’Neill,3 Yale B Mitchel3 1Louisville Metabolic & Atherosclerosis Research Center (L-MARC, Louisville, KY, USA; 2Utah Foundation for Biomedical Research, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; 3Merck & Co, Inc., Whitehouse Station, NJ, USA Background: The degree of glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM may alter lipid levels and may alter the efficacy of lipid-modifying agents. Objective: Evaluate the lipid-modifying efficacy of extended-release niacin/laropiprant (ERN/LRPT in subgroups of patients with T2DM with better or poorer glycemic control. Methods: Post hoc analysis of clinical trial data from patients with T2DM who were randomized 4:3 to double-blind ERN/LRPT or placebo (n=796, examining the lipid-modifying effects of ERN/LRPT in patients with glycosylated hemoglobin or fasting plasma glucose levels above and below median baseline levels. Results: At Week 12 of treatment, ERN/LRPT significantly improved low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and lipoprotein (a, compared with placebo, with equal efficacy in patients above or below median baseline glycemic control. Compared with placebo, over 36 weeks of treatment more patients treated with ERN/LRPT had worsening of their diabetes and required intensification of antihyperglycemic medication, irrespective of baseline glycemic control. Incidences of other adverse experiences were generally low in all treatment groups. Conclusion: The lipid-modifying effects of ERN/LRPT are independent of the degree of baseline glycemic control in patients with T2DM (NCT00485758. Keywords: lipid-modifying agents, hyperglycemia, LDL, HDL, triglycerides

  3. Baseline reference range for trace metal concentrations in whole blood of wild and managed West Indian Manatees (Trichechus manatus) in Florida and Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Noel Y.; Walsh, Michael T; Bonde, Robert K.; Powell, James A.; Bass, Dean A.; Gaspard, Joseph C.; Barber, David S.

    2016-01-01

    The West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) is exposed to a number of anthropogenic influences, including metals, as they inhabit shallow waters with close proximity to shore. While maintaining homeostasis of many metals is crucial for health, there is currently no baseline reference range that can be used to make clinical and environmental decisions for this endangered species. In this study, whole blood samples from 151 manatees were collected during health assessments performed in Florida and Belize from 2008 through 2011. Whole blood samples (n = 37) from managed care facilities in Florida and Belize from 2009 through 2011 were also used in this study. The concentrations of 17 metals in whole blood were determined, and the data were used to derive a baseline reference range. Impacts of capture location, age, and sex on whole blood metal concentrations were examined. Location and age were related to copper concentrations as values were significantly higher in habitats near urban areas and in calves. Copper may also be a husbandry concern as concentrations were significantly higher in managed manatees (1.17 ± 0.04 ppm) than wild manatees (0.73 ± 0.02 ppm). Zinc (11.20 ± 0.30 ppm) was of special interest as normal concentrations were two to five times higher than other marine mammal species. Arsenic concentrations were higher in Belize (0.43 ± 0.07 ppm), with Placencia Lagoon having twice the concentration of Belize City and Southern Lagoon. Selenium concentrations were lower (0.18 ± 0.09 ppm) than in other marine mammal species. The lowest selenium concentrations were observed in rehabilitating and managed manatees which may warrant additional monitoring in managed care facilities. The established preliminary baseline reference range can be used by clinicians, biologists, and managers to monitor the health of West Indian manatees.

  4. LHCb base-line level-0 trigger 3D-flow implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Crosetto, D

    1999-01-01

    The LHCb Level-0 trigger implementation with the 3D-Flow system offers full programmability, allowing it to adapt to unexpected operating conditions and enabling new, unpredicted physics. The implementation is described in detail and refers to components and technology available today. The 3D-Flow Processor system is a new, technology-independent concept in very fast, real-time system architectures. Based on the replication of a single type of circuit of 100 k gates, which communicates in six directions: bi-directional with North, East, West, and South neighbors, unidirectional from Top to Bottom, the system offers full programmability, modularity, ease of expansion and adaptation to the latest technology. A complete study of its applicability to the LHCb calorimeter triggers is presented. Full description of the input data handling, either in digital or mixed digital-analog form, of the data processing, and the transmission of results to the global level-0 trigger decision unit are provided. Any level-0 trig...

  5. Lead in rice: analysis of baseline lead levels in market and field collected rice grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Gareth J; Williams, Paul N; Adomako, Eureka E; Price, Adam H; Zhu, Yongguan; Zhao, Fang-Jie; McGrath, Steve; Deacon, Claire M; Villada, Antia; Sommella, Alessia; Lu, Ying; Ming, Lei; De Silva, P Mangala C S; Brammer, Hugh; Dasgupta, Tapash; Islam, M Rafiqul; Meharg, Andrew A

    2014-07-01

    In a large scale survey of rice grains from markets (13 countries) and fields (6 countries), a total of 1578 rice grain samples were analysed for lead. From the market collected samples, only 0.6% of the samples exceeded the Chinese and EU limit of 0.2 μg g(-1) lead in rice (when excluding samples collected from known contaminated/mine impacted regions). When evaluating the rice grain samples against the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) provisional total tolerable intake (PTTI) values for children and pregnant women, it was found that only people consuming large quantities of rice were at risk of exceeding the PTTI from rice alone. Furthermore, 6 field experiments were conducted to evaluate the proportion of the variation in lead concentration in rice grains due to genetics. A total of 4 of the 6 field experiments had significant differences between genotypes, but when the genotypes common across all six field sites were assessed, only 4% of the variation was explained by genotype, with 9.5% and 11% of the variation explained by the environment and genotype by environment interaction respectively. Further work is needed to identify the sources of lead contamination in rice, with detailed information obtained on the locations and environments where the rice is sampled, so that specific risk assessments can be performed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Baseline glucose level is an individual trait that is negatively associated with lifespan and increases due to adverse environmental conditions during development and adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montoya, Bibiana; Briga, Michael; Jimeno, Blanca; Moonen, Sander; Verhulst, Simon

    High baseline glucose levels are associated with pathologies and shorter lifespan in humans, but little is known about causes and consequences of individual variation in glucose levels in other species. We tested to what extent baseline blood glucose level is a repeatable trait in adult zebra

  7. Relation of N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide levels after symptom-limited exercise to baseline and ischemia levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zee, P Marc; Verberne, Hein J; van Spijker, Rianne C; van Straalen, Jan P; Fischer, Johan C; Sturk, Augueste; van Eck-Smit, Berthe L F; de Winter, Robbert J

    2009-03-01

    Circulating levels of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and the amino-terminal portion of the prohormone (NT-proBNP) have been reported to increase immediately after myocardial ischemia. The association between extent of exercise-induced myocardial ischemia measured using myocardial perfusion scintigraphy and the magnitude and time course of changes in NT-proBNP was studied. One hundred one patients underwent symptom-limited exercise myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. Myocardial ischemia was assessed semiquantitatively. Serum samples were obtained before the start of exercise (baseline), at maximal exercise, and every hour up to 6 hours after maximal exercise. Myocardial ischemia was present in 37 patients (37%). NT-proBNP rapidly increased during exercise (to 113%, interquartile range 104 to 144, and 118%, interquartile range 106 to 142, of baseline, respectively), with a second peak at 4 (141%, interquartile range 119 to 169) and 5 hours (136%, interquartile range 93 to 188), respectively. Absolute changes between NT-proBNP at baseline and at maximum exercise in patients with versus without ischemia were similar (median, 30 pg/ml, interquartile range 7 to 45 vs 15, interquartile range 4 to 46, respectively, p = 0.230), but absolute change between baseline and the secondary peak was higher in patients with ischemia than in patients without ischemia (median 64 pg/ml, interquartile range 32 to 172 vs 34, interquartile range 19 to 85, respectively, p = 0.024). In multivariate linear stepwise regression analysis of determinants of changes in NT-proBNP after exercise, baseline NT-proBNP was the only independent determinant of absolute changes at maximum exercise, whereas the presence of ischemia was not predictive. Baseline NT-proBNP, cystatin C, and end-systolic volume were independent determinants of the absolute increase to secondary peak levels. In conclusion, myocardial ischemia per se did not lead to additional increases in NT-proBNP within 6 hours after exercise.

  8. LHCb base-line level-0 trigger 3D-Flow implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crosetto, Dario B.

    1999-01-01

    The LHCb Level-0 trigger implementation with the 3D-Flow system offers full programmability, allowing it to adapt to unexpected operating conditions and enabling new, unpredicted physics. The implementation is described in detail and refers to components and technology available today. The 3D-Flow Processor system is a new, technology-independent concept in very fast, real-time system architectures. Based on the replication of a single type of circuit of 100k gates, which communicates in six directions: bi-directional with North, East, West, and South neighbors, unidirectional from Top to Bottom, the system offers full programmability, modularity, ease of expansion and adaptation to the latest technology. A complete study of its applicability to the LHCb calorimeter triggers is presented. Full description of the input data handling, either in digital or mixed digital-analog form, of the data processing, and the transmission of results to the global level-0 trigger decision unit are provided. Any level-0 trigger algorithm (2x2, 3x3, 4x4, etc.) with up to 20 steps, can be implemented with zero dead-time, while sustaining input data rate (up to 32-bit per input channel, per bunch crossing) at 40 MHz. For each step, each 3D-Flow processor can execute up to 26 operations, inclusive of compare, ranging, finding local maxima, and efficient data exchange with neighboring channels. (One-to-one correspondence between input channel and trigger tower.) Populated with only two main types of components, front-end FPGAs and 3D-Flow processors, a single type of board, it is shown how the whole Level-0 calorimeter trigger can be accommodated into six crates (9U), each containing 16 identical boards. All 3D-Flow inter-chip Bottom to Top ports connection are all contained on the board (data are multiplexed 2 : 1, PCB traces are shorter than 6 cm); all 3D-flow inter-chip North, East, West, and South ports connections, between boards and crates, are multiplexed (8+2) : 1 and are

  9. Multiple fMRI system-level baseline connectivity is disrupted in patients with consciousness alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demertzi, Athena; Gómez, Francisco; Crone, Julia Sophia; Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey; Tshibanda, Luaba; Noirhomme, Quentin; Thonnard, Marie; Charland-Verville, Vanessa; Kirsch, Murielle; Laureys, Steven; Soddu, Andrea

    2014-03-01

    In healthy conditions, group-level fMRI resting state analyses identify ten resting state networks (RSNs) of cognitive relevance. Here, we aim to assess the ten-network model in severely brain-injured patients suffering from disorders of consciousness and to identify those networks which will be most relevant to discriminate between patients and healthy subjects. 300 fMRI volumes were obtained in 27 healthy controls and 53 patients in minimally conscious state (MCS), vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (VS/UWS) and coma. Independent component analysis (ICA) reduced data dimensionality. The ten networks were identified by means of a multiple template-matching procedure and were tested on neuronality properties (neuronal vs non-neuronal) in a data-driven way. Univariate analyses detected between-group differences in networks' neuronal properties and estimated voxel-wise functional connectivity in the networks, which were significantly less identifiable in patients. A nearest-neighbor "clinical" classifier was used to determine the networks with high between-group discriminative accuracy. Healthy controls were characterized by more neuronal components compared to patients in VS/UWS and in coma. Compared to healthy controls, fewer patients in MCS and VS/UWS showed components of neuronal origin for the left executive control network, default mode network (DMN), auditory, and right executive control network. The "clinical" classifier indicated the DMN and auditory network with the highest accuracy (85.3%) in discriminating patients from healthy subjects. FMRI multiple-network resting state connectivity is disrupted in severely brain-injured patients suffering from disorders of consciousness. When performing ICA, multiple-network testing and control for neuronal properties of the identified RSNs can advance fMRI system-level characterization. Automatic data-driven patient classification is the first step towards future single-subject objective diagnostics

  10. Individual variation in baseline and stress-induced corticosterone and prolactin levels predicts parental effort by nesting mourning doves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David A.; Vleck, Carol M.; Otis, David L.

    2009-01-01

    Endocrine systems have an important mechanistic role in structuring life-history trade-offs. During breeding, individual variation in prolactin (PRL) and corticosterone (CORT) levels affects behavioral and physiological processes that drive trade-offs between reproduction and self-maintenance. We examined patterns in baseline (BL) and stress induced (SI; level following a standard capture-restraint protocol) levels of PRL and CORT for breeding mourning doves (Zenaida macroura). We determined whether the relationship of adult condition and parental effort to hormone levels in wild birds was consistent with life-history predictions. Both BL PRL and BL CORT level in adults were positively related to nestling weight at early nestling ages, consistent with the prediction of a positive relationship of hormone levels to current parental effort of adults and associated increased energy demand. Results are consistent with the two hormones acting together at baseline levels to limit negative effects of CORT on reproduction while maintaining beneficial effects such as increased foraging for nestling feeding. Our data did not support predictions that SI responses would vary in response to nestling or adult condition. The magnitude of CORT response in the parents to our capture-restraint protocol was negatively correlated with subsequent parental effort. Average nestling weights for adults with the highest SI CORT response were on average 10–15% lighter than expected for their age in follow-up visits after the stress event. Our results demonstrated a relationship between individual hormone levels and within population variation in parental effort and suggested that hormonal control plays an important role in structuring reproductive decisions for mourning doves.

  11. Cerebrovascular blood oxygenation level dependent pulsatility at baseline and following acute exercise among healthy adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theyers, Athena E; Goldstein, Benjamin I; Metcalfe, Arron Ws; Robertson, Andrew D; MacIntosh, Bradley J

    2018-01-01

    Arterial stiffness is linked to cerebral small vessel damage and neurodegeneration, but barriers to accessing deep cerebrovascular anatomy limit our ability to assess the brain. This study describes an adaptation of a cardiac-related scrubbing method as a means of generating blood oxygenation level-dependent pulsatility maps based on the cardiac cycle. We examine BOLD pulsatility at rest, based on the non-parametric deviation from null metric, as well as changes following acute physiological stress from 20 min of moderate-intensity cycling in 45 healthy adolescents. We evaluate the influence of repetition time (TR) and echo time (TE) using simulated and multi-echo empirical data, respectively. There were tissue-specific and voxel-wise BOLD pulsatility decreases 20 min following exercise cessation. BOLD pulsatility detection was comparable over a range of TR and TE values when scan volumes were kept constant; however, short TRs (≤500 ms) and TEs (∼14 ms) acquisitions would yield the most efficient detection. Results suggest cardiac-related BOLD pulsatility may represent a robust and easily adopted method of mapping cerebrovascular pulsatility with voxel-wise resolution.

  12. Baseline Levels of Rapid Eye Movement Sleep May Protect Against Excessive Activity in Fear-Related Neural Circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Itamar; Lupkin, Shira M; Sinha, Neha; Tsai, Alan; Gluck, Mark A

    2017-11-15

    Sleep, and particularly rapid eye movement sleep (REM), has been implicated in the modulation of neural activity following fear conditioning and extinction in both human and animal studies. It has long been presumed that such effects play a role in the formation and persistence of posttraumatic stress disorder, of which sleep impairments are a core feature. However, to date, few studies have thoroughly examined the potential effects of sleep prior to conditioning on subsequent acquisition of fear learning in humans. Furthermore, these studies have been restricted to analyzing the effects of a single night of sleep-thus assuming a state-like relationship between the two. In the current study, we used long-term mobile sleep monitoring and functional neuroimaging (fMRI) to explore whether trait-like variations in sleep patterns, measured in advance in both male and female participants, predict subsequent patterns of neural activity during fear learning. Our results indicate that higher baseline levels of REM sleep predict reduced fear-related activity in, and connectivity between, the hippocampus, amygdala and ventromedial PFC during conditioning. Additionally, skin conductance responses (SCRs) were weakly correlated to the activity in the amygdala. Conversely, there was no direct correlation between REM sleep and SCRs, indicating that REM may only modulate fear acquisition indirectly. In a follow-up experiment, we show that these results are replicable, though to a lesser extent, when measuring sleep over a single night just before conditioning. As such, baseline sleep parameters may be able to serve as biomarkers for resilience, or lack thereof, to trauma. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Numerous studies over the past two decades have established a clear role of sleep in fear-learning processes. However, previous work has focused on the effects of sleep following fear acquisition, thus neglecting the potential effects of baseline sleep levels on the acquisition itself. The

  13. Baseline results of the first malaria indicator survey in Iran at the health facility level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taghizadeh-Asl Rahim

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria continues to be a global public health challenge, particularly in developing countries. Delivery of prompt and effective diagnosis and treatment of malaria cases, detection of malaria epidemics within one week of onset and control them in less than a month, regular disease monitoring and operational classification of malaria are among the major responsibilities of the national malaria programme. The study was conducted to determine these indicators at the different level of primary health care facilities in malaria-affected provinces of Iran Methods In this survey, data was collected from 223 health facilities including health centres, malaria posts, health houses and hospitals as well as the profile of all 5, 836 recorded malaria cases in these facilities during the year preceding the survey. Descriptive statistics (i.e. frequencies, percentages were used to summarize the results and Chi square test was used to analyse data. Results All but one percent of uncomplicated cases took appropriate and correctly-dosed of anti-malarial drugs in accordance to the national treatment guideline. A larger proportion of patients [85.8%; 95% CI: 84.8 - 86.8] were also given complete treatment including anti-relapse course, in line with national guidelines. About one third [35.0%; 95% CI: 33.6 - 36.4] of uncomplicated malaria cases were treated more than 48 hours after first symptoms onset. Correspondingly, half of severe malaria cases took recommended anti-malarial drugs for severe or complicated disease more than 48 hours of onset of first symptoms. The latter cases had given regular anti-malarial drugs promptly. The majority of malaria epidemics [97%; 95% CI: 90.6 - 100] in study areas were detected within one week of onset, but only half of epidemics were controlled within four weeks of detection. Just half of target districts had at least one health facility/emergency site with adequate supply and equipment stocks. Nevertheless

  14. Measurement of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in plastic resin pellets from remote islands : Toward establishment of baseline level for International Pellet Watch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, H.; Heskett, M.; Yamashita, R.; Yuyama, M.; Itoh, M.; Geok, Y. B.; Ogata, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Plastic resin pellets collected from remote islands in open oceans (Canary, St. Helena, Cocos, Hawaii, Maui Islands and Barbados) were sorted and yellowing polyethylene (PE) pellets were measured for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and the degradation products (DDTs), and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) by gas chromatograph equipped with mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and with electron capture detector (GC-ECD). PCBs were detected from all the pellet samples, confirming the global dispersion of PCBs. Median concentrations of PCBs (sum of 13 congeners : CB-66, CB-101, CB-110, CB-118, CB-105, CB-149, CB-153, CB-138, CB-128, CB-187, CB-180, CB-170, CB-206) in the remote island pellets ranged from 0.1 to 10 ng/g-pellet. These were one to three orders of magnitude lower than those observed for pellets from industrialized coastal zones (hundreds ng/g in Los Angeles, Boston, Tokyo; Ogata et al., 2009). Because these remote islands are far (>100 km) from industrialized zones, these concentrations (i.e., 0.1 to 10 ng/g-pellet) can be regarded as global "baseline" level of PCB pollution. Concentrations of DDTs in the remote island pellets ranged from 0.2 to 5.5 ng/g-pellet. At some locations, DDT was dominant over the degradation products (DDE and DDD), suggesting current usage of the pesticides in the islands. HCHs concentrations were 0.4 - 1.8 ng/g-pellet and lower than PCBs and DDTs, except for St. Helena Island at 18.8 ng/g-pellet where the current usage of the pesticides are of concern. The analyses of pellets from the remote islands provided "baseline" level of POPs (PCBs effects of global distillation, pellet samples from remote islands in higher latitude regions are necessary. From the eco-toxicological point of view, the fact that sporadic high concentrations of POPs were detected in some pellet samples from the remote islands is underscored. Some plastic debris which were contaminated in industrialized coastal zones may have rapidly

  15. Radon concentration levels in Fatima Jinnah women university Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.A.; Ali, S.; Tufail, A.; Qureshi, A.A.

    2005-01-01

    Public exposure to radioactive gas radon and its progeny present in the air results in the largest contribution to total effective dose received by human beings. It is therefore of great concern to monitor radon concentration in energy conserved air tight buildings. Measurements of radon in the Fatima Jinnah Women University (FJWU) have been carried out for investigation and comparison of radon concentration in the new and old buildings of the campus at Rawalpindi, Pakistan. The study was done because according to the international guidelines concerning environmental problems, it is necessary to evaluate and know the radon levels, especially since most of the natural radiation dose to human beings comes from radon gas and its progeny. Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs) being efficient, therefore, the measurements were carried out by passive, time integrated method, using CR-39 detector in polythene bags. The detectors were exposed for more than six month in various locations indoors and outdoors. The detectors were etched using NaOH, the tracks were counted manually, and the track density was converted to radon concentration. Radon concentration varied from 31 to 213 Bq.m -3 in old building and from 27 to 143 Bq.m -3 in new buildings, showing slight elevated values in the old buildings. Radon concentration values were found to be less than the values quoted by radiation protection agencies. Radiation dose due to radon varied in the university campus depending on occupancy factor. (author)

  16. Association between baseline serum hepcidin levels and infection in kidney transplant recipients: Potential role for iron overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Ruiz, Mario; Parra, Patricia; Ruiz-Merlo, Tamara; López-Medrano, Francisco; San Juan, Rafael; Polanco, Natalia; González, Esther; Andrés, Amado; Aguado, José María

    2018-02-01

    The liver-synthesized peptide hepcidin is a key regulator of iron metabolism and correlates with total iron stores. We analyzed the association between pre-transplant hepcidin-25 levels and infection after kidney transplantation (KT). Serum hepcidin-25 levels were measured at baseline by high-sensitivity ELISA in 91 patients undergoing KT at our institution between December 2011 and March 2013. The impact of this biomarker on the incidence of post-transplant infection (excluding lower urinary tract infection) during the first year was assessed by Cox regression. Mean hepcidin-25 level was 82.3 ± 67.4 ng/mL and strongly correlated with serum ferritin (Spearman's rho = 0.703; P role for iron overload in the individual susceptibility to post-transplant infection. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Feeding different levels of a barley based concentrate to Jersey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    maryna

    there was no further increase when feeding the high level of concentrate. Live weight ... 33º 58′ 38″ S, 22º 25′ 16 ″E and at an altitude of 210 m. The milk ... detergent fibre was determined by heating a 0.5 g sample to boiling point in 100 mL of neutral detergent plus. 50 µL of heat ... of bags in cold water for 10 minutes.

  18. Meteorological factors for PM10 concentration levels in Northern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santurtún, Ana; Mínguez, Roberto; Villar-Fernández, Alejandro; González Hidalgo, Juan Carlos; Zarrabeitia, María Teresa

    2013-04-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) is made up of a mixture of solid and aqueous species which enter the atmosphere by anthropogenic and natural pathways. The levels and composition of ambient air PM depend on the climatology and on the geography (topography, soil cover, proximity to arid zones or to the coast) of a given region. Spain has particular difficulties in achieving compliance with the limit values established by the European Union (based on recommendations from the World Health Organization) for particulate matter on the order of 10 micrometers of diameter or less (PM10), but not only antropogenical emissions are responsible for this: some studies show that PM10 concentrations originating from these kinds of sources are similar to what is found in other European countries, while some of the geographical features of the Iberian Peninsula (such as African mineral dust intrusion, soil aridity or rainfall) are proven to be a factor for higher PM concentrations. This work aims to describe PM10 concentration levels in Cantabria (Northern Spain) and their relationship with the following meteorological variables: rainfall, solar radiation, temperature, barometric pressure and wind speed. Data consists of daily series obtained from hourly data records for the 2000-2010 period, of PM10 concentrations from 4 different urban-background stations, and daily series of the meteorological variables provided by Spanish National Meteorology Agency. The method used for establishing the relationships between these variables consists of several steps: i) fitting a non-stationary probability density function for each variable accounting for long-term trends, seasonality during the year and possible seasonality during the week to distinguish between work and weekend days, ii) using the marginal distribution function obtained, transform the time series of historical values of each variable into a normalized Gaussian time series. This step allows using consistently time series

  19. Regulation of breeding behavior: do energy-demanding periods induce a change in prolactin or corticosterone baseline levels in the common tern (Sterna hirundo)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riechert, Juliane; Chastel, Olivier; Becker, Peter H

    2014-01-01

    Hormones are involved in reproductive decisions, linking environmental cues and body condition and adapting behavior. Mass loss is often accompanied by decreased prolactin and increased corticosterone concentrations, influencing incubation and brooding behavior and ultimately triggering nest desertion. Using blood-sucking bugs (Dipetalogaster maxima), we measured baseline prolactin, corticosterone, and ketone body values in incubating common terns (Sterna hirundo) between 2006 and 2009 during energy-demanding periods: 50 pairs were sampled hungry (after an incubation bout) and again fed (after foraging). In a second approach, we sampled 57 other pairs (experienced and inexperienced birds) three times over their individual breeding period, because reproduction, especially chick rearing, is a very energy-demanding process. In line with the common physiological pattern of fasting, we found significantly lower baseline prolactin values in hungry terns, which were negatively related to mass loss over the incubation bout, whereas corticosterone and ketone body levels were marginally increased. Compared to that in the incubation phase, the prolactin level dropped after hatching of chicks in inexperienced birds, perhaps indicating lower parental expenditure. Corticosterone, on the other hand, increased after hatching in males, probably linked to higher foraging activity, as males mainly deliver food during the first days. These energy-demanding periods clearly influenced hormones and ketone bodies, maybe reinforced by the low energy margin of this small seabird species, but energy reserves were not depleted to a level affecting behavior or reproductive success.

  20. Instantaneous Real-Time Kinematic Decimeter-Level Positioning with BeiDou Triple-Frequency Signals over Medium Baselines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiyang; Zhang, Xiaohong; Tang, Long; Liu, Wanke

    2015-12-22

    Many applications, such as marine navigation, land vehicles location, etc., require real time precise positioning under medium or long baseline conditions. In this contribution, we develop a model of real-time kinematic decimeter-level positioning with BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) triple-frequency signals over medium distances. The ambiguities of two extra-wide-lane (EWL) combinations are fixed first, and then a wide lane (WL) combination is reformed based on the two EWL combinations for positioning. Theoretical analysis and empirical analysis is given of the ambiguity fixing rate and the positioning accuracy of the presented method. The results indicate that the ambiguity fixing rate can be up to more than 98% when using BDS medium baseline observations, which is much higher than that of dual-frequency Hatch-Melbourne-Wübbena (HMW) method. As for positioning accuracy, decimeter level accuracy can be achieved with this method, which is comparable to that of carrier-smoothed code differential positioning method. Signal interruption simulation experiment indicates that the proposed method can realize fast high-precision positioning whereas the carrier-smoothed code differential positioning method needs several hundreds of seconds for obtaining high precision results. We can conclude that a relatively high accuracy and high fixing rate can be achieved for triple-frequency WL method with single-epoch observations, displaying significant advantage comparing to traditional carrier-smoothed code differential positioning method.

  1. Instantaneous Real-Time Kinematic Decimeter-Level Positioning with BeiDou Triple-Frequency Signals over Medium Baselines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiyang He

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Many applications, such as marine navigation, land vehicles location, etc., require real time precise positioning under medium or long baseline conditions. In this contribution, we develop a model of real-time kinematic decimeter-level positioning with BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS triple-frequency signals over medium distances. The ambiguities of two extra-wide-lane (EWL combinations are fixed first, and then a wide lane (WL combination is reformed based on the two EWL combinations for positioning. Theoretical analysis and empirical analysis is given of the ambiguity fixing rate and the positioning accuracy of the presented method. The results indicate that the ambiguity fixing rate can be up to more than 98% when using BDS medium baseline observations, which is much higher than that of dual-frequency Hatch-Melbourne-Wübbena (HMW method. As for positioning accuracy, decimeter level accuracy can be achieved with this method, which is comparable to that of carrier-smoothed code differential positioning method. Signal interruption simulation experiment indicates that the proposed method can realize fast high-precision positioning whereas the carrier-smoothed code differential positioning method needs several hundreds of seconds for obtaining high precision results. We can conclude that a relatively high accuracy and high fixing rate can be achieved for triple-frequency WL method with single-epoch observations, displaying significant advantage comparing to traditional carrier-smoothed code differential positioning method.

  2. Bituminization of low- and intermediate-level radioactive concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breza, M.; Krejci, F.; Timulak, J.; Tibensky, L.

    1985-01-01

    The results and experiences are summed up from the research and development of the technology of bituminization of low- and intermediate-level radioactive concentrates generated in the operation of nuclear power plants with WWER-440 reactors. The experiments took place on a pilot plant bituminization line with various model solutions at an evaporator capacity of 70, 100 and 140 litres per hour. The composition of the solutions changed in dependence on the knowledge of the composition of actual concentrates in the V-1 nuclear power plant at Jaslovske Bohunice. The following factors were studied in the concentrate: the effect of its pH, its borate content and content of metal carbonates, the content of organic acid salts, the content of detergents, etc., on the process of bituminization. Physico-chemical conditions are described under which the operation of the evaporator was fail-safe and filling of the bituminization product with salts homogeneous. A low water content of up to 1% was achieved. The properties of the bituminization product were negatively affected by a high level of heavy metal oxides, surfactants, oxalates and citrates. In order to improve the properties of the product it will be necessary to replace bitumen emulsion Silembit-60 used as reinforcement matrix, by a different type of bitumen. (Z.M.)

  3. Plasma Concentrations of Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances at Baseline and Associations with Glycemic Indicators and Diabetes Incidence among High-Risk Adults in the Diabetes Prevention Program Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas, Andres; Gold, Diane R; Hauser, Russ; Kleinman, Ken P; Hivert, Marie-France; Calafat, Antonia M; Ye, Xiaoyun; Webster, Thomas F; Horton, Edward S; Oken, Emily

    2017-10-02

    Several per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are ubiquitous anthropogenic pollutants almost universally detected in humans. Experimental evidence indicates that PFAS alter glucose metabolism and insulin secretion. However, epidemiological studies have yielded inconsistent results. We sought to examine associations between plasma PFAS concentrations, glycemic indicators, and diabetes incidence among high-risk adults. Within the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP), a trial for the prevention of type 2 diabetes among high-risk individuals, we quantified baseline plasma concentrations of nine PFAS among 957 participants randomized to a lifestyle intervention or placebo. We evaluated adjusted associations for plasma PFAS concentrations with diabetes incidence and key glycemic indicators measured at baseline and annually over up to 4.6 y. Plasma PFAS concentrations were similar to those reported in the U.S. population in 1999-2000. At baseline, in cross-sectional analysis, a doubling in plasma perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) concentrations was associated with higher homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) [β PFOS =0.39; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.13, 0.66; β PFOA =0.64; 95% CI: 0.34, 0.94], β-cell function (HOMA-β) (β PFOS =9.62; 95% CI: 1.55, 17.70; β PFOA =15.93; 95% CI: 6.78, 25.08), fasting proinsulin (β PFOS =1.37 pM; 95% CI: 0.50, 2.25; β PFOA =1.71 pM; 95% CI: 0.72, 2.71), and glycated hemoglobin (HbA 1c ) (β PFOS =0.03%; 95% CI: 0.002, 0.07; β PFOA =0.04%; 95% CI: 0.001, 0.07). There was no strong evidence of associations between plasma PFAS concentrations and diabetes incidence or prospective changes in glycemic indicators during the follow-up period. At baseline, several PFAS were cross-sectionally associated with small differences in markers of insulin secretion and β-cell function. However, there was limited evidence suggesting that PFAS concentrations are associated with

  4. Baseline plasma chromogranin A levels in patients with well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas: A potential predictor of postoperative recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanno, Yoshihide; Toyama, Hirochika; Matsumoto, Ippei; Otani, Kyoko; Asari, Sadaki; Goto, Tadahiro; Ajiki, Tetsuo; Zen, Yoh; Fukumoto, Takumi; Ku, Yonson

    The present study aimed to elucidate prognostic values of baseline plasma chromogranin A (CgA) concentrations in patients with resectable, well-differentiated pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs). Preoperative CgA levels in 21 patients with PNET were correlated with clinicopathological factors and patients' survival. Plasma CgA levels ranged 2.9-30.8 pmol/mL (median 6.0), and were significantly elevated in patients with post-operative recurrence (P = 0.004). Using the receiver operating characteristic curve, the optimal cutoff value to predict tumor recurrence was determined as 17.0 pmol/mL. This threshold identified patients with recurrence with 60% sensitivity, 100% specificity, and 90% overall accuracy. Patients with higher CgA levels showed worse recurrence-free survival than those with low CgA levels, both in total (P < 0.001) and in G2 patients (P = 0.020). Combined plasma CgA concentrations and WHO grading may assist in better stratification of PNET patients in terms of the risk of recurrence. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Particulate Matter Concentration Levels in South Central Richmond, California (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, B.; Byias, C.; Cuff, K. E.; Diaz, J.; Love, K.; Marks-Block, T.; McLane, F.; Mollique, Z.; Montes, E.; Ross, R.; Washington, B.

    2009-12-01

    South Central Richmond, California is the home of one of the nation’s most innovative green workforce training centers, Richmond BUILD - Green Jobs Training facility. A near constant stream of young people engaged in training activities, instructors, invited guests, and journalists of various ages can be seen moving in and out of the facility nearly every day of the week throughout a given year. Additionally, the comings and goings of young children and adults associated with a mid-sized elementary school just north of the facility contributes to the general area’s substantial human traffic. Unfortunately, however, a major highway, Interstate 580, a major thoroughfare, 23rd Street and a railway line operated by Burlington Northern Santa Fe, Union Pacific, and the Richmond Pacific Railroad frame the triangular area within which these two sites are situated. In addition, a major petrochemical complex and several shipping facilities are located less than three kilometers away north and west of this area. As part of a general assessment of air quality in this heavily human traveled area, we conducted a study of particulate matter (PM) concentrations over a five-month period beginning in August of 2009. Measurements were made at a variety of locations, and results were used to map the spatial distribution of PM of various sizes. Regions of high concentration levels were identified, and these particular areas then were monitored over time. Preliminary results of our study indicate that regions with high concentrations are consistent across the range of particle sizes measured, which suggests a common source for PM found in the study area. As these regions are located close to a major thoroughfare and railway line, we believe that diesel-burning vehicles are major contributors to the PM levels found in the study area. Time series results suggest a fairly strong correlation between higher than average PM concentrations and abnormally high wind gusts. On days when wind

  6. Associations of Electronic Cigarette Nicotine Concentration With Subsequent Cigarette Smoking and Vaping Levels in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenson, Nicholas I; Leventhal, Adam M; Stone, Matthew D; McConnell, Rob S; Barrington-Trimis, Jessica L

    2017-12-01

    Research indicates that electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use (vaping) among adolescents is associated with the initiation and progression of combustible cigarette smoking. The reasons for this association are unknown. To evaluate whether use of e-cigarettes with higher nicotine concentrations is associated with subsequent increases in the frequency and intensity of combustible cigarette smoking and vaping. In this prospective cohort study involving students from 10 high schools in the Los Angeles, California, metropolitan area, surveys were administered during 10th grade in the spring (baseline) and 11th grade in the fall (6-month follow-up) of 2015 to students who reported using e-cigarettes within the past 30 days and the nicotine concentration level they used at baseline. Self-report of baseline e-cigarette nicotine concentration of none (0 mg/mL), low (1-5 mg/mL), medium (6-17 mg/mL), or high (≥18 mg/mL) typically used during the past 30 days. Frequency of combustible cigarette smoking and e-cigarette use within the past 30 days (0 days [none], 1-2 days [infrequent], or ≥3 days [frequent]) and daily intensity of smoking and vaping (number of cigarettes smoked per day, number of vaping episodes per day, and number of puffs per vaping episode) at the 6-month follow-up. The analytic sample included 181 students (96 boys [53.0%] and 85 girls [47.0%]; mean [SD] age, 16.1 [0.4] years). Each successive increase in nicotine concentration (none to low, low to medium, and medium to high) vaped was associated with a 2.26 (95% CI, 1.28-3.98) increase in the odds of frequent (vs no) smoking and a 1.65 (95% CI, 1.09-2.51) increase in the odds of frequent (vs no) vaping at follow-up after adjustment for baseline frequency of smoking and vaping and other relevant covariates. Use of e-cigarettes with high (vs no) nicotine concentration was associated with a greater number of cigarettes smoked per day at follow-up (adjusted rate ratio [RR], 7.03; 95% CI, 6.11-7.95). An

  7. Ground level measurement of nuclei from coal development in the northern Great Plains: baseline measurements. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, B. L.; Johnson, L. R.; Sengupta, S.; Yue, P. C.

    1978-11-01

    The Institute of Atmospheric Sciences of the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology has completed 20 months of ambient air sampling at rural and remote sites in a five-state region of the northern Great Plains. Sampling was accomplished by use of a 27-ft motor home laboratory containing living accommodations for a field crew of two. The laboratory was outfitted with a number of instruments for measurement of pollutant parameters: cloud condensation nuclei, ice nuclei, Aitken nuclei, size distribution information for Aitken size particulate, sulfur dioxide, ozone, raindrop size distributions, and pH of precipitation. In addition, an instrumented meteorological tower provided wind speed, wind direction, ambient air temperature, and dew-point temperature. Instruments varied as to durability and success of operation, but better than 90% data retrieval was possible for the entire 20-month sampling study. Analyses of the large quantities of data obtained were not possible under the initial baseline measurement program, but examination of most parameters indicate that the air masses in the northern Great Plains are still relatively clean and are influenced primarily by local sources of contamination rather than large regional sources. Particulate concentrations in these remote areas are representative of mountain stations or clean rural conditions, and sulfur dioxide concentrations are at the threshold of detectability of the instrument. Precipitation is only very slightly acidic, and no significant quantity of amorphous particles (such as coal dust or combustion products) is found in the quantitative analyses of the high-volume filter collections. A summary of ''average'' conditions observed over the study area is tabulated.

  8. Comparison of Toxicities to Vibrio fischeri and Fish Based on Discrimination of Excess Toxicity from Baseline Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao H.; Yu, Yang; Huang, Tao; Qin, Wei C.; Su, Li M.; Zhao, Yuan H.

    2016-01-01

    Investigations on the relationship of toxicities between species play an important role in the understanding of toxic mechanisms to environmental organisms. In this paper, the toxicity data of 949 chemicals to fish and 1470 chemicals to V. fischeri were used to investigate the modes of action (MOAs) between species. The results show that although there is a positive interspecies correlation, the relationship is poor. Analysis on the excess toxicity calculated from toxic ratios (TR) shows that many chemicals have close toxicities and share the same MOAs between the two species. Linear relationships between the toxicities and octanol/water partition coefficient (log KOW) for baseline and less inert compounds indicate that the internal critical concentrations (CBRs) approach a constant both to fish and V. fischeri for neutral hydrophobic compounds. These compounds share the same toxic mechanisms and bio-uptake processes between species. On the other hand, some hydrophilic compounds exhibit different toxic effects with greatly different log TR values between V. fischeri and fish species. These hydrophilic compounds were identified as reactive MOAs to V. fischeri, but not to fish. The interspecies correlation is improved by adding a hydrophobic descriptor into the correlation equation. This indicates that the differences in the toxic ratios between fish and V. fischeri for these hydrophilic compounds can be partly attributed to the differences of bioconcentration between the two species, rather than the differences of reactivity with the target macromolecules. These hydrophilic compounds may more easily pass through the cell membrane of V. fischeri than the gill and skin of fish, react with the target macromolecules and exhibit excess toxicity. The compounds with log KOW > 7 exhibiting very low toxicity (log TR toxicity and MOAs. PMID:26901437

  9. Determination of base-line levels of trace amounts in pulses and spices using neutron activation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi, J.H.; Arif, M.; Fatima, I.; Qureshi, I.H.

    1993-01-01

    It has been established that essential trace elements are vitally important for biochemical systems, whereas toxic elements if present in relatively higher amounts adversely affect these systems. Trace elements reach the human body mainly through foodstuffs. The different articles contain varying amount of toxic and essential elements. It is therefore necessary to asses the adequacy and safety of the diet by determining the base-line levels of these elements. In continuation of our previous work, some varieties of pulses and spices were analyzed using neutron activation technique. Among the four varieties of pulses lentil (lens esculenta) was found to contain higher amounts of essential elements and lower amounts of toxic elements. The daily intake of essential and toxic elements through pulses was estimated and compared with the suggested values. The estimated intake of essential elements is adequate and that of toxic elements is well below the tolerance limit. In spices cumin and caraway seeds were found to contain relatively higher amounts of essential as well as toxic elements. The studies showed that food spices were additional source of trace element intake. (author)

  10. Comparison between lead levels in dandelions grown in an ultra-clean lab environment (baseline) and those collected from the San Francisco Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojero, J.; Odigie, K. O.; Hibdon, S.; Flegal, A. R.

    2011-12-01

    This study is aimed at establishing the baseline (natural) levels of lead in dandelions (Taraxacum officinale) grown in an ultra-clean environment. Dandelions have been used extensively as biomonitors of environmental lead levels since their distribution is global and they can be easily collected. However, industrial lead contamination is so pervasive that even dandelions from the most remote areas in the world may be contaminated with industrial lead. Therefore, this work will test the hypothesis that "natural" lead levels in dandelions are lower than any previously published values - by growing them in a HEPA filtered air (Class 100) trace metal clean room with high purity (18 MΩ cm) water. Concentrations and isotopic compositions of lead in the clean-room grown dandelions will be compared to values in literature and to those of lead in dandelions collected from San Francisco Bay Area. Lead is a dense, ductile, and highly malleable metal that is found naturally in our environment. Due to its properties it is currently highly used in building construction, in ceramic glazes, lead chromate and in PVC plastic used to coat electrical cords. The uses of lead have included paint, leather tanning, and being used as an additive to gasoline prior to the mid 1970's, as well as others. Due to its many uses, humans are susceptible to lead regularly through various means of exposure from air, water and soil, often leading to lead toxicity.

  11. A Bivariate Mixture Model for Natural Antibody Levels to Human Papillomavirus Types 16 and 18: Baseline Estimates for Monitoring the Herd Effects of Immunization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaretha A Vink

    Full Text Available Post-vaccine monitoring programs for human papillomavirus (HPV have been introduced in many countries, but HPV serology is still an underutilized tool, partly owing to the weak antibody response to HPV infection. Changes in antibody levels among non-vaccinated individuals could be employed to monitor herd effects of immunization against HPV vaccine types 16 and 18, but inference requires an appropriate statistical model. The authors developed a four-component bivariate mixture model for jointly estimating vaccine-type seroprevalence from correlated antibody responses against HPV16 and -18 infections. This model takes account of the correlation between HPV16 and -18 antibody concentrations within subjects, caused e.g. by heterogeneity in exposure level and immune response. The model was fitted to HPV16 and -18 antibody concentrations as measured by a multiplex immunoassay in a large serological survey (3,875 females carried out in the Netherlands in 2006/2007, before the introduction of mass immunization. Parameters were estimated by Bayesian analysis. We used the deviance information criterion for model selection; performance of the preferred model was assessed through simulation. Our analysis uncovered elevated antibody concentrations in doubly as compared to singly seropositive individuals, and a strong clustering of HPV16 and -18 seropositivity, particularly around the age of sexual debut. The bivariate model resulted in a more reliable classification of singly and doubly seropositive individuals than achieved by a combination of two univariate models, and suggested a higher pre-vaccine HPV16 seroprevalence than previously estimated. The bivariate mixture model provides valuable baseline estimates of vaccine-type seroprevalence and may prove useful in seroepidemiologic assessment of the herd effects of HPV vaccination.

  12. Association Between Baseline LDL-C Level and Total and Cardiovascular Mortality After LDL-C Lowering: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarese, Eliano P; Robinson, Jennifer G; Kowalewski, Mariusz; Kolodziejczak, Michalina; Andreotti, Felicita; Bliden, Kevin; Tantry, Udaya; Kubica, Jacek; Raggi, Paolo; Gurbel, Paul A

    2018-04-17

    Effects on specific fatal and nonfatal end points appear to vary for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)-lowering drug trials. To evaluate whether baseline LDL-C level is associated with total and cardiovascular mortality risk reductions. Electronic databases (Cochrane, MEDLINE, EMBASE, TCTMD, ClinicalTrials.gov, major congress proceedings) were searched through February 2, 2018, to identify randomized clinical trials of statins, ezetimibe, and PCSK9-inhibiting monoclonal antibodies. Two investigators abstracted data and appraised risks of bias. Intervention groups were categorized as "more intensive" (more potent pharmacologic intervention) or "less intensive" (less potent, placebo, or control group). The coprimary end points were total mortality and cardiovascular mortality. Random-effects meta-regression and meta-analyses evaluated associations between baseline LDL-C level and reductions in mortality end points and secondary end points including major adverse cardiac events (MACE). In 34 trials, 136 299 patients received more intensive and 133 989 received less intensive LDL-C lowering. All-cause mortality was lower for more vs less intensive therapy (7.08% vs 7.70%; rate ratio [RR], 0.92 [95% CI, 0.88 to 0.96]), but varied by baseline LDL-C level. Meta-regression showed more intensive LDL-C lowering was associated with greater reductions in all-cause mortality with higher baseline LDL-C levels (change in RRs per 40-mg/dL increase in baseline LDL-C, 0.91 [95% CI, 0.86 to 0.96]; P = .001; absolute risk difference [ARD], -1.05 incident cases per 1000 person-years [95% CI, -1.59 to -0.51]), but only when baseline LDL-C levels were 100 mg/dL or greater (P baseline LDL-C level. Meta-regression showed more intensive LDL-C lowering was associated with a greater reduction in cardiovascular mortality with higher baseline LDL-C levels (change in RRs per 40-mg/dL increase in baseline LDL-C, 0.86 [95% CI, 0.80 to 0.94]; P baseline LDL-C levels were 100

  13. Baseline participant characteristics and risk for dropout from ten obesity randomized controlled trials: a pooled analysis of individual level data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Kathryn A; Affuso, Olivia; Desmond, Renee; Allison, David B

    Understanding participant demographic characteristics that inform the optimal design of obesity RCTs have been examined in few studies. The objective of this study was to investigate the association of individual participant characteristics and dropout rates (DORs) in obesity randomized controlled trials (RCT) by pooling data from several publicly available datasets for analyses. We comprehensively characterize DORs and patterns in obesity RCTs at the individual study level, and describe how such rates and patterns vary as a function of individual-level characteristics. We obtained and analyzed nine publicly-available, obesity RCT datasets that examined weight loss or weight gain prevention as a primary or secondary endpoint. Four risk factors for dropout were examined by Cox proportional hazards including sex, age, baseline BMI, and race/ethnicity. The individual study data were pooled in the final analyses with a random effect for study, and HR and 95% CIs were computed. Results of the multivariate analysis indicated that the risk of dropout was significantly higher for females compared to males (HR= 1.24, 95% CI = 1.05, 1.46). Hispanics and Non-Hispanic blacks had a significantly higher dropout rate compared to non-Hispanic whites (HR= 1.62, 95% CI = 1.37, 1.91; HR= 1.22, 95% CI = 1.11, 1.35, respectively). There was a significantly increased risk of dropout associated with advancing age (HR= 1.02, 95% CI = 1.01, 1.02) and increasing BMI (HR= 1.03, 95% CI = 1.03, 1.04). As more studies may focus on special populations, researchers designing obesity RCTs may wish to oversample in certain demographic groups if attempting to match comparison groups based on generalized estimates of expected dropout rates, or otherwise adjust a priori power estimates. Understanding true reasons for dropout may require additional methods of data gathering not generally employed in obesity RCTs, e.g. time on treatment.

  14. Baseline placental growth factor levels for the prediction of benefit from early aspirin prophylaxis for preeclampsia prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Gaea S; Allshouse, Amanda A; Winn, Virginia D; Galan, Henry L; Heyborne, Kent D

    2015-10-01

    Placental growth factor (PlGF) levels early in pregnancy are lower in women who ultimately develop preeclampsia. Early initiation of low-dose aspirin reduces preeclampsia risk in some high risk women. We hypothesized that low PlGF levels may identify women at increased risk for preeclampsia who would benefit from aspirin. Secondary analysis of the MFMU High-Risk Aspirin study including singleton pregnancies randomized to aspirin 60mg/d (n=102) or placebo (n=72), with PlGF collected at 13w 0d-16w 6d. Within the placebo group, we estimated the probability of preeclampsia by PlGF level using logistic regression analysis, then determined a potential PlGF threshold for preeclampsia prediction using ROC analysis. We performed logistic regression modeling for potential confounders. ROC analysis indicated 87.71pg/ml as the threshold between high and low PlGF for preeclampsia-prediction. Within the placebo group high PlGF weakly predicted preeclampsia (AUC 0.653, sensitivity/specificity 63%/66%). We noted a 2.6-fold reduction in preeclampsia with aspirin in the high-PlGF group (12.15% aspirin vs 32.14% placebo, p=0.057), but no significant differences in preeclampsia in the low PlGF group (21.74% vs 15.91%, p=0.445). Unlike other studies, we found that high rather than low PlGF levels were associated with an increased preeclampsia risk. Low PlGF neither identified women at increased risk of preeclampsia nor women who benefitted from aspirin. Further research is needed to determine whether aspirin is beneficial in women with high PlGF, and whether the paradigm linking low PlGF and preeclampsia needs to be reevaluated. High-risk women with low baseline PlGF, a risk factor for preeclampsia, did not benefit from early initiation of low-dose aspirin. Copyright © 2015 International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Baseline glucose level is an individual trait that is negatively associated with lifespan and increases due to adverse environmental conditions during development and adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Bibiana; Briga, Michael; Jimeno, Blanca; Moonen, Sander; Verhulst, Simon

    2018-05-01

    High baseline glucose levels are associated with pathologies and shorter lifespan in humans, but little is known about causes and consequences of individual variation in glucose levels in other species. We tested to what extent baseline blood glucose level is a repeatable trait in adult zebra finches, and whether glucose levels were associated with age, manipulated environmental conditions during development (rearing brood size) and adulthood (foraging cost), and lifespan. We found that: (1) repeatability of glucose levels was 30%, both within and between years. (2) Having been reared in a large brood and living with higher foraging costs as adult were independently associated with higher glucose levels. Furthermore, the finding that baseline glucose was low when ambient temperature was high, and foraging costs were low, indicates that glucose is regulated at a lower level when energy turnover is low. (3) Survival probability decreased with increasing baseline glucose. We conclude that baseline glucose is an individual trait negatively associated with survival, and increases due to adverse environmental conditions during development (rearing brood size) and adulthood (foraging cost). Blood glucose may be, therefore, part of the physiological processes linking environmental conditions to lifespan.

  16. Optimal screening interval for men with low baseline prostate-specific antigen levels (≤1.0 ng/mL) in a prostate cancer screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urata, Satoko; Kitagawa, Yasuhide; Matsuyama, Satoko; Naito, Renato; Yasuda, Kenji; Mizokami, Atsushi; Namiki, Mikio

    2017-04-01

    To optimize the rescreening schedule for men with low baseline prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels, we evaluated men with baseline PSA levels of ≤1.0 ng/mL in PSA-based population screening. We enrolled 8086 men aged 55-69 years with baseline PSA levels of ≤1.0 ng/mL, who were screened annually. The relationships of baseline PSA and age with the cumulative risks and clinicopathological features of screening-detected cancer were investigated. Among the 8086 participants, 28 (0.35 %) and 18 (0.22 %) were diagnosed with prostate cancer and cancer with a Gleason score (GS) of ≥7 during the observation period, respectively. The cumulative probabilities of prostate cancer at 12 years were 0.42, 1.0, 3.4, and 4.3 % in men with baseline PSA levels of 0.0-0.4, 0.5-0.6, 0.7-0.8, and 0.9-1.0 ng/mL, respectively. Those with GS of ≥7 had cumulative probabilities of 0.42, 0.73, 2.8, and 1.9 %, respectively. The cumulative probabilities of prostate cancer were significantly lower when baseline PSA levels were 0.0-0.6 ng/mL compared with 0.7-1.0 ng/mL. Prostate cancer with a GS of ≥7 was not detected during the first 10 years of screening when baseline PSA levels were 0.0-0.6 ng/mL and was not detected during the first 2 years when baseline PSA levels were 0.7-1.0 ng/mL. Our study demonstrated that men with baseline PSA levels of 0.0-0.6 ng/mL might benefit from longer screening intervals than those recommended in the guidelines of the Japanese Urological Association. Further investigation is needed to confirm the optimal screening interval for men with low baseline PSA levels.

  17. EFFECT OF LEVEL OF CONCENTRATE FEEDING LEVEL ON EFFICIENCY OF EATING BEHAVIOUR ON ONGOLE CROSSBRED CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dartosukarno

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Eight bulls of Ongole Crossbred (OC cattle with initial body weight (BW of 297 + 26 kg (CV =8.75% fed rice straw treated with urine (RU (ad libitum were divided into two groups (each fourheads to determine the effect of concentrate feeding level on efficiency of eating behavior. The cattlewas given concentrate feeding composed of beer cake and rice bran to make 14% crude protein at 1%and at 2% BW for RUC1 and RUC2 group, respectively. Eating behavior was measured for 3x24 hoursand was performed twice at weeks 2 and 6 of the study. Data obtained were analyzed by t-test. Theresults showed that the level of concentrate feeding affected the intake of urinated rice straw (P<0.01and daily BWGain (P<0.05, but the effect was not found (P>0.05 on DMI, length time for eating(196.5 vs. 221.5 min/d, length time for rumination (351.0 vs. 449.4 min/d, efficiency of eating time(37.21 vs. 37.67 gDM/min and efficiency rumination time (21.43 vs. 18.50 gDM/min. This researchshowed that concentrate feeding at 2% BW did not alter the efficiency of eating time and ruminationcompared to 1% BW, although able to improve BWG of OC cattle.

  18. Baseline levels of melamine in food items sold in Canada. II. Egg, soy, vegetable, fish and shrimp products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittlemier, Sheryl A; Lau, Benjamin P-Y; Ménard, Cathie; Corrigan, Catherine; Sparling, Melissa; Gaertner, Dean; Cao, Xu-Liang; Dabeka, Bob; Hilts, Carla

    2010-01-01

    A variety of egg-containing, soy-based, fish, shrimp and vegetable products sold in Canada were analysed for melamine (MEL) using a sensitive solid-phase extraction LC-MS/MS analytical method. MEL was detected above the method quantification limit of 0.004 mg/kg in 98 of the 378 samples analysed. Concentrations in the various food product groups ranged 0.00507-0.247 mg/kg (egg-containing items), 0.00408-0.0479 mg/kg (soy-based meat substitutes), 0.00409-1.10 mg/kg (fish and shrimp products), and 0.00464-0.688 mg/kg (vegetable products). MEL was detected less frequently in egg- and soy-containing products. The presence of MEL in most of the Canadian Total Diet Study shrimp composites collected after 2001 suggested the residues in shrimp were caused by a relatively recent exposure to MEL. All concentrations of MEL reported were lower than the 2.5 mg/kg interim standard established for MEL in items containing milk and milk-derived ingredients and the respective maximum residue limits for cyromazine and its metabolite, melamine, in vegetables set by the Canadian Government (2009; http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fn-an/securit/chem-chim/melamine/qa-melamine-qr-eng.php#8 ). The consumption of foods containing these low levels of MEL does not constitute a health risk for consumers.

  19. Baseline participant characteristics and risk for dropout from ten obesity randomized controlled trials: a pooled analysis of individual level data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Ann Kaiser

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Understanding participant demographic characteristics that inform the optimal design of obesity RCTs have been examined in few studies. The objective of this study was to investigate the association of individual participant characteristics and dropout rates (DORs in obesity randomized controlled trials (RCT by pooling data from several publicly available datasets for analyses. We comprehensively characterize DORs and patterns in obesity RCTs at the individual study level, and describe how such rates and patterns vary as a function of individual-level characteristics. Methods: We obtained and analyzed nine publicly-available, obesity RCT datasets that examined weight loss or weight gain prevention as a primary or secondary endpoint. Four risk factors for dropout were examined by Cox proportional hazards including sex, age, baseline BMI, and race/ethnicity. The individual study data were pooled in the final analyses with a random effect for study, and HR and 95% CIs were computed. Results: Results of the multivariate analysis indicated that the risk of dropout was significantly higher for females compared to males (HR= 1.24, 95% CI = 1.05, 1.46. Hispanics and Non-Hispanic blacks had a significantly higher dropout rate compared to non-Hispanic whites (HR= 1.62, 95% CI = 1.37, 1.91; HR= 1.22, 95% CI = 1.11, 1.35, respectively. There was a significantly increased risk of dropout associated with advancing age (HR= 1.02, 95% CI = 1.01, 1.02 and increasing BMI (HR= 1.03, 95% CI = 1.03, 1.04. Conclusion/Significance: As more studies may focus on special populations, researchers designing obesity RCTs may wish to oversample in certain demographic groups if attempting to match comparison groups based on generalized estimates of expected dropout rates, or otherwise adjust a priori power estimates. Understanding true reasons for dropout may require additional methods of data gathering not generally employed in obesity RCTs, e.g. time on

  20. Role of baseline leptin and ghrelin levels on body weight and fat mass changes after an energy-restricted diet intervention in obese women: effects on energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labayen, Idoia; Ortega, Francisco B; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Lasa, Arrate; Simón, Edurne; Margareto, Javier

    2011-06-01

    Hormones related to energy balance control may play an important role on weight loss resistance after low-caloric diet (LCD) intervention. To investigate the predictive value of baseline leptin and ghrelin on body fat mass (FM) loss after 12 wk of LCD intervention and to study whether these associations could be related to changes in resting metabolic rate (RMR). The study comprised a total of 78 obese women (age 36.7 ± 7 yr). We measured, before and after the LCD intervention, FM (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) and RMR (kilojoules per kilogram body weight per day, indirect calorimetry). We also analyzed fasting serum leptin and ghrelin, and leptin to ghrelin ratio was calculated. FM and RMR changes (data at baseline - data after the intervention) were assessed. Baseline serum leptin (r = -0.301; age- and baseline FM-adjusted P = 0.009) and ghrelin (r = 0.314, adjusted P = 0.014) levels as well as leptin to ghrelin levels (r = -0.331; adjusted P = 0.009) were significantly correlated with FM changes. Leptin to ghrelin ratio was significantly correlated with RMR at baseline and after the LCD (both P Baseline leptin to ghrelin ratio significantly predicted changes in RMR after the LCD (r = 0.298; P = 0.019) regardless of age, baseline RMR, and total body weight (r = 0.307; P = 0.016) or FM loss (r = 0.312; P = 0.015). Obese women with higher leptin and lower ghrelin levels at baseline seem to be more resistant to FM loss. The leptin to ghrelin ratio could be proposed as a biomarker for predicting metabolic adaptations to energy restriction treatment and, if confirmed in future studies, as a predictor of treatment success/failure.

  1. Dual Mode NOx Sensor: Measuring Both the Accumulated Amount and Instantaneous Level at Low Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaco H. Visser

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The accumulating-type (or integrating-type NOx sensor principle offers two operation modes to measure low levels of NOx: The direct signal gives the total amount dosed over a time interval and its derivative the instantaneous concentration. With a linear sensor response, no baseline drift, and both response times and recovery times in the range of the gas exchange time of the test bench (5 to 7 s, the integrating sensor is well suited to reliably detect low levels of NOx. Experimental results are presented demonstrating the sensor’s integrating properties for the total amount detection and its sensitivity to both NO and to NO2. We also show the correlation between the derivative of the sensor signal and the known gas concentration. The long-term detection of NOx in the sub-ppm range (e.g., for air quality measurements is discussed. Additionally, a self-adaption of the measurement range taking advantage of the temperature dependency of the sensitivity is addressed.

  2. Early changes in adipokine levels and baseline limb fat may predict HIV lipoatrophy over 2 years following initiation of antiretroviral therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calmy, A; Carey, D; Mallon, P W G

    2008-01-01

    levels during the first 6 months of ART, independently predicted a peripheral fat loss of > or = 2 kg [odds ratio (OR) 2.58, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-6.41; OR 3.15, 95% CI 1.34-7.35, respectively). VAT changes showed a borderline association with high baseline tumour necrosis factor-alpha levels...

  3. Evidence of major genes for plasma HDL, LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels at baseline and in response to 20 weeks of endurance training: the HERITAGE Family Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, P; Borecki, I B; Rankinen, T; Després, J-P; Leon, A S; Skinner, J S; Wilmore, J H; Bouchard, C; Rao, D C

    2005-01-01

    This study assessed major gene effects for baseline HDL-C, LDL-C, TG, and their training responses (post-training minus baseline) in 527 individuals from 99 White families and 326 individuals from 113 Black families in the HERITAGE Family Study. The baseline phenotypes were adjusted for the effects of age and BMI, and the training response phenotypes were adjusted for the effects of age, BMI, and their respective baseline values, within each of the sex-by-generation-by-race groups, prior to genetic analyses. In Whites, we found that LDL-C at baseline and HDL-C training response were under influence of major recessive genes (accounting for 2--30 % of the variance) and multifactorial (polygenic and familial environmental) effects. Interactions of these major genes with sex, age, and BMI were tested, and found to be nonsignificant. In Blacks, we found that baseline HDL-C was influenced by a major dominant gene without a multifactorial component. This major gene effect accounted for 45 % of the variance, and exhibited no significant genotype-specific interactions with age, sex, and BMI. Evidence of major genes for the remaining phenotypes at baseline and in response to endurance training were not found in both races, though some were influenced by major effects that did not follow Mendelian expectations or were with ambiguous transmission from parents to offspring. In summary, major gene effects that influence baseline plasma HDL-C and LDL-C levels as well as changes in HDL-C levels in response to regular exercise were detected in the current study.

  4. Genetic predisposition scores for dyslipidaemia influence plasma lipid concentrations at baseline, but not the changes after controlled intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlSaleh, Aseel; Maniou, Zoitsa; Lewis, Fiona J; Hall, Wendy L; Sanders, Thomas A B; O'Dell, Sandra D

    2014-07-01

    Inconsistent effects of fish oil supplementation on plasma lipids may be influenced by genetic variation. We investigated 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with dyslipidaemia in genome-wide association studies, in 310 participants randomised to treatment with placebo or 0.45, 0.9 and 1.8 g/day eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3, EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3, DHA) (1.51:1) in a 12-month parallel controlled trial. Effects of risk alleles were assessed as trait-specific genetic predisposition scores (GPS) and singly. GPS were positively associated with baseline concentrations of plasma total cholesterol, low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride (TG) and negatively with high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol. The TG-GPS was associated with 0.210 mmol/L higher TG per risk allele (P GPS was associated with 0.023 mmol/L lower TG per risk allele (P = 0.72). No interactions between GPS and treatment were significant; however, FADS1 SNP rs174546 C/T interaction with treatment was a significant determinant of plasma TG concentration (P = 0.047, n = 267). Concentration differed between genotype groups after the 1.8 g/day dose (P = 0.026), decreasing by 3.5 (95 % CI -15.1 to 8.2) % in non-carriers of the risk T-allele (n = 30) and by 21.6 (95 % CI -32.1 to -11.2) % in carriers (n = 37), who showed a highly significant difference between treatments (P = 0.007). Carriers of the FADS1 rs174546 risk allele could benefit from a high intake of EPA and DHA in normalising plasma TG.

  5. Ingestive Behaviour of Grazing Ewes Given Two Levels of Concentrate

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was expected that concentrate supplementation would reflect directly on forage intake owing to the substitution effect, which causes sheep where the supplement supplied a small proportion of net energy requirement, to have a greater grazing intensity. The two breeds differed in the time spent ruminating or lying, with the ...

  6. concentration levels of major and trace metals in onion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    like stews, soups, tomato sauces, cooked vegetables and meat by slicing, chopping, ... including metal concentrations in soils, soil pH, cation exchange capacity, ... determination was done by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (FAAS) (Buck ...... Margen, S. Onions, The Wellness Encyclopedia of Food and Nutrition, ...

  7. Concentrations in plasma clozapine levels in schizophrenic and schizoaffective patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias García, Celso; Iglesias Alonso, Ana; Bobes, Julio

    There is great variability in plasma levels of clozapine. The objective of this study is to know the characteristics of patients treated with clozapine and the relationship between them and the variability of plasma levels. Descriptive, cross-sectional study of all patients currently treated with clozapine in a Psychiatric Service with a diagnosis of schizophrenic psychosis or schizoaffective disorder. The present study assessed physical situation, psychopathology and functionality of the patients and explored the associations and correlations between clinical variables and plasma levels. We studied 39 patients, predominantly men, with negative and depressive symptoms and cardiovascular risk factors (metabolic syndrome and smoking). Significant variability in dose and even greater in clozapine levels were observed. The levels of clozapine at equal doses/kg of body weight were higher in non-smokers, they had positive correlation with BMI and negative correlation with systolic BP, disruptive behaviors and number of cigarettes consumed. Plasma level monitoring clozapine is an important tool to avoid clozapine plasma levels monitoring and minimize undesirable clinical situations (metabolic syndrome, sedation, negative symptoms and functional impairment). It is also important to control the effects of a smoking habit for optimum drug bioavailability. Copyright © 2017 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Environmental Modeling, A goal of the Baseline Sampling and Analysis program is to determine baseline levels of select priority pollutants and petroleum markers in areas with high probability for oil spills., Published in 1999, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Louisiana State University (LSU).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Environmental Modeling dataset current as of 1999. A goal of the Baseline Sampling and Analysis program is to determine baseline levels of select priority pollutants...

  9. Use of pre-industrial floodplain lake sediments to establish baseline river metal concentrations downstream of Alberta oil sands: a new approach for detecting pollution of rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiklund, Johan A; Hall, Roland I; Farwell, Andrea J; George Dixon, D; Wolfe, Brent B; Edwards, Thomas WD

    2014-01-01

    In the Alberta oil sands region, insufficient knowledge of pre-disturbance reference conditions has undermined the ability of the Regional Aquatics Monitoring Program (RAMP) to detect pollution of the Athabasca River, because sampling began three decades after the industry started and the river naturally erodes oil-bearing strata. Here, we apply a novel approach to characterize pre-industrial reference metal concentrations in river sediment downstream of Alberta oil sands development by analyzing metal concentrations in sediments deposited in floodplain lakes of the Athabasca Delta during 1700–1916, when they were strongly influenced by Athabasca River floodwaters. We compared results to metal concentrations in surficial bottom sediments sampled by RAMP (2010–2013) at downstream sites of the Athabasca River and distributaries. When normalized to lithium content, concentrations of vanadium (a metal of concern in the oil sands region) and other priority pollutants (Be, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni, Zn) in nearly all of the RAMP river sediment samples lie below the upper 95% prediction interval linearly extrapolated from the river-derived lake sediments. Assuming the RAMP protocols obtained recently deposited sediment, this indicates that the metal concentrations in downstream Athabasca River sediment have not increased above pre-disturbance levels. Reference conditions derived from the lake sediment data were used to develop profiles of metal residual concentrations versus time for the RAMP river sediment data, which provides an excellent tool for decision-makers to identify and quantify levels of metal pollution for any given sample, and to monitor for future trends. We recommend that the approach be applied to resurrect the utility of RAMP data at other river sampling locations closer to the development, and for ongoing risk assessment. The approach is also readily transferable to other rivers where insufficient pre-disturbance reference data impairs an ability to

  10. Association of low baseline free thyroxin levels with progression of coronary artery calcification over 4 years in euthyroid subjects: the Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye-Jeong; Kim, Jihyun; Han, Eun Jin; Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol-Young; Lee, Won-Young; Oh, Ki-Won; Park, Sung-Woo; Rhee, Eun-Jung

    2016-06-01

    Overt and subclinical hypothyroidism are risk factors for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. It is unclear whether thyroid hormone levels within the normal range are also associated with atherosclerosis measured by coronary artery calcium (CAC). This study aimed to examine the relationship between normal variations in thyroid function and changes in CAC. We conducted a 4-year retrospective study of 2173 apparently healthy men and women with normal thyroid hormone levels. Their free thyroxin (FT4), free triiodothyronin (FT3) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were measured by electrochemiluminescent immunoassay. The CAC score (CACS) of each subject was measured by multidetector computed tomography in both 2010 and 2014. Progression of CAC was defined as a CACS change over 4 years > 0. The mean CACS changes over 4 years by quartiles of baseline FT4 level (lowest to highest) were 12·9, 8·43, 7·82 and 7·81 (P = 0·028). CAC progression was not significantly associated with either the baseline FT3 or TSH levels. The odds ratios (OR) for CAC progression over 4 years (highest vs lowest quartile for baseline FT4) were 0·647 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0·472-0·886) after adjustment for confounding factor, which were attenuated with further adjustment for lipid profiles, homoeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and hypertension [0·747 (95% CI 0·537-1·038)]. Quartiles of baseline FT3 or TSH level did not show any increased OR for CAC progression after adjustment for confounding factors. In this cohort of euthyroid men and women, a low baseline FT4 level was associated with a high risk of CACS progression over 4 years. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The influence of dietary energy concentration and feed intake level ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    feed intake levels on digestibility, feed intake, growth, feed efficiency and .... phosphorus and crude protein (N X 6.25) according to the methods of the .... supported by a parallel relationship between the ME content of .... dilution by saliva.

  12. Ankylosing Spondylitis Patients Commencing Biologic Therapy Have High Baseline Levels of Comorbidity: A Report from the Australian Rheumatology Association Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Oldroyd

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To compare the baseline characteristics of a population-based cohort of patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS commencing biological therapy to the reported characteristics of bDMARD randomised controlled trials (RCTs participants. Methods. Descriptive analysis of AS participants in the Australian Rheumatology Association Database (ARAD who were commencing bDMARD therapy. Results. Up to December 2008, 389 patients with AS were enrolled in ARAD. 354 (91.0% had taken bDMARDs at some time, and 198 (55.9% completed their entry questionnaire prior to or within 6 months of commencing bDMARDs. 131 (66.1% had at least one comorbid condition, and 24 (6.8% had a previous malignancy (15 nonmelanoma skin, 4 melanoma, 2 prostate, 1 breast, cervix, and bowel. Compared with RCT participants, ARAD participants were older, had longer disease duration and higher baseline disease activity. Conclusions. AS patients commencing bDMARDs in routine care are significantly different to RCT participants and have significant baseline comorbidities.

  13. Baseline Levels, and Changes Over Time in Body Mass Index and Fasting Insulin, and Their Relationship to Change in Metabolic Trait Clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Lisa M.; Fox, Caroline S.; Wilson, Peter W.F.; Nathan, David M.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; D'Agostino, Ralph B.; Meigs, James B.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Multiple abnormal metabolic traits are found together or “cluster” within individuals more often than is predicted by chance. The individual and combined role of adiposity and insulin resistance (IR) on metabolic trait clustering is uncertain. We tested the hypothesis that change in trait clustering is a function of both baseline level and change in these measures. Methods: In 2616 nondiabetic Framingham Offspring Study participants, body mass index (BMI) and fasting insulin were related to a within-person 7-year change in a trait score of 0–4 Adult Treatment Panel III metabolic syndrome traits (hypertension, high triglycerides, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hyperglycemia). Results: At baseline assessment, mean trait score was 1.4 traits, and 7-year mean (SEM) change in trait score was +0.25 (0.02) traits, Pfasting insulin were similarly related to trait score change. In models adjusted for age–sex–baseline cluster score, 7-year change in trait score was significantly related to both a 1-quintile difference in baseline BMI (0.07 traits) and fasting insulin (0.18 traits), and to both a 1-quintile 7-year increase in BMI (0.21 traits) and fasting insulin (0.18 traits). Conclusions: Change in metabolic trait clustering was significantly associated with baseline levels and changes in both BMI and fasting insulin, highlighting the importance of both obesity and IR in the clustering of metabolic traits. PMID:25007010

  14. On-line monitoring of low-level plutonium concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Huff, G.A.; Rebagay, T.V.

    1979-10-01

    An on-line monitor has been developed to assay plutonium in nitric acid solutions. The performance of the monitor has been assessed by a laboratory experimentation program using solutions with plutonium concentrations from 0.1 to 10 g/l. These conditions are typical of the plutonium solutions in an input stream to a plutonium-purification cycle in a reprocessing plant following uranium/plutonium partitioning. The monitoring system can be fully automated and shows great promise for detecting and quantifying plutonium in situ, thus minimizing the reliance on traditional sampling and laboratory-analysis techniques. The total concentration and isotopic abundance of plutonium are determined by measuring the absolute intensities of the low-energy gamma rays characteristics of 238 Pu, 239 Pu, and 240 Pu nuclides by direct gamma-ray spectroscopy and computer analysis of the spectral data. The addition of a monitoring system of this type to the input stream of a plutonium-purification cycle along with other suitable monitors on the waste streams and on the product stream provides the basis for a near real-time materials control and inventory system. Results of the laboratory-evaluation program employing plutonium in solutions with isotopic compositions typical of those involved in processing light water reactor fuels are presented. The detailed design of a monitoring cell and detection system is given. The precision and accuracy of the results relative to those measured by mass spectrometry and controlled potential coulometry are also summarized

  15. Baseline rationing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    The standard problem of adjudicating conflicting claims describes a situation in which a given amount of a divisible good has to be allocated among agents who hold claims against it exceeding the available amount. This paper considers more general rationing problems in which, in addition to claims...... to international protocols for the reduction of greenhouse emissions, or water distribution in drought periods. We define a family of allocation methods for such general rationing problems - called baseline rationing rules - and provide an axiomatic characterization for it. Any baseline rationing rule within...... the family is associated with a standard rule and we show that if the latter obeys some properties reflecting principles of impartiality, priority and solidarity, the former obeys them too....

  16. Increased concentrations of serum nesfatin-1 levels in childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Sezer; Çatlı, Gönül; Küme, Tuncay; Tuhan, Hale; Gürsoy Çalan, Özlem; Demir, Korcan; Böber, Ece; Abacı, Ayhan

    2018-04-30

    Background/aim: Nesfatin-1, an anorexigenic molecule, seems to play a role in appetite regulation and energy homeostasis. The goal of this study was to evaluate the relation of nesfatin-1 with anthropometric and metabolic (ghrelin, leptin) parameters in children with idiopathic chronic malnutrition. Materials and methods: The study included 37 underweight and 38 healthy children who were similar regarding age, sex, and pubertal status. Anthropometric and biochemical (nesfatin-1, ghrelin, and leptin levels) variables were assessed. Results: A total of 37 underweight subjects (mean age 10.5 ± 2.6 years) and 38 heathy subjects (mean age 10.3 ± 2.3 years) were recruited. Underweight children had significantly higher nesfatin-1 (2.76 ± 0.4 vs. 1.56 ± 0.7, P malnutrition, who were subsequently found to have significantly higher nesfatin-1 levels. Our study underlines that nesfatin-1 may play a role in the development of malnutrition by inhibiting food intake in children.

  17. Program reference schedule baseline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-07-01

    This Program Reference Schedule Baseline (PRSB) provides the baseline Program-level milestones and associated schedules for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. It integrates all Program-level schedule-related activities. This schedule baseline will be used by the Director, Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), and his staff to monitor compliance with Program objectives. Chapter 1 includes brief discussions concerning the relationship of the PRSB to the Program Reference Cost Baseline (PRCB), the Mission Plan, the Project Decision Schedule, the Total System Life Cycle Cost report, the Program Management Information System report, the Program Milestone Review, annual budget preparation, and system element plans. Chapter 2 includes the identification of all Level 0, or Program-level, milestones, while Chapter 3 presents and discusses the critical path schedules that correspond to those Level 0 milestones

  18. Radon-in-soil concentration levels in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segovia, N.; Tamez, E.; Mena, M.

    1992-01-01

    Radon-in-soil surveys in Mexico have been carried out since 1974 both for uranium prospecting and to correlate mean values of the gas emanation with local telluric behaviour. The mapping covers the northern uranium mining region, the Mexican Neovolcanic Belt, the coastal areas adjacent to the zone of subduction of the Cocos Plate under the North American Plate, some of the active volcanoes of Southern Mexico and several sedimentary valleys in Central Mexico. Recording of 222 Rn alpha decay is systematically performed with LR115 track detectors. Using mean values averaged over different observation periods at fixed monitoring stations, a radon-in-soil map covering one third of the territory of Mexico is presented. The lowest mean values occur in areas associated with active volcanoes. The highest levels are found in uranium ore zones. Intermediate values are obtained in regions with enhanced hydrothermal activity and stations associated with intrusive rocks. (author)

  19. Increased risk of coronary artery calcification progression in subjects with high baseline Lp(a) levels: The Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jung Hwan; Lee, Da Young; Lee, Eun Seo; Kim, Jihyun; Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol-Young; Lee, Won-Young; Oh, Ki-Won; Park, Sung-Woo; Rhee, Eun-Jung

    2016-11-01

    Results from previous studies support the association of lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] levels and coronary artery disease risk. In this study, we analyzed the association between baseline Lp(a) levels and future progression of coronary artery calcification (CAC) in apparently healthy Korean adults. A total of 2611 participants (mean age: 41years, 92% mend) who underwent a routine health check-up in 2010 and 2014 were enrolled. Coronary artery calcium score (CACS) were measured by multi-detector computed tomography. Baseline Lp(a) was measured by high-sensitivity immunoturbidimetric assay. Progression of CAC was defined as a change in CACS >0 over four years. Bivariate correlation analyses with baseline Lp(a) and other metabolic parameters revealed age, total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C and CACS to have a significant positive correlation, while body weight, fasting glucose level, blood pressure and triglyceride level were negatively correlated with baseline Lp(a) level. After four years of follow-up, 635 subjects (24.3%) had CAC progression. The participants who had CAC progression were older, composed of more men, more obese, and had higher fasting glucose levels and worse baseline lipid profiles compared to those who did not have CAC progression. The mean serum Lp(a) level was significantly higher in subjects who had CAC progression compared to those who did not (32.5 vs. 28.9mg/dL, p<0.01). When the risk for CAC progression according to baseline Lp(a) was calculated, those with Lp(a) level≥50mg/dL had an odds ratio of 1.333 (95% CI 1.027-1.730) for CAC progression compared to those with Lp(a)<50mg/dL after adjusting for confounding factors. In this study, the subjects who had higher Lp(a) were at significantly higher risk for CAC progression after four years of follow-up, suggesting the role of high Lp(a) in CAC progression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of Apple Juice Concentrate, Blackcurrant Concentrate and Pectin Levels on Selected Qualities of Apple-Blackcurrant Fruit Leather

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemuel M. Diamante

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the effects of different levels of apple juice concentrate (AJC, blackcurrant concentrate (BCC and pectin on the moisture content, water activity, color, texture and ascorbic acid content of apple-blackcurrant fruit leather using the response surface methodology. The results showed the moisture content increased with increasing pectin level and with greater increases at higher AJC and BCC levels while the water activity increased with increasing pectin level and with increasing AJC level, at low pectin levels, but with decreasing AJC, at high pectin levels. The chroma decreased with increasing pectin level and with lower values at the middle AJC level. The puncturing force decreased with increasing AJC level but with a lower value at the middle pectin level. Lastly, the ascorbic acid content increased with increasing BCC level regardless of AJC and pectin levels. There is a need to reduce the drying temperature or time of apple-blackcurrant fruit leather just enough to bring the water activity closer to 0.60, thereby increasing the moisture content resulting in higher product yield.

  1. Effects of Apple Juice Concentrate, Blackcurrant Concentrate and Pectin Levels on Selected Qualities of Apple-Blackcurrant Fruit Leather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamante, Lemuel M; Li, Siwei; Xu, Qianqian; Busch, Janette

    2013-09-12

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of different levels of apple juice concentrate (AJC), blackcurrant concentrate (BCC) and pectin on the moisture content, water activity, color, texture and ascorbic acid content of apple-blackcurrant fruit leather using the response surface methodology. The results showed the moisture content increased with increasing pectin level and with greater increases at higher AJC and BCC levels while the water activity increased with increasing pectin level and with increasing AJC level, at low pectin levels, but with decreasing AJC, at high pectin levels. The chroma decreased with increasing pectin level and with lower values at the middle AJC level. The puncturing force decreased with increasing AJC level but with a lower value at the middle pectin level. Lastly, the ascorbic acid content increased with increasing BCC level regardless of AJC and pectin levels. There is a need to reduce the drying temperature or time of apple-blackcurrant fruit leather just enough to bring the water activity closer to 0.60, thereby increasing the moisture content resulting in higher product yield.

  2. Variation in pre-treatment count lead time and its effect on baseline estimates of cage-level sea lice abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, R; Boerlage, A S; Vanderstichel, R; Revie, C W; Hammell, K L

    2016-11-01

    Treatment efficacy studies typically use pre-treatment sea lice abundance as the baseline. However, the pre-treatment counting window often varies from the day of treatment to several days before treatment. We assessed the effect of lead time on baseline estimates, using historical data (2010-14) from a sea lice data management programme (Fish-iTrends). Data were aggregated at the cage level for three life stages: (i) chalimus, (ii) pre-adult and adult male and (iii) adult female. Sea lice counts were log-transformed, and mean counts by lead time relative to treatment day were computed and compared separately for each life stage, using linear mixed models. There were 1,658 observations (treatment events) from 56 sites in 5 Bay Management Areas. Our study showed that lead time had a significant effect on the estimated sea lice abundance, which was moderated by season. During the late summer and autumn periods, counting on the day of treatment gave significantly higher values than other days and would be a more appropriate baseline estimate, while during spring and early summer abundance estimates were comparable among counts within 5 days of treatment. A season-based lead time window may be most appropriate when estimating baseline sea lice levels. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Double blind randomized placebo-controlled trial on the effects of testosterone supplementation in elderly men with moderate to low testosterone levels: design and baseline characteristics [ISRCTN23688581

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verhaar Harald JJ

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In ageing men testosterone levels decline, while cognitive function, muscle and bone mass, sexual hair growth, libido and sexual activity decline and the risk of cardiovascular diseases increase. We set up a double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial to investigate the effects of testosterone supplementation on functional mobility, quality of life, body composition, cognitive function, vascular function and risk factors, and bone mineral density in older hypogonadal men. We recruited 237 men with serum testosterone levels below 13.7 nmol/L and ages 60–80 years. They were randomized to either four capsules of 40 mg testosterone undecanoate (TU or placebo daily for 26 weeks. Primary endpoints are functional mobility and quality of life. Secondary endpoints are body composition, cognitive function, aortic stiffness and cardiovascular risk factors and bone mineral density. Effects on prostate, liver and hematological parameters will be studied with respect to safety. Measure of effect will be the difference in change from baseline visit to final visit between TU and placebo. We will study whether the effect of TU differs across subgroups of baseline waist girth ( At baseline, mean age, BMI and testosterone levels were 67 years, 27 kg/m2 and 10.72 nmol/L, respectively.

  4. Technical baseline description of high-level waste and low-activity waste feed mobilization and delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papp, I.G.

    1997-01-01

    This document is a compilation of information related to the high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) feed staging, mobilization, and transfer/delivery issues. Information relevant to current Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) inventories and activities designed to feed the Phase I Privatization effort at the Hanford Site is included. Discussions on the higher level Phase II activities are offered for a perspective on the interfaces

  5. Baseline prostate-specific antigen levels following treatment with abiraterone acetate as a prognostic factor in castration-resistant prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiroshige, Tasuku; Eguchi, Yoshiro; Yoshizumi, Osamu; Chikui, Katsuaki; Kumagai, Hisaji; Kawaguchi, Yoshihiro; Onishi, Rei; Hayashi, Tokumasa; Watanabe, Kouta; Mitani, Tomotaro; Saito, Koujiro; Igawa, Tsukasa

    2018-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the prognostic factors associated with progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) times in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) who received treatment with abiraterone acetate (AA) in routine clinical settings. A total of 93 patients treated with AA between September 2014 and February 2017 were selected and their medical records were analyzed retrospectively. The median PFS time of docetaxel (DTX)-naïve patients was 171 days, and that of post-DTX patients was 56 days. The OS time of DTX-naïve patients did not reach the median. The median OS time of post-DTX patients was 761 days. Multivariate analyses identified baseline prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level prior to treatment with AA and the PSA response rate as independent prognostic factors for PFS time, and baseline PSA prior to treatment with AA as the only independent prognostic factor for OS time. The results of the present study indicate that the baseline PSA level prior to treatment with AA is a notable prognostic factor in patients with CRPC.

  6. Low adiponectin levels at baseline and decreasing adiponectin levels over 10 years of follow-up predict risk of the metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, S; Jensen, J S; Bjerre, Mette

    2017-01-01

    AIM: Adiponectin is the most abundant adipokine and may play a key role in the interplay between obesity, inflammation, insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Thus, this large population-based cohort investigated whether adiponectin at baseline and/or a decrease in adiponectin during......-up were inversely associated with an increase in the number of components of MetS (Pvs 7.0mg/L (95% CI: 6.3-7.9) for those with four to five components. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Low plasma...

  7. Association between baseline vitamin D metabolite levels and long-term cardiovascular events in patients with rheumatoid arthritis from the CIMESTRA trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herly, Mette; Stengaard-Pedersen, Kristian; Hørslev-Petersen, Kim

    2017-01-01

    event in the follow-up period, evaluated using systematic journal audits. Logistic regression models will test the hypothesis that there are more cardiovascular events in enrolled patients with a low level of vitamin D (models, based on survival analysis......INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality is increased in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and among these patients, the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D is high. Moreover, low vitamin D levels have been associated with increased cardiovascular risk in healthy subjects. OBJECTIVE......: To evaluate the long-term risk of cardiovascular events in patients having low total 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels at baseline compared with patients with normal levels, in an efficiently treated, closed cohort of patients with an early diagnosis of RA. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This study is a prospective, closed...

  8. Association of sex hormones with sexual function, vitality, and physical function of symptomatic older men with low testosterone levels at baseline in the testosterone trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Glenn R; Stephens-Shields, Alisa J; Rosen, Raymond C; Wang, Christina; Ellenberg, Susan S; Matsumoto, Alvin M; Bhasin, Shalender; Molitch, Mark E; Farrar, John T; Cella, David; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Cauley, Jane A; Cifelli, Denise; Crandall, Jill P; Ensrud, Kristine E; Fluharty, Laura; Gill, Thomas M; Lewis, Cora E; Pahor, Marco; Resnick, Susan M; Storer, Thomas W; Swerdloff, Ronald S; Anton, Stephen; Basaria, Shehzad; Diem, Susan; Tabatabaie, Vafa; Hou, Xiaoling; Snyder, Peter J

    2015-03-01

    The prevalence of sexual dysfunction, low vitality, and poor physical function increases with aging, as does the prevalence of low total and free testosterone (TT and FT) levels. However, the relationship between sex hormones and age-related alterations in older men is not clear. To test the hypotheses that baseline serum TT, FT, estradiol (E2), and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels are independently associated with sexual function, vitality, and physical function in older symptomatic men with low testosterone levels participating in the Testosterone Trials (TTrials). Cross-sectional study of baseline measures in the TTrials. The study was conducted at 12 sites in the United States. The 788 TTrials participants were ≥ 65 years and had evidence of sexual dysfunction, diminished vitality, and/or mobility disability, and an average of two TT sexual desire, erectile function, and sexual activity. None of these hormones was significantly associated within or across trials with FACIT-Fatigue, PHQ-9 Depression or Physical Function-10 scores, or gait speed. FT and TT levels were consistently, independently, and positively associated, albeit to a small degree, with measures of sexual desire, erectile function, and sexual activity, but not with measures of vitality or physical function in symptomatic older men with low T who qualified for the TTrials.

  9. Correlation of the concentration of the carbon-associated radiation damage levels with the total carbon concentration in silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferenczi, G.; Londos, C.A.; Pavelka, T.; Somogyi, M.; Mertens, A.

    1988-01-01

    The dominant carbon-related radiation damage center in silicon was studied in detail by deep level transient spectroscopy. Samples with different carbon and oxygen content were implanted with gradually increasing proton fluence. Two energetically closely spaced levels were revealed and tentative identities were assigned. One at E/sub T/+E/sub V/ = 0.344 eV (sigma/sub p/ = 1.1 x 10/sup -16/ cm/sup 2/) is assigned as the C+O/sub i/ complex, and that at E/sub T/+E/sub V/ = 0.370 eV (sigma/sub p/ = 8 x 10/sup -18/ cm/sup 2/) is assigned as the C/sub s/-Si/sub i/-C/sub s/ complex. It was shown that the concentration of these defects is correlated to the total concentration of carbon in the crystal.

  10. Cadmium tolerance in seven Daphnia magna clones is associated with reduced hsp70 baseline levels and induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haap, Timo; Koehler, Heinz-R.

    2009-01-01

    The stress protein hsp70 is part of the intracellular alarm and repair system which enables organisms to counteract negative effects of toxicants on protein integrity. Under long-term selection pressure exerted by environmental pollution, in particular heavy metals, this system may be expected to play a major role in the course of local, microevolutionary events leading to the acquisition of toxicant resistance. Seven clones of Daphnia magna from different geographical regions were characterized regarding their sensitivity to Cd, their hsp70 expression, and Cd accumulation. In an acute immobilisation assay, the tested clones showed remarkable differences in their sensitivity to Cd. The highest EC 50 values by far were obtained for the clone displaying lowest hsp70 expression. In general, hsp70 levels reflected the order of sensitivity to Cd among the seven clones reciprocally. Clonal variations in sensitivity and hsp70 expression could not be related to differential accumulation of Cd, though. In summary, the association of stress insensitivity with low hsp70 induction which has been exemplarily reported for populations of different invertebrates under strong selection pressure could be affirmed for a largely parthenogenetic species for the first time. Furthermore, our observation has serious consequences for the interpretation of toxicological assays using a single D. magna clone solely.

  11. Human hypocretin and melanin-concentrating hormone levels are linked to emotion and social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin, Ashley M; Fried, Itzhak; Wilson, Charles L; Staba, Richard J; Behnke, Eric J; Lam, Hoa A; Maidment, Nigel T; Karlsson, Karl Æ; Lapierre, Jennifer L; Siegel, Jerome M

    2013-01-01

    The neurochemical changes underlying human emotions and social behaviour are largely unknown. Here we report on the changes in the levels of two hypothalamic neuropeptides, hypocretin-1 and melanin-concentrating hormone, measured in the human amygdala. We show that hypocretin-1 levels are maximal during positive emotion, social interaction and anger, behaviours that induce cataplexy in human narcoleptics. In contrast, melanin-concentrating hormone levels are minimal during social interaction, but are increased after eating. Both peptides are at minimal levels during periods of postoperative pain despite high levels of arousal. Melanin-concentrating hormone levels increase at sleep onset, consistent with a role in sleep induction, whereas hypocretin-1 levels increase at wake onset, consistent with a role in wake induction. Levels of these two peptides in humans are not simply linked to arousal, but rather to specific emotions and state transitions. Other arousal systems may be similarly emotionally specialized.

  12. Association between baseline vitamin D metabolite levels and long-term cardiovascular events in patients with rheumatoid arthritis from the CIMESTRA trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herly, Mette; Stengaard-Pedersen, Kristian; Hørslev-Petersen, Kim

    2017-01-01

    written consent at baseline. To disseminate comprehension of factors of prognostic importance to cardiovascular outcome in RA, we will attempt to have a first draft ready no later than 1 year after the adjudication process has finished. If low vitamin D levels can predict cardiovascular events in RA......INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality is increased in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and among these patients, the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D is high. Moreover, low vitamin D levels have been associated with increased cardiovascular risk in healthy subjects. OBJECTIVE...... event in the follow-up period, evaluated using systematic journal audits. Logistic regression models will test the hypothesis that there are more cardiovascular events in enrolled patients with a low level of vitamin D (

  13. Trophic calculations reveal the mechanism of population-level variation in mercury concentrations between marine ecosystems: Case studies of two polar seabirds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brasso, Rebecka L.; Polito, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Ecosystem-specific baseline and consumer δ 15 N paired for population-specific trophic level. • Source of population-level variation in mercury exposure identified in two seabirds. • High mercury and trophic position suggests trophic driver of population-level variation. • Trophic similarities, differing mercury reveals geographic differences in bioavailability. -- Abstract: The incorporation of quantitative trophic level analysis in ecotoxicological studies provides explanatory power to identify the factors, trophic or environmental, driving population-level variation in mercury exposure at large geographic scales. In the Antarctic marine ecosystem, mercury concentrations and stable isotope values in Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae) were compared between the Antarctic Peninsula and the Ross Sea. Correcting tissue δ 15 N values for baseline δ 15 N values revealed population-level differences in trophic position which contributes to differences in mercury. Data from Thick-billed murres (Uria lomvia) were synthesized from published values from Baffin Bay and Svalbard to demonstrate the utility of baseline δ 15 N values in identifying differences in environmental mercury exposure independent of diet. Here, we demonstrate the importance of calculating population-specific trophic level data to uncover the source of variation in mercury concentrations between geographically distinct populations of marine predators

  14. Baseline and postoperative levels of C-reactive protein and interleukins as inflammatory predictors of atrial fibrillation following cardiac surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weymann, Alexander; Popov, Aron-Frederik; Sabashnikov, Anton; Ali-Hasan-Al-Saegh, Sadeq; Ryazanov, Mikhail; Tse, Gary; Mirhosseini, Seyed Jalil; Liu, Tong; Lotfaliani, Mohammadreza; Sedaghat, Meghdad; Baker, William L; Ghanei, Azam; Yavuz, Senol; Zeriouh, Mohamed; Izadpanah, Payman; Dehghan, Hamidreza; Testa, Luca; Nikfard, Maryam; Sá, Michel Pompeu Barros de Oliveira; Mashhour, Ahmed; Nombela-Franco, Luis; Rezaeisadrabadi, Mohammad; D'Ascenzo, Fabrizio; Zhigalov, Konstantin; Benedetto, Umberto; Aminolsharieh Najafi, Soroosh; Szczechowicz, Marcin; Roever, Leonardo; Meng, Lei; Gong, Mengqi; Deshmukh, Abhishek J; Palmerini, Tullio; Linde, Cecilia; Filipiak, Krzysztof J; Stone, Gregg W; Biondi-Zoccai, Giuseppe; Calkins, Hugh

    2018-01-01

    Postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) is a leading arrhythmia with high incidence and serious clinical implications after cardiac surgery. Cardiac surgery is associated with systemic inflammatory response including increase in cytokines and activation of endothelial and leukocyte responses. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine the strength of evidence for evaluating the association of inflammatory markers, such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukins (IL), with POAF following isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), isolated valvular surgery, or a combination of these procedures. We conducted a meta-analysis of studies evaluating measured baseline (from one week before surgical procedures) and postoperative levels (until one week after surgical procedures) of inflammatory markers in patients with POAF. A compre-hensive search was performed in electronic medical databases (Medline/PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Science Direct, and Google Scholar) from their inception through May 2017 to identify relevant studies. A comprehensive subgroup analysis was performed to explore potential sources of heterogeneity. A literature search of all major databases retrieved 1014 studies. After screening, 42 studies were analysed including a total of 8398 patients. Pooled analysis showed baseline levels of CRP (standard mean difference [SMD] 0.457 mg/L, p < 0.001), baseline levels of IL-6 (SMD 0.398 pg/mL, p < 0.001), postoperative levels of CRP (SMD 0.576 mg/L, p < 0.001), postoperative levels of IL-6 (SMD 1.66 pg/mL, p < 0.001), postoperative levels of IL-8 (SMD 0.839 pg/mL, p < 0.001), and postoperative levels of IL-10 (SMD 0.590 pg/mL, p < 0.001) to be relevant inflammatory parameters significantly associated with POAF. Perioperative inflammation is proposed to be involved in the pathogenesis of POAF. Therefore, perioperative assessment of CRP, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 can help clinicians in terms of predicting and monitoring for POAF.

  15. Comparative baseline levels of mercury, Hsp 70 and Hsp 60 in subsistence fish from the Yukon-Kuskokwim delta region of Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, L K; Scofield, E; Rodgers, T; Patton, M; Bowyer, R T

    1999-10-01

    In subsistence fish; northern pike (Esox lucius), burbot (Lota lota), whitefish (Coregonus nelsoni), grayling (Thymallus arcticus) and sheefish (Stenodus lencichthys), we determined the Hsp 60 and Hsp 70 levels in 31 samples from adult fish gills. A dot-blot analysis using antibodies to either Hsp 70 or Hsp 60 showed the average Hsp 70 concentration was 9.1 microg/mg protein, while the average Hsp 60 concentration was 147.4 microg/mg protein. Mercury levels in muscle tissue in these fish averaged 0.382 ppm. Using a subset of samples (n = 24), we determined that the major component in the muscle of Alaskan subsistence fish was methyl mercury. No correlation was observed between Hsp 60 or Hsp 70 expression in gill tissue and mercury concentrations in muscle tissue. Hsp 60 and Hsp 70 protein levels in the gills were correlated.

  16. A rapid method of predicting radiocaesium concentrations in sheep from activity levels in faeces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGee, E.J.; Synnott, H.J.; Colgan, P.A.; Keatinge, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    The use of faecal samples taken from sheep flocks as a means of predicting radiocaesium concentrations in live animals was studied. Radiocaesium levels in 1726 sheep from 29 flocks were measured using in vivo techniques and a single faecal sample taken from each flock was also analysed. A highly significant relationship was found to exist between mean flock activity and activity in the corresponding faecal samples. Least-square regression yielded a simple model for predicting mean flock radiocaesium concentrations based on activity levels in faecal samples. A similar analysis of flock maxima and activity levels in faeces provides an alternative model for predicting the expected within-flock maximum radiocaesium concentration. (Author)

  17. Mercury concentrations in breast feathers of three upper trophic level marine predators from the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaler, Robb S A; Kenney, Leah A; Bond, Alexander L; Eagles-Smith, Collin A

    2014-05-15

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element distributed globally through atmospheric transport. Agattu Island, located in the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska, has no history of point-sources of Hg contamination. We provide baseline levels of total mercury (THg) concentrations in breast feathers of three birds that breed on the island. Geometric mean THg concentrations in feathers of fork-tailed storm-petrels (Oceanodroma furcata; 6703 ± 1635, ng/g fresh weight [fw]) were higher than all other species, including snowy owl (Bubo scandiacus; 2105 ± 1631, ng/g fw), a raptor with a diet composed largely of storm-petrels at Agattu Island. There were no significant differences in mean THg concentrations of breast feathers among adult Kittlitz's murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris; 1658 ± 1276, ng/g fw) and chicks (1475 ± 671, ng/g fw) and snowy owls. The observed THg concentrations in fork-tailed storm-petrel feathers emphasizes the need for further study of Hg pollution in the western Aleutian Islands. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Mercury concentrations in breast feathers of three upper trophic level marine predators from the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaler, Robb S.A.; Kenney, Leah A.; Bond, Alexander L.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.

    2014-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element distributed globally through atmospheric transport. Agattu Island, located in the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska, has no history of point-sources of Hg contamination. We provide baseline levels of total mercury (THg) concentrations in breast feathers of three birds that breed on the island. Geometric mean THg concentrations in feathers of fork-tailed storm-petrels (Oceanodroma furcata; 6703 ± 1635, ng/g fresh weight [fw]) were higher than all other species, including snowy owl (Bubo scandiacus; 2105 ± 1631, ng/g fw), a raptor with a diet composed largely of storm-petrels at Agattu Island. There were no significant differences in mean THg concentrations of breast feathers among adult Kittlitz’s murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris; 1658 ± 1276, ng/g fw) and chicks (1475 ± 671, ng/g fw) and snowy owls. The observed THg concentrations in fork-tailed storm-petrel feathers emphasizes the need for further study of Hg pollution in the western Aleutian Islands.

  19. Comparative Analysis of Levels of Banking Sector Markets Concentration in CEE Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaličanin Tijana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Banking sector is an important development factor of the total financial and economic system. Number of banks and dispersion of their individual shares defines competitive structure of banking sector, manifested by its concentration. Market concentration may be presented as a function of a number of enterprises competing in a market and their individual comparative market shares. Concentration analysis is significant with regard to the fact that the level of concentration demonstrates relations among competitors in a market, as well as influence each competitor has on consumers, branch and economy as a whole. Starting from 2008 crisis, domino effect of which hit banking sector and has had a huge impact on it, authors of this paper aimed at establishing a level of market concentration of the banking sector in Serbia and countries in the region in 2015 by application of a large number of market concentration indicators.

  20. High titers of both rheumatoid factor and anti-CCP antibodies at baseline in patients with rheumatoid arthritis are associated with increased circulating baseline TNF level, low drug levels, and reduced clinical responses: a post hoc analysis of the RISING study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Tsutomu; Miyasaka, Nobuyuki; Inui, Takashi; Yano, Toshiro; Yoshinari, Toru; Abe, Tohru; Koike, Takao

    2017-09-02

    Although both rheumatoid factor (RF) and anticyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (anti-CCP) are useful for diagnosing rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the impact of these autoantibodies on the efficacy of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors has been controversial. The aim of this post hoc analysis of a randomized double-blind study (the RISING study) was to investigate the influences of RF and anti-CCP on the clinical response to infliximab in patients with RA. Methotrexate-refractory patients with RA received 3 mg/kg of infliximab from weeks 0 to 6 and then 3, 6, or 10 mg/kg every 8 weeks from weeks 14 to 46. In this post hoc analysis, patients were stratified into three classes on the basis of baseline RF/anti-CCP titers: "low/low-C" (RF < 55 IU/ml, anti-CCP < 42 U/ml), "high/high-C" (RF ≥ 160 IU/ml, anti-CCP ≥ 100 U/ml), and "middle-C" (neither low/low-C nor high/high-C). Baseline plasma TNF level, serum infliximab level, and disease activity were compared between the three classes. Baseline RF and anti-CCP titers showed significant correlations with baseline TNF and infliximab levels in weeks 2-14. Comparison of the three classes showed that baseline TNF level was lowest in the low/low-C group and highest in the high/high-C group (median 0.73 versus 1.15 pg/ml), that infliximab levels at week 14 were highest in the low/low-C group and lowest in the high/high-C group (median 1.0 versus 0.1 μg/ml), and that Disease Activity Score in 28 joints based on C-reactive protein at week 14 was lowest in the low/low-C group and highest in the high/high-C group (median 3.17 versus 3.82). A similar correlation was observed at week 54 in the 3 mg/kg dosing group, but not in the 6 or 10 mg/kg group. Significant decreases in both RF and anti-CCP were observed during infliximab treatment. RF/anti-CCP titers correlated with TNF level. This might explain the association of RF/anti-CCP with infliximab level and clinical response in patients with RA

  1. The maximum ground level concentration of air pollutant and the effect of plume rise on concentration estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayhoub, A.B.; Azzam, A.

    1991-01-01

    The emission of an air pollutant from an elevated point source according to Gaussian plume model has been presented. An elementary theoretical treatment for both the highest possible ground-level concentration and the downwind distance at which this maximum occurs for different stability classes has been constructed. The effective height release modification was taken into consideration. An illustrative case study, namely, the emission from the research reactor in Inchas, has been studied. The results of these analytical treatments and of the derived semi-empirical formulae are discussed and presented in few illustrative diagrams

  2. Potential Effects of a Scenario Earthquake on the Economy of Southern California: Baseline County-Level Migration Characteristics and Trends 1995-2000 and 2001-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrouse, Benson C.; Hester, David J.

    2008-01-01

    The Multi-Hazards Demonstration Project (MHDP) is a collaboration between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and various partners from the public and private sectors and academia, meant to improve Southern California's resiliency to natural hazards. In support of the MHDP objectives, the ShakeOut Scenario was developed. It describes a magnitude 7.8 earthquake along the southernmost 300 kilometers (200 miles) of the San Andreas Fault, identified by geoscientists as a plausible event that will cause moderate to strong shaking over much of the eight-county (Imperial, Kern, Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, and Ventura) Southern California region. This report uses historical, estimated, and projected population data from several Federal and State data sources to estimate baseline characteristics and trends of the region's population migration (that is, changes in a person's place of residence over time). The analysis characterizes migration by various demographic, economic, family, and household variables for the period 1995-2000. It also uses existing estimates (beginning in 2001) of the three components of population change - births, deaths, and migration - to extrapolate near-term projections of county-level migration trends through 2010. The 2010 date was chosen to provide baseline projections corresponding to a two-year recovery period following the November 2008 date that was selected for the occurrence of the ShakeOut Scenario earthquake. The baseline characteristics and projections shall assist with evaluating the effects of inflow and outflow migration trends for alternative futures in which the simulated M7.8 earthquake either does or does not occur and the impact of the event on housing and jobs, as well as community composition and regional economy changes based on dispersion of intellectual, physical, economic, and cultural capital.

  3. Right hemisphere dominance directly predicts both baseline V1 cortical excitability and the degree of top-down modulation exerted over low-level brain structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Q; Siddiqui, S; Ramachandran, S; Goga, U; Bonsu, A; Patel, M; Roberts, R E; Nigmatullina, Y; Malhotra, P; Bronstein, A M

    2015-12-17

    Right hemisphere dominance for visuo-spatial attention is characteristically observed in most right-handed individuals. This dominance has been attributed to both an anatomically larger right fronto-parietal network and the existence of asymmetric parietal interhemispheric connections. Previously it has been demonstrated that interhemispheric conflict, which induces left hemisphere inhibition, results in the modulation of both (i) the excitability of the early visual cortex (V1) and (ii) the brainstem-mediated vestibular-ocular reflex (VOR) via top-down control mechanisms. However to date, it remains unknown whether the degree of an individual's right hemisphere dominance for visuospatial function can influence, (i) the baseline excitability of the visual cortex and (ii) the extent to which the right hemisphere can exert top-down modulation. We directly tested this by correlating line bisection error (or pseudoneglect), taken as a measure of right hemisphere dominance, with both (i) visual cortical excitability measured using phosphene perception elicited via single-pulse occipital trans-cranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and (ii) the degree of trans-cranial direct current stimulation (tDCS)-mediated VOR suppression, following left hemisphere inhibition. We found that those individuals with greater right hemisphere dominance had a less excitable early visual cortex at baseline and demonstrated a greater degree of vestibular nystagmus suppression following left hemisphere cathodal tDCS. To conclude, our results provide the first demonstration that individual differences in right hemisphere dominance can directly predict both the baseline excitability of low-level brain structures and the degree of top-down modulation exerted over them. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Relation of N-Terminal Pro B-Type Natriuretic Peptide Levels After Symptom-Limited Exercise to Baseline and Ischemia Levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, P. Marc; Verberne, Hein J.; van Spijker, Rianne C.; van Straalen, Jan P.; Fischer, Johan C.; Sturk, Augueste; van Eck-Smit, Berthe L. F.; de Winter, Robbert J.

    2009-01-01

    Circulating levels of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and the amino-terminal portion of the prohormone (NT-proBNP) have been reported to increase immediately after myocardial ischemia. The association between extent of exercise-induced myocardial ischemia measured using myocardial perfusion

  5. Radionuclide Concentration in Soils and Vegetation at Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area G during 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P.R. Fresquez; M.W. McNaughton; M.J. Winch

    2005-10-01

    Soil samples were collected at 15 locations and unwashed overstory and understory vegetation samples were collected from up to nine locations within and around the perimeter of Area G, the primary disposal facility for low-level radioactive solid waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Soil and plant samples were also collected from the proposed expansion area west of Area G for the purpose of gaining preoperational baseline data. Soil and plant samples were analyzed for radionuclides that have shown a history of detection in past years; these included {sup 3}H, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, {sup 241}Am, {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, and {sup 238}U for soils and {sup 3}H, {sup 238}Pu, and {sup 239,240}Pu for plants. As in previous years, the highest levels of {sup 3}H in soils and vegetation were detected at the south portion of Area G near the {sup 3}H shafts; whereas, the highest concentrations of the Pu isotopes were detected in the northern and northeastern portions near the pads for transuranic waste. All concentrations of radionuclides in soils and vegetation, however, were still very low (pCi range) and far below LANL screening levels and regulatory standards.

  6. Radionuclide Concentration in Soils and Vegetation at Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area G during 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fresquez, P.R.; McNaughton, M.W.; Winch, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    Soil samples were collected at 15 locations and unwashed overstory and understory vegetation samples were collected from up to nine locations within and around the perimeter of Area G, the primary disposal facility for low-level radioactive solid waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Soil and plant samples were also collected from the proposed expansion area west of Area G for the purpose of gaining preoperational baseline data. Soil and plant samples were analyzed for radionuclides that have shown a history of detection in past years; these included 3 H, 238 Pu, 239,240 Pu, 241 Am, 234 U, 235 U, and 238 U for soils and 3 H, 238 Pu, and 239,240 Pu for plants. As in previous years, the highest levels of 3 H in soils and vegetation were detected at the south portion of Area G near the 3 H shafts; whereas, the highest concentrations of the Pu isotopes were detected in the northern and northeastern portions near the pads for transuranic waste. All concentrations of radionuclides in soils and vegetation, however, were still very low (pCi range) and far below LANL screening levels and regulatory standards

  7. Defining an appropriate leucoreduction strategy by serial assessment of cytokine levels in platelet concentrates prepared by different methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daljit Kaur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Different methods of platelet concentrate preparations leave behind certain number of residual leukocytes, accounting for most of the febrile nonhemolytic transfusion reactions, especially in multitransfused patients. Various inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, and IL-6 are generated during storage and have been implicated for these adverse effects. We have studied the levels of these cytokines and their correlation with leucocyte contents in platelet concentrates prepared by three different methods. Study Design and Methods: Five pools of platelet rich plasma platelet concentrates (PRP-PC and buffy-coat platelet concentrates (BC-PC each were prepared and divided into two halves. One half of the pool was leucofiltered (LF, whereas the other half was stored as such. Ten apheresis units were also included in the study. All the platelet concentrates were assessed for leucocyte load and cytokine content (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α on different days of storage (0, 3, and 5 using Nageotte chamber and commercially available immunoassays respectively. Results: There was a statistically significant rise in cytokine levels (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in nonleucofiltered (NLF random donor platelet concentrates (RDPs (PRP-PC and BC-PC during storage (day 3 and 5 whereas LF RDP concentrates (PRP-PC and BC-PC and apheresis platelet concentrates (AP-PC did not show any significant rise in cytokine levels (on day 3 and 5 over the baseline values at day 0. Conclusion: This data suggests that although AP-PCs are superior to PRP-PC (NLF and BC-PC (NLF in terms of in vitro quality control parameters and cytokine generation during storage, BC-PC mode of platelet preparation followed by leucofiltration is the best method to store platelets and minimise the cytokine accumulation. This strategy is best suited for transfusion in multitransfused hematooncologic patients, who cannot afford

  8. Comparison of toxicity of class-based organic chemicals to algae and fish based on discrimination of excess toxicity from baseline level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin J; Tai, Hong W; Yu, Yang; Wen, Yang; Wang, Xiao H; Zhao, Yuan H

    2015-07-01

    Toxicity data to fish and algae were used to investigate excess toxicity between species. Results show that chemicals exhibiting excess toxicity to fish also show excess toxicity to algae for most of the compounds. This indicates that they share the same mode of action between species. Similar relationships between logKOW and toxicities to fish and algae for baseline and less inert compounds suggest that they have similar critical body residues in the two species. Differences in excess toxicity for some compounds suggest that there is a difference of physiological structure and metabolism between fish and algae. Some reactive compounds (e.g. polyamines) exhibit greater toxic effects for algae than those for fish because of relatively low bio-uptake potential of these hydrophilic compounds in fish as compared with that in algae. Esters exhibiting greater toxicity in fish than that in algae indicate that metabolism can affect the discrimination of excess toxicity from baseline level. Algae growth inhibition is a very good surrogate for fish lethality. This is not only because overall toxicity sensitivity to algae is greater than that to fish, but also the excess toxicity calculated from algal toxicity can better reflect reactivity of compounds with target molecules than fish toxicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Detection of Changes in Ground-Level Ozone Concentrations via Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuehua Wu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ground-level ozone concentration is a key indicator of air quality. Theremay exist sudden changes in ozone concentration data over a long time horizon, which may be caused by the implementation of government regulations and policies, such as establishing exhaust emission limits for on-road vehicles. To monitor and assess the efficacy of these policies, we propose a methodology for detecting changes in ground-level ozone concentrations, which consists of three major steps: data transformation, simultaneous autoregressive modelling and change-point detection on the estimated entropy. To show the effectiveness of the proposed methodology, the methodology is applied to detect changes in ground-level ozone concentration data collected in the Toronto region of Canada between June and September for the years from 1988 to 2009. The proposed methodology is also applicable to other climate data.

  10. Moderate Amounts of Vitamin D3 in Supplements are Effective in Raising Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D from Low Baseline Levels in Adults: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan J Whiting

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available There is controversy surrounding the designation of vitamin D adequacy as defined by circulating levels of the metabolite 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD. Depending on the cutoff level chosen, dietary intakes of vitamin D may or may not provide sufficient impact upon vitamin D status measured as improvement in serum levels of 25(OHD. We sought to examine whether modest daily doses (5–20 μg as found in fortified foods or multivitamin supplements had a measureable impact on vitamin D status, defined as moving from below to above 50 nmol/L, or from less than 30 nmol/L to above 30 nmol/L. Published literature was searched for relevant articles describing randomized controlled trials. Exclusion criteria were: studies not involving humans; review articles; studies lacking blood level data pre- and post-treatment; no control group; bolus treatments (weekly, monthly, yearly; vitamin D <5 μg or >20 μg; baseline 25(OHD ≥75 nmol/L; subjects not defined as healthy; studies <8 weeks; and age <19 years. Of the 127 studies retrieved, 18 publications with 25 separate comparisons met criteria. The mean rate constant, defined as change in 25(OHD in nmol/L per μg vitamin D administered, was calculated as 2.19 ± 0.97 nmol/L per μg. There was a significant negative correlation (r = −0.65, p = 0.0004 between rate constant and administered dose. To determine impact of the dose reflecting the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR of 10 μg administered in nine studies (10 comparisons, in every case mean 25(OHD status rose either from “insufficient” (30–50 nmol/L to “sufficient” (>50 nmol/L or from “deficient” (<30 nmol/L to “insufficient” (>30 but <50 nmol/L. Our study shows that when baseline levels of groups were <75 nmol/L, for every microgram of vitamin D provided, 25(OHD levels can be raised by 2 nmol/L; and further, when groups were deficient or insufficient in vitamin D, there was significant value in providing additional 10 μg per day of

  11. Variation of radon concentration in Guwahati, Assam due to six earthquakes (Magnitude >5) occurred in N.E. India: a comparative study with baseline disparity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laskar, I.; Goswami, A.K.; Chetry, G.; Roy, U.C.; Mahanta, Kashyap; Chowdhury, Jyotirmoy Das; Laskar, J.

    2013-01-01

    Six earthquakes (M>5) have occurred in N.E. India within a time span of forty two days from August 11, 2009 to September 21, 2009. The minimum and maximum values of magnitudes of these earthquakes are 5.0 and 6.3 respectively in Richter Scale (RS). The origins of these earthquakes are reported to be Indo-Myanmar border, Sonitpur dist of Assam and neighboring Bhutan (USGS report). We, in our lab in Guwahati, Assam, have observed prominent radon peaks in the continuously monitored Alpha-GUARD, which can be regarded as precursor peaks for these earthquakes except the one that has origin in Bhutan. The post -effect of this earthquake was observed as a radon peak one day later. This may be due to the fact that the Bhutan tectonic plate and the tectonic plate on which Guwahati along with Shillong shield do not lie on the same plate. The extended part of the Kopili Fault has separated the Bhutan tectonic plate and makes the region more seismic. Continuous seven years GPS data analysis has given a remarkable depiction. The baseline analysis between IISC, Bangalore and some of our campaign mode GPS stations near Guwahati have made the picture clear. An analysis of available data is reported in this paper. (author)

  12. Metal concentrations in the growth bands of Porites sp.: A baseline record on the history of marine pollution in the Gulf of Mannar, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnakumar, S; Ramasamy, S; Magesh, N S; Chandrasekar, N; Simon Peter, T

    2015-12-15

    The present study was carried out on the Porites coral growth bands (1979 to 2014) to measure the metal accumulation for assessing the environmental pollution status. The concentrations of studied metals are compared with similar global studies, which indicate that the metals are probably derived from natural sources. The identical peaks of Fe and Mn are perfectly matched with Cu, Cr and Ni concentrations. However, the metal profile trend is slightly depressed from a regular trend in Zn, Cd and Pb peaks. The metal accumulation affinity of the reef skeleton is ranked in the following order Cr>Cd>Pb>Fe>Mn>Cu>Ni>Zn. The distribution of metal constituents in coral growth bands is primarily controlled by Fe and Mn in the reef skeleton. Other reef associated metals such as Pb and Cd are derived from other sources like coastal developments and anthropogenic sources. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Derived concentration guideline levels for Argonne National Laboratory's building 310 area.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamboj, S., Dr.; Yu, C ., Dr. (Environmental Science Division)

    2011-08-12

    The derived concentration guideline level (DCGL) is the allowable residual radionuclide concentration that can remain in soil after remediation of the site without radiological restrictions on the use of the site. It is sometimes called the single radionuclide soil guideline or the soil cleanup criteria. This report documents the methodology, scenarios, and parameters used in the analysis to support establishing radionuclide DCGLs for Argonne National Laboratory's Building 310 area.

  14. Multistrategic approach to improve quality of care of people with diabetes at the primary care level: Study design and baseline data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestes, Mariana; Gayarre, María Angelica; Elgart, Jorge Federico; Gonzalez, Lorena; Rucci, Enzo; Gagliardino, Juan José

    2017-04-01

    To test the one year-post effect of an integrated diabetes care program that includes system changes, education, registry (clinical, metabolic and therapeutic indicators) and disease management (DIAPREM), implemented at primary care level, on care outcomes and costs. We randomly selected 15 physicians and 15 nurses from primary care units of La Matanza County to be trained (Intervention-IG) and another 15 physicians/nurses to use as controls (Control-CG). Each physician-nurse team controlled and followed up 10 patients with type 2 diabetes for one year; both groups use structured medical data registry. Patients in IG had quarterly clinical appointments whereas those in CG received traditional care. DIAPREM includes system changes (use of guidelines, programmed quarterly controls and yearly visits to the specialist) and education (physicians' and nurses' training courses). Statistical data analysis included parametric/nonparametric tests according to data distribution profile and Chi-squared test for proportions. Baseline data from both groups showed comparable values and 20-30% of them did not perform HbA1c and lipid profile measurements. Majority were obese, 59% had HbA1C ≥7%, 86% fasting blood glucose ≥100mg/dL, 45%, total cholesterol ≥200mg/dL, and 92% abnormal HDL- and LDL-cholesterol values. Similarly, micro and macroangiopathic complications had not been detected in the previous year. Most patients received oral antidiabetic agents (monotherapy), and one third was on insulin (mostly a single dose of an intermediate/long-acting formulation). Most people with hypertension received specific drug treatment but only half of them reached target values; dyslipidemia treatment showed similar data. Baseline data demonstrated the need of implementing an intervention to improve diabetes care and treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Association of plasma PCB levels and HbA1c concentration in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhari, Sahar; Aminian, Omid; Moinfar, Zeinab; Schettgen, Thomas; Kaifie, Andrea; Felten, Michael; Kraus, Thomas; Esser, André

    2018-01-01

    The rapid increase in prevalence of diabetes mellitus over the last decades warrants more attention to the effects of environmental and occupational exposures on glucose metabolism. Our study aimed to assess the association between the plasma levels of various congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and the serum concentration of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c). Our study population consisted of 140 Iranian adults from seven different occupational groups and a group of non-occupationally exposed female participants. The plasma concentration of PCBs were determined at the laboratory of occupational toxicology at RWTH Aachen University, Germany. We considered an HbA1c concentration of 5.7% and more as indicating a disturbed glucose metabolism. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between quartiles of concentrations of PCB congeners and serum HbA1c. Participants with an increased HbA1c value had higher plasma levels of PCB 138, 153, 180 and the PCB sum, although this association was statistically not significant. There was no significant difference between the levels of PCB 138, 153, 180, the sum of these congeners, and PCB 118 in their quartiles when comparing with HbA1c concentrations. For our cohort, we could not demonstrate a significant association between PCB and HbA1c concentrations indicating a disturbance of glucose metabolism.

  16. Oxygenation level and hemoglobin concentration in experimental tumor estimated by diffuse optical spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlova, A. G.; Kirillin, M. Yu.; Volovetsky, A. B.; Shilyagina, N. Yu.; Sergeeva, E. A.; Golubiatnikov, G. Yu.; Turchin, I. V.

    2017-07-01

    Using diffuse optical spectroscopy the level of oxygenation and hemoglobin concentration in experimental tumor in comparison with normal muscle tissue of mice have been studied. Subcutaneously growing SKBR-3 was used as a tumor model. Continuous wave fiber probe diffuse optical spectroscopy system was employed. Optical properties extraction approach was based on diffusion approximation. Decreased blood oxygen saturation level and increased total hemoglobin content were demonstrated in the neoplasm. The main reason of such differences between tumor and norm was significant elevation of deoxyhemoglobin concentration in SKBR-3. The method can be useful for diagnosis of tumors as well as for study of blood flow parameters of tumor models with different angiogenic properties.

  17. Proposal to generate 10 TW level femtosecond X-ray pulses from a baseline undulator in conventional SASE regime at the European XFEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serkez, Svitozar; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni; Zagorodnov, Igor; Geloni, Gianluca

    2013-08-01

    Output characteristics of the European XFEL have been previously studied assuming an operation point at 5 kA peak current. In this paper we explore the possibility to go well beyond such nominal peak current level. In order to illustrate the potential of the European XFEL accelerator complex we consider a bunch with 0.25 nC charge, compressed up to a peak current of 45 kA. An advantage of operating at such high peak current is the increase of the X-ray output peak power without any modification to the baseline design. Based on start-to-end simulations, we demonstrate that such high peak current, combined with undulator tapering, allows one to achieve up to a 100-fold increase in a peak power in the conventional SASE regime, compared to the nominal mode of operation. In particular, we find that 10 TW-power level, femtosecond x-ray pulses can be generated in the photon energy range between 3 keV and 5 keV, which is optimal for single biomolecule imaging. Our simulations are based on the exploitation of all the 21 cells foreseen for the SASE3 undulator beamline, and indicate that one can achieve diffraction to the desired resolution with 15 mJ (corresponding to about 3.10 13 photons) in pulses of about 3 fs, in the case of a 100 nm focus at the photon energy of 3.5 keV.

  18. Proposal to generate 10 TW level femtosecond X-ray pulses from a baseline undulator in conventional SASE regime at the European XFEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serkez, Svitozar; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni; Zagorodnov, Igor [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-08-15

    Output characteristics of the European XFEL have been previously studied assuming an operation point at 5 kA peak current. In this paper we explore the possibility to go well beyond such nominal peak current level. In order to illustrate the potential of the European XFEL accelerator complex we consider a bunch with 0.25 nC charge, compressed up to a peak current of 45 kA. An advantage of operating at such high peak current is the increase of the X-ray output peak power without any modification to the baseline design. Based on start-to-end simulations, we demonstrate that such high peak current, combined with undulator tapering, allows one to achieve up to a 100-fold increase in a peak power in the conventional SASE regime, compared to the nominal mode of operation. In particular, we find that 10 TW-power level, femtosecond x-ray pulses can be generated in the photon energy range between 3 keV and 5 keV, which is optimal for single biomolecule imaging. Our simulations are based on the exploitation of all the 21 cells foreseen for the SASE3 undulator beamline, and indicate that one can achieve diffraction to the desired resolution with 15 mJ (corresponding to about 3.10{sup 13} photons) in pulses of about 3 fs, in the case of a 100 nm focus at the photon energy of 3.5 keV.

  19. Lack of association between depression and C-reactive protein level in the baseline of Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Menezes, Sara Teles; de Figueiredo, Roberta Carvalho; Goulart, Alessandra Carvalho; Nunes, Maria Angélica; M Benseñor, Isabela; Viana, Maria Carmen; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2017-01-15

    Depression has been linked to increased levels of inflammatory markers in clinical studies, but results from general population samples are inconsistent. We aimed to investigate whether depression was associated with serum CRP levels in a cross-sectional analysis of a large cohort from a middle-income country. We analyzed baseline data from 14,821 participants (35-74 years) of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Current depression (last 7 days) was assessed by the Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised (CIS-R). Because individuals on antidepressants could be negative on CIS-R due to their therapeutic effect, the explanatory variable had three categories: (1) negative on CIS-R and not using antidepressant (reference); (2) negative on CIS-R but using antidepressant; (3) positive on CIS-R with/without antidepressant use. Associations with CRP were investigated by general linear model (GLM). After adjustments for confounders, neither current depression, nor antidepressant use was statistically associated with elevated CRP levels. Additionally, analyzes stratified by gender, type and severity of depression did not change the results. The reference group in our analysis might include participants with a lifetime history of depression. Additionally, the exclusion of questions on weight fluctuation and appetite from the CIS-R applied in ELSA-Brasil may have slightly underestimated the prevalence of depression, as well as limited our ability to assess the presence of somatic symptoms. This study found no association between current depression, use of antidepressants, and serum CRP levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of different levels of concentrate on ruminal microorganisms and rumen fermentation in Nellore steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granja-Salcedo, Yury T; Ribeiro Júnior, Carlos S; de Jesus, Raphael B; Gomez-Insuasti, Arturo S; Rivera, Astrid R; Messana, Juliana D; Canesin, Roberta C; Berchielli, Telma T

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different dietary levels of concentrate on feed intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation and microbial population in steers. Eight Nellore steers fitted with ruminal cannulas were used in a double 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment. The dietary treatments consist of four different proportions of concentrate to roughage: 30:70, 40:60, 60:40 and 80:20% in the dry matter, resulting in Diets 30, 40, 60 and 80, respectively. The roughage was corn silage, and the concentrate was composed of corn, soybean meal and urea. Apparent digestibility of organic matter and crude protein showed a linear association with concentrate proportion (p = 0.01), but the increased concentrate levels did not affect the digestibility of fibre. The lowest ruminal pH-values were observed in animals fed with Diet 80, remaining below pH 6.0 from 6 h after feeding, while in the other diets, the ruminal pH was below 6.0 not before 12 h after feeding. After feeding Diet 80, the ammonia concentration in the rumen was significantly the highest. Higher dietary concentrate levels resulted in a linear increase of propionic acid concentrations, a linear reduction of the ratio acetic acid to propionic acid (p ruminal pH-values as much as expected and inhibit some cellulolytic bacteria without impairing the dry matter intake and fibre digestibility in Nellore steers.

  1. Concentrations and size distributions of fine aerosol particles measured at roof level in urban zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despiau, S.; Croci, D.

    2007-05-01

    During the experimental Field Experiments to Constrain Models of Atmospheric Pollution and Transport of Emissions (ESCOMPTE) campaign in June-July 2001, concentrations and size distributions of fine particles (14-722 nm) were measured at roof level in downtown Marseille (France). Part of the campaign was dedicated to the study of aerosol behavior in relation to strong photochemical events (which were identified as "IOP" days) and their regional modeling. The analysis of the concentration variations and the evolution of average diurnal size distribution showed that an "IOP day" is not characterized by a specific concentration or its variation, nor by a specific evolution of the average size distribution. The morning traffic rush is detected at roof level by a net increase in particle concentration over the whole size range measured, indicating a production of ultrafine particles by the traffic but also the raising to roof level of particles of the accumulation mode. The increase is observed about 1 hour after the traffic peak at street level, which is characterized by strong increases in NOx and CO concentrations. The corresponding flux of particles at roof level has been estimated around 3 × 104 cm-2 s-1. A specific signature characterized by a strong and rapid burst of concentration (factor 2 to 4 in 15 min) of particles between 25 and 50 nm, independent of the traffic source, has been detected on six occasions during the campaign. These events occur systematically around noon, in cases of strong radiation, low relative humidity, and common wind direction. Despite the high-diameter value of these particles, it is suggested that they could result from a specific "secondary aerosol process" event involving ozone, biogenic, and/or anthropogenic gas precursors like iodine and VOCs.

  2. Effect of concentrate feed level on methane emissions from grazing dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, H P; Dale, A J; Carson, A F; Murray, S; Gordon, A W; Ferris, C P

    2014-11-01

    Although the effect of nutrition on enteric methane (CH4) emissions from confined dairy cattle has been extensively examined, less information is available on factors influencing CH4 emissions from grazing dairy cattle. In the present experiment, 40 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (12 primiparous and 28 multiparous) were used to examine the effect of concentrate feed level (2.0, 4.0, 6.0, and 8.0 kg/cow per day; fresh basis) on enteric CH4 emissions from cows grazing perennial ryegrass-based swards (10 cows per treatment). Methane emissions were measured on 4 occasions during the grazing period (one 4-d measurement period and three 5-d measurement periods) using the sulfur hexafluoride technique. Milk yield, liveweight, and milk composition for each cow was recorded daily during each CH4 measurement period, whereas daily herbage dry matter intake (DMI) was estimated for each cow from performance data, using the back-calculation approach. Total DMI, milk yield, and energy-corrected milk (ECM) yield increased with increasing concentrate feed level. Within each of the 4 measurement periods, daily CH4 production (g/d) was unaffected by concentrate level, whereas CH4/DMI decreased with increasing concentrate feed level in period 4, and CH4/ECM yield decreased with increasing concentrate feed level in periods 2 and 4. When emissions data were combined across all 4 measurement periods, concentrate feed level (2.0, 4.0, 6.0, and 8.0 kg/d; fresh basis) had no effect on daily CH4 emissions (287, 273, 272, and 277 g/d, respectively), whereas CH4/DMI (20.0, 19.3, 17.7, and 18.1g/kg, respectively) and CH4-E/gross energy intake (0.059, 0.057, 0.053, and 0.054, respectively) decreased with increasing concentrate feed levels. A range of prediction equations for CH4 emissions were developed using liveweight, DMI, ECM yield, and energy intake, with the strongest relationship found between ECM yield and CH4/ECM yield (coefficient of determination = 0.50). These results demonstrate that

  3. [Effects of dietary wheat gluten level on decreasing plasma homocysteine concentration in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiqun; Han, Feng; Sun, Licui; Lu, Jiaxi; Sugiyama, Kimio; Huang, Zhenwu

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the effects of different level of casein and wheat gluten on decreasing plasma homocysteine concentration in rats. 48 rats of the Wistar were fed with different level of casein (12.5%, 25% and 50%) and wheat gluten (14.5%, 29% and 58%) diets for 14 days, and they were killed by decapitation to obtain blood and livers was subject to analysis the concentration of homocysteine, cysteine and other amino acids, as well as BHMT and CBS activities. Body weight gain in rats fed wheat gluten dietary was significantly less than casein dietary, but food intake was significantly decreased in wheat gluten group with increasing of the protein content. The plasma homocysteine concentration in rats fed wheat gluten was marketly less than casein, however plasma cysteine concentration in wheat gluten was higher than casein group. The effects of wheat gluten on plasma homocysteine concentration are mainly depends on the low contents of methionine and high cysteine content, but the low contents of lyscine and threonine are not ignored. The mainly mechanism is that the increased cysteine concentration promot enzyme activities of homocystein metabolism, and increase the consumption of homocysteine.

  4. Performance and carcass yield of crossbred dairy steers fed diets with different levels of concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Gabriel Santana; Chaves Véras, Antônia Sherlanea; de Andrade Ferreira, Marcelo; Moreira Dutra, Wilson; Menezes Wanderley Neves, Maria Luciana; Oliveira Souza, Evaristo Jorge; Ramos de Carvalho, Francisco Fernando; de Lima, Dorgival Morais

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of diets with increasing concentrate levels (170, 340, 510 and 680 g/kg of total dry matter) on dry matter intake, digestibility, performance and carcass characteristics of 25 Holstein-Zebu crossbred dairy steers in a feedlot. A completely randomized design was used, and data were submitted to analysis of variance and regression. The dry matter intake and digestibility coefficients of all nutrients increased linearly. The total weight gain and average daily gain added 1.16 kg and 9.90 g, respectively, for each 10 g/kg increase in concentrate. The empty body weight, hot carcass weight and cold carcass weight responded linearly to increasing concentrate. The hot carcass yield and cold carcass yield, gains in empty body weight and carcass gain were also influenced, as were the efficiencies of carcass deposition and carcass deposition rate. It is concluded that increasing concentrate levels in feedlot diets increase the intake and digestibility of dry matter and other nutrients, improving the feed efficiency, performance and physical characteristics of the carcass. Furthermore and of importance concerning the climate change debate, evidence from the literature indicates that enteric methane production would be reduced with increasing concentrate levels such as those used.

  5. Influence of different levels of concentrate and ruminally undegraded protein on digestive variables in beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina, D S; Valadares Filho, S C; Tedeschi, L O; Barbosa, A M; Valadares, R F D

    2009-03-01

    This experiment evaluated the effect of 2 levels of diet concentrate (20 and 40% of DM) and 2 levels of ruminally undegraded protein (RUP: 25 and 40% of CP) on nutrient intake, total and partial apparent nutrient digestibility, microbial protein synthesis, and ruminal and physiological variables. Eight Nellore heifers (233 +/- 14 kg of BW) fitted with ruminal, abomasal, and ileal cannulas were used. The animals were held in individual sheltered pens of approximately 15 m(2) and fed twice daily at 0800 and 1600 h for ad libitum intake. Heifers were allocated in two 4 x 4 Latin square designs, containing 8 heifers, 4 experimental periods, and 4 treatments in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement. All statistical analyses were performed using PROC MIXED of SAS. Titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) and chromic oxide (Cr(2)O(3)) were used to estimate digesta fluxes and fecal excretion. Purine derivative (PD) excretion and abomasal purine bases were used to estimate the microbial N (MN) synthesis. No significant interaction (P > 0.10) between dietary levels of RUP and concentrate was observed. There was no effect of treatment (P = 0.24) on DMI. Both markers led to the same estimates of fecal, abomasal, and ileal DM fluxes, and digestibilities of DM and individual nutrients. Ruminal pH was affected by sampling time (P RUP, whereas a quadratic effect (P RUP. The higher level of dietary concentrate led to greater MN yield regardless of the level of RUP. The MN yield and the efficiency of microbial yield estimated from urinary PD excretion produced greater (P RUP and concentrate were observed for ruminal and digestive parameters. Neither RUP nor concentrate level affected DMI. Titanium dioxide showed to be similar to Cr(2)O(3) as an external marker to measure digestibility and nutrient fluxes in cattle.

  6. MECHANISMS OF DAMAGING EFFECT OF MANGENESE IN TOXIC CONCENTRATIONS ON CELLULAR AND SUBCELLULAR LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goncharenko A. V.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Influence of subtoxic concentration of manganese chloride in dose equal to LD 50 on condition of plasmatic membranes (model: erythrocytes and functional activity of cell power (model: the isolated liver mitochondrion of rats was studied. It was established that manganese chloride in fixed concentration caused authentic augmentation of sorption capacity of erythrocytes towards alcian blue, influenced increasing of their spontaneous haemolysis and activation of peroxide oxidation of lipids. In experiment on the isolated mitochondrion it was proved that manganese chloride caused dissociation of an oxidizing phosphorusling and complete inhibition of respiration in concentrations of 3 and 4,5mM. These dependences testify that subtoxic concentration of manganese can damage the cell energy. Thus, this pilot research indicated damaging effect of manganese on cellular (erythrocytes and subcellular (mitochondrion levels which are realized through external functioning of membrane structures and deprived them from restoration.

  7. Arsenic, gold and mercury concentration levels in freshwater fish by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ndiokwere, C.L.

    1983-01-01

    Elemental concentrations of arsenic, gold and mercury have been determined in flesh tissues of freshwater fish species from some Nigerian rivers. The technique of neutron activation followed by radiochemical separation of the isotopes of interest has been applied. The concentrations of 0.04 to 0.87 μg g -1 and 0.4 to 1.33 μg g -1 obtained for gold and mercury, respectively, in the samples are much higher than the values reported in the literature for freshwater fish. The arsenic concentration range of 0.07 to 0.42 μg g -1 is within the reported range. The high concentration levels of these heavy metals can be attributed to local contamination of the rivers. (author)

  8. Carbonic anhydrase levels and internal lacunar CO/sub 2/ concentrations in aquatic macrophytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, C.I.

    1979-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase levels were examined in a variety of aquatic macrophytes from different habitats. In general, carbonic anhydrase levels increased across the habitat gradient such that activities were low in submersed aquatic macrophytes and high in emergent macrophytes with floating-leaved and free-floating plants exhibiting intermediate activities. Internal lacunar CO/sub 2/ concentrations were analyzed in relation to carbonic anhydrase activities. There was no correlation between these two parameters. Internal CO/sub 2/ concentrations ranged from low to high in submersed macrophytes, but were low in floating-leaved and emergent macrophytes. The observed internal CO/sub 2/ concentrations are discussed in relation to the individual morphologies of the plants and the environments in which they occurred.

  9. Temporal Characterisation of Ground-level Ozone Concentration in Klang Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzah Mohamad Hashim, Nur; Noor, Norazian Mohamed; Yasina Yusof, Sara

    2018-03-01

    In Malaysia, ground-level ozone (O3) is one of the most significant air pollutants due to the increasing sources of ozone precursors. Hence, the surface O3 concentration should have received substantial attention because of its negative effects to human health, vegetation and the environment. In this study, hourly air pollutants dataset (i.e O3, Carbon monoxide (CO), Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), Particulate matter (PM10), Non-methane hydrocarbon (NmHC), Sulphur dioxide (SO2)) and weather parameters (i.e. wind speed (WS), wind direction (WD), temperature (T), ultraviolet B (UVB)) for ten years period (2003-2012) in Klang Valley were selected for analysis in this study. Two monitoring stations were selected that are Petaling Jaya and Shah Alam. The aim of the study is to determine the diurnal variations of O3 concentrations according to the seasonal monsoon and the correlation between the ground-level O3 concentration and others parameter. A high concentration of ground-level O3 was observed during the first transition (April to May) for both of the stations. While at a low surface, O3 concentration was found out during the southwest monsoon within June to September. Pearson correlation was used to find the correlation between the O3 concentration and all other pollutants and weather parameters. Most of the relationship between O3concentrationswas positively correlated with NO2 and negative relationship was found out with NMHC. These results were expected since these pollutants are known as the O3 precursors. Besides that, O3 concentration and its precursors show a positive significant correlation with all meteorological factors except for relative humidity.

  10. Temporal Characterisation of Ground-level Ozone Concentration in Klang Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Hashim Nur Izzah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In Malaysia, ground-level ozone (O3 is one of the most significant air pollutants due to the increasing sources of ozone precursors. Hence, the surface O3 concentration should have received substantial attention because of its negative effects to human health, vegetation and the environment. In this study, hourly air pollutants dataset (i.e O3, Carbon monoxide (CO, Nitrogen dioxide (NO2, Particulate matter (PM10, Non-methane hydrocarbon (NmHC, Sulphur dioxide (SO2 and weather parameters (i.e. wind speed (WS, wind direction (WD, temperature (T, ultraviolet B (UVB for ten years period (2003-2012 in Klang Valley were selected for analysis in this study. Two monitoring stations were selected that are Petaling Jaya and Shah Alam. The aim of the study is to determine the diurnal variations of O3 concentrations according to the seasonal monsoon and the correlation between the ground-level O3 concentration and others parameter. A high concentration of ground-level O3 was observed during the first transition (April to May for both of the stations. While at a low surface, O3 concentration was found out during the southwest monsoon within June to September. Pearson correlation was used to find the correlation between the O3 concentration and all other pollutants and weather parameters. Most of the relationship between O3concentrationswas positively correlated with NO2 and negative relationship was found out with NMHC. These results were expected since these pollutants are known as the O3 precursors. Besides that, O3 concentration and its precursors show a positive significant correlation with all meteorological factors except for relative humidity.

  11. Development of a package program for estimating ground level concentrations of radioactive gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilkamhang, W.

    1986-01-01

    A package program for estimating ground level concentration of radioactive gas from elevate release was develop for use on IBM P C microcomputer. The main program, GAMMA PLUME NT10, is based on the well known VALLEY MODEL which is a Fortran computer code intended for mainframe computers. Other two options were added, namely, calculation of radioactive gas ground level concentration in Ci/m 3 and dose equivalent rate in mren/hr. In addition, a menu program and editor program were developed to render the program easier to use since the option could be readily selected and the input data could be easily modified as required through the keyboard. The accuracy and reliability of the program is almost identical to the mainframe. Ground level concentration of radioactive radon gas due to ore program processing in the nuclear chemistry laboratory of the Department of Nuclear Technology was estimated. In processing radioactive ore at a rate of 2 kg/day, about 35 p Ci/s of radioactive gas was released from a 14 m stack. When meteorological data of Don Muang (average for 5 years 1978-1982) were used maximum ground level concentration and the dose equivalent rate were found to be 0.00094 p Ci/m 3 and 5.0 x 10 -10 mrem/hr respectively. The processing time required for the above problem was about 7 minutes for any case of source on IBM P C which was acceptable for a computer of this class

  12. Activity concentrations of K, Th, Ra and radiation exposure levels in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    Available online at http://www.academicjournals.org/AJEST ... average absorbed dose rate for the five quarries was found to be 541.4 nGyh-1 1m above the ground level while .... conversion factors for converting the activity concentrations of.

  13. Heterogeneity at the CETP gene locus. Influence on plasma CETP concentrations and HDL cholesterol levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuivenhoven, J.A.; de Knijff, P.; Boer, J M; Smalheer, H A; Botma, G.J.; Seidell, J C; Kastelein, J.J.; Pritchard, P H

    This study was designed to investigate the association(s) between heterogeneity at the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) gene locus, CETP plasma concentrations, and HDL cholesterol levels. Healthy men with the lowest, median, and highest deciles of HDL cholesterol were selected from a large

  14. Evaluation of dairy cows intake behavior grazing Brachiaria brizantha fed different levels of concentrate at diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Bacelar Lima Mendes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective with this research was to evaluate the dairy cows intake behavior grazing Brachiaria brizantha submitted to different levels of concentrate supplementation in the diet. Used 16 lactating cows ½ Holstein x ½ Zebu, with an average of 80 ±10.14 days of lactation and body weight of 454.7 ± 54.51 kg. The animals were distributed in four treatments, using a 4x4 Latin square. The evaluation of behavior was done every ten minutes, during 24 hours on the 16th day of period. We used analysis of variance and regression probability of 0.05. The time spent grazing, ruminating and other activities, the numbers of grazing, ruminating, of bites per day and chews per cake, the grazing times, total power and total chewing, bit rate, time to swallow; time per bolus ruminated; chewing speed and power efficiency for NDF were not altered by increased levels of concentrate. The time of trough, the trough period, the bit size, the chews time for bolus, feeding efficiency for DM, NFC, and TDN and rumination efficiency linearly increased. Periods of rumination, deglutition bits, number of rumination chews per day, decreased linearly with increasing levels of concentrate. Significant quadratic effect of concentrate level on the number of periods in other activities and over time on other activities. Supplementation with 33.8% concentrate in the diet of cows grazing not promote changes in the activity of grazing, ruminating and other activities, but increases the time of trough. The increase in concentrate diet improves the efficiencies of feeding and rumination

  15. Program Baseline Change Control Procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    This procedure establishes the responsibilities and process for approving initial issues of and changes to the technical, cost, and schedule baselines, and selected management documents developed by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System. This procedure implements the OCRWM Baseline Management Plan and DOE Order 4700.1, Chg 1. It streamlines the change control process to enhance integration, accountability, and traceability of Level 0 and Level I decisions through standardized Baseline Change Proposal (BCP) forms to be used by the Level 0, 1, 2, and 3 Baseline Change Control Boards (BCCBs) and to be tracked in the OCRWM-wide Configuration Information System (CIS) Database.This procedure applies to all technical, cost, and schedule baselines controlled by the Energy System Acquisition Advisory Board (ESAAB) BCCB (Level 0) and, OCRWM Program Baseline Control Board (PBCCB) (Level 1). All baseline BCPs initiated by Level 2 or lower BCCBs, which require approval from ESAAB or PBCCB, shall be processed in accordance with this procedure. This procedure also applies to all Program-level management documents controlled by the OCRWM PBCCB

  16. Scheme for generation of fully-coherent, TW power level hard X-ray pulses from baseline undulators at the European X-ray FEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni

    2010-07-01

    The most promising way to increase the output power of an X-ray FEL (XFEL) is by tapering the magnetic field of the undulator. Also, significant increase in power is achievable by starting the FEL process from a monochromatic seed rather than from noise. This report proposes to make use of a cascade self-seeding scheme with wake monochromators in a tunable-gap baseline undulator at the European XFEL to create a source capable of delivering coherent radiation of unprecedented characteristics at hard X-ray wavelengths. Compared with SASE X-ray FEL parameters, the radiation from the new source has three truly unique aspects: complete longitudinal and transverse coherence, and a peak brightness three orders of magnitude higher than what is presently available at LCLS. Additionally, the new source will generate hard X-ray beam at extraordinary peak (TW) and average (kW) power level. The proposed source can thus revolutionize fields like single biomolecule imaging, inelastic scattering and nuclear resonant scattering. The self-seeding scheme with the wake monochromator is extremely compact, and takes almost no cost and time to be implemented. The upgrade proposed in this paper could take place during the commissioning stage of the European XFEL, opening a vast new range of applications from the very beginning of operations.We present feasibility study and examplifications for the SASE2 line of the European XFEL. (orig.)

  17. Combined baseline and one-month changes in big endothelin-1 and brain natriuretic peptide plasma concentrations predict clinical outcomes in patients with left ventricular dysfunction after acute myocardial infarction: Insights from the Eplerenone Post-Acute Myocardial Infarction Heart Failure Efficacy and Survival Study (EPHESUS) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, A; Girerd, N; Michel, J B; Ketelslegers, J M; Fay, R; Vincent, J; Bramlage, P; Pitt, B; Zannad, F; Rossignol, P

    2017-08-15

    Increased levels of neuro-hormonal biomarkers predict poor prognosis in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) complicated by left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD). The predictive value of repeated (one-month interval) brain natriuretic peptides (BNP) and big-endothelin 1 (BigET-1) measurements were investigated in patients with LVSD after AMI. In a sub-study of the Eplerenone Post-Acute Myocardial Infarction Heart Failure Efficacy and Survival Study (EPHESUS trial), BNP and BigET-1 were measured at baseline and at 1month in 476 patients. When included in the same Cox regression model, baseline BNP (p=0.0003) and BigET-1 (p=0.026) as well as the relative changes (after 1month) from baseline in BNP (p=0.049) and BigET-1 (p=0.045) were predictive of the composite of cardiovascular death or hospitalization for worsening heart failure. Adding baseline and changes in BigET-1 to baseline and changes in BNP led to a significant increase in prognostic reclassification as assessed by integrated discrimination improvement index (5.0%, p=0.01 for the primary endpoint). Both increased baseline and changes after one month in BigET-1 concentrations were shown to be associated with adverse clinical outcomes, independently from BNP baseline levels and one month changes, in patients after recent AMI complicated with LVSD. This novel result may be of clinical interest since such combined biomarker assessment could improve risk stratification and open new avenues for biomarker-guided targeted therapies. In the present study, we report for the first time in a population of patients with reduced LVEF after AMI and signs or symptoms of congestive HF, that increased baseline values of BNP and BigET-1 as well as a further rise of these markers over the first month after AMI, were independently predictive of future cardiovascular events. This approach may therefore be of clinical interest with the potential of improving risk stratification after AMI with reduced LVEF while

  18. Influence of local and regional Mediterranean meteorology on SO₂ ground-level concentrations in SE Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santacatalina, Milagros; Carratalá, Adoración; Mantilla, Enrique

    2011-06-01

    This work presents the results of a 4-year study on sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) ground-level concentrations in an area of southeastern Spain, the L'Alacantí region, where the cement industry is important and coke use extends to other industries as well. The main source of SO(2) emissions in the area was found to be a the Lepold cement plant (one of the two cement plants in the area). The high levels of SO(2) probably extend back to 1920 when this plant began operations. Both local and Mediterranean-scale meteorological processes influence the SO(2) ground-level concentration and together explain the dispersion dynamics of this pollutant. The location and topography of the study zone result in NW Atlantic advections and E-SE sea breezes being the dominant atmospheric circulation patterns in the area. Under stable meteorological conditions, minor local circulations are also relevant to the SO(2) concentration levels. The high frequency of local circulations determines a concentration pattern that changes during the day, with impacts occurring preferentially in a W-NW direction from the source at midday (sea breeze and strong thermal mixture), and in a SE direction at night. This causes the SO(2) concentrations to present well-defined diurnal cycles with well-differentiated shapes depending on the location of the sampling station relative to the source. The dependence of SO(2) 10 min levels on the wind origin and speed throughout the day has been evaluated by studying statistical parameters including P95, P50 and arithmetic mean. Exceedances occur under specific dispersion conditions at distances less than 1 km from the source. However, the source is traceable at larger distances and the levels are higher than typical urban ones. P95 was used as an estimator of the occurrence of larger levels or impacts. Leeward of NW winds and the source, at night and in early morning, P95 levels are comprised between 30 and 55 µg m(-3). In contrast, with SE winds and at midday, P95

  19. Ingestive behavior of grazing steers fed increasing levels of concentrate supplementation with different crude protein contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Fabrício Bacelar Lima; Silva, Robério Rodrigues; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto; da Silva, Fabiano Ferreira; Lins, Túlio Otávio Jardim D Almeida; da Silva, Anderson Luiz Nascimento; Macedo, Venício; Abreu Filho, George; de Souza, Sinvaldo Oliveira; Guimarães, Joanderson Oliveira

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the ingestive behavior of steers on Brachiaria brizantha pasture fed diets with increasing levels of concentrate supplementation. Thirty-two crossbred steers in the finishing phase with average weight of 420 ± 8 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design with four treatments and eight replicates per treatment. Their behavior was assessed every 5 min for 24 h, in the middle of the experimental period. Variance and regression analyses at 0.05 % probability were adopted. The times spent grazing and ruminating reduced linearly (P <0.05), whereas the times spent at the trough (eating) and on other activities increased linearly (P <0.05) as the supplementation levels were elevated. The total feeding and chewing times decreased linearly (P <0.05) as the concentrate levels in the diet were elevated. By increasing the supplementation levels, the number of bites per day decreased linearly (P <0.05), and the feed efficiency of dry matter increased quadratically. Rumination efficiency of dry matter increased linearly (P <0.05) with increasing levels of concentrate supplementation. Grazing and rumination activities are reduced when the time devoted to other activities and at the trough are increased, as a result of the substitution effect.

  20. Thermal characteristics of a medium-level concentration photovoltaic unit with evaporation cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokotov, Yuri V.; Reyz, Michael A.; Fisher, Yossi

    2009-08-01

    The results of thermal analysis and experiments are presented for a 1-kW brand new medium-level (8X) concentration photovoltaic (CPV) unit that is cooled by evaporation and built as an elongated floating solar unit. The unit keeps the silicon PV elements at low and stable temperature around the clock, significantly outperforms competitors' systems in terms of the power output and the life span of identical PV elements. It is demonstrated theoretically and experimentally that the PV element temperature level exceeds the temperature level of water in the water basin (used as a heat sink) by just a few degrees.

  1. The solar forcing on the 7Be-air concentration variability at ground level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talpos, Simona

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyses the correlation between the temporal and spatial variability of 7 Be-air concentration at ground level and the amount of precipitation. There were used the measured data from 26 stations distributed on North America, South America, Australia and Antarctica. The variability study was made using EOF and principal components analysis. The presented results show that the variability of 7 Be air concentration at ground level is simultaneously influenced by the solar cycle and some atmospheric processes like precipitation, turbulent transport, advection, etc. The solar forcing on the 7 Be variability at ground level was outlined for time-scales longer than 1 year and can be considered a global phenomenon. The atmospheric processes influence the 7 Be variability for scale shorter than one year and can be considered a local phenomenon. (author)

  2. {sup 137}Cs baseline levels in the Mediterranean and Black Sea: A cross-basin survey of the CIESM Mediterranean Mussel Watch programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thebault, Herve [IRSN, LERCM, Centre Ifremer, BP 330, F-83507 La Seyne sur Mer (France); Rodriguez y Baena, Alessia M. [International Commission for the Scientific Exploration of the Mediterranean Sea (CIESM), 16 Blvd de Suisse, MC-98000 Principality of Monaco (Monaco); Andral, Bruno [Ifremer, BP 330, F-83507 La Seyne sur Mer (France); Barisic, Delko [Center for Marine and Environmental Research, Lab. for Trace Physical Chemistry, Ruder Boskovic Inst., P.O. Box 1016, Bijenicka 54, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Albaladejo, Jose Benedicto [Inst. Espanol de Oceanografi' a (IEO), Centro Oceanografico de Murcia - Calle Varadero No. 1, 30740 San Pedro del Pinatar (Spain); Bologa, Alexandru S. [National Institute for Marine Research and Development ' Grigore Antipa' , RO-900581, Constantza (Romania); Boudjenoun, Redouane [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (COMENA), Centre de Radioprotection Recherche Nucleaire d' Algeret de Surete, Lab. d' Etudes d' Impact Radiologique, 2 Blvd F. Fanon - BP 399 Alger-Gare, 16000 Alger (Algeria); Delfanti, Roberta [Ente per le Nuove Tecnologie, l' Energia, e l' Ambiente (ENEA), Marine Environment Research Centre, La Spezia (Italy); Egorov, Victor N. [Inst. of Biology of the Southern Seas (IBSS), National Academy of Sciences of the Ukraine, 2 Porspekt Nakhimova, 99 011 Sevastopol, Crimea (Ukraine); El Khoukhi, Tahar [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de la Maamora (CNESTEN), BP 1382 RP Rabat 10001 (Morocco); Florou, Heleni [National Centre for Scientific Research ' Demokritos' , Aghia Paraskevi 153 10, P.O. Box 60228, Athens (Greece); Kniewald, Goran [Center for Marine and Environmental Research, Lab. for Trace Physical Chemistry, Ruder Boskovic Inst., P.O. Box 1016, Bijenicka 54, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Noureddine, Abdelkader [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (COMENA), Centre de Radioprotection Recherche Nucleaire d' Algeret de Surete, Lab. d' Etudes d' Impact Radiologique, 2 Blvd F. Fanon - BP 399 Alger-Gare, 16000 Alger (Algeria)] (and others)

    2008-07-01

    The common mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis was selected as unique biomonitor species to implement a regional monitoring programme, the CIESM Mediterranean Mussel Watch (MMW), in the Mediterranean and Black Seas. As of today, and upon standardization of the methodological approach, the MMW Network has been able to quantify {sup 137}Cs levels in mussels from 60 coastal stations and to produce the first distribution map of this artificial radionuclide at the scale of the entire Mediterranean and Black Seas. While measured {sup 137}Cs levels were found to be very low (usually <1 Bq kg{sup -1} wet wt) {sup 137}Cs activity concentrations in the Black Sea and North Aegean Sea were up to two orders of magnitude higher than those in the western Mediterranean Basin. Such effects, far from representing a threat to human populations or the environment, reflect a persistent signature of the Chernobyl fallout in this area.

  3. 137Cs baseline levels in the Mediterranean and Black Sea: A cross-basin survey of the CIESM Mediterranean Mussel Watch programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thebault, Herve; Rodriguez y Baena, Alessia M.; Andral, Bruno; Barisic, Delko; Albaladejo, Jose Benedicto; Bologa, Alexandru S.; Boudjenoun, Redouane; Delfanti, Roberta; Egorov, Victor N.; El Khoukhi, Tahar; Florou, Heleni; Kniewald, Goran; Noureddine, Abdelkader

    2008-01-01

    The common mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis was selected as unique biomonitor species to implement a regional monitoring programme, the CIESM Mediterranean Mussel Watch (MMW), in the Mediterranean and Black Seas. As of today, and upon standardization of the methodological approach, the MMW Network has been able to quantify 137 Cs levels in mussels from 60 coastal stations and to produce the first distribution map of this artificial radionuclide at the scale of the entire Mediterranean and Black Seas. While measured 137 Cs levels were found to be very low (usually -1 wet wt) 137 Cs activity concentrations in the Black Sea and North Aegean Sea were up to two orders of magnitude higher than those in the western Mediterranean Basin. Such effects, far from representing a threat to human populations or the environment, reflect a persistent signature of the Chernobyl fallout in this area

  4. An assessment of ground-level ozone concentrations in the Athabasca oil sands region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Syncrude and Suncor have plans to develop new oil sands leases and to increase crude oil and bitumen recovery in the Athabasca oil sands region. A first air quality assessment was prepared as part of the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board application, in order to evaluate the emissions and potential impacts associated with the development. The Pembina Institute raised several issues with respect to potential future changes in ambient ozone levels as a result of the Aurora Mine operations. In response to these concerns, another more rigorous assessment was conducted to predict future ground-level ozone concentrations in the Fort McMurray area. This report includes: (1) ambient air quality guidelines for ozone, (2) emissions inventory for dispersion modelling, (3) dispersion modelling methodology, and (4) predicted ambient ozone concentrations. Ground level ozone (O 3 ) concentrations result from anthropogenically produced ozone, and from naturally occurring ozone. Ozone is not directly emitted to the atmosphere from industrial sources, but is formed as a result of chemical reactions between NO x and VOCs, which are emitted from industrial sources within the Athabasca oil sands region. NO x and VOC emissions associated with the Aurora Mine operation are predicted to increase hourly average ozone concentrations in the Fort McMurray area by only 0.001 ppm. 17 refs., 18 tabs., 5 figs

  5. Forward osmosis - a novel membrane process for concentration of low level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, A.K.; Bindal, R.C.; Tewari, P.K.

    2013-01-01

    Forward osmosis (FO) is an emerging membrane process in which osmotic pressure differential across a semi-permeable membrane between the solution to be concentrated (feed) and a concentrated solution of high osmotic pressure (draw solution) than the feed is used to effect separation of water from dissolved solutes. With time, feed stream gets concentrated with dilution of draw solution and this technology recently being used as more energy efficient alternative to reverse osmosis (RO) in some of the application areas, particularly for the concentration of low volume high value products. The use of pressure driven membrane processes like reverse osmosis (RO) and ultrafiltration (UF) are already demonstrated in the treatment of radioactive laundry, laboratory effluents and some other applications in nuclear industry. The application of FO membrane process to concentrate simulated inactive ammonium-diuranate (ADU) filtered effluent solution (by mixing uranyl nitrate and ammonium nitrate) using indigenously developed cellulose acetate (CA) and thin-film composite polyamide (TFCP) membranes has been published recently from our laboratory. In this presentation, we briefly discuss our views on possibility of using FO membrane process with proper selection of membrane for concentration of low level radioactive wastes generated in various steps of nuclear fuel cycle in most effective way. (author)

  6. Geologic influence on indoor radon concentrations and gamma radiation levels in Norwegian dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundal, Aud Venche

    2003-09-01

    Indoor radon levels in 1618 Norwegian dwellings located in different geological settings were compared with geological information in order to determine potential correlations between geological factors and indoor radon concentrations in Norway and to establish whether geological information is useful in radon risk analysis. In two geographically limited areas, Kinsarvik and Fen, detailed geological and geochemical investigations were carried out in order to explain their elevated natural radiation environment. Significant correlations between geology and indoor radon concentrations in Norway are found when the properties of both the bedrock and the overburden are taken into account. Areas of high radon risk in Norway include 1) exposed bedrock with elevated levels of radium (mainly alum shale and granites) and b) highly permeable unconsolidated sediments derived from all rock types (mainly glaciofluvial and fluvial deposits) and moderately permeable sediments containing radium rich rock fragments (mainly basal till). More than 20 % of Norwegian dwellings located in the high-risk areas can be expected to contain radon levels exceeding 200 Bq/m3. The elevated radon risk related to penneable building grounds is illustrated in Kinsarvik where the highly permeable sediments and the large vadose zone underlying the Huse residential area enable the transport of radon from large volumes into the dwellings resulting in enhanced indoor radon concentrations. Subterranean air flows caused by temperature/pressure differences between soil air and atmospheric air and elevations differences within the Huse area are shown to strongly affect the annual variations in indoor radon concentrations. The marked contrasts in radon risk potential between different types of building grounds are clearly illustrated in the Fen area where outcrops of the radium rich Fen carbonatites represent areas of high radon risk while only low levels of both indoor radon concentrations and indoor gamma

  7. Recommendation to increase the test concentration of methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone in the European baseline patch test series - on behalf of the European Society of Contact Dermatitis and the European Environmental and Contact Dermatitis Research Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruze, Magnus; Goossens, An; Isaksson, Marléne

    2014-07-01

    Methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI)/methylisothiazolinone (MI) in aqua is present in the European baseline patch test series at 100 ppm, whereas 200 ppm has been used in Sweden since 1986, in Spain in the late 1980s, and, in recent years, also in the United Kingdom and Ireland. With regard to MCI/MI, to investigate the data on contact allergy rates in dermatitis patients, the frequencies of allergic contact dermatitis in the same group, and adverse reactions, particularly patch test sensitization in tested dermatitis patients, and to find the optimal patch test concentration as dose in mg/cm(2) . We performed a survey of the literature found via the National Library of Medicine (PubMed, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed, last accessed 20 February 2014). MCI/MI at 200 ppm aq. diagnosis substantially more contact allergy and allergic contact dermatitis, without any registered increase in patch test sensitization, than the presently used concentration of 100 ppm. MCI/MI at 200 ppm aq. is recommended to be included in the European baseline patch test series. To avoid patch test sensitization, a dose of 0.006 mg/cm(2) must not be exceeded, which means a volume of 15 µl for Finn Chambers(®) (Ø 8 mm). © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Baseline levels of bioaerosols and volatile organic compounds around a municipal waste incinerator prior to the construction of a mechanical-biological treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilavert, Lolita; Nadal, Marti; Inza, Isabel; Figueras, Maria J.; Domingo, Jose L.

    2009-01-01

    New waste management programs are currently aimed at developing alternative treatment technologies such as mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) and composting plants. However, there is still a high uncertainty concerning the chemical and microbiological risks for human health, not only for workers of these facilities, but also for the population living in the neighborhood. A new MBT plant is planned to be constructed adjacently to a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) in Tarragona (Catalonia, Spain). In order to evaluate its potential impact and to differentiate the impacts of MSWI from those of the MBT when the latter is operative, a pre-operational survey was initiated by determining the concentrations of 20 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and bioaerosols (total bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, fungi and Aspergillus fumigatus) in airborne samples around the MSWI. The results indicated that the current concentrations of bioaerosols (ranges: 382-3882, 18-790, 44-926, and 3 for fungi at 25 deg. C, fungi at 37 deg. C, total bacteria, and Gram-negative bacteria, respectively) and VOCs (ranging from 0.9 to 121.2 μg/m 3 ) are very low in comparison to reported levels in indoor and outdoor air in composting and MBT plants, as well in urban and industrial zones. With the exception of total bacteria, no correlations were observed between the environmental concentrations of biological agents and the direction/distance from the facility. However, total bacteria presented significantly higher levels downwind. Moreover, a non-significant increase of VOCs was detected in sites closer to the incinerator, which means that the MSWI could have a very minor impact on the surrounding environment.

  9. Benefits of combination of insulin degludec and liraglutide are independent of baseline glycated haemoglobin level and duration of type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodbard, Helena W; Buse, John B; Woo, Vincent C

    2016-01-01

    liraglutide, irrespective of baseline HbA1c. In DUAL II, insulin dose and hypoglycaemia rate were similar with IDegLira and IDeg (maximum dose limited to 50 U) independent of baseline HbA1c. The reduction in HbA1c with IDegLira was independent of disease duration and previous insulin dose but varied depending...... of disease progression stage including baseline glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), disease duration and previous insulin dose. RESULTS: Across four categories of baseline HbA1c (≤7.5-9.0%), HbA1c reductions were significantly greater with IDegLira (1.1-2.5%) compared with IDeg or liraglutide alone in DUAL I...

  10. Association of Children’s Urinary CC16 Levels with Arsenic Concentrations in Multiple Environmental Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma I. Beamer

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic exposure has been associated with decreased club cell secretory protein (CC16 levels in adults. Further, both arsenic exposure and decreased levels of CC16 in childhood have been associated with decreased adult lung function. Our objective was to determine if urinary CC16 levels in children are associated with arsenic concentrations in environmental media collected from their homes. Yard soil, house dust, and tap water were taken from 34 homes. Urine and toenail samples were collected from 68 children. All concentrations were natural log-transformed prior to data analysis. There were associations between urinary CC16 and arsenic concentration in soil (b = −0.43, p = 0.001, R2 = 0.08, water (b = −0.22, p = 0.07, R2 = 0.03, house dust (b = −0.37, p = 0.07, R2 = 0.04, and dust loading (b = −0.21, p = 0.04, R2 = 0.04. In multiple analyses, only the concentration of arsenic in soil was associated with urinary CC16 levels (b = −0.42, p = 0.02, R2 = 0.14 (full model after accounting for other factors. The association between urinary CC16 and soil arsenic may suggest that localized arsenic exposure in the lungs could damage the airway epithelium and predispose children for diminished lung function. Future work to assess this possible mechanism should examine potential associations between airborne arsenic exposures, CC16 levels, lung function, and other possible confounders in children in arsenic-impacted communities.

  11. Radionuclide concentration in ground-level air in 1991 in North Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, W.; Wershofen, H.

    1992-03-01

    The activity concentration of various fission products and some other radionuclides (e.g. Be-7, Na-22, K-40 and Pb-210) contained in ground-level air were determined by gamma-ray spectroscopy. Weekly and mean monthly activity concentrations measured in Brunswick and Berlin are tabulated. From 1990 to 1991 the Cs-137 concentration in Brunswick decreased only slightly. It was less than 0.1% of that in 1986 but due to resuspended soil dust still three times higher than in 1985. Occasionally, traces of activation products were detected such as Cr-51, Mn-54 or Co-60 in Januray and February in Brunswick and Berlin. The effective equivalent dose due to the inhalation of fission products is estimated to be less than 0.1% of the Pb-210 inhalation dose. (orig.) [de

  12. Effect of Nearby Forest Fires on Ground Level Ozone Concentrations in Santiago, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María A. Rubio

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available On 4 and 8 January 2014, at the height of the austral summer, intense wildfires in forests and dry pastures occurred in the Melipilla sector, located about 70 km to the southwest of Santiago, the Chilean capital, affecting more than 6 million inhabitants. Low level winds transported the forest fire plume towards Santiago causing a striking decrease in visibility and a marked increase in the concentration of both primary (PM10 and CO and secondary (Ozone pollutants in the urban atmosphere. In particular, ozone maximum concentrations in the Santiago basin reached hourly averages well above 80 ppb, the national air quality standard. This ozone increase took place at the three sampling sites considered in the present study. These large values can be explained in terms of high NOx concentrations and NO2/NO ratios in biomass burning emissions.

  13. Levels of tritium concentration in the environmental samples around JAERI TOKAI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, K.; Sasa, Y.; Nakamura, C.; Katagiri, H.

    1995-01-01

    By the operation of research reactors, tritium-handling facilities, nuclear power plants, and a reprocessing facility around JAERI TOKAI, tritium is released into the environment in compliance with the regulatory standards. To investigate the levels of tritium concentration in environmental samples around JAERI, rain, air (vapor and hydrogen gas), and tissue-free water of pine needles were measured and analyzed from 1984 to 1993. Sampling locations were determined by taking into consideration wind direction, distance from nuclear facilities, and population distribution. The NAKA site (about 6 km west-northwest from the Tokai site) was also selected as a reference point. Rain and tissue-free water of pine needles were sampled monthly. For air samples, sampling was carried out for two weeks by using the continuous tritium sampler. After the pretreatment of samples, tritium concentrations were measured by a low background liquid scintillation counter (detection limit 0.8 Bq/l). Annual mean tritium concentrations in rain observed at six points for 10 years was 0.8 to 8.9 Bq/l, which decreased with distance from the nuclear facilities. Tritium concentrations in rain obtained at Chiba City were around 0.8 Bq/l (1987-1988) and those at the NAKA site were 0.8 to 3.8 Bq/l. Annual mean HTO concentrations in air at three points for 10 years were 9.2 x 10 -2 to 1.1 Bq/m 3 , although HT concentrations in air, ranging from 1.7 x 10 -2 to 5.8 x 10 -2 Bq/m 3 , were not influenced by the operation of the nuclear facilities. Annual mean tritium concentrations in tissue-free water of pine needles at four points for 10 years were 1.4 to 31 Bq/l. Those at the NAKA site ranging from 1.4 to 6.2 Bq/l were in good agreement with the reported value by Takashima of 0.78 to 3.0 Bq/l at twenty-one locations in Japan. Monthly mean HTO concentrations in air for 10 years showed a good correlation with absolute humidity, while other samples showed no seasonal variation. Higher level tritium

  14. Baseline blood pressure, low- and high-density lipoproteins, and triglycerides and the risk of vascular events in the Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels (SPARCL) trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amarenco, Pierre; Goldstein, Larry B; Callahan, Alfred

    2009-01-01

    AND RESULTS: The SPARCL trial randomized 4731 patients with recent stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) and no known coronary heart disease and LDL-C between 100 and 190 mg/dL to either atorvastatin 80 mg/d or placebo. Baseline assessment included SBP, DBP and measurements of low-density lipoprotein...... associated with MCVE. Atorvastatin treatment was similarly effective regardless of baseline lipoprotein levels....

  15. Optimizing measurement sensitivity to facilitate monitoring environmental levels of Rn-daughter concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.J.; McDowell, W.P.; Groer, P.G.; Witek, R.T.

    1977-01-01

    In the measurement of environmental levels of radioactivity, the primary problem is the accumulation of a statistically meaningful number of counts within a reasonable period of time. In the case of measurements of airborne 222 Rn-daughter concentrations, the problem is further complicated by the particularly short half-life, 3.05 minutes, of RaA (Po 218 ). Since the Rn-daughters, (RaA, RaB [Pb 214 ] and RaC [Bi 214 ]) are of interest, the equations interrelating these Rn-daughter concentrations were derived from the laws of radioactive-series decay. These equations, although straightforward, are cumbersome to solve. To facilitate the efficient use of these equations, a computer program has been written which permits the calculation of Rn-daughter concentrations or expected counts for a given set of measurement parameters (flow rate and detector efficiencies). A subroutine then calculates the optimum pumping and counting times required to provide the number of counts necessary for acceptable statistics at environmental levels of 222 Rn-daughter concentrations. This subroutine contains a set of parameters, flow rate and efficiencies, that are fixed using realistic restrictions. The use of these optimized pumping and counting times results in maximum measurement sensitivity under realistic constraints

  16. Data on fluoride concentration levels in semi-arid region of Medak, Telangana, South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adimalla Narsimha

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available According to the World Health Organization recommendation, the optimal fluoride concentration levels in drinking water have to be in the range of 0.5 and 1.5 mg/L since this permissible range is essential for normal mineralization of bones and teeth as well as for dental enamel formation in human's body Bell and budwig, 1970; Adimalla and Venkatayogi, 2017; Narsimha and Sudarshan, 2013, 2016; 2017 [1,2,4,5,6]. If continues intake of high fluoride (>1.5 water can severely cause dental and skeletal fluorosis. The investigated area people majorly depend on groundwater for drinking purposes and fluoride concentration ranged from 0.2 to 7.4 mg/L with mean concentration of 2.7 mg/L and data was compared with WHO guidelines for drinking purposes. Overall, data reveals that the 57% of groundwater samples data was not safe for drinking purposes. Therefore, distribution of fluoride in the groundwater of Medak region in Telangana was suggested to intake drinking water, which are below level of fluoride concentration in the groundwater and take care about health implications.

  17. Concentration levels of radon in air, indoors and outdoors in houses of Mexico City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena Garcia, P.

    1992-01-01

    Concentration levels of radon in air, indoors and outdoors have been obtained in houses from Mexico City, with the purpose of relating them with the local environment. Measurements were performed both outdoors and indoors in 60 unifamiliar houses. Track detectors, LR-115, Type II, were used in several detection arrangements during four recording periods with times of exposure of three months each, with the purpose of analyzing the fluctuations due to seasonal changes. Data were obtained about the construction materials were the detection systems were located in order to establish a correlation of radon levels with the climatic parameters and the construction materials. The results of radon concentrations both indoors or outdoors were lower than the international recommendations (148 Bq/m 3 ) (Author)

  18. Leveling and thixotropic characteristics of concentrated zirconia inks for screen-printing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phair, John; Lundberg, Mats; Kaiser, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    of ethyl cellulose (binder) content upon the thixotropic and leveling characteristics of zirconia inks. While the yield stress (τ 0), extent of recovery R(%), and rate of recovery (K) increase with increasing binder content, so did the surface roughness and thickness of the screen-printed films. Increasing...... the binder content not only increases the network strength of the thick films but also leads to increased leveling time. As a result, rheological modifiers are proposed to be necessary to improve the leveling characteristics of zirconia inks without losing the green strength of the thick films......Screen-printing is a cost-effective method for the mass manufacture of zirconia-based solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and oxygen separation membranes. The present work outlines an investigation into the leveling, thixotropic, and screen-printing characteristics of concentrated zirconia inks...

  19. Laboratory actinide partitioning: Whitlockite/liquid and influence of actinide concentration levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, T.M.; Jones, J.H.; Heuser, W.R.; Burnett, D.S.

    1983-01-01

    Fission and alpha track radiography techniques have been used to measure partition coefficients (D) at trace (ppm) concentration levels for the actinide elements Th, U, and Pu between synthetic whitlockite and coexisting 'haplobasaltic' silicate liquid at 1 bar pressure and 1250 deg C at oxygen fugacities from 10 sup(-8.5) and 10sup(-0.7) bars. Pu is much more readily incorporated into crystalline phases than is U or Th under reducing conditions, because Pu is primarily trivalent, whereas U and Th are tetravalent. Definitive valence state assignments cannot be made, but our best estimates of corrected partition coefficients for Pu +3 , Pu +4 , Th +4 , U +4 , and U +6 are given for whitlockites. The effect of changing pressure and liquidus temperature is relatively small, which probably reflects a weak temperature dependence for D (whitlockite) but possibly could be due to cancellation of opposing temperature and pressure effects. Comparison of experiments at trace U levels with those containing percent concentrations of UO 2 indicate that Si is involved in the substitution of U in whitlockite with U + 2Si Ca + 2P being the most likely mechanism. Dsub(U) is lower, 0.3 vs 0.5, at percent levels compared to 20 ppm. This is best explained by the effect of U on melt structure or by a decrease in the fraction of tetravalent U at high concentrations. (author)

  20. Sources and levels of concentration of metal pollutants in Kubanni dam, Zaria, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butu, A.W.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper looked at the sources and levels of concentration of metal pollutants in Kubanni dam, Zaria, Nigeria. The main sources of data for the study were sediment from four different sections of the long profile of the dam. The samples were prepared in the laboratory according to standard methods and the instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA technique was adopted in the analysis using Nigeria Research Reactor – 1 (NIRR – 1. The results of the analysis showed that 29 metal pollutants; Mg, Al, Ca, Ti, V, Mn, Dy, Na, K, As, La, Sm, Yb, U, Br, Sc, Cr, Fe, Co, Rb, Zn,Cs, Ba, Eu, Lu, Hf, Ta, Sb and Th currently exist in Kubanni dam in various levels of concentrations. The results showed that most of the metal pollutants in the dam are routed to anthropogenic activities within the dam catchment area while few are routed to geologic formation. The results further revealed that metal pollutants that their sources are traceable to refuse dumps, farmlands, public drains and effluents showed higher levels of concentration in the dam than the ones that are gradually released from the soil regolith system.

  1. Postvaccination C-Reactive Protein and C5/gp41732-744 Antibody Level Fold-Changes Over Baseline Are Independent Predictors of Therapeutic HIV Vaccine Effect in a Phase 2 Clinical Study of Vacc-4x.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yunda; Zhang, Lily; Jolliffe, Darren; Sanchez, Brittany; Stjernholm, Grete; Jelmert, Øyvind; Ökvist, Mats; Sommerfelt, Maja A

    2018-03-01

    Therapeutic vaccination has the potential to contribute to functional HIV cure strategies. However, to show functional HIV cure, study participants must be taken off combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). The availability of suitable biomarkers that can predict viral load (VL) or CD4 count outcomes following therapeutic HIV vaccination would reduce the risks associated with cART interruption in such studies. This report sought to determine baseline and postvaccination biomarker predictors of vaccine effect (VE) on VL and CD4 counts following cART interruption in a double-blind, randomized phase 2 study of the peptide-based therapeutic HIV vaccine, Vacc-4x (n = 93), versus placebo (n = 43). Antibody responses to a novel envelope glycoprotein antigen, C5/gp41 732-744 , and three safety marker measurements [C-reactive protein (CRP), white blood cell, and lactate dehydrogenase] were considered. Interaction tests in univariate and multivariate linear regression models were used to estimate the effect of biomarkers on VE, defined as the VL or CD4 count difference in Vacc-4x versus placebo groups. The reported q-values (considered significant for hypothesis-generating purposes if ≤0.2) accounted for multiple comparisons using the false discovery rate method. Data were analyzed from all available 58 Vacc-4x and 25 placebo recipients before cART resumption. Lower postvaccination fold-change over baseline of CRP concentration (interaction p- (q-) value = 0.005 (0.11) for VL) and higher fold-change of anti-C5/gp41 732-744 antibody levels (0.005 (0.11) for VL and 0.009 (0.20) for CD4) were associated with Vacc-4x benefit. These findings suggest potential roles for inflammation and immune activation markers in predicting therapeutic HIV VE.

  2. Serum apolipoprotein E concentration and polymorphism influence serum lipid levels in Chinese Shandong Han population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, ShuYi; Xu, YiHui; Gao, MeiHua; Wang, YunShan; Wang, Jun; Liu, YanYan; Wang, Min; Zhang, XiaoQian

    2016-12-01

    Apolipoprotein E (ApoE), which has been shown to influence serum lipid parameters, can bind to multiple types of lipids and plays an important role in the metabolism and homeostasis of lipids and lipoproteins. A previous study showed that ApoE concentration significantly affects serum lipid levels independently of ApoE polymorphism. The serum lipid levels were also closely correlated with dietary habits, and Shandong cuisine is famous for its high salt and oil contents, which widely differ among the different areas in China. Therefore, studying the effect of ApoE polymorphism on ApoE concentration and serum lipid levels in Shandong province is very important.A total of 815 subjects including 285 men and 530 women were randomly selected and studied from Jinan, Shandong province. In order to evaluate the association of ApoE polymorphism and serum level on lipid profiles, the ApoE genotypes, as well as levels of fasting serum ApoE and other lipid parameters, were detected in all subjects.The frequency of the ApoE E3 allele was highest (83.1%), while those of E2 and E4 were 9.4% and 7.5%, respectively, which are similar to those in other Asian populations. ApoE2 allele carriers showed significantly increased ApoE levels but lower levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and Apolipoprotein B (ApoB).We found that ApoE level is influenced by ApoE polymorphism in a gene-dependent manner. The ApoE polymorphism showed different influences on serum lipid parameters with increasing age and body mass index (BMI) in our Shandong Han population.

  3. Radiological Modeling for Determination of Derived Concentration Levels of an Area with Uranium Residual Material - 13533

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Sanchez, Danyl [CIEMAT, Avenida Complutense 40, 28040, Madrid (Spain)

    2013-07-01

    As a result of a pilot project developed at the old Spanish 'Junta de Energia Nuclear' to extract uranium from ores, tailings materials were generated. Most of these residual materials were sent back to different uranium mines, but a small amount of it was mixed with conventional building materials and deposited near the old plant until the surrounding ground was flattened. The affected land is included in an area under institutional control and used as recreational area. At the time of processing, uranium isotopes were separated but other radionuclides of the uranium decay series as Th-230, Ra-226 and daughters remain in the residue. Recently, the analyses of samples taken at different ground's depths confirmed their presence. This paper presents the methodology used to calculate the derived concentration level to ensure that the reference dose level of 0.1 mSv y-1 used as radiological criteria. In this study, a radiological impact assessment was performed modeling the area as recreational scenario. The modelization study was carried out with the code RESRAD considering as exposure pathways, external irradiation, inadvertent ingestion of soil, inhalation of resuspended particles, and inhalation of radon (Rn-222). As result was concluded that, if the concentration of Ra-226 in the first 15 cm of soil is lower than, 0.34 Bq g{sup -1}, the dose would not exceed the reference dose. Applying this value as a derived concentration level and comparing with the results of measurements on the ground, some areas with a concentration of activity slightly higher than latter were found. In these zones the remediation proposal has been to cover with a layer of 15 cm of clean material. This action represents a reduction of 85% of the dose and ensures compliance with the reference dose. (authors)

  4. Comparison of Three Methods Estimating Baseline Creatinine For Acute Kidney Injury in Hospitalized Patients: a Multicentre Survey in Third-Level Urban Hospitals of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Xia-Bing; Yang, Yi; Yang, Ju-Rong; Wan, Jian-Xin; Yu, Sheng-Qiang; Cui, Jiong; Tang, Xiao-Jing; Chen, Jianghua

    2018-01-01

    A lack of baseline serum creatinine (SCr) data leads to underestimation of the burden caused by acute kidney injury (AKI) in developing countries. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of various baseline SCr analysis methods on the current diagnosis of AKI in hospitalized patients. Patients with at least one SCr value during their hospital stay between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2012 were retrospectively included in the study. The baseline SCr was determined either by the minimum SCr (SCrMIN) or the estimated SCr using the MDRD formula (SCrGFR-75). We also used the dynamic baseline SCr (SCrdynamic) in accordance with the 7 day/48 hour time window. AKI was defined based on the KDIGO SCr criteria. Of 562,733 hospitalized patients, 350,458 (62.3%) had at least one SCr determination, and 146,185 (26.0%) had repeat SCr tests. AKI was diagnosed in 13,883 (2.5%) patients using the SCrMIN, 21,281 (3.8%) using the SCrGFR-75 and 9,288 (1.7%) using the SCrdynamic. Compared with the non-AKI patients, AKI patients had a higher in-hospital mortality rate regardless of the baseline SCr analysis method. Because of the scarcity of SCr data, imputation of the baseline SCr is necessary to remedy the missing data. The detection rate of AKI varies depending on the different imputation methods. SCrGFR-75 can identify more AKI cases than the other two methods. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Comparison of Three Methods Estimating Baseline Creatinine For Acute Kidney Injury in Hospitalized Patients: a Multicentre Survey in Third-Level Urban Hospitals of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia-bing Lang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: A lack of baseline serum creatinine (SCr data leads to underestimation of the burden caused by acute kidney injury (AKI in developing countries. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of various baseline SCr analysis methods on the current diagnosis of AKI in hospitalized patients. Methods: Patients with at least one SCr value during their hospital stay between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2012 were retrospectively included in the study. The baseline SCr was determined either by the minimum SCr (SCrMIN or the estimated SCr using the MDRD formula (SCrGFR-75. We also used the dynamic baseline SCr (SCrdynamic in accordance with the 7 day/48 hour time window. AKI was defined based on the KDIGO SCr criteria. Results: Of 562,733 hospitalized patients, 350,458 (62.3% had at least one SCr determination, and 146,185 (26.0% had repeat SCr tests. AKI was diagnosed in 13,883 (2.5% patients using the SCrMIN, 21,281 (3.8% using the SCrGFR-75 and 9,288 (1.7% using the SCrdynamic. Compared with the non-AKI patients, AKI patients had a higher in-hospital mortality rate regardless of the baseline SCr analysis method. Conclusions: Because of the scarcity of SCr data, imputation of the baseline SCr is necessary to remedy the missing data. The detection rate of AKI varies depending on the different imputation methods. SCrGFR-75 can identify more AKI cases than the other two methods.

  6. Venom Concentrations and Clotting Factor Levels in a Prospective Cohort of Russell's Viper Bites with Coagulopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey K Isbister

    Full Text Available Russell's viper envenoming is a major problem in South Asia and causes venom induced consumption coagulopathy. This study aimed to investigate the kinetics and dynamics of venom and clotting function in Russell's viper envenoming.In a prospective cohort of 146 patients with Russell's viper envenoming, we measured venom concentrations, international normalised ratio [INR], prothrombin time (PT, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT, coagulation factors I, II, V, VII, VIII, IX and X, and von Willebrand factor antigen. The median age was 39 y (16-82 y and 111 were male. The median peak INR was 6.8 (interquartile range [IQR]: 3.7 to >13, associated with low fibrinogen [median,3 at 6 h post-antivenom but had reduced to <2, by 24 h. The aPTT had also returned to close to normal (<50 sec at 24 h. Factor VII, VIII and IX levels were unusually high pre-antivenom, median peak concentrations of 393%, 307% and 468% respectively. Pre-antivenom venom concentrations and the INR (r = 0.20, p = 0.02 and aPTT (r = 0.19, p = 0.03 were correlated (non-parametric Spearman analysis.Russell's viper coagulopathy results in prolonged aPTT, INR, low fibrinogen, factors V, VIII and X which recover over 48 h. Severity of clotting abnormalities was associated with venom concentrations.

  7. Concentration Levels of Imidacloprid and Dinotefuran in Five Tissue Types of Black Walnut, Juglans nigra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Merten

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Black walnut, a valuable economic and environmentally important species, is threatened by thousand cankers disease. Systemic imidacloprid and dinotefuran applications were made to mature black walnut trees to evaluate their translocation and concentration levels in various tissue types including leaf, twig, trunk core, nutmeat, and walnut husk. The metabolism of imidacloprid in plants produces a metabolite, olefin-imidacloprid, which has been documented to have insecticidal properties in other systems. Trunk CoreTect (imidacloprid soil pellets and a trunk spray of dinotefuran were applied to mature black walnuts in spring 2011. Imidacloprid concentrations were detected in both the lower and upper strata in all tissue types tested and progressively increased through month 12 post-treatment in twig and leaf tissue. Olefin-imidacloprid was detected in the nutmeat and walnut husk. Dinotefuran was only detected in the first sampling period and was found in low concentration levels in leaf and twig tissue types, and was not detected in the trunk, nutmeat or the walnut husk.

  8. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban air : concentration levels and patterns and source analysis in Nairobi, Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muthini, M.; Yoshimichi, H.; Yutaka, K.; Shigeki, M. [Yokohama National Univ., Yokohama (Japan). Graduate School of Environment and Information Sciences

    2005-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in the environment are often the result of incomplete combustion processes. This paper reported concentration levels and patterns of high molecular weight PAHs in Nairobi, Kenya. Daily air samples for 30 different PAHs were collected at residential, industrial and business sites within the city. Samples were then extracted using deuterated PAH with an automated Soxhlet device. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with a capillary column was used to analyze the extracts using a selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. Statistical analyses were then performed. PAH concentration levels were reported for average, median, standard deviation, range, and Pearson's correlation coefficients. Data were then analyzed for sources using a principal component analysis (PCA) technique and isomer ratio analysis. Nonparametric testing was then conducted to detect inherent differences in PAH concentration data obtained from the different sites. Results showed that pyrene was the most abundant PAH. Carcinogenic PAHs were higher in high-traffic areas. The correlation coefficient between coronene and benzo(ghi)pyrene was high. The PAH isomer ratio analysis demonstrated that PAHs in Nairobi are the product of traffic emissions and oil combustion. Results also showed that PAH profiles were not well separated. It was concluded that source distinction methods must be improved in order to better evaluate PAH emissions in the city. 9 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig.

  9. 2017 Annual Technology Baseline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Wesley J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hand, M. M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eberle, Annika [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Beiter, Philipp C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurup, Parthiv [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Turchi, Craig S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Feldman, David J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Augustine, Chad R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Maness, Michael [Formerly NREL; O' Connor, Patrick [Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    2018-03-26

    Consistent cost and performance data for various electricity generation technologies can be difficult to find and may change frequently for certain technologies. With the Annual Technology Baseline (ATB), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory annually provides an organized and centralized set of such cost and performance data. The ATB uses the best information from the Department of Energy national laboratories' renewable energy analysts as well as information from the Energy Information Administration for fuel-based technologies. The ATB has been reviewed by experts and it includes the following electricity generation technologies: land-based wind, offshore wind, utility-scale solar photovoltaics (PV), commercial-scale solar PV, residential-scale solar PV, concentrating solar power, geothermal power, hydropower, coal, natural gas, nuclear, and conventional biopower. This webinar presentation introduces the 2017 ATB.

  10. Cortisol levels at baseline and under stress in adolescent males with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, with or without comorbid conduct disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northover, Clare; Thapar, Anita; Langley, Kate; Fairchild, Graeme; van Goozen, Stephanie H M

    2016-08-30

    Reported findings on cortisol reactivity to stress in young people with ADHD are very variable. This inconsistency may be explained by high rates of comorbidity with Conduct Disorder (CD). The present study examined cortisol responses to a psychosocial stressor in a large sample of adolescent males with ADHD (n=202), with or without a comorbid diagnosis of Conduct Disorder (CD). Associations between stress reactivity and callous-unemotional traits and internalizing symptoms were also assessed. The ADHD only (n=95) and ADHD+CD (n=107) groups did not differ in baseline cortisol, but the ADHD+CD group showed significantly reduced cortisol stress reactivity relative to the ADHD only group. Regression analyses indicated that ADHD symptom severity predicted reduced baseline cortisol, whereas CD symptom severity predicted increased baseline cortisol (ADHD β=-0.24, CD β=0.16, R=0.26) and reduced cortisol stress reactivity (β=-0.17, R=0.17). Callous-unemotional traits and internalizing symptoms were not significantly related to baseline or stress-induced cortisol. Impaired cortisol reactivity is hypothesised to reflect fearlessness and is associated with deficient emotion regulation and inhibition of aggressive and antisocial behaviour. Consequently, it may partly explain the greater severity of problems seen in those with comorbid ADHD and CD. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Comprehensive Approach for Monitoring and Analyzing the Activity Concentration Level of PET Isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osovizky, A.; Paran, J.; Ankry, N.; Vulasky, E.; Ashkenazi, B.; Tal, N.; Dolev, E.; Gonen, E.

    2004-01-01

    A comprehensive approach for measuring and analyzing low concentration levels of positron emitter isotopes is introduced. The solution is based on a Continuous Air Monitoring Sampler (CAMS), Stack Monitoring System (SMS) and software package. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a major tool for both, biochemical research and non-invasive diagnostics for medicine imaging. The PET method utilizes short half life β + radioisotopes that are produced in cyclotron sites built especially for this purpose. The growing need for β + isotopes brought about a commonly wide use of cyclotrons next to populated areas. Isotopes production involves two possible radiation hazards deriving from the activity concentration; one refers to the nearby population by the activity released through the ventilation system and the other refers to the personnel working in the nuclear facility. A comprehensive system providing solution for both radiation hazards is introduced in this work

  12. Time variation of 222Rn concentration and gamma level in a half-basement room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iimoto, Takeshi; Eguchi, Hoshio; Kosako, Toshiso; Sugiura, Nobuyuki

    1998-01-01

    Correlation between 222 Rn (radon) concentration and gamma level in a half-basement has been discussed. In order to decrease the background count of a whole-body counter (WBC), a ventilation blower of 72 m 2 h -1 was installed. The device succeeded in a big reduction of radon concentration in the half-basement and then the background of WBC (NaI(Tl)) decreased to the 76.5% of the saturated value. Through a radon saturation test the exhalation rate of radon from concrete wall was estimated as 2.1 Bqm -2 h -1 by a simple model calculation. In addition, through a ventilation test, the procedure was analyzed by another simple model. (author)

  13. Treatment of low level radioactive liquid waste containing appreciable concentration of TBP degraded products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valsala, T P; Sonavane, M S; Kore, S G; Sonar, N L; De, Vaishali; Raghavendra, Y; Chattopadyaya, S; Dani, U; Kulkarni, Y; Changrani, R D

    2011-11-30

    The acidic and alkaline low level radioactive liquid waste (LLW) generated during the concentration of high level radioactive liquid waste (HLW) prior to vitrification and ion exchange treatment of intermediate level radioactive liquid waste (ILW), respectively are decontaminated by chemical co-precipitation before discharge to the environment. LLW stream generated from the ion exchange treatment of ILW contained high concentrations of carbonates, tributyl phosphate (TBP) degraded products and problematic radio nuclides like (106)Ru and (99)Tc. Presence of TBP degraded products was interfering with the co-precipitation process. In view of this a modified chemical treatment scheme was formulated for the treatment of this waste stream. By mixing the acidic LLW and alkaline LLW, the carbonates in the alkaline LLW were destroyed and the TBP degraded products got separated as a layer at the top of the vessel. By making use of the modified co-precipitation process the effluent stream (1-2 μCi/L) became dischargeable to the environment after appropriate dilution. Based on the lab scale studies about 250 m(3) of LLW was treated in the plant. The higher activity of the TBP degraded products separated was due to short lived (90)Y isotope. The cement waste product prepared using the TBP degraded product was having good chemical durability and compressive strength. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Correlation between work concentration level and background music: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Yi-Nuo; Huang, Rong-Hwa; Chiang, Han-Sun

    2009-01-01

    It is a common phenomenon for office workers {to listen to music} while executing daily routines at their desks. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between work concentration level and background music. This research would first follow examples in previous researches, and then explore the influence of background music on participants' scores on attention tests. We hope to gain a preliminary understanding of the possible influence of background music on people's focus and concentration when doing work. Thirty-two college students were separated into three controlled groups; all were given the attention test. Group [a] listened to background music while being tested for 10 minutes; group [b] had no background music at all; and group [c] listened to the music for 10 minutes prior to the attention test. The test was conducted in a "noise free" environment. The means and error rates for each group were then calculated. The findings showed that, in comparison with "no music at all", those who listened to music prior to testing obtained higher scores in attentiveness (most probably a supplemental effect of the music), whereas those who listened to music during attention test showed extremely high level of variation in attention test scoring. Background music does affect people's job-site behavior. In fact, all three test conditions - no background music at all, background music before the work shift, and background music during work - have affected worker performance on different levels.

  15. Stabilising greenhouse gas concentrations at low levels. An assessment of options and costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Vuuren, D.P.; Den Elzen, M.G.J.; Lucas, P.L.; Eickhout, B.; Strengers, B.J.; Van Ruijven, B.; Berk, M.M.; De Vries, H.J.M.; Wonink, S.J.; Van den Houdt, R.; Oostenrijk, R. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency MNP, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Hoogwijk, M. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands); Meinshausen, M. [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research PIK, Postdam (Germany)

    2006-10-15

    Preventing 'dangerous anthropogenic interference of the climate system' may require stabilisation of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at relatively low levels such as 550 ppm CO2-eq. and below. Relatively few studies exist that have analysed the possibilities and implications of meeting such stringent climate targets. This report presents a series of related papers that address this issue - either by focusing on individual options or by presenting overall strategies at the global and regional level. The results show that it is technically possible to reach ambitious climate targets - with abatement costs for default assumptions in the order of 1-2% of global GDP. To achieve these lower concentration levels, global emissions need to peak within 15-20 years. The stabilisation scenarios use a large portfolio of measures, including energy efficiency but also carbon capture and storage, large scale application of bio-energy, reduction of non-CO2 gasses, increased use of renewable and/or nuclear power and carbon plantations.

  16. Fabric tensile strength as affected by different anti pilling agents at various concentration and ph levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tusief, M.Q.; Mahmood, N.; Saleem, M.

    2013-01-01

    Pilling is a phenomenon that has a long cause trouble in textile industry. It is the formation of pills or knops on the surface of woven or knitted fabrics caused by friction and abrasion. If fabric has a pronounced tendency to pilling, their appearances suffer severely after a short period of use. The pilling of fabrics is a serious problem for the apparel industry. The use of anti pilling finishes is one of the best techniques to control the pilling of the fabric. In this method fabric is treated with special anti pilling agents to prevent pilling that promote adhesion of the fibres in the yarn or the fabric. This paper endeavors to optimize the application of different anti pilling agents at different concentration and pH levels on the Tensile Strength of P/C fabric for best results. The results exposed that different anti pilling finishes have significant effects on the Tensile Strength of fabric at different concentration level however different pH levels have no considerable effects. (author)

  17. Radionuclide concentrations in ground level air and precipitation in South Germany from 1976 to 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoetzl, H.; Rosner, G.; Winkler, R.

    1983-08-01

    The activity concentrations of fallout radionuclides from atmospheric nuclear test explosions and of Be-7 in ground level air and precipitation have been determined by the Institut fuer Strahlenschutz at Munich-Neuherberg since 1970. While methods and results from 1970 to 1975 have been published in a previous report, the present report describes the revised program which includes now the naturally occurring nuclides Pb-210 and Po-210, as well as H-3. Sampling methods, analytical techniques and measuring procedures are given. The results up to the end of 1982 are reported and seasonal and long-term variations of radionuclide concentrations as well as frequency distributions of the data are discussed. The data are compared with those of other stations. As a consequence of some recent atmospheric nuclear test explosions by the People's Republic of China also short-lived radionuclides have been detected in ground level air and precipitation. The radiation exposure due to the radioactivity in ground level air and precipitation is estimated. (orig.)

  18. Measurements of radon concentration levels in drinking water at urban area of Curitiba, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, Janine Nicolosi; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Schelin, Hugo R.; Barbosa, Laercio; Sadula, Tatyana; Matsuzaki, Cristiana A.

    2009-01-01

    Current work presents the results of more than 100 measurements of 222 Rn activity in drinking water collected at artesian bores at Curitiba region during the period of 2008 - 2009. The measurements were performed at the Laboratory of Applied Nuclear Physics of the Federal University of Technology in cooperation with the Nuclear Technology Development Center (CDTN) of Brazilian Nuclear Energy Committee (CNEN). Experimental setup was based on the Professional Radon Monitor (ALPHA GUARD) connected to specific kit of glass vessels Aqua KIT through the air pump. The equipment was adjusted with air flow of 0.5 L/min. The 222 Rn concentration levels were detected and analyzed by the computer every 10 minutes using the software DataEXPERT by GENITRON Instruments. Collected average levels of 222 Rn concentration were processed taking into account the volume of water sample and its temperature, atmospheric pressure and the total volume of the air in the vessels. Collected samples of water presented the average 222 Rn activity about 57.70 Bq/L which is almost 5 times more than maximum level of 11.1 Bq/L recommended by the USEPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency). It has to be noted that many artesian drillings presented the radon activity in the range of 100 - 200 Bq/L. Further measurements are planned to be performed at other regions of Parana State and will involve the mineral water sources, explored artesian drillings as well as soil samples. (author)''

  19. Modeling the dependency of radon concentration levels inside ancient Egyptian tombs on the ambient temperature variations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metwally, S M; Abo-Elmagdb, M [Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Ain Shams University, P. O. Box 11566, Cairo (Egypt); Salamaa, E [National Institute for Standard, Radiation Measurements Department, Cairo (Egypt)

    2007-06-15

    Radon concentration inside partially closed places like dwellings, caves and tombs, depends on many parameters. Some parameters are known quantitatively as radon exhalation rate for walls, decay constant, surface to volume ratio and outdoor concentration while other parameters as ventilation rate is in common known qualitatively due to useless of traditional methods (tracer gases) in many places as ancient Egyptian tombs. This work introduces a derived mathematical model to evaluate the sensitivity of radon concentration levels inside single sided opening places as ancient Egyptian tombs on the ambient temperature differences. The obtained formula for the natural ventilation rate depends on the indoor and outdoor temperature difference and the geometrical dimensions of the doorway. The effects of in and out flow mixing, air viscosity, streamline contraction, swirling flow and turbulence, were taken into consideration in terms of an empirical correction factor. According UNSCEAR reports, the exhalation rate {phi}=C{sub ra}{lambda}{sub rn} f{rho}{sub s}(1-{epsilon})L; C{sub ra} the effective radium content, {lambda}{sub rn} decay constant, f emanation fraction, {rho}{sub s} soil grain density, {epsilon} porosity and L diffusion length, these are approximately static parameters but the variability of ambient temperature introduces a source of energy of fluctuating strength to radon atoms in rocks which controls the flow rate and the ambient content of radon. Therefore, the change of outdoor and indoor temperature difference causes fluctuation of value and direction of volume flow rate in such places consequently causes the daily variation and on average the seasonal variation of radon concentration. Therefore according to the present model, the daily accurate expectation of radon concentrations inside ancient Egyptian tombs, require precise measurements of indoor and outdoor temperatures.

  20. Long-lived 222Rn progeny concentrations in ground level air of Milan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcazzan, G.M.; Valli, G.; Vecchi, R.; Bocelli, R.

    2002-01-01

    Short-lived (2 18P o, 2 14P b, 2 14B i, 2 14P o) as well as long-lived (2 10P b, 2 10B i, 2 10P o) Radon's decay products in atmosphere are due to the 2 22R n exhalation from the continental Earth's crust, where it is generated in the 2 38U decay series. The measurement of the radionuclides concentration in the atmosphere - in addition to yielding valuable data for radioprotection purposes and for assessing the environmental impact of natural radioactivity - can provide information on atmospheric thermodynamic conditions as well as on atmospheric processes that involve aerosols such as transport, dispersion, removal rates and residence time. In particular, the concentration ratio of 2 10P b with other Radon's daughters can be used to obtain information on mean residence time of aerosols (Poet et al., 1972; Rangarajan, 1992; Gaggeler et al., 1995). Continuous measurements of hourly concentration of Radon and its short-lived progeny are routinely carried out in Milan by our group, and the temporal behaviour comes out a suitable tracer of atmospheric stability conditions and a local index of the evolution of the mixing layer height (Marcazzan et al., 1993; Marcazzan et al., 1997). The aim of this work was to measure the concentration and temporal behaviour of 2 10P b on a weekly and a monthly scale at ground level in the urban area of Milan and to get reliable measurements on the annual average concentration for the implementation of the existing data base (Preiss et al., 1996)

  1. Modeling the dependency of radon concentration levels inside ancient Egyptian tombs on the ambient temperature variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metwally, S.M.; Abo-Elmagdb, M.; Salamaa, E.

    2007-01-01

    Radon concentration inside partially closed places like dwellings, caves and tombs, depends on many parameters. Some parameters are known quantitatively as radon exhalation rate for walls, decay constant, surface to volume ratio and outdoor concentration while other parameters as ventilation rate is in common known qualitatively due to useless of traditional methods (tracer gases) in many places as ancient Egyptian tombs. This work introduces a derived mathematical model to evaluate the sensitivity of radon concentration levels inside single sided opening places as ancient Egyptian tombs on the ambient temperature differences. The obtained formula for the natural ventilation rate depends on the indoor and outdoor temperature difference and the geometrical dimensions of the doorway. The effects of in and out flow mixing, air viscosity, streamline contraction, swirling flow and turbulence, were taken into consideration in terms of an empirical correction factor. According UNSCEAR reports, the exhalation rate Φ=C ra λ rn fρ s (1-ε)L; C ra the effective radium content, λ rn decay constant, f emanation fraction, ρ s soil grain density, ε porosity and L diffusion length, these are approximately static parameters but the variability of ambient temperature introduces a source of energy of fluctuating strength to radon atoms in rocks which controls the flow rate and the ambient content of radon. Therefore, the change of outdoor and indoor temperature difference causes fluctuation of value and direction of volume flow rate in such places consequently causes the daily variation and on average the seasonal variation of radon concentration. Therefore according to the present model, the daily accurate expectation of radon concentrations inside ancient Egyptian tombs, require precise measurements of indoor and outdoor temperatures

  2. Factoring the brain signatures of anesthesia concentration and level of arousal across individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barttfeld, Pablo; Bekinschtein, Tristan A; Salles, Alejo; Stamatakis, Emmanuel A; Adapa, Ram; Menon, David K; Sigman, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    Combining resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) connectivity and behavioral analysis during sedation, we factored out general effects of the anesthetic drug propofol and a specific index of conscious report, participants' level of responsiveness. The factorial analysis shows that increasing concentration of propofol in blood specifically decreases the connectivity strength of fronto-parietal cortical loops. In contrast, loss of responsiveness is indexed by a functional disconnection between the thalamus and the frontal cortex, balanced by an increase in connectivity strength of the thalamus to the occipital and temporal regions of the cortex.

  3. The effects of oxygen level and glucose concentration on the metabolism of porcine TMJ disc cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisewski, S E; Zhang, L; Kuo, J; Wright, G J; Wu, Y; Kern, M J; Yao, H

    2015-10-01

    To determine the combined effect of oxygen level and glucose concentration on cell viability, ATP production, and matrix synthesis of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc cells. TMJ disc cells were isolated from pigs aged 6-8 months and cultured in a monolayer. Cell cultures were preconditioned for 48 h with 0, 1.5, 5, or 25 mM glucose DMEM under 1%, 5%, 10%, or 21% O2 level, respectively. The cell viability was measured using the WST-1 assay. ATP production was determined using the Luciferin-Luciferase assay. Collagen and proteoglycan synthesis were determined by measuring the incorporation of [2, 3-(3)H] proline and [(35)S] sulfate into the cells, respectively. TMJ disc cell viability significantly decreased (P oxygen levels significantly increased viability (P oxygen levels significantly reduced ATP production (P oxygen was significant in regards to cell viability (P oxygen are important, glucose is the limiting nutrient for TMJ disc cell survival. At low oxygen levels, the production of ATP, collagen, and proteoglycan are severely inhibited. These results suggest that steeper nutrient gradients may exist in the TMJ disc and it may be vulnerable to pathological events that impede nutrient supply. Copyright © 2015 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Gestational exposure to high perchlorate concentrations in drinking water and neonatal thyroxine levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amitai, Yona; Winston, Gary; Sack, Joseph; Wasser, Janice; Lewis, Matthew; Blount, Benjamin C; Valentin-Blasini, Liza; Fisher, Nirah; Israeli, Avi; Leventhal, Alex

    2007-09-01

    To assess the effect of gestational perchlorate exposure through drinking water on neonatal thyroxine (T(4)). T(4) values were compared among newborns in Ramat Hasharon, Israel, whose mothers resided in suburbs where drinking water contained perchlorate water exclusively (as determined by a telephone interview) were analyzed as a subset. Serum perchlorate levels in blood from donors residing in the area were used as proxy indicators of exposure. Neonatal T(4) values (mean +/- SD) in the very high, high, and low exposure groups were 13.9 +/- 3.8, 13.9 +/- 3.4, and 14.0 +/- 3.5 microg/dL, respectively (p = NS). Serum perchlorate concentrations in blood from donors residing in areas corresponding to these groups were 5.99 +/- 3.89, 1.19 +/- 1.37, and 0.44 +/- 0.55 microg/L, respectively. T(4) levels of neonates with putative gestational exposure to perchlorate in drinking water were not statistically different from controls. This study finds no change in neonatal T(4) levels despite maternal consumption of drinking water that contains perchlorate at levels in excess of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) drinking water equivalent level (24.5 microg/L) based on the National Research Council reference dose (RfD) [0.7 microg/(kg.day)]. Therefore the perchlorate RfD is likely to be protective of thyroid function in neonates of mothers with adequate iodide intake.

  5. Role of baseline HIV-1 DNA level in highly-experienced patients receiving raltegravir, etravirine and darunavir/ritonavir regimen (ANRS139 TRIO trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Charpentier

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In the ANRS 139 TRIO trial, the use of 3 new active drugs (raltegravir, etravirine, and darunavir/ritonavir, resulted in a potent and sustained inhibition of viral replication in multidrug-resistant treatment-experienced patients. The aim of this virological sub-study of the ANRS 139 TRIO trial was to assess: (i the evolution of HIV-1 DNA over the first year; and (ii the association between baseline HIV-1 DNA and virological outcome. METHODS: Among the 103 HIV-1-infected patients included in the ANRS-139 TRIO trial, HIV-1 DNA specimens were available for 92, 84, 88, and 83 patients at Week (W0, W12, W24, and W48, respectively. Quantification of total HIV-1 DNA was performed by using the commercial kit "Generic HIV DNA Cell" (Biocentric, Bandol, France. RESULTS: Baseline median HIV-1 DNA of patients displaying virological success (n= 61, viral blip (n= 20, and virological failure (n = 11 were 2.34 log(10 copies/10(6 PBMC (IQR= 2.15-2.66, 2.42 (IQR = 2.12-2.48, and 2.68 (IQR= 2.46-2.83, respectively. Although not statistically significant, patients exhibiting virological success or viral blip had a tendency to display lower baseline HIV-1 DNA than patients experiencing virological failure (P = 0.06. Median decrease of HIV-1 DNA between baseline and W48 was -0.13 log(10 copies/10(6 PBMC (IQR = -0.34 to +0.10, mainly explained by the evolution from W0 to W4. No more changes were observed in the W4-W48 period. CONCLUSIONS: In highly-experienced multidrug-resistant patients, HIV-1 DNA slightly decreased during the first month and then remained stable during the first year of highly potent antiretroviral regimen. In this population, baseline HIV-1 DNA might help to better predict the virological response and to tailor clinical therapeutic management as more aggressive therapeutic choices in patients with higher baseline HIV-1 DNA.

  6. Determination of the activity concentration levels of the artificial radionuclide137Cs in soil samples collected from Qatar using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sulaiti, Huda; Nasir, Tabassum; Al Mugren, K. S.; Alkhomashi, N.; Al-Dahan, N.; Al-Dosari, M.; Bradley, D. A.; Bukhari, S.; Regan, P. H.; Santawamaitre, T.; Malain, D.; Habib, A.; Al-Dosari, Hanan; Daar, Eman

    2016-09-01

    The goal of this study was to establish the first baseline measurements for radioactivity concentration of the artificial radionuclide 137Cs in soil samples collected from the Qatarian peninsula. The work focused on the determination of the activity concentrations levels of man-made radiation in 129 soil samples collected across the landscape of the State of Qatar. All the samples were collected before the most recent accident in Japan, “the 2011 Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident”. The activity concentrations have been measured via high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry using a hyper-pure germanium detector situated in a low-background environment with a copper inner-plated passive lead shield. A radiological map showing the activity concentrations of 137Cs is presented in this work. The concentration wasfound to range from 0.21 to 15.41 Bq/kg. The highest activity concentration of 137Cs was observed in sample no. 26 in North of Qatar. The mean value was found to be around 2.15 ± 0.27 Bq/kg. These values lie within the expected range relative to the countries in the region. It is expected that this contamination is mainly due to the Chernobyl accident on 26 April 1986, but this conclusion cannot be confirmed because of the lack of data before this accident.

  7. The level of 137Cs concentration in Greek soils one decade after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vosniakos, F.K.; Zoumakis, N.M.; Diomou, C.S.

    1997-01-01

    One of the most serious consequences of the Chernobyl accident was the greatest radioactive contamination of the biosphere including the soil cover. It is well known that a soil analysis is a principal systematic method to estimate the radioactivity level in the particular area since deposition pattern is determined by measuring activity in grass and soil. The aim of the present work is first to identify the level of the existing 137 Cs contamination over Greece ten years after the Chernobyl accident. Secondly, a comparison between the 1986 137 Cs - distribution and the present measured one in more - less the same areas of Greece, has been attempted. The 40 k (0.0118% of natural K) concentration in soils as ratio 137 Cs/ 40 k has been, examined, even this ratio is not as constant in biological systems as the ratio Sr/Ca

  8. Assessment of natural radioactivity concentrations and gamma dose levels around Shorapur, Karnataka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajesh, S.; Avinash, P.; Kerur, B. R., E-mail: kerurpbk@rediffmail.com.com [Department of Physics, Gulbarga University Kalaburagi – 585 106 India (India); Anilkumar, S. [Radiation Safety Systems Division, BARC, Mumbai - 400 085 (India)

    2015-08-28

    This study assesses the level of background radiation around Shorapur. The study region locates the western part of the Yadgir district of Karnataka. Shorapur and Shahapur talukas are mostly composed of clay, shale sandstone, granite rock and part of study area is black soil. Thirty sample locations were selected along the length and breadth of Shorapur and Shahapur taluka. Natural radionuclide activity concentrations in soil samples were determined using 4'X4' NaI (Tl) gamma spectroscopy. Outdoor gamma dose measurements in air at 1 m above ground level were determined using Rad Eye PRD survey meter. Estimated dose values are compared with the survey meter values and found to be good agreement between them and also with the data obtained from different other areas of Karnataka and India. The average values were found to be slightly higher in the present investigation.

  9. Correlation between gamma radiation levels and soil radium concentrations at the Edgemont uranium mill site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, R.G.; Reed, R.P.; Polehn, J.L.; Wilson, G.T.

    1985-01-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority's uranium mill in Edgemont, South Dakota, is being decommissioned. Approximately 4 million tons of contaminated tailings, building equipment, and contaminated soil and debris on the mill site will be removed to the disposal site located approximately 3 kilometers to the southeast. To minimize recontamination of cleaned areas, tailings removal will progress from the northwest corner to the southeast corner of the mill site. As specific areas are cleaned, surveys will be conducted to determine if the concentrations of radium-226 in soil are within the limits outlined in 40 CFR, Part 192. Conformance with the criteria will be demonstrated by a gamma survey of the area employing the differential, or delta-measurement, technique. This technique involves fitting the detector with a base and a receptacle for a removable high-density filter. By making measurements with and without the filter in place, a gamma radiation level proportional to the radium-226 concentration in soil can be determined. This paper describes the results obtained in the development of the correlation between the gamma survey measurements and the soil radium concentrations

  10. Correlation between gamma radiation levels and soil radium concentrations at the Edgemont uranium mill site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, R.G.; Reed, R.P.; Polehn, J.L.; Wilson, G.T.

    1986-01-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority's uranium mill in Edgemont, South Dakota is being decommissioned. Approximately 4 million tons of contaminated tailings, building equipment, and contaminated soil and debris on the mill site will be removed to the disposal site located approximately 3 kilometers to the southeast. To minimize recontamination of cleaned areas, tailings removal will progress from the northwest corner to the southeast corner of the mill site. As specific areas are cleaned, surveys will be conducted to determine if the concentrations of radium-226 in soil are within the limits outlined in 40 CFR, Part 192. Conformance with the criteria will be demonstrated by a gamma survey of the area employing the differential, or delta-measurement, technique. This technique involves fitting the detector with a base and a receptacle for a removable high-density filter. By making measurements with and without the filter in place, a gamma radiation level proportional to the radium-226 concentration in soil can be determined. This paper describes the results obtained in the development of the correlation between the gamma survey measurements and the soil radium concentrations

  11. The relationship between typhoons' peripheral circulation and ground-level ozone concentrations in central Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wan-Li; Lai, Li-Wei; Den, Walter; Wu, Meng-Ting; Hsueh, Chao-An; Lin, Pay-Liam; Pai, Chueh-Ling; Yan, Yeou-Lih

    2014-02-01

    Surface data of meteorological parameters (wind speed, wind direction, and mixing height) and air pollutant concentrations (O3, NO, and NO2) were collected for a 92-day period associated with typhoon formation in 2005. The influence of typhoons on O3 concentration were defined by azimuth and distance from Taiwan, and Types A, B, and C correspond to typhoons less than 1,500 km from Taiwan and located between azimuths 45° and 135°, 135° and 225°, and 225° and 45°, respectively. Type D corresponds to typhoons more than 1,500 km from Taiwan. Titration reactions were conducted at three temporal phases: 2000-0700, 0800-1100, and 1200-1400 LST (Local Standard Time). The air pollution model (TAPM) was used to simulate wind fields and trajectories of air masses. It was determined that typhoon position affected O3 concentration, temporal and spatial patterns of O3 titration and vertical meteorological characteristics, which were not all at the statistically significant level.

  12. Blood corticosterone concentration reaches critical illness levels early during acute malnutrition in the weanling mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Jennifer M; Makinen, Kimberley; Shrum, Bradly; Woodward, Bill

    2006-03-01

    Acute (i.e., wasting) pediatric malnutrition consistently elevates blood glucocorticoid levels, but neither the magnitude of the rise in concentration nor its kinetics is clear. Male and female C57BL/6J mice, initially 19 days old, and CBA/J mice, initially 23 days old, consumed a complete purified diet either ad libitum (age-matched control) or in restricted daily quantities (mimicking marasmus), or they consumed a purified isocaloric low-protein diet ad libitum (mimicking incipient kwashiorkor). Serum levels of corticosterone were assessed by double antibody radioimmunoassay after 3, 6, and 14 days (C57BL/6J strain) or after 6 and 14 days in the genetically distant CBA/J strain. Age-matched control groups of both strains exhibited mean corticosterone levels of 5-30 ng/ml, whereas the acutely malnourished groups exhibited mean levels of this hormone that were elevated by more than an order of magnitude as early as 3 days after initiation of weight loss. This outcome was confirmed in a second experiment in which the serum corticosterone level of C57BL/6J weanlings was examined by competitive binding enzyme immunoassay 3 and 14 days after initiation of the dietary protocols. Therefore, deficits of protein and/or energy in weanling murine systems relevant to acute pediatric malnutrition elicit early elevations in blood glucocorticoid levels to a magnitude reminiscent of critical illness and multiple trauma. The key to this novel finding was an exsanguination method that permitted accurate assessment of the blood corticosterone level of the healthy, quiescent mouse. Overall, the results of this investigation provide a new perspective on the glucocorticoids as part of the early hormonal response to acute weanling malnutrition coincident with the shift toward catabolic metabolism and the initiation of depression in cellular immune competence.

  13. 137Cs activity concentration in wild boar meat may still exceed the permitted levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachubik J.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The radiocaesium activity concentration may still remain high in natural products such as game meat, wild mushrooms, and forest berries even more than two decades after the Chernobyl accident. The results of regular control studies of game meat conducted in Poland showed wild boars as the most contaminated game animals. It is well documented that some mushrooms, readily consumed by animals, show high ability to accumulate caesium radioisotopes. Bay bolete, one of the most wide-spread mushroom species in Poland, reveals a unique radiocaesium accumulation feature. Moreover, deer truffle, containing also particularly high levels of radiocaesium, could be another radionu-clide source for wild boars. Furthermore, animals consuming deer truffles could digest contaminated soil components. Among 94 wild boar meat samples analysed in 2008–2009, two exceeded the permitted level. Hence, some precautions should be taken in the population with an elevated intake of wild boar meat. Moreover, since each hunted wild boar is examined for the presence of Trichinella larvae, regular measurements of radiocaesium concentrations in these animals may be advisable for enhancing consumer safety.

  14. 137Cs activity concentration in wild boar meat may still exceed the permitted levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachubik, J.

    2012-04-01

    The radiocaesium activity concentration may still remain high in natural products such as game meat, wild mushrooms, and forest berries even more than two decades after the Chernobyl accident. The results of regular control studies of game meat conducted in Poland showed wild boars as the most contaminated game animals. It is well documented that some mushrooms, readily consumed by animals, show high ability to accumulate caesium radioisotopes. Bay bolete, one of the most wide-spread mushroom species in Poland, reveals a unique radiocaesium accumulation feature. Moreover, deer truffle, containing also particularly high levels of radiocaesium, could be another radionu-clide source for wild boars. Furthermore, animals consuming deer truffles could digest contaminated soil components. Among 94 wild boar meat samples analysed in 2008-2009, two exceeded the permitted level. Hence, some precautions should be taken in the population with an elevated intake of wild boar meat. Moreover, since each hunted wild boar is examined for the presence of Trichinella larvae, regular measurements of radiocaesium concentrations in these animals may be advisable for enhancing consumer safety.

  15. Selective effects of whey protein concentrate on glutathione levels and apoptosis in rats with mammary tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shih-Hsuan; Tseng, Yang-Ming; Wu, Szu-Hsien; Tsai, Shih-Meng; Tsai, Li-Yu

    2017-09-01

    Glutathione (GSH) plays an important role in antioxidant defense and regulation of apoptosis. GSH deficiency is related to many diseases, including cancer, and increased GSH levels in cancer cells are associated with chemotherapy resistance because of resistance to apoptosis. In this study, we investigated the effects of whey protein concentrate (WPC), a precursor of GSH, in rats with mammary tumors induced by treatment with 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA). DMBA treatment results in cellular changes that mimic the initiation and promotion of carcinogenesis of breast tissue. We aimed to examine the possible preventive effects of diets containing whey protein on DMBA-induced mammary tumors in rats. The results indicate that WPC (0.334 g/kg) supplementation significantly increased the liver GSH levels by 92%, and were accompanied by low Bax/Bcl-2 ratio (from 5 to 3) and cleaved caspase-3/procaspase-3 ratio (from 2.4 to 1.2) in DMBA-treated rats. Furthermore, tumor GSH levels were decreased by 47% in WPC-supplemented rats, which resulted in increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio (from 0.9 to 2) and cleaved caspase-3/procaspase-3 ratio (from 1.1 to 2.7). In conclusion, supplementation with WPC could selectively deplete tumor GSH levels and, therefore, WPC supplementation might be a promising strategy to overcome treatment resistance in cancer therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Modelling the distribution of 222Rn concentration in a multi level, general purpose building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toro, Laszlo; Noditi, Mihaela; Gheorghe, Raluca; Gheorghe, Dan

    2008-01-01

    The importance of 222 Rn (radon) in the indoor air related to the exposure form natural sources is relatively well documented. About 30% of the individual effective dose from natural sources is coming from the inhalation of 222 Rn and his short lived daughters. In unfavorable conditions given by the soil porosity and the existence of upward air movement in the soil there is a possibility to have unusually high radon concentration in houses even on soil with 'normal' 226 Ra content. Some construction solutions (high indoor spaces) should generate a significant indoor-outdoor negative pressure differences and consequently upward air currents (stack effect) which will facilitate the entrance of radon in the building. This effect will multiply the possibility of migration of radon in the building. The difficulty of the prediction of radon migration in the soil-building system increase the importance of the mathematical modelling of the behavior of radon-soil emission, infiltration and migration in the building - in areas with high radon potential. For one level simple buildings there are several models in the literature but the information regarding the multilevel building models are relatively scarce. Two different approaches used to describe the behavior of the radon gas in large (mainly high) buildings have been analyzed: Direct approach: computational fluid dynamics, solving the transport equations for the whole building (the domain of the solution of the transport and flow equations is delimited by the building envelope - the external walls); the openings (internal and external) and ventilation are defined by the boundary conditions. This approach is quite complex, the equations are solved (numerically) for highly inhomogeneous medium but is based on the fundamental processes governing the transport. In the same time it gives the possibility to obtain a concentration pattern in every part of the building. Multi-zone approach treating the building as interconnected

  17. [Effects of Square-Stepping Exercise inducing activation of the brain's cognitive function in community-dwelling older Japanese females--Focus on the baseline cognitive function level and age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Takumi; Tsuji, Taishi; Kitano, Naruki; Muraki, Toshiaki; Hotta, Kazushi; Okura, Tomohiro

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the degree of improvement in cognitive function achieved with an exercise intervention in community-dwelling older Japanese women is affected by the participant's baseline cognitive function and age. Eighty-eight women (mean age: 70.5±4.2 years) participated in a prevention program for long-term care. They completed the Square-Stepping Exercise (SSE) program once a week, 120 minutes/session, for 11 weeks. We assessed participants' cognitive function using 5 cognitive tests (5-Cog) before and after the intervention. We defined cognitive function as the 5-Cog total score and defined the change in cognitive function as the 5-cog post-score minus the pre-score. We divided participants into four groups based on age (≤69 years or ≥70 years) and baseline cognitive function level (above vs. below the median cognitive function level). We conducted two-way analysis of variance. All 4 groups improved significantly in cognitive function after the intervention. There were no baseline cognitive function level×age interactions and no significant main effects of age, although significant main effects of baseline cognitive function level (P=0.004, η(2)=0.09) were observed. Square-Stepping Exercise is an effective exercise for improving cognitive function. These results suggest that older adults with cognitive decline are more likely to improve their cognitive function with exercise than if they start the intervention with high cognitive function. Furthermore, during an exercise intervention, baseline cognitive function level may have more of an effect than a participant's age on the degree of cognitive improvement.

  18. Assessment of concentration limit for the safe disposal of very low level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Yun Seog

    2008-02-01

    The large amounts of radionuclides are generated from the decommissioning of nuclear facilities (included the nuclear power plant). Because of this, countries or agencies using the nuclear power are one of considering issues for the effective disposal. Among decommissioning wastes, wastes have no or very limited radioactivity are disposed of in conventional landfill or recycled thought approval from regulatory control. And wastes like LILW (Low and Intermediate Level Wastes) or HLW (High Level Wastes) are sent the repository or the interim storage facilities. In order to solve the space problem of the LILW repository and reduce disposal costs, some LLW which are relatively lower than other LLW are classified as VLLW (Very Low Level Wastes). IAEA is added to the VLLW category of the radioactive waste classification and some countries are operating a VLLW disposal facility or will be operating. In this study, the VLLW acceptance criteria of each radionuclide are derived by considering the inadvertent human intrusion scenario applying to a study on the near-surface disposal (LILW). The effect of important parameter, especially, waste isolation period, dilution factor and food consumption rate, is considered. It is concluded that the concentration limits of radionuclides considering in this study are evaluated approximately between 1 and 100 Bq/g. These values are similar to the case of France and Spain and the IAEA's predicted values. Based on this study, acceptance criteria of VLLW disposal facilities are suggested. And this study is contributed to the public relations for the safety of the VLLW disposal facility

  19. Effect of Fermented Cocoa Pod Husk Level in Concentrate on Etawah Grade Semen Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munier, F. F.

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of study was to determine the effect of fermented CPH supplementation level in concentrate toward semen quality of Etawah Grade Buck (EGB). This research was conducted from August to October, 2011 at experiment pen and Feeds Science Laboratory, Faculty of Animal Science, Universitas Gadjah, Yogyakarta. Semen was collected from 4 heads of EGB with about 2 years old and weight approximately of 24 kg. Concentrate was main material of CPH fermentation with composition P0 0, P1 20%, P2 40% and P3 60% from total of ration. The composer was used by the Aspergillus niger BPT with density 9.1 × 107 of colony/g as many as 1% of CPH material (on dry matter). Semen collection was done every 1 time/week and to be done five times semen collection. An examination was consisting of volume, color, smell, consistency, and the pH. Meanwhile, for microscopic examination was motion of mass, individual, motility, viability of spermatozoa. pH of P0, P1, P2 and P3 were 6.95, 7.03, 7.50 and 7.79, respectively. Mass movement of P0, P1, P2 and P3 were +++, +++, ++ and ++, while viability of P0, P1, P2 and P3 were 79.57%, 79.47%, 59.97% and 51.13%, respectively. It was concluded that addition of CPH fermentation in concentrates up to 20% for of EGB has not affect to feed consumption but it has affect to decreasing of semen quality in both of microscopic and microscopic.

  20. Evaluation of radon-222 concentrations levels at workplaces of Curitiba, PR, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Claro, Flavia; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine N.; Kappke, Jaqueline; Perna, Allan F.N.; Reque, Marilson; Martins Neto, Manoel R.; Denyak, Valeriy

    2013-01-01

    The radon is noble radioactive gas, which when inhaled and undergoing spontaneous decay emits alpha particles that interacting with the cells of biological tissue stimulates the development of lung cancer. The isotope 222 Rn is responsible for approximately half of the effective dose received by the population from natural radiation sources. Current work is focused at the evaluation of the radon concentration levels in air of different workplaces at Curitiba-PR. For this purpose 126 track-etched detectors CR-39 were mounted inside the diffusion chambers that were distributed at workplaces of three enterprises environments for a period of three months approximately. The diffusion chambers were protected by a borosilicate glass fiber filters. After the exposition in air the detectors were submitted to chemical etching using a solution of 6.25M NaOH at 70°C during 14 hours. Such chemical treatment enables to count alpha particle track using an optical microscope with 100x objective magnification. The density of alpha particle tracks in CR-39 was converted to the radon activity concentration in air using the results of previous calibration performed at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) in Japan. Obtained results show that the concentration of 222 Rn in air at studied workplaces varied from 16±2 Bq/m³ to 78±9 Bq/m³. These values are considered within the limits established by international regulatory agencies such as EPA and ICRP, which consider as normal the radon activity up to 200 Bq/m³ and 148 Bq/m³, respectively. (author)

  1. Evaluation of radon-222 concentrations levels at workplaces of Curitiba, PR, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Claro, Flavia; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine N.; Kappke, Jaqueline; Perna, Allan F.N.; Reque, Marilson; Martins Neto, Manoel R., E-mail: flavia_delclaro@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: spaschuk@gmail.com [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba - PR (Brazil); Denyak, Valeriy, E-mail: denyak@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisa Pele Pequeno Principe (FPP), Curitiba - PR (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The radon is noble radioactive gas, which when inhaled and undergoing spontaneous decay emits alpha particles that interacting with the cells of biological tissue stimulates the development of lung cancer. The isotope {sup 222}Rn is responsible for approximately half of the effective dose received by the population from natural radiation sources. Current work is focused at the evaluation of the radon concentration levels in air of different workplaces at Curitiba-PR. For this purpose 126 track-etched detectors CR-39 were mounted inside the diffusion chambers that were distributed at workplaces of three enterprises environments for a period of three months approximately. The diffusion chambers were protected by a borosilicate glass fiber filters. After the exposition in air the detectors were submitted to chemical etching using a solution of 6.25M NaOH at 70°C during 14 hours. Such chemical treatment enables to count alpha particle track using an optical microscope with 100x objective magnification. The density of alpha particle tracks in CR-39 was converted to the radon activity concentration in air using the results of previous calibration performed at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) in Japan. Obtained results show that the concentration of {sup 222}Rn in air at studied workplaces varied from 16±2 Bq/m³ to 78±9 Bq/m³. These values are considered within the limits established by international regulatory agencies such as EPA and ICRP, which consider as normal the radon activity up to 200 Bq/m³ and 148 Bq/m³, respectively. (author)

  2. Osmotic potential calculations of inorganic and organic aqueous solutions over wide solute concentration levels and temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochrane, T. T., E-mail: agteca@hotmail.com [AGTECA S.A., 230 Oceanbeach Road, Mount Maunganui, Tauranga 3116 (New Zealand); Cochrane, T. A., E-mail: tom.cochrane@canterbury.ac.nz [Department of Civil and Natural Resources Engineering, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand)

    2016-01-15

    Purpose: To demonstrate that the authors’ new “aqueous solution vs pure water” equation to calculate osmotic potential may be used to calculate the osmotic potentials of inorganic and organic aqueous solutions over wide ranges of solute concentrations and temperatures. Currently, the osmotic potentials of solutions used for medical purposes are calculated from equations based on the thermodynamics of the gas laws which are only accurate at low temperature and solute concentration levels. Some solutions used in medicine may need their osmotic potentials calculated more accurately to take into account solute concentrations and temperatures. Methods: The authors experimented with their new equation for calculating the osmotic potentials of inorganic and organic aqueous solutions up to and beyond body temperatures by adjusting three of its factors; (a) the volume property of pure water, (b) the number of “free” water molecules per unit volume of solution, “N{sub f},” and (c) the “t” factor expressing the cooperative structural relaxation time of pure water at given temperatures. Adequate information on the volume property of pure water at different temperatures is available in the literature. However, as little information on the relative densities of inorganic and organic solutions, respectively, at varying temperatures needed to calculate N{sub f} was available, provisional equations were formulated to approximate values. Those values together with tentative t values for different temperatures chosen from values calculated by different workers were substituted into the authors’ equation to demonstrate how osmotic potentials could be estimated over temperatures up to and beyond bodily temperatures. Results: The provisional equations formulated to calculate N{sub f}, the number of free water molecules per unit volume of inorganic and organic solute solutions, respectively, over wide concentration ranges compared well with the calculations of N{sub f

  3. Osmotic potential calculations of inorganic and organic aqueous solutions over wide solute concentration levels and temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochrane, T. T.; Cochrane, T. A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate that the authors’ new “aqueous solution vs pure water” equation to calculate osmotic potential may be used to calculate the osmotic potentials of inorganic and organic aqueous solutions over wide ranges of solute concentrations and temperatures. Currently, the osmotic potentials of solutions used for medical purposes are calculated from equations based on the thermodynamics of the gas laws which are only accurate at low temperature and solute concentration levels. Some solutions used in medicine may need their osmotic potentials calculated more accurately to take into account solute concentrations and temperatures. Methods: The authors experimented with their new equation for calculating the osmotic potentials of inorganic and organic aqueous solutions up to and beyond body temperatures by adjusting three of its factors; (a) the volume property of pure water, (b) the number of “free” water molecules per unit volume of solution, “N f ,” and (c) the “t” factor expressing the cooperative structural relaxation time of pure water at given temperatures. Adequate information on the volume property of pure water at different temperatures is available in the literature. However, as little information on the relative densities of inorganic and organic solutions, respectively, at varying temperatures needed to calculate N f was available, provisional equations were formulated to approximate values. Those values together with tentative t values for different temperatures chosen from values calculated by different workers were substituted into the authors’ equation to demonstrate how osmotic potentials could be estimated over temperatures up to and beyond bodily temperatures. Results: The provisional equations formulated to calculate N f , the number of free water molecules per unit volume of inorganic and organic solute solutions, respectively, over wide concentration ranges compared well with the calculations of N f using recorded

  4. Development of Soil Derived Concentration Guidance Levels for Decommissioning at Overseas Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Wook; Yoon, Suk Bon; Kim, Jeongju [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In Korea, the criteria are expected to be given in terms of dose as in US and Spain. However, since dose cannot be measured, corresponding measurable concentration limits, so-called Derived Concentration Guidance Levels (DCGLs), should be developed for each radionuclide which is expected to be present in the site. Also, as they serve as a goal of decommissioning and direct dismantling and decontamination methods applicable to the site, DCGLs should be developed in the early phase of decommissioning. This paper describes how each overseas nuclear power plant developed its site-specific Soil DCGLs: what kind of post closure use of the site (scenario) was assumed and how the site-specific Soil DCGLs were calculated based on the scenario assumed for each plant. Through this, it is intended to derive lessons learned which will be instructive for future decommissioning of domestic nuclear power plants including Kori Unit 1. It is very important to have as good under-standing as possible of characteristics of the site by collection of relevant information and data in order to apply a scenario which is most foreseeable and plausible for a site to be decommissioned and to provide site-specific inputs to the calculation of the Soil DCGLs. These efforts will help to have not-overly conservative values for the Soil DCGLs, thus thereby reducing the costs and time needed for performing the decommissioning.

  5. Development of Concentration and Calcination Technology For High Level Liquid Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pande, D.P.

    2006-01-01

    The concentrated medium and high-level liquid radio chemicals effluents contain nitric acid, water along with the dissolved chemicals including the nitrates of the radio nuclides. High level liquid waste contain mainly nitrates of cesium, strontium, cerium, zirconium, chromium, barium, calcium, cobalt, copper, pickle, iron etc. and other fission products. This concentrated solution requires further evaporation, dehydration, drying and decomposition in temperature range of 150 to 700 deg. C. The addition of the calcined solids in vitrification pot, instead of liquid feed, helps to avoid low temperature zone because the vaporization of the liquid and decomposition of nitrates do not take place inside the melter. In our work Differential and thermo gravimetric studies has been carried out in the various stages of thermal treatment including drying, dehydration and conversion to oxide forms. Experimental studies were done to characterize the chemicals present in high-level radioactive waste. A Rotary Ball Kiln Calciner was used for development of the process because this is amenable for continuous operation and moderately good heat transfer can be achieved inside the kiln. This also has minimum secondary waste and off gases generation. The Rotary Ball Kiln Calciner Demonstration facility system was designed and installed for the demonstration of calcination process. The Rotary Ball Kiln Calciner is a slowly rotating slightly inclined horizontal tube that is externally heated by means of electric resistance heating. The liquid feed is sprayed onto the moving bed of metal balls in a slowly rotating calciner by a peristaltic type-metering pump. The vaporization of the liquid occurs in the pre-calcination zone due to counter current flow of hot gases. The dehydration and denitration of the solids occurs in the calcination zone, which is externally heated by electrical furnace. The calcined powder is cooled in the post calcination portion. It has been demonstrated that the

  6. Determination of radionuclide concentrations in ground level air using the ASS-500 high volume sampler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frenzel, E.; Arnold, D.; Wershofen, H.

    1996-01-01

    A method for determination of radionuclide concentrations in air aerosol samples collected by the high volume aerosol sampler ASS-500 was elaborated. The aerosol sampling station ASS-500 is a Stand alone, all-weather proofed instrument. It is designed for representative sampling of airborne radionuclides from ground level air at a height of about 1.5 m above ground level. The ASS-500 station enables continuous air monitoring both normal and emergency Situations. The collection of aerosols on the Petrianov FPP-15-1.5 type filter out of an air volume of about 100,000 m 3 (sampling period 1 wk) or of about 250,000 m 3 (sampling period 3 wk) admits accurate spectrometric low level measurements of natural and artificial radionuclides. The achieved detection limit is 0.5 μBq m -3 and 0.2 μBq m -3 for 137 Cs, respectively. A new developed air flow Meter system allows to enhance the collected air volume to about 150,000 m 3 per week and lowers the detection limit to -3 for 137 Cs for weekly collected aerosol samples. In Poland the CLOR uses 9 Stations ASS-500 at different sites as atmospheric radioactivity control system. On the basis of spectrometric measurements of natural and artificial radionuclides in the collected aerosol samples at the different sites, CLOR establishes a weekly report about the radiological situation at Poland for responsible authorities. The very low achievable detection limit of the Station ASS-500 due 10 the high air flow fate and the long possible sampling period were the key argument for other government radiation protection authorities in Europe to introduce the Station ASS-500 into their low level radionuclide atmospheric monitoring programs (Austria, Belarus, France, Germany, Iceland, Spain, Switzerland, Ukraine)

  7. Histological changes, apoptosis and metallothionein levels in Triturus carnifex (Amphibia, Urodela) exposed to environmental cadmium concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capaldo, Anna, E-mail: anna.capaldo@unina.it [Department of Biology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (Italy); Gay, Flaminia [Department of Chemistry and Biology, University of Salerno, Salerno (Italy); Scudiero, Rosaria; Trinchella, Francesca [Department of Biology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (Italy); Caputo, Ivana; Lepretti, Marilena; Marabotti, Anna; Esposito, Carla [Department of Chemistry and Biology, University of Salerno, Salerno (Italy); Laforgia, Vincenza [Department of Biology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (Italy)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Specimens of the newt Triturus carnifex were exposed to environmental Cd doses. • Newts exposed to Cd during 9 months accumulated Cd in their tissues. • Cd induced histological alterations in the skin, liver and kidneys. • Cd induced apoptosis only in the kidneys. • Cd did not increase metallothionein levels in the skin and the liver, nor MTs mRNA. - Abstract: The aim of this study was to verify if the freshwater safety values established from the European Community (1998) and the Italian Ministry of Health (2001) for cadmium (44.5 nM/L in drinking water and 178 nM/L in sewage waters) were safe for amphibians, since at these same concentrations cadmium induced endocrine disruption in the newt Triturus carnifex. Adult male specimens of T. carnifex were exposed daily to cadmium (44.5 nM/L and 178 nM/L as CdCl{sub 2}, nominal concentrations), respectively, during 3- and 9-months; at the same time, control newts were exposed to tap water only. The accumulation of cadmium in the skin, liver and kidney, the levels of metallothioneins in the skin and the liver, the expression of metallothionein mRNA in the liver, as well as the presence of histological alterations and of apoptosis in the target organs were evaluated. The 9-months exposure induced cadmium accumulation in all the tissues examined; moreover, histological changes were observed in all the tissues examined, irrespective of the dose or the time of exposure. Apoptosis was only detected in the kidney, whereas metallothioneins and metallothionein mRNA did not increase. This study demonstrates that the existing chronic water quality criterion established for cadmium induces in the newt T. carnifex cadmium accumulation and histological alterations in the target organs examined. Together with our previous results, showing that, at these same concentrations, cadmium induced endocrine disruption, the present results suggest that the existing chronic water quality criterion for cadmium appears to

  8. Changes in driving behavior and cognitive performance with different breath alcohol concentration levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yung-Ching; Fu, Shing-Mei

    2007-06-01

    This study examines the changes in driving behavior and cognitive performance of drivers with different breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) levels. Eight licensed drivers, aged between 20 and 30 years, with BrAC levels of 0.00, 0.25, 0.4 and 0.5 mg/l performed simulated driving tests under high- and low-load conditions. Subjects were asked to assess their subjective psychological load at specified intervals and perform various tasks. The outcome was measured in terms of reaction times for task completion, accuracy rates, and driver's driving behavior. The effects of BrAC vary depending on the task. Performance of tasks involving attention shift, information processing, and short-term memory showed significant deterioration with increasing BrAC, while dangerous external vehicle driving behavior occurred only when the BrAC reached 0.4 mg/l and the deterioration was marked. We can conclude that the cognitive faculty is the first to be impaired by drinking resulting in deteriorated performance in tasks related to divided attention, short-term memory, logical reasoning, followed by visual perception. On the other hand, increasing alcohol dose may not pose an immediate impact on the external vehicle driving behavior but may negatively affect the driver's motor behavior even at low BrAC levels. Experience and will power could compensate for the negative influence of alcohol enabling the drivers to remain in full steering control. This lag between alcohol consumption and impaired driving performance may mislead the drivers in thinking that they are still capable of safe steering and cause them to ignore the potential dangers of drunk driving.

  9. Decontamination of concentrated medium level radioactive wastes by a chromatographic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faubel, W.; Mehret, R.; Menzler, P.M.

    1990-01-01

    The technical feasibility of partitioning concentrated nitric acid intermediate-level waste (ILWC) solutions from the Purex process into a small volume of high-level waste and a large volume of low-level waste using sorption methods is demonstrated for 1-l and 11-l batches. Cesium-134 and 137 are selectively separated with a decontamination factor (DF) > 1 x 10 5 in a newly developed suspended-bed column filled with the microporous inorganic exchanger ammonium molybdophosphate. The 125 Sb and the actinides and lanthanides (3 +) are retained with DFs between 40 and 1000 on metal oxides of Sb and Mn and on an extraction column containing n-octyl (phenyl)N,N-disobutyl carbamoyl methyl phosphine oxide, respectively. Ruthenium-106 and 60 Co are removed in a column loaded with dimethyl glyoxime and have DFs > 20. The amount of secondary wastes arising from absorber materials was estimated on the basis of 1 l experiments to be 300 kg for a 350 t/yr reprocessing plant with an ILWC volume of about 0.5 m 3 /t of heavy metal. One of the main goals was to check out the influence of a scaling up from laboratory scale to pilot plant operations. The hydraulic behaviour of the apparatus was tested for 1, 20, and 100 liters of solutions. The second important aim was to reach a decontamination of the ILWC, sufficient to meet the requirements of regulations limiting the dose to 2 mSv/h at a 1-m distance, calculations with the PROMAX program, for cementing the LLW effluent into 400-l drums at a 10 wt% loading, lead to a value of about 100 μSv/h; thus, this waste can be handled without any shielding. The secondary waste can be treated individually

  10. Performance and meat quality traits of beef heifers fed with two levels of concentrate and ruminally undegradable protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Marcio de Souza; Paulino, Pedro Veiga Rodrigues; Valadares Filho, Sebastião de Campos; Paulino, Mario Fonseca; Detmann, Edenio; Zervoudakis, Joanis Tilemahos; Monnerat, João Paulo Ismerio dos Santos; Viana, Gabriel da Silva; Silva, Luiz Henrique P; Serão, Nicola Vergara Lopes

    2011-04-01

    The effects of two levels of concentrate and ruminally undegradable protein (RUP) on performance, intake, digestibility, carcass characteristics, meat quality traits, and commercial cuts yield were assessed. Twenty crossbred heifers (240 kg average body weight) were used. At the beginning of the trial, four animals were slaughtered as reference group and the 16 remaining animals were randomly assigned to four treatments, in a 2 × 2 factorial design: two levels of concentrate (40% and 80%, dry matter (DM) basis) and two levels of RUP (48.79% and 27.19% of CP). At the end of the trial, all the animals were slaughtered. There was no interaction (P > 0.05) between concentrate and RUP levels. Dry matter intake and nutrients digestibility was not affected (P > 0.05) by RUP level. Heifers fed the highest RUP level had greater (P  0.05) DMI and ADG. Heifers fed diets with 80% concentrate had greater intake of TDN and EE, and lower intake of NDF (P RUP levels did not affect (P > 0.05) the carcass characteristics and carcass gain composition. Heifers fed 80% concentrate diets had larger (P  0.05) the composition of carcass gain. There was no effect (P > 0.05) of RUP and concentrate levels on meat quality traits and commercial cut yields.

  11. The Effect of Low Level Laser Therapy on Some Plasma Ions Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia H. Sahib

    2017-12-01

    two pore leak channels(K2P, which act as signal integrators from the periphery to the cortex. Objectives and Results Fifteen blood samples were collected from healthy adult volunteers, subjected to low level laser therapy  (LLLT with different wavelengths (650, 532 and 405 nm, plasma concentration of Ca++, Na+, K+ and Cl- were estimated after (30 min. of incubation. The mean concentration of each ion before and after LLLT were as follows (Ca++: 8.67 vs. 8.93, 8.79, 8.82 mg/dl, (Na+: 147.4 vs. 146.73, 146.73, 146.13 mmol/L, (K+: 3.94 vs. 3.94, 3.78, 3.92 mmol/L and (Cl-: 99.93 vs. 97.86, 102.73, 96.4 mmol/L. In the same manner, activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT was estimated, the mean value of which were as follows (30.07 vs. 18.45, 21.72, 17.29 sec..

  12. Variability of Surface pollutants and aerosol concentration over Abu Dhabi, UAE - sources, transport and current levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phanikumar, Devulapalli V.; Basha, Ghouse; Ouarda, Taha B. M. J.

    2015-04-01

    In the view of recent economic, industrial, and rapid development, Abu Dhabi (24.4oN; 54.4oE; 27m msl) has become one of the most populated regions in the world despite of extreme heat, frequent dust storms, and with distinctive topography. The major sources of air pollution are from the dust and sand storms, greenhouse gas emissions, and to some extent from industrial pollution. In order to realize the accurate and comprehensive understanding of air quality and plausible sources over this region, we have made a detailed analysis of three years simultaneous measurements during 2011-13 of pollutants such as O3, SO2, NO2, CO, and PM10 concentrations. Diurnal variation of meteorological parameters such as temperature and wind speed/relative humidity clearly shows daytime maximum/minimum in summer followed by pre-monsoon, post-monsoon and winter. The prevailing winds over this region are mostly from northwesterly direction (Shamal wind). Diurnal wind pattern showed a clear contrast with the majority of the wind pattern during nighttime and early morning is from the westerly/northwesterly and daytime is from southwesterly/southeasterly directions. The diurnal pattern of O3 shows minimum during 08 LT and increases thereafter reaching maximum at 17 LT and decreases during nighttime. However, the diurnal pattern of SO2 and NO2 show a peak at ~ 08 LT and dip at ~ 14 LT during all the seasons with some variability in each season. On the other hand, the diurnal pattern of CO shows a peculiar picture of elevated levels during daytime peaking at ~ 10 LT (prominent in summer and post-monsoon) followed by a sharp decrease and minimum is ~14 LT. PM10 concentration has an early morning peak at ~ 02 LT and then decreases to a minimum value at ~11 LT and again increases in the afternoon hours (maximum at ~17 LT) depicting a forenoon-afternoon asymmetry. Monthly variation of PM10 shows maximum in pre-monsoon season and minimum in winter. Our observations show the diurnal pattern of

  13. Evaluation of Activity Concentration Values and Doses due to the Transport of Low Level Radioactive Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawl, Richard R [ORNL; Scofield, Patricia A [ORNL; Leggett, Richard Wayne [ORNL; Eckerman, Keith F [ORNL

    2010-04-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) initiated an international Coordinated Research Project (CRP) to evaluate the safety of transport of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). This report presents the United States contribution to that IAEA research program. The focus of this report is on the analysis of the potential doses resulting from the transport of low level radioactive material. Specific areas of research included: (1) an examination of the technical approach used in the derivation of exempt activity concentration values and a comparison of the doses associated with the transport of materials included or not included in the provisions of Paragraph 107(e) of the IAEA Safety Standards, Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, Safety Requirements No. TS-R-1; (2) determination of the doses resulting from different treatment of progeny for exempt values versus the A{sub 1}/A{sub 2} values; and (3) evaluation of the dose justifications for the provisions applicable to exempt materials and low specific activity materials (LSA-I). It was found that the 'previous or intended use' (PIU) provision in Paragraph 107(e) is not risk informed since doses to the most highly exposed persons (e.g., truck drivers) are comparable regardless of intended use of the transported material. The PIU clause can also have important economic implications for co-mined ores and products that are not intended for the fuel cycle but that have uranium extracted as part of their industrial processing. In examination of the footnotes in Table 2 of TS-R-1, which identifies the progeny included in the exempt or A1/A2 values, there is no explanation of how the progeny were selected. It is recommended that the progeny for both the exemption and A{sub 1}/A{sub 2} values should be similar regardless of application, and that the same physical information should be used in deriving the limits. Based on the evaluation of doses due to the transport of low-level

  14. Measurement of concentrations of whole blood levels of choline, betaine, and dimethylglycine and their relations to plasma levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awwad, Hussain Mohamad; Kirsch, Susanne H; Geisel, Juergen; Obeid, Rima

    2014-04-15

    We aimed at developing a method for the measurement of choline and its metabolites in whole blood (WB). After an extraction step, quantification of choline, betaine, and dimethylglycine (DMG) was performed using ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Plasma and WB metabolites were evaluated in a group of 61 elderly people. The calibration curves were linear (r(2)>0.997) for all compounds. The inter- and intra-assay coefficients of variation for all analytes were 90% and the relative matrix effect were ≤4.0%. The median concentrations of choline, betaine, and DMG were 11.3, 27.8, and 5.9μmol/L in plasma and 66.6, 165, and 13.7μmol/L in WB, respectively. There were positive correlations between WB and plasma markers; for choline (r=0.42), betaine (r=0.61), and DMG (r=0.56) (all p≤0.001). The concentrations of betaine in WB and plasma were significantly higher in men than in women. The concentrations of WB choline and DMG did not differ significantly according to sex. In conclusion, we have established a reliable method for measuring choline metabolites in WB. The concentrations of WB choline, betaine, and DMG seem to reflect intracellular concentrations of these metabolites. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of nutritional level of concentrate-based diets on meat quality and expression levels of genes related to meat quality in Hainan black goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dingfa; Zhou, Luli; Zhou, Hanlin; Hou, Guanyu; Shi, Liguang; Li, Mao; Huang, Xianzhou; Guan, Song

    2015-02-01

    The present study investigated the effects of the nutritional levels of diets on meat quality and related gene expression in Hainan black goat. Twenty-four goats were divided into six dietary treatments and were fed a concentrate-based diet with two levels of crude protein (CP) (15% or 17%) and three levels of digestive energy (DE) (11.72, 12.55 or 13.39 MJ/kg DM) for 90 days. Goats fed the concentrate-based diet with 17% CP had significantly (P meat quality and expression levels of genes associated with meat quality in Hainan black goats. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  16. PM1 levels are related to CO concentrations and health impacts in the city Athens Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoropoulos, Konstantinos; Polichetti, Giuliano; Ferentinos, George; Tselentis, Vasilios; Nastos, Panagiotis; Xatzioakeimidis, Konstantinos; Dimas, Konstantinos; Kalabokis, Vasilios; Gialouris, Athanasios

    2010-05-01

    Senekas, as early as 60 A.D., was the first to refer to air pollution and the possibility of imposing restrictions in Rome. In 1307, during the reign of Edward I, legislation was introduced to prevent the use of sea coal in kilns and limeburners in London. In the 19th century the first problems arising from elevated levels of smoke in cities appear. By 1930, Pittsburgh Pennsylvania suffered from heavy smoke pollution and the 1952 London smog episode stands out as one of the worst pollution disasters given the number of people who died as a result. Mega city pollution has become a serious problem to human health and in an effort to analyze and mitigate this threat, the European and worldwide scientific communities are, at present, placing considerable time, effort and resources in the field. It is well known that vehicle related NOx and CO emissions represent the main public health hazard (cardiovascular and respiratory syndromes) in the main industrialized cities of Europe with high traffic volumes. The objective of this study is to analyze the spatial distribution of PM1, CO and the related health impacts within the greater Athens area (GAA). Several portable and ground based detectors were employed for the PM and CO measurements, capable of detecting CO levels in the ambient environment, up to 1000 ppm. Sampling took place on road sidewalks at a specified hour every morning to coincide with the peak in vehicle traffic. Controls were performed with no traffic and compared to normal traffic days and days with extreme traffic congestion, which included PM and CO concentration measurements. In addition, in order to monitor potentially related health impacts, daily admissions to the Emergency Departments of the Social Security Institute and Regional Hospitals of Athens were recorded. Results demonstrate a significant correlation between both PM1 and CO and particulate matter symptomatology, such as dispnea, fatigue, headache, dacryrrea and dry cough. These findings

  17. The level of 137Cs concentration in Lebanese soils decade after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Samad, Omar

    1999-01-01

    Full text.This paper concerns the effects of fallout from the Chernobyl reactor accident on the environment in Lebanon. On 1 and 2 May 1986, part of the radioactive cloud from Chernobyl was over Lebanon. A description given of the distribution and movement of fallout as well as the type of contamination. As a result of rainfall on those two days, measurable amounts of several radionuclides were deposited on ground surfaces, predominantly by wet deposition. Not much information for the deposition rates of caesium radionuclides in soil is available. However generally, the deposit caesium was quickly fixed in the top soil. The aim of the present work is to identify the level of the 137 Cs contamination twelve years after the Chernobyl accident. Actinides activity levels in soil were measured. The non destructive Gamma-Spectroscopy measurements were performed by using coaxial high sensitivity HPGe-detectors with active and passive shielding to determine the low activity of various radionuclides. More than 60 soil samples were collected from points uniformly distributed throughout the geography of the zone in order to evaluate their activity. The data showed a relatively high 137 Cs concentration, up to 9000 Bq/m 2 in the superficial (0-3 cm) calcium carbonate soil (CaCo3). The average activity of 137 Cs was 50 Bq/Kg dry mass. The horizontal variation was found to be about 40% in the samples, which is in accordance with results found for similar investigations on Turkey and Greece. The depth distribution of total 137 Cs activity was found by fitting the experimental points to a modified exponential function

  18. [Noninvasive detection of hematocrit and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration levels by Vis-NIR spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Lin, Ling; Lu, Xiao-Zuo; Li, Gang

    2014-03-01

    Hematocrit (HCT) and mean hemoglobin concentration(MCHC) play a very important role in preventing cardiovascular disease and anemia. A method was developed on the basis of spectroscopy to detect HCT and MCHC non-invasively and accurately. The anatomical study showed that the blood rheology abnormalities and blood viscosity's changes can cause the changes of tongue, so there is a certain correlation between tongue and blood components. Reflectance spectrums from the tongue tips of 240 volunteers were collected, then the tongue pictures were captured and the biochemical analysis results were recorded at the same time. The 240 samples were separated into two parts: calibration sample and test sample. Spectra were then subjected to a partial least squares regression (PLSR) analysis to develop mathematics models for predicting HCT levels. The correlation between the data and prediction of HCT and MCHC yielded calibration samples value of 0.998 and 0.938. HCT and MCHC levels of test samples predicted by this model from Visible-Near infrared spectra provided a coefficient of determination in prediction of 0.979 and 0.883 with an average relative error of prediction of 1.65% and 1.88%, a root mean square error of prediction of 4.066 and 4.139. From the experiment results we can see that the model which was built before can better predict the HCT and MCHC, and the results also showed that spectrometry method may provide a promising approach to the noninvasive measurement of human HCT and MCHC with a combination of PLSR analysis.

  19. Rooting Ability of Melia volkensii Cuttings Under Different Auxin Concentration Levels and Provenances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oeba, V.O; Muok, B.; Odee, D

    2007-01-01

    Melia volkensii is one of the most popular fast growing agro-forestry tree species in East Africa's arid and semi arid lands. It is valued for for production of termite resistant timber. Kenya Forestry Research Institute is carrying out studies on management, improvement and domestication of species with a major focus on improving low germination mortality and other propagation methods. Vegetative propagation was investigated in order to supplement more seedlings for increased demand of the species. The objective of this study was to determine and predict the effect of varying levels of auxin concentrations on rooting of melia volkensii shoot cuttings under different provenances. The experiment was set in a split plot design and conducted in a non-mist propagator. The number of roots was recorded for every cutting in the experiment. Mean cumulative cutting percentage were analysed using ANOVA procedures by first checking homogeneity of variance; Pearson correlation were carried out to check the interrelation of the factors with rooting and Logistic ability of the cuttings. The results showed that cuttings inoculated with 0.3 mgl-1 s ignificantly (p n ot showing any rooting from three provenances. In conclusion 0.03 mgl-1 s hould be used for further vegetative propagation of M. vokensii. Cutting from Taveta inoculated with 0.3 mgl-1 w ould significantly increase the number of seedlings for planting

  20. Costs of reducing water use of concentrating solar power to sustainable levels: Scenarios for North Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damerau, Kerstin; Williges, Keith; Patt, Anthony G.; Gauche, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) has the potential to become a leading sustainable energy technology for the European electricity system. In order to reach a substantial share in the energy mix, European investment in CSP appears most profitable in North Africa, where solar potential is significantly higher than in southern Europe. As well as sufficient solar irradiance, however, the majority of today's CSP plants also require a considerable amount of water, primarily for cooling purposes. In this paper we examine water usage associated with CSP in North Africa, and the cost penalties associated with technologies that could reduce those needs. We inspect four representative sites to compare the ecological and economical drawbacks from conventional and alternative cooling systems, depending on the local environment, and including an outlook with climate change to the mid-century. Scaling our results up to a regional level indicates that the use of wet cooling technologies would likely be unsustainable. Dry cooling systems, as well as sourcing of alternative water supplies, would allow for sustainable operation. Their cost penalty would be minor compared to the variance in CSP costs due to different average solar irradiance values. - Highlights: → Scaling up CSP with wet cooling from ground water will be unsustainable in North Africa. → Desalination and alternative cooling systems can assure a sustainable water supply. → On large-scale, the cost penalties of alternative cooling technologies appear minor.

  1. Concentrated solar power plants impact on PV penetration level and grid flexibility under Egyptian climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moukhtar, Ibrahim; Elbaset, Adel A.; El Dein, Adel Z.; Qudaih, Yaser; Mitani, Yasunori

    2018-05-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) system integration in the electric grid has been increasing over the past decades. However, the impact of PV penetration on the electric grid, especially during the periods of higher and lower generation for the solar system at the middle of the day and during cloudy weather or at night respectively, limit the high penetration of solar PV system. In this research, a Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) with Thermal Energy Storage (TES) has been aggregated with PV system in order to accommodate the required electrical power during the higher and lower solar energy at all timescales. This paper analyzes the impacts of CSP on the grid-connected PV considering high penetration of PV system, particularly when no energy storages in the form of batteries are used. Two cases have been studied, the first when only PV system is integrated into the electric grid and the second when two types of solar energy (PV and CSP) are integrated. The System Advisor Model (SAM) software is used to simulate the output power of renewable energy. Simulation results show that the performance of CSP has a great impact on the penetration level of PV system and on the flexibility of the electric grid. The overall grid flexibility increases due to the ability of CSP to store and dispatch the generated power. In addition, CSP/TES itself has inherent flexibility. Therefore, CSP reduces the minimum generation constraint of the conventional generators that allows more penetration of the PV system.

  2. TAPIR--Finnish national geochemical baseline database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarva, Jaana; Tarvainen, Timo; Reinikainen, Jussi; Eklund, Mikael

    2010-09-15

    In Finland, a Government Decree on the Assessment of Soil Contamination and Remediation Needs has generated a need for reliable and readily accessible data on geochemical baseline concentrations in Finnish soils. According to the Decree, baseline concentrations, referring both to the natural geological background concentrations and the diffuse anthropogenic input of substances, shall be taken into account in the soil contamination assessment process. This baseline information is provided in a national geochemical baseline database, TAPIR, that is publicly available via the Internet. Geochemical provinces with elevated baseline concentrations were delineated to provide regional geochemical baseline values. The nationwide geochemical datasets were used to divide Finland into geochemical provinces. Several metals (Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, V, and Zn) showed anomalous concentrations in seven regions that were defined as metal provinces. Arsenic did not follow a similar distribution to any other elements, and four arsenic provinces were separately determined. Nationwide geochemical datasets were not available for some other important elements such as Cd and Pb. Although these elements are included in the TAPIR system, their distribution does not necessarily follow the ones pre-defined for metal and arsenic provinces. Regional geochemical baseline values, presented as upper limit of geochemical variation within the region, can be used as trigger values to assess potential soil contamination. Baseline values have also been used to determine upper and lower guideline values that must be taken into account as a tool in basic risk assessment. If regional geochemical baseline values are available, the national guideline values prescribed in the Decree based on ecological risks can be modified accordingly. The national geochemical baseline database provides scientifically sound, easily accessible and generally accepted information on the baseline values, and it can be used in various

  3. Particulate Matter and Black Carbon Concentration Levels in Ashaiman, a Semi-Urban Area of Ghana, 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Sam-Quarcoo Dotse; Joshua Kwame Asane; F.G. Ofosu

    2012-01-01

    Particulate matter and black carbon concentration levels in Ashaiman, a semi-urban area of Ghana was assessed. Using IVL PM2.5 and PM10 particle samplers, airborne particulate matter was sampled on Teflon filters for a period of three months. In addition to determination of particulate mass in the two fractions by gravimetrical method, aerosol filters were analyzed to determine Black Carbon (BC) concentration levels using the black smoke method. BC fractions in fine and coarse, together with ...

  4. Effects of dietary CLA supplementation, parity and different concentrate levels before calving on immunoglobulin G1, G2 and M concentrations in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eger, Melanie; Horn, Jana; Hussen, Jamal; Schuberth, Hans-Joachim; Scharf, Maria; Meyer, Ulrich; Dänicke, Sven; Bostedt, Hartwig; Breves, Gerhard

    2017-10-01

    Peripartal dairy cows exhibit a higher susceptibility for infectious diseases, which might be linked to the negative energy balance occurring at the onset of lactation. A dietary supplementation of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) may reduce milk fat yield and subsequently lower the energy deficit. The utilization of immunoglobulins (Ig) for colostrogenesis might impair humoral immunity in peripartal dairy cows; therefore this study investigated the effects of a CLA supplement, parity and different dietary energy levels on plasma and colostrum IgG1, IgG2 and IgM levels in dairy cows and their calves. Blood samples were collected from 64 cows from 21days before until 56days after parturition and colostrum samples for the first 3days of lactation. Plasma immunoglobulin concentrations of 19 calves were determined before colostrum uptake. Neither plasma IgG1, nor IgG2 levels were affected by CLA or dietary energy level. However, immunoglobulin levels were affected by parity. Heifers possessed the lowest IgG1 concentrations. IgG2 concentrations were highest in cows with 2 lactations prior to parturition and in heifers after parturition. Plasma IgM levels were characterized by a sharp decrease 3days prior to parturition and were scarcely affected by the feeding regimen or parity. Generally, immunoglobulin levels appear to be mostly independent from the peripartal energy balance of the cows and are not influenced by dietary CLA. However, pronounced differences among parities for IgG1 and IgG2 were revealed which should be further evaluated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Developing RESRAD-BASELINE for environmental baseline risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Jing-Jy.

    1995-01-01

    RESRAD-BASELINE is a computer code developed at Argonne developed at Argonne National Laboratory for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to perform both radiological and chemical risk assessments. The code implements the baseline risk assessment guidance of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1989). The computer code calculates (1) radiation doses and cancer risks from exposure to radioactive materials, and (2) hazard indexes and cancer risks from exposure to noncarcinogenic and carcinogenic chemicals, respectively. The user can enter measured or predicted environmental media concentrations from the graphic interface and can simulate different exposure scenarios by selecting the appropriate pathways and modifying the exposure parameters. The database used by PESRAD-BASELINE includes dose conversion factors and slope factors for radionuclides and toxicity information and properties for chemicals. The user can modify the database for use in the calculation. Sensitivity analysis can be performed while running the computer code to examine the influence of the input parameters. Use of RESRAD-BASELINE for risk analysis is easy, fast, and cost-saving. Furthermore, it ensures in consistency in methodology for both radiological and chemical risk analyses

  6. Carbon Balance at Landscape Level inferred fromTower CO2 Concentration Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J. M.; Chen, B.; Higuchi, K.; Chan, D.; Shashkov, A.; Lin, H.; Liu, J.

    2003-04-01

    Terrestrial carbon sinks are considerable in the global carbon budget, but the accumulation of carbon in terrestrial ecosystems is very small (~0.2% per year) relative to the total carbon stocks in forests. Currently, eddy-covariance instruments mounted on towers are the only reliable means to measure carbon balance of a land surface, albeit limited to small areas and not free of caveats. In our quest of understanding the collective performance of ecosystems under the changing climate, it is highly desirable to have the ability to acquire carbon cycle information for large areas (landscape) consisting of patches of different ecosystems. For this purpose we explored methodologies of inferring carbon cycle information from tower CO2 concentration measurements affected by large areas (100-10000 km2). An ecosystem model named Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) is coupled with a carbon-specific Vertical Diffusion Scheme (VDS) in order to decipher temporal variations in CO2 for landscape-level photosynthesis and respiration information. The coupled BEPS-VDS is applied to a unique 9-year (1990-2000 with 1997-8 missing data) 5-minute CO2 record measured on a 40-m tower over boreal forests near Fraserdale, Ontario, Canada. Over the period, the mean diurnal amplitude of the measured CO2 at 40 m increased by 5.58 ppmv, or 28% in the growing season. The increase in nighttime ecosystem respiration, causing the increase in the daily maximum CO2 concentration, was responsible for 65% of the increase in the diurnal amplitude, i.e., 3.61 ppmv, corresponding to an increase in the mean daily air temperature by about 2.77 degC and precipitation by 5% over the same period. The rest (35%) is explained by the increase in ecosystem daytime photosynthesis, causing the decrease in the daily minimum CO2 concentration. As the nighttime stable boundary layer (SBL) (270-560 m) was much shallower than the daytime convective boundary layer (CBL) (1000-1600 m), the increase in

  7. Air Pollution Modelling to Predict Maximum Ground Level Concentration for Dust from a Palm Oil Mill Stack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina A. A.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The study is to model emission from a stack to estimate ground level concentration from a palm oil mill. The case study is a mill located in Kuala Langat, Selangor. Emission source is from boilers stacks. The exercise determines the estimate the ground level concentrations for dust to the surrounding areas through the utilization of modelling software. The surround area is relatively flat, an industrial area surrounded by factories and with palm oil plantations in the outskirts. The model utilized in the study was to gauge the worst-case scenario. Ambient air concentrations were garnered calculate the increase to localized conditions. Keywords: emission, modelling, palm oil mill, particulate, POME

  8. Special Analysis for Disposal of High-Concentration I-129 Waste in the Intermediate-Level Vaults at the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collard, L.B.

    2000-01-01

    This revision was prepared to address comments from DOE-SR that arose following publication of revision 0. This Special Analysis (SA) addresses disposal of wastes with high concentrations of I-129 in the Intermediate-Level (IL) Vaults at the operating, low-level radioactive waste disposal facility (the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility or LLWF) on the Savannah River Site (SRS). This SA provides limits for disposal in the IL Vaults of high-concentration I-129 wastes, including activated carbon beds from the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF), based on their measured, waste-specific Kds

  9. Special Analysis for Disposal of High-Concentration I-129 Waste in the Intermediate-Level Vaults at the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collard, L.B.

    2000-09-26

    This revision was prepared to address comments from DOE-SR that arose following publication of revision 0. This Special Analysis (SA) addresses disposal of wastes with high concentrations of I-129 in the Intermediate-Level (IL) Vaults at the operating, low-level radioactive waste disposal facility (the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility or LLWF) on the Savannah River Site (SRS). This SA provides limits for disposal in the IL Vaults of high-concentration I-129 wastes, including activated carbon beds from the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF), based on their measured, waste-specific Kds.

  10. Predicting arsenic concentrations in groundwater of San Luis Valley, Colorado: implications for individual-level lifetime exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Katherine A; Meliker, Jaymie R; Buttenfield, Barbara E; Byers, Tim; Zerbe, Gary O; Hokanson, John E; Marshall, Julie A

    2014-08-01

    Consumption of inorganic arsenic in drinking water at high levels has been associated with chronic diseases. Risk is less clear at lower levels of arsenic, in part due to difficulties in estimating exposure. Herein we characterize spatial and temporal variability of arsenic concentrations and develop models for predicting aquifer arsenic concentrations in the San Luis Valley, Colorado, an area of moderately elevated arsenic in groundwater. This study included historical water samples with total arsenic concentrations from 595 unique well locations. A longitudinal analysis established temporal stability in arsenic levels in individual wells. The mean arsenic levels for a random sample of 535 wells were incorporated into five kriging models to predict groundwater arsenic concentrations at any point in time. A separate validation dataset (n = 60 wells) was used to identify the model with strongest predictability. Findings indicate that arsenic concentrations are temporally stable (r = 0.88; 95 % CI 0.83-0.92 for samples collected from the same well 15-25 years apart) and the spatial model created using ordinary kriging best predicted arsenic concentrations (ρ = 0.72 between predicted and observed validation data). These findings illustrate the value of geostatistical modeling of arsenic and suggest the San Luis Valley is a good region for conducting epidemiologic studies of groundwater metals because of the ability to accurately predict variation in groundwater arsenic concentrations.

  11. Effects of solid feed level and roughage-to-concentrate ratio on ruminal drinking and passage kinetics of milk replacer, concentrates, and roughage in veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berends, H; van den Borne, J J G C; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, N; Gilbert, M S; Zandstra, T; Pellikaan, W F; van Reenen, C G; Bokkers, E A M; Gerrits, W J J

    2015-08-01

    Effects of solid feed (SF) level and roughage-to-concentrate (R:C) ratio on ruminal drinking and passage kinetics of milk replacer, concentrate, and roughage were studied in veal calves. In total, 80 male Holstein-Friesian calves (45±0.2kg of body weight) were divided over 16 pens (5 calves per pen). Pens were randomly assigned to either a low (LSF) or a high (HSF) SF level and to 1 of 2 R:C ratios: 20:80 or 50:50 on a dry matter (DM) basis. Roughage was composed of 50% corn silage and 50% chopped wheat straw on a DM basis. At 27 wk of age, measurements were conducted in 32 calves. During the measurement period, SF intake was 1.2kg of DM/d for LSF and 3.0kg of DM/d for HSF, and milk replacer intake averaged 2.3kg of DM/d for LSF and 1.3kg of DM/d for HSF. To estimate passage kinetics of milk replacer, concentrate, and straw, indigestible markers (CoEDTA, hexatriacontane C36, Cr-neutral detergent fiber) were supplied with the feed as a single dose 4, 24, and 48h before assessment of their quantitative recovery in the rumen, abomasum, small intestine, and large intestine. Rumen Co recovery averaged 20% of the last milk replacer meal. Recoveries of Co remained largely unaffected by SF level and R:C ratio. The R:C ratio did not affect rumen recovery of C36 or Cr. Rumen fractional passage rate of concentrate was estimated from recovery of C36 in the rumen and increased from 3.3%/h for LSF to 4.9%/h for HSF. Rumen fractional passage rate of straw was estimated from Cr recovery in the rumen and increased from 1.3%/h for LSF to 1.7%/h for HSF. An increase in SF level was accompanied by an increase in fresh and dry rumen contents. In HSF calves, pH decreased and VFA concentrations increased with increasing concentrate proportion, indicating increased fermentation. The ratio between Cr and C36 was similar in the small and large intestine, indicating that passage of concentrate and straw is mainly determined by rumen and abomasum emptying. In conclusion, increasing SF level

  12. Current hemoglobin levels are more predictive of disease progression than hemoglobin measured at baseline in patients receiving antiretroviral treatment for HIV type 1 infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kowalska, Justyna D; Mocroft, Amanda; Blaxhult, Anders

    2007-01-01

    The role of hemoglobin levels as an independent prognostic marker of progression to AIDS and/or death in HIV-infected patients starting combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) was investigated. A total of 2,579 patients from the EuroSIDA cohort with hemoglobin, CD4 cell count, and HIV RNA viral...

  13. Long Baseline Observatory (LBO)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Long Baseline Observatory (LBO) comprises ten radio telescopes spanning 5,351 miles. It's the world's largest, sharpest, dedicated telescope array. With an eye...

  14. Do Thyroxine and Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Levels Reflect Urinary Iodine Concentrations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldin, Offie P.; Tractenberg, Rochelle E.; Pezzullo, John C.

    2013-01-01

    The toxicity of environmental chemicals such as nitrates, thiocynates, and perchlorates, some therapeutics, and dietary goitrogens can lower thyroidal iodine uptake and result in hypothyroidism and goiter. Iodine sufficiency, essential for normal thyroid hormone synthesis, is critical during gestation to assure that sufficient thyroxine (T4) and iodine reach the developing fetus. Spot urinary iodide (UI) measurements are used globally to indicate and monitor iodine sufficiency of populations. In individuals, however, UI are not routinely measured; instead, normal serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and T4 concentrations serve as surrogate indicators of iodine sufficiency as well as thyroidal health. Our objective was to examine the relationship between UI concentrations and serum T4 and TSH concentrations in individuals in an ‘‘iodine-sufficient population.’’ Using a cross-sectional sample of the US population (n = 7628) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III; 1988–1994) database, we examined the relationship among UI, T4, and TSH in pregnant and nonpregnant women and in men (15–44 years). There was a lack of relationship between UI (or UI/Cr) concentrations and serum T4 or TSH concentrations. Therefore, TSH and T4 are not appropriate markers of UI concentrations in this population. Monitoring the status of iodine nutrition of individuals in the United States may be important because serum TSH and T4 concentrations do not indicate low iodine status. PMID:15795649

  15. Evaluation of the effects of various sound pressure levels on the level of serum aldosterone concentration in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Nassiri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Noise exposure may have anatomical, nonauditory, and auditory influences. Considering nonauditory impacts, noise exposure can cause alterations in the automatic nervous system, including increased pulse rates, heightened blood pressure, and abnormal secretion of hormones. The present study aimed at examining the effect of various sound pressure levels (SPLs on the serum aldosterone level among rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 45 adult male rats with an age range of 3 to 4 months and a weight of 200 ± 50 g were randomly divided into 15 groups of three. Three groups were considered as the control groups and the rest (i.e., 12 groups as the case groups. Rats of the case groups were exposed to SPLs of 85, 95, and 105 dBA. White noise was used as the noise to which the rats were exposed. To measure the level of rats’ serum aldosterone, 3 mL of each rat’s sample blood was directly taken from the heart of anesthetized animals by using syringes. The taken blood samples were put in labeled test tubes that contained anticoagulant Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. In the laboratory, the level of aldosterone was assessed through Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay protocol. The collected data were analyzed by the use of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 18. Results: The results revealed that there was no significant change in the level of rats’ serum aldosterone as a result of exposure to SPLs of 65, 85, and 95 dBA. However, the level of serum aldosterone experienced a remarkable increase after exposure to the SPL of 105 dBA (P < 0.001. Thus, the SPL had a significant impact on the serum aldosterone level (P < 0.001. In contrast, the exposure time and the level of potassium in the used water did not have any measurable influence on the level of serum aldosterone (P = 0.25 and 0.39. Conclusion: The findings of this study demonstrated that serum aldosterone can be used as a biomarker in the face of sound

  16. Concentration of sunlight to solar-surface levels using non-imaging optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleckman, Philip; O'Gallagher, Joseph; Winston, Roland

    1989-05-01

    An account is given of the design and operational principles of a solar concentrator that employs nonimaging optics to achieve a solar flux equal to 56,000 times that of ambient sunlight, yielding temperatures comparable to, and with further development of the device, exceeding those of the solar surface. In this scheme, a parabolic mirror primary concentrator is followed by a secondary concentrator, designed according to the edge-ray method, which is filled with a transparent oil. The device may be used in materials-processing, waste-disposal, and solar-pumped laser applications.

  17. Determination of the Radon Concentration and Radioactivity Level in Karaca Cave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kara, A.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the radon gas concentration in the Karaca cave which is open to tourism has been determined and the negative effects of radon gas on people were discussed. Karaca cave (Gumushane) is visited by many tourists every year. The measurements of radon gas concentration which affects the health of human beings negatively and even causes the lung cancer when it reaches high points have been done for the summer and winter season. LR-115 passive radon detector was used to determine radon concentrations in the cave both winter and summer season. The average radon concentration in the Karaca cave were determined as 823 Bq/m 3 and 1023 Bq/m 3 for the summer and winter season, respectively. Moreover, to find out the natural radioactivity in the cave, the gamma spectroscopic analysis of soil, stone and stalagmite samples were carried out and their relations with the radon gas in the cave atmosphere was analyzed

  18. Performance, carcass and ruminal fermentation characteristics of heifers fed concentrates differing in energy level and cereal type (corn vs. wheat)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrasco, C.; Carro, M.D.; Fuentetaja, A.; Medel, P.

    2017-07-01

    A total of 144 beef heifers (218 ± 26.4 kg body weight) were housed in 24 pens (6 animals each) and used in a 168-day feedlot study to evaluate the influence of cereal type and energy level on performance, carcass quality and ruminal fermentation. Four concentrates were formulated according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments, with two energy levels (1,452 vs. 1,700 kcal net energy/kg) and two main cereals (wheat vs. corn). Concentrate and straw were offered ad libitum. Concentrate intake and body weight were recorded on days 42, 84, 126 and 168. Ruminal fluid was obtained by ruminocentesis from 3 heifers per pen on days 1, 84 and 168; and carcass weight, classification and yield, were determined in the same animals. Heifers fed high-energy diets had lower intake (6.97 vs. 7.29 kg fresh matter/d; p=0.011), and lower concentrate to gain ratio (5.15 vs. 5.66 kg/kg; p=0.002) than those fed low energy concentrates, and tended (p=0.069) to be heavier along the time. Neither carcass yield and classification, nor ruminal pH, volatile fatty acids nor NH3-N concentrations were affected (p>0.050) by energy level. Total volatile fatty acids concentration tended (p=0.070) to be greater in heifers fed corn-based than wheat-based concentrates. No energy level x cereal type interactions were observed. These results indicate that high energy concentrates decreased feed intake and feed conversion but had minor effects on carcass performance. Cereal type had no effects on performance and ruminal fermentation and no interactions between cereal type and energy were detected.

  19. Performance, carcass and ruminal fermentation characteristics of heifers fed concentrates differing in energy level and cereal type (corn vs. wheat)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrasco, C.; Carro, M.D.; Fuentetaja, A.; Medel, P.

    2017-01-01

    A total of 144 beef heifers (218 ± 26.4 kg body weight) were housed in 24 pens (6 animals each) and used in a 168-day feedlot study to evaluate the influence of cereal type and energy level on performance, carcass quality and ruminal fermentation. Four concentrates were formulated according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments, with two energy levels (1,452 vs. 1,700 kcal net energy/kg) and two main cereals (wheat vs. corn). Concentrate and straw were offered ad libitum. Concentrate intake and body weight were recorded on days 42, 84, 126 and 168. Ruminal fluid was obtained by ruminocentesis from 3 heifers per pen on days 1, 84 and 168; and carcass weight, classification and yield, were determined in the same animals. Heifers fed high-energy diets had lower intake (6.97 vs. 7.29 kg fresh matter/d; p=0.011), and lower concentrate to gain ratio (5.15 vs. 5.66 kg/kg; p=0.002) than those fed low energy concentrates, and tended (p=0.069) to be heavier along the time. Neither carcass yield and classification, nor ruminal pH, volatile fatty acids nor NH3-N concentrations were affected (p>0.050) by energy level. Total volatile fatty acids concentration tended (p=0.070) to be greater in heifers fed corn-based than wheat-based concentrates. No energy level x cereal type interactions were observed. These results indicate that high energy concentrates decreased feed intake and feed conversion but had minor effects on carcass performance. Cereal type had no effects on performance and ruminal fermentation and no interactions between cereal type and energy were detected.

  20. Dimethadione embryotoxicity in the rat is neither correlated with maternal systemic drug concentrations nor embryonic tissue levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozolinš, Terence R.S., E-mail: ozolinst@queensu.ca [Department of Biomedical and Molecular Sciences, Program in Pharmacology and Toxicology, Queen’s University, Botterell Hall, Kingston, ON K7L 3N6 (Canada); Weston, Andrea D. [Currently at Applied Biotechnology/Lead Discovery, Bristol-Myers Squibb, 5 Research Pkwy Wallingford, CT 06492-1996 (United States); Perretta, Anthony [Currently at Pfizer Research and Development, Eastern Point Road, Groton, CT 06340 (United States); Thomson, Jason J. [Currently at Yale Stem Cell Center, Yale School of Medicine, PO Box 208073, New Haven, CT 06520-8073 (United States); Brown, Nigel A. [Division of Basic Medical Sciences, St. George’s University of London, UK SW17 0RE (United Kingdom)

    2015-11-15

    Pregnant rats treated with dimethadione (DMO), the N-demethylated metabolite of the anticonvulsant trimethadione, produce offspring having a 74% incidence of congenital heart defects (CHD); however, the incidence of CHD has high inter-litter variability (40–100%) that presents a challenge when studying the initiating events prior to the presentation of an abnormal phenotype. We hypothesized that the variability in CHD incidence was the result of differences in maternal systemic concentrations or embryonic tissue concentrations of DMO. To test this hypothesis, dams were administered 300 mg/kg DMO every 12 h from the evening of gestational day (GD) 8 until the morning of GD 11 (six total doses). Maternal serum levels of DMO were assessed on GD 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 18 and 21. Embryonic tissue concentrations of DMO were assessed on GD 11, 12, 13 and 14. In a separate cohort of GD 12 embryos, DMO concentrations and parameters of growth and development were assessed to determine if tissue levels of DMO were correlated with these endpoints. Embryos were exposed directly to different concentrations of DMO with whole embryo culture (WEC) and their growth and development assessed. Key findings were that neither maternal systemic concentrations nor tissue concentrations of DMO identified embryos that were sensitive or resistant to DMO in vivo. Direct exposure of embryos to DMO via WEC also failed to show correlations between embryonic concentrations of DMO with developmental outcomes in vitro. We conclude that neither maternal serum nor embryonic tissue concentrations of DMO predict embryonic outcome. - Highlights: • Dimethadione (DMO) induces septation defects (VSD) in rat offspring. • Despite high rate of VSD defects inter-litter variability is 40–100%. • Maternal and embryonic concentrations of DMO were assessed. • Neither serum nor tissue levels of DMO were correlated with embryotoxicity.

  1. Dimethadione embryotoxicity in the rat is neither correlated with maternal systemic drug concentrations nor embryonic tissue levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozolinš, Terence R.S.; Weston, Andrea D.; Perretta, Anthony; Thomson, Jason J.; Brown, Nigel A.

    2015-01-01

    Pregnant rats treated with dimethadione (DMO), the N-demethylated metabolite of the anticonvulsant trimethadione, produce offspring having a 74% incidence of congenital heart defects (CHD); however, the incidence of CHD has high inter-litter variability (40–100%) that presents a challenge when studying the initiating events prior to the presentation of an abnormal phenotype. We hypothesized that the variability in CHD incidence was the result of differences in maternal systemic concentrations or embryonic tissue concentrations of DMO. To test this hypothesis, dams were administered 300 mg/kg DMO every 12 h from the evening of gestational day (GD) 8 until the morning of GD 11 (six total doses). Maternal serum levels of DMO were assessed on GD 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 18 and 21. Embryonic tissue concentrations of DMO were assessed on GD 11, 12, 13 and 14. In a separate cohort of GD 12 embryos, DMO concentrations and parameters of growth and development were assessed to determine if tissue levels of DMO were correlated with these endpoints. Embryos were exposed directly to different concentrations of DMO with whole embryo culture (WEC) and their growth and development assessed. Key findings were that neither maternal systemic concentrations nor tissue concentrations of DMO identified embryos that were sensitive or resistant to DMO in vivo. Direct exposure of embryos to DMO via WEC also failed to show correlations between embryonic concentrations of DMO with developmental outcomes in vitro. We conclude that neither maternal serum nor embryonic tissue concentrations of DMO predict embryonic outcome. - Highlights: • Dimethadione (DMO) induces septation defects (VSD) in rat offspring. • Despite high rate of VSD defects inter-litter variability is 40–100%. • Maternal and embryonic concentrations of DMO were assessed. • Neither serum nor tissue levels of DMO were correlated with embryotoxicity.

  2. Case study of stratospheric ozone affecting ground-level oxidant concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamb, R.G.

    1977-01-01

    During the predawn hours of 19 November 1972, the air pollution monitoring station at Santa Rosa, Calif., recorded five consecutive hours of oxidant concentrations in excess of the present National Ambient Air Quality Standard. The highest of the hourly averages was 0.23 ppm. From a detailed analysis of the meteorological conditions surrounding this incident, it is shown that the ozone responsible for the anomalous concentrations originated in the stratosphere and not from anthropogenic sources

  3. Impacts of a large boreal wildfire on ground level atmospheric concentrations of PAHs, VOCs and ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentworth, Gregory R.; Aklilu, Yayne-abeba; Landis, Matthew S.; Hsu, Yu-Mei

    2018-04-01

    During May 2016 a very large boreal wildfire burned throughout the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) in central Canada, and in close proximity to an extensive air quality monitoring network. This study examines speciated 24-h integrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and volatile organic compound (VOC) measurements collected every sixth day at four and seven sites, respectively, from May to August 2016. The sum of PAHs (ΣPAH) was on average 17 times higher in fire-influenced samples (852 ng m-3, n = 8), relative to non-fire influenced samples (50 ng m-3, n = 64). Diagnostic PAH ratios in fire-influenced samples were indicative of a biomass burning source, whereas ratios in June to August samples showed additional influence from petrogenic and fossil fuel combustion. The average increase in the sum of VOCs (ΣVOC) was minor by comparison: 63 ppbv for fire-influenced samples (n = 16) versus 46 ppbv for non-fire samples (n = 90). The samples collected on August 16th and 22nd had large ΣVOC concentrations at all sites (average of 123 ppbv) that were unrelated to wildfire emissions, and composed primarily of acetaldehyde and methanol suggesting a photochemically aged air mass. Normalized excess enhancement ratios (ERs) were calculated for 20 VOCs and 23 PAHs for three fire influenced samples, and the former were generally consistent with previous observations. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report ER measurements for a number of VOCs and PAHs in fresh North American boreal wildfire plumes. During May the aged wildfire plume intercepted the cities of Edmonton (∼380 km south) or Lethbridge (∼790 km south) on four separate occasions. No enhancement in ground-level ozone (O3) was observed in these aged plumes despite an assumed increase in O3 precursors. In the AOSR, the only daily-averaged VOCs which approached or exceeded the hourly Alberta Ambient Air Quality Objectives (AAAQOs) were benzene (during the fire) and acetaldehyde (on August 16th

  4. Level of polychlorinated biphenyls in the lower troposphere of the North-and South-Atlantic Ocean. Studies of global baseline pollution. Pt. 17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreitmueller, J.; Ballschmiter, K.

    1994-01-01

    Fourteen polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were quantified in air samples of the tropospheric boundary layer of the Atlantic Ocean. The samples were taken on the German research vessel 'Polarstern' during north-south cruises across the Atlantic Ocean (1990, 1991), and on the Capo Verde islands in the North Atlantic Ocean (1992). Values for the sum of PCB were between 48 pg/m 3 (values for the seven indicator congeners were [ in pg/m 3 ]: PCB 28: 1.3; PCB 52: 5.0; PCB 101: 3.0; PCB 118: ≤0.5; PCB 138: 1; PCB 153: 1; PCB 180: 3 (values for the seven indicator congeners were [in pg/m 3 ]: PCB 28: 2.3; PCB 52: 3.4; PCB 101: ≤0.5; PCB 118: 3 (values for the seven indicator congeners were [in pg/m 3 ]: PCB 28: 2.6; PCB 52: 11.7; PCB 101: 28.4; PCB 118: 9; PCB 138: 21; PCB 153: 18; PCB 180: 5.5) were measured of the coast of South Patagonia. A difference depending on latitude and on terrestrial influenced air masses between the lower and the higher chlorinated congeners was observed. The levels of three- and tetrachlorinated congeners were highest in the Trade Wind regions. The contents of the higher chlorinated congeners had maxima in samples influenced by continental air masses. A correlation of the levels of the lower chlorinated congeners in air over the South Atlantic with the surface water temperature and thus with the temperature dependent gas/water partition coefficient K gw was observed. (orig.)

  5. Future concentrations of atmospheric greenhouse gases CO2, CFC and CH4 - an assessment on the educational level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoppenau, S.

    1992-01-01

    A model on the educational level is described to estimate effective future atmospheric CO 2 concentrations. The effects of chlorofluorocarbon and methane emission and deforestation are taken into account. The influence of different emission scenarios on the time evolution of greenhouse-gas concentration are illustrated. Future global energy policies are discussed both under the aspects of rising world population and the reduction in global CO 2 emissions. The model can be handled on a PC or even on a pocket calculator

  6. Radon concentration and working level in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiver, J.H.; Tung, Chao-Hsiung.

    1995-01-01

    Radon-222 ( 222 Rn) and 222 Rn progeny WL monitoring in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) was initiated to support regulatory compliance. Measurements were taken over two periods, in Test Alcove No. 1 of the ESF, about 60 m from the tunnel entrance. For both periods, 222 Rn concentration was less than 10% of the Derived Air Concentration (DAC) set forth in DOE Order 5480.11. Thus, these assessments were sufficient to demonstrate regulatory compliance. Based on these findings, quarterly 222 Rn and 222 Rn progeny monitoring was initiated. Two systems each were employed for 222 Rn and 222 Rn progeny measurement. No significant differences were observed between the respective systems. An interesting finding was that at the time the measurements were taken, barometric pressure appeared to be the predominant factor controlling 222 Rn concentration in the ESF. This was true even during periods of ventilation shutdown

  7. Interaction of Peat Soil and Sulphidic Material Substratum: Role of Peat Layer and Groundwater Level Fluctuations on Phosphorus Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benito Heru Purwanto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P often becomes limiting factor for plants growth. Phosphorus geochemistry in peatland soil is associated with the presence of peat layer and groundwater level fluctuations. The research was conducted to study the role of peat layer and groundwater level fluctuations on P concentration in peatland. The research was conducted on deep, moderate and shallow peat with sulphidic material as substratum, peaty acid sulphate soil, and potential acid sulphate soil. While P concentration was observed in wet season, in transition from wet to dry season, and in dry season. Soil samples were collected by using peat borer according to interlayer and soil horizon. The results showed that peat layer might act as the main source of P in peatland with sulphidic material substratum. The upper peat layer on sulphidic material caused by groundwater level fluctuations had no directly effect on P concentration in the peat layers. Increased of P concentration in the lowest sulphidic layer might relate to redox reaction of iron in the sulphidic layer and precipitation process. Phosphorus concentration in peatland with sulphidic material as substratum was not influenced by peat thickness. However, depletion or disappearance of peat layer decreased P concentration in soil solution. Disappearance of peat layer means loss of a natural source of P for peatland with sulphidic material as substratum, therefore peat layer must be kept in order to maintain of peatlands.

  8. EFFECTS OF CONCENTRIC AND ECCENTRIC MUSCLE ACTIONS ON SERUM MYOSTATIN AND FOLLISTATIN-LIKE RELATED GENE LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemuel Taylor

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study determined the effects of concentric and eccentric muscle actions on the contents of serum myostatin and follistatin-like related gene (FLRG. Eight untrained males performed one exercise bout with each leg, separated by three weeks. One bout consisted of 7 sets of 10 repetitions of eccentric muscle actions of the knee extensors at 150% of the concentric 1-RM while the other bout consisted of 7 sets of 10 repetitions of concentric muscle actions at 75% 1-RM. The legs used and the bouts performed were randomized. Five days prior to each exercise bout, baseline measurements were taken for muscle strength. For both bouts, a venous blood sample was obtained immediately prior to exercise and again at 6, 24, and 48 hr post-exercise. Data were analyzed with 2 X 4 (bout x test ANOVA (p < 0.05. Increases in serum myostatin and FLRG occurred with each exercise bout and, excluding 48 hr post-exercise, were significantly correlated to one another (p < 0.05. After eccentric exercise, peak increases of 68% and 50% (p < 0.05 were observed for myostatin and FLRG, respectively. Similar increases of 54% and 44% (p < 0.05 were observed after concentric muscle actions. There was no significant difference in expression of myostatin or FLRG as a function of muscle action type. Our results suggest that a single bout of exercise with either eccentric or concentric muscle actions appear to elicit a similar increase in serum myostatin and FLRG. Therefore, the type of muscle action may not be as much a mitigating factor for increasing serum myostatin and FLRG rather than the muscle action per se.

  9. Effect of dietary poly unsaturated fatty acids on total brain lipid concentration and anxiety levels of electron beam irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suchetha Kumari; Bekal, Mahesh

    2013-01-01

    The whole brain irradiation causes injury to the nervous system at various levels. Omega-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids are very much essential for the growth and development of nervous system. Dietary supplementation of these nutrients will promote the development of injured neuronal cells. Therefore this study was undertaken to establish the role of Omega-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids on total brain lipid concentration, lipid peroxidation and anxiety levels in the irradiated mice. The effect of Electron Beam Radiation (EBR) on total brain lipid concentration, lipid peroxidation and anxiety level were investigated in male Swiss albino mice. The study groups were subjected to a sub-lethal dose of EBR and also the flax seed extract and fish oil were given orally to the irradiated mice. Irradiated groups show significant elevation in anxiety levels when compared to control group, indicating the acute radiation effects on the central nervous system. But the oral supplementation of dietary PUFA source decrees the anxiety level in the irradiated group. The analysis of lipid peroxidation showed a significant level of changes when compared between control and radiation groups. Dietary PUFA supplementation showed a significant level of decrease in the lipid peroxidation in the irradiated groups. The observation of total lipids in brain shows decrease in concentration in the irradiated groups, the differences in the variables follow the similar patterns as of that the MDA levels. This study suggests that the dietary intake of PUFAs may help in prevention and recovery of the oxidative stress caused by radiation. (author)

  10. Alcohol intoxication at Swedish football matches: A study using biological sampling to assess blood alcohol concentration levels among spectators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Durbeej

    Full Text Available Alcohol use and alcohol-related problems, including accidents, vandalism and violence, at sporting events are of increased concern in Sweden and other countries. The relationship between alcohol use and violence has been established and can be explained by the level of intoxication. Given the occurrence of alcohol use and alcohol-related problems at sporting events, research has assessed intoxication levels measured through biological sampling among spectators. This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the level of alcohol intoxication among spectators at football matches in the Swedish Premier Football League. Spectators were randomly selected and invited to participate in the study. Alcohol intoxication was measured with a breath analyser for Blood Alcohol Concentration levels, and data on gender, age, and recent alcohol use were gathered through a face-to-face interview. Blood Alcohol Concentration samples from 4420 spectators were collected. Almost half (46.8% had a positive Blood Alcohol Concentration level, with a mean value of 0.063%, while 8.9% had a Blood Alcohol Concentration level ≥ 0.1%, with a mean value of 0.135%. Factors that predicted a higher Blood Alcohol Concentration level included male gender (p = 0.005, lower age (p < 0.001, attending a local derby (p < 0.001, alcohol use prior to having entered the arena (p < 0.001, attending a weekend match (p < 0.001, and being a spectator at supporter sections (p < 0.001. About half of all spectators at football matches in the Swedish Premier Football League drink alcohol in conjunction with the match. Approximately one tenth have a high level of alcohol intoxication.

  11. Xanthoria parietina as a monitor of ground-level ambient ammonia concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Henrik Brinkmann; Berthelsen, Kasper; Andersen, Helle Vibeke

    2010-01-01

    Total nitrogen in transplanted and in situ lichen thalli of Xanthoria parietina were related to ambient ammonia air concentrations measured with passive ALPHA (Adapted Low-cost Passive High Absorption) diffusion samplers in Denmark. Transplants and ALPHA samplers were exposed four months in a tra...

  12. the effect of level of feeding concentrates during early lactation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fred Obese

    Effect of concentrate supplementation during early lactation on plasma IGF-I .... releasing device (CIDR®, Genetics Australia, Bacchus Marsh, Victoria) for eight days, with ... being administered at the time of device insertion (2 mg i.m.) and 24 h following ... insemination, pregnancy rates at three weeks and six weeks and the ...

  13. Organosulfates and organic acids in Arctic aerosols: Speciation, annual variation and concentration levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Maria Kaldal; Kristensen, Kasper; Nguyen, Quynh

    2014-01-01

    organosulfates and 1 nitrooxy organosulfate were identified in aerosol samples from the two sites using a high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC) coupled to a quadrupole Time-of-Flight mass spectrometer. At Station Nord, compound concentrations followed a distinct annual pattern, where high mean...

  14. Experimental Evaluation of Efficient Si Dissolution from Perlite at Low Level Activator’s Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia-Maria Tsaousi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the Si dissolution of fine perlite in alkaline solutions for the determination of the SiO2/Na2O mass ratio in the aqueous phase of geopolymer slurries. In the present work, the effect of the main synthesis parameters such as NaOH concentration and curing temperature on the setting time of the paste were studied. The obtained results showed that the inorganic polymer pastes present fast hardening at low concentrations of NaOH solutions for both 70 and 90 °C. This observation was also identified by the Si dissolution study of perlite pastes as a function of different concentrations of NaOH solutions and different solid to liquid ratios of the slurries, under a constant temperature. The optimum synthesis conditions for geopolymer pastes proved to be a low initial NaOH concentration in the alkaline phase (2–4 M NaOH, where the fast hardening of the paste was attributed to the high SiO2/Na2O mass ratio, enhancing the polycondensation phenomena and promoting the geopolymerization process.

  15. Analysis of halogenated and priority pesticides at different concentration levels. Automated SPE extraction followed by isotope dilution-GC/MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Planas, C.; Saulo, J.; Rivera, J.; Caixach, J. [Institut Investigacions Quimiques i Ambientals (IIQAB-CSIC), Barcelona (Spain)

    2004-09-15

    In this work, automatic SPE extraction of 16 pesticides and metabolites with the automated Power-Prep trademark system is evaluated at different concentration levels using polymeric (ENV+) and C{sub 18} sorbent phases. The method was optimised by comparing recoveries obtained using different eluting solvents. The optimised procedure was then applied to spiked water samples at concentration levels of 0.1{mu}g/L (quality standard for individual pesticides in drinking water) and 0.02{mu}g/L (close to the detection limit of most pesticides).

  16. Modelling street level PM10 concentrations across Europe: source apportionment and possible futures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiesewetter, G.; Borken-Kleefeld, J.; Schöpp, W.; Heyes, C.; Thunis, P.; Bessagnet, B.; Terrenoire, E.; Fagerli, H.; Nyiri, A.; Amann, M.

    2015-02-01

    Despite increasing emission controls, particulate matter (PM) has remained a critical issue for European air quality in recent years. The various sources of PM, both from primary particulate emissions as well as secondary formation from precursor gases, make this a complex problem to tackle. In order to allow for credible predictions of future concentrations under policy assumptions, a modelling approach is needed that considers all chemical processes and spatial dimensions involved, from long-range transport of pollution to local emissions in street canyons. Here we describe a modelling scheme which has been implemented in the GAINS integrated assessment model to assess compliance with PM10 (PM with aerodynamic diameter dispersion calculations, and a traffic increment calculation wherever applicable. At each monitoring station fulfilling a few data coverage criteria, measured concentrations in the base year 2009 are explained to the extent possible and then modelled for the past and future. More than 1850 monitoring stations are covered, including more than 300 traffic stations and 80% of the stations which exceeded the EU air quality limit values in 2009. As a validation, we compare modelled trends in the period 2000-2008 to observations, which are well reproduced. The modelling scheme is applied here to quantify explicitly source contributions to ambient concentrations at several critical monitoring stations, displaying the differences in spatial origin and chemical composition of urban roadside PM10 across Europe. Furthermore, we analyse the predicted evolution of PM10 concentrations in the European Union until 2030 under different policy scenarios. Significant improvements in ambient PM10 concentrations are expected assuming successful implementation of already agreed legislation; however, these will not be large enough to ensure attainment of PM10 limit values in hot spot locations such as Southern Poland and major European cities. Remaining issues are

  17. Blood BDNF concentrations reflect brain-tissue BDNF levels across species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Anders B; Williamson, Rebecca; Santini, Martin A

    2011-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in synaptic plasticity, neuronal differentiation and survival of neurons. Observations of decreased serum BDNF levels in patients with neuropsychiatric disorders have highlighted the potential of BDNF as a biomarker, but so far there have been...... no studies directly comparing blood BDNF levels to brain BDNF levels in different species. We examined blood, serum, plasma and brain-tissue BDNF levels in three different mammalian species: rat, pig, and mouse, using an ELISA method. As a control, we included an analysis of blood and brain tissue from...... conditional BDNF knockout mice and their wild-type littermates. Whereas BDNF could readily be measured in rat blood, plasma and brain tissue, it was undetectable in mouse blood. In pigs, whole-blood levels of BDNF could not be measured with a commercially available ELISA kit, but pig plasma BDNF levels (mean...

  18. Blood BDNF concentrations reflect brain-tissue BDNF levels across species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Anders B; Williamson, Rebecca; Santini, Martin A

    2011-01-01

    no studies directly comparing blood BDNF levels to brain BDNF levels in different species. We examined blood, serum, plasma and brain-tissue BDNF levels in three different mammalian species: rat, pig, and mouse, using an ELISA method. As a control, we included an analysis of blood and brain tissue from......Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in synaptic plasticity, neuronal differentiation and survival of neurons. Observations of decreased serum BDNF levels in patients with neuropsychiatric disorders have highlighted the potential of BDNF as a biomarker, but so far there have been...... conditional BDNF knockout mice and their wild-type littermates. Whereas BDNF could readily be measured in rat blood, plasma and brain tissue, it was undetectable in mouse blood. In pigs, whole-blood levels of BDNF could not be measured with a commercially available ELISA kit, but pig plasma BDNF levels (mean...

  19. Spatial distribution of ground-level urban background O3 concentrations in the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pineda Rojas, Andrea L.; Venegas, Laura E.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, a recently developed urban-scale atmospheric dispersion model (DAUMOD-GRS) is applied to evaluate the ground-level ozone (O 3 ) concentrations resulting from anthropogenic area sources of NO x and VOC in the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires (MABA). The statistical comparison of model results with observations (including new available data from seventeen sites) shows a good model performance. Estimated summer highest diurnal O 3 1-h concentrations in the MABA vary between 15 ppb in the most urbanised area and 53 ppb in the suburbs. All values are below the air quality standard. Several runs are performed to evaluate the impact of possible future emission reductions on O 3 concentrations. Under all hypothetical scenarios, the maximum diurnal O 3 1-h concentration obtained for the area is slightly reduced (up to 4%). However, maximum diurnal O 3 concentrations could increase at some less urbanised areas of MABA depending on the relative reductions of the emissions of NO x and VOC. -- Highlights: ► A recently developed air quality model reproduces well observed O 3 levels in MABA. ► Modelled summer maximum diurnal O 3 concentrations vary in the area between 15 and 53 ppb. ► All hourly values are below the air quality standard (120 ppb). ► Possible future emission reductions would have small impact on the highest level. -- The distribution of summer maximum diurnal ground-level O 3 concentrations in the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires is evaluated applying a recently developed simple urban air quality model

  20. First Grade Baseline Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Innovation in Assessment (NJ1), 2013

    2013-01-01

    The First Grade Baseline Evaluation is an optional tool that can be used at the beginning of the school year to help teachers get to know the reading and language skills of each student. The evaluation is composed of seven screenings. Teachers may use the entire evaluation or choose to use those individual screenings that they find most beneficial…

  1. Assessment of iodine concentration in dietary salt at household level in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahidi, Ahmed; Zahidi, Meriem; Taoufik, Jamal

    2016-05-20

    Following WHO recommendations, Morocco adopted in 1995 the universal salt iodization (USI) as a strategy to prevent and control iodine deficiency disorders. In 2009, the standard salt iodine concentration was adjusted to 15-40 mg/kg. The success of USI for the control of iodine deficiency disorders requires an evaluation of iodine concentration in salt prior to assessing the iodine nutritional status of a population. In our study we refer to the anterior studies that were made in Morocco in 1993 and 1998. 178 salt samples from households were tested for iodine using spot-testing kits. The iodometric titration method was used to analyze accurately the concentration of iodine in the 178 household salt samples. An empiric polling method was adopted, using a non-probability sampling method; across the different twelve regions in the country. The median and interquartile range iodine concentration in salt was 2.9 mg/kg (IQR: 2.4-3.7). The results show that only 25 % of households use iodized salt. The recommended iodine concentration in salt of 15-40 mg/kg was met only in 4.5 % of salt samples. The bulk salt is used by 8 % of households. All samples of this bulk salt were found in rural areas. According to nonparametric appropriate tests used, there is no significant difference in iodine concentrations between regions, between urban and rural areas and between packaged and bulk salt. Two decades since introducing legislation on Universal Salt Iodization, our survey shows that generalization of iodized salt is far from being reached. In 2015, only a quarter of Moroccan households use the iodized salt and only 4.5 % of salt is in conformity with regulations. The use of bulk salt by households in rural areas constitutes a major obstacle to the success of USI. The National Iodine Deficiency Disorders Control Program can only be achieved if an internal follow-up and a control of external quality of program is put in place.

  2. Dexamethasone levels and base to apex concentration gradients in scala tympani perilymph following intracochlear delivery in the guinea pig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Hartmut; Salt, Alec N.; Biegner, Thorsten; Kammerer, Bernd; Delabar, Ursular; Hartsock, Jared; Plontke, Stefan K.

    2012-01-01

    Hypothesis To determine whether intracochlearly applied dexamethasone will lead to better control of drug levels, higher peak concentrations and lower base-to apex concentration gradients in scala tympani (ST) of the guinea pig than after intratympanic (round window, RW) application. Background Local application of drugs to the RW results in substantial variation of intracochlear drug levels and significant base-to apex concentration gradients in ST. Methods Two μL of dexamethasone-phosphate (10 mg/mL) were injected into ST either through the RW membrane which was covered with 1% sodium hyaluronate gel or through a cochleostomy with a fluid tight seal of the micropipette. Perilymph was sequentially sampled from the apex at a single time point for each animal, at 20, 80, or 200 min after the injection ended. Results were mathematically interpreted by the means of an established computer model and compared with prior experiments performed by our group with the same experimental techniques but using intratympanic applications. Results Single intracochlear injections over 20 min resulted in approximately ten times higher peak concentrations (on average) than 2-3 hours of intratympanic application to the round window niche. Intracochlear drug levels were less variable and could be measured for at least up to 220 min. Concentration gradients along scala tympani were less pronounced. The remaining variability in intracochlear drug levels was attributable to perilymph and drug leak from the injection site. Conclusion With significantly higher, less variable drug levels and smaller base-to apex concentration gradients, intracochlear applications have advantages to intratympanic injections. For further development of this technique, it is of importance to control leaks of perilymph and drug from the injection site and to evaluate its clinical feasibility and associated risks. PMID:22588238

  3. Regionalization based on spatial and seasonal variation in ground-level ozone concentrations across China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Linjun; Wang, Shuai; Gong, Zhengyu; Li, Hong; Yang, Qi; Wang, Yeyao

    2018-05-01

    Owing to the vast territory of China and strong regional characteristic of ozone pollution, it's desirable for policy makers to have a targeted and prioritized regulation and ozone pollution control strategy in China based on scientific evidences. It's important to assess its current pollution status as well as spatial and temporal variation patterns across China. Recent advances of national monitoring networks provide an opportunity to insight the actions of ozone pollution. Here, we present rotated empirical orthogonal function (REOF) analysis that was used on studying the spatiotemporal characteristics of daily ozone concentrations. Based on results of REOF analysis in pollution seasons for 3years' observations, twelve regions with clear patterns were identified in China. The patterns of temporal variation of ozone in each region were separated well and different from each other, reflecting local meteorological, photochemical or pollution features. A rising trend in annual averaged Eight-hour Average Ozone Concentrations (O 3 -8hr) from 2014 to 2016 was observed for all regions, except for the Tibetan Plateau. The mean values of annual and 90 percentile concentrations for all 338 cities were 82.6±14.6 and 133.9±25.8μg/m 3 , respectively, in 2015. The regionalization results of ozone were found to be influenced greatly by terrain features, indicating significant terrain and landform effects on ozone spatial correlations. Among 12 regions, North China Plain, Huanghuai Plain, Central Yangtze River Plain, Pearl River Delta and Sichuan Basin were realized as priority regions for mitigation strategies, due to their higher ozone concentrations and dense population. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Treatment of low-and intermediate-level radioactive waste concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1968-01-01

    The report of a panel convened by the IAEA in Vienna, 2-6 May 1966. Thirteen experts from eight countries and one international organization attended the meeting. This report is related to treatment and radioactive sludges or residues resulting from treatment and purification of radioactive wastes. It includes: (i) concentration by evaporation; (ii) filtration; (iii) insolubilization by means of bitumen; (iv) use of cement or cement-vermiculite. 31 refs, 34 figs, 14 tabs

  5. Gamma radiation and radon concentration levels at the radioactive waste repositories 'Richard' and 'Bratrstvi'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berka, Z.; Sabol, J.; Janu, M.

    1998-01-01

    Owing to the fact that cosmic rays are shielded off, the photon equivalent dose rates in the corridors of the Richard repository are usually slightly lower than outside. However, in points close to barrels containing radioactive waste, the dose rates can reach values as high as tens of μSv/h. Because of high concentrations of natural radionuclides, the dose rates in the Bratrstvi repository is generally considerably higher, as much as 5 times the normal background value. Radon concentrations exhibit specific time variations which are modified by ventilation. Where ventilation is poor or absent, the radon concentrations are extremely high, viz. up to 30 and 300 kBq/m 3 in the Richard and Bratrstvi repositories, respectively. Personal exposure of workers depend on the total time spent underground and on the ventilation rate. While the contribution from photons can be kept below the relevant limits, the radon-related doses may be significant and even exceed the professional limits if no precautions are taken. (P.A.)

  6. Modelling street level PM10 concentrations across Europe: source apportionment and possible futures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kiesewetter

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite increasing emission controls, particulate matter (PM has remained a critical issue for European air quality in recent years. The various sources of PM, both from primary particulate emissions as well as secondary formation from precursor gases, make this a complex problem to tackle. In order to allow for credible predictions of future concentrations under policy assumptions, a modelling approach is needed that considers all chemical processes and spatial dimensions involved, from long-range transport of pollution to local emissions in street canyons. Here we describe a modelling scheme which has been implemented in the GAINS integrated assessment model to assess compliance with PM10 (PM with aerodynamic diameter 10 across Europe. Furthermore, we analyse the predicted evolution of PM10 concentrations in the European Union until 2030 under different policy scenarios. Significant improvements in ambient PM10 concentrations are expected assuming successful implementation of already agreed legislation; however, these will not be large enough to ensure attainment of PM10 limit values in hot spot locations such as Southern Poland and major European cities. Remaining issues are largely eliminated in a scenario applying the best available emission control technologies to the maximal technically feasible extent.

  7. Comparison of background levels of culturable fungal spore concentrations in indoor and outdoor air in southeastern Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, D.; Habib, J.; Luxner, J.; Galler, H.; Zarfel, G.; Schlacher, R.; Friedl, H.; Reinthaler, F. F.

    2014-12-01

    Background concentrations of airborne fungi are indispensable criteria for an assessment of fungal concentrations indoors and in the ambient air. The goal of this study was to define the natural background values of culturable fungal spore concentrations as reference values for the assessment of moldy buildings. The concentrations of culturable fungi were determined outdoors as well as indoors in 185 dwellings without visible mold, obvious moisture problems or musty odor. Samples were collected using the MAS-100® microbiological air sampler. The study shows a characteristic seasonal influence on the background levels of Cladosporium, Penicillium and Aspergillus. Cladosporium sp. had a strong outdoor presence, whereas Aspergillus sp. and Penicillium sp. were typical indoor fungi. For the region of Styria, the median outdoor concentrations are between 100 and 940 cfu/m³ for culturable xerophilic fungi in the course of the year. Indoors, median background levels are between 180 and 420 cfu/m³ for xerophilic fungi. The I/O ratios of the airborne fungal spore concentrations were between 0.2 and 2.0. For the assessment of indoor and outdoor air samples the dominant genera Cladosporium, Penicillium and Aspergillus should receive special consideration.

  8. Time lag between the tropopause height and the levels of 7Be concentration in near surface air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melas D.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of 7Be at near surface air has been determined over 2009, a year of a deep solar minimum, in the region of Thessaloniki, Greece at 40°62′ N, 22°95'E. In geomagnetic latitudes over 40° N, the elevation of the tropopause during the warm summer months and the vertical exchange of air masses within the troposphere cause greater mixture of the air masses resulting in higher concentration levels for 7Be in surface air. The positive correlation between the monthly activity concentration of 7Be and the tropopause height (0.94, p < 0.0001, and also between 7Be concentration and the temperature T (°C (R = 0.97, p < 0.001, confirm that the increased rate of vertical transport within the troposphere, especially during warmer summer months, has as a result the descent to surface of air masses enriched in 7Be. However, the 7Be concentration levels in near surface air are not expected to respond immediately to the change of elevation of the tropopause. It was found that there's a time lag of ~ 3 days between the change in the daily surface concentrations of 7Be the change in the elevation of the tropopause.

  9. Radionuclide Concentrations in Soils and Vegetation at Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area G during the 1997 Growing Season

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Naranjo, Jr.; P. R. Fresquez; R. J. Wechsler

    1998-08-01

    Soil and overstory and understory vegetation (washed and unwashed) collected at eight locations within and around Area G-a low-level radioactive solid-waste disposal facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory-were analyzed for 3H, 238Pu, 239Pu, 137CS, 234U, 235U, 228AC, Be, 214Bi, 60Co, 40& 54Mn, 22Na, 214Pb and 208Tl. In general, most radionuclide concentrations, with the exception of 3Ef and ~9Pu, in soils and overstory and understory vegetation collected from within and around Area G were within upper (95'%) level background concentrations. Although 3H concentrations in vegetation from most sites were significantly higher than background (>2 pCi mL-l), concentrations decreased markedly in comparison to last year's results. The highest `H concentration in vegetation was detected from a juniper tree that was growing over tritium shaft /+150; it contained 530,000 pCi 3H mL-l. Also, as in the pas~ the transuranic waste pad area contained the highest levels of 239Pu in soils and in understory vegetation as compared to other areas at Area G.

  10. Environmental Baseline File National Transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, M.

    1999-01-01

    This Environmental Baseline File summarizes and consolidates information related to the national-level transportation of commercial spent nuclear fuel. Topics addressed include: shipments of commercial spent nuclear fuel based on mostly truck and mostly rail shipping scenarios; transportation routing for commercial spent nuclear fuel sites and DOE sites; radionuclide inventories for various shipping container capacities; transportation routing; populations along transportation routes; urbanized area population densities; the impacts of historical, reasonably foreseeable, and general transportation; state-level food transfer factors; Federal Guidance Report No. 11 and 12 radionuclide dose conversion factors; and national average atmospheric conditions

  11. Annual limits on intake for members of the public and derived reference levels of radionuclide concentrations in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, G.C.

    1983-01-01

    A proposal is presented recommending the introduction in Australia of Annual Limits on Intake of radionuclides for members of the public and of corresponding reference levels of radionuclide concentrations in the environment. The proposal is related to recent recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection and draft recommendations under consideration by the International Atomic Energy Agency

  12. Plants as bio-indicators of subsurface conditions: impact of groundwater level on BTEX concentrations in trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jordan; Bartz, Rachel; Limmer, Matt; Burken, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated trees' ability to extract and translocate moderately hydrophobic contaminants, and sampling trees for compounds such as BTEX can help delineate plumes in the field. However, when BTEX is detected in the groundwater, detection in nearby trees is not as reliable an indicator of subsurface contamination as other compounds such as chlorinated solvents. Aerobic rhizospheric and bulk soil degradation is a potential explanation for the observed variability of BTEX in trees as compared to groundwater concentrations. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of groundwater level on BTEX concentrations in tree tissue. The central hypothesis was increased vadose zone thickness promotes biodegradation of BTEX leading to lower BTEX concentrations in overlying trees. Storage methods for tree core samples were also investigated as a possible reason for tree cores revealing lower than expected BTEX levels in some sampling efforts. The water level hypothesis was supported in a greenhouse study, where water table level was found to significantly affect tree BTEX concentrations, indicating that the influx of oxygen coupled with the presence of the tree facilitates aerobic biodegradation of BTEX in the vadose zone.

  13. The ratio of long-lived to short-lived radon-222 progeny concentrations in ground-level air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoetzl, H.; Winkler, R. [Institut fuer Strahlenschutz, GSF-Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Neuherberg Oberschleissheim (Germany)

    1996-02-09

    The ratio of {sup 210}Pb air concentration to the short-lived radon ({sup 222}Rn) decay products concentration at ground level was investigated at a semi-rural location 10 km north of Munich, south Germany, for a period of 11 years (1982-1992). The average ratio from 132 monthly mean values has been found to be (7.5{+-}2.2) x 10{sup -5} (arithmetic mean{+-}S.D.). While the time series of the short-lived radon daughter concentration exhibit a distinct seasonal pattern with maxima mostly in October of each year, the course of {sup 210}Pb air concentration is characterized by high values from October through February. Consequently, high ratios of {sup 210}Pb to short-lived decay product concentration are often observed in the winter months of December-February. To study the influence of meteorological conditions on this behaviour, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 214}Pb concentrations were measured on a short-term basis with sampling intervals of 2-3 days from October 1991 to November 1992. The air concentrations obtained within those intervals were then correlated with actual meteorological parameters. On the base of this investigation the seasonal behaviour can essentially be explained by the more frequent inversion weather conditions in winter than in the summer months. At the same location, the average ratio of {sup 210}Po to {sup 210}Pb concentration in ground level air has been found to be 0.079 from 459 weakly mean values between 1976 and 1985. Hence, the corresponding average ratios of the short-lived radon daughters (EEC) to {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po, were 1:7.5x10{sup -5} and 1:0.6 x 10{sup -5}, respectively.

  14. The ratio of long-lived to short-lived radon-222 progeny concentrations in ground-level air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoetzl, H.; Winkler, R.

    1996-01-01

    The ratio of 210 Pb air concentration to the short-lived radon ( 222 Rn) decay products concentration at ground level was investigated at a semi-rural location 10 km north of Munich, south Germany, for a period of 11 years (1982-1992). The average ratio from 132 monthly mean values has been found to be (7.5±2.2) x 10 -5 (arithmetic mean±S.D.). While the time series of the short-lived radon daughter concentration exhibit a distinct seasonal pattern with maxima mostly in October of each year, the course of 210 Pb air concentration is characterized by high values from October through February. Consequently, high ratios of 210 Pb to short-lived decay product concentration are often observed in the winter months of December-February. To study the influence of meteorological conditions on this behaviour, 210 Pb and 214 Pb concentrations were measured on a short-term basis with sampling intervals of 2-3 days from October 1991 to November 1992. The air concentrations obtained within those intervals were then correlated with actual meteorological parameters. On the base of this investigation the seasonal behaviour can essentially be explained by the more frequent inversion weather conditions in winter than in the summer months. At the same location, the average ratio of 210 Po to 210 Pb concentration in ground level air has been found to be 0.079 from 459 weakly mean values between 1976 and 1985. Hence, the corresponding average ratios of the short-lived radon daughters (EEC) to 210 Pb and 210 Po, were 1:7.5x10 -5 and 1:0.6 x 10 -5 , respectively

  15. Concentrations and determinants of organochlorine levels among pregnant women in Eastern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llop, Sabrina, E-mail: llop_sab@gva.es [Carlos III Health Institute (ISCIII), 20220 Majadahonda, Madrid (Spain); Centre of Public Health Research (CSISP), Av. Catalunya 21, 46020, Valencia (Spain); CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Barcelona (Spain); Ballester, Ferran, E-mail: ballester_fer@gva.es [Centre of Public Health Research (CSISP), Av. Catalunya 21, 46020, Valencia (Spain); CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Barcelona (Spain); Nursing School, University of Valencia, Jaume Roig, 46010, Valencia (Spain); Vizcaino, Esther, E-mail: esther.vizcaino@idaea.csic.es [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Murcia, Mario, E-mail: murcia_mar@gva.es [Centre of Public Health Research (CSISP), Av. Catalunya 21, 46020, Valencia (Spain); CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Barcelona (Spain); Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose, E-mail: Maria-Jose.Lopez@lshtm.ac.uk [CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Barcelona (Spain); Department of Social and Environmental Health Research, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, 15-17 Tavistock Place, WC1H 9SH, London (United Kingdom); Rebagliato, Marisa, E-mail: rebagli@umh.es [CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Barcelona (Spain); Vioque, Jesus, E-mail: vioque@umh.es [Public Health Department, Miguel Hernandez University, Crta. Nacional 332, 03550 Sant Joan, Alicante (Spain); CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Barcelona (Spain); Marco, Alfredo, E-mail: marco_alf@gva.es [Hospital Universitari La Fe, Av. Campanar 21, 46009 Valencia (Spain); CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Barcelona (Spain); Grimalt, Joan O., E-mail: jgoqam@cid.csic.es [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-11-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) comprise a large variety of toxic substances with ample distribution. While exposure to these toxins occurs mainly through diet, maternal POP levels may be influenced by certain sociodemographic, environmental, or lifestyle factors. This is important given that these substances may have adverse effects on fetal development. The aim of this study is to examine the sociodemographic, environmental, lifestyle, and dietary determinants of the levels of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), b-hexachlorocyclohexane (b-HCH), 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (4,4'-DDT), 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethylene (4,4'-DDE), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB congeners 118, 138, 153, 180) measured in the blood of pregnant women participating in a mother-child cohort study conducted in Valencia (Spain). The study population consisted of 541 pregnant women who formed part of the INMA (Childhood and the Environment) cohort (2004-2006). POP levels were determined in blood taken during the 12th week of pregnancy with the aid of gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Sociodemographic, environmental, and dietary information was obtained from a questionnaire. Multivariate Tobit regression models were constructed in order to assess the association between POP levels and selected covariates. The results showed that all the women had detectable levels of at least one of these compounds while in 43% of the subjects, all eight compounds were detected. The compounds found in the greatest number of women were 4,4'-DDE (100%) and PCBs 153 and 180 (95%). The most important determinants of high POP levels were the mother's age, country of origin, increased body mass index, and number of weeks of breastfeeding after previous pregnancies. With regard to diet, 4,4'-DDT and 4,4'-DDE levels increased with the intake of meat, fruit, and cereal. PCB 153 levels increased with the intake of seafood. The levels of HCB, b

  16. Concentrations and determinants of organochlorine levels among pregnant women in Eastern Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llop, Sabrina; Ballester, Ferran; Vizcaino, Esther; Murcia, Mario; Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Rebagliato, Marisa; Vioque, Jesus; Marco, Alfredo; Grimalt, Joan O.

    2010-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) comprise a large variety of toxic substances with ample distribution. While exposure to these toxins occurs mainly through diet, maternal POP levels may be influenced by certain sociodemographic, environmental, or lifestyle factors. This is important given that these substances may have adverse effects on fetal development. The aim of this study is to examine the sociodemographic, environmental, lifestyle, and dietary determinants of the levels of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), b-hexachlorocyclohexane (b-HCH), 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (4,4'-DDT), 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethylene (4,4'-DDE), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB congeners 118, 138, 153, 180) measured in the blood of pregnant women participating in a mother-child cohort study conducted in Valencia (Spain). The study population consisted of 541 pregnant women who formed part of the INMA (Childhood and the Environment) cohort (2004-2006). POP levels were determined in blood taken during the 12th week of pregnancy with the aid of gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Sociodemographic, environmental, and dietary information was obtained from a questionnaire. Multivariate Tobit regression models were constructed in order to assess the association between POP levels and selected covariates. The results showed that all the women had detectable levels of at least one of these compounds while in 43% of the subjects, all eight compounds were detected. The compounds found in the greatest number of women were 4,4'-DDE (100%) and PCBs 153 and 180 (95%). The most important determinants of high POP levels were the mother's age, country of origin, increased body mass index, and number of weeks of breastfeeding after previous pregnancies. With regard to diet, 4,4'-DDT and 4,4'-DDE levels increased with the intake of meat, fruit, and cereal. PCB 153 levels increased with the intake of seafood. The levels of HCB, b-HCH, 4,4'-DDT, and 4,4'-DDE

  17. Quantification of total aluminium concentrations in food samples at trace levels by INAA and PIGE methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanda, Braja B.; Acharya, R.

    2017-01-01

    Total aluminium contents in various food samples were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Particle Induced Gamma-ray Emission (PIGE) methods. A total of 16 rice samples, collected from the field, were analyzed by INAA using reactor neutrons from Dhruva reactor. Whereas a total 17 spices collected from market, were analyzed by both INAA and PIGE methods in conjunction with high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. Aluminium concentration values were found to be in the range of 19-845 mg kg -1 for spices and 15-104 mg kg -1 for rice samples. The methods were validated by analyzing standard reference materials (SRMs) form NIST. (author)

  18. Modeling Caspian Sea water level oscillations under different scenarios of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshan GholamReza

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The rapid rise of Caspian Sea water level (about 2.25 meters since 1978 has caused much concern to all five surrounding countries, primarily because flooding has destroyed or damaged buildings and other engineering structures, roads, beaches and farm lands in the coastal zone. Given that climate, and more specifically climate change, is a primary factor influencing oscillations in Caspian Sea water levels, the effect of different climate change scenarios on future Caspian Sea levels was simulated. Variations in environmental parameters such as temperature, precipitation, evaporation, atmospheric carbon dioxide and water level oscillations of the Caspian sea and surrounding regions, are considered for both past (1951-2006 and future (2025-2100 time frames. The output of the UKHADGEM general circulation model and five alternative scenarios including A1CAI, BIASF, BIMES WRE450 and WRE750 were extracted using the MAGICC SCENGEN Model software (version 5.3. The results suggest that the mean temperature of the Caspian Sea region (Bandar-E-Anzali monitoring site has increased by ca. 0.17°C per decade under the impacts of atmospheric carbon dioxide changes (r=0.21. The Caspian Sea water level has increased by ca. +36cm per decade (r=0.82 between the years 1951-2006. Mean results from all modeled scenarios indicate that the temperature will increase by ca. 3.64°C and precipitation will decrease by ca. 10% (182 mm over the Caspian Sea, whilst in the Volga river basin, temperatures are projected to increase by ca. 4.78°C and precipitation increase by ca. 12% (58 mm by the year 2100. Finally, statistical modeling of the Caspian Sea water levels project future water level increases of between 86 cm and 163 cm by the years 2075 and 2100, respectively.

  19. Modeling Caspian Sea water level oscillations under different scenarios of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshan, Gholamreza; Moghbel, Masumeh; Grab, Stefan

    2012-12-12

    The rapid rise of Caspian Sea water level (about 2.25 meters since 1978) has caused much concern to all five surrounding countries, primarily because flooding has destroyed or damaged buildings and other engineering structures, roads, beaches and farm lands in the coastal zone. Given that climate, and more specifically climate change, is a primary factor influencing oscillations in Caspian Sea water levels, the effect of different climate change scenarios on future Caspian Sea levels was simulated. Variations in environmental parameters such as temperature, precipitation, evaporation, atmospheric carbon dioxide and water level oscillations of the Caspian sea and surrounding regions, are considered for both past (1951-2006) and future (2025-2100) time frames. The output of the UKHADGEM general circulation model and five alternative scenarios including A1CAI, BIASF, BIMES WRE450 and WRE750 were extracted using the MAGICC SCENGEN Model software (version 5.3). The results suggest that the mean temperature of the Caspian Sea region (Bandar-E-Anzali monitoring site) has increased by ca. 0.17°C per decade under the impacts of atmospheric carbon dioxide changes (r=0.21). The Caspian Sea water level has increased by ca. +36cm per decade (r=0.82) between the years 1951-2006. Mean results from all modeled scenarios indicate that the temperature will increase by ca. 3.64°C and precipitation will decrease by ca. 10% (182 mm) over the Caspian Sea, whilst in the Volga river basin, temperatures are projected to increase by ca. 4.78°C and precipitation increase by ca. 12% (58 mm) by the year 2100. Finally, statistical modeling of the Caspian Sea water levels project future water level increases of between 86 cm and 163 cm by the years 2075 and 2100, respectively.

  20. Gas Exchange Characteristics in Tectona grandis L. Clones under Varying Concentrations of CO2 Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Saravanan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Institute of Forest Genetics and Tree Breeding, Coimbatore, India functioning under the Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education, Dehara Dun, has a long term systematic tree improvement program for Tectona grandis aimed to enhancing productivity and screening of clones for site specific. In the process, twenty clones of T. grandis L. were studied for the physiological parameters and water use efficiency with reference to the elevated CO2 levels. CO2 enrichment studies in special chambers help in understanding the changes at individual level, and also at physiological, biochemical and genetic level. It also provides valuable information for establishing plantations at different geographic locations. Considerable variations were observed when the selected 20 clones of T. grandis were subjected to physiological studies under elevated CO2 conditions (600 and 900 mol mol-1. Eight clones exhibited superior growth coupled with favorable physiological characteristics including high photosynthetic rate, carboxylation and water use efficiency under elevated CO2 levels. Clones with minimal variation in physiological characteristics under elevated levels of CO2 suggest their ability to overcome physiological stresses and adapt to varying climatic conditions.

  1. Rationing with baselines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a new operator for general rationing problems in which, besides conflicting claims, individual baselines play an important role in the rationing process. The operator builds onto ideas of composition, which are not only frequent in rationing, but also in related problems...... such as bargaining, choice, and queuing. We characterize the operator and show how it preserves some standard axioms in the literature on rationing. We also relate it to recent contributions in such literature....

  2. The TDAQ Baseline Architecture

    CERN Multimedia

    Wickens, F J

    The Trigger-DAQ community is currently busy preparing material for the DAQ, HLT and DCS TDR. Over the last few weeks a very important step has been a series of meetings to complete agreement on the baseline architecture. An overview of the architecture indicating some of the main parameters is shown in figure 1. As reported at the ATLAS Plenary during the February ATLAS week, the main area where the baseline had not yet been agreed was around the Read-Out System (ROS) and details in the DataFlow. The agreed architecture has: Read-Out Links (ROLs) from the RODs using S-Link; Read-Out Buffers (ROB) sited near the RODs, mounted in a chassis - today assumed to be a PC, using PCI bus at least for configuration, control and monitoring. The baseline assumes data aggregation, in the ROB and/or at the output (which could either be over a bus or in the network). Optimization of the data aggregation will be made in the coming months, but the current model has each ROB card receiving input from 4 ROLs, and 3 such c...

  3. On the local and regional influence on ground-level ozone concentrations in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    So, K.L.; Wang, T.

    2003-01-01

    It is imperative to consider regional scale emissions and dynamic transport in managing ozone pollution in Hong Kong. - Hong Kong is a densely populated city situated in the fast developing Pearl River Delta of southern China. In this study, the recent data on ozone (O 3 ) and related air pollutants obtained at three sites in Hong Kong are analyzed to show the variations of O 3 in urban, sub-urban and rural areas and the possible regional influences. Highest monthly averaged O 3 was found at a northeastern rural site and lowest O 3 level was observed at an urban site. The levels of NO x , CO, SO 2 and PM 10 showed a different spatial pattern with the highest level in the urban site and lowest at the rural site. Analysis of chemical species ratios such as SO 2 /NO x and CO/NO x indicated that the sites were under the influences of local and regional emissions to varying extents reflecting the characteristics of emission sources surround the respective sites. Seasonal pattern of O 3 is examined. Low O 3 level was found in summer and elevated levels occurred in autumn and spring. The latter appears different from the previous result obtained in 1996 indicating a single maximum occurring in autumn. Principal component analysis was used to further elucidate the relationships of air pollutants at each site. As expected, the O 3 variation in the northeastern rural area was largely determined by regional chemical and transport processes, while the O 3 variability at the southwestern suburban and urban sites were more influenced by local emissions. Despite the large difference in O 3 levels across the sites, total potential ozone (O 3 +NO 2 ) showed little variability. Cases of high O 3 episodes were presented and elevated O 3 levels were formed under the influence of tropical cyclone bringing in conditions of intense sunlight, high temperature and light winds. Elevated O 3 levels were also found to correlate with enhanced ratio of SO 2 to NO x , suggesting influence of

  4. Determination of low-level tritium concentrations in surface water and precipitation in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maresova, Diana; Hanslik, Eduard; Sedlarova, Barbora; Juranova, Eva; Charles University, Prague

    2017-01-01

    Past tests of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere, nuclear energy facilities and tritium of natural origin are main sources of tritium in the environment. Thanks to its presence in environment and its favourable properties, tritium is used as a radiotracer. Since stopping of atmospheric nuclear tests, tritium in precipitation has been decreasing towards natural levels below 1 Bq l -1 and precise analyses of low level tritium activities are necessary. This paper focuses on tritium development at sites not influenced by any technogenic release of tritium in Elbe River basin (Bohemia) in the Czech Republic using liquid scintillation measurement with electrolytic enrichment. (author)

  5. PM10 concentration levels at an urban and background site in Cyprus: the impact of urban sources and dust storms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achilleos, Souzana; Evans, John S; Yiallouros, Panayiotis K; Kleanthous, Savvas; Schwartz, Joel; Koutrakis, Petros

    2014-12-01

    Air quality in Cyprus is influenced by both local and transported pollution, including desert dust storms. We examined PM10 concentration data collected in Nicosia (urban representative) from April 1, 1993, through December 11, 2008, and in Ayia Marina (rural background representative) from January 1, 1999, through December 31, 2008. Measurements were conducted using a Tapered Element Oscillating Micro-balance (TEOM). PM10 concentrations, meteorological records, and satellite data were used to identify dust storm days. We investigated long-term trends using a Generalized Additive Model (GAM) after controlling for day of week, month, temperature, wind speed, and relative humidity. In Nicosia, annual PM10 concentrations ranged from 50.4 to 63.8 μg/m3 and exceeded the EU annual standard limit enacted in 2005 of 40 μg/m3 every year A large, statistically significant impact of urban sources (defined as the difference between urban and background levels) was seen in Nicosia over the period 2000-2008, and was highest during traffic hours, weekdays, cold months, and low wind conditions. Our estimate of the mean (standard error) contribution of urban sources to the daily ambient PM10 was 24.0 (0.4) μg/m3. The study of yearly trends showed that PM10 levels in Nicosia decreased from 59.4 μg/m3 in 1993 to 49.0 μg/m3 in 2008, probably in part as a result of traffic emission control policies in Cyprus. In Ayia Marina, annual concentrations ranged from 27.3 to 35.6 μg/m3, and no obvious time trends were observed. The levels measured at the Cyprus background site are comparable to background concentrations reported in other Eastern Mediterranean countries. Average daily PM10 concentrations during desert dust storms were around 100 μg/m3 since 2000 and much higher in earlier years. Despite the large impact ofdust storms and their increasing frequency over time, dust storms were responsible for a small fraction of the exceedances of the daily PM10 limit. Implications: This

  6. Interlaboratory comparability of serum cotinine measurements at smoker and nonsmoker concentration levels: A round-robin study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Peyton; Holiday, David B.; Benowitz, Neal L.; Sosnoff, Connie S.; Doig, Mira V.; Feyerabend, Colin; Aldous, Kenneth M.; Sharifi, Mehran; Kellogg, Mark D.; Langman, Loralie J.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Cotinine, the primary proximate metabolite of nicotine, is commonly measured as an index of exposure to tobacco in both active users of tobacco and nonsmokers with possible exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS). A number of laboratories have implemented analyses for measuring serum cotinine in recent years, but there have been few interlaboratory comparisons of the results. Among nonsmokers exposed to SHS, the concentration of cotinine in blood can be quite low, and extensive variability in these measurements has been reported in the past. Methods: In this study, a group of seven laboratories, all experienced in serum cotinine analysis, measured eight coded serum pools with concentrations ranging from background levels of about 0.05 ng/ml to relatively high concentrations in the active smokers range. All laboratories used either gas–liquid chromatography with nitrogen–phosphorus detection or liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. Results: All seven laboratories reliably measured the cotinine concentrations in samples that were within the range of their methods. In each case, the results for the pools were correctly ranked in order, and no significant interlaboratory bias was observed at the 5% level of significance for results from any of the pools. Discussion: We conclude that present methods of chromatographic analysis of serum cotinine, as used by these experienced laboratories, are capable of providing accurate and precise results in both the smoker and the nonsmoker concentration range. PMID:19933777

  7. Time lag between the tropopause height and the levels of 7Be concentration in near surface air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannidou, A.; Vasileiadis, A.; Melas, D.

    2012-04-01

    The concentration of 7Be at near surface air has been determined over 2009, a year of a deep solar minimum, in the region of Thessaloniki, Greece at 40°62' N, 22°95'E. In geomagnetic latitudes over 40° N, the elevation of the tropopause during the warm summer months and the vertical exchange of air masses within the troposphere cause greater mixture of the air masses resulting in higher concentration levels for 7Be in surface air. The positive correlation between the monthly activity concentration of 7Be and the tropopause height (0.94, p rate of vertical transport within the troposphere, especially during warmer summer months, has as a result the descent to surface of air masses enriched in 7Be. However, the 7Be concentration levels in near surface air are not expected to respond immediately to the change of elevation of the tropopause. It was found that there's a time lag of ~ 3 days between the change in the daily surface concentrations of 7Be the change in the elevation of the tropopause.

  8. The effects of meteorological factors on airborne fungal spore concentration in two areas differing in urbanisation level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, M.; Ribeiro, H.; Delgado, J. L.; Abreu, I.

    2009-01-01

    Although fungal spores are an ever-present component of the atmosphere throughout the year, their concentration oscillates widely. This work aims to establish correlations between fungal spore concentrations in Porto and Amares and meteorological data. The seasonal distribution of fungal spores was studied continuously (2005-2007) using volumetric spore traps. To determine the effect of meteorological factors (temperature, relative humidity and rainfall) on spore concentration, the Spearman rank correlation test was used. In both locations, the most abundant fungal spores were Cladosporium, Agaricus, Agrocybe, Alternaria and Aspergillus/Penicillium, the highest concentrations being found during summer and autumn. In the present study, with the exception of Coprinus and Pleospora, spore concentrations were higher in the rural area than in the urban location. Among the selected spore types, spring-autumn spores ( Coprinus, Didymella, Leptosphaeria and Pleospora) exhibited negative correlations with temperature and positive correlations both with relative humidity and rainfall level. On the contrary, late spring-early summer (Smuts) and summer spores ( Alternaria, Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Ganoderma, Stemphylium and Ustilago) exhibited positive correlations with temperature and negative correlations both with relative humidity and rainfall level. Rust, a frequent spore type during summer, had a positive correlation with temperature. Aspergillus/Penicillium, showed no correlation with the meteorological factors analysed. This knowledge can be useful for agriculture, allowing more efficient and reliable application of pesticides, and for human health, by improving the diagnosis and treatment of respiratory allergic disease.

  9. Greater-than-Class C low-level waste characterization. Appendix I: Impact of concentration averaging low-level radioactive waste volume projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuite, P.; Tuite, K.; O'Kelley, M.; Ely, P.

    1991-08-01

    This study provides a quantitative framework for bounding unpackaged greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste types as a function of concentration averaging. The study defines the three concentration averaging scenarios that lead to base, high, and low volumetric projections; identifies those waste types that could be greater-than-Class C under the high volume, or worst case, concentration averaging scenario; and quantifies the impact of these scenarios on identified waste types relative to the base case scenario. The base volume scenario was assumed to reflect current requirements at the disposal sites as well as the regulatory views. The high volume scenario was assumed to reflect the most conservative criteria as incorporated in some compact host state requirements. The low volume scenario was assumed to reflect the 10 CFR Part 61 criteria as applicable to both shallow land burial facilities and to practices that could be employed to reduce the generation of Class C waste types

  10. Volume concentration of 41 elements in ground level of atmosphere in Bratislava

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florek, M.; Meresova, J.; Holy, K.; Sykora, I.; Frontasyeva, M. V.; Pavlov, S. S.

    2006-01-01

    The concentrations of 41 chemical elements (heavy metals, rare earths, and actinides) were determined in atmospheric aerosol using nuclear and related analytical techniques. The sampling location was in Bratislava (Slovak Republic). The main goal of this study is the quantification of the atmospheric pollution and its trend. The elemental content in filters was measured using instrumental neutron activation analysis at IBR-2 reactor in JINR Dubna and by atomic absorption spectrometry in Bratislava. The obtained results confirmed the decreasing trend of pollution by most of the heavy metals in Bratislava atmosphere, and they are compared with the contents of pollutants in atmosphere of other cities. We determined also the composition of clear filter materials. (authors)

  11. Endocrine disruptors in freshwater streams of Hesse, Germany: Changes in concentration levels in the time span from 2003 to 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quednow, Kristin [J. W. Goethe University Frankfurt am Main, Institute of Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, Department of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, Georg-Voigt-Strasse 14, 60054 Frankfurt (Germany)], E-mail: quednow@kristall.uni-frankfurt.de; Puettmann, Wilhelm [J. W. Goethe University Frankfurt am Main, Institute of Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, Department of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, Georg-Voigt-Strasse 14, 60054 Frankfurt (Germany)

    2008-03-15

    Four small freshwater streams in the region known as Hessisches Ried in Germany were investigated with respect to the temporal and spatial concentration variations of the endocrine disruptors bisphenol A (BPA), 4-tert-octylphenol (4-tert-OP), and the technical isomer mixture of 4-nonylphenol (tech.-4-NP). Measured concentrations of the target compounds in the river water samples ranged from <20 ng/l to 1927 ng/l, <10 ng/l to 770 ng/l, and <10 ng/l to 420 ng/l for BPA, 4-tert-OP and tech.-4-NP, respectively. BPA levels were, with the exception of two samples, below the predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) for water organisms. Tech.-4-NP concentrations showed a significant tendency of decreasing concentrations during the sampling period. This is mainly attributed to the implementation of the European Directive 2003/53/EG, which restricts both the marketing and use of nonylphenols. Results from the analysis of additionally collected water samples from sewage treatment plant (STP) effluents indicate that the STPs cannot be the only sources for tech.-4-NP found in the river water. - Concentrations of 4-nonylphenols in rivers of Hessisches Ried in Germany decreased in the sampling period from September 2003 to September 2005.

  12. Endocrine disruptors in freshwater streams of Hesse, Germany: Changes in concentration levels in the time span from 2003 to 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quednow, Kristin; Puettmann, Wilhelm

    2008-01-01

    Four small freshwater streams in the region known as Hessisches Ried in Germany were investigated with respect to the temporal and spatial concentration variations of the endocrine disruptors bisphenol A (BPA), 4-tert-octylphenol (4-tert-OP), and the technical isomer mixture of 4-nonylphenol (tech.-4-NP). Measured concentrations of the target compounds in the river water samples ranged from <20 ng/l to 1927 ng/l, <10 ng/l to 770 ng/l, and <10 ng/l to 420 ng/l for BPA, 4-tert-OP and tech.-4-NP, respectively. BPA levels were, with the exception of two samples, below the predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) for water organisms. Tech.-4-NP concentrations showed a significant tendency of decreasing concentrations during the sampling period. This is mainly attributed to the implementation of the European Directive 2003/53/EG, which restricts both the marketing and use of nonylphenols. Results from the analysis of additionally collected water samples from sewage treatment plant (STP) effluents indicate that the STPs cannot be the only sources for tech.-4-NP found in the river water. - Concentrations of 4-nonylphenols in rivers of Hessisches Ried in Germany decreased in the sampling period from September 2003 to September 2005

  13. On concentration footprints for a tall tower in the presence of a nocturnal low-level jet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sogachev, Andrey; Leclerc, M.Y.

    2011-01-01

    contribution area shifts during the night depending on the wind direction at the sensor location, a feature most prominent in the presence of decoupling between sensor levels and surface sources. Simulations suggest that atmospheric static stability alone is not a sufficient criterion to trigger flow......This paper reports on the location of sources contributing to a point concentration measurement in the stable boundary layer. Concentration footprints for sensors located at different heights during the night are examined using a backward-in-time Lagrangian stochastic dispersion model. Simulations...

  14. Metal concentrations in Unio pictorum mancus (Mollusca, Lamellibranchia from of 12 Northern Italian lakes in relation to their trophic level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo LODIGIANI

    2003-08-01

    the other hand mussels may be very useful for other purposes, such as identifying new pollutants or pollutants present in such low concentrations that they cannot be measured with the commonly used methods. The pollutant content of mussels may enable the variations in time of the pollutant level of an environment to be monitored. In addition, the transplantation of mussels from a clean site to a polluted one may be a useful tool for identify the pollutants of the receiving environment.

  15. RUMINAL DRY MATTER DEGRADABILITY OF HIGH CONCENTRATE DIETS WITH INCREASING LEVELS OF CALCIUM SOAPS OF TALLOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Salinas-Chavira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study measured the in situ digestibility and ruminal degradability of dry matter of rations with different levels of calcium soaps of tallow (CST. The samples of the four rations with CST at levels of 0% (T1, 1.5% (T2, 3.0% (T3 or 4.5% (T4 were incubated in the rumen of a fistulated yearling steer. The nylon bag technique was used to determine the in situ digestibility and ruminal dry matter degradability. A completely randomized design was used, with 4 treatment diets and 4 repetitions. Rapidly-soluble fraction (a or in situ digestibility of DM at 0 h of incubation was higher in T1 than T3 (P0.05. Potential (a+b degradability was similar (P>0.05 between treatments. Effective degradation modeled at low ruminal turnover (1%/h was lower in T4 than T1 (P0.05. In conclusion, CST in the ration influenced ruminal fermentation during the first hours of incubation. However, effective degradability at medium and high ruminal turnover was not affected by CST level in diets.

  16. Atmospheric tritium concentrations under influence of AREVA NC La Hague reprocessing plant (France) and background levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connan, O; Hébert, D; Solier, L; Maro, D; Pellerin, G; Voiseux, C; Lamotte, M; Laguionie, P

    2017-10-01

    In-air tritium measurements were conducted around the AREVA NC La Hague reprocessing plant, as well as on other sites that are not impacted by the nuclear industry in northwest of France. The results indicate that the dominant tritium form around the AREVA site is HT (86%). HT and HTO levels are lower than 5 and 1 Bq. m -3 for hourly samples taken in the plume. No tritiated organic molecules (TOM) were detected. 26 measurement campaigns were performed and links were established between near-field 85 Kr, HT and HTO activities. Environmental measurements are in line with those taken at the discharge stack, and tend to demonstrate that there are no rapid changes in the tritium forms released. Out of the influence of any nuclear activities, the levels measured were below 13 mBq.m -3 for HT and 5 mBq.m -3 for HTO (<0.5 Bq. L -1 ). HTO level in air seems to be influenced by HTO activities in surrounding seawater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Estimating the concentration of gold nanoparticles incorporated on natural rubber membranes using multi-level starlet optimal segmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueira, A. F. de, E-mail: siqueiraaf@gmail.com; Cabrera, F. C., E-mail: flavioccabrera@yahoo.com.br [UNESP – Univ Estadual Paulista, Dep de Física, Química e Biologia (Brazil); Pagamisse, A., E-mail: aylton@fct.unesp.br [UNESP – Univ Estadual Paulista, Dep de Matemática e Computação (Brazil); Job, A. E., E-mail: job@fct.unesp.br [UNESP – Univ Estadual Paulista, Dep de Física, Química e Biologia (Brazil)

    2014-12-15

    This study consolidates multi-level starlet segmentation (MLSS) and multi-level starlet optimal segmentation (MLSOS) techniques for photomicrograph segmentation, based on starlet wavelet detail levels to separate areas of interest in an input image. Several segmentation levels can be obtained using MLSS; after that, Matthews correlation coefficient is used to choose an optimal segmentation level, giving rise to MLSOS. In this paper, MLSOS is employed to estimate the concentration of gold nanoparticles with diameter around 47  nm, reduced on natural rubber membranes. These samples were used for the construction of SERS/SERRS substrates and in the study of the influence of natural rubber membranes with incorporated gold nanoparticles on the physiology of Leishmania braziliensis. Precision, recall, and accuracy are used to evaluate the segmentation performance, and MLSOS presents an accuracy greater than 88 % for this application.

  18. Concentration levels and source apportionment of ultrafine particles in road microenvironments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyropoulos, G.; Samara, C.; Voutsa, D.; Kouras, A.; Manoli, E.; Voliotis, A.; Tsakis, A.; Chasapidis, L.; Konstandopoulos, A.; Eleftheriadis, K.

    2016-03-01

    A mobile laboratory unit (MOBILAB) with on-board instrumentation (Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer, SMPS; Ambient NOx analyzer) was used to measure size-resolved particle number concentrations (PNCs) of quasi-ultrafine particles (UFPs, 9-372 nm), along with NOx, in road microenvironments. On-road measurements were carried out in and around a large Greek urban agglomeration, the Thessaloniki Metropolitan Area (TMA). Two 2-week measurement campaigns were conducted during the warm period of 2011 and the cold period of 2012. During each sampling campaign, MOBILAB was driven through a 5-day inner-city route and a second 5-day external route covering in total a wide range of districts (urban, urban background, industrial and residential), and road types (major and minor urban roads, freeways, arterial and interurban roads). All routes were conducted during working days, in morning and in afternoon hours under real-world traffic conditions. Spatial classification of MOBILAB measurements involved the assignment of measurement points to location bins defined by the aspect ratio of adjacent urban street canyons (USCs). Source apportionment was further carried out, by applying Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) to particle size distribution data. Apportioned PMF factors were interpreted, by employing a two-step methodology, which involved (a) statistical association of PMF factor contributions with 12 h air-mass back-trajectories ending at the TMA during MOBILAB measurements, and (b) Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) using PMF factor contributions as the dependent variables, while relative humidity, solar radiation flux, and vehicle speed were used as the independent variables. The applied data analysis showed that low-speed cruise and high-load engine operation modes are the two dominant sources of UFPs in most of the road microenvironments in the TMA, with significant contributions from background photochemical processes during the warm period, explaining the reversed

  19. DEVELOPING SITE-SPECIFIC DERIVED CONCENTRATION GUIDELINE LEVELS FOR MULTIPLE MEDIA AT THE CONNECTICUT YANKEE HADDAM NECK PLANT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, S.W.; Smith, L.C.; Carr, R.K.; Carson, A.; Darois, E.

    2003-01-01

    As part of the license termination process, site-specific Derived Concentration Guideline Levels for the Haddam Neck Plant site are developed for soil, groundwater, concrete left standing, and concrete demolished that satisfy the radiological criteria for unrestricted use as defined in 10 CFR 20.1402. Background information on the license termination process and characteristics of the Haddam Neck Plant site are presented. The dose models and associated resident farmer and building occupancy scenarios, applicable pathways, and critical groups developed to establish the Derived Concentration Guideline Levels are described. A parameter assignment process is introduced wherein general population values are used to establish behavioral and metabolic parameters representative of an average member of the critical group, while the uncertainty associated with important physical parameters is considered. A key element of the parameter assignment process is the use of sensitivity analysis to identify the dose sensitive physical parameters and to ensure that such parameters are assigned conservative values. Structuring the parameter assignment process, completing the formal sensitivity analyses, and assigning conservative values to the sensitive physical parameters in a consistent way establishes a calculation framework that lead to Derived Concentration Guideline Levels with a uniform level of conservatism across all media and all radionuclides

  20. Effects of dietary starch and protein levels on milk production and composition of dairy cows fed high concentrate diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Güçlü Sucak

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Twenty eight Holstein cows (averaged 41±31.5 and 82±24 days in milk, and 30.4±3.49 and 29.0±2.22 kg/d milk yield were fed a high concentrate diet (70:30 concentrate to forage to examine effects on milk production and composition. The cows were randomly assigned to receive four dietary treatments according to a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement. Factors were starch (14% and 22% and protein (15% and 18%. Wheat straw was used as forage source. The study lasted 6 weeks. Dry matter intake was not affected (P> 0.05 by the dietary treatments in the study. Milk yield increased with increased dietary protein level (P< 0.01. Milk urea nitrogen concentrations were affected by dietary protein and starch levels, but there was no interaction effect. Nitrogen efficiency (Milk N/N intake was decreased by increasing in dietary protein level (P< 0.01. In conclusion, the cows fed total mixed ration (TMR containing low level of wheat straw responded better when dietary protein increased. But, efficiency of N use and N excretion to the environment were worsened. Key words: Dairy cattle, milk composition, protein, starch, wheat straw

  1. Radionuclide Concentrations in soils an Vegetation at Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area G During 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fresquez, P.R.; Lopez, E.A.

    2004-01-01

    Soil samples were collected at 15 locations and unwashed overstory and understory vegetation samples were collected at nine locations within and around the perimeter of Area G, the primary disposal facility for low-level radioactive solid waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). These samples were analyzed for 3 H, 238 Pu, 239,240 Pu, 90 Sr, 241 Am, 137 Cs, 234 U, 235 U, and 238 U. Soil samples collected at Area G contained detectable concentrations of 3H (27%), 239,240 Pu (60%), 238 Pu (40%), and 241 Am (47%) above regional statistical reference levels (RSRLs). In contrast, the levels of 137 Cs, 90 Sr, and U in all of the soil samples at Area G were either nondetectable or within RSRLs. The highest levels of 3 H in soils were detected in the southwestern portion of Area G near the 3 H shafts, whereas the highest concentrations of the Pu isotopes were detected in the northern and northeastern portions. All concentrations of 3 H and Pu in soils, however, were far below LANL screening action levels. As for vegetation, most radionuclides in/on plants were either nondetectable or within RSRLs. The exceptions were 3 H in overstory and some understory vegetation, particularly in the southwestern portion of Area G, which correlated very well with the soils data in that area. Also, there was some foliar contamination from 241 Am and Pu isotopes in/on a few plant samples--the highest concentrations occurring in the northern section of Area G

  2. Radionuclide Concentrations in soils an Vegetation at Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area G During 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P.R. Fresquez; E.A. Lopez

    2004-11-01

    Soil samples were collected at 15 locations and unwashed overstory and understory vegetation samples were collected at nine locations within and around the perimeter of Area G, the primary disposal facility for low-level radioactive solid waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). These samples were analyzed for {sup 3}H, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 241}Am, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, and {sup 238}U. Soil samples collected at Area G contained detectable concentrations of 3H (27%), {sup 239,240}Pu (60%), {sup 238}Pu (40%), and {sup 241}Am (47%) above regional statistical reference levels (RSRLs). In contrast, the levels of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, and U in all of the soil samples at Area G were either nondetectable or within RSRLs. The highest levels of {sup 3}H in soils were detected in the southwestern portion of Area G near the {sup 3}H shafts, whereas the highest concentrations of the Pu isotopes were detected in the northern and northeastern portions. All concentrations of {sup 3}H and Pu in soils, however, were far below LANL screening action levels. As for vegetation, most radionuclides in/on plants were either nondetectable or within RSRLs. The exceptions were {sup 3}H in overstory and some understory vegetation, particularly in the southwestern portion of Area G, which correlated very well with the soils data in that area. Also, there was some foliar contamination from {sup 241}Am and Pu isotopes in/on a few plant samples--the highest concentrations occurring in the northern section of Area G.

  3. Levels of radon gas concentration and progeny in homes of Potosi City, Bolivia to 4000 m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamani M, R.; Claros J, J.; Vasquez A, R.

    2015-10-01

    Full text: In this work the presence of radon gas was determined, which is a radioactive contaminant that comes from underground, able to penetrate the houses. The danger is that when mixed air and when inhaled can cause serious damage to the lungs, for the short life time that has radon and progeny for decay, damaging the pulmonary alveoli and reducing breathing capacity of the habitants, then causing polycythemia in some cases. The study was carried out in homes in the city of Potosi, Bolivia located at 4000 m. The quantification of radon gas and progeny was performed with the equipment Alpha-Zaeller-2 (Az-2), quantification was realized in 6 zones of the city of Potosi, chosen randomly. In each zone were carried out measurements in 40 homes (2 rooms more permanent), both day and night, for a period of 3 days in two different seasons and with concentrations of average humidity of 20, 50 and 80%. The values obtained for each period vary depending on the season and 30 to 50% of the allowable values given by the EPA and Who for housing. (Author)

  4. The Concentration Levels Of Some Isotopic Radionuclides In The Coastal Sediments Of The Red Sea, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL SAHARTY, A.A.; DAR, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    The radionuclide activities of 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K and 137 Cs were measured using high resolution gamma spectrometry system. The total organic matter (TOM) and carbonate contents were also measured in the surface sediments of three valleys downstream at the southern Egyptian Red Sea coast. These localities are characterized by the presence of mangrove swamps with dense aerobic roots that provide calm conditions for particulate and fine sediments settlement. 238 U and 232 Th recorded almost equal activity values in the studied localities and their occurrence in the localities indicated that the metal accumulation are due to the complex and multiple processes that characterize the mangrove environments including accumulation in particulate form with the fine sediments, absorption on iron and manganese oxides and hydroxides from the sea water, incorporation inside the carbonate frameworks and as detrital phase. 40 K showed obvious radioactivity in the three localities indicating the presence of terrestrial radionuclide. 137 Cs concentrations were not evident in the studied localities which may indicate non-significant artificial source of radionuclide activity.

  5. Justification for Selecting Level A vs. Level B Personal Protective Equipment to Remediate a Room Containing Concentrated Acids, Bases and Radiological Constituents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hylko, J. M.; Thompson, A. L.; Walter, J. F.; Deecke, T. A.

    2002-01-01

    Selecting the appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) is based on providing an adequate level of employee protection relative to the task-specific conditions and hazards. PPE is categorized into four ensembles, based on the degree of protection afforded; e.g., Levels A (most restrictive), B, C, and D (least restrictive). What is often overlooked in preparing an ensemble is that the PPE itself can create significant worker hazards; i.e., the greater the level of PPE, the greater the associated risks. Furthermore, there is confusion as to whether a more ''conservative approach'' should always be taken since Level B provides the same level of respiratory protection as Level A but less skin protection. This paper summarizes the Occupational Safety and Health Administration regulations addressing Level A versus Level B, and provides justification for selecting Level B over Level A without under-protecting the employee during a particular remediation scenario. The scenario consisted of an entry team performing (1) an initial entry into a room containing concentrated acids (e.g., hydrofluoric acid), bases, and radiological constituents; (2) sampling and characterizing container contents; and (3) retrieving characterized containers. The invasive nature of the hydrofluoric acid sampling and characterization scenario created a high potential for splash, immersion, and exposure to hazardous vapors, requiring additional skin protection. The hazards associated with this scenario and the chemical nature of hydrofluoric acid provided qualitative evidence to justify Level A. Once the hydrofluoric acid was removed from the room, PPE performance was evaluated against the remaining chemical inventory. If chemical breakthrough from direct contact was not expected to occur and instrument readings confirmed the absence of any hazardous vapors, additional skin protection afforded by wearing a vapor-tight, totally-encapsulated suit was not required. Therefore, PPE performance and

  6. Techno-economic analysis of concentrated solar power plants in terms of levelized cost of electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musi, Richard; Grange, Benjamin; Sgouridis, Sgouris; Guedez, Rafael; Armstrong, Peter; Slocum, Alexander; Calvet, Nicolas

    2017-06-01

    Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE) is an important metric which provides one way to compare the economic competitiveness of different electricity generation systems, calculated simply by dividing lifetime costs by lifetime production. Hidden behind the simplicity of this formula are various assumptions which may significantly alter results. Different LCOE studies exist in the literature, although their assumptions are rarely explicitly stated. This analysis gives all formulas and assumptions which allow for inter-study comparisons. The results of this analysis indicate that CSP LCOE is reducing markedly over time and that given the right location and market conditions, the SunShot 6¢/kWh 2020 target can be reached. Increased industrial cooperation is needed to advance the CSP market and continue to drive down LCOE. The results also indicate that there exist a country and technology level learning effect, either when installing an existing CSP technology in a new country or when using a new technology in an existing CSP country, which seems to impact market progress.

  7. Chemical composition of arctic snow: concentration levels and regional distribution of major elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Caritat, Patrice; Hall, Gwendy; Gìslason, Sigurdur; Belsey, William; Braun, Marlene; Goloubeva, Natalia I; Olsen, Hans Kristian; Scheie, Jon Ove; Vaive, Judy E

    2005-01-05

    At the end of the northern winter 1996/1997, 21 snow samples were collected from 17 arctic localities in Norway, Sweden, Finland, Svalbard, Russia, Alaska, Canada, Greenland and Iceland. Major element concentrations of the filtered (0.45 mum) melted snow indicate that most samples are consistent with a diluted seawater composition. Deviations from this behaviour indicate additional SO(4)(2-) and Cl(-) relative to seawater, suggesting a minor contribution from (probably local) coal combustion emissions (Alaska, Finland, Sweden, Svalbard). The samples with the highest Na and Cl(-) content (Canada, Russia) also have higher Na/SO(4)(2-) and Cl(-)/SO(4)(2-) ratios than seawater, suggesting a slight contamination from (probably local) deicing activities. Local soil or rock dust inputs in the snow are indicated by 'excess' Ca contents (Alaska, Svalbard, Greenland, Sweden). No overall relationship was found between pH (range: 4.6-6.1) and total or non-seasalt SO(4)(2-) (NSS), suggesting that acidification due to long-range transport of SO(2) pollution is not operating on an arctic-wide scale. In a few samples (Alaska, Finland, Sweden, Svalbard), a significant proportion (>50%) of SO(4)(2-) is non-marine in origin. Sources for this non-marine SO(4)(2-) need not all be found in long-range atmospheric transport and more likely sources are local industry (Finland, Sweden), road traffic (Alaska) or minor snow-scooting traffic (one Svalbard locality). A few samples from northern Europe show a relatively weak trend of decreasing pH with increasing NO(3)(-).

  8. Fiber optic fluorescence detection of low-level porphyrin concentrations in preclinical and clinical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mang, Thomas S.; McGinnis, Carolyn; Khan, S.

    1990-07-01

    A significant clinical problem in the local treatment of cutaneous metastases of breast cancer (by any modality--surgery, radiation therapy or photodynainic therapy) is the fact that the disease almost always extends beyond the boundary of visible lesions in the form of microscopic deposits. These deposits may be distant from the site of visible disease but are often in close proximity to it and are manifested sooner or later by the development of recurrent lesions at the border of the treated area, thus the "marginal miss" in radiation therapy, the "rim recurrence" in photodynamic therapy, and the "incisional recurrence" following surgical excision. More intelligent use of these treatment modalities demands the ability to detect microscopic deposits of tumor cells using non-invasive methodology. In vivo fluorescence measurements have been made possible by the development of an extremely sensitive fiber optic in vivo fluorescence photometer. The instrument has been used to verify that fluorescence correlated with injected porphyrin levels in various tissues. The delivery of light to excite and detect background fluorescence as well as photosensitizer fluorescence in tissues has been accomplished using two HeNe lasers emitting at 632.8 nm and 612 nm delivered through a single quartz fiber optic. Chopping at different frequencies, contributions of fluorescence may be separated. Fluorescence is picked up via a 400 micron quartz fiber optic positioned appropriately near the target tissue. Validation of these levels was made by extraction of the drug from the tissues with resultant quantitation. Recently, an extensive study was undertaken to determine if fluorescence could be used for the detection of occult, clinically non-palpable metastases in the lymph node of rats. This unique model allowed for the detection of micrometastases in lymph nodes using very low injected doses of the photosensitizer Photofrin II. Data obtained revealed the ability to detect on the order

  9. Indoor radon concentration levels in Mexican caves, using nuclear track methodology, and the relationship with living habits of the bats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa, G.; Golzarri, J.I.; Vega-Orihuela, E.; Morales-Malacara, J.B.

    2013-01-01

    This work presents the results of a study of the radon levels in four caves in Mexico: Los Riscos Cave and El Judio Cave in the State of Queretaro, and Coyozochico Cave and Karmidas Cave in the State of Puebla. The measurements were made using the passive closed-end cup system, with CR-39 (Lantrack R ) as detection material, and following protocols established for the measurement of indoor radon, developed at the Dosimetry Applications Project of the Physics Institute of the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico. The radon concentration at one location with Karmidas Cave reached more than 60,000 Bq/m 3 , while concentrations in the other three caves varied from 83.1-1216.0 Bq/m 3 , was found. During the study was observed an interesting coincidence between the radon concentration distribution inside the caves, and the bat colonies location. In general, the bat colonies are located at the medium or low radon concentration levels zones. (author)

  10. Unit-level voluntary turnover rates and customer service quality: implications of group cohesiveness, newcomer concentration, and size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausknecht, John P; Trevor, Charlie O; Howard, Michael J

    2009-07-01

    Despite substantial growth in the service industry and emerging work on turnover consequences, little research examines how unit-level turnover rates affect essential customer-related outcomes. The authors propose an operational disruption framework to explain why voluntary turnover impairs customers' service quality perceptions. On the basis of a sample of 75 work units and data from 5,631 employee surveys, 59,602 customer surveys, and organizational records, results indicate that unit-level voluntary turnover rates are negatively related to service quality perceptions. The authors also examine potential boundary conditions related to the disruption framework. Of 3 moderators studied (group cohesiveness, group size, and newcomer concentration), results show that turnover's negative effects on service quality are more pronounced in larger units and in those with a greater concentration of newcomers.

  11. Studies of cation exchange for the isolation and concentration of trace level components of complex aqueous mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaczvinsky, J.R. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Trace level organic bases are concentrated from aqueous solution by cation exchange on a column of sulfonated macroreticular XAD-4 resin. Washing of the column with organic solvents removes neutrals and acids. Ammonia gas is introduced into the column prior to elution of the basic organics with either methanol or ether containing ammonia. After solvent evaporation, the concentrated sample is analyzed by gas chromatography. Recoveries of over 85% are found with at least one of the eluents for over 50 bases tested at levels < 1 ppm. Improved recoveries and reproducibility are seen over a simple ether extraction procedure. Samples of river water, shale oil process water, and supernatant from an agricultural chemical disposal pit are analyzed. Preliminary studies of functionalized poly(styrene-divinylbenzene)s, coated exchangers, and liquid ion exchangers as possible approaches to nuclear waste decontamination are performed

  12. Optimization of the concentration level in the peak-watt cost of photovoltaic concentrator systems; Optimizacion del nivel de concentracion desde el punto de vista economico en instalaciones fotovoltaicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illanes, R.; De la cueva, J. M.; De Francisco, A.; Prieto, E.; De Blas, M. A.

    2004-07-01

    In this paper, the effect of the geometric concentration level in the peak-watt cost of photovoltaic concentrator systems is analysed. The optimum levels to make minimum cost for every cell technology is determined for the assumption of some prices. It is concluded that low and middle level concentration are the most profitable systems when cells of monocrystalline Silicon are used, being high level concentration systems the most interesting with high efficiency technologies. A reduction in the peak-watt cost between 50% and 70% of the present price of PV flat panels may be possible, although it would be desirable more data available on the price of components. (Author)

  13. Concentration levels and spatial distribution of sulphur and metals in fine-grained sediments in western Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. ÅSTRÖM

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available On the coastal plains of Finland, widespread Holocene marine and lacustrine sediments have developed into acid sulphate soil as a result of extensive artificial drainage for agricultural purposes. This has caused a variety of environmental problems. The aim of this study was to determine the concentration levels and spatial distribution of sulphur, carbon and metals [titanium, vanadium, chromium, manganese (Mn, iron, cobalt (Co, nickel (Ni, copper (Cu, zinc (Zn] in these sediments, in order to increase the geochemical understanding of the parent materials from which acid sulphate soil develops. Sediment samples were collected at 317 sites from a depth of 1.5–3 m. While the sediments have high S (sulphide concentrations (median = 0.54% and thus a strong acidification potential, they carry transition metals mainly in smallsized silicates close to “background concentrations” far below contamination limits. The previously documented extensive release of Co, Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn from oxidised and acidified layers of these sediments (i.e. acid sulphate soil is thus not explained by anomalously high natural or anthropogenic metal concentrations of the soils/sediments, but by an inherent highly mobile metal pool. Spatial-distribution maps highlight areas of elevated S and Mn concentrations, where it is likely that ditching and subsequent oxidation will result in an exceptionally large release of protons and Mn respectively.;

  14. Data on fluoride concentration level in villages of Asara (Alborz, Iran) and daily fluoride intake based on drinking water consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan, Giti; Dobaradaran, Sina; Borazjani, Jaleh Mohajeri

    2016-12-01

    In the present data article, fluoride concentration levels of drinking water (with spring or groundwater sources) in 10 villages of Asara area located in Alborz province were determined by the standard SPADNS method using a spectrophotometer (DR/2000 Spectrophotometer, USA). Daily fluoride intakes were also calculated based on daily drinking water consumption. The fluoride content were compared with EPA and WHO guidelines for drinking water.

  15. Body weight change of Abergelle breed and Abergelle crossbred goats fed hay supplemented with different level of concentrate mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amare, Bewketu; Alemu, Tewodros; Deribe, Belay; Dagnachew, Alemu; Teshager, Natnael; Tsegaye, Alemu

    2018-03-01

    The experiment was conducted at Sekota District using 36 intact yearling males of pure Abergelle breed and Abergelle crossbred goats (50%) with a mean live weight of 18.92 ± 0.72 kg (mean ± SE). The objective of the experiment was to evaluate the effect of different levels of concentrate mixture supplementation on feed intake, live weight gain, and economic gain of the breeds. Goats were blocked based on initial body weight and were randomly assigned to the dietary treatments. The experimental design was a 2 × 3 factorial in RCBD (randomized complete block design). The treatments included ad libitum feeding of local grass hay and supplementation with three levels (184, 368, and 552 g/day) of concentrate mixture. The experiment consisted of 90 days of feeding. Daily, total dry matter and CP (crude protein) intakes were affected by diet and genotype (P < 0.01). Significant decrease (P < 0.001) in hay intake was observed as the level of the supplement increased. Besides, substitution rate increased with increasing levels of supplementation. Average daily body weight gains were significantly impacted only by diet. Animals fed on 184 significantly lower weights, while nonsignificant difference was observed in live weight gain between 368 and 552 supplemented group. Supplementation of 368 concentrate mix significantly improved (P < 0.05) feed intake, daily weight gain, and feed conversion efficiency. Supplementation of 368 g/day had showed significantly higher net return for both goat breeds. However, the Abergelle breed was significantly better in net profit and sensitivity than the crossbreed. Both genotypes performed better with the diet containing 368 g/day than that with 184 and 552 g/day of concentrate supplementation.

  16. Water level measurement system in reactor pressure vessel of BWR and hydrogen concentration monitoring system for severe accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, Hidehiko; Okazaki, Koki; Shiraishi, Fujio; Kenjyo, Hiroaki; Isoda, Koichiro

    2013-01-01

    TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station Accident caused severe accident to lose functions of many instrumentation systems. As a result, many important plant parameters couldn't be monitored. In order to monitor plant parameters in the case of severe accident, new instrumentation systems available in the severe conditions are being developed. Water level in reactor pressure vessel and hydrogen concentration in primary containment vessel are one of the most important parameters. Performance test results about water level measurement sensor and hydrogen sensor in severe environmental conditions are described. (author)

  17. Comparative study on TSPM levels, anions and trace metal concentrations at BARC during the years 2000-2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saradhi, I.V.; Prathibha, P.; Kothai, G.; Mahadevan, T.N.; Venkat Raj, V.; Kumar, Shaji C.

    2003-01-01

    Both total and respirable suspended particulate matter in the ambient air of Mumbai have been identified as the single largest pollutant associated with the health impacts in the community. This study deals with the extensive monitoring work carried out at BARC, Trombay during the period 2000-2002. The paper also deals with the comparative status of the TSPM levels and select trace metal and anion concentrations. While Pb levels have stabilized over the years following the introduction of unleaded gasoline, sulphate as a major contributor in the fine fraction of SPM assumes importance. The possible source profiles are presented and discussed. (author)

  18. Influence of bismuth oxide concentration on the pH level and biocompatibility of white Portland cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciano, Marina Angélica; Garcia, Roberto Brandão; Cavenago, Bruno Cavalini; Minotti, Paloma Gagliardi; Midena, Raquel Zanin; Guimarães, Bruno Martini; Ordinola-Zapata, Ronald; Duarte, Marco Antonio Hungaro

    2014-01-01

    To investigate if there is a relation between the increase of bismuth oxide and the decrease of pH levels and an intensification of toxicity in the Portland cement. White Portland cement (WPC) was mixed with 0, 15, 20, 30 and 50% bismuth oxide, in weight. For the pH level test, polyethylene tubes were filled with the cements and immersed in Milli-Q water for 15, 30 and 60 days. After each period, the increase of the pH level was assessed. For the biocompatibility, two polyethylene tubes filled with the cements were implanted in ninety albino rats (n=6). The analysis of the intensity of the inflammatory infiltrate was performed after 15, 30 and 60 days. The statistical analysis was performed using the Kruskal-Wallis, Dunn and Friedman tests for the pH level and the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests for the biological analysis (p0.05). For the inflammatory infiltrates, no significant statistical differences were found among the groups in each period (p>0.05). The 15% WPC showed a significant decrease of the inflammatory infiltrate from 15 to 30 and 60 days (pPortland cement did not affect the pH level and the biological response. The concentration of 15% of bismuth oxide resulted in significant reduction in inflammatory response in comparison with the other concentrations evaluated.

  19. Influence of bismuth oxide concentration on the pH level and biocompatibility of white Portland cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Angélica MARCIANO

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate if there is a relation between the increase of bismuth oxide and the decrease of pH levels and an intensification of toxicity in the Portland cement. Material and Methods: White Portland cement (WPC was mixed with 0, 15, 20, 30 and 50% bismuth oxide, in weight. For the pH level test, polyethylene tubes were filled with the cements and immersed in Milli-Q water for 15, 30 and 60 days. After each period, the increase of the pH level was assessed. For the biocompatibility, two polyethylene tubes filled with the cements were implanted in ninety albino rats (n=6. The analysis of the intensity of the inflammatory infiltrate was performed after 15, 30 and 60 days. The statistical analysis was performed using the Kruskal-Wallis, Dunn and Friedman tests for the pH level and the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests for the biological analysis (p0.05. For the inflammatory infiltrates, no significant statistical differences were found among the groups in each period (p>0.05. The 15% WPC showed a significant decrease of the inflammatory infiltrate from 15 to 30 and 60 days (p<0.05. Conclusions: The addition of bismuth oxide into Portland cement did not affect the pH level and the biological response. The concentration of 15% of bismuth oxide resulted in significant reduction in inflammatory response in comparison with the other concentrations evaluated.

  20. Kericho CLinic-based ART Diagnostic Evaluation (CLADE: design, accrual, and baseline characteristics of a randomized controlled trial conducted in predominately rural, district-level, HIV clinics of Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrick K Sawe

    Full Text Available Prospective clinical trial data regarding routine HIV-1 viral load (VL monitoring of antiretroviral therapy (ART in non-research clinics of Sub-Saharan Africa are needed for policy makers.CLinic-based ART Diagnostic Evaluation (CLADE is a randomized, controlled trial (RCT evaluating feasibility, superiority, and cost-effectiveness of routine VL vs. standard of care (clinical and immunological monitoring in adults initiating dual nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI+non-NRTI ART. Participants were randomized (1:1 at 7 predominately rural, non-research, district-level clinics of western Kenya. Descriptive statistics present accrual patterns and baseline cohort characteristics.Over 15 months, 820 adults enrolled at 7 sites with 86-152 enrolled per site. Monthly site enrollment ranged from 2-92 participants. Full (100% informed consent compliance was independently documented. Half (49.9% had HIV diagnosed through voluntary counseling and testing. Study arms were similar: mostly females (57.6% aged 37.6 (SD = 9.0 years with low CD4 (166 [SD = 106] cells/m3. Notable proportions had WHO Stage III or IV disease (28.7%, BMI <18.5 kg/m2 (23.1%, and a history of tuberculosis (5.6% or were receiving tuberculosis treatment (8.2% at ART initiation. In the routine VL arm, 407/409 (99.5% received baseline VL (234,577 SD = 151,055 copies/ml. All participants received lamivudine; 49.8% started zidovudine followed by 38.4% stavudine and 11.8% tenofovir; and, 64.4% received nevirapine as nNRTI (35.6% efavirenz.A RCT can be enrolled successfully in rural, non-research, resource limited, district-level clinics in western Kenya. Many adults presenting for ART have advanced HIV/AIDS, emphasizing the importance of universal HIV testing and linkage-to-care campaigns.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01791556.

  1. Environmental and occupational exposure to bisphenol A and endometriosis: urinary and peritoneal fluid concentration levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonelli, Angela; Guadagni, Rossella; De Franciscis, Pasquale; Colacurci, Nicola; Pieri, Maria; Basilicata, Pascale; Pedata, Paola; Lamberti, Monica; Sannolo, Nicola; Miraglia, Nadia

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed to give a first data set of bisphenol A (BPA) levels in the peritoneal fluid of patients suffering from endometriosis and to investigate the relationship between BPA exposure and endometriosis. A questionnaire investigating the occupational context, life environment, and habits was administered to 68 patients suffering from endometriosis and 60 endometriosis-free subjects (control group). Urine and peritoneal fluids samples were collected and analysed by GC/MSMS for BPA dosage. Some of the investigated environmental/lifestyle risk factors (closeness to industries/activities at risk) were associated with an increase in endometriosis; smoking resulted as protective factor; others (use of food plastic boxes) did not seem to influence the onset of pathology. The association between the occupational exposure summarising all examined risk factors (working activity, personal protective equipment, seniority) and endometriosis was statistically significant (χ 2  = 5.252, p = 0.02). Contrasting results were obtained when specific activities were examined. Detectable urinary BPA levels were found in all analysed samples (patients: 1.17-12.68 pg/µl; mean ± SD, 5.31 ± 3.36 pg/µl; control group: 1.28-2.35 pg/µl; mean ± SD, 1.64 ± 0.49 pg/µl; median; 1.46 pg/µl), with a statistically significant difference between patients and controls, showing an association between BPA exposure and endometriosis. Only a few subjects from the control group supplied peritoneal fluid; hence, no comparison test with patients (range 0.39-1.46 pg/µl; mean ± SD, 0.67 ± 0.30 pg/µl; median, 0.58 pg/µl) was carried out. Results highlight the potential association between BPA exposure and endometriosis, as well as the current lack of knowledge regarding occupational exposure to BPA and the need of epidemiological studies focused on single activities/occupations, such as housewives, cleaners, students.

  2. Ground level environmental protein concentrations in various ecuadorian environments: potential uses of aerosolized protein for ecological research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staton, Sarah J.R.; Woodward, Andrea; Castillo, Josemar A.; Swing, Kelly; Hayes, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Large quantities of free protein in the environment and other bioaerosols are ubiquitous throughout terrestrial ground level environments and may be integrative indicators of ecosystem status. Samples of ground level bioaerosols were collected from various ecosystems throughout Ecuador, including pristine humid tropical forest (pristine), highly altered secondary humid tropical forest (highly altered), secondary transitional very humid forest (regrowth transitional), and suburban dry montane deforested (suburban deforested). The results explored the sensitivity of localized aerosol protein concentrations to spatial and temporal variations within ecosystems, and their value for assessing environmental change. Ecosystem specific variations in environmental protein concentrations were observed: pristine 0.32 ± 0.09 μg/m3, highly altered 0.07 ± 0.05 μg/m3, regrowth transitional 0.17 ± 0.06 μg/m3, and suburban deforested 0.09 ± 0.04 μg/m3. Additionally, comparisons of intra-environmental differences in seasonal/daily weather (dry season 0.08 ± 0.03 μg/m3 and wet season 0.10 ± 0.04 μg/m3), environmental fragmentation (buffered 0.19 ± 0.06 μg/m3 and edge 0.15 ± 0.06 μg/m3), and sampling height (ground level 0.32 ± 0.09 μg/m3 and 10 m 0.24 ± 0.04 μg/m3) demonstrated the sensitivity of protein concentrations to environmental conditions. Local protein concentrations in altered environments correlated well with satellite-based spectral indices describing vegetation productivity: normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) (r2 = 0.801), net primary production (NPP) (r2 = 0.827), leaf area index (LAI) (r2 = 0.410). Moreover, protein concentrations distinguished the pristine site, which was not differentiated in spectral indices, potentially due to spectral saturation typical of highly vegetated environments. Bioaerosol concentrations represent an inexpensive method to increase understanding of environmental changes, especially in densely vegetated

  3. Leptin level in plasma of lactating buffaloes fed two diets with different energy and protein concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Parmeggiani

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Leptin, a protein mainly secreted from the white adipocytes, has been shown to contribute to the regulation of energy metabolism, feeding behaviour and whole body energy balance. Moreover, leptin gene activity and leptin secretion are correlated with body adiposity and changes in food intake. Furthermore, leptin could also modulate endocrine response to changes in nutritional status and/or tissue sensitivity to hormones (Houseknecht et al., 1998; Romsos, 1998. Several factors are known to influence plasma leptin in rodents and humans: particularly it increases by body fatness, insulin, glucocorticoids, estrogens and decreases by food deprivation (Saladin et al., 1995; Ahima et al., 1996; Shimizu et al., 1997. These ones and several other observations have led to the hypothesis that leptin is a signal arising from adipose tissue, linked to the level of fat reserves and/or the nutritional status. This signal directly influences the central nervous system and peripheral organs, resulting in a better adaptation of body metabolism and physiological functions to the availability of metabolic energy...........

  4. Concentration levels of endocrine disrupting chemicals in environmental media of Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Junheon; Choi, Kyunghee; Kim, Sangdon; Kim, Eunji; Kim, Eunkyoung; Jeon, Sung-Hwan; Na, Jin-Gyun [National Institute of Environmental Research, Incheon (Korea)

    2004-09-15

    Introduction As the public is more concerned about endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), the Ministry of Environment in Korea has designed and established a mid- and long-term research plan on EDCs. Since 1999, the National Institute of Environmental Research has investigated the impact of EDCs on the natural ecosystem and carried out the field test for environmental monitoring. The goal of this study was to measure the contamination level of EDCs in a variety of environmental media, such as water, sediment, soil and air and to provide a basis for the sound management of EDCs and policy-making for the control of EDCs in Korea. Environmental monitoring sites were selected at representative sites through the nation. In 2002, 310 samples were collected from 122 sites of water, sediment, soil and air. The target EDCs examined were 93 chemicals in 45 chemical groups including Dioxin, coplanar PCBs, PCBs. Results show that 46 chemicals (31 chemical groups) including dioxins were detected in at least one environmental medium, while 47 chemicals including aldrin were not detected in any environmental media. In this study, the results of the fourth year of environmental monitoring are reported.

  5. Influence of local meteorology and NO2 conditions on ground-level ozone concentrations in the eastern part of Texas, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Gorai, A. K.; Tuluri, F.; Tchounwou, P. B.; Ambinakudige, S.

    2015-01-01

    The influence of local climatic factors on ground-level ozone concentrations is an area of increasing interest to air quality management in regards to future climate change. This study presents an analysis on the role of temperature, wind speed, wind direction, and NO2 level on ground-level ozone concentrations over the region of Eastern Texas, USA. Ozone concentrations at the ground level depend on the formation and dispersion processes. Formation process mainly depends on the precursor sour...

  6. Do changing levels of maternal exercise during pregnancy affect neonatal adiposity? Secondary analysis of the babies after SCOPE: evaluating the longitudinal impact using neurological and nutritional endpoints (BASELINE) birth cohort (Cork, Ireland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Tom; McCarthy, Fergus P; Khashan, Ali S; Murray, Deidre M; Kiely, Mairead; Hourihane, Jonathan O'B; Baker, Philip N; Kenny, Louise C

    2017-12-01

    To investigate whether changing levels of exercise during pregnancy are related to altered neonatal adiposity. Secondary analysis of data from a prospective cohort study. Cork, Ireland. 1200 mother - infant pairs recruited as part of a prospective birth cohort, Babies After SCOPE: Evaluating the Longitudinal Impact Using Neurological and Nutritional Endpoints (BASELINE). Neonatal adiposity was assessed within several days of birth using air displacement plethysmography (PEAPOD). Per cent body fat (BF%) as a continuous outcome and a pair of dichotomous variables; high or low adiposity, representing BF% >90th or <10th centile, respectively. Multivariable linear and logistic regression models were used to investigate the relationship between exercise and the respective outcomes. Crude analysis revealed no association between a changing level of exercise (since becoming pregnant) at 15 weeks' gestation and any of the outcomes (BF%, low adiposity and high adiposity). At 20 weeks' gestation, analyses revealed that relative to women who do not change their exercise level up to 20 weeks, those women who decreased their exercise level were more likely to give birth to a neonate with adiposity above the 90th centile (OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.07 to 2.46). This association was maintained after adjustment for putative confounders (OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.06 to 2.47). We observed a possible critical period for the association between changing exercise levels and neonatal adiposity, with no association observed with exercise recall for the first 15 weeks of gestation, but an association with a decreasing level of exercise between 15 and 20 weeks. These results should be interpreted in line with the limitations of the study and further studies utilising objectively measured estimates of exercise are required in order to replicate these findings. NCT01498965. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No

  7. Correlation Between Serum Concentrations of N-Desmethylclozapine and Granulocyte Levels in Patients with Schizophrenia: A Retrospective Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert L; Haslemo, Tore; Andreassen, Ole A; Eliasson, Erik; Dahl, Marja-Liisa; Spigset, Olav; Molden, Espen

    2017-11-01

    Clozapine is restricted to use in patients with treatment-refractory schizophrenia due to the risk of a serious drop in absolute neutrophil granulocyte count (ANC). The formation of reactive, unstable metabolites (adducts) has been suggested as a mechanism of clozapine-induced granulocyte decline. These adducts are not detectable in vivo, but stable clozapine metabolites could potentially be indirect pharmacokinetic measures of adduct formation. The present retrospective observational study investigated the correlation between concentrations of N-desmethylclozapine, the major stable clozapine metabolite, and ANC in a real-life population of clozapine-treated patients. Patients were included from a therapeutic drug monitoring service at the Center for Psychopharmacology, Diakonhjemmet Hospital, Oslo, Norway, between March 2005 and December 2015. Information about clozapine and N-desmethylclozapine steady-state trough concentrations, as well as accompanying measurements of ANC, were collected from the laboratory database. Correlations of serum concentrations of N-desmethylclozapine and clozapine (and their respective ratios) with ANC were investigated by linear mixed-model analysis. Overall, 129 patients with 855 measurements of clozapine/N-desmethylclozapine concentrations and ANC (range 0.9-19 × 10 9 cells/L, median 4.6) were included. Concentrations of N-desmethylclozapine, but not clozapine, correlated significantly and positively with ANC (estimated model slope 0.0011 × 10 9 cells/L/nM; p = 0.002), and the N-desmethylclozapine/clozapine ratio also positively correlated with ANC (p = 0.040). N-Desmethylclozapine level and ANC significantly correlated in this real-life population of schizophrenia patients. The positive correlation, which was also present for the metabolic ratio, might reflect reduced clozapine availability for the formation of reactive metabolites potentially affecting granulocyte level. However, as our findings were based on ANC mainly

  8. Different Levels in Orexin Concentrations and Risk Factors Associated with Higher Orexin Levels: Comparison between Detoxified Opiate and Methamphetamine Addicts in 5 Chinese Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoran Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to explore the degree of orexin levels in Chinese opiate and methamphetamine addicts and the differences between them. The cross-sectional study was conducted among detoxified drug addicts from Mandatory Detoxification Center (MDC in five Chinese cities. Orexin levels were assayed with radioimmunoassay (RIA. Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal-Wallis test were used to detect differences across groups, and logistic regression was used to explore the association between orexin levels and characteristics of demographic and drug abuse. Between November 2009 and January 2011, 285 opiates addicts, 112 methamphetamine addicts, and 79 healthy controls were enrolled. At drug withdrawal period, both opiate and methamphetamine addicts had lower median orexin levels than controls, and median orexin levels in opiate addicts were higher than those in methamphetamine addicts (all above P<0.05. Adjusted odds of the above median concentration of orexin were higher for injection than “chasing the dragon” (AOR = 3.1, 95% CI = 1.2–7.9. No significant factors associated with orexin levels of methamphetamine addicts were found. Development of intervention method on orexin system by different administration routes especially for injected opiate addicts at detoxification phase may be significant and was welcome.

  9. Effects of dapagliflozin on insulin-requirement, glucose excretion and ß-hydroxybutyrate levels are not related to baseline HbA1c in youth with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biester, Torben; Aschemeier, Baerbel; Fath, Maryam; Frey, Marcel; Scheerer, Markus F; Kordonouri, Olga; Danne, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    Youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D) infrequently achieve HbA1c targets. Therefore, this placebo-controlled, randomized, crossover study was set up to assess the safety, effect and pharmacokinetics of a single dose of 10 mg dapagliflozin (DAPA) as add-on to insulin in relationship to HbA1c in youth. A total of 33 youths (14 males, median age 16 years, diabetes duration 8 years) were included and stratified into 3 baseline HbA1c categories (9.0; n = 11 each). During the study period of 24 hours, intravenous insulin administration and glucose-infusion kept blood glucose levels at 160 to 220 mg/dL. DAPA reduced mean insulin dose by 13.6% ( P  HbA1c. Six independent episodes in 6 patients with plasma ß-hydroxybutyrate levels between ≥0.6 and HbA1c levels, for adjunct SGLT2-inhibitor therapy in the paediatric age group by lowering insulin dose and increasing glucose excretion. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Carcass and meat characteristics of steers or bulls, finished in feedlot and fed with diets containing three levels of concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Moletta

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate quantitative and qualitative characters of carcass and meat from bulls and steers finished in feedlot during a 116 day period, in individual stalls and fed with a diet of corn silage and three levels of concentrate (0.70; 0.97 and 1.23% of body weight. The concentrate was formulated with 25% soybean meal, 73% of ground corn grain 1% of a mineral mix and 1% of limestone. A total of 169 composite Purunã animals, being 94 bulls and 75 steers with average age of 20 months. The interaction between physiological condition and level of concentrate was not significant (P>0.05 for any of the studied variables. Likewise, no effect of level of concentrate was detected upon the same traits. The bulls presented heavier slaughter weight (493.1 kg in comparison with the steers (450.0 kg as well as higher carcass yield (55.2 vs. 53.5%, resulting in a hot carcass weight 12.1% heavier than bulls animals, though with a lower degree of carcass finishing (3.6 vs. 4.2 mm, respectively. Bulls produced carcasses with better conformation and higher area of Longissimus dorsi (68.6 vs. 63.3 cm2, and higher percentage of muscle in comparison with castrated (66.5 vs. 62.8%. The meat from bulls was darker and with lower degree of marbling in relation to steers. Nevertheless, no differences were observed for tenderness nor for juiciness, though steers had more palatable meat.

  11. Decreased concentrations of soluble interleukin-1 receptor accessory protein levels in the peritoneal fluid of women with endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Nadège; Al-Akoum, Mahéra; Gagnon, Geneviève; Girard, Karine; Blanchet, Pierre; Rousseau, Julie Anne; Akoum, Ali

    2011-12-01

    Interleukin 1 (IL1) may play an important role in endometriosis-associated pelvic inflammation, and natural specific inhibitors, including soluble IL1 receptor accessory protein (sIL1RAcP) and soluble IL1 receptor type 2 (sIL1R2), are critical for counterbalancing the pleiotropic effects of IL1. The objective of this study was to evaluate the levels of sIL1RAcP, together with those of sIL1R2 and IL1β, in the peritoneal fluid of women with and without endometriosis. Peritoneal fluid samples were obtained at laparoscopy and assessed by ELISA. sIL1RAcP concentrations were reduced in endometriosis stages I-II and III-IV. sIL1R2 concentrations were decreased, and those of IL1β were significantly increased in endometriosis stages I-II. sIL1RAcP and sIL1R2 concentrations were significantly decreased in the secretory phase of the menstrual cycle, and IL1β concentrations were elevated in the proliferative and the secretory phases. sIL1RAcP and sIL1R2 concentrations were reduced in women with endometriosis who were infertile, fertile, suffering from pelvic pain or pain-free. However, IL1β concentrations were significantly reduced in women with endometriosis who were infertile or had pelvic pain. These changes may exacerbate the local peritoneal inflammatory reaction observed in women with endometriosis and contribute to endometriosis pathophysiology and the major symptoms of this disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. FRIT DEVELOPMENT FOR HIGH LEVEL WASTE SLUDGE BATCH 5: COMPOSITIONAL TRENDS FOR VARYING ALUMINUM CONCENTRATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K; Tommy Edwards; David Best; Irene Reamer; Phyllis Workman

    2008-08-28

    for some of the oxides for some of the glasses. Although minor differences were observed, they did not have a significant impact on the conclusions made in this study. Several of the study compositions showed retention of more than 0.5 wt% SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} in glass. Trevorite (a spinel) was the only crystalline phase that was positively identified in a few of the study glasses after the canister centerline cooled (CCC) heat treatment. Spinels are not of concern as they have been shown to have little impact on the durability of high level waste glasses. The crystallization behavior of the surrogate glasses was generally the same as that of their U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-containing counterparts. There are two pairs that were exceptions: SB5-04 (amorphous) and SB5-24 (possible trevorite), along with SB5-07 (amorphous) and SB5-25 (trevorite). In these cases, the surrogate glasses (SB5-24 and SB5-25) appear to be more conservative (more prone to crystallization) than their U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-containing counterparts. Chemical durability was quantified using the Product Consistency Test (PCT). The normalized leachate (NL) values for B, Li, Na and Si for all of the study glasses were well below those of the Environmental Assessment (EA) benchmark glass, regardless of heat treatment or compositional view. This indicates that all of the glasses had very acceptable durability performance. The highest NL [B] for the study glasses was 0.914 g/L (the quenched version of glass SB5-13), normalized using the measured, bias-correct composition. There was little practical impact of the CCC heat treatment on the PCT responses of the study glasses. The measured PCT responses were predictable by the current {Delta}G{sub p} models. In general, the PCT responses for the surrogate glasses or the glasses without U{sub 3}O{sub 8} were quite similar to their U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-containing counterparts. The average percent error in NL [B] normalized by the measured, bias-corrected compositions for the

  13. FRIT DEVELOPMENT FOR HIGH LEVEL WASTE SLUDGE BATCH 5: COMPOSITIONAL TRENDS FOR VARYING ALUMINUM CONCENTRATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, K; Tommy Edwards; David Best; Irene Reamer; Phyllis Workman

    2008-01-01

    for some of the oxides for some of the glasses. Although minor differences were observed, they did not have a significant impact on the conclusions made in this study. Several of the study compositions showed retention of more than 0.5 wt% SO 4 2- in glass. Trevorite (a spinel) was the only crystalline phase that was positively identified in a few of the study glasses after the canister centerline cooled (CCC) heat treatment. Spinels are not of concern as they have been shown to have little impact on the durability of high level waste glasses. The crystallization behavior of the surrogate glasses was generally the same as that of their U 3 O 8 -containing counterparts. There are two pairs that were exceptions: SB5-04 (amorphous) and SB5-24 (possible trevorite), along with SB5-07 (amorphous) and SB5-25 (trevorite). In these cases, the surrogate glasses (SB5-24 and SB5-25) appear to be more conservative (more prone to crystallization) than their U 3 O 8 -containing counterparts. Chemical durability was quantified using the Product Consistency Test (PCT). The normalized leachate (NL) values for B, Li, Na and Si for all of the study glasses were well below those of the Environmental Assessment (EA) benchmark glass, regardless of heat treatment or compositional view. This indicates that all of the glasses had very acceptable durability performance. The highest NL [B] for the study glasses was 0.914 g/L (the quenched version of glass SB5-13), normalized using the measured, bias-correct composition. There was little practical impact of the CCC heat treatment on the PCT responses of the study glasses. The measured PCT responses were predictable by the current ΔG p models. In general, the PCT responses for the surrogate glasses or the glasses without U 3 O 8 were quite similar to their U 3 O 8 -containing counterparts. The average percent error in NL [B] normalized by the measured, bias-corrected compositions for the surrogate glasses compared with their radioactive

  14. Tactical decisions of concentrate level, slaughter age and carcass weight of bulls of five beef breeds under Norwegian conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. BONESMO

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Beef production based on suckler cow breeds is a relatively new production system in Norway as in most Nordic countries. To ensure the continuation of this production, profitable management practices designed for Norwegian conditions have to be established. Thus a simulation model was developed that integrates the daily feed intake, the daily live weight (LW gain, silage net energy concentration for beef production (feed units beef (FUb kg?1 dry matter and price, concentrate level and price, and carcass price for bulls of the country's five most common beef breeds. In this work the model was combined with production statistics to find general recommendations in the finishing of beef bulls under Norwegian conditions. Among all the five breeds the Limousin bulls had the highest estimated mean daily return and the Hereford bulls the lowest estimated mean daily return from 20 g concentrate kg?1 LW0.75 for the 940 FUb kg?1 silage dry matter, and from 40 g concentrate kg?1 LW0.75 for the 800 FUb kg?1 silage dry matter. Our estimated optimal slaughter ages and carcass weights shows that it pays to more intensively feed during the finishing period for all five breeds. Current farming practice in Norway for the five major breeds studied is that slaughter age is at least two months later with lighter carcass weights than the results expected from following our model estimated recommendations.

  15. Handheld Device Adapted to Smartphone Cameras for the Measurement of Sodium Ion Concentrations at Saliva-Relevant Levels via Fluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Lipowicz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of saliva sampling as a minimally-invasive means for drug testing and monitoring physiology is a subject of great interest to researchers and clinicians. This study describes a new optical method based on non-axially symmetric focusing of light using an oblate spheroid sample chamber. The device is simple, lightweight, low cost and is easily attached to several different brands/models of smartphones (Apple, Samsung, HTC and Nokia for the measurement of sodium ion levels at physiologically-relevant saliva concentrations. The sample and fluorescent reagent solutions are placed in a specially-designed, lightweight device that excludes ambient light and concentrates 470-nm excitation light, from a low-power photodiode, within the sample through non-axially-symmetric refraction. The study found that smartphone cameras and post-image processing quantitated sodium ion concentration in water over the range of 0.5–10 mM, yielding best-fit regressions of the data that agree well with a data regression of microplate luminometer results. The data suggest that fluorescence can be used for the measurement of salivary sodium ion concentrations in low-resource or point-of-care settings. With further fluorescent assay testing, the device may find application in a variety of enzymatic or chemical assays.

  16. Fluoride concentration level in rural area in Poldasht city and daily fluoride intake based on drinking water consumption with temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Ali Akbar; Yousefi, Mahmood; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

    2017-08-01

    Long-term exposure to high level of fluoride can caused several adverse effects on human health including dental and skeletal fluorosis. We investigated all the drinking water source located in rural areas of Poldasht city, west Azerbaijan Province, North West Iran between 2014 and 2015. Fluoride concentration of water samples was measured by SPADNS method. We found that in the villages of Poldasht the average of fluoride concentration in drinking water sources (well, and the river) was in the range mg/l 0.28-10.23. The average daily received per 2 l of drinking water is in the range mg/l 0.7-16.6 per day per person. Drinking water demands cause fluorosis in the villages around the area residents and based on the findings of this study writers are announced suggestions below in order to take care of the health of area residents.

  17. Natural gamma radiation levels, indoor and water 222RN Concentrations in soil division of Kerio valley, kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nderitu, S.K.; Maina, D.M.; Kinyua, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    Human beings are constantly exposed to natural radioactivity. This radiation is mainly from natural gamma rays and radon and its decay products. The gamma rays are as a result of the decay of primordial nuclides and their daughter radioactive nuclides present in the earth's crust. Radon is produced from the decay of 226 Ra and it diffuses to the indoor environment through cracks on the floor or from building materials containing radium and hence radon problem is mainly indoors. In Kenya, some parts have been identified as having high gamma radiation causing exposure to the public. These areas include Mrima Hill (Kwale), Homa Bay, Bufayo, Weast Pokot, Kitui, Nanyuki, Kerio Valley and Tura. It is therefore necessary to carry out studies on the levels of radiation and determine whether they are within safe limits. Kerio valley, which is the area of study in this work, has been identified as one of the areas with uranium traces associated with fluorite mineralisation. In this study an assessment of the natural radiation levels in this area was carried out and in addition the radon concentrations indoor as well in water that the public is exposed were determined. To measure the radiation levels, soil samples were collected from the area of study, Kerio valley, and analysed for gamma levels using gamma spectroscopy technique. Indoor 222 Rn and radon in water concentrations were measured using the E-perm system. The activity concentrations of the radionuclides present, the doses as well as the annual effective dose equivalents were calculated for the soils using conversion factors adopted from the UNSCEAR (1988 and 1993) reports. Similarly, the dose equivalents and the annual effective doses for 222 Rn concentrations were evaluated. For natural gamma radiation 74 samples were analysed. The soil samples yielded activity concentrations ranging from 194.54??2.89 to 995.77??5.48 Bq Kg-1 for 40 K, 17.04??0.43 to 122.4??0.94 Bq Kg-1 for 232 Th which was evaluated from the 212

  18. Association between risk of birth defects occurring level and arsenic concentrations in soils of Lvliang, Shanxi province of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jilei; Zhang, Chaosheng; Pei, Lijun; Chen, Gong; Zheng, Xiaoying

    2014-01-01

    The risk of birth defects is generally accredited with genetic factors, environmental causes, but the contribution of environmental factors to birth defects is still inconclusive. With the hypothesis of associations of geochemical features distribution and birth defects risk, we collected birth records and measured the chemical components in soil samples from a high prevalence area of birth defects in Shanxi province, China. The relative risk levels among villages were estimated with conditional spatial autoregressive model and the relationships between the risk levels of the villages and the 15 types of chemical elements concentration in the cropland and woodland soils were explored. The results revealed that the arsenic levels in cropland soil showed a significant association with birth defects occurring risk in this area, which is consistent with existing evidences of arsenic as a teratogen and warrants further investigation on arsenic exposure routine to birth defect occurring risk. - Highlights: • Association between soil geochemical components and birth defects risk was proposed. • The relative risk difference among villages were estimated with CAR model. • Arsenic levels in cropland showed a significant association to birth defect risk. • The finding warrants further investigation on arsenic as a teratogen. - The difference of risk levels estimate by spatial statistics to birth defect significantly associated with arsenic levels in cropland soils warrants further investigation

  19. Relationship between RBC Mercury Levels and Serum n3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Concentrations among Japanese Men and Women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, M.; Ando, T.; Wakamiya, J.; Koriyama, Ch.; Akiba, S.; Kitano, T.

    2012-01-01

    Aims. To evaluate potential health risk and benefits of fish consumption, the association of fish consumption with total mercury levels in red blood cells (RBCs) and serum eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) concentrations was examined. Subjects and Methods. Study subjects were 269 Japanese (98 men and 171 women) living in a remote island of Kagoshima, and their blood was drawn in 1994. Results. Total mercury levels were related to weekly fish consumption among women (P=0.035) but not among men (P=0.643). However, serum EPA levels were not related to fish consumption in both women and men. In contrast, EPA levels in the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) fraction of the sera were significantly related to fish consumption (P values for men and women were 0.014 and 0.073, resp.). Interestingly, mercury levels were related to serum EPA levels and EPA in the HDL fraction of the sera (P=0.001) among women (P=0.005) but not among men. Sex differences in fish species consumed may be an explanation for the observed sex difference. Conclusion. Those findings suggest that the health benefit of fish consumption can be maximized by the careful selection of fish species consumed

  20. Impact of concentration of ellagitannins in oak wood on their levels and organoleptic influence in red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Julien; Jourdes, Michael; Silva, Maria A; Giordanengo, Thomas; Mourey, Nicolas; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2011-05-25

    Some wood substances such as ellagitannins can be extracted during wine aging in oak barrels. The level of these hydrolyzable tannins in wine depends of some parameters of oak wood. Their impact on the organoleptic perception of red wine is poorly known. In our research, oak staves were classified in three different groups according to their level of ellagitannins estimated by NIRS (near infrared spectroscopy) online procedure (Oakscan). First, the ellagitannin level and composition were determine for each classified stave and an excellent correlation between the NIRS classification (low, medium and high potential level of ellagitannin) and the ellagitannin content estimated by HPLC-UV was found. Each different group of NIRS classified staves was then added to red wine during its aging in a stainless tank, and the extraction and evolution of the ellagitannins were monitored. A good correlation between the NIRS classification and the concentration of ellagitannins in red wine aging in contact with the classified staves was observed. The influence of levels of ellagitannins on the resulting wine perception was estimated by a trained judge's panel, and it reveals that the level of ellagitannins in wine has an impact on the roundness and amplitude of the red wine.

  1. 226Ra concentration in the teeth of habitants of areas with high level of natural radioactivity in Ramsar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghamiri, S. Mahmoud Reza; Ghorbani, Zahra; Darafsheh, Arash; Torabzadeh, Hasan; Fathivand, Ali Asghar; Minuchehr, Abdulhamid; Jalinoos, Alireza

    2006-01-01

    The level of natural radiation in some regions of Ramsar, a northern coastal city of Iran, is known to be among the highest levels of natural radiation in the world. 226 Ra existing in high concentrations in the soil of this region is washed by underground water and transferred to the surface. In this way, 226 Ra enters the food chain of residents and substitutes within the hard body tissues of humans. 226 Ra is one of the so-called bone seekers as its metabolic processes in the human body are similar to calcium and remains in hard tissues of body because of its long half-life, and being an α emitter causes dangerous effects on human health. The purpose of this study is to determine the concentration of 226 Ra in the teeth of residents of these high-level natural radiation areas, compared with a control group. Thirteen teeth in five groups were studied as the case group and thirteen teeth in five corresponding control groups were inspected. The mean values of the activity of 226 Ra in the case group and in the control group were 0.32 and 0.18 mBq g -1 , respectively

  2. Concentration Limits in the Cement Based Swiss Repository for Long-lived, Intermediate-level Radioactive Wastes (LMA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berner, Urs

    1999-12-01

    The Swiss repository concept for long-lived, intermediate-level radioactive wastes (LMA), in Swiss terminology) foresees cylindrical concrete silos surrounded by a ring of granulated bentonite to deposit the waste. As one of the possible options and similar to the repository for high level wastes, the silos will be located in a deep crystalline host rock. Solidified with concrete in steel drums, the waste is stacked into a silo and the silo is then backfilled with a porous mortar. To characterize the release of radionuclides from the repository, the safety assessment considers first the dissolution into the pore water of the concrete, and then diffusion through the outer bentonite ring into the deep crystalline groundwater. For 19 safety relevant radionuclides (isotopes of U, Th, Pa, Np, Pu, Am, Ni, Zr, Mo, Nb, Se, Sr, Ra, Tc, Sn, I, C, Cs, Cl) the report recommends maximum elemental concentrations to be expected in the cement pore water of the particularly considered repository. These limits will form the parameter base for subsequent release model chains. Concentration limits in a geochemical environment are usually obtained from thermodynamic equilibrium calculations performed with geochemical speciation codes. However, earlier studies revealed that this procedure does not always lead to reliable results. Main reasons for this are the complexity of the systems considered, as well as the lacking completeness of, and the uncertainty associated with the thermodynamic data. To improve the recommended maximum concentrations for a distinct repository design, this work includes additional design- and system-dependent criteria. The following processes, inventories and properties are considered in particular: a) recent experimental investigations, particularly from cement systems, b) thermodynamic model calculations when reliable data are available, c) total inventories of radionuclides, d) sorption- and co-precipitation processes, e) dilution with stable isotopes, f

  3. Changes in ground-level PM mass concentration and column aerosol optical depth over East Asia during 2004-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, J.; Kim, S. W.; Park, R.; Yoon, S. C.; Sugimoto, N.; Park, J. S.; Hong, J.

    2015-12-01

    Multi-year records of moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS), ground-level particulate matter (PM) mass concentration, cloud-aerosol lidar with orthogonal polarization (CALIOP), and ground-level lidar were analyzed to investigate seasonal and annual changes of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and PM mass concentration over East Asia. Least mean square fit method is applied to detect the trends and their magnitudes for each selected regions and stations. Eleven-year MODIS measurements show generally increasing trends in both AOD (1.18 % yr-1) and Ångström exponent (0.98 % yr-1), especially over the east coastal industrialized region in China. Monthly variation of AOD show maximum value at April-July, which were related to the progress of summer monsoon rain band and stationary continental air mass on the northeast of Asia. Increasing trends of AOD were found for eight cites in China (0.80 % yr-1) and Seoul site, Korea (0.40 % yr-1), whereas no significant change were shown in Gosan background site (0.04 % yr-1) and decreasing trend at five background sites in Japan (-0.42 % yr-1). Contrasting to AOD trend, all fifteen sites in China (-1.28 % yr-1), Korea (-2.77 % yr-1), and Japan (-2.03 % yr-1) showed decreasing trend of PM10 mass concentration. Also, PM2.5 mass concentration at Beijing, Seoul, Rishiri, and Oki show significant decreasing trend of -1.16 % yr-1. To further discuss the opposite trend of surface PM mass concentration and column AOD, we investigate vertical aerosol profile from lidar measurements. AOD estimated for planetary boundary layer (surface~1.5 km altitude; AODPBL) from CALIOP measurements over East China show decreasing trend of -1.71 % yr-1 over the period of 2007-2014, wherever AOD estimated for free troposphere (1.5 km~5 km altitude; AODFT) show increasing trend of 2.92 % yr-1. In addition, ground-level lidar measurements in Seoul show decreasing AODPBL trend of -2.57 % yr-1, whereas, AODFT show no significant change (-0.44 % yr

  4. Work-Family Conflict and Self-Rated Health: the Role of Gender and Educational Level. Baseline Data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griep, Rosane Härter; Toivanen, Susanna; van Diepen, Cornelia; Guimarães, Joanna M N; Camelo, Lidyane V; Juvanhol, Leidjaira Lopes; Aquino, Estela M; Chor, Dóra

    2016-06-01

    This study examined gender differences in the association between work-family conflict and self-rated health and evaluated the effect of educational attainment. We used baseline data from ELSA-Brasil, a cohort study of civil servants from six Brazilian state capitals. Our samples included 12,017 active workers aged 34-72 years. Work-family conflict was measured by four indicators measuring effects of work on family, effects of family in work and lack of time for leisure and personal care. Women experienced more frequent work-family conflict, but in both genders, increased work-family conflict directly correlated with poorer self-rated health. Women's educational level interacted with three work-family conflict indicators. For time-based effects of work on family, highly educated women had higher odds of suboptimal self-rated health (OR = 1.54; 95 % CI = 1.19-1.99) than less educated women (OR = 1.14; 95 % CI = 0.92-1.42). For strain-based effects of work on family, women with higher and lower education levels had OR = 1.91 (95 % CI 1.48-2.47) and OR = 1.40 (95 % CI 1.12-1.75), respectively. For lack of time for leisure and personal care, women with higher and lower education levels had OR = 2.60 (95 % CI = 1.95-3.47) and OR = 1.11 (95 % CI = 0.90-1.38), respectively. Women's education level affects the relationship between work-family conflict and self-rated health. The results may contribute to prevention activities.

  5. Biofuels Baseline 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamelinck, C.; Koper, M.; Berndes, G.; Englund, O.; Diaz-Chavez, R.; Kunen, E.; Walden, D.

    2011-10-15

    The European Union is promoting the use of biofuels and other renewable energy in transport. In April 2009, the Renewable Energy Directive (2009/28/EC) was adopted that set a 10% target for renewable energy in transport in 2020. The directive sets several requirements to the sustainability of biofuels marketed in the frame of the Directive. The Commission is required to report to the European Parliament on a regular basis on a range of sustainability impacts resulting from the use of biofuels in the EU. This report serves as a baseline of information for regular monitoring on the impacts of the Directive. Chapter 2 discusses the EU biofuels market, the production and consumption of biofuels and international trade. It is derived where the feedstock for EU consumed biofuels originally come from. Chapter 3 discusses the biofuel policy framework in the EU and major third countries of supply. It looks at various policy aspects that are relevant to comply with the EU sustainability requirements. Chapter 4 discusses the environmental and social sustainability aspects associated with EU biofuels and their feedstock. Chapter 5 discusses the macro-economic effects that indirectly result from increased EU biofuels consumption, on commodity prices and land use. Chapter 6 presents country factsheets for main third countries that supplied biofuels to the EU market in 2008.

  6. Estimation of surface-level PM2.5 concentration using aerosol optical thickness through aerosol type analysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qi-Xiang; Yuan, Yuan; Huang, Xing; Jiang, Yan-Qiu; Tan, He-Ping

    2017-06-01

    Surface-level particulate matter is closely related to column aerosol optical thickness (AOT). Previous researches have successfully used column AOT and different meteorological parameters to estimate surface-level PM concentration. In this study, the performance of a selected linear model that estimates surface-level PM2.5 concentration was evaluated following the aerosol type analysis method (ATAM) for the first time. We utilized 443 daily average data for Xuzhou, Jiangsu province, collected using Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) during the period October 2013 to April 2016. Several parameters including atmospheric boundary layer height (BLH), relative humidity (RH), and effective radius of the aerosol size distribution (Ref) were used to assess the relationship between the column AOT and PM2.5 concentration. By including the BLH, ambient RH, and effective radius, the correlation (R2) increased from 0.084 to 0.250 at Xuzhou, and with the use of ATAM, the correlation increased further to 0.335. To compare the results, 450 daily average data for Beijing, pertaining to the same period, were utilized. The study found that model correlations improved by varying degrees in different seasons and at different sites following ATAM. The average urban industry (UI) aerosol ratios at Xuzhou and Beijing were 0.792 and 0.451, respectively, demonstrating poorer air conditions at Xuzhou. PM2.5 estimation at Xuzhou showed lower correlation (R2 = 0.335) compared to Beijing (R2 = 0.407), and the increase of R2 at Xuzhou and Beijing site following use of ATAM were 33.8% and 12.4%, respectively.

  7. Supplementation with Ca salts of soybean oil interacts with concentrate level in grazing dairy cows: intake, ingestive behavior, and ruminal parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Fernanda Lopes; Batistel, Fernanda; de Souza, Jonas; Chagas, Lucas Jado; Santos, Flávio Augusto Portela

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the associative effects of concentrate levels and Ca salts of soybean oil (CSSO) supplementation on performance and ruminal parameters of mid-lactation dairy cows grazing on tropical pasture. Twenty-four Jersey × Holstein cows were used in a randomized block design and assigned to four treatments arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial design. Factors evaluated were concentrate levels (low, 3 kg/day vs. high, 7 kg/day of concentrate) and CSSO supplementation (without CSSO vs. with 250 g CSSO cow/day). All cows grazed on elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum cv. Cameroon) and received the supplemental treatments for a 90-day period. The high concentrate level decreased forage intake and grazing time. In addition, the high concentrate level increased rumen propionate concentration and microbial synthesis and tended to decrease ammonia-N compared with low concentrate level. The addition of CSSO tended to decrease valerate, isobutyrate, isovalerate, and microbial synthesis. In conclusion, feeding CSSO for mid lactating cows grazing on tropical pasture had negative effects on rumen function. In contrast, CSSO supplementation tended to interact with concentrate level and increased energy intake when fed at low concentrate level. Feeding the high level of concentrate was an effective strategy to increase energy intake and microbial synthesis and improve N utilization.

  8. Minocycline produced antidepressant-like effects on the learned helplessness rats with alterations in levels of monoamine in the amygdala and no changes in BDNF levels in the hippocampus at baseline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Shiho; Shirayama, Yukihiko; Fujita, Yuko; Ishima, Tamaki; Horio, Mao; Muneoka, Katsumasa; Iyo, Masaomi; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that minocycline might function as an antidepressant drug. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antidepressant-like effects of minocycline, which is known to suppress activated microglia, using learned helplessness (LH) rats (an animal model of depression). Infusion of minocycline into the cerebral ventricle of LH rats induced antidepressant-like effects. However, infusion of minocycline into the cerebral ventricle of naïve rats did not produce locomotor activation in the open field tests, suggesting that the antidepressant-like effects of minocycline were not attributed to the enhanced locomotion. LH rats showed significantly higher serotonin turnover in the orbitofrontal cortex and lower levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus than control rats. However, these alterations in serotonin turnover and BDNF expression remained unchanged after treatment with minocycline. On the contrary, minocycline treatment of LH rats induced significant increases in the levels of dopamine and its metabolites in the amygdala when compared with untreated LH rats. Taken together, minocycline may be a therapeutic drug for the treatment of depression. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Radioecology teaching: evaluation of the background radiation levels from areas with high concentrations of radionuclides in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anjos, R M; Okuno, E; Gomes, P R S; Veiga, R; Estellita, L; Mangia, L; Uzeda, D; Soares, T; Facure, A; Brage, J A P; Mosquera, B; Carvalho, C; Santos, A M A

    2004-01-01

    The study of environmental radioactivity is a topic which is not usually included in physics courses in Brazilian and Latin American universities. Consequently, high-school teachers are not able to show experimentally or discuss with their students the effects of exposure to terrestrial radiation. This paper presents a laboratory experiment in a teaching programme on the physics of ionizing radiation. It is based on the evaluation of the background radiation levels from areas with high concentrations of natural or artificial radionuclides in the soil. A brief analysis of the theory behind the technique and a description of some measurements, including their interpretations, are presented

  10. Prediction of radionuclide invention for low-and intermediate-level radioactive waste by considering concentration limit of waste package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Kang Il; Kim, Min Seong; Jeong, Noh Gyeon; Park, Jin Beak [Korea Radioactive Waste Agency(KORAD), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    The result of a preliminary safety assessment that was completed by applying the radionuclide inventory calculated on the basis of available data from radioactive waste generation agencies suggested that many difficulties are to be expected with regard to disposal safety and operation. Based on the results of the preliminary safety assessment of the entire disposal system, in this paper, a unit package exceeding the safety goal is selected that occupies a large proportion of radionuclides in intermediate-level radioactive waste. We introduce restrictions on the amount of radioactivity in a way that excludes the high surface dose rate of the package. The radioactivity limit for disposal will be used as the baseline data for establishing the acceptance criteria and the disposal criteria for each disposal facility to meet the safety standards. It is necessary to draw up a comprehensive safety development plan for the Gyeongju waste disposal facility that will contribute to the construction of a Safety Case for the safety optimization of radioactive waste disposal facilities.

  11. Determination of indoor radon concentration levels and the associated annual effective dose rate in some Ghanaian dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nsiah-Akoto, I.

    2010-01-01

    Radon and its decay products in indoor air are the main source of natural internal irradiation of man. In this present work, the indoor radon concentration, the annual exposure, the annual effective dose and the annual dose equivalent to the lung received by the population were estimated in the dwellings at Dome in the Ga-East District of the Greater Accra Region, Ghana using time-integrated passive radon detectors; LR-115 Type II solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) technique. The primary objective of this project was to assess the annual effective dose rate due to the indoor radon concentration levels and the associated level of risk. Measurements were carried out from December 2009 to March 2010. After the 3 months exposure, the detectors were subjected to chemical etching in a 2.5M analytical grade sodium hydroxide solution at (60 ±1) o C, for 90mins in a constant temperature water bath to enlarge the latent tracks produced by alpha particles from the decay of radon. The etched tracks were magnified using the microfiche reader and counted with a tally counter. The mean indoor radon concentration was found to be (466.9±1.2) Bqm -3 and the mean annual exposure was (2.03±0.08) WLM. Assuming an indoor occupancy factor of 0.4 and 0.4 for equilibrium factor for radon indoors, we found out that the mean Rn-222 effective dose rate and the annual equivalent dose rate to the lung in the present study dwellings was (14.13±0.22)mSvy -1 and (3.74 E-07 ±3.50 E-06)Svy -1 respectively. The mean values of radon concentrations at Dome, Kwabenya, Biakpa, and South-Eastern part of Ghana, Prestea and Kassena-Nakana District in the previous research ranged from (9.4±0.5) to (518.7±4.0) Bqm -3 . The mean annual exposure, annual effective dose rate and the annual equivalent for the previous work ranged from (0.04±0.03)WLM to (0.58±0.05)WLM, (0.28±0.08) to (15.54±0.69mSvy -1 ), (8.23E-12±4.33E-07) to (4.15E-07± 1.13E-04) respectively. Odds ratios (ORs) for lung

  12. Baseline conditions at Olkiluoto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-09-01

    The main purpose of this report is to establish a reference point - defined as the data collected up until the end of year 2002 - for the coming phases of the Finnish spent nuclear fuel disposal programme. The focus is: to define the current surface and underground conditions at the site, both as regards the properties for which a change is expected and for the properties which are of particular interest for long-term safety or environmental impact; to establish, as far as possible, the natural fluctuation of properties that are potentially affected by construction of the underground laboratory, the ONKALO, and to provide references to data on parameters or use in model development and testing and to use models to assist in understanding and interpreting the data. The emphasis of the baseline description is on bedrock characteristics that are relevant to the long-term safety of a spent fuel repository and, hence, to include the hydrogeological, hydrogeochemical, rock mechanical, tectonic and seismic conditions of the site. The construction of the ONKALO will also affect some conditions on the surface, and, therefore, a description of the main characteristics of the nature and the man-made constructions at Olkiluoto is also given. This report is primarily a road map to the available information on the prevailing conditions at the Olkiluoto site and a framework for understanding of data collected. Hence, it refers to numerous available background reports and other archived information produced over the past 20 years or more, and forms a recapitulation and revaluation of the characterisation data of the Olkiluoto site. (orig.)

  13. Physical and sensory characteristics of pellets elaborated with different levels of corn grits and whey protein concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Felicori Fernandes

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Whey has proteins of high biological value, which has been used as an ingredient in the elaboration of yogurt, milk beverages and as protein concentrates. Food extrusion stands out as one of the most efficient cooking techniques, allowing a number of product types, from soluble flour to convenience products, such as snacks, which have high acceptability by the consumers. Products processed by extrusion, such as those expanded by frying (pellets, have high carbohydrate content, and its enrichment with protein can favor its nutritional aspect. This study aimed to use the whey protein concentrate (WPC in combination with corn grits in the preparation of pellets. Absolute density, density of expanded pellets, color, crispness index, and pellet sensory acceptance were determined. For the absolute density, contents from 5% to 17% produced denser non-expanded pellets. The higher the WPC content and the temperature of the extruder, the higher the density of the expanded pellets. The crispness index was not altered by the protein content and by the extruder temperature. In the sensory analysis, the preferred samples were the ones with lower WPC levels (5%. We concluded that higher WPC values in the pellets formulation increased their density, but did not alter color and texture, as well as small WPC levels did not affect the acceptance of snacks.

  14. Impulse radio ultra wideband wireless transmission of dopamine concentration levels recorded by fast-scan cyclic voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrazeh, Ali; Bozorgzadeh, Bardia; Mohseni, Pedram

    2015-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the feasibility of utilizing impulse radio ultra wideband (IR-UWB) signaling technique for reliable, wireless transmission of dopamine concentration levels recorded by fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) at a carbon-fiber microelectrode (CFM) to address the problem of elevated data rates in high-channel-count neurochemical monitoring. Utilizing an FSCV-sensing chip fabricated in AMS 0.35μm 2P/4M CMOS, a 3-5-GHz, IR-UWB transceiver (TRX) chip fabricated in TSMC 90nm 1P/9M RF CMOS, and two off-chip, miniature, UWB antennae, wireless transfer of pseudo-random binary sequence (PRBS) data at 50Mbps over a distance of wireless transmission of dopamine concentration levels prerecorded with FSCV at a CFM during flow injection analysis (FIA) is also demonstrated with transmitter (TX) power dissipation of only ~4.4μW from 1.2V, representing two orders of magnitude reduction in TX power consumption compared to that of a conventional frequency-shift-keyed (FSK) link operating at ~433MHz.

  15. Serum hepcidin levels are associated with serum triglycerides and interleukin-6 concentrations in patients with end-stage renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samouilidou, Elisabeth; Pantelias, Konstantinos; Petras, Dimitrios; Tsirpanlis, George; Bakirtzi, Joulia; Chatzivasileiou, George; Tzanatos, Helen; Grapsa, Eirini

    2014-06-01

    Hepcidin has emerged as a peptide with a key role in the regulation of iron homeostasis in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), having a strong dependence on inflammation. Recent studies reveal that hepcidin may be also associated with the progression of atherosclerosis. This study was performed to analyze the relation of hepcidin to markers of atherosclerosis and inflammation in patients on dialysis. A total of 90 individuals were enrolled. Sixty patients with end-stage renal disease, who were on hemodialysis (HD) (N = 30) and peritoneal dialysis (N = 30) were compared with 30 normal controls (NC). Age, body mass index, time on dialysis, serum lipids, C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured and analyzed in correlation with hepcidin concentration. It was found that patients on HD and peritoneal dialysis have significantly higher (P triglycerides (r = 0.401, P = 0.005), HDL-C (r = -0.268, P = 0.048), CRP (r = 0.436, P = 0.0007) and IL-6 (r = 0.569, P triglycerides (β = 0.402, P = 0.041) and IL-6 (β = 0.559, P = 0.006). Moreover, patients with high triglycerides in combination with high IL-6 levels have significantly increased concentrations of hepcidin than those with low triglycerides and low IL-6 levels (P triglycerides and high IL-6 serum concentrations. This probably suggests that hepcidin may play a role to the progression of atherosclerosis and inflammation, but this hypothesis should be further evaluated. © 2013 The Authors. Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis © 2013 International Society for Apheresis.

  16. Concentration Levels, Pollution Characteristics and Potential Ecological Risk of Dust Heavy Metals in the Metropolitan Area of Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Qiulin; Zhao, Wenji; Zhao, Jiayin; Zhao, Wenhui; Jiang, Lei

    2017-09-30

    This study aims to investigate the concentration levels, pollution characteristics and the associated potential ecological risks of the heavy metals found in dust in the metropolitan area of Beijing, China during the winter. Dust samples were collected at 49 different spatial locations of Beijing's metropolitan area from November 2013 to January 2014, in which the concentration levels of Cd, Cr, Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni, Co, V, Bi and Mo were measured by Elan DRC II type inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Test results showed that the concentrations of dust heavy metals Pb, Cr, Cu and Zn in the urban areas (147.1 mg·kg -1 , 195.9 mg·kg -1 , 239.2 mg·kg -1 and 713.2 mg·kg -1 ) were significantly higher than those in the suburbs (91.6 mg·kg -1 , 125.1 mg·kg -1 , 131.9 mg·kg -1 and 514.5 mg·kg -1 ). Enrichment factors and the geo-accumulation index were used to describe the pollution characteristics of dust heavy metals in urban and suburban areas. Results indicated that Zn and Cu were moderately polluting in both urban and suburban areas, Cd was severely polluting in urban areas and heavily polluting in the suburbs. Furthermore, potential ecological risk assessment revealed that the degrees of ecological harm of dust heavy metals were very strong in both urban and suburban areas, but especially in urban areas. The potential ecological risk of heavy metal Cd, whose single factor of ecological damage was extremely strong, accounted for about 90% of the total ecological risk.

  17. Activity concentrations of primordial radionuclides in sediments of surface - water dams in southwest Nigeria - a baseline survey; Concentrations des activites des radionucleides primordiaux dans les sediments des retenues des eaux de ruissellement dans le sud-ouest du Nigeria. Etude de reference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isinkaye, M.O. [University of Ado-Ekiti, Dept. of Physics (Nigeria); Farai, I.P. [Ibadan Univ., Dept. of Physics (Nigeria)

    2008-10-15

    The radionuclide contents of sediment samples collected from 20 surface-water dams in southwestern Nigeria have been determined by low-level gamma-spectroscopy. The average concentration of {sup 40}K in each of the dams varied between 110.9{+-}11.9 Bq kg-1 and 1025.9{+-}36.8 Bq kg{sup -1} with an overall mean ({+-}SD) of 549.3 {+-} 247.6 Bq kg{sup -1} while that of {sup 238}U varied from 17.1{+-}3.6 to 51.9{+-}8.7 Bq kg{sup -1} with an overall mean ({+-}SD) of 27.6{+-}8.5 Bq kg{sup -1} and that of {sup 232}Th varied from 26.2 {+-}3.6 Bq kg{sup -1} to 130.1{+-}23.7 Bq kg{sup -1} with overall mean ({+-}SD) of 62.0{+-}26.1 Bq kg{sup -1}. The variability of the values shows the wide disparity in the measured activity concentrations. The mean radium equivalent of 158.9 Bq kg{sup -1} was calculated for the sediments in the dams. No artificial gamma emitting radionuclide was detected in the samples. (authors)

  18. Considerations on the activity concentration determination method for low-level waste packages and nuclide data comparison between different countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashiwagi, M.; Mueller, W.

    2000-01-01

    In low-level waste disposal, acceptable activity concentration limits are regulated for individual nuclides and groups of nuclides according to the conditions of each disposal site. Such regulated limits principally concern total alpha and beta /gamma activity as well as nuclides such as C-14, Ni-63, and Pu-238 which are long-lived and difficult to measure (hereinafter referred to as difficult-to-measure nuclides). Before waste packages are transported to the disposal site, the activities or activity concentrations of the regulated nuclides and groups of nuclides in the waste packages must be assessed and declared. A generally applicable theoretical method to determine these activities is lacking at present. Therefore, to meet this requirement, for NPP waste each country independently samples actual waste and carries out radiochemical analyses on these samples. The activity concentrations of difficult-to-measure nuclides are then determined by statistical correlation of the measured data between difficult-to-measure nuclides and Co-60 and Cs-137 which are measurable from outside the waste packages (hereinafter referred to as key nuclides). This method is called 'Scaling Factor Method'. It is widely adopted as a method for determining the activity concentrations of the limited nuclides in low-level waste packages from NPP, and it is also approved by responsible authorities in the respective country. In the past, each country independently determined scaling factors based on measurements on samples from the local NPPs. In the first part of this study, the possibility of an international scaling factor assessment using a database integrating data from different countries was studied by comparing radiochemical analysis data between Germany, Japan, and the United States. These countries have accumulated a large number of those nuclide data required to determine scaling factors. Statistical values such as correlation coefficients change with an accumulation of data. In

  19. Temporal variability of the bioaerosol background at a subway station: concentration level, size distribution, and diversity of airborne bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybwad, Marius; Skogan, Gunnar; Blatny, Janet Martha

    2014-01-01

    Naturally occurring bioaerosol environments may present a challenge to biological detection-identification-monitoring (BIODIM) systems aiming at rapid and reliable warning of bioterrorism incidents. One way to improve the operational performance of BIODIM systems is to increase our understanding of relevant bioaerosol backgrounds. Subway stations are enclosed public environments which may be regarded as potential bioterrorism targets. This study provides novel information concerning the temporal variability of the concentration level, size distribution, and diversity of airborne bacteria in a Norwegian subway station. Three different air samplers were used during a 72-h sampling campaign in February 2011. The results suggested that the airborne bacterial environment was stable between days and seasons, while the intraday variability was found to be substantial, although often following a consistent diurnal pattern. The bacterial levels ranged from not detected to 10(3) CFU m(-3) and generally showed increased levels during the daytime compared to the nighttime levels, as well as during rush hours compared to non-rush hours. The airborne bacterial levels showed rapid temporal variation (up to 270-fold) on some occasions, both consistent and inconsistent with the diurnal profile. Airborne bacterium-containing particles were distributed between different sizes for particles of >1.1 μm, although ∼50% were between 1.1 and 3.3 μm. Anthropogenic activities (mainly passengers) were demonstrated as major sources of airborne bacteria and predominantly contributed 1.1- to 3.3-μm bacterium-containing particles. Our findings contribute to the development of realistic testing and evaluation schemes for BIODIM equipment by providing information that may be used to simulate operational bioaerosol backgrounds during controlled aerosol chamber-based challenge tests with biological threat agents.

  20. Temporal Variability of the Bioaerosol Background at a Subway Station: Concentration Level, Size Distribution, and Diversity of Airborne Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybwad, Marius; Skogan, Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    Naturally occurring bioaerosol environments may present a challenge to biological detection-identification-monitoring (BIODIM) systems aiming at rapid and reliable warning of bioterrorism incidents. One way to improve the operational performance of BIODIM systems is to increase our understanding of relevant bioaerosol backgrounds. Subway stations are enclosed public environments which may be regarded as potential bioterrorism targets. This study provides novel information concerning the temporal variability of the concentration level, size distribution, and diversity of airborne bacteria in a Norwegian subway station. Three different air samplers were used during a 72-h sampling campaign in February 2011. The results suggested that the airborne bacterial environment was stable between days and seasons, while the intraday variability was found to be substantial, although often following a consistent diurnal pattern. The bacterial levels ranged from not detected to 103 CFU m−3 and generally showed increased levels during the daytime compared to the nighttime levels, as well as during rush hours compared to non-rush hours. The airborne bacterial levels showed rapid temporal variation (up to 270-fold) on some occasions, both consistent and inconsistent with the diurnal profile. Airborne bacterium-containing particles were distributed between different sizes for particles of >1.1 μm, although ∼50% were between 1.1 and 3.3 μm. Anthropogenic activities (mainly passengers) were demonstrated as major sources of airborne bacteria and predominantly contributed 1.1- to 3.3-μm bacterium-containing particles. Our findings contribute to the development of realistic testing and evaluation schemes for BIODIM equipment by providing information that may be used to simulate operational bioaerosol backgrounds during controlled aerosol chamber-based challenge tests with biological threat agents. PMID:24162566

  1. Supplementation of Farta sheep fed hay with graded levels of concentrate mix consisting of noug seed meal and rice bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmare, Bimrew; Melaku, Solomon; Peters, Kurt J

    2010-10-01

    The study was carried out at Woreta, Ethiopia, to determine feed intake, digestibility, body weight (BW) change, and profitability of Farta sheep fed pasture hay alone or supplemented with graded levels of concentrate mix (CM) consisting of noug seed meal (NSM) and rice bran in 2:1 ratio. Twenty yearling intact male Farta sheep with BW of 16.9 +/- 1.68 kg (mean +/- SD) were used in randomized complete block design arranged into five blocks of four animals. The dietary treatments consisting of sole natural pasture hay (T1, control), hay +200 g of CM dry matter (DM) (T2, low), hay +300 g of CM DM (T3, medium), and hay +400 g of CM DM (T4, high) were randomly assigned to sheep within each block. Common salt and water were available to animals all the time. The supplements were offered twice daily in equal portions at 0800 and 1600 h. Supplementation with the CM increased (P profitability. Among the supplemented treatments, the high level of supplementation resulted in better (P profitability. Thus, the high level of supplementation is recommended based on biological performance and profitability under conditions of this study.

  2. Multi-regional investigation of the relationship between functional MRI blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD activation and GABA concentration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley D Harris

    Full Text Available Several recent studies have reported an inter-individual correlation between regional GABA concentration, as measured by MRS, and the amplitude of the functional blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD response in the same region. In this study, we set out to investigate whether this coupling generalizes across cortex. In 18 healthy participants, we performed edited MRS measurements of GABA and BOLD-fMRI experiments using regionally related activation paradigms. Regions and tasks were the: occipital cortex with a visual grating stimulus; auditory cortex with a white noise stimulus; sensorimotor cortex with a finger-tapping task; frontal eye field with a saccade task; and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex with a working memory task. In contrast to the prior literature, no correlation between GABA concentration and BOLD activation was detected in any region. The origin of this discrepancy is not clear. Subtle differences in study design or insufficient power may cause differing results; these and other potential reasons for the discrepant results are discussed. This negative result, although it should be interpreted with caution, has a larger sample size than prior positive results, and suggests that the relationship between GABA and the BOLD response may be more complex than previously thought.

  3. Photobiostimulation on chondrocytes proliferation in different concentration of fetal bovine serum under low-level laser irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Liqin; Wang, Yuhua; Qiu, Caimin; Chen, Jianlin; Yang, Hongqin; Zhang, Yanding; Xie, Shusen

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of low-level laser irradiation (LLLI) on the chondrocytes proliferation cultured in different concentration of fetal bovine serum (FBS) using 658 nm, 785 nm and 830 nm diode lasers. The role of energy density (10-70 mJ·cm-2) on chondrocytes proliferation following irradiation with 658 nm laser for 2 days was firstly investigated to find out the best laser energy density. Then the effect of LLLI on the proliferation of chondrocytes cultured with fetal bovine serum at 0%, 2%, 5% and 10% was also evaluated. The results showed that there was no or little photobiostimulation on the proliferation of chondrocytes cultured with 0% FBS and 10% FBS; the cell proliferation at 2% and 5% FBS was significantly modulated by LLLI.

  4. 2016 Annual Technology Baseline (ATB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Wesley; Kurup, Parthiv; Hand, Maureen; Feldman, David; Sigrin, Benjamin; Lantz, Eric; Stehly, Tyler; Augustine, Chad; Turchi, Craig; O' Connor, Patrick; Waldoch, Connor

    2016-09-01

    Consistent cost and performance data for various electricity generation technologies can be difficult to find and may change frequently for certain technologies. With the Annual Technology Baseline (ATB), National Renewable Energy Laboratory provides an organized and centralized dataset that was reviewed by internal and external experts. It uses the best information from the Department of Energy laboratory's renewable energy analysts and Energy Information Administration information for conventional technologies. The ATB will be updated annually in order to provide an up-to-date repository of current and future cost and performance data. Going forward, we plan to revise and refine the values using best available information. The ATB includes both a presentation with notes (PDF) and an associated Excel Workbook. The ATB includes the following electricity generation technologies: land-based wind; offshore wind; utility-scale solar PV;