WorldWideScience

Sample records for leveling system size

  1. Optimal Multi-Level Lot Sizing for Requirements Planning Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Earle Steinberg; H. Albert Napier

    1980-01-01

    The wide spread use of advanced information systems such as Material Requirements Planning (MRP) has significantly altered the practice of dependent demand inventory management. Recent research has focused on development of multi-level lot sizing heuristics for such systems. In this paper, we develop an optimal procedure for the multi-period, multi-product, multi-level lot sizing problem by modeling the system as a constrained generalized network with fixed charge arcs and side constraints. T...

  2. Beam size measurement at high radiation levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decker, F.J.

    1991-05-01

    At the end of the Stanford Linear Accelerator the high energy electron and positron beams are quite small. Beam sizes below 100 μm (σ) as well as the transverse distribution, especially tails, have to be determined. Fluorescent screens observed by TV cameras provide a quick two-dimensional picture, which can be analyzed by digitization. For running the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) with low backgrounds at the interaction point, collimators are installed at the end of the linac. This causes a high radiation level so that the nearby cameras die within two weeks and so-called ''radiation hard'' cameras within two months. Therefore an optical system has been built, which guides a 5 mm wide picture with a resolution of about 30 μm over a distance of 12 m to an accessible region. The overall resolution is limited by the screen thickness, optical diffraction and the line resolution of the camera. Vibration, chromatic effects or air fluctuations play a much less important role. The pictures are colored to get fast information about the beam current, size and tails. Beside the emittance, more information about the tail size and betatron phase is obtained by using four screens. This will help to develop tail compensation schemes to decrease the emittance growth in the linac at high currents. 4 refs., 2 figs

  3. General programmable Level-1 trigger with 3D-Flow assembly system for calorimeters of different sizes and event rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crosetto, D.

    1992-12-01

    Experience demonstrates that fine tuning on the trigger of an experiment is often achieved only after running the experiment and analyzing the first data acquired. It is desirable that identification and, consequently, selection of interesting events be made on a more refined identification of particles. Use of an innovative parallel-processing system architecture together with an instruction set allows identification of objects (particles) among the data coming from a calorimeter in a programmable manner, utilizing the information related to their shape in two- or three-dimensional form, rather than applying only a programmable threshold proportional to their energy. The architecture is flexible, allowing execution of simple algorithms as well as complex pattern recognition algorithms. It is scalable in the sense that the same hardware can be used for small or large calorimeters having a slow or fast event rate. The simple printed circuit board (accommodating 16 x 3D-Flow processors) on a 4 in. x 4 in. board described herein uses the same hardware to build a large Level-1 programmable trigger (by interconnecting many boards in a matrix array) and is capable of implementing simple or complex pattern recognition algorithms at different event input rates (by cascading boards one on top of another). With the same hardware one can build low-cost, programmable Level-1 triggers for a small and low-event-rate calorimeter, or high-performance, programmable Level-1 triggers for a large calorimeter capable of sustaining up to 60 million events per second

  4. Correlation Between Echinoidea Size and Threat Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakshi, S.; Lee, A.; Heim, N.; Payne, J.

    2017-12-01

    Echinoidea (or sea urchins), are small, spiny, globular, animals that populate the seafloors of nearly the entire planet. Echinoidea have existed on Earth since the Ordovician period, and from their archaic origin there is much to be learned about the relationship between Echinoidea body size and how it affects the survivability of the individual. The goal of this project is to determine how Echinoidea dimensions such as body volume, area, and length compare across extinct and extant species by plotting Echinoidea data in R. We will use stratigraphic data as a source to find which species of sea urchin from our data is extinct. We will then create three sets of three histograms of the size data for each type of measurement. One set will include histograms for sea urchin length, area, and volume. The other set will include histograms for extinct sea urchin length, area, and volume. The last set will include histograms for extant sea urchin length, area, and volume. Our data showed that extant sea urchins had a larger size, and extinct sea urchins were smaller. Our length data showed that the average length of all sea urchins were 54.95791 mm, the average length of extinct sea urchins were 51.0337 mm, and the average length of extant sea urchins were 66.12774 mm. There is a generally increasing trend of size over time, except for a small outlier about 350 million years ago, where echinoderm extinction selected towards larger species and biovolume was abnormally high. Our data also showed that over the past 200 million years, echinoderm extinction selectivity drove slightly smaller sea urchins towards extinction, further supporting the idea that a larger size was and still is advantageous for echinoderms.

  5. System level ESD protection

    CERN Document Server

    Vashchenko, Vladislav

    2014-01-01

    This book addresses key aspects of analog integrated circuits and systems design related to system level electrostatic discharge (ESD) protection.  It is an invaluable reference for anyone developing systems-on-chip (SoC) and systems-on-package (SoP), integrated with system-level ESD protection. The book focuses on both the design of semiconductor integrated circuit (IC) components with embedded, on-chip system level protection and IC-system co-design. The readers will be enabled to bring the system level ESD protection solutions to the level of integrated circuits, thereby reducing or completely eliminating the need for additional, discrete components on the printed circuit board (PCB) and meeting system-level ESD requirements. The authors take a systematic approach, based on IC-system ESD protection co-design. A detailed description of the available IC-level ESD testing methods is provided, together with a discussion of the correlation between IC-level and system-level ESD testing methods. The IC-level ESD...

  6. Sizing up the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebke, Heidi; Rogers, Meredith Park; Nargund-Joshi, Vanashri

    2011-01-01

    The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS 1993) states that by the end of fifth grade, students should understand that a model, such as those depicting the solar system, is a smaller version of the real product, making it easier to physically work with and therefore learn from. However, for students and even adults,…

  7. Spacesuit Soft Upper Torso Sizing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziosi, David; Splawn, Keith

    2011-01-01

    The passive sizing system consists of a series of low-profile pulleys attached to the front and back of the shoulder bearings on a spacesuit soft upper torso (SUT), textile cord or stainless steel cable, and a modified commercial ratchet mechanism. The cord/cable is routed through the pulleys and attached to the ratchet mechanism mounted on the front of the spacesuit within reach of the suited subject. Upon actuating the ratchet mechanism, the shoulder bearing breadth is changed, providing variable upper torso sizing. The active system consists of a series of pressurizable nastic cells embedded into the fabric layers of a spacesuit SUT. These cells are integrated to the front and back of the SUT and are connected to an air source with a variable regulator. When inflated, the nastic cells provide a change in the overall shoulder bearing breadth of the spacesuit and thus, torso sizing. The research focused on the development of a high-performance sizing and actuation system. This technology has application as a suit-sizing mechanism to allow easier suit entry and more accurate suit fit with fewer torso sizes than the existing EMU (Extravehicular Mobility Unit) suit system. This advanced SUT will support NASA s Advanced EMU Evolutionary Concept of a two-sizes-fit-all upper torso for replacement of the current EMU hard upper torso (HUT). Both the passive and nastic sizing system approaches provide astronauts with real-time upper torso sizing, which translates into a more comfortable suit, providing enhanced fit resulting in improved crewmember performance during extravehicular activity. These systems will also benefit NASA by reducing flight logistics as well as overall suit system cost. The nastic sizing system approach provides additional structural redundancy over existing SUT designs by embedding additional coated fabric and uncoated fabric layers. Two sizing systems were selected to build into a prototype SUT: one active and one passive. From manned testing, it

  8. PEP liquid level system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauritzen, T.; Sah, R.C.

    1981-03-01

    A liquid level system has been installed in the accelerator housing of the PEP storage ring. This instrument spans the entire 2.2 km circumference of the PEP project, and over one hundred readouts provide reference elevations which are used for the accurate alignment of accelerator components. The liquid level has proven to be extremely precise (+-0.10 mm) and quick to use, and it has contributed to the accurate alignment of PEP before beam turn-on. Since the liquid level readouts are rigidly attached to the accelerator housing, the liquid level has been a convenient means to monitor the settling of the accelerator housing

  9. Lot Sizing Based on Stochastic Demand and Service Level Constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hajar shirneshan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering its application, stochastic lot sizing is a significant subject in production planning. Also the concept of service level is more applicable than shortage cost from managers' viewpoint. In this paper, the stochastic multi period multi item capacitated lot sizing problem has been investigated considering service level constraint. First, the single item model has been developed considering service level and with no capacity constraint and then, it has been solved using dynamic programming algorithm and the optimal solution has been derived. Then the model has been generalized to multi item problem with capacity constraint. The stochastic multi period multi item capacitated lot sizing problem is NP-Hard, hence the model could not be solved by exact optimization approaches. Therefore, simulated annealing method has been applied for solving the problem. Finally, in order to evaluate the efficiency of the model, low level criterion has been used .

  10. Two-level method with coarse space size independent convergence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanek, P.; Brezina, M. [Univ. of Colorado, Denver, CO (United States); Tezaur, R.; Krizkova, J. [UWB, Plzen (Czech Republic)

    1996-12-31

    The basic disadvantage of the standard two-level method is the strong dependence of its convergence rate on the size of the coarse-level problem. In order to obtain the optimal convergence result, one is limited to using a coarse space which is only a few times smaller than the size of the fine-level one. Consequently, the asymptotic cost of the resulting method is the same as in the case of using a coarse-level solver for the original problem. Today`s two-level domain decomposition methods typically offer an improvement by yielding a rate of convergence which depends on the ratio of fine and coarse level only polylogarithmically. However, these methods require the use of local subdomain solvers for which straightforward application of iterative methods is problematic, while the usual application of direct solvers is expensive. We suggest a method diminishing significantly these difficulties.

  11. Liquid Level Sensing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korman, Valentin (Inventor); Wiley, John T. (Inventor); Duffell, Amanda G. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A liquid level sensing system includes waveguides disposed in a liquid and distributed along a path with a gap between adjacent waveguides. A source introduces electromagnetic energy into the waveguides at a first end of the path. A portion of the electromagnetic energy exits the waveguides at a second end of the path. A detector measures the portion of the electromagnetic energy exiting the second end of the path.

  12. Control of pore size in epoxy systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawyer, Patricia Sue; Lenhart, Joseph Ludlow (North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND); Lee, Elizabeth (North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND); Kallam, Alekhya (North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND); Majumdar, Partha (North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND); Dirk, Shawn M.; Gubbins, Nathan; Chisholm, Bret J. (North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND); Celina, Mathias C.; Bahr, James (North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND); Klein, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Both conventional and combinatorial approaches were used to study the pore formation process in epoxy based polymer systems. Sandia National Laboratories conducted the initial work and collaborated with North Dakota State University (NDSU) using a combinatorial research approach to produce a library of novel monomers and crosslinkers capable of forming porous polymers. The library was screened to determine the physical factors that control porosity, such as porogen loading, polymer-porogen interactions, and polymer crosslink density. We have identified the physical and chemical factors that control the average porosity, pore size, and pore size distribution within epoxy based systems.

  13. Robotic system for glovebox size reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KWOK, KWAN S.; MCDONALD, MICHAEL J.

    2000-01-01

    The Intelligent Systems and Robotics Center (ISRC) at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is developing technologies for glovebox size reduction in the DOE nuclear complex. A study was performed for Kaiser-Hill (KH) at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) on the available technologies for size reducing the glovebox lines that require size reduction in place. Currently, the baseline approach to these glovebox lines is manual operations using conventional mechanical cutting methods. The study has been completed and resulted in a concept of the robotic system for in-situ size reduction. The concept makes use of commercially available robots that are used in the automotive industry. The commercially available industrial robots provide high reliability and availability that are required for environmental remediation in the DOE complex. Additionally, the costs of commercial robots are about one-fourth that of the custom made robots for environmental remediation. The reason for the lower costs and the higher reliability is that there are thousands of commercial robots made annually, whereas there are only a few custom robots made for environmental remediation every year. This paper will describe the engineering analysis approach used in the design of the robotic system for glovebox size reduction

  14. HTGR fuel element size reduction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, J.B.; Cramer, G.T.

    1978-06-01

    Reprocessing of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor fuel requires development of a fuel element size reduction system. This report describes pilot plant testing of crushing equipment designed for this purpose. The test program, the test results, the compatibility of the components, and the requirements for hot reprocessing are discussed

  15. Dynamically variable spot size laser system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradl, Paul R. (Inventor); Hurst, John F. (Inventor); Middleton, James R. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A Dynamically Variable Spot Size (DVSS) laser system for bonding metal components includes an elongated housing containing a light entry aperture coupled to a laser beam transmission cable and a light exit aperture. A plurality of lenses contained within the housing focus a laser beam from the light entry aperture through the light exit aperture. The lenses may be dynamically adjusted to vary the spot size of the laser. A plurality of interoperable safety devices, including a manually depressible interlock switch, an internal proximity sensor, a remotely operated potentiometer, a remotely activated toggle and a power supply interlock, prevent activation of the laser and DVSS laser system if each safety device does not provide a closed circuit. The remotely operated potentiometer also provides continuous variability in laser energy output.

  16. Size and velocity measurements in combustion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, Y.; Timnat, Y.M.

    1986-01-01

    Two-phase flow measurements for size and velocity determination in combustion systems are discussed: the pedestal technique and phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) are described in detail. The experimental apparatus for the pedestal method includes the optical laser-Doppler anemometry (LDA) package and the electronic data acquisition system. The latter comprises three channels for recording the Doppler frequency, and the pedestal amplitude as well as the validation pulse. Results of measurements performed in a dump combustor, into which kerosene droplets were injected, are presented. The principle of the PDA technique is explained and validation experiments, using latex particles, are reported. Finally the two methods are compared

  17. An integrated approach for multi-level sample size determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, M.S.; Teichmann, T.; Sanborn, J.B.

    1997-01-01

    Inspection procedures involving the sampling of items in a population often require steps of increasingly sensitive measurements, with correspondingly smaller sample sizes; these are referred to as multilevel sampling schemes. In the case of nuclear safeguards inspections verifying that there has been no diversion of Special Nuclear Material (SNM), these procedures have been examined often and increasingly complex algorithms have been developed to implement them. The aim in this paper is to provide an integrated approach, and, in so doing, to describe a systematic, consistent method that proceeds logically from level to level with increasing accuracy. The authors emphasize that the methods discussed are generally consistent with those presented in the references mentioned, and yield comparable results when the error models are the same. However, because of its systematic, integrated approach the proposed method elucidates the conceptual understanding of what goes on, and, in many cases, simplifies the calculations. In nuclear safeguards inspections, an important aspect of verifying nuclear items to detect any possible diversion of nuclear fissile materials is the sampling of such items at various levels of sensitivity. The first step usually is sampling by ''attributes'' involving measurements of relatively low accuracy, followed by further levels of sampling involving greater accuracy. This process is discussed in some detail in the references given; also, the nomenclature is described. Here, the authors outline a coordinated step-by-step procedure for achieving such multilevel sampling, and they develop the relationships between the accuracy of measurement and the sample size required at each stage, i.e., at the various levels. The logic of the underlying procedures is carefully elucidated; the calculations involved and their implications, are clearly described, and the process is put in a form that allows systematic generalization

  18. Size and complexity in model financial systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arinaminpathy, Nimalan; Kapadia, Sujit; May, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    The global financial crisis has precipitated an increasing appreciation of the need for a systemic perspective toward financial stability. For example: What role do large banks play in systemic risk? How should capital adequacy standards recognize this role? How is stability shaped by concentration and diversification in the financial system? We explore these questions using a deliberately simplified, dynamic model of a banking system that combines three different channels for direct transmission of contagion from one bank to another: liquidity hoarding, asset price contagion, and the propagation of defaults via counterparty credit risk. Importantly, we also introduce a mechanism for capturing how swings in “confidence” in the system may contribute to instability. Our results highlight that the importance of relatively large, well-connected banks in system stability scales more than proportionately with their size: the impact of their collapse arises not only from their connectivity, but also from their effect on confidence in the system. Imposing tougher capital requirements on larger banks than smaller ones can thus enhance the resilience of the system. Moreover, these effects are more pronounced in more concentrated systems, and continue to apply, even when allowing for potential diversification benefits that may be realized by larger banks. We discuss some tentative implications for policy, as well as conceptual analogies in ecosystem stability and in the control of infectious diseases. PMID:23091020

  19. System for determining sizes of biological macromolecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, R.M.; Danby, P.C.

    1987-01-01

    An electrophoresis system for determining the sizes of radiolabelled biological macromolecules is described. It comprises a cell containing an electrophoresis gel and having at least one lane, a voltage source connected across the gel for effecting the movement of macromolecules in the lane, a detector fixed relative to the moving molecules for generating electrical pulses responsive to signals emitted by the radiolabelled molecules; a pulse processor for counting the pulse rate, and a computational device for comparing the pulse rate to a predetermined value. (author)

  20. Size and stochasticity in irrigated social-ecological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puy, Arnald; Muneepeerakul, Rachata; Balbo, Andrea L.

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents a systematic study of the relation between the size of irrigation systems and the management of uncertainty. We specifically focus on studying, through a stylized theoretical model, how stochasticity in water availability and taxation interacts with the stochastic behavior of the population within irrigation systems. Our results indicate the existence of two key population thresholds for the sustainability of any irrigation system: or the critical population size required to keep the irrigation system operative, and N* or the population threshold at which the incentive to work inside the irrigation system equals the incentives to work elsewhere. Crossing irretrievably leads to system collapse. N* is the population level with a sub-optimal per capita payoff towards which irrigation systems tend to gravitate. When subjected to strong stochasticity in water availability or taxation, irrigation systems might suffer sharp population drops and irreversibly disintegrate into a system collapse, via a mechanism we dub ‘collapse trap’. Our conceptual study establishes the basis for further work aiming at appraising the dynamics between size and stochasticity in irrigation systems, whose understanding is key for devising mitigation and adaptation measures to ensure their sustainability in the face of increasing and inevitable uncertainty.

  1. Automatic milking systems, farm size, and milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotz, C A; Coiner, C U; Soder, K J

    2003-12-01

    Automatic milking systems (AMS) offer relief from the demanding routine of milking. Although many AMS are in use in Europe and a few are used in the United States, the potential benefit for American farms is uncertain. A farm-simulation model was used to determine the long-term, whole-farm effect of implementing AMS on farm sizes of 30 to 270 cows. Highest farm net return to management and unpaid factors was when AMS were used at maximal milking capacity. Adding stalls to increase milking frequency and possibly increase production generally did not improve net return. Compared with new traditional milking systems, the greatest potential economic benefit was a single-stall AMS on a farm size of 60 cows at a moderate milk production level (8600 kg/cow). On other farm sizes using single-stall type robotic units, losses in annual net return of 0 dollars to 300 dollars/cow were projected, with the greatest losses on larger farms and at high milk production (10,900 kg/cow). Systems with one robot serving multiple stalls provided a greater net return than single-stall systems, and this net return was competitive with traditional parlors for 50- to 130-cow farm sizes. The potential benefit of AMS was improved by 100 dollars/cow per year if the AMS increased production an additional 5%. A 20% reduction in initial equipment cost or doubling milking labor cost also improved annual net return of an AMS by up to 100 dollars/cow. Annual net return was reduced by 110 dollars/cow, though, if the economic life of the AMS was reduced by 3 yr for a more rapid depreciation than that normally used with traditional milking systems. Thus, under current assumptions, the economic return for an AMS was similar to that of new parlor systems on smaller farms when the milking capacity of the AMS was well matched to herd size and milk production level.

  2. Unit size limitations in smaller power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnach, J.S.

    1975-01-01

    The developing nations have generally found it an economic necessity to accept the minimum commercial size limit of 600 MWe. Smaller reactor sizes tendered as 'one off' specials carry high specific cost penalties which considerably weaken the competitiveness of nuclear versus conventional thermal plants. The revised IAEA market survey for nuclear power in developing countries (1974 edition) which takes account of the recent heavy escalation in oil prices, indicates a reasonable market for smaller size reactors in the range 150 MWe to 400 MWe, but until this market is approached seriously by manufacturers, the commercial availability and economic viability of smaller size reactors remains uncertain. (orig.) [de

  3. Particle size distribution of selected electronic nicotine delivery system products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldham, Michael J; Zhang, Jingjie; Rusyniak, Mark J; Kane, David B; Gardner, William P

    2018-03-01

    Dosimetry models can be used to predict the dose of inhaled material, but they require several parameters including particle size distribution. The reported particle size distributions for aerosols from electronic nicotine delivery system (ENDS) products vary widely and don't always identify a specific product. A low-flow cascade impactor was used to determine the particle size distribution [mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD); geometric standard deviation (GSD)] from 20 different cartridge based ENDS products. To assess losses and vapor phase amount, collection efficiency of the system was measured by comparing the collected mass in the impactor to the difference in ENDS product mass. The levels of nicotine, glycerin, propylene glycol, water, and menthol in the formulations of each product were also measured. Regardless of the ENDS product formulation, the MMAD of all tested products was similar and ranged from 0.9 to 1.2 μm with a GSD ranging from 1.7 to 2.2. There was no consistent pattern of change in the MMAD and GSD as a function of number of puffs (cartridge life). The collection efficiency indicated that 9%-26% of the generated mass was deposited in the collection system or was in the vapor phase. The particle size distribution data are suitable for use in aerosol dosimetry programs. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Particle size and radionuclide levels in some west Cumbrian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livens, F.R.

    1988-01-01

    Four west Cumbrian soils of contrasting types, together with an estuarine silt sample, were separated into different particle size fractions by a combination of sieving and settling techniques. These sub-samples were analysed by quantitative gamma-ray spectrometry for several nuclides, principally 137 Cs, 106 Ru and 241 Am, followed by chemical separation and alpha spectrometric determination of 238,239,240 Pu. A simple empirical method of correction for differing sample sizes, and hence counting geometries, was developed for gamma spectrometry and found to give good results. The radionuclides were concentrated into the finer size fractions, with clay-sized ( 137 Cs from 3 to 35 times. The enhancement was greatest for all radionuclides in a sandy soil with a very low clay content (0.2% by weight) and it was found that, as the abundance of fine particles increased, so the concentration effect decreased. No evidence was found for a simple relationship between organic content and radionuclide activity, although the organic matter does have some effect. 17 refs.; 3 figs.; 6 tabs

  5. A flexible method for multi-level sample size determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Ming-Shih; Sanborn, J.B.; Teichmann, T.

    1997-01-01

    This paper gives a flexible method to determine sample sizes for both systematic and random error models (this pertains to sampling problems in nuclear safeguard questions). In addition, the method allows different attribute rejection limits. The new method could assist achieving a higher detection probability and enhance inspection effectiveness

  6. Analysis of filler particle levels and sizes in dental alginates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Lemes Carlo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the inorganic filler fractions and sizes of commercially alginates. The inorganic particles volumetric fractions of five alginates - Jeltrate(J, Jeltrate Plus(JP, Jeltrate Chromatic Ortho(JC, Hydrogum(H and Ezact Krom(E were accessed by weighing a previously determined mass of each material in water before and after burning samples at 450 °C for 3 hours. Unsettled materials were soaked in acetone and chloroform and sputter-coated with gold for SEM evaluation of fillers' morphology and size. The results for the volumetric inorganic particle content were (%: J - 48.33, JP - 48.33, JC - 33.79, H - 37.55 and E - 40.55. The fillers presented a circular appearance with helical form and various perforations. Hydrogum fillers looked like cylindrical, perforated sticks. The mean values for fillers size were (μm: J - 12.91, JP - 13.67, JC - 13.44, E - 14.59 and H - 9 (diameter, 8.81 (length. The results of this study revealed differences in filler characteristics that could lead to different results when testing mechanical properties.

  7. System-level musings about system-level science (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W.

    2009-12-01

    In teleology, a system has a purpose. In physics, a system has a tendency. For example, a mechanical system has a tendency to lower its potential energy. A thermodynamic system has a tendency to increase its entropy. Therefore, if geospace is seen as a system, what is its tendency? Surprisingly or not, there is no simple answer to this question. Or, to flip the statement, the answer is complex, or complexity. We can understand generally why complexity arises, as the geospace boundary is open to influences from the solar wind and Earth’s atmosphere and components of the system couple to each other in a myriad of ways to make the systemic behavior highly nonlinear. But this still begs the question: What is the system-level approach to geospace science? A reductionist view might assert that as our understanding of a component or subsystem progresses to a certain point, we can couple some together to understand the system on a higher level. However, in practice, a subsystem can almost never been observed in isolation with others. Even if such is possible, there is no guarantee that the subsystem behavior will not change when coupled to others. Hence, there is no guarantee that a subsystem, such as the ring current, has an innate and intrinsic behavior like a hydrogen atom. An absolutist conclusion from this logic can be sobering, as one would have to trace a flash of aurora to the nucleosynthesis in the solar core. The practical answer, however, is more promising; it is a mix of the common sense we call reductionism and awareness that, especially when strongly coupled, subsystems can experience behavioral changes, breakdowns, and catastrophes. If the stock answer to the systemic tendency of geospace is complexity, the objective of the system-level approach to geospace science is to define, measure, and understand this complexity. I will use the example of magnetotail dynamics to illuminate some key points in this talk.

  8. Nuclear systems of level measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lara, A.J.; Cabrera, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    In the industry there are processes in which is necessary to maintain the products level controlled which are handled for their transformation. The majority of such processes and by the operation conditions, they do not admit measure systems of level of invasive type then the application of nuclear techniques for level measurement results a big aid in these cases, since all the system installation is situated beyond frontiers of vessels that contain the product for measuring. In the Department of Nuclear Technology Applications of Mexican Petroleum Institute was developed a level measurement system by gamma rays transmission which operates in the Low Density Polyethylene plant of Petrochemical Complex Escolin at Poza Rica, Veracruz, Mexico. (Author)

  9. Space elevator systems level analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laubscher, B. E. (Bryan E.)

    2004-01-01

    The Space Elevator (SE) represents a major paradigm shift in space access. It involves new, untried technologies in most of its subsystems. Thus the successful construction of the SE requires a significant amount of development, This in turn implies a high level of risk for the SE. This paper will present a systems level analysis of the SE by subdividing its components into their subsystems to determine their level of technological maturity. such a high-risk endeavor is to follow a disciplined approach to the challenges. A systems level analysis informs this process and is the guide to where resources should be applied in the development processes. It is an efficient path that, if followed, minimizes the overall risk of the system's development. systems level analysis is that the overall system is divided naturally into its subsystems, and those subsystems are further subdivided as appropriate for the analysis. By dealing with the complex system in layers, the parameter space of decisions is kept manageable. Moreover, A rational way to manage One key aspect of a resources are not expended capriciously; rather, resources are put toward the biggest challenges and most promising solutions. This overall graded approach is a proven road to success. The analysis includes topics such as nanotube technology, deployment scenario, power beaming technology, ground-based hardware and operations, ribbon maintenance and repair and climber technology.

  10. Pumps for medium sized solar systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon

    1996-01-01

    The suitability of the electronically controlled circulation pump type UPE 2000 from Grundfos for large solar heating systems was elucidated.......The suitability of the electronically controlled circulation pump type UPE 2000 from Grundfos for large solar heating systems was elucidated....

  11. Does Size Matter? The Implications of Firm Size on Enterprise Systems Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darshana Sedera

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing emphasis on globalization and consumer demands in highly competitive markets, organizations have attempted to integrate and standardize across their corporate subsidiaries by implementing Enterprise Systems (ES. In such corporate-wide ES implementations, system requirements are dictated by headquarters, favouring large subsidiaries, and thus potentially compromising the unique business requirements of smaller units. This research reports findings from an ES initiative within a group of large, medium, and small organizations, where the impact of organization size is assessed in relation to the level of system success and knowledge-management competence. The results of this analysis suggest that (i large organizations, in contrast to their smaller counterparts, receive greater benefits in terms of both Individual and Organizational Impacts, (ii while no such differences were observed in relation to System and Information Quality. Similarly, (iii no differences were observed in relation to knowledge-creation competencies amongst large, medium, and small organizations. However, (iv differences were observed between the large and smaller firms on their Knowledge-Retention and Knowledge-Transfer competencies. 

  12. Investigations of medium sized solar combi systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Furbo, Simon

    2006-01-01

    A large variety of solar combi systems are on the market, but it is still too early to draw conclusions on optimum design of solar combi systems. Among others, the following questions need to be answered: Is an external domestic hot water preparation more desirable than an internal? What...... is the advantage by using inlet stratifiers? To answer the questions, theoretical investigations are carried out for differently designed solar combi systems. The work is carried out within the Solar Heating and Cooling Programme of the International Energy Agency (IEA SHC), Task 32 Advanced storage concepts...... for solar houses and low energy buildings....

  13. Orienting of attention, pupil size, and the norepinephrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabay, Shai; Pertzov, Yoni; Henik, Avishai

    2011-01-01

    This research examined a novel suggestion regarding the involvement of the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE) system in orienting reflexive (exogenous) attention. A common procedure for studying exogenous orienting of attention is Posner's cuing task. Importantly, one can manipulate the required level of target processing by changing task requirements, which, in turn, can elicit a different time course of inhibition of return (IOR). An easy task (responding to target location) produces earlier onset IOR, whereas a demanding task (responding to target identity) produces later onset IOR. Aston-Jones and Cohen (Annual Review of Neuroscience, 28, 403-450, 2005) presented a theory suggesting two different modes of LC activity: tonic and phasic. Accordingly, we suggest that in the more demanding task, the LC-NE system is activated in phasic mode, and in the easier task, it is activated in tonic mode. This, in turn, influences the appearance of IOR. We examined this suggestion by measuring participants' pupil size, which has been demonstrated to correlate with the LC-NE system, while they performed cuing tasks. We found a response-locked phasic dilation of the pupil in the discrimination task, as compared with the localization task, which may reflect different firing modes of the LC-NE system during the two tasks. We also demonstrated a correlation between pupil size at the time of cue presentation and magnitude of IOR.

  14. A New Approach for Optimal Sizing of Standalone Photovoltaic Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Khatib, Tamer; Mohamed, Azah; Sopian, K.; Mahmoud, M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for determining the optimal sizing of standalone photovoltaic (PV) system in terms of optimal sizing of PV array and battery storage. A standalone PV system energy flow is first analysed, and the MATLAB fitting tool is used to fit the resultant sizing curves in order to derive general formulas for optimal sizing of PV array and battery. In deriving the formulas for optimal sizing of PV array and battery, the data considered are based on five sites in Malaysia...

  15. Modeling Multi-Level Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Iordache, Octavian

    2011-01-01

    This book is devoted to modeling of multi-level complex systems, a challenging domain for engineers, researchers and entrepreneurs, confronted with the transition from learning and adaptability to evolvability and autonomy for technologies, devices and problem solving methods. Chapter 1 introduces the multi-scale and multi-level systems and highlights their presence in different domains of science and technology. Methodologies as, random systems, non-Archimedean analysis, category theory and specific techniques as model categorification and integrative closure, are presented in chapter 2. Chapters 3 and 4 describe polystochastic models, PSM, and their developments. Categorical formulation of integrative closure offers the general PSM framework which serves as a flexible guideline for a large variety of multi-level modeling problems. Focusing on chemical engineering, pharmaceutical and environmental case studies, the chapters 5 to 8 analyze mixing, turbulent dispersion and entropy production for multi-scale sy...

  16. Sizing through simulation of systems for photovoltaic solar energy applied to rural electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez‐Borges, Ciaddy Gina; Sarmiento‐Sera, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The present work is based on the sizing method by means of simulation of the photovoltaic systems energy behavior, applied to rural electrification in regions far from the electric net. The denomination of infra/over sized systems is made and a requested analysis of one particular case is exposed, where it is considered two energy options of different qualities of electric service and the economic valuation of each option is requested, with its corresponding argument. The quality level is established with the fault index in the electricity service for energy lack in the batteries, besides the quantity of energy autonomy days of the system. As conclusions, in infra-sizing conditions systems, and with established quality level of service, multiple sizing solutions exist, and under certain conditions, not always the systems with more quality level, are those of more cost, as well as the presence of a minimum cost in the sizing can be obtained by simulation methods. (author)

  17. Optimal sizing method for stand-alone photovoltaic power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groumpos, P P; Papageorgiou, G

    1987-01-01

    The total life-cycle cost of stand-alone photovoltaic (SAPV) power systems is mathematically formulated. A new optimal sizing algorithm for the solar array and battery capacity is developed. The optimum value of a balancing parameter, M, for the optimal sizing of SAPV system components is derived. The proposed optimal sizing algorithm is used in an illustrative example, where a more economical life-cycle cost has bene obtained. The question of cost versus reliability is briefly discussed.

  18. FINANCIAL ANALYSIS OF SOLAR ENERGY APPLICATIONS WITH ENDOGENOUS SYSTEM SIZING

    OpenAIRE

    Gunter, Lewell F.; Smathers, Webb M., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    This paper is concerned with analysis of economic feasibility of solar energy systems. Methodology for estimating energy output from different sized systems is briefly presented, and this is used to determine technical coefficients for a mixed integer model which optimizes the size of the solar heating unit for a particular use. An empirical example of hot water heating on a Georgia dairy is presented. Cost curves are provided for the dairy example to illustrate the effect of sizing on the ec...

  19. Optimum sizing of wind-battery systems incorporating resource uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Anindita; Kedare, Shireesh B.; Bandyopadhyay, Santanu

    2010-01-01

    The inherent uncertainty of the wind is a major impediment for successful implementation of wind based power generation technology. A methodology has been proposed in this paper to incorporate wind speed uncertainty in sizing wind-battery system for isolated applications. The uncertainty associated with the wind speed is incorporated using chance constraint programming approach. For a pre-specified reliability requirement, a deterministic equivalent energy balance equation may be derived from the chance constraint that allows time series simulation of the entire system. This results in a generation of the entire set of feasible design options, satisfying different system level constraints, on a battery capacity vs. generator rating diagram, also known as the design space. The proposed methodology highlights the trade-offs between the wind turbine rating, rotor diameter and the battery size for a given reliability of power supply. The optimum configuration is chosen on the basis of the minimum cost of energy (US$/kWh). It is shown with the help of illustrative examples that the proposed methodology is generic and flexible to incorporate alternate sub-component models. (author)

  20. Olefin metathesis in nano-sized systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Méry

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The interplay between olefin metathesis and dendrimers and other nano systems is addressed in this mini review mostly based on the authors’ own contributions over the last decade. Two subjects are presented and discussed: (i The catalysis of olefin metathesis by dendritic nano-catalysts via either covalent attachment (ROMP or, more usefully, dendrimer encapsulation – ring closing metathesis (RCM, cross metathesis (CM, enyne metathesis reactions (EYM – for reactions in water without a co-solvent and (ii construction and functionalization of dendrimers by CM reactions.

  1. Quantum-size colloid metal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roldugin, V.I.

    2000-01-01

    In the review dealing with quantum-dimensional metallic colloid systems the methods of preparation, electronic, optical and thermodynamic properties of metal nanoparticles and thin films are considered, the effect of ionizing radiation on stability of silver colloid sols and existence of a threshold radiation dose affecting loss of stability being discussed. It is shown that sol stability loss stems from particles charge neutralization due to reduction of sorbed silver ions induced by radiation, which results in destruction of double electric layer on colloid particles boundary [ru

  2. A New Approach for Optimal Sizing of Standalone Photovoltaic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer Khatib

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new method for determining the optimal sizing of standalone photovoltaic (PV system in terms of optimal sizing of PV array and battery storage. A standalone PV system energy flow is first analysed, and the MATLAB fitting tool is used to fit the resultant sizing curves in order to derive general formulas for optimal sizing of PV array and battery. In deriving the formulas for optimal sizing of PV array and battery, the data considered are based on five sites in Malaysia, which are Kuala Lumpur, Johor Bharu, Ipoh, Kuching, and Alor Setar. Based on the results of the designed example for a PV system installed in Kuala Lumpur, the proposed method gives satisfactory optimal sizing results.

  3. Principles for system level electrochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaller, L. H.

    1986-01-01

    The higher power and higher voltage levels anticipated for future space missions have required a careful review of the techniques currently in use to preclude battery problems that are related to the dispersion characteristics of the individual cells. Not only are the out-of-balance problems accentuated in these larger systems, but the thermal management considerations also require a greater degree of accurate design. Newer concepts which employ active cooling techniques are being developed which permit higher rates of discharge and tighter packing densities for the electrochemical components. This paper will put forward six semi-independent principles relating to battery systems. These principles will progressively address cell, battery and finally system related aspects of large electrochemical storage systems.

  4. Are range-size distributions consistent with species-level heritability?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borregaard, Michael Krabbe; Gotelli, Nicholas; Rahbek, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    The concept of species-level heritability is widely contested. Because it is most likely to apply to emergent, species-level traits, one of the central discussions has focused on the potential heritability of geographic range size. However, a central argument against range-size heritability has...... been that it is not compatible with the observed shape of present-day species range-size distributions (SRDs), a claim that has never been tested. To assess this claim, we used forward simulation of range-size evolution in clades with varying degrees of range-size heritability, and compared the output...

  5. PVSOFT99 - Photovoltaic (PV) System Sizing And Simulation Software

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A computer program (PVSOFT99) has been developed for sizing and simulation of stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) systems. Two distinct PV sizing algorithms, one based on the worst case and the other on the reliability concept, have been incorporated in the program. The reliability concept is generalized in that variation of ...

  6. Temporary core liquid level depression during cold-leg small-break LOCA effect of break size and power level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Y.; Kumamaru, H.; Mimura, Y.; Kukita, Y.; Tasaka, K.

    1989-01-01

    Cold-leg small break LOCA experiments (0.5-10% break) were conducted at the large scale test facility (LSTF), a volumetrically-scaled (1/48) simulator of a PWR, of the ROSA-IV Program. When a break area was less than 2.5% of the scaled cold-leg flow area, the core liquid level was temporarily further depressed to the bottom elevation of the crossover leg during the loop seal clearing early in the transient only by the manometric pressure balance since no coolant remained in the upper portion of the primary system. When the break size was larger than 5%, the core liquid level was temporarily further depressed lower than the bottom elevation of the crossover leg during the loop seal clearing since coolant remained at the upper portion of the primary system; the steam generator (SG) U-tube upflow side and the SG inlet plenum, due to counter current flow limiting by updrafting steam while the coolant drained. The amount of coolant trapped there was dependent on the vapor velocity (core power); the larger the core power, the lower the minimum core liquid level. The RELAP5/MOD2 code reasonable predicted phenomena observed in the experiments. (orig./DG)

  7. Preliminary thermal sizing of intermediate heat exchanger for NHDD system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chan Soo; Hong, Sung Deok; Kim, Yong Wan; Chang, Jongh Wa

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear Hydrogen Development and Demonstration (NHDD) system is a Very High Temperature gascooled Reactor (VHTR) coupled with hydrogen production systems. Intermediate heat exchanger transfers heat from the nuclear reactor to the hydrogen production system. This study presented the sensitivity analysis on a preliminary thermal sizing of the intermediate heat exchanger. Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger (PCHE) was selected for the thermal sizing because the printed circuit heat exchanger has the largest compactness among the heat exchanger types. The analysis was performed to estimate the effect of key parameters including the operating condition of the intermediate system, the geometrical factors of the PCHE, and the working fluid of the intermediate system.

  8. Ampere hour method of sizing a stand alone photovoltaic system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stand-alone photovoltaic power systems are natural options for application in electrification of remote areas which are not served by the grid electricity supply system. An ampere-hour ... Sizing of the balance-of-system were carefully handled to avoid undersizing or oversizing and subsequent variation in supply reliability.

  9. The linear sizes tolerances and fits system modernization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glukhov, V. I.; Grinevich, V. A.; Shalay, V. V.

    2018-04-01

    The study is carried out on the urgent topic for technical products quality providing in the tolerancing process of the component parts. The aim of the paper is to develop alternatives for improving the system linear sizes tolerances and dimensional fits in the international standard ISO 286-1. The tasks of the work are, firstly, to classify as linear sizes the elements additionally linear coordinating sizes that determine the detail elements location and, secondly, to justify the basic deviation of the tolerance interval for the element's linear size. The geometrical modeling method of real details elements, the analytical and experimental methods are used in the research. It is shown that the linear coordinates are the dimensional basis of the elements linear sizes. To standardize the accuracy of linear coordinating sizes in all accuracy classes, it is sufficient to select in the standardized tolerance system only one tolerance interval with symmetrical deviations: Js for internal dimensional elements (holes) and js for external elements (shafts). The main deviation of this coordinating tolerance is the average zero deviation, which coincides with the nominal value of the coordinating size. Other intervals of the tolerance system are remained for normalizing the accuracy of the elements linear sizes with a fundamental change in the basic deviation of all tolerance intervals is the maximum deviation corresponding to the limit of the element material: EI is the lower tolerance for the of the internal elements (holes) sizes and es is the upper tolerance deviation for the outer elements (shafts) sizes. It is the sizes of the material maximum that are involved in the of the dimensional elements mating of the shafts and holes and determine the fits type.

  10. Size-Prediction Analysis for Stand-Alone Photovoltaic System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erusiafe, N. E.; Chendo, M. A. C.

    2002-01-01

    The cost - effectiveness of photovoltaic (PV) generator depends, among others, on its ability to satisfy energy demand and the cost of achieving this. In this work a step - by - step procedure for predicting the size of the main components of a stand - alone PV system (array and storage) is presented. The results yield an expression which can he used lo determine the size of both components at optimum cost and desired reliability. The result from this work compare favourably with some earlier works in that, the system sizes shows some degree of agreement

  11. Sizing PV-wind hybrid energy system for lighting

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Engin; Dilşad Engin

    2012-01-01

    Sizing of wind and photovoltaic generators ensures lower operational costs and therefore, is considered as an important issue. An approach for sizing along with a best management technique for a PV-wind hybrid system with batteries is proposed in this paper, in which the best size for every component of the system could be optimized according to the weather conditions and the load profile. The average hourly values for wind speed and solar radiation for Izmir, Turkey has been used in the desi...

  12. Size matters: Installed maximal unit size predicts market life cycles of electricity generation technologies and systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, N.

    2008-01-01

    The electricity generation technologies and systems are complex and change in very dynamic fashions, with a multitude of energy sources and prime movers. Since an important concept in generator design is the 'economies of scale', we discover that the installed maximal unit size (capacity) of the generators is a key 'envelope-pushing' characteristic with logistical behaviors. The logistical wavelet analysis of the max unit sizes for different fuels and prime movers, and the cumulative capacities, reveals universal quantitative features in the aggregate evolution of the power industry. We extract the transition times of the max sizes (spanning 10-90% of the saturation limits) for different technologies and systems, and discover that the max size saturation in the 90-99% range precedes the saturation of cumulative capacities of the corresponding systems in the US. While these universal laws are still empirical, they give us a simple yet elegant framework to examine the evolution of the power industry and markets in predictive, not just descriptive, terms. Such laws give us a quantitative tool to spot trends and predict future development, invaluable in planning and resource allocation based on intrinsic technology and system market life cycles

  13. Size determination of an equilibrium enzymic system by radiation inactivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, P.; Swillens, S.; Dumont, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    Radiation inactivation of complex enzymic systems is currently used to determine the enzyme size and the molecular organization of the components in the system. An equilibrium model was simulated describing the regulation of enzyme activity by association of the enzyme with a regulatory unit. It is assumed that, after irradiation, the system equilibrates before the enzyme activity is assayed. The theoretical results show that the target-size analysis of these numerical data leads to a bad estimate of the enzyme size. Moreover, some implicit assumptions such as the transfer of radiation energy between non-covalently bound molecules should be verified before interpretation of target-size analysis. It is demonstrated that the apparent target size depends on the parameters of the system, namely the size and the concentration of the components, the equilibrium constant, the relative activities of free enzyme and enzymic complex, the existence of energy transfer, and the distribution of the components between free and bound forms during the irradiation. (author)

  14. A system for aerodynamically sizing ultrafine environmental radioactive particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olawoyin, L.

    1995-09-01

    The unattached environmental radioactive particles/clusters, produced mainly by 222 Rn in indoor air, are usually few nanometers in size. The inhalation of these radioactive clusters can lead to deposition of radioactivity on the mucosal surface of the tracheobronchial tree. The ultimate size of the cluster together with the flow characteristics will determine the depositional site in the human lung and thus, the extent of damage that can be caused. Thus, there exists the need for the determination of the size of the radioactive clusters. However, the existing particle measuring device have low resolution in the sub-nanometer range. In this research, a system for the alternative detection and measurement of the size of particles/cluster in the less than 2 nm range have been developed. The system is a one stage impactor which has a solid state spectrometer as its impaction plate. It's major feature is the nozzle-to-plate separation, L. The particle size collected changes with L and thus, particle size spectroscopy is achieved by varying L. The number of collected particles is determined by alpha spectroscopy. The size-discriminating ability of the system was tested with laboratory generated radon particles and it was subsequently used to characterize the physical (size) changes associated with the interaction of radon progeny with water vapor and short chain alcohols in various support gases. The theory of both traditional and high velocity jet impactors together with the design and evaluation of the system developed in this study are discussed in various chapters of this dissertation. The major results obtained in the course of the study are also presented

  15. A system for aerodynamically sizing ultrafine environmental radioactive particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olawoyin, L.

    1995-09-01

    The unattached environmental radioactive particles/clusters, produced mainly by {sup 222}Rn in indoor air, are usually few nanometers in size. The inhalation of these radioactive clusters can lead to deposition of radioactivity on the mucosal surface of the tracheobronchial tree. The ultimate size of the cluster together with the flow characteristics will determine the depositional site in the human lung and thus, the extent of damage that can be caused. Thus, there exists the need for the determination of the size of the radioactive clusters. However, the existing particle measuring device have low resolution in the sub-nanometer range. In this research, a system for the alternative detection and measurement of the size of particles/cluster in the less than 2 nm range have been developed. The system is a one stage impactor which has a solid state spectrometer as its impaction plate. It`s major feature is the nozzle-to-plate separation, L. The particle size collected changes with L and thus, particle size spectroscopy is achieved by varying L. The number of collected particles is determined by alpha spectroscopy. The size-discriminating ability of the system was tested with laboratory generated radon particles and it was subsequently used to characterize the physical (size) changes associated with the interaction of radon progeny with water vapor and short chain alcohols in various support gases. The theory of both traditional and high velocity jet impactors together with the design and evaluation of the system developed in this study are discussed in various chapters of this dissertation. The major results obtained in the course of the study are also presented.

  16. Relationship between Vocabulary Size and Reading Comprehension Levels of Malaysian Tertiary Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelina Wan Lin Tan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the relationship between vocabulary size and reading comprehension performance among students in a tertiary institution in a Malaysian context and examined the vocabulary size required for students to achieve reading comprehension at various levels of proficiency. The research questions that guided this study were: 1 What is the vocabulary size of second year diploma students studying Mass Communication?; 2 What is the reading comprehension proficiency of second year diploma students studying Mass Communication?; and 3 What vocabulary size is required for different levels of reading comprehension proficiency? This study used the quantitative approach. The participants were 53 Malaysian second-year students at a private university college in Malaysia who were reading for their Diploma in Mass Communication. The instruments used were the Vocabulary Size Test and the IELTS Reading Test (Academic Module. The findings showed that the average vocabulary size of the students was just over 6000 word families and this vocabulary size was generally insufficient for adequate reading comprehension. Students needed an average vocabulary size of about 8000 word families to achieve adequate reading comprehension and about 10000 word families to achieve proficient reading comprehension. Based on the individual student’s performance, this study did not find a linear relationship between vocabulary size and reading comprehension performance, nor was there a threshold vocabulary size for adequate reading comprehension.

  17. Sizing PV-wind hybrid energy system for lighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Engin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sizing of wind and photovoltaic generators ensures lower operational costs and therefore, is considered as an important issue. An approach for sizing along with a best management technique for a PV-wind hybrid system with batteries is proposed in this paper, in which the best size for every component of the system could be optimized according to the weather conditions and the load profile. The average hourly values for wind speed and solar radiation for Izmir, Turkey has been used in the design of the systems, along with expected load profile. A hybrid power model is also developed for battery operation according to the power balance between generators and loads used in the software, to anticipate performances for the different systems according to the different weather conditions. The output of the program will display the performance of the system during the year, the total cost of the system, and the best size for the PV-generator, wind generator, and battery capacity. Using proposed procedure, a 1.2 kWp PV-wind hybrid system was designed for Izmir, and simulated and measured results are presented.

  18. Comparison of bi-level optimization frameworks for sizing and control of a hybrid electric vehicle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silvas, E.; Bergshoeff, N.D.; Hofman, T.; Steinbuch, M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the integrated design problem related to determining the power specifications of the main subsystems (sizing) and the supervisory control (energy management). Different bi-level optimization methods, with the outer loop using algorithms as Genetic Algorithms, Sequential

  19. Accuracy of the photogrametric measuring system for large size elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Grzelka

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present methods of estimating and guidelines for verifying the accuracy of optical photogrammetric measuringsystems, using for measurement of large size elements. Measuring systems applied to measure workpieces of a large size which oftenreach more than 10000mm require use of appropriate standards. Those standards provided by the manufacturer of photogrammetricsystems are certified and are inspected annually. To make sure that these systems work properly there was developed a special standardVDI / VDE 2634, "Optical 3D measuring systems. Imaging systems with point - by - point probing. " According to recommendationsdescribed in this standard research on accuracy of photogrametric measuring system was conducted using K class gauge blocks dedicatedto calibrate and test accuracy of classic CMMs. The paper presents results of research of estimation the actual error of indication for sizemeasurement MPEE for photogrammetric coordinate measuring system TRITOP.

  20. Nano-sized Adsorbate Structure Formation in Anisotropic Multilayer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharchenko, Vasyl O.; Kharchenko, Dmitrii O.; Yanovsky, Vladimir V.

    2017-05-01

    In this article, we study dynamics of adsorbate island formation in a model plasma-condensate system numerically. We derive the generalized reaction-diffusion model for adsorptive multilayer system by taking into account anisotropy in transfer of adatoms between neighbor layers induced by electric field. It will be found that with an increase in the electric field strength, a structural transformation from nano-holes inside adsorbate matrix toward separated nano-sized adsorbate islands on a substrate is realized. Dynamics of adsorbate island sizes and corresponding distributions are analyzed in detail. This study provides an insight into details of self-organization of adatoms into nano-sized adsorbate islands in anisotropic multilayer plasma-condensate systems.

  1. Low level of polyandry constrains phenotypic plasticity of male body size in mites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Schausberger

    Full Text Available Polyandry, i.e. females mating with multiple males, is more common than previously anticipated and potentially provides both direct and indirect fitness benefits to females. The level of polyandry (defined by the lifetime number of male mates of a female is an important determinant of the occurrence and intensity of sexual selection acting on male phenotypes. While the forces of sexual selection acting on phenotypic male traits such as body size are relatively well understood, sexual selection acting on phenotypic plasticity of these traits is unexplored. We tackled this issue by scrutinizing the link between polyandry and phenotypic plasticity of male body size in two sympatric plant-inhabiting predatory mite species, Phytoseiulus persimilis and Neoseiulus californicus. These two species are similar in life history, ecological niche requirements, mating behavior, polygyny and female body size plasticity but strikingly differ in the level of both polyandry and phenotypic plasticity of male body size (both lower in P. persimilis. We hypothesized that deviations from standard body size, i.e. the size achieved under favorable conditions, incur higher costs for males in the less polyandrous P. persimilis. To test our hypotheses, we conducted two experiments on (i the effects of male body size on spermatophore transfer in singly mating females and (ii the effects of mate sequence (switching the order of standard-sized and small males on mating behavior and paternity success in doubly mating females. In P. persimilis but not N. californicus, small males transferred fewer but larger spermatophores to the females; in both species, females re-mated more likely with standard-sized following small than small following standard-sized males; in P. persimilis, first standard-sized males sired a higher proportion of offspring produced after re-mating by the female than first small males, whereas in N. californicus the paternity success of small and standard-sized

  2. Low level of polyandry constrains phenotypic plasticity of male body size in mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schausberger, Peter; Walzer, Andreas; Murata, Yasumasa; Osakabe, Masahiro

    2017-01-01

    Polyandry, i.e. females mating with multiple males, is more common than previously anticipated and potentially provides both direct and indirect fitness benefits to females. The level of polyandry (defined by the lifetime number of male mates of a female) is an important determinant of the occurrence and intensity of sexual selection acting on male phenotypes. While the forces of sexual selection acting on phenotypic male traits such as body size are relatively well understood, sexual selection acting on phenotypic plasticity of these traits is unexplored. We tackled this issue by scrutinizing the link between polyandry and phenotypic plasticity of male body size in two sympatric plant-inhabiting predatory mite species, Phytoseiulus persimilis and Neoseiulus californicus. These two species are similar in life history, ecological niche requirements, mating behavior, polygyny and female body size plasticity but strikingly differ in the level of both polyandry and phenotypic plasticity of male body size (both lower in P. persimilis). We hypothesized that deviations from standard body size, i.e. the size achieved under favorable conditions, incur higher costs for males in the less polyandrous P. persimilis. To test our hypotheses, we conducted two experiments on (i) the effects of male body size on spermatophore transfer in singly mating females and (ii) the effects of mate sequence (switching the order of standard-sized and small males) on mating behavior and paternity success in doubly mating females. In P. persimilis but not N. californicus, small males transferred fewer but larger spermatophores to the females; in both species, females re-mated more likely with standard-sized following small than small following standard-sized males; in P. persimilis, first standard-sized males sired a higher proportion of offspring produced after re-mating by the female than first small males, whereas in N. californicus the paternity success of small and standard-sized males was

  3. Nuclear size is sensitive to NTF2 protein levels in a manner dependent on Ran binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuković, Lidija D.; Jevtić, Predrag; Zhang, Zhaojie; Stohr, Bradley A.; Levy, Daniel L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Altered nuclear size is associated with many cancers, and determining whether cancer-associated changes in nuclear size contribute to carcinogenesis necessitates an understanding of mechanisms of nuclear size regulation. Although nuclear import rates generally positively correlate with nuclear size, NTF2 levels negatively affect nuclear size, despite the role of NTF2 (also known as NUTF2) in nuclear recycling of the import factor Ran. We show that binding of Ran to NTF2 is required for NTF2 to inhibit nuclear expansion and import of large cargo molecules in Xenopus laevis egg and embryo extracts, consistent with our observation that NTF2 reduces the diameter of the nuclear pore complex (NPC) in a Ran-binding-dependent manner. Furthermore, we demonstrate that ectopic NTF2 expression in Xenopus embryos and mammalian tissue culture cells alters nuclear size. Finally, we show that increases in nuclear size during melanoma progression correlate with reduced NTF2 expression, and increasing NTF2 levels in melanoma cells is sufficient to reduce nuclear size. These results show a conserved capacity for NTF2 to impact on nuclear size, and we propose that NTF2 might be a new cancer biomarker. PMID:26823604

  4. Cellular Manufacturing System with Dynamic Lot Size Material Handling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khannan, M. S. A.; Maruf, A.; Wangsaputra, R.; Sutrisno, S.; Wibawa, T.

    2016-02-01

    Material Handling take as important role in Cellular Manufacturing System (CMS) design. In several study at CMS design material handling was assumed per pieces or with constant lot size. In real industrial practice, lot size may change during rolling period to cope with demand changes. This study develops CMS Model with Dynamic Lot Size Material Handling. Integer Linear Programming is used to solve the problem. Objective function of this model is minimizing total expected cost consisting machinery depreciation cost, operating costs, inter-cell material handling cost, intra-cell material handling cost, machine relocation costs, setup costs, and production planning cost. This model determines optimum cell formation and optimum lot size. Numerical examples are elaborated in the paper to ilustrate the characterictic of the model.

  5. Load calculations of radiant cooling systems for sizing the plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourdakis, Eleftherios; Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was, by using a building simulation software, to prove that a radiant cooling system should not be sized based on the maximum cooling load but at a lower value. For that reason six radiant cooling models were simulated with two control principles using 100%, 70% and 50......% of the maximum cooling load. It was concluded that all tested systems were able to provide an acceptable thermal environment even when the 50% of the maximum cooling load was used. From all the simulated systems the one that performed the best under both control principles was the ESCS ceiling system. Finally...... it was proved that ventilation systems should be sized based on the maximum cooling load....

  6. Artificial intelligence techniques for sizing photovoltaic systems. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellit, A. [Department of Electronics, Faculty of Science Engineering, LAMEL Laboratory, Jijel University, P.O. Box 98, Oulad Aissa, Jijel 18000 (Algeria); Kalogirou, S.A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science and Engineering, Cyprus University of Technology, P.O. Box 50329, Limassol 3603 (Cyprus); Hontoria, L. [Grupo Investigacion y Desarrollo en Energia Solar y Automatica, Dpto. de Electronica, E.P.S. Jaen, Universidad de Jaen, Avda., Madrid, 35, 23071 Jaen (Spain); Shaari, S. [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2009-02-15

    Artificial intelligence (AI) techniques are becoming useful as alternate approaches to conventional techniques or as components of integrated systems. They have been used to solve complicated practical problems in various areas and are becoming more and more popular nowadays. AI-techniques have the following features: can learn from examples; are fault tolerant in the sense that they are able to handle noisy and incomplete data; are able to deal with non-linear problems; and once trained can perform prediction and generalization at high speed. AI-based systems are being developed and deployed worldwide in a myriad of applications, mainly because of their symbolic reasoning, flexibility and explanation capabilities. AI have been used and applied in different sectors, such as engineering, economics, medicine, military, marine, etc. They have also been applied for modeling, identification, optimization, prediction, forecasting, and control of complex systems. The main objective of this paper is to present an overview of the AI-techniques for sizing photovoltaic (PV) systems: stand-alone PVs, grid-connected PV systems, PV-wind hybrid systems, etc. Published literature presented in this paper show the potential of AI as a design tool for the optimal sizing of PV systems. Additionally, the advantage of using an AI-based sizing of PV systems is that it provides good optimization, especially in isolated areas, where the weather data are not always available. (author)

  7. Sizing and Simulation of PV-Wind Hybrid Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Engin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A sizing procedure is developed for hybrid system with the aid of mathematical models for photovoltaic cell, wind turbine, and battery that are readily present in the literature. This sizing procedure can simulate the annual performance of different kinds of photovoltaic-wind hybrid power system structures for an identified set of renewable resources, which fulfills technical limitations with the lowest energy cost. The output of the program will display the performance of the system during the year, the total cost of the system, and the best size for the PV-generator, wind generator, and battery capacity. Security lightning application is selected, whereas system performance data and environmental operating conditions are measured and stored. This hybrid system, which includes a PV, wind turbine, inverter, and a battery, was installed to supply energy to 24 W lamps, considering that the renewable energy resources of this site where the system was installed were 1700 Wh/m2/day solar radiation and 3.43 m/s yearly average wind speed. Using the measured variables, the inverter and charge regulator efficiencies were calculated as 90% and 98%, respectively, and the overall system’s electrical efficiency is calculated as 72%. Life cycle costs per kWh are found to be $0.89 and LLP = 0.0428.

  8. Design evaluation of the HTGR fuel element size reduction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, J.B.

    1978-06-01

    A fuel element size reduction system for the ''cold'' pilot plant of the General Atomic HTGR Reference Recycle Facility has been designed and tested. This report is both an evaluation of the design based on results of initial tests and a description of those designs which require completion or modification for hot cell use. 11 figures

  9. An expert system based software sizing tool, phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, David

    1990-01-01

    A software tool was developed for predicting the size of a future computer program at an early stage in its development. The system is intended to enable a user who is not expert in Software Engineering to estimate software size in lines of source code with an accuracy similar to that of an expert, based on the program's functional specifications. The project was planned as a knowledge based system with a field prototype as the goal of Phase 2 and a commercial system planned for Phase 3. The researchers used techniques from Artificial Intelligence and knowledge from human experts and existing software from NASA's COSMIC database. They devised a classification scheme for the software specifications, and a small set of generic software components that represent complexity and apply to large classes of programs. The specifications are converted to generic components by a set of rules and the generic components are input to a nonlinear sizing function which makes the final prediction. The system developed for this project predicted code sizes from the database with a bias factor of 1.06 and a fluctuation factor of 1.77, an accuracy similar to that of human experts but without their significant optimistic bias.

  10. Sizing Analysis for Aircraft Utilizing Hybrid-Electric Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    world, the paragon of animals -William Shakespeare I would not have made it this far without the love and support of my parents. Their work-ethic...xiii  I.  Introduction ...Condition 1 SIZING ANALYSIS FOR AIRCRAFT UTILIZING HYBRID- ELECTRIC PROPULSION SYSTEMS I. Introduction 1. Background Physically

  11. Genome size evolution at the speciation level: the cryptic species complex Brachionus plicatilis (Rotifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzer, Claus-Peter; Riss, Simone; Stadler, Peter

    2011-04-07

    Studies on genome size variation in animals are rarely done at lower taxonomic levels, e.g., slightly above/below the species level. Yet, such variation might provide important clues on the tempo and mode of genome size evolution. In this study we used the flow-cytometry method to study the evolution of genome size in the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis, a cryptic species complex consisting of at least 14 closely related species. We found an unexpectedly high variation in this species complex, with genome sizes ranging approximately seven-fold (haploid '1C' genome sizes: 0.056-0.416 pg). Most of this variation (67%) could be ascribed to the major clades of the species complex, i.e. clades that are well separated according to most species definitions. However, we also found substantial variation (32%) at lower taxonomic levels--within and among genealogical species--and, interestingly, among species pairs that are not completely reproductively isolated. In one genealogical species, called B. 'Austria', we found greatly enlarged genome sizes that could roughly be approximated as multiples of the genomes of its closest relatives, which suggests that whole-genome duplications have occurred early during separation of this lineage. Overall, genome size was significantly correlated to egg size and body size, even though the latter became non-significant after controlling for phylogenetic non-independence. Our study suggests that substantial genome size variation can build up early during speciation, potentially even among isolated populations. An alternative, but not mutually exclusive interpretation might be that reproductive isolation tends to build up unusually slow in this species complex.

  12. Genome size evolution at the speciation level: The cryptic species complex Brachionus plicatilis (Rotifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riss Simone

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on genome size variation in animals are rarely done at lower taxonomic levels, e.g., slightly above/below the species level. Yet, such variation might provide important clues on the tempo and mode of genome size evolution. In this study we used the flow-cytometry method to study the evolution of genome size in the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis, a cryptic species complex consisting of at least 14 closely related species. Results We found an unexpectedly high variation in this species complex, with genome sizes ranging approximately seven-fold (haploid '1C' genome sizes: 0.056-0.416 pg. Most of this variation (67% could be ascribed to the major clades of the species complex, i.e. clades that are well separated according to most species definitions. However, we also found substantial variation (32% at lower taxonomic levels - within and among genealogical species - and, interestingly, among species pairs that are not completely reproductively isolated. In one genealogical species, called B. 'Austria', we found greatly enlarged genome sizes that could roughly be approximated as multiples of the genomes of its closest relatives, which suggests that whole-genome duplications have occurred early during separation of this lineage. Overall, genome size was significantly correlated to egg size and body size, even though the latter became non-significant after controlling for phylogenetic non-independence. Conclusions Our study suggests that substantial genome size variation can build up early during speciation, potentially even among isolated populations. An alternative, but not mutually exclusive interpretation might be that reproductive isolation tends to build up unusually slow in this species complex.

  13. Sizing solar home systems for optimal development impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, M.; Fuller, R.J.; Aye, Lu

    2012-01-01

    The paper compares the development impact of three different sized solar home systems (SHS) (10, 40 and 80 W p ) installed in rural East Timor. It describes research aimed to determine whether the higher cost of the larger systems was justified by additional household benefits. To assess the development impact of these different sizes of SHS the research used a combination of participatory and quantitative tools. Participatory exercises were conducted with seventy-seven small groups of SHS users in twenty-four rural communities and supplemented with a household survey of 195 SHS users. The combined results of these evaluation processes enabled the three sizes of SHS to be compared for two types of benefits—those associated with carrying out important household tasks and attributes of SHS which were advantageous compared to the use of non-electric lighting sources. The research findings showed that the small, 10 W p SHS provided much of the development impact of the larger systems. It suggests three significant implications for the design of SHS programs in contexts such as East Timor: provide more small systems rather than fewer large ones; provide lighting in the kitchen wherever possible; and carefully match SHS operating costs to the incomes of rural users. - Highlights: ► We compare development benefits for 3 sizes of solar home systems—10, 40 and 80 W p . ► Benefit assessment uses a combination of qualitative and quantitative approaches. ► Small systems are found to provide much of the benefits of the larger systems. ► To maximise benefits systems should be fitted with luminaires in kitchen areas. ► Financial benefits are important to users and may not accrue for large systems.

  14. A methodology for optimal sizing of autonomous hybrid PV/wind system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaf, S.; Diaf, D.; Belhamel, M.; Haddadi, M.; Louche, A.

    2007-01-01

    The present paper presents a methodology to perform the optimal sizing of an autonomous hybrid PV/wind system. The methodology aims at finding the configuration, among a set of systems components, which meets the desired system reliability requirements, with the lowest value of levelized cost of energy. Modelling a hybrid PV/wind system is considered as the first step in the optimal sizing procedure. In this paper, more accurate mathematical models for characterizing PV module, wind generator and battery are proposed. The second step consists to optimize the sizing of a system according to the loss of power supply probability (LPSP) and the levelized cost of energy (LCE) concepts. Considering various types and capacities of system devices, the configurations, which can meet the desired system reliability, are obtained by changing the type and size of the devices systems. The configuration with the lowest LCE gives the optimal choice. Applying this method to an assumed PV/wind hybrid system to be installed at Corsica Island, the simulation results show that the optimal configuration, which meet the desired system reliability requirements (LPSP=0) with the lowest LCE, is obtained for a system comprising a 125 W photovoltaic module, one wind generator (600 W) and storage batteries (using 253 Ah). On the other hand, the device system choice plays an important role in cost reduction as well as in energy production

  15. Economic Optimization of Component Sizing for Residential Battery Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger C. Hesse

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Battery energy storage systems (BESS coupled with rooftop-mounted residential photovoltaic (PV generation, designated as PV-BESS, draw increasing attention and market penetration as more and more such systems become available. The manifold BESS deployed to date rely on a variety of different battery technologies, show a great variation of battery size, and power electronics dimensioning. However, given today’s high investment costs of BESS, a well-matched design and adequate sizing of the storage systems are prerequisites to allow profitability for the end-user. The economic viability of a PV-BESS depends also on the battery operation, storage technology, and aging of the system. In this paper, a general method for comprehensive PV-BESS techno-economic analysis and optimization is presented and applied to the state-of-art PV-BESS to determine its optimal parameters. Using a linear optimization method, a cost-optimal sizing of the battery and power electronics is derived based on solar energy availability and local demand. At the same time, the power flow optimization reveals the best storage operation patterns considering a trade-off between energy purchase, feed-in remuneration, and battery aging. Using up to date technology-specific aging information and the investment cost of battery and inverter systems, three mature battery chemistries are compared; a lead-acid (PbA system and two lithium-ion systems, one with lithium-iron-phosphate (LFP and another with lithium-nickel-manganese-cobalt (NMC cathode. The results show that different storage technology and component sizing provide the best economic performances, depending on the scenario of load demand and PV generation.

  16. The Size of Local Government Administration at a Municipal Level as a Determinant of Entrepreneurship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusłan Harasym

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This artcle’s aim is to examine a dependency between local government administraton at a municipal level and the level of local entrepreneurship. This paper atempts to answer the queston of whether the size of the local government administraton has features of stmulant or de-stmulant in the process of setng up a business. In other words, does the size of public administraton at a local level (municipal level have a positve or negatve impact on creatng new business enttes? This is important due to at least a couple of reasons. First of all, the current research achievements are not extensive, when it comes to the publicatons that link entrepreneurship and the size of local government administraton. Secondly, the problem of entrepreneurship determinants consttutes stll topical and not fully investgated (or explained aspects of local economy development. Thirdly and fnally, the authors of this artcle have proposed and copyrighted an approach to the quantfcaton of the size of local government administraton, modifying commonly used measures of local public administraton. Thus, this artcle fts not only into the explanaton of the entrepreneurship phenomenon and its determinants, but also contributes to the development of knowledge about dependencies between the size of local selfgovernment and the entrepreneurship level. It expands the knowledge resource on analyzed dependencies and re-orients current approaches to similar research.

  17. Increased body size along urbanization gradients at both community and intraspecific level in macro-moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merckx, Thomas; Kaiser, Aurélien; Van Dyck, Hans

    2018-05-23

    Urbanization involves a cocktail of human-induced rapid environmental changes and is forecasted to gain further importance. Urban-heat-island effects result in increased metabolic costs expected to drive shifts towards smaller body sizes. However, urban environments are also characterized by strong habitat fragmentation, often selecting for dispersal phenotypes. Here, we investigate to what extent, and at which spatial scale(s), urbanization drives body size shifts in macro-moths-an insect group characterized by positive size-dispersal links-at both the community and intraspecific level. Using light and bait trapping as part of a replicated, spatially nested sampling design, we show that despite the observed urban warming of their woodland habitat, macro-moth communities display considerable increases in community-weighted mean body size because of stronger filtering against small species along urbanization gradients. Urbanization drives intraspecific shifts towards increased body size too, at least for a third of species analysed. These results indicate that urbanization drives shifts towards larger, and hence, more mobile species and individuals in order to mitigate low connectivity of ecological resources in urban settings. Macro-moths are a key group within terrestrial ecosystems, and since body size is central to species interactions, such urbanization-driven phenotypic change may impact urban ecosystem functioning, especially in terms of nocturnal pollination and food web dynamics. Although we show that urbanization's size-biased filtering happens simultaneously and coherently at both the inter- and intraspecific level, we demonstrate that the impact at the community level is most pronounced at the 800 m radius scale, whereas species-specific size increases happen at local and landscape scales (50-3,200 m radius), depending on the species. Hence, measures-such as creating and improving urban green infrastructure-to mitigate the effects of urbanization on

  18. Coupling Strength and System Size Induce Firing Activity of Globally Coupled Neural Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Duqu; Luo Xiaoshu; Zou Yanli

    2008-01-01

    We investigate how firing activity of globally coupled neural network depends on the coupling strength C and system size N. Network elements are described by space-clamped FitzHugh-Nagumo (SCFHN) neurons with the values of parameters at which no firing activity occurs. It is found that for a given appropriate coupling strength, there is an intermediate range of system size where the firing activity of globally coupled SCFHN neural network is induced and enhanced. On the other hand, for a given intermediate system size level, there exists an optimal value of coupling strength such that the intensity of firing activity reaches its maximum. These phenomena imply that the coupling strength and system size play a vital role in firing activity of neural network

  19. Photovoltaic systems for Malaysian islands: Effects of interest rates, diesel prices and load sizes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, K.Y.; Tan, C.W.; Yatim, A.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Standalone diesel systems have been widely used on Malaysian islands due to the isolated locations of the islands. Nevertheless, the high diesel prices and the high cost of transporting diesel to islands cause the use of standalone diesel systems to be uneconomical. This study analyzes the feasibility of implementing PV (photovoltaic) systems as alternatives to standalone diesel systems by considering the effects of annual real interest rates, diesel prices and load sizes, using the HOMER (hybrid optimization of multiple energy resources) software. The results indicate that, at the ordinary diesel price of $ 0.61/L, low interest rates (0–3%) are desirable for the implementation of hybrid PV/diesel with battery systems over standalone diesel systems, regardless of the load sizes. Although different load sizes may affect the decisions on the implementation of PV systems at higher interest rates (6–9%), these effects become less pronounced as the price of diesel increases to $ 1.22/L or higher. Also, under high diesel prices, the choice of optimal system configurations obtained for small load sizes should be applicable for larger load sizes, albeit with different component ratings. Although the current study is intended for Malaysian islands, the findings can be generalized for other places with similar solar radiation levels. - Highlights: • Photovoltaic systems for Malaysian islands have been analyzed using HOMER. • Interest rates, diesel prices and load sizes affect optimal system configurations. • Effects of interest rates and load sizes reduce with increasing diesel prices. • Photovoltaic systems' implementation is feasible at high diesel prices. • The findings can be generalized for places with similar solar radiation levels

  20. Reliability-oriented energy storage sizing in wind power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Zian; Liserre, Marco; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    Energy storage can be used to suppress the power fluctuations in wind power systems, and thereby reduce the thermal excursion and improve the reliability. Since the cost of the energy storage in large power application is high, it is crucial to have a better understanding of the relationship...... between the size of the energy storage and the reliability benefit it can generate. Therefore, a reliability-oriented energy storage sizing approach is proposed for the wind power systems, where the power, energy, cost and the control strategy of the energy storage are all taken into account....... With the proposed approach, the computational effort is reduced and the impact of the energy storage system on the reliability of the wind power converter can be quantified....

  1. Stochastic Neural Field Theory and the System-Size Expansion

    KAUST Repository

    Bressloff, Paul C.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze a master equation formulation of stochastic neurodynamics for a network of synaptically coupled homogeneous neuronal populations each consisting of N identical neurons. The state of the network is specified by the fraction of active or spiking neurons in each population, and transition rates are chosen so that in the thermodynamic or deterministic limit (N → ∞) we recover standard activity-based or voltage-based rate models. We derive the lowest order corrections to these rate equations for large but finite N using two different approximation schemes, one based on the Van Kampen system-size expansion and the other based on path integral methods. Both methods yield the same series expansion of the moment equations, which at O(1/N) can be truncated to form a closed system of equations for the first-and second-order moments. Taking a continuum limit of the moment equations while keeping the system size N fixed generates a system of integrodifferential equations for the mean and covariance of the corresponding stochastic neural field model. We also show how the path integral approach can be used to study large deviation or rare event statistics underlying escape from the basin of attraction of a stable fixed point of the mean-field dynamics; such an analysis is not possible using the system-size expansion since the latter cannot accurately determine exponentially small transitions. © by SIAM.

  2. Does Ploidy Level Directly Control Cell Size? Counterevidence from Arabidopsis Genetics

    OpenAIRE

    Tsukaya, Hirokazu

    2013-01-01

    Ploidy level affects cell size in many organisms, and ploidy-dependent cell enlargement has been used to breed many useful organisms. However, how polyploidy affects cell size remains unknown. Previous studies have explored changes in transcriptome data caused by polyploidy, but have not been successful. The most naïve theory explaining ploidy-dependent cell enlargement is that increases in gene copy number increase the amount of protein, which in turn increases the cell volume. This hypothes...

  3. Sizing Performance of the Newly Developed Eddy Current System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Chan Hee; Lee, Hee Jong; Yoo, Hyun Ju; Moon, Gyoon Young; Lee, Tae Hoon [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    This paper describes the comparison results of sizing performance for two systems. The KHNP developed a new eddy current testing system for the inspection of steam generator tubing in domestic nuclear power plants. The equivalency assessment of the newly developed system with the EPRI-qualified system was already carried out. In this paper, the comparisons of depth-sizing performance for the artificial flaws between two systems were performed. The results show that the newly developed system is in good agreement with the qualified system. Therefore, it is expected that the newly developed eddy current system can be used for the inspection of steam generator tubing in nuclear power plants. There are some non-destructive examination (NDE) methods for the inspection of components in nuclear power plants, such as ultrasonic, radiographic, eddy current testing, etc. The eddy current testing is widely used for the inspection of steam generator (SG) tubing because it offers a relatively low cost approach for high speed, large scale testing of metallic materials in high pressure and temperature engineering systems. The Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd. (KHNP) developed an eddy current testing system for the inspection of steam generator tubing in nuclear power plants. This system includes not only hardware but software such as the frequency generator and data acquisition-analysis program. The foreign eddy current system developed by ZETEC is currently used for the inspection of steam generator tubing in domestic nuclear power plants. The equivalency assessment between two systems was already carried out in accordance with the EPRI steam generator examination guidelines.

  4. Climate change affects low trophic level marine consumers: warming decreases copepod size and abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzke, Jessica; Ismar, Stefanie M H; Sommer, Ulrich

    2015-03-01

    Concern about climate change has re-ignited interest in universal ecological responses to temperature variations: (1) biogeographical shifts, (2) phenology changes, and (3) size shifts. In this study we used copepods as model organisms to study size responses to temperature because of their central role in the pelagic food web and because of the ontogenetic length constancy between molts, which facilitates the definition of size of distinct developmental stages. In order to test the expected temperature-induced shifts towards smaller body size and lower abundances under warming conditions, a mesocosm experiment using plankton from the Baltic Sea at three temperature levels (ambient, ambient +4 °C, ambient -4 °C) was performed in summer 2010. Overall copepod and copepodit abundances, copepod size at all life stages, and adult copepod size in particular, showed significant temperature effects. As expected, zooplankton peak abundance was lower in warm than in ambient treatments. Copepod size-at-immature stage significantly increased in cold treatments, while adult size significantly decreased in warm treatments.

  5. Optimal sizing and control strategy of isolated grid with wind power and energy storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Yi; Shi, Lin; Tu, Guangyu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An energy storage sizing scheme for wind powered isolated grid is developed. • A bi-level control strategy for wind-battery isolated grid is proposed. • The energy storage type selection method for Nan’ao island grid is presented. • The sizing method and the control strategy are verified based on the Nan’ao island. • The wind-battery demonstration system has great benefit for remote areas. - Abstract: Integrating renewable energy and energy storage system provides a prospective way for power supply of remote areas. Focused on the isolated grids comprising renewable energy generation and energy storage, an energy storage sizing method for taking account of the reliability requirement and a bi-level control strategy of the isolated grids are presented in this paper. Based on comparative analysis of current energy storage characteristics and practicability, Sodium–sulfur battery is recommended for power balance control in the isolated grids. The optimal size of the energy storage system is determined by genetic algorithm and sequential simulation. The annualized cost considering the compensation cost of curtailed wind power and load is minimized when the reliability requirement can be satisfied. The sizing method emphasizes the tradeoff between energy storage size and reliability of power supply. The bi-level control strategy is designed as upper level wide area power balance control in dispatch timescale and lower level battery energy storage system V/f control in real-time range for isolated operation. The mixed timescale simulation results of Nan’ao Island grid verify the effectiveness of the proposed sizing method and control strategy

  6. Classification of video sequences into chosen generalized use classes of target size and lighting level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leszczuk, Mikołaj; Dudek, Łukasz; Witkowski, Marcin

    The VQiPS (Video Quality in Public Safety) Working Group, supported by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, has been developing a user guide for public safety video applications. According to VQiPS, five parameters have particular importance influencing the ability to achieve a recognition task. They are: usage time-frame, discrimination level, target size, lighting level, and level of motion. These parameters form what are referred to as Generalized Use Classes (GUCs). The aim of our research was to develop algorithms that would automatically assist classification of input sequences into one of the GUCs. Target size and lighting level parameters were approached. The experiment described reveals the experts' ambiguity and hesitation during the manual target size determination process. However, the automatic methods developed for target size classification make it possible to determine GUC parameters with 70 % compliance to the end-users' opinion. Lighting levels of the entire sequence can be classified with an efficiency reaching 93 %. To make the algorithms available for use, a test application has been developed. It is able to process video files and display classification results, the user interface being very simple and requiring only minimal user interaction.

  7. A computerized system for handling renal size measurements from urograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claesson, I.; Jacobsson, B.F.; Riha, M.

    1987-01-01

    The size of a kidney, as measured on an urogram, is a sensitive indicator of renal damage in a child with urinary tract infection, and renal surface area correlates well with glomerular filtration rate. Sequential measurements can be invaluable in evaluating the efficacy of a regimen of treatment. A system utilizing a personal microcomputer has been developed to facilitate the measuring procedure and the handling and analysis of data. (orig.)

  8. Application of medium sized SMES electric power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handschin, E.; Damschen, C.; Stephanblome, T.

    1993-01-01

    In order to evaluate the technological and economical impact of medium sized SMES with a capacity in the range of a few 100 kWh on power system operation a lot of system engineering studies are still necessary. Although the two examples mentioned in the present paper do not claim to be complete they are still illustrating the general structure of investigations concerning the location, dimensioning and control scheme of SMES. Also there is a relationship between these investigations which has to be taken into consideration with respect to economical reasons. (orig.)

  9. Investigations of internal noise levels for different target sizes, contrasts, and noise structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Minah; Choi, Shinkook; Baek, Jongduk

    2014-03-01

    To describe internal noise levels for different target sizes, contrasts, and noise structures, Gaussian targets with four different sizes (i.e., standard deviation of 2,4,6 and 8) and three different noise structures(i.e., white, low-pass, and highpass) were generated. The generated noise images were scaled to have standard deviation of 0.15. For each noise type, target contrasts were adjusted to have the same detectability based on NPW, and the detectability of CHO was calculated accordingly. For human observer study, 3 trained observers performed 2AFC detection tasks, and correction rate, Pc, was calculated for each task. By adding proper internal noise level to numerical observer (i.e., NPW and CHO), detectability of human observer was matched with that of numerical observers. Even though target contrasts were adjusted to have the same detectability of NPW observer, detectability of human observer decreases as the target size increases. The internal noise level varies for different target sizes, contrasts, and noise structures, demonstrating different internal noise levels should be considered in numerical observer to predict the detection performance of human observer.

  10. Size of age-0 crappies (Pomoxis spp.) relative to reservoir habitats and water levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczka, Levi J.; Miranda, Leandro E.

    2014-01-01

    Variable year-class strength is common in crappie Pomoxis spp. populations in many reservoirs, yet the mechanisms behind this variability are poorly understood. Size-dependent mortality of age-0 fishes has long been recognized in the population ecology literature; however, investigations about the effects of environmental factors on age-0 crappie size are lacking. The objective of this study was to determine if differences existed in total length of age-0 crappies between embayment and floodplain habitats in reservoirs, while accounting for potential confounding effects of water level and crappie species. To this end, we examined size of age-0 crappies in four flood-control reservoirs in northwest Mississippi over 4years. Age-0 crappies inhabiting uplake floodplain habitats grew to a larger size than fish in downlake embayments, but this trend depended on species, length of time a reservoir was dewatered in the months preceding spawning, and reservoir water level in the months following spawning. The results from our study indicate that water-level management may focus not only on allowing access to quality nursery habitat, but that alternating water levels on a multiyear schedule could increase the quality of degraded littoral habitats.

  11. [Drug delivery systems using nano-sized drug carriers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Masamichi; Okano, Teruo

    2005-07-01

    Nanotechnology has attracted great attention all over the world in recent several years and has led to the establishment of the novel technical field of "nanomedicine" through collaboration with advanced medical technology. Particularly, site-specific drug targeting using particle drug carrier systems has made substantial progress and been actively developed. This review explains the essential factors (size and chemical character) of drug carriers to allow long circulation in the bloodstream avoiding the reticuloendothelial system, and shows the present status and future perspective of several types of nano-carrier systems (water-soluble polymer, liposome and polymeric micelle). We also introduce the novel concept of multi-targeting system (combination of two or more targeting methodologies) for ideal drug therapies.

  12. Features, Events, and Processes: System Level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. McGregor

    2004-04-19

    The primary purpose of this analysis is to evaluate System Level features, events, and processes (FEPs). The System Level FEPs typically are overarching in nature, rather than being focused on a particular process or subsystem. As a result, they are best dealt with at the system level rather than addressed within supporting process-level or subsystem level analyses and models reports. The System Level FEPs also tend to be directly addressed by regulations, guidance documents, or assumptions listed in the regulations; or are addressed in background information used in development of the regulations. This evaluation determines which of the System Level FEPs are excluded from modeling used to support the total system performance assessment for license application (TSPA-LA). The evaluation is based on the information presented in analysis reports, model reports, direct input, or corroborative documents that are cited in the individual FEP discussions in Section 6.2 of this analysis report.

  13. Wound center facility billing: A retrospective analysis of time, wound size, and acuity scoring for determining facility level of service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fife, Caroline E; Walker, David; Farrow, Wade; Otto, Gordon

    2007-01-01

    Outpatient wound center facility reimbursement for Medicare beneficiaries can be a challenge to determine and obtain. To compare methods of calculating facility service levels for outpatient wound centers and to demonstrate the advantages of an acuity-based billing system (one that incorporates components of facility work that is non-reimbursable by procedure codes and that represents an activity-based costing approach to medical billing), a retrospective study of 5,098 patient encounters contained in a wound care-specific electronic medical record database was conducted. Approximately 500 patient visits to the outpatient wound center of a Texas regional hospital between April 2003 and November 2004 were categorized by service level in documentation and facility management software. Visits previously billed using a time-based system were compared to the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services' proposed three-tiered wound size-based system. The time-based system also was compared to an acuity-based scoring system. The Pearson correlation coefficient between billed level of service by time and estimated level of service by acuity was 0.442 and the majority of follow-up visits were billed as Level 3 and above (on a time level of 1 to 5) , confirming that time is not a surrogate for actual work performed. Wound size also was found to be unrelated to service level (Pearson correlation = 0.017) and 97% of wound areas were billings than extremes; no other method produced this distribution. Hospital-based outpatient wound centers should develop, review, and refine acuity score-based models on which to determine billed level of service.

  14. Body size satisfaction and physical activity levels among men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Judy; Lee, Chong-Do; Ainsworth, Barbara E; Macera, Caroline A

    2008-08-01

    Body size satisfaction may be an important factor associated with physical activity. We analyzed data from the 2002 National Physical Activity and Weight Loss Survey (NPAWLS), a population-based cross-sectional telephone survey of US adults. Multiple logistic regression models were used to examine the association of body size satisfaction on being regularly active. Participants were aged > or =18 years with complete data on weight, race/ethnicity, physical activity level, and body size satisfaction (n = 10,021). More than half of men (55.8%) and women (53.3%) who reported being very satisfied with the body size were regularly active. After adjustment for covariates, participants who reported being somewhat or not satisfied with their body size had a 13 and 44% lower odds of being regularly active, respectively, compared with those very satisfied with their body size. When stratified by race/ethnicity, this association remained in whites (P for trend physical activity than those less satisfied. Further research is needed to explore predictors of physical activity to reduce health disparities.

  15. The information protection level assessment system implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapeznikov, E. V.

    2018-04-01

    Currently, the threat of various attacks increases significantly as automated systems become more widespread. On the basis of the conducted analysis the information protection level assessment system establishing objective was identified. The paper presents the information protection level assessment software implementation in the information system by applying the programming language C #. In conclusions the software features are identified and experimental results are represented.

  16. Promoting system-level learning from project-level lessons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong, Amos A. de; Runhaar, Hens A.C.; Runhaar, Piety R.; Kolhoff, Arend J.; Driessen, Peter P.J.

    2012-01-01

    A growing number of low and middle income nations (LMCs) have adopted some sort of system for environmental impact assessment (EIA). However, generally many of these EIA systems are characterised by a low performance in terms of timely information dissemination, monitoring and enforcement after licencing. Donor actors (such as the World Bank) have attempted to contribute to a higher performance of EIA systems in LMCs by intervening at two levels: the project level (e.g. by providing scoping advice or EIS quality review) and the system level (e.g. by advising on EIA legislation or by capacity building). The aims of these interventions are environmental protection in concrete cases and enforcing the institutionalisation of environmental protection, respectively. Learning by actors involved is an important condition for realising these aims. A relatively underexplored form of learning concerns learning at EIA system-level via project level donor interventions. This ‘indirect’ learning potentially results in system changes that better fit the specific context(s) and hence contribute to higher performances. Our exploratory research in Ghana and the Maldives shows that thus far, ‘indirect’ learning only occurs incidentally and that donors play a modest role in promoting it. Barriers to indirect learning are related to the institutional context rather than to individual characteristics. Moreover, ‘indirect’ learning seems to flourish best in large projects where donors achieved a position of influence that they can use to evoke reflection upon system malfunctions. In order to enhance learning at all levels donors should thereby present the outcomes of the intervention elaborately (i.e. discuss the outcomes with a large audience), include practical suggestions about post-EIS activities such as monitoring procedures and enforcement options and stimulate the use of their advisory reports to generate organisational memory and ensure a better information

  17. Promoting system-level learning from project-level lessons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jong, Amos A. de, E-mail: amosdejong@gmail.com [Innovation Management, Utrecht (Netherlands); Runhaar, Hens A.C., E-mail: h.a.c.runhaar@uu.nl [Section of Environmental Governance, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands); Runhaar, Piety R., E-mail: piety.runhaar@wur.nl [Organisational Psychology and Human Resource Development, University of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands); Kolhoff, Arend J., E-mail: Akolhoff@eia.nl [The Netherlands Commission for Environmental Assessment, Utrecht (Netherlands); Driessen, Peter P.J., E-mail: p.driessen@geo.uu.nl [Department of Innovation and Environment Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-02-15

    A growing number of low and middle income nations (LMCs) have adopted some sort of system for environmental impact assessment (EIA). However, generally many of these EIA systems are characterised by a low performance in terms of timely information dissemination, monitoring and enforcement after licencing. Donor actors (such as the World Bank) have attempted to contribute to a higher performance of EIA systems in LMCs by intervening at two levels: the project level (e.g. by providing scoping advice or EIS quality review) and the system level (e.g. by advising on EIA legislation or by capacity building). The aims of these interventions are environmental protection in concrete cases and enforcing the institutionalisation of environmental protection, respectively. Learning by actors involved is an important condition for realising these aims. A relatively underexplored form of learning concerns learning at EIA system-level via project level donor interventions. This 'indirect' learning potentially results in system changes that better fit the specific context(s) and hence contribute to higher performances. Our exploratory research in Ghana and the Maldives shows that thus far, 'indirect' learning only occurs incidentally and that donors play a modest role in promoting it. Barriers to indirect learning are related to the institutional context rather than to individual characteristics. Moreover, 'indirect' learning seems to flourish best in large projects where donors achieved a position of influence that they can use to evoke reflection upon system malfunctions. In order to enhance learning at all levels donors should thereby present the outcomes of the intervention elaborately (i.e. discuss the outcomes with a large audience), include practical suggestions about post-EIS activities such as monitoring procedures and enforcement options and stimulate the use of their advisory reports to generate organisational memory and ensure a better

  18. Sizing of integrated energy systems in rural areas; Dimensionamento de sistemas integrados de energia em areas rurais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Carlos Eduardo Camargo [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas], e-mail: cecn@correios.net.br; Zuern, Hans Helmut [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Eletrica], e-mail: hans@labspot.ufsc.br

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop a new model for sizing integrated energy systems in rural areas, based on simulation techniques and linear programming, producing a system with minimum cost and high reliability level. The used reliability level was the loss of power supply probability (LPSP), for periods of consecutive hours. With the developed model, many simulations are accomplished with the parameters and sizing variables, making possible the analysis of different scenarios for the optimized energy systems. (author)

  19. System Size, Energy, Pseudorapidity, and Centrality Dependence of Elliptic Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alver, B.; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Chai, Z.; Chetluru, V.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; Gburek, T.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Harnarine, I.; Hauer, M.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Khan, N.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Li, W.; Lin, W. T.; Loizides, C.; Manly, S.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Reed, C.; Richardson, E.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Sagerer, J.; Seals, H.; Sedykh, I.; Smith, C. E.; Stankiewicz, M. A.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sukhanov, A.; Szostak, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Vaurynovich, S. S.; Verdier, R.; Veres, G. I.; Walters, P.; Wenger, E.; Willhelm, D.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wyngaardt, S.; Wysłouch, B.

    2007-06-01

    This Letter presents measurements of the elliptic flow of charged particles as a function of pseudorapidity and centrality from Cu-Cu collisions at 62.4 and 200 GeV using the PHOBOS detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. The elliptic flow in Cu-Cu collisions is found to be significant even for the most central events. For comparison with the Au-Au results, it is found that the detailed way in which the collision geometry (eccentricity) is estimated is of critical importance when scaling out system-size effects. A new form of eccentricity, called the participant eccentricity, is introduced which yields a scaled elliptic flow in the Cu-Cu system that has the same relative magnitude and qualitative features as that in the Au-Au system.

  20. System level ESD co-design

    CERN Document Server

    Gossner, Harald

    2015-01-01

    An effective and cost efficient protection of electronic system against ESD stress pulses specified by IEC 61000-4-2 is paramount for any system design. This pioneering book presents the collective knowledge of system designers and system testing experts and state-of-the-art techniques for achieving efficient system-level ESD protection, with minimum impact on the system performance. All categories of system failures ranging from ‘hard’ to ‘soft’ types are considered to review simulation and tool applications that can be used. The principal focus of System Level ESD Co-Design is defining and establishing the importance of co-design efforts from both IC supplier and system builder perspectives. ESD designers often face challenges in meeting customers' system-level ESD requirements and, therefore, a clear understanding of the techniques presented here will facilitate effective simulation approaches leading to better solutions without compromising system performance. With contributions from Robert Asht...

  1. Contribution to the optimal sizing of the hybrid photovoltaic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrov, Dimitar

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis, hybrid photovoltaic (HPV) systems are considered, in which the electricity is generated by a photovoltaic generator, and additionally by a diesel genset. Within this, a software tool for optimal sizing and designing was developed, which was used for optimization of HPV systems, aimed for supplying a small rural village. For optimization, genetic algorithms were used, optimizing 10 HPV system parameters (rated power of the components, battery capacity, dispatching strategy parameters etc.). The optimization objective is to size and design systems that continuously supply the load, with the lowest net electricity cost. In order to speed up the optimization process, the most suitable genetic algorithm settings were chosen by an in-depth previous analysis. Using measurements, the characteristics of PV generator working in real conditions were obtained. According to this, input values for the PV generator simulation model were adapted. It is introduced a quasi-steady battery simulation model, which avoid the voltage and state-of-the-charge value variation problems, when constant current charging/discharging, within a time step interval, is used. This model takes into account the influence of the battery temperature to its operational characteristics. There were also introduced simulation model improvements to the other components in the HPV systems. Using long-term measurement records, validity of solar radiation and air temperature data was checked. It was also analyzed the sensitivity of the obtained optimized HPV systems to the variation of the prices of the: components, fuel and economic rates. Based on the values of multi-decade records for more locations in the Balkan region, it was estimated the occurrence probability of the solar radiation values. This was used for analysing the sensitivity of some HPV performances to the expected stochastic variations of the solar radiation values. (Author)

  2. Firm Size, a Self-Organized Critical Phenomenon: Evidence from the Dynamical Systems Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Akhilesh

    This research draws upon a recent innovation in the dynamical systems literature called the theory of self -organized criticality (SOC) (Bak, Tang, and Wiesenfeld 1988) to develop a computational model of a firm's size by relating its internal and the external sub-systems. As a holistic paradigm, the theory of SOC implies that a firm as a composite system of many degrees of freedom naturally evolves to a critical state in which a minor event starts a chain reaction that can affect either a part or the system as a whole. Thus, the global features of a firm cannot be understood by analyzing its individual parts separately. The causal framework builds upon a constant capital resource to support a volume of production at the existing level of efficiency. The critical size is defined as the production level at which the average product of a firm's factors of production attains its maximum value. The non -linearity is inferred by a change in the nature of relations at the border of criticality, between size and the two performance variables, viz., the operating efficiency and the financial efficiency. The effect of breaching the critical size is examined on the stock price reactions. Consistent with the theory of SOC, it is hypothesized that the temporal response of a firm breaching the level of critical size should behave as a flicker noise (1/f) process. The flicker noise is characterized by correlations extended over a wide range of time scales, indicating some sort of cooperative effect among a firm's degrees of freedom. It is further hypothesized that a firm's size evolves to a spatial structure with scale-invariant, self-similar (fractal) properties. The system is said to be self-organized inasmuch as it naturally evolves to the state of criticality without any detailed specifications of the initial conditions. In this respect, the critical state is an attractor of the firm's dynamics. Another set of hypotheses examines the relations between the size and the

  3. Preliminary Correlations for Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems Sizing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Gómez-Rodríguez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The field of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS is currently undergoing a noteworthy expansion. The diverse types of missions that these aircraft can accomplish, both in military and civil environments, have motivated an increase of interest in their study and applications. The methods chosen to develop this study are based on the statistical analysis of a database including numerous models of RPAS and the estimation of different correlations in order to develop a design method for rapid sizing of H-tail RPAS. Organizing the information of the database according to relevant characteristics, information relative to the state-of-the-art design tendencies can be extracted, which can serve to take decisions relative to the aerodynamic configuration or the power plant in the first phases of the design project. Furthermore, employing statistical correlations estimated from the database, a design method for rapid-sizing of H-tail RPAS has been conducted, which will be focused on the sizing of the wing and tail surfaces. The resulting method has been tested by applying it to an example case so as to validate the proposed procedure.

  4. Sizing procedures for sun-tracking PV system with batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerek Ömer Nezih

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Deciding optimum number of PV panels, wind turbines and batteries (i.e. a complete renewable energy system for minimum cost and complete energy balance is a challenging and interesting problem. In the literature, some rough data models or limited recorded data together with low resolution hourly averaged meteorological values are used to test the sizing strategies. In this study, active sun tracking and fixed PV solar power generation values of ready-to-serve commercial products are recorded throughout 2015–2016. Simultaneously several outdoor parameters (solar radiation, temperature, humidity, wind speed/direction, pressure are recorded with high resolution. The hourly energy consumption values of a standard 4-person household, which is constructed in our campus in Eskisehir, Turkey, are also recorded for the same period. During sizing, novel parametric random process models for wind speed, temperature, solar radiation, energy demand and electricity generation curves are achieved and it is observed that these models provide sizing results with lower LLP through Monte Carlo experiments that consider average and minimum performance cases. Furthermore, another novel cost optimization strategy is adopted to show that solar tracking PV panels provide lower costs by enabling reduced number of installed batteries. Results are verified over real recorded data.

  5. Sizing procedures for sun-tracking PV system with batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nezih Gerek, Ömer; Başaran Filik, Ümmühan; Filik, Tansu

    2017-11-01

    Deciding optimum number of PV panels, wind turbines and batteries (i.e. a complete renewable energy system) for minimum cost and complete energy balance is a challenging and interesting problem. In the literature, some rough data models or limited recorded data together with low resolution hourly averaged meteorological values are used to test the sizing strategies. In this study, active sun tracking and fixed PV solar power generation values of ready-to-serve commercial products are recorded throughout 2015-2016. Simultaneously several outdoor parameters (solar radiation, temperature, humidity, wind speed/direction, pressure) are recorded with high resolution. The hourly energy consumption values of a standard 4-person household, which is constructed in our campus in Eskisehir, Turkey, are also recorded for the same period. During sizing, novel parametric random process models for wind speed, temperature, solar radiation, energy demand and electricity generation curves are achieved and it is observed that these models provide sizing results with lower LLP through Monte Carlo experiments that consider average and minimum performance cases. Furthermore, another novel cost optimization strategy is adopted to show that solar tracking PV panels provide lower costs by enabling reduced number of installed batteries. Results are verified over real recorded data.

  6. Darboux transformation for two-level system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagrov, V.; Baldiotti, M.; Gitman, D.; Shamshutdinova, V. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 66318-CEP, 05315-970 Sao Paulo, S.P. (Brazil)

    2005-06-01

    We develop the Darboux procedure for the case of the two-level system. In particular, it is demonstrated that one can construct the Darboux intertwining operator that does not violate the specific structure of the equations of the two-level system, transforming only one real potential into another real potential. We apply the obtained Darboux transformation to known exact solutions of the two-level system. Thus, we find three classes of new solutions for the two-level system and the corresponding new potentials that allow such solutions. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  7. Modified Electric System Cascade Analysis for optimal sizing of an autonomous Hybrid Energy System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahboune, Hassan; Zouggar, Smail; Yong, Jun Yow; Varbanov, Petar Sabev; Elhafyani, Mohammed; Ziani, Elmostafa; Zarhloule, Yassine

    2016-01-01

    Ensuring sufficient generation for covering the power demand at minimum cost of the system are the goals of using renewable energy on isolated sites. Solar and wind capture are most widely used to generate clean electricity. Their availability is generally shifted in time. Therefore, it is advantageous to consider both sources simultaneously while designing an electrical power supply module of the studied system. A specific challenge in this context is to find the optimal sizes of the power generation and storage facilities, which would minimise the overall system cost and will still satisfy the demand. In this work, a new design algorithm is presented minimising the system cost, based on the Electric System Cascade Analysis and the Power Pinch Analysis. The algorithm takes as inputs the wind speed, solar irradiation, as well as cost data for the generation and storage facilities. It has also been applied to minimise the loss of power supply probability (LPSP) and to ensure the minimum of the used storage units without using outsourced electricity. The algorithm has been demonstrated on a case study with daily electrical energy demand of 18.7 kWh, resulting in a combination of PV Panels, wind turbine, and the batteries at minimal cost. For the conditions in Oujda city, the case study results indicate that it is possible to achieve 0.25 €/kWh Levelised Cost of Electricity for the generated power. - Highlights: • Renewable electricity systems for remote locations. • Optimal sizes of the power generation and storage facilities. • Improved Power Pinch procedure. • Achieves viable power cost levels.

  8. Concentrations and size distributions of fine aerosol particles measured at roof level in urban zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despiau, S.; Croci, D.

    2007-05-01

    During the experimental Field Experiments to Constrain Models of Atmospheric Pollution and Transport of Emissions (ESCOMPTE) campaign in June-July 2001, concentrations and size distributions of fine particles (14-722 nm) were measured at roof level in downtown Marseille (France). Part of the campaign was dedicated to the study of aerosol behavior in relation to strong photochemical events (which were identified as "IOP" days) and their regional modeling. The analysis of the concentration variations and the evolution of average diurnal size distribution showed that an "IOP day" is not characterized by a specific concentration or its variation, nor by a specific evolution of the average size distribution. The morning traffic rush is detected at roof level by a net increase in particle concentration over the whole size range measured, indicating a production of ultrafine particles by the traffic but also the raising to roof level of particles of the accumulation mode. The increase is observed about 1 hour after the traffic peak at street level, which is characterized by strong increases in NOx and CO concentrations. The corresponding flux of particles at roof level has been estimated around 3 × 104 cm-2 s-1. A specific signature characterized by a strong and rapid burst of concentration (factor 2 to 4 in 15 min) of particles between 25 and 50 nm, independent of the traffic source, has been detected on six occasions during the campaign. These events occur systematically around noon, in cases of strong radiation, low relative humidity, and common wind direction. Despite the high-diameter value of these particles, it is suggested that they could result from a specific "secondary aerosol process" event involving ozone, biogenic, and/or anthropogenic gas precursors like iodine and VOCs.

  9. 24 CFR 81.18 - Affordability-Income level definitions-family size not known (actual or prospective tenants).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... definitions-family size not known (actual or prospective tenants). 81.18 Section 81.18 Housing and Urban... CORPORATION (FREDDIE MAC) Housing Goals § 81.18 Affordability—Income level definitions—family size not known... moderate-income families where family size is not known to the GSE, income will be adjusted using unit size...

  10. Salary Management System for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Zhang; Guangli, Xu; Yuhuan, Zhang; Yilong, Lei

    Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) in the process of wage entry, calculation, the total number are needed to be done manually in the past, the data volume is quite large, processing speed is low, and it is easy to make error, which is resulting in low efficiency. The main purpose of writing this paper is to present the basis of salary management system, establish a scientific database, the computer payroll system, using the computer instead of a lot of past manual work in order to reduce duplication of staff labor, it will improve working efficiency.This system combines the actual needs of SMEs, through in-depth study and practice of the C/S mode, PowerBuilder10.0 development tools, databases and SQL language, Completed a payroll system needs analysis, database design, application design and development work. Wages, departments, units and personnel database file are included in this system, and have data management, department management, personnel management and other functions, through the control and management of the database query, add, delete, modify, and other functions can be realized. This system is reasonable design, a more complete function, stable operation has been tested to meet the basic needs of the work.

  11. Decoding size distribution patterns in marine and transitional water phytoplankton: from community to species level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonilde Roselli

    Full Text Available Understanding the mechanisms of phytoplankton community assembly is a fundamental issue of aquatic ecology. Here, we use field data from transitional (e.g. coastal lagoons and coastal water environments to decode patterns of phytoplankton size distribution into organization and adaptive mechanisms. Transitional waters are characterized by higher resource availability and shallower well-mixed water column than coastal marine environments. Differences in physico-chemical regime between the two environments have been hypothesized to exert contrasting selective pressures on phytoplankton cell morphology (size and shape. We tested the hypothesis focusing on resource availability (nutrients and light and mixed layer depth as ecological axes that define ecological niches of phytoplankton. We report fundamental differences in size distributions of marine and freshwater diatoms, with transitional water phytoplankton significantly smaller and with higher surface to volume ratio than marine species. Here, we hypothesize that mixing condition affecting size-dependent sinking may drive phytoplankton size and shape distributions. The interplay between shallow mixed layer depth and frequent and complete mixing of transitional waters may likely increase the competitive advantage of small phytoplankton limiting large cell fitness. The nutrient regime appears to explain the size distribution within both marine and transitional water environments, while it seem does not explain the pattern observed across the two environments. In addition, difference in light availability across the two environments appear do not explain the occurrence of asymmetric size distribution at each hierarchical level. We hypothesize that such competitive equilibria and adaptive strategies in resource exploitation may drive by organism's behavior which exploring patch resources in transitional and marine phytoplankton communities.

  12. Effect of heliostat size on the levelized cost of electricity for power towers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidaparthi, Arvind; Hoffmann, Jaap

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of heliostat size on the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) for power tower plants. These effects are analyzed in a power tower with a net capacity of 100 MWe, 8 hours of thermal energy storage and a solar multiple of 1.8 in Upington, South Africa. A large, medium and a small size heliostat with a total area of 115.56 m2, 43.3 m2 and 15.67 m2 respectively are considered for comparison. A radial-staggered pattern and an external cylindrical receiver are considered for the heliostat field layouts. The optical performance of the optimized heliostat field layouts has been evaluated by the Hermite (analytical) method using SolarPILOT, a tool used for the generation and optimization of the heliostat field layout. The heliostat cost per unit is calculated separately for the three different heliostat sizes and the effects due to size scaling, learning curve benefits and the price index is included. The annual operation and maintenance (O&M) costs are estimated separately for the three heliostat fields, where the number of personnel required in the field is determined by the number of heliostats in the field. The LCOE values are used as a figure of merit to compare the different heliostat sizes. The results, which include the economic and the optical performance along with the annual O&M costs, indicate that lowest LCOE values are achieved by the medium size heliostat with an area of 43.3 m2 for this configuration. This study will help power tower developers determine the optimal heliostat size for power tower plants currently in the development stage.

  13. Reliable pipeline repair system for very large pipe size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charalambides, John N.; Sousa, Alexandre Barreto de [Oceaneering International, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2004-07-01

    The oil and gas industry worldwide has been mainly depending on the long-term reliability of rigid pipelines to ensure the transportation of hydrocarbons, crude oil, gas, fuel, etc. Many other methods are also utilized onshore and offshore (e.g. flexible lines, FPSO's, etc.), but when it comes to the underwater transportation of very high volumes of oil and gas, the industry commonly uses large size rigid pipelines (i.e. steel pipes). Oil and gas operators learned to depend on the long-lasting integrity of these very large pipelines and many times they forget or disregard that even steel pipelines degrade over time and more often that that, they are also susceptible to various forms of damage (minor or major, environmental or external, etc.). Over the recent years the industry had recognized the need of implementing an 'emergency repair plan' to account for such unforeseen events and the oil and gas operators have become 'smarter' by being 'pro-active' in order to ensure 'flow assurance'. When we consider very large diameter steel pipelines such as 42' and 48' nominal pipe size (NPS), the industry worldwide does not provide 'ready-made', 'off-the-shelf' repair hardware that can be easily shipped to the offshore location and effect a major repair within acceptable time frames and avoid substantial profit losses due to 'down-time' in production. The typical time required to establish a solid repair system for large pipe diameters could be as long as six or more months (depending on the availability of raw materials). This paper will present in detail the Emergency Pipeline Repair Systems (EPRS) that Oceaneering successfully designed, manufactured, tested and provided to two major oil and gas operators, located in two different continents (Gulf of Mexico, U.S.A. and Arabian Gulf, U.A.E.), for two different very large pipe sizes (42'' and 48'' Nominal Pipe Sizes

  14. Packaged low-level waste verification system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuite, K.; Winberg, M.R.; McIsaac, C.V. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The Department of Energy through the National Low-Level Waste Management Program and WMG Inc. have entered into a joint development effort to design, build, and demonstrate the Packaged Low-Level Waste Verification System. Currently, states and low-level radioactive waste disposal site operators have no method to independently verify the radionuclide content of packaged low-level waste that arrives at disposal sites for disposition. At this time, the disposal site relies on the low-level waste generator shipping manifests and accompanying records to ensure that low-level waste received meets the site`s waste acceptance criteria. The subject invention provides the equipment, software, and methods to enable the independent verification of low-level waste shipping records to ensure that the site`s waste acceptance criteria are being met. The objective of the prototype system is to demonstrate a mobile system capable of independently verifying the content of packaged low-level waste.

  15. State level operations and interaction with facility level systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellinger, J.

    1989-01-01

    The role of the State System of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Materials at the State level, particularly the role of the National Authority, in ensuring that both national and international safeguards objectives are met is discussed. The legislative basis for the National Authority is examined. The activities of Australia's National Authority - the Australian Safeguards Office - are described

  16. Sizing and modelling of photovoltaic water pumping system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Badi, A.; Yousef, H.; Al Mahmoudi, T.; Al-Shammaki, M.; Al-Abri, A.; Al-Hinai, A.

    2018-05-01

    With the decline in price of the photovoltaics (PVs) their use as a power source for water pumping is the most attractive solution instead of using diesel generators or electric motors driven by a grid system. In this paper, a method to design a PV pumping system is presented and discussed, which is then used to calculate the required size of the PV for an existing farm. Furthermore, the amount of carbon dioxide emissions saved by the use of PV water pumping system instead of using diesel-fuelled generators or electrical motor connected to the grid network is calculated. In addition, an experimental set-up is developed for the PV water pumping system using both DC and AC motors with batteries. The experimental tests are used to validate the developed MATLAB model. This research work demonstrates that using the PV water pumping system is not only improving the living conditions in rural areas but it is also protecting the environment and can be a cost-effective application in remote locations.

  17. Effect of corn silage particle size and level of soybean oil on ruminal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To determine the effects of two corn silage particle size (coarse particle with geometric mean of 5.83 ± 2.47 mm and fine particle with geometric mean of 4.74 ± 2.74 mm) and two levels of soybean oil (0 and 4% of DM) on ruminal mat composition, distribution and consistency, four two years fistulated ruminant Zel ewes (BW ...

  18. Fish mercury levels in lakes - adjusting for Hg and fish-size covariation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonesten, Lars

    2003-01-01

    Fish-size covariation can be circumvented by regression intercepts of Hg vs. fish length as lake-specific Hg levels. - Accurate estimates of lake-specific mercury levels are vital in assessing the environmental impact on the mercury content in fish. The intercepts of lake-specific regressions of Hg concentration in fish vs. fish length provide accurate estimates when there is a prominent Hg and fish-size covariation. Commonly used regression methods, such as analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and various standardization techniques are less suitable, since they do not completely remove the fish-size covariation when regression slopes are not parallel. Partial least squares (PLS) regression analysis reveals that catchment area and water chemistry have the strongest influence on the Hg level in fish in circumneutral lakes. PLS is a multivariate projection method that allows biased linear regression analysis of multicollinear data. The method is applicable to statistical and visual exploration of large data sets, even if there are more variables than observations. Environmental descriptors have no significant impact on the slopes of linear regressions of the Hg concentration in perch (Perca fluviatilis L.) vs. fish length, suggesting that the slopes mainly reflect ontogenetic dietary shifts during the perch life span

  19. Threat-level-dependent manipulation of signaled body size: dog growls' indexical cues depend on the different levels of potential danger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bálint, Anna; Faragó, Tamás; Miklósi, Ádám; Pongrácz, Péter

    2016-11-01

    Body size is an important feature that affects fighting ability; however, size-related parameters of agonistic vocalizations are difficult to manipulate because of anatomical constraints within the vocal production system. Rare examples of acoustic size modulation are due to specific features that enable the sender to steadily communicate exaggerated body size. However, one could argue that it would be more adaptive if senders could adjust their signaling behavior to the fighting potential of their actual opponent. So far there has been no experimental evidence for this possibility. We tested this hypothesis by exposing family dogs (Canis familiaris) to humans with potentially different fighting ability. In a within-subject experiment, 64 dogs of various breeds consecutively faced two threateningly approaching humans, either two men or two women of different stature, or a man and a woman of similar or different stature. We found that the dogs' vocal responses were affected by the gender of the threatening stranger and the dog owner's gender. Dogs with a female owner, or those dogs which came from a household where both genders were present, reacted with growls of lower values of the Pitch-Formant component (including deeper fundamental frequency and lower formant dispersion) to threatening men. Our results are the first to show that non-human animals react with dynamic alteration of acoustic parameters related to their individual indexical features (body size), depending on the level of threat in an agonistic encounter.

  20. Saturation in Phosphene Size with Increasing Current Levels Delivered to Human Visual Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosking, William H; Sun, Ping; Ozker, Muge; Pei, Xiaomei; Foster, Brett L; Beauchamp, Michael S; Yoshor, Daniel

    2017-07-26

    electrical stimulation: phosphene size saturates at a relatively low current level. This finding implies that, with current methods, visual prosthetics will have a limited dynamic range available to control the production of spatial forms and that more advanced stimulation methods may be required. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/377188-10$15.00/0.

  1. High-level trigger system for the LHC ALICE experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Bramm, R; Lien, J A; Lindenstruth, V; Loizides, C; Röhrich, D; Skaali, B; Steinbeck, T M; Stock, Reinhard; Ullaland, K; Vestbø, A S; Wiebalck, A

    2003-01-01

    The central detectors of the ALICE experiment at LHC will produce a data size of up to 75 MB/event at an event rate less than approximately equals 200 Hz resulting in a data rate of similar to 15 GB/s. Online processing of the data is necessary in order to select interesting (sub)events ("High Level Trigger"), or to compress data efficiently by modeling techniques. Processing this data requires a massive parallel computing system (High Level Trigger System). The system will consist of a farm of clustered SMP-nodes based on off- the-shelf PCs connected with a high bandwidth low latency network.

  2. System level modeling and component level control of fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Xingjian

    This dissertation investigates the fuel cell systems and the related technologies in three aspects: (1) system-level dynamic modeling of both PEM fuel cell (PEMFC) and solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC); (2) condition monitoring scheme development of PEM fuel cell system using model-based statistical method; and (3) strategy and algorithm development of precision control with potential application in energy systems. The dissertation first presents a system level dynamic modeling strategy for PEM fuel cells. It is well known that water plays a critical role in PEM fuel cell operations. It makes the membrane function appropriately and improves the durability. The low temperature operating conditions, however, impose modeling difficulties in characterizing the liquid-vapor two phase change phenomenon, which becomes even more complex under dynamic operating conditions. This dissertation proposes an innovative method to characterize this phenomenon, and builds a comprehensive model for PEM fuel cell at the system level. The model features the complete characterization of multi-physics dynamic coupling effects with the inclusion of dynamic phase change. The model is validated using Ballard stack experimental result from open literature. The system behavior and the internal coupling effects are also investigated using this model under various operating conditions. Anode-supported tubular SOFC is also investigated in the dissertation. While the Nernst potential plays a central role in characterizing the electrochemical performance, the traditional Nernst equation may lead to incorrect analysis results under dynamic operating conditions due to the current reverse flow phenomenon. This dissertation presents a systematic study in this regard to incorporate a modified Nernst potential expression and the heat/mass transfer into the analysis. The model is used to investigate the limitations and optimal results of various operating conditions; it can also be utilized to perform the

  3. Sizing and economic analysis of stand alone photovoltaic system with hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, N. D.; Rahman, H. A.

    2017-11-01

    This paper proposes a design steps in sizing of standalone photovoltaic system with hydrogen storage using intuitive method. The main advantage of this method is it uses a direct mathematical approach to find system’s size based on daily load consumption and average irradiation data. The keys of system design are to satisfy a pre-determined load requirement and maintain hydrogen storage’s state of charge during low solar irradiation period. To test the effectiveness of the proposed method, a case study is conducted using Kuala Lumpur’s generated meteorological data and rural area’s typical daily load profile of 2.215 kWh. In addition, an economic analysis is performed to appraise the proposed system feasibility. The finding shows that the levelized cost of energy for proposed system is RM 1.98 kWh. However, based on sizing results obtained using a published method with AGM battery as back-up supply, the system cost is lower and more economically viable. The feasibility of PV system with hydrogen storage can be improved if the efficiency of hydrogen storage technologies significantly increases in the future. Hence, a sensitivity analysis is performed to verify the effect of electrolyzer and fuel cell efficiencies towards levelized cost of energy. Efficiencies of electrolyzer and fuel cell available in current market are validated using laboratory’s experimental data. This finding is needed to envisage the applicability of photovoltaic system with hydrogen storage as a future power supply source in Malaysia.

  4. Integrated sizing and scheduling of wind/PV/diesel/battery isolated systems

    KAUST Repository

    Malheiro, André

    2015-05-22

    In this paper we address the optimal sizing and scheduling of isolated hybrid systems using an optimization framework. The hybrid system features wind and photovoltaic conversion systems, batteries and diesel backup generators to supply electricity demand. A Mixed-Integer Linear Programming formulation is used to model system behavior over a time horizon of one year, considering hourly changes in both the availability of renewable resources and energy demand. The optimal solution is achieved with respect to the minimization of the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) over a lifetime of 20 years. Results for a case study show that the most economical solution features all four postulated subsystems. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Integrated sizing and scheduling of wind/PV/diesel/battery isolated systems

    KAUST Repository

    Malheiro, André ; Castro, Pedro M.; Lima, Ricardo; Estanqueiro, Ana; Estanqueiro, Ana

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we address the optimal sizing and scheduling of isolated hybrid systems using an optimization framework. The hybrid system features wind and photovoltaic conversion systems, batteries and diesel backup generators to supply electricity demand. A Mixed-Integer Linear Programming formulation is used to model system behavior over a time horizon of one year, considering hourly changes in both the availability of renewable resources and energy demand. The optimal solution is achieved with respect to the minimization of the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) over a lifetime of 20 years. Results for a case study show that the most economical solution features all four postulated subsystems. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Low-level radiation waste management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubofcik, K.W.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes a low-level radiation waste container set for use in conjunction with an open-topped receptacle. It comprises: a receptacle liner having a closed end and an open end, the receptacle liner sized for deployment as an inserted liner in an open-topped receptacle for collecting low-level radiation waste material within the receptacle liner within the open-topped receptacle; a cover sized and shaped to fit over the open top of the open-topped receptacle and the receptacle liner therein with the cover is in a closed position. The cover having a depending skirt which, when the cover is in the closed position, extends downwardly to overlap the open-topped receptacle adjacent the open top thereof and a portion of the receptacle liner received therein; and the receptacle liner and cover being fabricated of flexible radiation shielding material

  7. Analyzing the Biology on the System Level

    OpenAIRE

    Tong, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Although various genome projects have provided us enormous static sequence information, understanding of the sophisticated biology continues to require integrating the computational modeling, system analysis, technology development for experiments, and quantitative experiments all together to analyze the biology architecture on various levels, which is just the origin of systems biology subject. This review discusses the object, its characteristics, and research attentions in systems biology,...

  8. Optimal system sizing in grid-connected photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoens, H. M.; Baert, D. H.; de Mey, G.

    A costs/benefits analysis for optimizing the combination of photovoltaic (PV) panels, batteries and an inverter for grid interconnected systems at a 500 W/day Belgian residence is presented. It is assumed that some power purchases from the grid will always be necessary, and that excess PV power can be fed into the grid. A minimal value for the cost divided by the performance is defined for economic optimization. Shortages and excesses are calculated for PV panels of 0.5-10 kWp output, with consideration given to the advantages of a battery back-up. The minimal economic value is found to increase with the magnitude of PV output, and an inverter should never be rated at more than half the array maximum output. A maximum panel size for the Belgian residence is projected to be 6 kWp.

  9. Simulation Models to Size and Retrofit District Heating Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Sartor

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available District heating networks are considered as convenient systems to supply heat to consumers while reducing CO 2 emissions and increasing renewable energies use. However, to make them as profitable as possible, they have to be developed, operated and sized carefully. In order to cope with these objectives, simulation tools are required to analyze several configuration schemes and control methods. Indeed, the most common problems are heat losses, the electric pump consumption and the peak heat demand while ensuring the comfort of the users. In this contribution, a dynamic simulation model of all the components of the network is described. It is dedicated to assess some energetic, environmental and economic indicators. Finally, the methodology is used on an existing application test case namely the district heating network of the University of Liège to study the pump control and minimize the district heating network heat losses.

  10. Effect of canister size on costs of disposal of SRP high-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonell, W.R.

    1982-01-01

    The current plan for managing the high-level nuclear wastes at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) calls for processing them into solid forms contained in stainless steel canisters for eventual disposal in a federal geologic repository. A new SRP facility called the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is being designed for the onsite waste processing operations. Preliminary evaluations indicate that costs of the overall disposal operation will depend significantly on the size of the canisters, which determines the number of waste forms to be processed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of canister size on costs of DWPF process operations, including canister procurement, waste solidification, and interim storage, on offsite transport, and on repository costs of disposal, including provision of suitable waste packages

  11. Mid-level perceptual features distinguish objects of different real-world sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Bria; Konkle, Talia; Cohen, Michael A; Alvarez, George A

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how perceptual and conceptual representations are connected is a fundamental goal of cognitive science. Here, we focus on a broad conceptual distinction that constrains how we interact with objects--real-world size. Although there appear to be clear perceptual correlates for basic-level categories (apples look like other apples, oranges look like other oranges), the perceptual correlates of broader categorical distinctions are largely unexplored, i.e., do small objects look like other small objects? Because there are many kinds of small objects (e.g., cups, keys), there may be no reliable perceptual features that distinguish them from big objects (e.g., cars, tables). Contrary to this intuition, we demonstrated that big and small objects have reliable perceptual differences that can be extracted by early stages of visual processing. In a series of visual search studies, participants found target objects faster when the distractor objects differed in real-world size. These results held when we broadly sampled big and small objects, when we controlled for low-level features and image statistics, and when we reduced objects to texforms--unrecognizable textures that loosely preserve an object's form. However, this effect was absent when we used more basic textures. These results demonstrate that big and small objects have reliably different mid-level perceptual features, and suggest that early perceptual information about broad-category membership may influence downstream object perception, recognition, and categorization processes. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Liquid low level waste management expert system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrada, J.J.; Abraham, T.J.; Jackson, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    An expert system has been developed as part of a new initiative for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) systems analysis program. This expert system will aid in prioritizing radioactive waste streams for treatment and disposal by evaluating the severity and treatability of the problem, as well as the final waste form. The objectives of the expert system development included: (1) collecting information on process treatment technologies for liquid low-level waste (LLLW) that can be incorporated in the knowledge base of the expert system, and (2) producing a prototype that suggests processes and disposal technologies for the ORNL LLLW system. 4 refs., 9 figs

  13. Finite size scaling analysis of disordered electron systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markos, P.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrated the application of the finite size scaling method to the analysis of the transition of the disordered system from the metallic to the insulating regime. The method enables us to calculate the critical point and the critical exponent which determines the divergence of the correlation length in the vicinity of the critical point. The universality of the metal-insulator transition was verified by numerical analysis of various physical parameters and the critical exponent was calculated with high accuracy for different disordered models. Numerically obtained value of the critical exponent for the three dimensional disordered model (1) has been recently supported by the semi-analytical work and verified by experimental optical measurements equivalent to the three dimensional disordered model (1). Another unsolved problem of the localization is the disagreement between numerical results and predictions of the analytical theories. At present, no analytical theory confirms numerically obtained values of critical exponents. The reason for this disagreement lies in the statistical character of the process of localization. The theory must consider all possible scattering processes on randomly distributed impurities. All physical variables are statistical quantities with broad probability distributions. It is in general not know how to calculate analytically their mean values. We believe that detailed numerical analysis of various disordered systems bring inspiration for the formulation of analytical theory. (authors)

  14. Features, Events, and Processes: system Level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. McGregor

    2004-10-15

    The purpose of this analysis report is to evaluate and document the inclusion or exclusion of the system-level features, events, and processes (FEPs) with respect to modeling used to support the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA). A screening decision, either Included or Excluded, is given for each FEP along with the technical basis for screening decisions. This information is required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at 10 CFR 63.113 (d, e, and f) (DIRS 156605). The system-level FEPs addressed in this report typically are overarching in nature, rather than being focused on a particular process or subsystem. As a result, they are best dealt with at the system level rather than addressed within supporting process-level or subsystem-level analyses and models reports. The system-level FEPs also tend to be directly addressed by regulations, guidance documents, or assumptions listed in the regulations; or are addressed in background information used in development of the regulations. For included FEPs, this analysis summarizes the implementation of the FEP in the TSPA-LA (i.e., how the FEP is included). For excluded FEPs, this analysis provides the technical basis for exclusion from the TSPA-LA (i.e., why the FEP is excluded). The initial version of this report (Revision 00) was developed to support the total system performance assessment for site recommendation (TSPA-SR). This revision addresses the license application (LA) FEP List (DIRS 170760).

  15. Features, Events, and Processes: system Level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D. McGregor

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis report is to evaluate and document the inclusion or exclusion of the system-level features, events, and processes (FEPs) with respect to modeling used to support the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA). A screening decision, either Included or Excluded, is given for each FEP along with the technical basis for screening decisions. This information is required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at 10 CFR 63.113 (d, e, and f) (DIRS 156605). The system-level FEPs addressed in this report typically are overarching in nature, rather than being focused on a particular process or subsystem. As a result, they are best dealt with at the system level rather than addressed within supporting process-level or subsystem-level analyses and models reports. The system-level FEPs also tend to be directly addressed by regulations, guidance documents, or assumptions listed in the regulations; or are addressed in background information used in development of the regulations. For included FEPs, this analysis summarizes the implementation of the FEP in the TSPA-LA (i.e., how the FEP is included). For excluded FEPs, this analysis provides the technical basis for exclusion from the TSPA-LA (i.e., why the FEP is excluded). The initial version of this report (Revision 00) was developed to support the total system performance assessment for site recommendation (TSPA-SR). This revision addresses the license application (LA) FEP List (DIRS 170760)

  16. Productivity, trophic levels and size spectra of zooplankton in northern Norwegian shelf regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Meng; Tande, Kurt S.; Zhu, Yiwu; Basedow, Sünnje

    2009-10-01

    Many studies have been conducted in northern Norwegian shelf regions to assess distributions and abundances of zooplankton in the last decade using towed Scanfish-conductivity, temperature and depth sensors (CTD)-optical plankton counter (OPC), and plankton nets. Significant progresses have been made in understanding dominant species, life histories and behavior, and in using size-structured data to identify dominant species in a certain size range. Using these Scanfish-CTD-OPC data, the analysis of zooplankton community size structures, compositions and their relationships with water types is made along the shelf region from Lofoten, North Cape to Varangerfjorden. From the relationships between the water types and zooplankton communities, the transports and exchanges of zooplankton communities between the Norwegian Coastal and Norwegian Atlantic Waters in regions near Malangsgrunnen and Nordvestbanken are examined. The biovolume (biomass) spectra are further analyzed for the productivity, trophic levels and seasonality of communities in these regions, indicating a steeper slope of the biovolume spectrum for a community dominated by herbivorous species in spring and a flatter slope for a community dominated by carnivorous-omnivorous species in winter. The comparison with the zooplankton biovolume spectra obtained in areas west of Antarctic Peninsula is made to examine and understand the differences in the zooplankton biovolume spectra, their trophic dynamics and potential human impacts between different regions.

  17. Organic matter content and particle size modifications in mangrove sediments as responses to sea level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Christian J; Smoak, Joseph M; Waters, Mathew N; Sanders, Luciana M; Brandini, Nilva; Patchineelam, Sambasiva R

    2012-06-01

    Mangroves sediments contain large reservoirs of organic material (OM) as mangrove ecosystems produce large quantities and rapidly burial OM. Sediment accumulation rates of approximately 2.0 mm year(-1), based on (210)Pb(ex) dating, were estimated at the margin of two well-developed mangrove forest in southern Brazil. Regional data point to a relative sea level (RSL) rise of up to ∼4.0 mm year(-1). This RSL rise in turn, may directly influence the origin and quantity of organic matter (OM) deposited along mangrove sediments. Lithostratigraphic changes show that sand deposition is replacing the mud (<63 μm) fraction and OM content is decreasing in successively younger sediments. Sediment accumulation in coastal areas that are not keeping pace with sea level rise is potentially conducive to the observed shifts in particle size and OM content. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Coulomb systems seen as critical systems: Finite-size effects in two dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jancovici, B.; Manificat, G.; Pisani, C.

    1994-01-01

    It is known that the free energy at criticality of a finite two-dimensional system of characteristic size L has in general a term which behaves like log L as L → ∞; the coefficient of this term is universal. There are solvable models of two-dimensional classical Coulomb systems which exhibit the same finite-size correction (except for its sign) although the particle correlations are short-ranged, i.e., noncritical. Actually, the electrical potential and electrical field correlations are critical at all temperatures (as long as the Coulomb system is a conductor), as a consequence of the perfect screening property of Coulomb systems. This is why Coulomb systems have to exhibit critical finite-size effects

  19. Size stratification in a Gilbert delta due to a varying base level: flume experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavarrias, Victor; Orru, Clara; Viparelli, Enrica; Vide, Juan Pedro Martin; Blom, Astrid

    2014-05-01

    mobile armor that covered the fluvial reach. This led to an initial coarsening of the brinkpoint load (and foreset deposit). Once the mobile armour was eroded, base level fall led to degradation of the finer substrate, which resulted in a fining of the brinkpoint load and foreset deposit. The relation between the sediment size stratification and the base level change may be used for the reconstruction of the paleo sea level from the stratigraphy of ancient Gilbert deltas.

  20. Size-dependent energy levels of InSb quantum dots measured by scanning tunneling spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tuo; Vaxenburg, Roman; Liu, Wenyong; Rupich, Sara M; Lifshitz, Efrat; Efros, Alexander L; Talapin, Dmitri V; Sibener, S J

    2015-01-27

    The electronic structure of single InSb quantum dots (QDs) with diameters between 3 and 7 nm was investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS). In this size regime, InSb QDs show strong quantum confinement effects which lead to discrete energy levels on both valence and conduction band states. Decrease of the QD size increases the measured band gap and the spacing between energy levels. Multiplets of equally spaced resonance peaks are observed in the tunneling spectra. There, multiplets originate from degeneracy lifting induced by QD charging. The tunneling spectra of InSb QDs are qualitatively different from those observed in the STS of other III-V materials, for example, InAs QDs, with similar band gap energy. Theoretical calculations suggest the electron tunneling occurs through the states connected with L-valley of InSb QDs rather than through states of the Γ-valley. This observation calls for better understanding of the role of indirect valleys in strongly quantum-confined III-V nanomaterials.

  1. A review on sizing methodologies of photovoltaic array and storage battery in a standalone photovoltaic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatib, Tamer; Ibrahim, Ibrahim A.; Mohamed, Azah

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We review the current methods for sizing standalone PV systems. • We review the current criteria adapted in sizing standalone PV systems. • We review current method for sizing battery in standalone PV systems. - Abstract: The reliance of future energy demand on standalone PV system is based on its payback period and particular electrical grid parity prices. This highlights the importance for optimum and applicable methods for sizing these systems. Moreover, the designers are being more sensitive toward simple and reliable sizing models for standalone PV system. This paper proposes a review on important knowledge that needs to be taken into account while designing and implementing standalone PV systems. Such a knowledge includes configurations of standalone photovoltaic system, evaluation criteria for unit sizing, sizing methodologies. Moreover, this review provides highlights on challenges and limitations of standalone PV system size optimization techniques.

  2. Liquid level control system for vapour generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, G.

    1984-01-01

    A system for regulating the liquid level in a vapor generator, in which the incoming flow of feed liquid is regulated in response to the difference between the measured liquid level and a reference level, the difference between the exiting vapor mass flow rate and the incoming liquid mass flow rate, and a function of the measured incoming liquid temperature. The temperature function produces a gain value, which increases in response to decreasing incoming liquid temperature. The purpose of the temperature function is to stabilize the level control under transient conditions (e.g. sudden lose of load). (author)

  3. Holographic relaxation of finite size isolated quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abajo-Arrastia, Javier; Silva, Emilia da; Lopez, Esperanza; Mas, Javier; Serantes, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    We study holographically the out of equilibrium dynamics of a finite size closed quantum system in 2+1 dimensions, modelled by the collapse of a shell of a massless scalar field in AdS_4. In global coordinates there exists a variety of evolutions towards final black hole formation which we relate with different patterns of relaxation in the dual field theory. For large scalar initial data rapid thermalization is achieved as a priori expected. Interesting phenomena appear for small enough amplitudes. Such shells do not generate a black hole by direct collapse, but quite generically, an apparent horizon emerges after enough bounces off the AdS boundary. We relate this bulk evolution with relaxation processes at strong coupling which delay in reaching an ergodic stage. Besides the dynamics of bulk fields, we monitor the entanglement entropy, finding that it oscillates quasi-periodically before final equilibration. The radial position of the travelling shell is brought in correspondence with the evolution of the pattern of entanglement in the dual field theory. We propose, thereafter, that the observed oscillations are the dual counterpart of the quantum revivals studied in the literature. The entanglement entropy is not only able to portrait the streaming of entangled excitations, but it is also a useful probe of interaction effects

  4. Lipoprotein(a) levels, apo(a) isoform size, and coronary heart disease risk in the Framingham Offspring Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this study was to assess the independent contributions of plasma levels of lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], Lp(a) cholesterol, and of apo(a) isoform size to prospective coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. Plasma Lp(a) and Lp(a) cholesterol levels, and apo(a) isoform size were measured at examinati...

  5. 12 CFR 1282.18 - Affordability-Income level definitions-family size not known (actual or prospective tenants).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....18 Affordability—Income level definitions—family size not known (actual or prospective tenants). In... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Affordability-Income level definitions-family size not known (actual or prospective tenants). 1282.18 Section 1282.18 Banks and Banking FEDERAL...

  6. Examining predator–prey body size, trophic level and body mass across marine and terrestrial mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Marlee A.; Rogers, Tracey L.

    2014-01-01

    Predator–prey relationships and trophic levels are indicators of community structure, and are important for monitoring ecosystem changes. Mammals colonized the marine environment on seven separate occasions, which resulted in differences in species' physiology, morphology and behaviour. It is likely that these changes have had a major effect upon predator–prey relationships and trophic position; however, the effect of environment is yet to be clarified. We compiled a dataset, based on the literature, to explore the relationship between body mass, trophic level and predator–prey ratio across terrestrial (n = 51) and marine (n = 56) mammals. We did not find the expected positive relationship between trophic level and body mass, but we did find that marine carnivores sit 1.3 trophic levels higher than terrestrial carnivores. Also, marine mammals are largely carnivorous and have significantly larger predator–prey ratios compared with their terrestrial counterparts. We propose that primary productivity, and its availability, is important for mammalian trophic structure and body size. Also, energy flow and community structure in the marine environment are influenced by differences in energy efficiency and increased food web stability. Enhancing our knowledge of feeding ecology in mammals has the potential to provide insights into the structure and functioning of marine and terrestrial communities. PMID:25377460

  7. Examining predator-prey body size, trophic level and body mass across marine and terrestrial mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Marlee A; Rogers, Tracey L

    2014-12-22

    Predator-prey relationships and trophic levels are indicators of community structure, and are important for monitoring ecosystem changes. Mammals colonized the marine environment on seven separate occasions, which resulted in differences in species' physiology, morphology and behaviour. It is likely that these changes have had a major effect upon predator-prey relationships and trophic position; however, the effect of environment is yet to be clarified. We compiled a dataset, based on the literature, to explore the relationship between body mass, trophic level and predator-prey ratio across terrestrial (n = 51) and marine (n = 56) mammals. We did not find the expected positive relationship between trophic level and body mass, but we did find that marine carnivores sit 1.3 trophic levels higher than terrestrial carnivores. Also, marine mammals are largely carnivorous and have significantly larger predator-prey ratios compared with their terrestrial counterparts. We propose that primary productivity, and its availability, is important for mammalian trophic structure and body size. Also, energy flow and community structure in the marine environment are influenced by differences in energy efficiency and increased food web stability. Enhancing our knowledge of feeding ecology in mammals has the potential to provide insights into the structure and functioning of marine and terrestrial communities. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  8. Temporal variability of the bioaerosol background at a subway station: concentration level, size distribution, and diversity of airborne bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybwad, Marius; Skogan, Gunnar; Blatny, Janet Martha

    2014-01-01

    Naturally occurring bioaerosol environments may present a challenge to biological detection-identification-monitoring (BIODIM) systems aiming at rapid and reliable warning of bioterrorism incidents. One way to improve the operational performance of BIODIM systems is to increase our understanding of relevant bioaerosol backgrounds. Subway stations are enclosed public environments which may be regarded as potential bioterrorism targets. This study provides novel information concerning the temporal variability of the concentration level, size distribution, and diversity of airborne bacteria in a Norwegian subway station. Three different air samplers were used during a 72-h sampling campaign in February 2011. The results suggested that the airborne bacterial environment was stable between days and seasons, while the intraday variability was found to be substantial, although often following a consistent diurnal pattern. The bacterial levels ranged from not detected to 10(3) CFU m(-3) and generally showed increased levels during the daytime compared to the nighttime levels, as well as during rush hours compared to non-rush hours. The airborne bacterial levels showed rapid temporal variation (up to 270-fold) on some occasions, both consistent and inconsistent with the diurnal profile. Airborne bacterium-containing particles were distributed between different sizes for particles of >1.1 μm, although ∼50% were between 1.1 and 3.3 μm. Anthropogenic activities (mainly passengers) were demonstrated as major sources of airborne bacteria and predominantly contributed 1.1- to 3.3-μm bacterium-containing particles. Our findings contribute to the development of realistic testing and evaluation schemes for BIODIM equipment by providing information that may be used to simulate operational bioaerosol backgrounds during controlled aerosol chamber-based challenge tests with biological threat agents.

  9. Temporal Variability of the Bioaerosol Background at a Subway Station: Concentration Level, Size Distribution, and Diversity of Airborne Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybwad, Marius; Skogan, Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    Naturally occurring bioaerosol environments may present a challenge to biological detection-identification-monitoring (BIODIM) systems aiming at rapid and reliable warning of bioterrorism incidents. One way to improve the operational performance of BIODIM systems is to increase our understanding of relevant bioaerosol backgrounds. Subway stations are enclosed public environments which may be regarded as potential bioterrorism targets. This study provides novel information concerning the temporal variability of the concentration level, size distribution, and diversity of airborne bacteria in a Norwegian subway station. Three different air samplers were used during a 72-h sampling campaign in February 2011. The results suggested that the airborne bacterial environment was stable between days and seasons, while the intraday variability was found to be substantial, although often following a consistent diurnal pattern. The bacterial levels ranged from not detected to 103 CFU m−3 and generally showed increased levels during the daytime compared to the nighttime levels, as well as during rush hours compared to non-rush hours. The airborne bacterial levels showed rapid temporal variation (up to 270-fold) on some occasions, both consistent and inconsistent with the diurnal profile. Airborne bacterium-containing particles were distributed between different sizes for particles of >1.1 μm, although ∼50% were between 1.1 and 3.3 μm. Anthropogenic activities (mainly passengers) were demonstrated as major sources of airborne bacteria and predominantly contributed 1.1- to 3.3-μm bacterium-containing particles. Our findings contribute to the development of realistic testing and evaluation schemes for BIODIM equipment by providing information that may be used to simulate operational bioaerosol backgrounds during controlled aerosol chamber-based challenge tests with biological threat agents. PMID:24162566

  10. Vertebral scale system to measure heart size in thoracic radiographs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In veterinary diagnostic radiology, determination of heart size is necessary in the assessment of patients with clinical signs of cardiac anomaly. In this study, heart sizes were compared with lengths of mid-thoracic vertebrae in 12 clinically normal West African Dwarf Goats (WADGs) (8 females, 4 males). The aim of the ...

  11. Carbon storage in soil size fractions under two cacao agroforestry systems in Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama-Rodrigues, Emanuela F; Ramachandran Nair, P K; Nair, Vimala D; Gama-Rodrigues, Antonio C; Baligar, Virupax C; Machado, Regina C R

    2010-02-01

    Shaded perennial agroforestry systems contain relatively high quantities of soil carbon (C) resulting from continuous deposition of plant residues; however, the extent to which the C is sequestered in soil will depend on the extent of physical protection of soil organic C (SOC). The main objective of this study was to characterize SOC storage in relation to soil fraction-size classes in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) agroforestry systems (AFSs). Two shaded cacao systems and an adjacent natural forest in reddish-yellow Oxisols in Bahia, Brazil were selected. Soil samples were collected from four depth classes to 1 m depth and separated by wet-sieving into three fraction-size classes (>250 microm, 250-53 microm, and <53 microm)-corresponding to macroaggregate, microaggregate, and silt-and-clay size fractions-and analyzed for C content. The total SOC stock did not vary among systems (mean: 302 Mg/ha). On average, 72% of SOC was in macroaggregate-size, 20% in microaggregate-size, and 8% in silt-and-clay size fractions in soil. Sonication of aggregates showed that occlusion of C in soil aggregates could be a major mechanism of C protection in these soils. Considering the low level of soil disturbances in cacao AFSs, the C contained in the macroaggregate fraction might become stabilized in the soil. The study shows the role of cacao AFSs in mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emission through accumulation and retention of high amounts of organic C in the soils and suggests the potential benefit of this environmental service to the nearly 6 million cacao farmers worldwide.

  12. Control of System with Defined Risk Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Tomasov

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the following paper the basic requirements for system control with defined risk level is presented. The paper should be an introduction to describe of theoretical apparatus, which was created during some years of research work in the Department of information and safety systems in this area. It a modification or creation of new parts of Information theory, System theory, and Control theory means. This parts are necessary for the analysis and synthesis tasks in the systems where dominant attribute of control is defined risk level. The basic problem is the creation of protect mechanism again the threats from inside and from controlled system environs. For each risk reduction mechanism is needed some redundancy which should be into control algorithm to put by exactly determined way.

  13. Dense arrays of millimeter-sized glass lenses fabricated at wafer-level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albero, Jorge; Perrin, Stéphane; Bargiel, Sylwester; Passilly, Nicolas; Baranski, Maciej; Gauthier-Manuel, Ludovic; Bernard, Florent; Lullin, Justine; Froehly, Luc; Krauter, Johann; Osten, Wolfgang; Gorecki, Christophe

    2015-05-04

    This paper presents the study of a fabrication technique of lenses arrays based on the reflow of glass inside cylindrical silicon cavities. Lenses whose sizes are out of the microfabrication standards are considered. In particular, the case of high fill factor arrays is discussed in detail since the proximity between lenses generates undesired effects. These effects, not experienced when lenses are sufficiently separated so that they can be considered as single items, are corrected by properly designing the silicon cavities. Complete topographic as well as optical characterizations are reported. The compatibility of materials with Micro-Opto-Electromechanical Systems (MOEMS) integration processes makes this technology attractive for the miniaturization of inspection systems, especially those devoted to imaging.

  14. Development of digital low level rf system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michizono, Shinichiro; Anami, Shozo; Katagiri, Hiroaki; Fang, Zhigao; Matsumoto, Toshihiro; Miura, Takako; Yano, Yoshiharu; Yamaguchi, Seiya; Kobayashi, Tetsuya

    2008-01-01

    One of the biggest advantages of the digital low level rf (LLRF) system is its flexibility. Owing to the recent rapid progress in digital devices (such as ADCs and DACs) and telecommunication devices (mixers and IQ modulators), digital LLRF system becomes popular in these 10 years. The J-PARC linac LLRF system adopted cPCI crates and FPGA based digital feedback system. Since the LLRF control of the normal conducting cavities are more difficult than super conducting cavities due to its lower Q values, fast processing using the FPGA was the essential to the feedback control. After the successful operation of J-PARC linac LLRF system, we developed the STF (ILC test facility in KEK) LLRF system. Since the klystron drives eight cavities in STF phase 1, we modified the FPGA board. Basic configuration and the performances of these systems are summarized. The future R and D projects (ILC and ERL) is also described from the viewpoints of LLRF. (author)

  15. Packaged low-level waste verification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuite, K.T.; Winberg, M.; Flores, A.Y.; Killian, E.W.; McIsaac, C.V.

    1996-01-01

    Currently, states and low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal site operators have no method of independently verifying the radionuclide content of packaged LLW that arrive at disposal sites for disposal. At this time, disposal sites rely on LLW generator shipping manifests and accompanying records to insure that LLW received meets the waste acceptance criteria. An independent verification system would provide a method of checking generator LLW characterization methods and help ensure that LLW disposed of at disposal facilities meets requirements. The Mobile Low-Level Waste Verification System (MLLWVS) provides the equipment, software, and methods to enable the independent verification of LLW shipping records to insure that disposal site waste acceptance criteria are being met. The MLLWVS system was developed under a cost share subcontract between WMG, Inc., and Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies through the Department of Energy's National Low-Level Waste Management Program at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL)

  16. Design space pruning through hybrid analysis in system-level design space exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piscitelli, R.; Pimentel, A.D.

    2012-01-01

    System-level design space exploration (DSE), which is performed early in the design process, is of eminent importance to the design of complex multi-processor embedded system archi- tectures. During system-level DSE, system parameters like, e.g., the number and type of processors, the type and size

  17. Interleaving methods for hybrid system-level MPSoC design space exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piscitelli, R.; Pimentel, A.D.; McAllister, J.; Bhattacharyya, S.

    2012-01-01

    System-level design space exploration (DSE), which is performed early in the design process, is of eminent importance to the design of complex multi-processor embedded system architectures. During system-level DSE, system parameters like, e.g., the number and type of processors, the type and size of

  18. Pruning techniques for multi-objective system-level design space exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piscitelli, R.

    2014-01-01

    System-level design space exploration (DSE), which is performed early in the design process, is of eminent importance to the design of complex multi-processor embedded system architectures. During system-level DSE, system parameters like, e.g., the number and type of processors, the type and size of

  19. Urbanization level and woodland size are major drivers of woodpecker species richness and abundance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukasz Myczko

    Full Text Available Urbanization is a process globally responsible for loss of biodiversity and for biological homogenization. Urbanization may have a direct negative impact on species behaviour and indirect effects on species populations through alterations of their habitats, for example patch size and habitat quality. Woodpeckers are species potentially susceptible to urbanization. These birds are mostly forest specialists and the development of urban areas in former forests may be an important factor influencing their richness and abundance, but documented examples are rare. In this study we investigated how woodpeckers responded to changes in forest habitats as a consequence of urbanization, namely size and isolation of habitat patches, and other within-patch characteristics. We selected 42 woodland patches in a gradient from a semi-natural rural landscape to the city centre of Poznań (Western Poland in spring 2010. Both species richness and abundance of woodpeckers correlated positively to woodland patch area and negatively to increasing urbanization. Abundance of woodpeckers was also positively correlated with shrub cover and percentage of deciduous tree species. Furthermore, species richness and abundance of woodpeckers were highest at moderate values of canopy openness. Ordination analyses confirmed that urbanization level and woodland patch area were variables contributing most to species abundance in the woodpecker community. Similar results were obtained in presence-absence models for particular species. Thus, to sustain woodpecker species within cities it is important to keep woodland patches large, multi-layered and rich in deciduous tree species.

  20. Urbanization level and woodland size are major drivers of woodpecker species richness and abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myczko, Lukasz; Rosin, Zuzanna M; Skórka, Piotr; Tryjanowski, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Urbanization is a process globally responsible for loss of biodiversity and for biological homogenization. Urbanization may have a direct negative impact on species behaviour and indirect effects on species populations through alterations of their habitats, for example patch size and habitat quality. Woodpeckers are species potentially susceptible to urbanization. These birds are mostly forest specialists and the development of urban areas in former forests may be an important factor influencing their richness and abundance, but documented examples are rare. In this study we investigated how woodpeckers responded to changes in forest habitats as a consequence of urbanization, namely size and isolation of habitat patches, and other within-patch characteristics. We selected 42 woodland patches in a gradient from a semi-natural rural landscape to the city centre of Poznań (Western Poland) in spring 2010. Both species richness and abundance of woodpeckers correlated positively to woodland patch area and negatively to increasing urbanization. Abundance of woodpeckers was also positively correlated with shrub cover and percentage of deciduous tree species. Furthermore, species richness and abundance of woodpeckers were highest at moderate values of canopy openness. Ordination analyses confirmed that urbanization level and woodland patch area were variables contributing most to species abundance in the woodpecker community. Similar results were obtained in presence-absence models for particular species. Thus, to sustain woodpecker species within cities it is important to keep woodland patches large, multi-layered and rich in deciduous tree species.

  1. Digging deeper into platform game level design: session size and sequential features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Noor; Yannakakis, Georgios N.; Togelius, Julian

    2012-01-01

    A recent trend within computational intelligence and games research is to investigate how to affect video game players’ in-game experience by designing and/or modifying aspects of game content. Analysing the relationship between game content, player behaviour and self-reported affective states...... constitutes an important step towards understanding game experience and constructing effective game adaptation mechanisms. This papers reports on further refinement of a method to understand this relationship by analysing data collected from players, building models that predict player experience...... and analysing what features of game and player data predict player affect best. We analyse data from players playing 780 pairs of short game sessions of the platform game Super Mario Bros, investigate the impact of the session size and what part of the level that has the major affect on player experience...

  2. Material size effects on crack growth along patterned wafer-level Cu–Cu bonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo; Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Hutchinson, John W.

    2013-01-01

    together. Crack growth along the bond interface is here studied numerically using finite element analyses. The experiments have shown that plasticity in the Cu films makes a major contribution to the macroscopic interface toughness. To account for the size dependence of the plastic flow a strain gradient...... plasticity model is applied here for the metal. A cohesive zone model is applied to represent the crack growth along the bond between the two Cu films. This cohesive zone model incorporates the effect of higher order stresses in the continuum, such that the higher order tractions on the crack faces decay...... the toughness peak and the subsequent plateau level are highly sensitive to the value of the characteristic material length. A small material length, relative to the thickness of the Cu film, gives high toughness whereas a length comparable to the film thickness gives much reduced crack growth resistance...

  3. Load leveling on industrial refrigeration systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierenbaum, H. S.; Kraus, A. D.

    1982-01-01

    A computer model was constructed of a brewery with a 2000 horsepower compressor/refrigeration system. The various conservation and load management options were simulated using the validated model. The savings available for implementing the most promising options were verified by trials in the brewery. Result show that an optimized methodology for implementing load leveling and energy conservation consisted of: (1) adjusting (or tuning) refrigeration systems controller variables to minimize unnecessary compressor starts, (2) The primary refrigeration system operating parameters, compressor suction pressure, and discharge pressure are carefully controlled (modulated) to satisfy product quality constraints (as well as in-process material cooling rates and temperature levels) and energy evaluating the energy cost savings associated with reject heat recovery, and (4) a decision is made to implement the reject heat recovery system based on a cost/benefits analysis.

  4. Modelling of Signal - Level Crossing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Novak

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The author presents an object-oriented model of a railway level-crossing system created for the purpose of functional requirements specification. Unified Modelling Language (UML, version 1.4, which enables specification, visualisation, construction and documentation of software system artefacts, was used. The main attention was paid to analysis and design phases. The former phase resulted in creation of use case diagrams and sequential diagrams, the latter in creation of class/object diagrams and statechart diagrams.

  5. Sperm production, testicular size, serum gonadotropins and testosterone levels in Merino and Corriedale breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Abella, D; Becu-Villalobos, D; Lacau-Mengido, I M; Villegas, N; Bentancur, O

    1999-01-01

    The relationships between testis size, hormone secretion and sperm production were studied during the spring (December) and autumn (May) in rams of two breeds with different breeding seasons and body weights (Corriedale and Australian Merino) maintained on native pastures and under natural photoperiods in Uruguay. Blood samples were collected at 20-min intervals during a 260-360-min period in 13 rams (four Corriedale, nine Australian Merino) during the late spring and autumn. Rams were weighed and testis size was estimated by orchimetry at each time period. Sperm production was estimated during a 2-week period, 2 months before blood collection and during each week following every blood collection. There was no relationship between testicular size and sperm production measured at the same time, nor between live weight and sperm production. In contrast, testicular volume during the late spring was correlated with sperm production in the autumn (r = 0.65; P = 0.02). The autumn serum LH was higher in Corriedale than in Merino rams. LH pulsatility was unaffected by season, but LH pulse frequency tended to be higher in Corriedale than in Merino rams, particularly in the late spring (2.37 versus 1.56 pulses/6 h; P = 0.08). Serum testosterone concentration was similar in both breeds and seasons. FSH levels were higher in the late spring than in the autumn in both breeds (Corriedale: 2.83 +/- 0.48 versus 2.17 +/- 0.24 ng x mL(-1); Merino: 2.23 +/- 0.24 versus 1.88 +/- 0.17 ng x mL(-1)). FSH and testosterone concentrations during the late spring were positively correlated with autumn sperm production (P = 0.07 and P = 0.03, respectively). In conclusion, the present experiment suggests that LH secretion is not a good parameter for the prediction of sperm production. In contrast, in our conditions (breeds and native pastures) testicular size and testosterone or FSH concentrations from the late spring may be used to predict sperm production in the autumn.

  6. Visual Acuity does not Moderate Effect Sizes of Higher-Level Cognitive Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, James R.; Bennett, Ilana J.; Allen, Philip A.; Madden, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Declining visual capacities in older adults have been posited as a driving force behind adult age differences in higher-order cognitive functions (e.g., the “common cause” hypothesis of Lindenberger & Baltes, 1994). McGowan, Patterson and Jordan (2013) also found that a surprisingly large number of published cognitive aging studies failed to include adequate measures of visual acuity. However, a recent meta-analysis of three studies (LaFleur & Salthouse, 2014) failed to find evidence that visual acuity moderated or mediated age differences in higher-level cognitive processes. In order to provide a more extensive test of whether visual acuity moderates age differences in higher-level cognitive processes, we conducted a more extensive meta-analysis of topic. Methods Using results from 456 studies, we calculated effect sizes for the main effect of age across four cognitive domains (attention, executive function, memory, and perception/language) separately for five levels of visual acuity criteria (no criteria, undisclosed criteria, self-reported acuity, 20/80-20/31, and 20/30 or better). Results As expected, age had a significant effect on each cognitive domain. However, these age effects did not further differ as a function of visual acuity criteria. Conclusion The current meta-analytic, cross-sectional results suggest that visual acuity is not significantly related to age group differences in higher-level cognitive performance—thereby replicating LaFleur and Salthouse (2014). Further efforts are needed to determine whether other measures of visual functioning (e.g. contrast sensitivity, luminance) affect age differences in cognitive functioning. PMID:27070044

  7. THE FINANCIAL LIQUIDITY OF THE FOOD INDUSTRY ENTERPRISES IN POLAND IN THE SYSTEM SIZE OF ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bieniasz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the diversification of financial liquidity of food industry enterprises in Poland in 2009-2011 and indicates the main factors shaping liquidity. The study used unpublished data of Central Statistical Office, allowing for the analysis of liquidity in the system classes the food industry and the system enterprise size (small, medium, large. The analyses show, that the food industry in Poland in 2009-2011, regardless of their size and adopted ratios, have the ability to regulate the current liabilities, but kept at a low level. Analysis of the factors influencing liquidity showed, that the primary importance was turnover ratio of current liabilities, as well as ratio of financing of income through equity.

  8. Actively shielded low level gamma - spectrometric system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrdja, D.; Bikit, I.; Forkapic, S.; Slivka, J.; Veskovic, M.

    2005-01-01

    The results of the adjusting and testing of the actively shielded low level gamma-spectrometry system are presented. The veto action of the shield reduces the background in the energy region of 50 keV to the 2800 keV for about 3 times. (author) [sr

  9. System level modelling with open source tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Mikkel Koefoed; Madsen, Jan; Niaki, Seyed Hosein Attarzadeh

    , called ForSyDe. ForSyDe is available under the open Source approach, which allows small and medium enterprises (SME) to get easy access to advanced modeling capabilities and tools. We give an introduction to the design methodology through the system level modeling of a simple industrial use case, and we...

  10. Optimal Photovoltaic System Sizing of a Hybrid Diesel/PV System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Belhamadia

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a cost analysis study of a hybrid diesel and Photovoltaic (PV system in Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia. It first presents the climate conditions of the city followed by the load profile of a 2MVA network; the system was evaluated as a standalone system. Diesel generator rating was considered such that it follows ISO 8528. The maximum size of the PV system was selected such that its penetration would not exceed 25%. Several sizes were considered but the 400kWp system was found to be the most cost efficient. Cost estimation was done using Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable (HOMER. Based on the simulation results, the climate conditions and the NEC 960, the numbers of the maximum and minimum series modules were suggested as well as the maximum number of the parallel strings.

  11. The brain sizes of living elasmobranchii as their organization level indicator. I. General analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myagkov, N A

    1991-01-01

    The relationship between brain and body masses of 64 species and subspecies of modern sharks and skates was investigated. It was established that the level of their encephalization in terms of the polygons of encephalization and the allometry coefficient (alpha), shows quite obviously the general organization level of one or another taxon of sharks and skates. Alpha = 0.56 for the class of cartilaginous fishes, and for the superorder of sharks and skates alpha = 0.54 and 0.61, accordingly. For several orders alpha constitutes: sharks--common for relict Hexanchiformes and Heterodontiformes 0.44, Squaliformes 0.43 and Carcharhiniformes 0.52 and skates--Rajiformes 0.44 and Dasyatiformes 0.52. All values are similar to those of other vertebrates and the theoretically calculated value of alpha (0.67). It was established the "place" of present-day Elasmobranchii and all cartilaginous fishes in the evolutionary row of Gnathostomata and Craniata on the developing and relative sizes of CNS, and the corrected alpha value for this particular vertebrate class was specified which was found to be sensationally high also in the works of foreign and native authors (Bauchot et al., 1976; Northcutt, 1978; Ebbesson, 1980; Kreps, 1980).

  12. Vertebral scale system to measure canine heart size in radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchanan, J.W.; Bucheler, J.

    1995-01-01

    A method for measuring canine heart size in radiographs was developed on the basis that there is a good correlation between heart size and body length regardless of the conformation of the thorax. The lengths of the long and short axes of the heart of 100 clinically normal dogs were determined with calipers, and the dimensions were scaled against the length of vertebrae dorsal to the heart beginning with T4. The sum of the long and short axes of the heart expressed as vertebral heart size was 9.7 +/- 0.5 vertebrae. The differences between dogs with a wide or deep thorax, males and females, and right or left lateral recumbency were not significant. The caudal vena cava was 0.75 vertebrae +/- 0.13 in comparison to the length of the vertebra over the tracheal bifurcation

  13. TAXATION SYSTEM AT INTRA PRODUCTION LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Podderegina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of the analysis concerning taxation in the country at the level of an enteфrise and its structural sub-divisions in the period of transforming economy.Recommendations are given on the following aspects: modernization of income taxation system for natural persons; tax payment in case of wage computation; exclusion of tax payments and assignments fi-om production cost value which are not connected with the production process; tax computation for real property; evaluation of enterprise taxation level.The paper shows the possible cases concerning formation of tax payments and assignments of an enterprise and its structural sub-divisions.Taxation system is shown at the level of enterprise structural sub-divisions (shop, department, at the level of shop structural sub-divisions (section, team, for works to be executed by an individual person of the production process (operation, product, works, services. This system promotes to efficient functioning of intra-production economical relations.The paper provides possible variants of formation of taxation payments and assignments for an enterprise and its structural sub-divisions.

  14. One size fits all? An assessment tool for solid waste management at local and national levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broitman, Dani, E-mail: danib@techunix.technion.ac.il [Department of Natural Resources and Environment Management, Graduate school of Management, University of Haifa, Haifa 31905 (Israel); Ayalon, Ofira [Department of Natural Resources and Environment Management, Graduate school of Management, University of Haifa, Haifa 31905 (Israel); Kan, Iddo [Department of Agricultural Economics and Management, Faculty of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Quality Sciences, Rehovot 76100 (Israel)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Waste management schemes are generally implemented at national or regional level. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Local conditions characteristics and constraints are often neglected. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We developed an economic model able to compare multi-level waste management options. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A detailed test case with real economic data and a best-fit scenario is described. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Most efficient schemes combine clear National directives with local level flexibility. - Abstract: As environmental awareness rises, integrated solid waste management (WM) schemes are increasingly being implemented all over the world. The different WM schemes usually address issues such as landfilling restrictions (mainly due to methane emissions and competing land use), packaging directives and compulsory recycling goals. These schemes are, in general, designed at a national or regional level, whereas local conditions and constraints are sometimes neglected. When national WM top-down policies, in addition to setting goals, also dictate the methods by which they are to be achieved, local authorities lose their freedom to optimize their operational WM schemes according to their specific characteristics. There are a myriad of implementation options at the local level, and by carrying out a bottom-up approach the overall national WM system will be optimal on economic and environmental scales. This paper presents a model for optimizing waste strategies at a local level and evaluates this effect at a national level. This is achieved by using a waste assessment model which enables us to compare both the economic viability of several WM options at the local (single municipal authority) level, and aggregated results for regional or national levels. A test case based on various WM approaches in Israel (several implementations of mixed and separated waste) shows that local characteristics significantly

  15. Evaluation of the field size in dental diagnostic radiology system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, P.S.; Potiens, M.P.A.

    2006-01-01

    In this work the field size of a dental X rays machine was evaluated considering the recommendation of the Brazilian Health Ministry Regulation 453 which established basic lines of radiological protection in medical and dental diagnostic radiology. The diameter of the field should not be superior to 6 cm in the localized end point, limiting the radiated area and protecting the head-neck region. The measurements were carried out in a dental X rays machine, Dabi Atlante, model Spectro 70X Seletronic. For the field size or useful beam determination, the intra-oral films were positioned on a plain surface to be exposed in four stages and two focus-film distances (FFD), 20 cm and 27.5 cm: 1) with spacer cone; 2) without spacer cone; 3) with spacer cone and film-holding device; 4) without spacer cone and film-holding device. The results show that the diameter of the field size is satisfactory only for FFD = 20 cm. When the film-holding device is used, which is recommended by the Regulation 453, item 5.8 d(ii), the diameter of the field size exceeds the maximum recommended value of 6 cm. (authors)

  16. Optimal Sizing and Placement of Battery Energy Storage in Distribution System Based on Solar Size for Voltage Regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazaripouya, Hamidreza [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Wang, Yubo [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Chu, Peter [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Pota, Hemanshu R. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Gadh, Rajit [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2016-07-26

    This paper proposes a new strategy to achieve voltage regulation in distributed power systems in the presence of solar energy sources and battery storage systems. The goal is to find the minimum size of battery storage and its corresponding location in the network based on the size and place of the integrated solar generation. The proposed method formulates the problem by employing the network impedance matrix to obtain an analytical solution instead of using a recursive algorithm such as power flow. The required modifications for modeling the slack and PV buses (generator buses) are utilized to increase the accuracy of the approach. The use of reactive power control to regulate the voltage regulation is not always an optimal solution as in distribution systems R/X is large. In this paper the minimum size and the best place of battery storage is achieved by optimizing the amount of both active and reactive power exchanged by battery storage and its gridtie inverter (GTI) based on the network topology and R/X ratios in the distribution system. Simulation results for the IEEE 14-bus system verify the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  17. Variation in levels of reactive oxygen species is explained by maternal identity, sex and body-size-corrected clutch size in a lizard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Mats; Wilson, Mark; Uller, Tobias; Mott, Beth; Isaksson, Caroline

    2009-01-01

    Many organisms show differences between males and females in growth rate and crucial life history parameters, such as longevity. Considering this, we may expect levels of toxic metabolic by-products of the respiratory chain, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), to vary with age and sex. Here, we analyse ROS levels in female Australian painted dragon lizards ( Ctenophorus pictus) and their offspring using fluorescent probes and flow cytometry. Basal level of four ROS species (singlet oxygen, peroxynitrite, superoxide and H2O2) measured with a combined marker, and superoxide measured specifically, varied significantly among families but not between the sexes. When blood cells from offspring were chemically encouraged to accelerate the electron transport chain by mitochondrial uncoupling, net superoxide levels were three times higher in daughters than sons (resulting in levels outside of the normal ROS range) and varied among mothers depending on offspring sex (significant interaction between maternal identity and offspring sex). In offspring, there were depressive effects on ROS of size-controlled relative clutch size, which relies directly on circulating levels of vitellogenin, a confirmed antioxidant in some species. Thus, levels of reactive oxygen species varies among females, offspring and in relation to reproductive investment in a manner that makes its regulatory processes likely targets of selection.

  18. National high-level waste systems analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristofferson, K.; O'Holleran, T.P.

    1996-01-01

    Previously, no mechanism existed that provided a systematic, interrelated view or national perspective of all high-level waste treatment and storage systems that the US Department of Energy manages. The impacts of budgetary constraints and repository availability on storage and treatment must be assessed against existing and pending negotiated milestones for their impact on the overall HLW system. This assessment can give DOE a complex-wide view of the availability of waste treatment and help project the time required to prepare HLW for disposal. Facilities, throughputs, schedules, and milestones were modeled to ascertain the treatment and storage systems resource requirements at the Hanford Site, Savannah River Site, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, and West Valley Demonstration Project. The impacts of various treatment system availabilities on schedule and throughput were compared to repository readiness to determine the prudent application of resources. To assess the various impacts, the model was exercised against a number of plausible scenarios as discussed in this paper

  19. Solar Desalination System Model for Sizing of Photovoltaic Reverse Osmosis (PVRO)

    KAUST Repository

    Habib, Abdulelah; Zamani, Vahraz; Kleissl, Jan

    2015-01-01

    loads, are considered as an ON/OFF units to track these solar energy variations. Reverse osmosis units are different in sizes and numbers. Various combinations of reverse osmosis units in size and capacity provide different water desalination system

  20. Level controlling system in BWR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joge, Toshio; Higashigawa, Yuichi; Oomori, Takashi.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To reasonably attain fully automatic water level control in the core of BWR type nuclear power plants. Constitution: A feedwater flow regulation valve for reactor operation and a feedwater flow regulation valve for starting are provided at the outlet of a motor-driven feedwater pump in a feedwater system, and these valves are controlled by a feedwater flow rate controller. While on the other hand, a damp valve for reactor clean up system is controlled either in ''computer'' mode or in ''manual'' mode selected by a master switch, that is, controlled from a computer or the ON-OFF switch of the master switch by way of a valve control analog memory and a turn-over switch. In this way, the water level in the nuclear reactor can be controlled in a fully automatic manner reasonably at the starting up and shutdown of the plant to thereby provide man power saving. (Seki, T.)

  1. The CMS High Level Trigger System

    CERN Document Server

    Afaq, A; Bauer, G; Biery, K; Boyer, V; Branson, J; Brett, A; Cano, E; Carboni, A; Cheung, H; Ciganek, M; Cittolin, S; Dagenhart, W; Erhan, S; Gigi, D; Glege, F; Gómez-Reino, Robert; Gulmini, M; Gutiérrez-Mlot, E; Gutleber, J; Jacobs, C; Kim, J C; Klute, M; Kowalkowski, J; Lipeles, E; Lopez-Perez, Juan Antonio; Maron, G; Meijers, F; Meschi, E; Moser, R; Murray, S; Oh, A; Orsini, L; Paus, C; Petrucci, A; Pieri, M; Pollet, L; Rácz, A; Sakulin, H; Sani, M; Schieferdecker, P; Schwick, C; Sexton-Kennedy, E; Sumorok, K; Suzuki, I; Tsirigkas, D; Varela, J

    2007-01-01

    The CMS Data Acquisition (DAQ) System relies on a purely software driven High Level Trigger (HLT) to reduce the full Level-1 accept rate of 100 kHz to approximately 100 Hz for archiving and later offline analysis. The HLT operates on the full information of events assembled by an event builder collecting detector data from the CMS front-end systems. The HLT software consists of a sequence of reconstruction and filtering modules executed on a farm of O(1000) CPUs built from commodity hardware. This paper presents the architecture of the CMS HLT, which integrates the CMS reconstruction framework in the online environment. The mechanisms to configure, control, and monitor the Filter Farm and the procedures to validate the filtering code within the DAQ environment are described.

  2. Influence of information systems on stock management in little and middle sized supermarkets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir Luis Pick

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at presenting a multiple case study in which was analyzed the influence of information systems usage on the stock management processes in medium and little-sized retailers. We assessed four supermarkets from the inner land of Rio Grande do Sul, with different status in information systems development. The performance in stock management was appraised with the aid of five numerical indicators, defined in focus group sections with experts, led by researcher. The main observed influences were: average inventory, stock cycle, percentage of shortages and GM-ROI. WE observed high negative correlations between these variables and the level of usage of information systems: the more the company uses it, the less the variables grew, what is a desirable behavior. We do not found influence of the information system on sales volumes.

  3. The correlation between changes of C-reactive protein (CRP level and size of infarct in stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Aboutalebi

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The presence of C-reactive protein (CRP during different stages of stroke had been shown in several studies. There is still no definite document about the correlation of CRP level and size of infarct in stroke. We studied the correlation of the acute level of CRP with size of infarct in stroke. Methods: A total of 90 consecutive patients with acute stroke admitted in Fatemeh Zahra University Hospital in Bushehr city were studied. Levels of CRP were measured at admission time and 48 hours later. Sizes of infarct and types of stroke were determined with Computerized Tomography scanning. The excluded patients were those with infection, stroke in brain stem, a delay more than 24 hours after attack of stroke and Transient Ischemic Attacks. CRP level was measured quantitatively using ELISA method. Results: No correlation between the first CRP levels and variables of age, size of infarct and type of stroke was detected. Size of infarct was correlated with the second CRP (r=0.41, P<0.001 and the difference in CRP levels (r=0.45, P<0.001. The CRP difference was significant in ischemic, hemorrhagic and territory infarcts (P<0.01. But there was no difference between the first and the second CRP in lacunar infarcts. Conclusion: We found no correlation between the CRP levels of the 24 first hours after acute stroke with size of infarct in stroke. But the increase of CRP levels which were measured in 48 hours after the stroke had correlation with size of infarct irrespective of types of stroke. More studies could reveal the cause and effect of CRP in size of infarct in stroke.

  4. Urban bat communities are affected by wetland size, quality, and pollution levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straka, Tanja Maria; Lentini, Pia Eloise; Lumsden, Linda Faye; Wintle, Brendan Anthony; van der Ree, Rodney

    2016-07-01

    Wetlands support unique biota and provide important ecosystem services. These services are highly threatened due to the rate of loss and relative rarity of wetlands in most landscapes, an issue that is exacerbated in highly modified urban environments. Despite this, critical ecological knowledge is currently lacking for many wetland-dependent taxa, such as insectivorous bats, which can persist in urban areas if their habitats are managed appropriately. Here, we use a novel paired landscape approach to investigate the role of wetlands in urban bat conservation and examine local and landscape factors driving bat species richness and activity. We acoustically monitored bat activity at 58 urban wetlands and 35 nonwetland sites (ecologically similar sites without free-standing water) in the greater Melbourne area, southeastern Australia. We analyzed bat species richness and activity patterns using generalized linear mixed-effects models. We found that the presence of water in urban Melbourne was an important driver of bat species richness and activity at a landscape scale. Increasing distance to bushland and increasing levels of heavy metal pollution within the waterbody also negatively influenced bat richness and individual species activity. Areas with high levels of artificial night light had reduced bat species richness, and reduced activity for all species except those adapted to urban areas, such as the White-striped free-tailed bat (Austronomus australis). Increased surrounding tree cover and wetland size had a positive effect on bat species richness. Our findings indicate that wetlands form critical habitats for insectivorous bats in urban environments. Large, unlit, and unpolluted wetlands flanked by high tree cover in close proximity to bushland contribute most to the richness of the bat community. Our findings clarify the role of wetlands for insectivorous bats in urban areas and will also allow for the preservation, construction, and management of wetlands

  5. Indoor particle levels in small- and medium-sized commercial buildings in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiangmei May; Apte, Michael G; Bennett, Deborah H

    2012-11-20

    This study monitored indoor and outdoor particle concentrations in 37 small and medium commercial buildings (SMCBs) in California with three buildings sampled on two occasions, resulting in 40 sampling days. Sampled buildings included offices, retail establishments, restaurants, dental offices, and hair salons, among others. Continuous measurements were made for both ultrafine and fine particulate matter as well as black carbon inside and outside of the building. Integrated PM(2.5), PM(2.5-10), and PM(10) samples were also collected inside and outside the building. The majority of the buildings had indoor/outdoor (I/O) particle concentration ratios less than 1.0, indicating that contributions from indoor sources are less than removal of outdoor particles. However, some of the buildings had I/O ratios greater than 1, indicating significant indoor particle sources. This was particularly true of restaurants, hair salons, and dental offices. The infiltration factor was estimated from a regression analysis of indoor and outdoor concentrations for each particle size fraction, finding lower values for ultrafine and coarse particles than for submicrometer particles, as expected. The I/O ratio of black carbon was used as a relative measure of the infiltration factor of particles among buildings, with a geometric mean of 0.62. The contribution of indoor sources to indoor particle levels was estimated for each building.

  6. Quantitative evaluation of waste prevention on the level of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laner, David; Rechberger, Helmut

    2009-01-01

    Waste prevention is a principle means of achieving the goals of waste management and a key element for developing sustainable economies. Small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) contribute substantially to environmental degradation, often not even being aware of their environmental effects. Therefore, several initiatives have been launched in Austria aimed at supporting waste prevention measures on the level of SMEs. To promote the most efficient projects, they have to be evaluated with respect to their contribution to the goals of waste management. It is the aim of this paper to develop a methodology for evaluating waste prevention measures in SMEs based on their goal orientation. At first, conceptual problems of defining and delineating waste prevention activities are briefly discussed. Then an approach to evaluate waste prevention activities with respect to their environmental performance is presented and benchmarks which allow for an efficient use of the available funds are developed. Finally the evaluation method is applied to a number of former projects and the calculated results are analysed with respect to shortcomings and limitations of the model. It is found that the developed methodology can provide a tool for a more objective and comprehensible evaluation of waste prevention measures

  7. Quantitative evaluation of waste prevention on the level of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laner, David; Rechberger, Helmut

    2009-02-01

    Waste prevention is a principle means of achieving the goals of waste management and a key element for developing sustainable economies. Small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) contribute substantially to environmental degradation, often not even being aware of their environmental effects. Therefore, several initiatives have been launched in Austria aimed at supporting waste prevention measures on the level of SMEs. To promote the most efficient projects, they have to be evaluated with respect to their contribution to the goals of waste management. It is the aim of this paper to develop a methodology for evaluating waste prevention measures in SMEs based on their goal orientation. At first, conceptual problems of defining and delineating waste prevention activities are briefly discussed. Then an approach to evaluate waste prevention activities with respect to their environmental performance is presented and benchmarks which allow for an efficient use of the available funds are developed. Finally the evaluation method is applied to a number of former projects and the calculated results are analysed with respect to shortcomings and limitations of the model. It is found that the developed methodology can provide a tool for a more objective and comprehensible evaluation of waste prevention measures.

  8. Conceptual design of small-sized HTGR system (1). Major specifications and system designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohashi, Hirofumi; Sato, Hiroyuki; Tazawa, Yujiro; Yan, Xing L.; Tachibana, Yukio

    2011-06-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has started a conceptual design of a 50MWt small-sized high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) for steam supply and electricity generation (HTR50S), which is a first-of-kind of the commercial plant or a demonstration plant of a small-sized HTGR system for steam supply to the industries and district heating and electricity generation by a steam turbine, to deploy in developing countries in the 2030s. The design philosophy is that the HTR50S is a high advanced reactor, which is reducing the R and D risk based on the HTTR design, upgrading the performance and reducing the cost for commercialization by utilizing the knowledge obtained by the HTTR operation and the GTHTR300 design. The major specifications of the HTR50S were determined and targets of the technology demonstration using the HTR50S (e.g., the increasing the power density, reduction of the number of uranium enrichment in the fuel, increasing the burn up, side-by-side arrangement between the reactor pressure vessel and the steam generator) were identified. In addition, the system design of HTR50S, which offers the capability of electricity generation, cogeneration of electricity and steam for a district heating and industries, was performed. Furthermore, a market size of small-sized HTGR systems was investigated. (author)

  9. Developing a Family-Size Biogas-Fueled Electricity Generating System

    OpenAIRE

    Haryanto, Agus; Marotin, Fadli; Triyono, Sugeng; Hasanudin, Udin

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a family-size biogas-fueled electricity generating system consisting of anaerobic digester, bio-filter scrubber, and power generating engine. Biogas was produced from a pilot scale wet anaerobic digester (5-m3 capacity). The biogas was filtered using bio-scrubber column filled with locally made compost to reduce hydrogen sulfide (H2S) content. Biogas composition was analysed using a gas chromatograph and its H2S level was measured using a H2S detector. ...

  10. [Geography of effective size of rural populations of Northern Eurasia. Geographic correlation between effective size and level of heterozygosity of populations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evsiukov, A N; Zhukova, O V; Sheremet'eva, V A; Shneĭder, Iu V; Rychkov, Iu G

    1996-11-01

    A significant geographical correlation (r = 0.719) was found between the logarithm of effective size (InNe) and heterozygosity level (H) in populations under the assumption of the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The area of highest positive correlation was positioned meridionally between the Ob and Yenisei rivers, from the Arctic coast of Taimyr Peninsula to eastern Sayans and the southern Cis-Baikal region, i.e., in the same region where the highest distribution density of mean Ne values was found. Two additional areas of high correlations were found on the northern Black Sea coast and in the lower Lena river region. Analysis and mapping of correlation ratios eta H/lnNe2 and eta lnNe/H2 revealed that effective size substantially influenced heterozygosity level (as could be expected in the case of an intense gene drift), and heterozygosity level influenced effective size to the same extent. The latter relationship indicated an intense adaptation, and changes in diversity of the gene pool caused substantial demographic changes. However, this might be accounted for by direct gene migration into a population prevailing over reverse migration, i.e., mechanical population growth prevailing over natural growth.

  11. Multi-objective optimization of water quality, pumps operation, and storage sizing of water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurek, Wojciech; Ostfeld, Avi

    2013-01-30

    A multi-objective methodology utilizing the Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm (SPEA2) linked to EPANET for trading-off pumping costs, water quality, and tanks sizing of water distribution systems is developed and demonstrated. The model integrates variable speed pumps for modeling the pumps operation, two water quality objectives (one based on chlorine disinfectant concentrations and one on water age), and tanks sizing cost which are assumed to vary with location and diameter. The water distribution system is subject to extended period simulations, variable energy tariffs, Kirchhoff's laws 1 and 2 for continuity of flow and pressure, tanks water level closure constraints, and storage-reliability requirements. EPANET Example 3 is employed for demonstrating the methodology on two multi-objective models, which differ in the imposed water quality objective (i.e., either with disinfectant or water age considerations). Three-fold Pareto optimal fronts are presented. Sensitivity analysis on the storage-reliability constraint, its influence on pumping cost, water quality, and tank sizing are explored. The contribution of this study is in tailoring design (tank sizing), pumps operational costs, water quality of two types, and reliability through residual storage requirements, in a single multi-objective framework. The model was found to be stable in generating multi-objective three-fold Pareto fronts, while producing explainable engineering outcomes. The model can be used as a decision tool for both pumps operation, water quality, required storage for reliability considerations, and tank sizing decision-making. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Morphing Wing Weight Predictors and Their Application in a Template-Based Morphing Aircraft Sizing Environment II. Part 2; Morphing Aircraft Sizing via Multi-level Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skillen, Michael D.; Crossley, William A.

    2008-01-01

    This report presents an approach for sizing of a morphing aircraft based upon a multi-level design optimization approach. For this effort, a morphing wing is one whose planform can make significant shape changes in flight - increasing wing area by 50% or more from the lowest possible area, changing sweep 30 or more, and/or increasing aspect ratio by as much as 200% from the lowest possible value. The top-level optimization problem seeks to minimize the gross weight of the aircraft by determining a set of "baseline" variables - these are common aircraft sizing variables, along with a set of "morphing limit" variables - these describe the maximum shape change for a particular morphing strategy. The sub-level optimization problems represent each segment in the morphing aircraft's design mission; here, each sub-level optimizer minimizes fuel consumed during each mission segment by changing the wing planform within the bounds set by the baseline and morphing limit variables from the top-level problem.

  13. Preoperative TSH level and risk of thyroid cancer in patients with nodular thyroid disease: nodule size contribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafón, Carles; Obiols, Gabriel; Mesa, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Many reports have supported the relationship between high preoperative TSH levels and risk of thyroid cancer in nodular thyroid disease (NTD). We investigated whether TSH levels are related to the risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) in patients who have undergone total thyroidectomy for NTD. The relationship between TSH and size of malignant nodule was investigated. Finally, we assessed whether TSH levels are related to DTC and presence of additional benign nodules. A retrospective study of 980 patients was conducted. Variables included age at diagnosis, TSH level, nodule size, gender, final histology (benign versus DTC), and type of malignancy. Malignancy was present in 261 (26.6%) patients. These patients had higher median TSH levels as compared to those with no malignancy (1.61 mU/L (0.9-2.5) versus 0.9 mU/L (0.3-1.6); p-value<0.001). TSH was higher in patients with DTC in whom the largest nodule was malignant than in patients in whom the largest nodule was benign (1.80 mU/L (1.1-2.6) versus 1.38 mU/L (0.7-2.1) respectively; p-value=0.025). A significant correlation was seen between malignant nodule size and TSH level, but not between TSH levels and size of the largest benign nodule. Our study supported an association between preoperative TSH levels and risk of DTC in patients with NTD. There was also a direct relationship between malignant nodule size and TSH levels. By contrast, no relationship was found between the size of benign nodules and TSH levels. Copyright © 2014 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Size distributions of various radioactive aerosols in the ground-level atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumann, G.; Baust, E.

    1963-11-15

    To know the size spectra of radioactive aerosols is important for many reasons. Among others, the efficiency of measuring devices or biological processes, as for instance, retention in the lungs, depend on particle size.The work described deals mainly with two different components of radioactive aerosols in the atmosphere: the natural radon daughters and the fission products originating from nuclear test explosions.

  15. The Class Size Question: A Study at Different Levels of Analysis. ACER Research Monograph No. 26.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Anthony I.; Keeves, John P.

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the ways in which class size affected other facets of the educational environment of the classroom. The study focused on the commonly found positive relationship between class size and achievement. The most plausible explanation of the evidence seems to involve the effects of grouping more able…

  16. Probiotic microbes sustain youthful serum testosterone levels and testicular size in aging mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theofilos Poutahidis

    Full Text Available The decline of circulating testosterone levels in aging men is associated with adverse health effects. During studies of probiotic bacteria and obesity, we discovered that male mice routinely consuming purified lactic acid bacteria originally isolated from human milk had larger testicles and increased serum testosterone levels compared to their age-matched controls. Further investigation using microscopy-assisted histomorphometry of testicular tissue showed that mice consuming Lactobacillus reuteri in their drinking water had significantly increased seminiferous tubule cross-sectional profiles and increased spermatogenesis and Leydig cell numbers per testis when compared with matched diet counterparts This showed that criteria of gonadal aging were reduced after routinely consuming a purified microbe such as L. reuteri. We tested whether these features typical of sustained reproductive fitness may be due to anti-inflammatory properties of L. reuteri, and found that testicular mass and other indicators typical of old age were similarly restored to youthful levels using systemic administration of antibodies blocking pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-17A. This indicated that uncontrolled host inflammatory responses contributed to the testicular atrophy phenotype in aged mice. Reduced circulating testosterone levels have been implicated in many adverse effects; dietary L. reuteri or other probiotic supplementation may provide a viable natural approach to prevention of male hypogonadism, absent the controversy and side-effects of traditional therapies, and yield practical options for management of disorders typically associated with normal aging. These novel findings suggest a potential high impact for microbe therapy in public health by imparting hormonal and gonad features of reproductive fitness typical of much younger healthy individuals.

  17. Optimal maintenance policy incorporating system level and unit level for mechanical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Chaoqun; Deng, Chao; Wang, Bingran

    2018-04-01

    The study works on a multi-level maintenance policy combining system level and unit level under soft and hard failure modes. The system experiences system-level preventive maintenance (SLPM) when the conditional reliability of entire system exceeds SLPM threshold, and also undergoes a two-level maintenance for each single unit, which is initiated when a single unit exceeds its preventive maintenance (PM) threshold, and the other is performed simultaneously the moment when any unit is going for maintenance. The units experience both periodic inspections and aperiodic inspections provided by failures of hard-type units. To model the practical situations, two types of economic dependence have been taken into account, which are set-up cost dependence and maintenance expertise dependence due to the same technology and tool/equipment can be utilised. The optimisation problem is formulated and solved in a semi-Markov decision process framework. The objective is to find the optimal system-level threshold and unit-level thresholds by minimising the long-run expected average cost per unit time. A formula for the mean residual life is derived for the proposed multi-level maintenance policy. The method is illustrated by a real case study of feed subsystem from a boring machine, and a comparison with other policies demonstrates the effectiveness of our approach.

  18. Stochastic Sizing of Energy Storage Systems for Wind Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. D. Le

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present an optimal capacity decision model for energy storage systems (ESSs in combined operation with wind energy in power systems. We use a two-stage stochastic programming approach to take into account both wind and load uncertainties. The planning problem is formulated as an AC optimal power flow (OPF model with the objective of minimizing ESS installation cost and system operation cost. Stochastic wind and load inputs for the model are generated from historical data using clustering technique. The model is tested on the IEEE 39-bus system.

  19. DO PUBLIC AND PRIVATE DEBT LEVELS AFFECT THE SIZE OF FISCAL MULTIPLIERS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chairul Adi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effectiveness of fiscal policies – as measured by the impact and cumulative multipliers – and how they interact with public and private debt. Harnessing the moderated panel regression approach, based on the yearly data set of several economies during the period from 1996 to 2012, the analysis is focused on the impact of spending-and-revenue-based fiscal policies on economic growth and how these fiscal instruments interact with public and private indebtedness. The result of spending stimuli advocates the basic Keynesian theory. An increase in public expenditures contemporaneously generates a positive multiplier, of around 0.29 – 0.44 and around 0.45 – 0.58 during two years. Decomposing the expenditures into their elements, this paper documents a stronger impact from public investment than that from government purchases. On the other hand, the revenue stimuli seem to follow the Ricardian Equivalence Hypothesis (REH, arguing that current tax cuts are inconsequential. The impact and cumulative multipliers for this fiscal instrument have mixed results, ranging from -0.21 to 0.05 and -0.26 to 0.06, respectively. Moreover, no robust evidence is found to support the argument that government debt moderates the effectiveness of fiscal policies. The size of the multipliers for both spending and revenue policies remain constant with the level of public debt. On the other hand, private debt appears to show a statistically significant moderating effect on spending stimuli. Its impact on spending multipliers, however, is economically insignificant. The moderation effect of private debt on the revenue stimuli does not seem to exist. Finally, this paper documents that both public and private debt exhibit a negative and statistically significant estimation for economic output.

  20. Technological shape and size: A disaggregated perspective on sectoral innovation systems in renewable electrification pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ulrich Elmer; Gregersen, Cecilia; Lema, Rasmus

    2018-01-01

    important analytical implications because the disaggregated perspective allows us to identify trajectories that cut across conventionally defined core technologies. This is important for ongoing discussions of electrification pathways in developing countries. We conclude the paper by distilling......The sectoral innovation system perspective has been developed as an analytical framework to analyse and understand innovation dynamics within and across various sectors. Most of the research conducted on sectoral innovation systems has focused on an aggregate-level analysis of entire sectors....... This paper argues that a disaggregated (sub-sectoral) focus is more suited to policy-oriented work on the development and diffusion of renewable energy, particularly in countries with rapidly developing energy systems and open technology choices. It focuses on size, distinguishing between small-scale (mini...

  1. The second level trigger system of FAST

    CERN Document Server

    Martínez,G; Berdugo, J; Casaus, J; Casella, V; De Laere, D; Deiters, K; Dick, P; Kirkby, J; Malgeri, L; Mañá, C; Marín, J; Pohl, M; Petitjean, C; Sánchez, E; Willmott, C

    2009-01-01

    The Fibre Active Scintillator Target (FAST) experiment is a novel imaging particle detector currently operating in a high-intensity π+ beam at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), Villigen, Switzerland. The detector is designed to perform a high precision measurement of the μ+ lifetime, in order to determine the Fermi constant, Gf, to 1 ppm precision. A dedicated second level (LV2) hardware trigger system has been developed for the experiment. It performs an online analysis of the π/μ decay chain by identifying the stopping position of each beam particle and detecting the subsequent appearance of the muon. The LV2 trigger then records the muon stop pixel and selectively triggers the Time-to-Digital Converters (TDCs) in the vicinity. A detailed description of the trigger system is presented in this paper.

  2. The second level trigger system of FAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, G. [CIEMAT, Avenida Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: gustavo.martinez@ciemat.es; Barcyzk, A. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Berdugo, J.; Casaus, J. [CIEMAT, Avenida Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Casella, C.; De Laere, S. [Universite de Geneve, 30 quai Ernest-Anserment, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Deiters, K.; Dick, P. [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Kirkby, J.; Malgeri, L. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Mana, C.; Marin, J. [CIEMAT, Avenida Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Pohl, M. [Universite de Geneve, 30 quai Ernest-Anserment, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Petitjean, C. [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Sanchez, E.; Willmott, C. [CIEMAT, Avenida Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-10-11

    The Fibre Active Scintillator Target (FAST) experiment is a novel imaging particle detector currently operating in a high-intensity {pi}{sup +} beam at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), Villigen, Switzerland. The detector is designed to perform a high precision measurement of the {mu}{sup +} lifetime, in order to determine the Fermi constant, G{sub f}, to 1 ppm precision. A dedicated second level (LV2) hardware trigger system has been developed for the experiment. It performs an online analysis of the {pi}/{mu} decay chain by identifying the stopping position of each beam particle and detecting the subsequent appearance of the muon. The LV2 trigger then records the muon stop pixel and selectively triggers the Time-to-Digital Converters (TDCs) in the vicinity. A detailed description of the trigger system is presented in this paper.

  3. System Level Analysis of LTE-Advanced

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yuanye

    This PhD thesis focuses on system level analysis of Multi-Component Carrier (CC) management for Long Term Evolution (LTE)-Advanced. Cases where multiple CCs are aggregated to form a larger bandwidth are studied. The analysis is performed for both local area and wide area networks. In local area...... reduction. Compared to the case of reuse-1, they achieve a gain of 50∼500% in cell edge user throughput, with small or no loss in average cell throughput. For the wide area network, effort is devoted to the downlink of LTE-Advanced. Such a system is assumed to be backwards compatible to LTE release 8, i...... scheme is recommended. It reduces the CQI by 94% at low load, and 79∼93% at medium to high load, with reasonable loss in downlink performance. To reduce the ACK/NACK feedback, multiple ACK/NACKs can be bundled, with slightly degraded downlink throughput....

  4. Atomic size effect on the formation of ionized cluster beam epitaxy in Lennard-Jones systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh Horngming; Averback, R.S.

    1991-01-01

    Ionized cluster beam deposition is studied by molecular dynamics simulations in which the atomic size of incident cluster atoms is different from the size of substrate atoms. Lennard-Jones interatomic potentials are used for the two-component system. The results provide the morphologies of the overlayers for various atomic sizes and are compared to simulation results of molecular beam epitaxy. (orig.)

  5. An Approximate Ablative Thermal Protection System Sizing Tool for Entry System Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dec, John A.; Braun, Robert D.

    2006-01-01

    A computer tool to perform entry vehicle ablative thermal protection systems sizing has been developed. Two options for calculating the thermal response are incorporated into the tool. One, an industry-standard, high-fidelity ablation and thermal response program was integrated into the tool, making use of simulated trajectory data to calculate its boundary conditions at the ablating surface. Second, an approximate method that uses heat of ablation data to estimate heat shield recession during entry has been coupled to a one-dimensional finite-difference calculation that calculates the in-depth thermal response. The in-depth solution accounts for material decomposition, but does not account for pyrolysis gas energy absorption through the material. Engineering correlations are used to estimate stagnation point convective and radiative heating as a function of time. The sizing tool calculates recovery enthalpy, wall enthalpy, surface pressure, and heat transfer coefficient. Verification of this tool is performed by comparison to past thermal protection system sizings for the Mars Pathfinder and Stardust entry systems and calculations are performed for an Apollo capsule entering the atmosphere at lunar and Mars return speeds.

  6. Optimal sizing of energy storage system for microgrids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    strategies and optimal allocation methods of the ESS devices are required for the MG. ... for the optimal design of systems managed optimally according to different .... Energy storage hourly operating and maintenance cost is defined as a ...

  7. Simulation of the optimal size of photovoltaic system using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . ... is composed of photovoltaic array, power tracker, battery storage, inverter and load. The data used were the sunshine duration and solar radiation intensity for ... covered by the photovoltaic system without battery storage, monthly-average ...

  8. The finite-size effect in thin liquid crystal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śliwa, I.

    2018-05-01

    Effects of surface ordering in liquid crystal systems confined between cell plates are of great theoretical and experimental interest. Liquid crystals introduced in thin cells are known to be strongly stabilized and ordered by cell plates. We introduce a new theoretical method for analyzing the effect of surfaces on local molecular ordering in thin liquid crystal systems with planar geometry of the smectic layers. Our results show that, due to the interplay between pair long-range intermolecular forces and nonlocal, relatively short-range, surface interactions, both orientational and translational orders of liquid crystal molecules across confining cells are very complex. In particular, it is demonstrated that the SmA, nematic, and isotropic phases can coexist. The phase transitions from SmA to nematic, as well as from nematic to isotropic phases, occur not simultaneously in the whole volume of the system but begin to appear locally in some regions of the LC sample. Phase transition temperatures are demonstrated to be strongly affected by the thickness of the LC system. The dependence of the corresponding shifts of phase transition temperatures on the layer number is shown to exhibit a power law character. This new type of scaling behavior is concerned with the coexistence of local phases in finite systems. The influence of a specific character of interactions of molecules with surfaces and other molecules on values of the resulting critical exponents is also analyzed.

  9. ATW system impact on high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, E.D.

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses the Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) concept which aims at destruction of key long-lived radionuclides in high-level nuclear waste (HLW), both fission products and actinides. This focus makes it different from most other transmutation concepts which concentrate primarily on actinide burning. The ATW system uses an accelerator-driven, sub-critical assembly to create an intense thermal neutron environment for radionuclide transmutation. This feature allows rapid transmutation under low-inventory system conditions, which in turn, has a direct impact on the size of chemical separations and materials handling components of the system. Inventories in ATW are factors of eight to thirty times smaller than reactor systems of equivalent thermal power. Chemical separations systems are relatively small in scale and can be optimized to achieve high decontamination factors and minimized waste streams. The low-inventory feature also directly impacts material amounts remaining in the system at its end of life. In addition to its low-inventory operation, the accelerator-driven neutron source features of ATW are key to providing a sufficient level of neutrons to allow transmutation of long-lived fission products

  10. Optimal sizing of a lithium battery energy storage system for grid-connected photovoltaic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Dulout , Jérémy; Anvari-Moghaddam , Amjad ,; Luna , Adriana; Jammes , Bruno; Alonso , Corinne; Guerrero , Josep ,

    2017-01-01

    International audience; This paper proposes a system analysis focused on finding the optimal operating conditions (nominal capacity, cycle depth, current rate, state of charge level) of a lithium battery energy storage system. The purpose of this work is to minimize the cost of the storage system in a renewable DC microgrid. Thus, main stress factors influencing both battery lifetime (calendar and cycling) and performances are described and modelled. Power and energy requirements are also dis...

  11. Energy management and sizing of fuel cell hybrid propulsion systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tazelaar, E.

    2013-01-01

    Our dependency on road transportation of people and goods is huge. Unfortunately, this transportation is mainly fed by fossil fuels, with as accompanying disadvantages undesired local and global emissions and politically less desired dependencies. Electric propulsion systems can help to cover the

  12. System size expansion using Feynman rules and diagrams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, P.; Fleck, C.; Grima, R.; Popovic, N.

    2014-01-01

    Few analytical methods exist for quantitative studies of large fluctuations in stochastic systems. In this article, we develop a simple diagrammatic approach to the chemical master equation that allows us to calculate multi-time correlation functions which are accurate to any desired order in van

  13. Optimal sizing of energy storage system for microgrids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Microgrids (MGs) are Low Voltage distribution networks comprising various distributed generators (DG), storage devices and controllable loads that can operate either interconnected or isolated from the main distribution grid as a controlled entity. Energy storage system (ESS) is a vital part of an MG. In this paper, a ...

  14. Anthropometric Sizing Systems for Army Women’s Field Clothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    panties and bra (not pictured). HEIGHTS ANKLE HEIGHT (68): the height of the level of minimum circumference of the ankle. AXILLA HEIGHT (4): vertical...Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, 1959. (AD 130 917) 3O’Brien, R., M.A. Girshick and E.P. Hunt. Body Measurements of American Boys and Girls for...O’Brien, Ruth, Meyer A. Girshick and Eleanor P. Hunt. 1941. Body Measurements of American Boys and Girls for Garment and Pattern Construction. U.S. De

  15. Process for Selecting System Level Assessments for Human System Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, James; Park, John

    2006-01-01

    The integration of many life support systems necessary to construct a stable habitat is difficult. The correct identification of the appropriate technologies and corresponding interfaces is an exhaustive process. Once technologies are selected secondary issues such as mechanical and electrical interfaces must be addressed. The required analytical and testing work must be approached in a piecewise fashion to achieve timely results. A repeatable process has been developed to identify and prioritize system level assessments and testing needs. This Assessment Selection Process has been defined to assess cross cutting integration issues on topics at the system or component levels. Assessments are used to identify risks, encourage future actions to mitigate risks, or spur further studies.

  16. Personal computer control system for small size tandem accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takayama, Hiroshi; Kawano, Kazuhiro; Shinozaki, Masataka [Nissin - High Voltage Co. Ltd., Kyoto (Japan)

    1996-12-01

    As the analysis apparatus using tandem accelerator has a lot of control parameter, numbers of control parts set on control panel are so many to make the panel more complex and its operativity worse. In order to improve these faults, development and design of a control system using personal computer for the control panel mainly constituted by conventional hardware parts were tried. Their predominant characteristics are shown as follows: (1) To make the control panel construction simpler and more compact, because the hardware device on the panel surface becomes the smallest limit as required by using a personal computer for man-machine interface. (2) To make control speed more rapid, because sequence control is closed within each block by driving accelerator system to each block and installing local station of the sequencer network at each block. (3) To make expandability larger, because of few improvement of the present hardware by interrupting the sequencer local station into the net and correcting image of the computer when increasing a new beamline. And, (4) to make control system cheaper, because of cheaper investment and easier programming by using the personal computer. (G.K.)

  17. Surface properties, more than size, limiting convective distribution of virus-sized particles and viruses in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Michael Y; Hoffer, Alan; Morrison, Paul F; Hamilton, John F; Hughes, Jeffrey; Schlageter, Kurt S; Lee, Jeongwu; Kelly, Brandon R; Oldfield, Edward H

    2005-08-01

    Achieving distribution of gene-carrying vectors is a major barrier to the clinical application of gene therapy. Because of the blood-brain barrier, the distribution of genetic vectors to the central nervous system (CNS) is even more challenging than delivery to other tissues. Direct intraparenchymal microinfusion, a minimally invasive technique, uses bulk flow (convection) to distribute suspensions of macromolecules widely through the extracellular space (convection-enhanced delivery [CED]). Although acute injection into solid tissue is often used for delivery of oligonucleotides, viruses, and liposomes, and there is preliminary evidence that certain of these large particles can spread through the interstitial space of the brain by the use of convection, the use of CED for distribution of viruses in the brain has not been systematically examined. That is the goal of this study. Investigators used a rodent model to examine the influence of size, osmolarity of buffering solutions, and surface coating on the volumetric distribution of virus-sized nanoparticles and viruses (adeno-associated viruses and adenoviruses) in the gray matter of the brain. The results demonstrate that channels in the extracellular space of gray matter in the brain are large enough to accommodate virus-sized particles and that the surface characteristics are critical determinants for distribution of viruses in the brain by convection. These results indicate that convective distribution can be used to distribute therapeutic viral vectors in the CNS.

  18. Two parameter-tuned metaheuristic algorithms for the multi-level lot sizing and scheduling problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M.T. Fatemi Ghomi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of lot sizing and scheduling problem for n-products and m-machines in flow shop environment where setups among machines are sequence-dependent and can be carried over. Many products must be produced under capacity constraints and allowing backorders. Since lot sizing and scheduling problems are well-known strongly NP-hard, much attention has been given to heuristics and metaheuristics methods. This paper presents two metaheuristics algorithms namely, Genetic Algorithm (GA and Imperialist Competitive Algorithm (ICA. Moreover, Taguchi robust design methodology is employed to calibrate the parameters of the algorithms for different size problems. In addition, the parameter-tuned algorithms are compared against a presented lower bound on randomly generated problems. At the end, comprehensive numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms. The results showed that the performance of both GA and ICA are very promising and ICA outperforms GA statistically.

  19. Selecting Sustainability Indicators for Small to Medium Sized Urban Water Systems Using Fuzzy-ELECTRE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhipi-Shrestha, Gyan; Hewage, Kasun; Sadiq, Rehan

    2017-03-01

      Urban water systems (UWSs) are challenged by the sustainability perspective. Certain limitations of the sustainability of centralized UWSs and decentralized household level wastewater treatments can be overcome by managing UWSs at an intermediate scale, referred to as small to medium sized UWSs (SMUWSs). SMUWSs are different from large UWSs, mainly in terms of smaller infrastructure, data limitation, smaller service area, and institutional limitations. Moreover, sustainability assessment systems to evaluate the sustainability of an entire UWS are very limited and confined only to large UWSs. This research addressed the gap and has developed a set of 38 applied sustainability performance indicators (SPIs) by using fuzzy-Elimination and Choice Translating Reality (ELECTRE) I outranking method to assess the sustainability of SMUWSs. The developed set of SPIs can be applied to existing and new SMUWSs and also provides a flexibility to include additional SPIs in the future based on the same selection criteria.

  20. Hologenomics: Systems-Level Host Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theis, Kevin R

    2018-01-01

    The hologenome concept of evolution is a hypothesis explaining host evolution in the context of the host microbiomes. As a hypothesis, it needs to be evaluated, especially with respect to the extent of fidelity of transgenerational coassociation of host and microbial lineages and the relative fitness consequences of repeated associations within natural holobiont populations. Behavioral ecologists are in a prime position to test these predictions because they typically focus on animal phenotypes that are quantifiable, conduct studies over multiple generations within natural animal populations, and collect metadata on genetic relatedness and relative reproductive success within these populations. Regardless of the conclusion on the hologenome concept as an evolutionary hypothesis, a hologenomic perspective has applied value as a systems-level framework for host biology, including in medicine. Specifically, it emphasizes investigating the multivarious and dynamic interactions between patient genomes and the genomes of their diverse microbiota when attempting to elucidate etiologies of complex, noninfectious diseases.

  1. A meta-analysis of development aid allocation:  The effects of income level and population size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Martin

    The effect on aid allocation of the income level and population size in the recipient country is  analyzed. The data show that both variables have a significant and robust negative effect, but  they explain only a small part of the variation. The main thrust of the paper is a meta-analysis of the......The effect on aid allocation of the income level and population size in the recipient country is  analyzed. The data show that both variables have a significant and robust negative effect, but  they explain only a small part of the variation. The main thrust of the paper is a meta...

  2. The development of internet based ship design support system for small and medium sized shipyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sung-Chul; Lee, Soon-Sup; Kang, Dong-Hoon; Lee, Kyung-Ho

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, a prototype of ship basic planning system is implemented for the small and medium sized shipyards based on the internet technology and concurrent engineering concept. The system is designed from the user requirements. Consequently, standardized development environment and tools are selected. These tools are used for the system development to define and evaluate core application technologies. The system will contribute to increasing competitiveness of small and medium sized shipyards in the 21st century industrial en-vironment.

  3. Fabrication, Characterization, and Biological Activity of Avermectin Nano-delivery Systems with Different Particle Sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Anqi; Wang, Yan; Sun, Changjiao; Wang, Chunxin; Cui, Bo; Zhao, Xiang; Zeng, Zhanghua; Yao, Junwei; Yang, Dongsheng; Liu, Guoqiang; Cui, Haixin

    2018-01-01

    Nano-delivery systems for the active ingredients of pesticides can improve the utilization rates of pesticides and prolong their control effects. This is due to the nanocarrier envelope and controlled release function. However, particles containing active ingredients in controlled release pesticide formulations are generally large and have wide size distributions. There have been limited studies about the effect of particle size on the controlled release properties and biological activities of pesticide delivery systems. In the current study, avermectin (Av) nano-delivery systems were constructed with different particle sizes and their performances were evaluated. The Av release rate in the nano-delivery system could be effectively controlled by changing the particle size. The biological activity increased with decreasing particle size. These results suggest that Av nano-delivery systems can significantly improve the controllable release, photostability, and biological activity, which will improve efficiency and reduce pesticide residues.

  4. Repetitive Interrogation of 2-Level Quantum Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestage, John D.; Chung, Sang K.

    2010-01-01

    Trapped ion clocks derive information from a reference atomic transition by repetitive interrogations of the same quantum system, either a single ion or ionized gas of many millions of ions. Atomic beam frequency standards, by contrast, measure reference atomic transitions in a continuously replenished "flow through" configuration where initial ensemble atomic coherence is zero. We will describe some issues and problems that can arise when atomic state selection and preparation of the quantum atomic system is not completed, that is, optical pumping has not fully relaxed the coherence and also not fully transferred atoms to the initial state. We present a simple two-level density matrix analysis showing how frequency shifts during the state-selection process can cause frequency shifts of the measured clock transition. Such considerations are very important when a low intensity lamp light source is used for state selection, where there is relatively weak relaxation and re-pumping of ions to an initial state and much weaker 'environmental' relaxation of the atomic coherence set-up in the atomic sample.

  5. Atomic four-level N systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goren, C.; Rosenbluh, M.; Wilson-Gordon, A.D.; Friedmann, H.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the atomic four-level N configuration both analytically and numerically, for various pump and probe intensities, with and without transfer of coherence (TOC) and Doppler broadening, and compare the results obtained to those of realistic atomic systems. We find that TOC affects the whole spectrum, in addition to producing an electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA) peak at line center. We show that the EIA peak splits as the pump intensity increases. These results are compared with those of realistic systems. When the pump is σ + polarized and the probe is π polarized, the results are similar to those of the N configuration. When the pump and probe polarizations are both linear with perpendicular polarizations, various N-like subsystems contribute to the spectrum. Consequently, the splitting of the EIA peak only occurs at very high pump intensities. We also discuss the influence of the probe on the pump absorption and refraction and find that both the pump and probe show EIA peaks when the pump intensity is low, and complementary behavior when the pump is intense. At both low and high pump intensity, the pump and probe dispersions are of opposite sign

  6. Sizing and fit research at grassroots level A methodology for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    bution of body shapes and sizes within a target popu- lation, it becomes necessary ... veloping countries such as Kenya also face apparel-fit problems. Dimensions .... used, the measurements to be taken and the different views required for the ...

  7. Thermal Sizing of Heat Exchanger Tubes for Air Natural Convective Cooling System of Emergency Cooling Tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Myoung Jun; Lee, Hee Joon [Kookmin Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Joo Hyung; Bae, Youngmin; Kim, Youngin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    For the long operation of secondary passive cooling system, however, water level goes down by evaporation in succession at emergency cooling tank. At the end there would be no place to dissipate heat from condensation heat exchanger. Therefore, steam cooling heat exchanger is put on the top of emergency cooling tank to maintain appropriate water level by collecting evaporating steam. Steam cooling heat exchanger is installed inside an air chimney and evaporated steam is cooled down by air natural convection. In this study, thermal sizing of steam cooling heat exchanger under air natural convection was conducted by TSCON program for the design of experimental setup as shown in Fig. 2. Thermal sizing of steam cooling heat exchanger tube under air natural convection was conducted by TSCON program for the design of experimental setup. 25 - 1' tubes which has a length 1687 mm was determined as steam cooling heat exchanger at 2 kW heat load and 100 liter water pool in emergency cooling tank (experimental limit condition). The corresponding width of two tubes is 50 mm and has 5 by 5 tube array for heat exchanger.

  8. Thermal Sizing of Heat Exchanger Tubes for Air Natural Convective Cooling System of Emergency Cooling Tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Myoung Jun; Lee, Hee Joon; Moon, Joo Hyung; Bae, Youngmin; Kim, Youngin

    2014-01-01

    For the long operation of secondary passive cooling system, however, water level goes down by evaporation in succession at emergency cooling tank. At the end there would be no place to dissipate heat from condensation heat exchanger. Therefore, steam cooling heat exchanger is put on the top of emergency cooling tank to maintain appropriate water level by collecting evaporating steam. Steam cooling heat exchanger is installed inside an air chimney and evaporated steam is cooled down by air natural convection. In this study, thermal sizing of steam cooling heat exchanger under air natural convection was conducted by TSCON program for the design of experimental setup as shown in Fig. 2. Thermal sizing of steam cooling heat exchanger tube under air natural convection was conducted by TSCON program for the design of experimental setup. 25 - 1' tubes which has a length 1687 mm was determined as steam cooling heat exchanger at 2 kW heat load and 100 liter water pool in emergency cooling tank (experimental limit condition). The corresponding width of two tubes is 50 mm and has 5 by 5 tube array for heat exchanger

  9. Density functional approach for pairing in finite size systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hupin, G.

    2011-09-01

    The combination of functional theory where the energy is written as a functional of the density, and the configuration mixing method, provides an efficient description of nuclear ground and excited state properties. The specific pathologies that have been recently observed, show the lack of a clear underlying justification associated to the breaking and the restoration of symmetries within density functional theory. This thesis focuses on alternative treatments of pairing correlations in finite many body systems that consider the breaking and the restoration of the particle number conservation. The energy is written as a functional of a projected quasi-particle vacuum and can be linked to the one obtained within the configuration mixing framework. This approach has been applied to make the projection either before or after the application of the variational principle. It is more flexible than the usual configuration mixing method since it can handle more general effective interactions than the latter. The application to the Krypton isotopes shows the feasibility and the efficiency of the method to describe pairing near closed shell nuclei. Following a parallel path, a theory where the energy is written as a functional of the occupation number and natural orbitals is proposed. The new functional is benchmarked in an exactly solvable model, the pairing Hamiltonian. The efficiency and the applicability of the new theory have been tested for various pairing strengths, single particle energy spectra and numbers of particles. (author)

  10. Airport level of service: A model according to departing passengers’ perceptions at a small-sized airport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Well Elias Gonçalves

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study proposes a conceptual model of level of service evaluation to a small-sized airport with a focus on departing passengers. Design/Methodology: The variables selected to compose the model were chosen according to their adequacy to departing passengers and the airport’s characteristics. A survey was conducted, and, posteriorly, exploratory factor analysis was used in order to verify the adequacy of the conceptual model proposed and also to improve it according to the results obtained. Findings: The results show that the level of service of the airport is composed of three dimensions: airport characteristics, passenger processing, and prices. The relative importance of the dimensions according to their contribution to the composition of the airport’s overall level of service was also determined. Originality/value: The paper combines theoretical and practical findings in a model for level of service evaluation to a small-sized airport from an air transportation management perspective.

  11. High-level PC-based laser system modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Michael S.

    1991-05-01

    Since the inception of the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) there have been a multitude of comparison studies done in an attempt to evaluate the effectiveness and relative sizes of complementary, and sometimes competitive, laser weapon systems. It became more and more apparent that what the systems analyst needed was not only a fast, but a cost effective way to perform high-level trade studies. In the present investigation, a general procedure is presented for the development of PC-based algorithmic systems models for laser systems. This procedure points out all of the major issues that should be addressed in the design and development of such a model. Issues addressed include defining the problem to be modeled, defining a strategy for development, and finally, effective use of the model once developed. Being a general procedure, it will allow a systems analyst to develop a model to meet specific needs. To illustrate this method of model development, a description of the Strategic Defense Simulation - Design To (SDS-DT) model developed and used by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) is presented. SDS-DT is a menu-driven, fast executing, PC-based program that can be used to either calculate performance, weight, volume, and cost values for a particular design or, alternatively, to run parametrics on particular system parameters to perhaps optimize a design.

  12. Effects of supplementation level and particle size of alfalfa hay on growth characteristics and rumen development in dairy calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mirzaei, M.; Khorvash, M.; Ghorbani, G.R.; Kazemi-Bonchenari, M.; Riasi, A.; Nabipour, A.; Borne, van den J.J.G.C.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of particle size (PS) of alfalfa hay on growth characteristics and rumen development in dairy calves at two levels of alfalfa supplementation. Fifty newborn dairy calves (42.7 ± 2.2 kg BW) were used in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with the factors

  13. Impact of lipoprotein(a) levels and apolipoprotein(a) isoform size on risk of coronary heart disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopewell, J. C.; Seedorf, U.; Farrall, M.; Parish, S.; Kyriakou, T.; Goel, A.; Hamsten, A.; Collins, R.; Watkins, H.; Clarke, R.; van der Hout, Annemarie H.

    Objectives. Observational and genetic studies have shown that lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] levels and apolipoprotein( a) [apo(a)] isoform size are both associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) risk, but the relative independence of these risk factors remains unclear. Clarification of this uncertainty

  14. An efficient computational method for a stochastic dynamic lot-sizing problem under service-level constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tarim, S.A.; Ozen, U.; Dogru, M.K.; Rossi, R.

    2011-01-01

    We provide an efficient computational approach to solve the mixed integer programming (MIP) model developed by Tarim and Kingsman [8] for solving a stochastic lot-sizing problem with service level constraints under the static–dynamic uncertainty strategy. The effectiveness of the proposed method

  15. Cooperative storage of shared files in a parallel computing system with dynamic block size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, John M.; Faibish, Sorin; Grider, Gary

    2015-11-10

    Improved techniques are provided for parallel writing of data to a shared object in a parallel computing system. A method is provided for storing data generated by a plurality of parallel processes to a shared object in a parallel computing system. The method is performed by at least one of the processes and comprises: dynamically determining a block size for storing the data; exchanging a determined amount of the data with at least one additional process to achieve a block of the data having the dynamically determined block size; and writing the block of the data having the dynamically determined block size to a file system. The determined block size comprises, e.g., a total amount of the data to be stored divided by the number of parallel processes. The file system comprises, for example, a log structured virtual parallel file system, such as a Parallel Log-Structured File System (PLFS).

  16. Micro Fine Sized Palm Oil Fuel Ash Produced Using a Wind Tunnel Production System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ahmadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Micro fine sized palm oil fuel ash (POFA is a new supplementary cementitious material that can increase the strength, durability, and workability of concrete. However, production of this material incurs high cost and is not practical for the construction industry. This paper investigates a simple methodology of producing micro fine sized POFA by means of a laboratory scale wind tunnel system. The raw POFA obtained from an oil palm factory is first calcined to remove carbon residue and then grinded in Los Angeles abrasion machine. The grinded POFA is then blown in the fabricated wind tunnel system for separation into different ranges of particle sizes. The physical, morphological, and chemical properties of the micro fine sized POFA were then investigated using Laser Particle Size Analyser (PSA, nitrogen sorption, and Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-Ray (SEM-EDX. A total of 32.1% micro fine sized POFA were collected from each sample blown, with the size range of 1–10 micrometers. The devised laboratory scale of wind tunnel production system is successful in producing micro fine sized POFA and, with modifications, this system is envisaged applicable to be used to commercialize micro fine sized POFA production for the construction industry.

  17. DJFS: Providing Highly Reliable and High‐Performance File System with Small‐Sized

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junghoon Kim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available File systems and applications try to implement their own update protocols to guarantee data consistency, which is one of the most crucial aspects of computing systems. However, we found that the storage devices are substantially under‐utilized when preserving data consistency because they generate massive storage write traffic with many disk cache flush operations and force‐unit‐access (FUA commands. In this paper, we present DJFS (Delta‐Journaling File System that provides both a high level of performance and data consistency for different applications. We made three technical contributions to achieve our goal. First, to remove all storage accesses with disk cache flush operations and FUA commands, DJFS uses small‐sized NVRAM for a file system journal. Second, to reduce the access latency and space requirements of NVRAM, DJFS attempts to journal compress the differences in the modified blocks. Finally, to relieve explicit checkpointing overhead, DJFS aggressively reflects the checkpoint transactions to file system area in the unit of the specified region. Our evaluation on TPC‐C SQLite benchmark shows that, using our novel optimization schemes, DJFS outperforms Ext4 by up to 64.2 times with only 128 MB of NVRAM.

  18. Optimal Sizing of a Lithium Battery Energy Storage System for Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dulout, Jeremy; Jammes, Bruno; Alonso, Corinne

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a system analysis focused on finding the optimal operating conditions (nominal capacity, cycle depth, current rate, state of charge level) of a lithium battery energy storage system. The purpose of this work is to minimize the cost of the storage system in a renewable DC...... microgrid. Thus, main stress factors influencing both battery lifetime (calendar and cycling) and performances are described and modelled. Power and energy requirements are also discussed through a probabilistic analysis on some years of real data from the ADREAM photovoltaic building of the LAAS...

  19. Optimisation Sizing of Hybrid Wind-Diesel Systems using Linear Programming Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Gan, Leong Kit; Shek, Jonathan; Mueller, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Despite the great potential of hybrid wind-diesel system in supplying energy to remote or island communities, sizing the system components have been a challenging problem for many project managers due to the reliance on various factors. This work considers utilising a fixed speed wind turbine (induction generator) in the hybrid system. It requires energy for start-up operation and this work takes into account for sizing the battery storage. In addition, the trade-off between the number of bat...

  20. Uncertainty evaluation of reliability of shutdown system of a medium size fast breeder reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeliang, Chireuding; Singh, Om Pal, E-mail: singhop@iitk.ac.in; Munshi, Prabhat

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Uncertainty analysis of reliability of Shutdown System is carried out. • Monte Carlo method of sampling is used. • The effect of various reliability improvement measures of SDS are accounted. - Abstract: In this paper, results are presented on the uncertainty evaluation of the reliability of Shutdown System (SDS) of a Medium Size Fast Breeder Reactor (MSFBR). The reliability analysis results are of Kumar et al. (2005). The failure rate of the components of SDS are taken from International literature and it is assumed that these follow log-normal distribution. Fault tree method is employed to propagate the uncertainty in failure rate from components level to shutdown system level. The beta factor model is used to account different extent of diversity. The Monte Carlo sampling technique is used for the analysis. The results of uncertainty analysis are presented in terms of the probability density function, cumulative distribution function, mean, variance, percentile values, confidence intervals, etc. It is observed that the spread in the probability distribution of SDS failure rate is less than SDS components failure rate and ninety percent values of the failure rate of SDS falls below the target value. As generic values of failure rates are used, sensitivity analysis is performed with respect to failure rate of control and safety rods and beta factor. It is discovered that a large increase in failure rate of SDS rods is not carried to SDS system failure proportionately. The failure rate of SDS is very sensitive to the beta factor of common cause failure between the two systems of SDS. The results of the study provide insight in the propagation of uncertainty in the failure rate of SDS components to failure rate of shutdown system.

  1. Airborne particle-bound brominated flame retardants: Levels, size distribution and indoor-outdoor exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yue-Shan; Yang, Wan-Dong; Li, Xiu-Wen; Ni, Hong-Gang; Zeng, Hui

    2018-02-01

    The quality of indoor environments has a significant impact on public health. Usually, an indoor environment is treated as a static box, in which physicochemical reactions of indoor air contaminants are negligible. This results in conservative estimates for primary indoor air pollutant concentrations, while also ignoring secondary pollutants. Thus, understanding the relationship between indoor and outdoor particles and particle-bound pollutants is of great significance. For this reason, we collected simultaneous indoor and outdoor measurements of the size distribution of airborne brominated flame retardant (BFR) congeners. The time-dependent concentrations of indoor particles and particle-bound BFRs were then estimated with the mass balance model, accounting for the outdoor concentration, indoor source strength, infiltration, penetration, deposition and indoor resuspension. Based on qualitative observation, the size distributions of ΣPBDE and ΣHBCD were characterized by bimodal peaks. According to our results, particle-bound BDE209 and γ-HBCD underwent degradation. Regardless of the surface adsorption capability of particles and the physicochemical properties of the target compounds, the concentration of BFRs in particles of different size fractions seemed to be governed by the particle distribution. Based on our estimations, for airborne particles and particle-bound BFRs, a window-open ventilated room only takes a quarter of the time to reach an equilibrium between the concentration of pollutants inside and outside compared to a closed room. Unfortunately, indoor pollutants and outdoor pollutants always exist simultaneously, which poses a window-open-or-closed dilemma to achieve proper ventilation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. System-level integration of active silicon photonic biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laplatine, L.; Al'Mrayat, O.; Luan, E.; Fang, C.; Rezaiezadeh, S.; Ratner, D. M.; Cheung, K.; Dattner, Y.; Chrostowski, L.

    2017-02-01

    Biosensors based on silicon photonic integrated circuits have attracted a growing interest in recent years. The use of sub-micron silicon waveguides to propagate near-infrared light allows for the drastic reduction of the optical system size, while increasing its complexity and sensitivity. Using silicon as the propagating medium also leverages the fabrication capabilities of CMOS foundries, which offer low-cost mass production. Researchers have deeply investigated photonic sensor devices, such as ring resonators, interferometers and photonic crystals, but the practical integration of silicon photonic biochips as part of a complete system has received less attention. Herein, we present a practical system-level architecture which can be employed to integrate the aforementioned photonic biosensors. We describe a system based on 1 mm2 dies that integrate germanium photodetectors and a single light coupling device. The die are embedded into a 16x16 mm2 epoxy package to enable microfluidic and electrical integration. First, we demonstrate a simple process to mimic Fan-Out Wafer-level-Packaging, which enables low-cost mass production. We then characterize the photodetectors in the photovoltaic mode, which exhibit high sensitivity at low optical power. Finally, we present a new grating coupler concept to relax the lateral alignment tolerance down to +/- 50 μm at 1-dB (80%) power penalty, which should permit non-experts to use the biochips in a"plug-and-play" style. The system-level integration demonstrated in this study paves the way towards the mass production of low-cost and highly sensitive biosensors, and can facilitate their wide adoption for biomedical and agro-environmental applications.

  3. Size-dependent effects of low level cadmium and zinc exposure on the metabolome of the Asian clam, Corbicula fluminea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spann, Nicole, E-mail: nicole.spann@web.de [Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EJ (United Kingdom); Aldridge, David C., E-mail: da113@cam.ac.uk [Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EJ (United Kingdom); Griffin, Julian L., E-mail: jlg40@mole.bio.cam.ac.uk [Sanger Building, Department of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, 80 Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1GA (United Kingdom); Jones, Oliver A.H., E-mail: o.jones@gmail.com [Sanger Building, Department of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, 80 Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1GA (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: Small and large Corbicula fluminea were exposed to cadmium and zinc spiked sediment. Metabolomic changes in the freshwater clams were determined by NMR and GC-MS. Metabolic perturbations were related to amino acid and energy related metabolism. Small and large clams were differentiated by their metabolic composition. Size classes showed opposite responses to metal stress. - Abstract: The toxic effects of low level metal contamination in sediments are currently poorly understood. We exposed different sized Asian clams, Corbicula fluminea, to sediment spiked with environmentally relevant concentrations of either zinc, cadmium or a zinc-cadmium mixture for one week. This freshwater bivalve is well suited for sediment toxicity tests as it lives partly buried in the sediment and utilises sediment particles as a food resource. After one week, the whole tissue composition of low molecular weight metabolites was analysed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The condition index (ratio of tissue dry weight to volume inside the shell valves) was also measured. Small and large clams were clearly differentiated by their metabolic composition and the two size classes showed opposite responses to the mixture spiked sediment. No effects of zinc alone on the metabolome were found and cadmium only influenced the smaller size class. The main perturbations were seen in amino acid and energy metabolism, with small clams using amino acids as an energy resource and larger clams primarily drawing on their larger storage reserves of carbohydrates. Our study demonstrates that metabolomics is a useful technique to test for low level toxicity which does not manifest in mortality or condition index changes. The differing effects between the two size classes stress that it is important to consider age/size when conducting metabolomic and ecotoxicology assessments, since testing for the effects on only one size class makes

  4. Size-dependent effects of low level cadmium and zinc exposure on the metabolome of the Asian clam, Corbicula fluminea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spann, Nicole; Aldridge, David C.; Griffin, Julian L.; Jones, Oliver A.H.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: Small and large Corbicula fluminea were exposed to cadmium and zinc spiked sediment. Metabolomic changes in the freshwater clams were determined by NMR and GC–MS. Metabolic perturbations were related to amino acid and energy related metabolism. Small and large clams were differentiated by their metabolic composition. Size classes showed opposite responses to metal stress. - Abstract: The toxic effects of low level metal contamination in sediments are currently poorly understood. We exposed different sized Asian clams, Corbicula fluminea, to sediment spiked with environmentally relevant concentrations of either zinc, cadmium or a zinc–cadmium mixture for one week. This freshwater bivalve is well suited for sediment toxicity tests as it lives partly buried in the sediment and utilises sediment particles as a food resource. After one week, the whole tissue composition of low molecular weight metabolites was analysed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The condition index (ratio of tissue dry weight to volume inside the shell valves) was also measured. Small and large clams were clearly differentiated by their metabolic composition and the two size classes showed opposite responses to the mixture spiked sediment. No effects of zinc alone on the metabolome were found and cadmium only influenced the smaller size class. The main perturbations were seen in amino acid and energy metabolism, with small clams using amino acids as an energy resource and larger clams primarily drawing on their larger storage reserves of carbohydrates. Our study demonstrates that metabolomics is a useful technique to test for low level toxicity which does not manifest in mortality or condition index changes. The differing effects between the two size classes stress that it is important to consider age/size when conducting metabolomic and ecotoxicology assessments, since testing for the effects on only one size

  5. Effects of dietary calcium levels and limestone particicle size on the performance, tibia and blood of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Pelicia

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of 405 23-week-old ISA® Brown layers were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design in a factorial arrangement with nine treatments consisting of three dietary calcium levels (3.5, 3.75, and 4.5% and three limestone particle sizes (100% fine limestone (FL, 70% FL + 30% coarse limestone (CL and 50% (FL + 50% (CL, with nine replicates of five birds per cage. The following parameters were evaluated: percentage of lay, defective eggs, egg weight, egg mass, feed intake, feed conversion ratio (per kg eggs and per dozen eggs, and mortality. Dietary Ca levels significantly affected lay, with birds fed diets containing 4.5% calcium producing less eggs as compared to those fed 3.0 and 3.75% Ca. Egg production linearly decreased as dietary Ca levels increased, but blood Ca levels (mg/L increased in 28-week-old birds. The interaction of dietary Ca levels and limestone particle sizes resulted in a reduction in tibial ash Ca content as dietary Ca levels increased and as fine limestone was replaced by coarse limestone. It is concluded that a dietary Ca level of 3.75% and 100% fine particle limestone are required to maintain adequate egg production and available Ca blood level.

  6. A new approach for sizing stand alone photovoltaic systems based in neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hontoria, L.; Aguilera, J. [Universidad de Jaen, Dept. de Electronica, Jaen (Spain); Zufiria, P. [UPM Ciudad Universitaria, Dept. de Matematica Aplicada a las Tecnologias de la Informacion, Madrid (Spain)

    2005-02-01

    Several methods for sizing stand alone photovoltaic (pv) systems has been developed. The more simplistic are called intuitive methods. They are a useful tool for a first approach in sizing stand alone photovoltaic systems. Nevertheless they are very inaccurate. Analytical methods use equations to describe the pv system size as a function of reliability. These ones are more accurate than the previous ones but they are also not accurate enough for sizing of high reliability. In a third group there are methods which use system simulations. These ones are called numerical methods. Many of the analytical methods employ the concept of reliability of the system or the complementary term: loss of load probability (LOLP). In this paper an improvement for obtaining LOLP curves based on the neural network called Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) is presented. A unique MLP for many locations of Spain has been trained and after the training, the MLP is able to generate LOLP curves for any value and location. (Author)

  7. Isobaric expansion coefficient and isothermal compressibility for a finite-size ideal Fermi gas system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Guozhen; Chen, Liwei; Chen, Jincan

    2014-01-01

    Due to quantum size effects (QSEs), the isobaric thermal expansion coefficient and isothermal compressibility well defined for macroscopic systems are invalid for finite-size systems. The two parameters are redefined and calculated for a finite-size ideal Fermi gas confined in a rectangular container. It is found that the isobaric thermal expansion coefficient and isothermal compressibility are generally anisotropic, i.e., they are generally different in different directions. Moreover, it is found the thermal expansion coefficient may be negative in some directions under the condition that the pressures in all directions are kept constant. - Highlights: • Isobaric thermal expansion coefficient and isothermal compressibility are redefined. • The two parameters are calculated for a finite-size ideal Fermi gas. • The two parameters are generally anisotropic for a finite-size system. • Isobaric thermal expansion coefficient may be negative in some directions

  8. Measuring and modeling the interaction among reward size, delay to reward, and satiation level on motivation in monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamimoto, Takafumi; La Camera, Giancarlo; Richmond, Barry J

    2009-01-01

    Motivation is usually inferred from the likelihood or the intensity with which behavior is carried out. It is sensitive to external factors (e.g., the identity, amount, and timing of a rewarding outcome) and internal factors (e.g., hunger or thirst). We trained macaque monkeys to perform a nonchoice instrumental task (a sequential red-green color discrimination) while manipulating two external factors: reward size and delay-to-reward. We also inferred the state of one internal factor, level of satiation, by monitoring the accumulated reward. A visual cue indicated the forthcoming reward size and delay-to-reward in each trial. The fraction of trials completed correctly by the monkeys increased linearly with reward size and was hyperbolically discounted by delay-to-reward duration, relations that are similar to those found in free operant and choice tasks. The fraction of correct trials also decreased progressively as a function of the satiation level. Similar (albeit noiser) relations were obtained for reaction times. The combined effect of reward size, delay-to-reward, and satiation level on the proportion of correct trials is well described as a multiplication of the effects of the single factors when each factor is examined alone. These results provide a quantitative account of the interaction of external and internal factors on instrumental behavior, and allow us to extend the concept of subjective value of a rewarding outcome, usually confined to external factors, to account also for slow changes in the internal drive of the subject.

  9. Characterization of Root and Shoot Traits in Wheat Cultivars with Putative Differences in Root System Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Figueroa-Bustos

    2018-07-01

    Full Text Available Root system size is a key trait for improving water and nitrogen uptake efficiency in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. This study aimed (i to characterize the root system and shoot traits of five wheat cultivars with apparent differences in root system size; (ii to evaluate whether the apparent differences in root system size observed at early vegetative stages in a previous semi-hydroponic phenotyping experiment are reflected at later phenological stages in plants grown in soil using large rhizoboxes. The five wheat cultivars were grown in a glasshouse in rhizoboxes filled to 1.0 m with field soil. Phenology and shoot traits were measured and root growth and proliferation were mapped to quantify root length density (RLD, root length per plant, root biomass and specific root length (SRL. Wheat cultivars with large root systems had greater root length, more root biomass and thicker roots, particularly in the top 40 cm, than those with small root systems. Cultivars that reached anthesis later had larger root system sizes than those that reached anthesis earlier. Later anthesis allowed more time for root growth and proliferation. Cultivars with large root systems had 25% more leaf area and biomass than those with small root systems, which presumably reflects high canopy photosynthesis to supply the demand for carbon assimilates to roots. Wheat cultivars with contrasting root system sizes at the onset of tillering (Z2.1 in a semi-hydroponic phenotyping system maintained their size ranking at booting (Z4.5 when grown in soil. Phenology, particularly time to anthesis, was associated with root system size.

  10. Sorting of cells of the same size, shape, and cell cycle stage for a single cell level assay without staining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yomo Tetsuya

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single-cell level studies are being used increasingly to measure cell properties not directly observable in a cell population. High-performance data acquisition systems for such studies have, by necessity, developed in synchrony. However, improvements in sample purification techniques are also required to reveal new phenomena. Here we assessed a cell sorter as a sample-pretreatment tool for a single-cell level assay. A cell sorter is routinely used for selecting one type of cells from a heterogeneous mixture of cells using specific fluorescence labels. In this case, we wanted to select cells of exactly the same size, shape, and cell-cycle stage from a population, without using a specific fluorescence label. Results We used four light scatter parameters: the peak height and area of the forward scatter (FSheight and FSarea and side scatter (SSheight and SSarea. The rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cell line, a neuronal cell line, was used for all experiments. The living cells concentrated in the high FSarea and middle SSheight/SSarea fractions. Single cells without cell clumps were concentrated in the low SS and middle FS fractions, and in the higher FSheight/FSarea and SSheight/SSarea fractions. The cell populations from these viable, single-cell-rich fractions were divided into twelve subfractions based on their FSarea-SSarea profiles, for more detailed analysis. We found that SSarea was proportional to the cell volume and the FSarea correlated with cell roundness and elongation, as well as with the level of DNA in the cell. To test the method and to characterize the basic properties of the isolated single cells, sorted cells were cultured in separate wells. The cells in all subfractions survived, proliferated and differentiated normally, suggesting that there was no serious damage. The smallest, roundest, and smoothest cells had the highest viability. There was no correlation between proliferation and differentiation. NGF increases

  11. Anomalous roughness of turbulent interfaces with system size dependent local roughness exponent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balankin, Alexander S.; Matamoros, Daniel Morales

    2005-01-01

    In a system far from equilibrium the system size can play the role of control parameter that governs the spatiotemporal dynamics of the system. Accordingly, the kinetic roughness of interfaces in systems far from equilibrium may depend on the system size. To get an insight into this problem, we performed a detailed study of rough interfaces formed in paper combustion experiments. Using paper sheets of different width λ, we found that the turbulent flame fronts display anomalous multi-scaling characterized by non-universal global roughness exponent α and by the system size dependent spectrum of local roughness exponents, ζ q (λ)=ζ 1 (1)q -ω λ φ q =0.93q -0.15 . The structure factor of turbulent flame fronts also exhibits unconventional scaling dependence on λ. These results are expected to apply to a broad range of far from equilibrium systems when the kinetic energy fluctuations exceed a certain critical value.

  12. System Level Modelling and Performance Estimation of Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranberg-Hansen, Anders Sejer

    The advances seen in the semiconductor industry within the last decade have brought the possibility of integrating evermore functionality onto a single chip forming functionally highly advanced embedded systems. These integration possibilities also imply that as the design complexity increases, so...... does the design time and eort. This challenge is widely recognized throughout academia and the industry and in order to address this, novel frameworks and methods, which will automate design steps as well as raise the level of abstraction used to design systems, are being called upon. To support...... is carried out in collaboration with the Danish company and DaNES partner, Bang & Olufsen ICEpower. Bang & Olufsen ICEpower provides industrial case studies which will allow the proposed modelling framework to be exercised and assessed in terms of ease of use, production speed, accuracy and efficiency...

  13. Cloud Computing: The Level of Awareness Amongst Small & Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) in Developing Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yeboah-Boateng, Ezer Osei; Essandoh, Kofi Asare

    2013-01-01

    Cloud computing services are being touted as a major enabler for small businesses lately. This new paradigm is seen to offer unique opportunities to small and medium enterprises (SMEs) worldwide and developing economies are no exception. It presents SMEs access to similar technologies available...... indicated that a slight majority of the respondents were familiar with cloud computing on the individual level but the level of awareness amongst the larger SME industry was low to medium. The finding therefore recommends education and sensitization on cloud computing in order to increase awareness...... to their larger counterparts and those in the developed world which inherently creates innovativeness, increases competitive advantage and impacts their operations and processes. This paper seeks to determine the level of awareness and familiarity with this emerging computing paradigm. The results of the study...

  14. Simplified analysis of passive residual heat removal systems for small size PWR's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botelho, D.A.

    1992-02-01

    The function and general objectives of a passive residual heat removal system for small size PWR's are defined. The characteristic configuration, the components and the operation modes of this system are concisely described. A preliminary conceptual specification of this system, for a small size PWR of 400 MW thermal, is made analogous to the decay heat removal system of the AP-600 reactor. It is shown by analytic models that such passive systems can dissipate 2% of nominal power within the thermal limits allowed to the reactor fuel elements. (author)

  15. Grain-size based sea-level reconstruction in the south Bohai Sea during the past 135 kyr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Liang; Chen, Yanping

    2013-04-01

    Future anthropogenic sea-level rise and its impact on coastal regions is an important issue facing human civilizations. Due to the short nature of the instrumental record of sea-level change, development of proxies for sea-level change prior to the advent of instrumental records is essential to reconstruct long-term background sea-level changes on local, regional and global scales. Two of the most widely used approaches for past sea-level changes are: (1) exploitation of dated geomorphologic features such as coastal sands (e.g. Mauz and Hassler, 2000), salt marsh (e.g. Madsen et al., 2007), terraces (e.g. Chappell et al., 1996), and other coastal sediments (e.g. Zong et al., 2003); and (2) sea-level transfer functions based on faunal assemblages such as testate amoebae (e.g. Charman et al., 2002), foraminifera (e.g. Chappell and Shackleton, 1986; Horton, 1997), and diatoms (e.g. Horton et al., 2006). While a variety of methods has been developed to reconstruct palaeo-changes in sea level, many regions, including the Bohai Sea, China, still lack detailed relative sea-level curves extending back to the Pleistocene (Yi et al., 2012). For example, coral terraces are absent in the Bohai Sea, and the poor preservation of faunal assemblages makes development of a transfer function for a relative sea-level reconstruction unfeasible. In contrast, frequent alternations between transgression and regression has presumably imprinted sea-level change on the grain size distribution of Bohai Sea sediments, which varies from medium silt to coarse sand during the late Quaternary (IOCAS, 1985). Advantages of grainsize-based relative sea-level transfer function approaches are that they require smaller sample sizes, allowing for replication, faster measurement and higher spatial or temporal resolution at a fraction of the cost of detail micro-palaeontological analysis (Yi et al., 2012). Here, we employ numerical methods to partition sediment grain size using a combined database of

  16. A Software Tool for Optimal Sizing of PV Systems in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer Khatib

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a MATLAB based user friendly software tool called as PV.MY for optimal sizing of photovoltaic (PV systems. The software has the capabilities of predicting the metrological variables such as solar energy, ambient temperature and wind speed using artificial neural network (ANN, optimizes the PV module/ array tilt angle, optimizes the inverter size and calculate optimal capacities of PV array, battery, wind turbine and diesel generator in hybrid PV systems. The ANN based model for metrological prediction uses four meteorological variables, namely, sun shine ratio, day number and location coordinates. As for PV system sizing, iterative methods are used for determining the optimal sizing of three types of PV systems, which are standalone PV system, hybrid PV/wind system and hybrid PV/diesel generator system. The loss of load probability (LLP technique is used for optimization in which the energy sources capacities are the variables to be optimized considering very low LLP. As for determining the optimal PV panels tilt angle and inverter size, the Liu and Jordan model for solar energy incident on a tilt surface is used in optimizing the monthly tilt angle, while a model for inverter efficiency curve is used in the optimization of inverter size.

  17. System-level modelling of dynamic reconfigurable designs using functional programming abstractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uchevler, B.N.; Svarstad, Kjetil; Kuper, Jan; Baaij, C.P.R.

    With the increasing size and complexity of designs in electronics, new approaches are required for the description and verification of digital circuits, specifically at the system level. Functional HDLs can appear as an advantageous choice for formal verification and high-level descriptions. In this

  18. Optimal system size for complex dynamics in random neural networks near criticality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wainrib, Gilles, E-mail: wainrib@math.univ-paris13.fr [Laboratoire Analyse Géométrie et Applications, Université Paris XIII, Villetaneuse (France); García del Molino, Luis Carlos, E-mail: garciadelmolino@ijm.univ-paris-diderot.fr [Institute Jacques Monod, Université Paris VII, Paris (France)

    2013-12-15

    In this article, we consider a model of dynamical agents coupled through a random connectivity matrix, as introduced by Sompolinsky et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 61(3), 259–262 (1988)] in the context of random neural networks. When system size is infinite, it is known that increasing the disorder parameter induces a phase transition leading to chaotic dynamics. We observe and investigate here a novel phenomenon in the sub-critical regime for finite size systems: the probability of observing complex dynamics is maximal for an intermediate system size when the disorder is close enough to criticality. We give a more general explanation of this type of system size resonance in the framework of extreme values theory for eigenvalues of random matrices.

  19. Optimal system size for complex dynamics in random neural networks near criticality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wainrib, Gilles; García del Molino, Luis Carlos

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we consider a model of dynamical agents coupled through a random connectivity matrix, as introduced by Sompolinsky et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 61(3), 259–262 (1988)] in the context of random neural networks. When system size is infinite, it is known that increasing the disorder parameter induces a phase transition leading to chaotic dynamics. We observe and investigate here a novel phenomenon in the sub-critical regime for finite size systems: the probability of observing complex dynamics is maximal for an intermediate system size when the disorder is close enough to criticality. We give a more general explanation of this type of system size resonance in the framework of extreme values theory for eigenvalues of random matrices

  20. Elementary physical education: A focus on fitness activities and smaller class sizes are associated with higher levels of physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandy Kirkham-King

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Optimizing physical activity during physical education is necessary for children to achieve daily physical activity recommendations. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among various contextual factors with accelerometer measured physical activity during elementary physical education. Data were collected during 2015–2016 from 281 students (1st–5th grade, 137 males, 144 females from a private school located in a metropolitan area of Utah in the U.S. Students wore accelerometers for 12 consecutive weeks at an accelerometer wear frequency of 3days per week during physical education. A multi-level general linear mixed effects model was employed to examine the relationship among various physical education contextual factors and percent of wear time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (%MVPA, accounting for clustering of observations within students and the clustering of students within classrooms. Explored contextual factors included grade level, lesson context, sex, and class size. Main effects and interactions among the factors were explored in the multi-level models. A two-way interaction of lesson context and class size on %MVPA was shown to be statistically significant. The greatest differences were found to be between fitness lessons using small class sizes compared to motor skill lessons using larger class sizes (β=14.8%, 95% C.I. 5.7%–23.9% p<0.001. Lessons that included a focus on fitness activities with class sizes that were <25 students associated with significantly higher %MVPA during elementary physical education. Keywords: Exercise, Physical education and training, Adolescents

  1. ON THE RELATIVE SIZES OF PLANETS WITHIN KEPLER MULTIPLE-CANDIDATE SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciardi, David R.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Ford, Eric B.; Ragozzine, Darin; Gautier, T. N. III; Howell, Steve B.; Lissauer, Jack J.; Rowe, Jason F.

    2013-01-01

    We present a study of the relative sizes of planets within the multiple-candidate systems discovered with the Kepler mission. We have compared the size of each planet to the size of every other planet within a given planetary system after correcting the sample for detection and geometric biases. We find that for planet pairs for which one or both objects are approximately Neptune-sized or larger, the larger planet is most often the planet with the longer period. No such size-location correlation is seen for pairs of planets when both planets are smaller than Neptune. Specifically, if at least one planet in a planet pair has a radius of ∼> 3 R ⊕ , 68% ± 6% of the planet pairs have the inner planet smaller than the outer planet, while no preferred sequential ordering of the planets is observed if both planets in a pair are smaller than ∼ ⊕ .

  2. Human health no-effect levels of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles as a function of their primary size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurent, Alexis, E-mail: alau@dtu.dk [Technical University of Denmark, Division for Quantitative Sustainability Assessment, Department of Management Engineering (Denmark); Harkema, Jack R. [Michigan State University, Department of Pathobiology and Diagnostic Investigation, College of Veterinary Medicine (United States); Andersen, Elisabeth W. [Technical University of Denmark, Statistics and Data Analysis Section, Department of Applied Mathematics and Computer Science (Denmark); Owsianiak, Mikołaj; Vea, Eldbjørg B. [Technical University of Denmark, Division for Quantitative Sustainability Assessment, Department of Management Engineering (Denmark); Jolliet, Olivier [University of Michigan, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health (United States)

    2017-04-15

    As engineered nanomaterials are increasingly introduced on the market into a broad range of commodities or nanoproducts, there is a need for operational, reliable tool, enabling to consistently assess the risks and impacts associated with the releases of nanoparticles. The lack of a developed metric that accurately represents their toxic effects while capturing the influence of the most relevant physicochemical properties is one of the major impediments. Here, we investigate the relationships between the toxic responses of nano-sized and micro-sized particles in in vivo toxicological studies and their physicochemical properties. Our results for TiO{sub 2} particles indicate statistically significant associations between the primary particle size and their toxicity responses for combined inhalation and ingestion exposure routes, although the numerical values should be considered with care due to the inability to encompass influences from other relevant physicochemical properties like surface coatings. These findings allow for expressing mass-based adverse effect levels as a continuous function of the primary size of particles. This meaningful, exploratory metric can thus be used for screening purposes and pave the way for reaching adaptive, robust risk assessments of nanomaterials, e.g. for setting up consistent threshold levels, as well as consistent life cycle assessments of nanoproducts. We provide examples of such applications.

  3. Human health no-effect levels of TiO_2 nanoparticles as a function of their primary size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurent, Alexis; Harkema, Jack R.; Andersen, Elisabeth W.; Owsianiak, Mikołaj; Vea, Eldbjørg B.; Jolliet, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    As engineered nanomaterials are increasingly introduced on the market into a broad range of commodities or nanoproducts, there is a need for operational, reliable tool, enabling to consistently assess the risks and impacts associated with the releases of nanoparticles. The lack of a developed metric that accurately represents their toxic effects while capturing the influence of the most relevant physicochemical properties is one of the major impediments. Here, we investigate the relationships between the toxic responses of nano-sized and micro-sized particles in in vivo toxicological studies and their physicochemical properties. Our results for TiO_2 particles indicate statistically significant associations between the primary particle size and their toxicity responses for combined inhalation and ingestion exposure routes, although the numerical values should be considered with care due to the inability to encompass influences from other relevant physicochemical properties like surface coatings. These findings allow for expressing mass-based adverse effect levels as a continuous function of the primary size of particles. This meaningful, exploratory metric can thus be used for screening purposes and pave the way for reaching adaptive, robust risk assessments of nanomaterials, e.g. for setting up consistent threshold levels, as well as consistent life cycle assessments of nanoproducts. We provide examples of such applications.

  4. Theory of critical phenomena in finite-size systems scaling and quantum effects

    CERN Document Server

    Brankov, Jordan G; Tonchev, Nicholai S

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this book is to familiarise the reader with the rich collection of ideas, methods and results available in the theory of critical phenomena in systems with confined geometry. The existence of universal features of the finite-size effects arising due to highly correlated classical or quantum fluctuations is explained by the finite-size scaling theory. This theory (1) offers an interpretation of experimental results on finite-size effects in real systems; (2) gives the most reliable tool for extrapolation to the thermodynamic limit of data obtained by computer simulations; (3) reveals

  5. Finite-size effects in thermodynamics: Negative compressibility and global instability in two-phase systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todoshchenko, I.

    2018-04-01

    We have measured the equilibrium melting pressure of helium-4 as a function of the crystal size. Negative compressibility of a liquid with an inclusion of solid seed is predicted theoretically and verified experimentally with helium-4 crystal-superfluid system at 0.15 K. This two-phase system is shown to be stable if the crystal size is large enough, which is proven by the experiment. Crystal seeds that are too small spontaneously either melt completely or grow to a large enough size.

  6. Assessment of Available Particle Size Data to Support an Analysis of the Waste Feed Delivery System Transfer System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JEWETT, J.R.

    2000-01-01

    Available data pertaining to size distribution of the particulates in Hanford underground tank waste have been reviewed. Although considerable differences exist between measurement methods, it may be stated with 95% confidence that the median particle size does not exceed 275 (micro)m in at least 95% of the ten tanks selected as sources of HLW feed for Phase 1 vitrification in the RPP. This particle size is recommended as a design basis for the WFD transfer system

  7. Assessment of trace metal levels in size-resolved particulate matter in the area of Leipzig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomba, Khanneh Wadinga; van Pinxteren, Dominik; Müller, Konrad; Spindler, Gerald; Herrmann, Hartmut

    2018-03-01

    Size-resolved trace metal concentrations at four sites in Leipzig (Germany) and its surrounding were assessed between the winter of 2013 and the summer of 2015. The measurements were performed in parallel at; traffic dominated (Leipzig - Mitte, LMI), traffic and residential dominated (Eisenbahnstrasse, EIB), urban background (TROPOS, TRO) and regional background (Melpitz, MEL) sites. In total, 19 trace metals, i.e. K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Ba, V, Pb, Ni, Cr, Sr, Sn, Sb, Co and Rb were analysed using total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF). The major metals were Fe, K and Ca with concentrations ranging between; 31-440 ng/m3, 42-153 ng/m3 and 24-322 ng/m3, respectively, while the trace metals with the lowest concentrations were Co, Rb and Se with concentrations of; tire wear (Cu, Sb, Ba, Fe, Zn, Pb), biomass burning (K, Rb), oil and coal combustion (V, Zn, As, Pb). Crustal matter contributed 5-12% in winter and 8-19% in summer of the PM10 mass. Using Cu and Zn as markers for brake and tire wear, respectively, the estimated brake and tire wear contributions to the PM10 mass were 0.1-0.8% and 1.7-2.9%, respectively. The higher contributions were observed at the traffic sites while the lower contributions were observed at the regional background site. In total, non-exhaust emissions could account for about 10-22% of the PM10 mass in the summer and about 7-15% of the PM10 mass in the winter.

  8. Impact of Battery’s Model Accuracy on Size Optimization Process of a Standalone Photovoltaic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Anwar Ibrahim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative study between two proposed size optimization methods based on two battery’s models. Simple and complex battery models are utilized to optimally size a standalone photovoltaic system. Hourly meteorological data are used in this research for a specific site. Results show that by using the complex model of the battery, the cost of the system is reduced by 31%. In addition, by using the complex battery model, the sizes of the PV array and the battery are reduced by 5.6% and 30%, respectively, as compared to the case which is based on the simple battery model. This shows the importance of utilizing accurate battery models in sizing standalone photovoltaic systems.

  9. Research on a simulation-based ship production support system for middle-sized shipbuilding companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Joo Song

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, many middle-sized shipbuilding companies in Korea are experiencing strong competition from shipbuilding companies in other nations. This competition is particularly affecting small- and middle-sized shipyards, rather than the major shipyards that have their own support systems and development capabilities. The acquisition of techniques that would enable maximization of production efficiency and minimization of the gap between planning and execution would increase the competitiveness of small- and middle-sized Korean shipyards. In this paper, research on a simulation-based support system for ship production management, which can be applied to the shipbuilding processes of middle-sized shipbuilding companies, is presented. The simulation research includes layout optimization, load balancing, work stage operation planning, block logistics, and integrated material management. Each item is integrated into a network system with a value chain that includes all shipbuilding processes.

  10. Research on a simulation-based ship production support system for middle-sized shipbuilding companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Young Joo; Woo, Jong Hun; Shin, Jong Gye

    2009-12-01

    Today, many middle-sized shipbuilding companies in Korea are experiencing strong competition from shipbuilding companies in other nations. This competition is particularly affecting small- and middle-sized shipyards, rather than the major shipyards that have their own support systems and development capabilities. The acquisition of techniques that would enable maximization of production efficiency and minimization of the gap between planning and execution would increase the competitiveness of small- and middle-sized Korean shipyards. In this paper, research on a simulation-based support system for ship production management, which can be applied to the shipbuilding processes of middle-sized shipbuilding companies, is presented. The simulation research includes layout optimization, load balancing, work stage operation planning, block logistics, and integrated material management. Each item is integrated into a network system with a value chain that includes all shipbuilding processes.

  11. Performance analysis and kernel size study of the Lynx real-time operating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan-Kwei; Gibson, James S.; Fernquist, Alan R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper analyzes the Lynx real-time operating system (LynxOS), which has been selected as the operating system for the Space Station Freedom Data Management System (DMS). The features of LynxOS are compared to other Unix-based operating system (OS). The tools for measuring the performance of LynxOS, which include a high-speed digital timer/counter board, a device driver program, and an application program, are analyzed. The timings for interrupt response, process creation and deletion, threads, semaphores, shared memory, and signals are measured. The memory size of the DMS Embedded Data Processor (EDP) is limited. Besides, virtual memory is not suitable for real-time applications because page swap timing may not be deterministic. Therefore, the DMS software, including LynxOS, has to fit in the main memory of an EDP. To reduce the LynxOS kernel size, the following steps are taken: analyzing the factors that influence the kernel size; identifying the modules of LynxOS that may not be needed in an EDP; adjusting the system parameters of LynxOS; reconfiguring the device drivers used in the LynxOS; and analyzing the symbol table. The reductions in kernel disk size, kernel memory size and total kernel size reduction from each step mentioned above are listed and analyzed.

  12. Optimized sizing model for renewable energy systems in rural areas; Modelo de dimensionamento otimizado para sistemas energeticos renovaveis em ambiente rurais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Carlos E.C. [UNIOESTE, Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas]. E-mail: cecn@correios.net.br; Zuern, Hans H. [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica

    2005-05-15

    The purpose of this research was to develop a methodology for sizing integrated renewable energy systems, useful for rural areas, using simulation and optimization tools developed in MATLAB 6.0. The sizing model produces a system with minimum cost and high reliability level, based on the concept of loss of power supply probability (LPSP) for consecutive hours. An optimization model is presented and three different sizing scenarios are calculated and compared, showing flexibility in the elaboration of different project conceptions. The obtained results show a complete sizing of the energy conversion devices and a long-term cost evaluation. (author)

  13. Measurements of Plutonium and Americium in Soil Samples from Project 57 using the Suspended Soil Particle Sizing System (SSPSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John L. Bowen; Rowena Gonzalez; David S. Shafer

    2001-01-01

    As part of the preliminary site characterization conducted for Project 57, soils samples were collected for separation into several size-fractions using the Suspended Soil Particle Sizing System (SSPSS). Soil samples were collected specifically for separation by the SSPSS at three general locations in the deposited Project 57 plume, the projected radioactivity of which ranged from 100 to 600 pCi/g. The primary purpose in focusing on samples with this level of activity is that it would represent anticipated residual soil contamination levels at the site after corrective actions are completed. Consequently, the results of the SSPSS analysis can contribute to dose calculation and corrective action-level determinations for future land-use scenarios at the site

  14. Asymptotic investigation of the nonlinear boundary value dynamic problem for the systems with finite sizes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrianov, I.V.; Danishevsky, V.V.

    1994-01-01

    Asymptotic approaches for nonlinear dynamics of continual system are developed well for the infinite in spatial variables. For the systems with finite sizes we have an infinite number of resonance, and Poincare-Lighthill-Go method does riot work. Using of averaging procedure or method of multiple scales leads to the infinite systems of nonlinear algebraic or ordinary differential equations systems and then using truncation method. which does not gives possibility to obtain all important properties of the solutions

  15. Approaches for developing a sizing method for stand-alone PV systems with variable demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posadillo, R. [Grupo de Investigacion en Energias y Recursos Renovables, Dpto. de Fisica Aplicada, E.P.S., Universidad de Cordoba, Avda. Menendez Pidal s/n, 14004 Cordoba (Spain); Lopez Luque, R. [Grupo de Investigacion de Fisica para las Energias y Recursos Renovables, Dpto. de Fisica Aplicada. Edificio C2 Campus de Rabanales, 14071 Cordoba (Spain)

    2008-05-15

    Accurate sizing is one of the most important aspects to take into consideration when designing a stand-alone photovoltaic system (SAPV). Various methods, which differ in terms of their simplicity or reliability, have been developed for this purpose. Analytical methods, which seek functional relationships between variables of interest to the sizing problem, are one of these approaches. A series of rational considerations are presented in this paper with the aim of shedding light upon the basic principles and results of various sizing methods proposed by different authors. These considerations set the basis for a new analytical method that has been designed for systems with variable monthly energy demands. Following previous approaches, the method proposed is based on the concept of loss of load probability (LLP) - a parameter that is used to characterize system design. The method includes information on the standard deviation of loss of load probability ({sigma}{sub LLP}) and on two new parameters: annual number of system failures (f) and standard deviation of annual number of failures ({sigma}{sub f}). The method proves useful for sizing a PV system in a reliable manner and serves to explain the discrepancies found in the research on systems with LLP<10{sup -2}. We demonstrate that reliability depends not only on the sizing variables and on the distribution function of solar radiation, but on the minimum value as well, which in a given location and with a monthly average clearness index, achieves total solar radiation on the receiver surface. (author)

  16. Determining the size of nanoparticles in the example of magnetic iron oxide core-shell systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarzębski, Maciej; Kościński, Mikołaj; Białopiotrowicz, Tomasz

    2017-08-01

    The size of nanoparticles is one of the most important factors for their possible applications. Various techniques for the nanoparticle size characterization are available. In this paper selected techniques will be considered base on the prepared core-shell magnetite nanoparticles. Magnetite is one of the most investigated and developed magnetic material. It shows interesting magnetic properties which can be used for biomedical applications, such as drug delivery, hypothermia and also as a contrast agent. To reduce the toxic effects of Fe3O4, magnetic core was covered by dextran and gelatin. Moreover, the shell was doped by fluorescent dye for confocal microscopy investigation. The main investigation focused on the methods for particles size determination of modified magnetite nanoparticles prepared with different techniques. The size distribution were obtained by nanoparticle tracking analysis, dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, fluorescent correlation spectroscopy (FCS) and confocal microscopy were used to compare the results for particle size determination of core-shell systems.

  17. The STAR Level-3 trigger system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, C.; Berger, J.; Demello, M.; Dietel, T.; Flierl, D.; Landgraf, J.; Lange, J.S.; LeVine, M.J.; Ljubicic, A.; Nelson, J.; Roehrich, D.; Stock, R.; Struck, C.; Yepes, P.

    2003-01-01

    The STAR Level-3 trigger issues a trigger decision upon a complete online reconstruction of Au+Au collisions at relativistic heavy ion collider energies. Central interactions are processed up to a rate of 50 s -1 including a simple analysis of physics observables. The setup of the processor farm and the event reconstruction as well as experiences and the proposed trigger algorithms are described

  18. Hydrostatic Water Level Systems At Homestake DUSEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetler, L. D.; Volk, J. T.

    2009-12-01

    Two arrays of Fermilab-style hydrostatic water level sensors have been installed in the former Homestake gold mine in Lead, SD, the site of the new Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL). Sensors were constructed at Fermilab from 8.5 cm diameter PVC pipe (housing) that was sealed on the ends and fit with a proximity sensor. The instrument have a height of 10 cm. Two ports in each sensor housing provide for connectivity, the upper port for air and the bottom port for water. Multiple instruments connected in series provide a precise water level and differences in readings between successive sensors provide for ground tilt to be resolved. Sensor resolution is 5 μm per count and has a range of approximately 1.25 cm. Data output from each sensor is relayed to a Fermilab-constructed readout card that also has temperature/relative humidity and barometric pressure sensors connected. All data are relayed out of the mine by fiber optic cable and can be recorded by Ethernet at remote locations. The current arrays have been installed on the 2000-ft level (610 m) and consist of six instruments in each array. Three sensors were placed in a N-S oriented drift and three in an E-W oriented drift. Using this orientation, it is anticipated that tilt direction may be resolved in addition to overall tilt magnitude. To date the data show passage of earth tides and frequency analysis has revealed five components to this signal, three associated with the semi-diurnal (~12.4 hr) and two with the diurnal (~24.9 hr) tides. Currently, installation methods are being analyzed between concrete pillar and rib-mounting using the existing setup on the 2000-ft level. Using these results, two additional arrays of Fermilab instruments will be installed on the 4550-ft and 4850-ft levels (1387 and 1478 m, respectively). In addition to Fermilab instruments, several high resolution Budker tiltmeters (1 μm resolution) will be installed in the mine workings in the near future, some

  19. Sizing of air cleaning systems for access to nuclear plant spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estreich, P.J.

    A mathematical basis is developed to provide the practicing engineer with a method for sizing air-cleaning systems for nuclear facilities. In particular, general formulas are provided to relate cleaning and contamination dynamics of an enclosure such that safe conditions are obtained when working crews enter. Included in these considerations is the sizing of an air-cleaning system to provide rapid decontamination of airborne radioactivity. Multiple-nuclide contamination sources, leak rate, direct radiation, contaminant mixing efficiency, filter efficiencies, air-cleaning-system operational modes, and criteria for maximum permissible concentrations are integrated into the procedure. (author)

  20. Distributed Active Traction Control System Applied to the RoboCup Middle Size League

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Almeida

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This work addresses the problem of traction control in mobile wheeled robots in the particular case of the RoboCup Middle Size League (MSL. The slip control problem is formulated using simple friction models for ISePorto Team Robots with a differential wheel configuration. Traction was also characterized experimentally in the MSL scenario for relevant game events. This work proposes a hierarchical traction control architecture which relies on local slip detection and control at each wheel, with relevant information being relayed to a higher level responsible for global robot motion control. A dedicated one axis control embedded hardware subsystem allowing complex local control, high frequency current sensing and odometric information procession was developed. This local axis control board is integrated in a distributed system using CAN bus communications. The slipping observer was implemented in the axis control hardware nodes integrated in the ISePorto Robots and was used to control and detect loss of traction. An external vision system was used to perform a qualitative analysis of the slip detection and observer performance results are presented.

  1. Sizing Hydrogen Energy Storage in Consideration of Demand Response in Highly Renewable Generation Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mubbashir Ali

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available From an environment perspective, the increased penetration of wind and solar generation in power systems is remarkable. However, as the intermittent renewable generation briskly grows, electrical grids are experiencing significant discrepancies between supply and demand as a result of limited system flexibility. This paper investigates the optimal sizing and control of the hydrogen energy storage system for increased utilization of renewable generation. Using a Finnish case study, a mathematical model is presented to investigate the optimal storage capacity in a renewable power system. In addition, the impact of demand response for domestic storage space heating in terms of the optimal sizing of energy storage is discussed. Finally, sensitivity analyses are conducted to observe the impact of a small share of controllable baseload production as well as the oversizing of renewable generation in terms of required hydrogen storage size.

  2. Galectin-3 levels relate in children to total body fat, abdominal fat, body fat distribution, and cardiac size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dencker, Magnus; Arvidsson, Daniel; Karlsson, Magnus K; Wollmer, Per; Andersen, Lars B; Thorsson, Ola

    2018-03-01

    Galectin-3 has recently been proposed as a novel biomarker for cardiovascular disease in adults. The purpose of this investigation was to assess relationships between galectin-3 levels and total body fat, abdominal fat, body fat distribution, aerobic fitness, blood pressure, left ventricular mass, left atrial size, and increase in body fat over a 2-year period in a population-based sample of children. Our study included 170 children aged 8-11 years. Total fat mass and abdominal fat were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Body fat distribution was expressed as abdominal fat/total fat mass. Maximal oxygen uptake was assessed by indirect calorimetry during a maximal exercise test and scaled to body mass. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure and pulse pressure were measured. Left atrial size, left ventricular mass, and relative wall thickness were measured by echocardiography. Frozen serum samples were analyzed for galectin-3 by the Proximity Extension Assay technique. A follow-up DXA scan was performed in 152 children 2 years after the baseline exam. Partial correlations, with adjustment for sex and age, between galectin-3 versus body fat measurements indicated weak to moderate relationships. Moreover, left atrial size, left ventricular mass, and relative wall thickness and pulse pressure were also correlated with galectin-3. Neither systolic blood pressure nor maximal oxygen uptake was correlated with galectin-3. There was also a correlation between galectin-3 and increase in total body fat over 2 years, while no such correlations were found for the other fat measurements. More body fat and abdominal fat, more abdominal body fat distribution, more left ventricular mass, and increased left atrial size were all associated with higher levels of galectin-3. Increase in total body fat over 2 years was also associated with higher levels of galectin-3. What is Known: • Galectin-3 has been linked to obesity and been proposed to be a novel biomarker

  3. Carrying the (paper) burden: A portfolio view of systemic risk and optimal bank size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.W.B.; Lamers, M.; Purice, V.

    2014-01-01

    We examine the relationship between bank size and financial stability by viewing the supervisor of a banking system as an ‘investor’ holding a portfolio of banks. Based on this view, we investigate the role of large banks in determining the systemic risk in this portfolio. Our results, based on book

  4. Comparing cluster-level dynamic treatment regimens using sequential, multiple assignment, randomized trials: Regression estimation and sample size considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NeCamp, Timothy; Kilbourne, Amy; Almirall, Daniel

    2017-08-01

    Cluster-level dynamic treatment regimens can be used to guide sequential treatment decision-making at the cluster level in order to improve outcomes at the individual or patient-level. In a cluster-level dynamic treatment regimen, the treatment is potentially adapted and re-adapted over time based on changes in the cluster that could be impacted by prior intervention, including aggregate measures of the individuals or patients that compose it. Cluster-randomized sequential multiple assignment randomized trials can be used to answer multiple open questions preventing scientists from developing high-quality cluster-level dynamic treatment regimens. In a cluster-randomized sequential multiple assignment randomized trial, sequential randomizations occur at the cluster level and outcomes are observed at the individual level. This manuscript makes two contributions to the design and analysis of cluster-randomized sequential multiple assignment randomized trials. First, a weighted least squares regression approach is proposed for comparing the mean of a patient-level outcome between the cluster-level dynamic treatment regimens embedded in a sequential multiple assignment randomized trial. The regression approach facilitates the use of baseline covariates which is often critical in the analysis of cluster-level trials. Second, sample size calculators are derived for two common cluster-randomized sequential multiple assignment randomized trial designs for use when the primary aim is a between-dynamic treatment regimen comparison of the mean of a continuous patient-level outcome. The methods are motivated by the Adaptive Implementation of Effective Programs Trial which is, to our knowledge, the first-ever cluster-randomized sequential multiple assignment randomized trial in psychiatry.

  5. On sizing of flow meters used in customer accounting devices in district heating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingimundarson, Ari; Wollerstrand, J.; Arvastson, Lars

    1998-12-31

    The paper deals with accuracy problems when heat energy consumption in district heating (DH) systems is calculated by measuring the DH water flow rate and its cooling. An investigation on the influence that sizing of flow meters used has on the accuracy of DH water flow measurements in a typical DH subscriber station is presented. Furthermore the consequences of the choice of flow meter size on energy metering accuracy is studied. The goal is to determine rules leading to optimal sizing of the flow meters 9 refs, 14 figs

  6. Simplified Method of Optimal Sizing of a Renewable Energy Hybrid System for Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyeon Kim

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Schools are a suitable public building for renewable energy systems. Renewable energy hybrid systems (REHSs have recently been introduced in schools following a new national regulation that mandates renewable energy utilization. An REHS combines the common renewable-energy sources such as geothermal heat pumps, solar collectors for water heating, and photovoltaic systems with conventional energy systems (i.e., boilers and air-source heat pumps. Optimal design of an REHS by adequate sizing is not a trivial task because it usually requires intensive work including detailed simulation and demand/supply analysis. This type of simulation-based approach for optimization is difficult to implement in practice. To address this, this paper proposes simplified sizing equations for renewable-energy systems of REHSs. A conventional optimization process is used to calculate the optimal combinations of an REHS for cases of different numbers of classrooms and budgets. On the basis of the results, simplified sizing equations that use only the number of classrooms as the input are proposed by regression analysis. A verification test was carried out using an initial conventional optimization process. The results show that the simplified sizing equations predict similar sizing results to the initial process, consequently showing similar capital costs within a 2% error.

  7. Strangeness freeze-out: role of system size and missing resonances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatterjee Sandeep

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The conventional approach to treat strangeness freezeout has been to consider a unified freezeout scheme where strangeness freezes out along with the nonstrange hadrons (1CFO, with or without an additional parameter accounting for out-of-equilibrium strangeness production (γS. Several alternate scenarios have been formulated lately. Here, we will focus on flavor dependent freezeout with early freezeout of strangeness (2CFO in comparison to 1CFO and its variants with respect to the roles played by the system size and missing resonances predicted by different theoretical approaches but yet to be seen in experiments. In contrast to the performance of 1CFO with/without γS that is insensitive to system size, 2CFO exhibits a clear system size dependence-while for Pb+Pb the χ2/NDF is around 0-2, for smaller system size in p+Pb and p+p, the χ2/NDF> 5 and larger than 1CFO+γS. This clearly shows a system size dependence of the preference for the freezeout scheme, while 2CFO is preferred in Pb+Pb, 1CFO+γS is preferred in p+Pb and p+p. We have further investigated the role of the missing resonances on strangeness freezeout across SPS to LHC beam energies.

  8. Development of a multi-beam laser ultrasonic inspection system and its application on flaw sizing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chivavibul, Pornthep; Lin, Shan; Fukutomi, Hiroyuki; Higuchi, Sadao; Ogata, Takashi; Fukuchi, Tetsuo

    2006-01-01

    Laser ultrasonic technique is a powerful tool for non-contact, nondestructive testing of materials. It is expected to apply to where the conventional ultrasonic technique is not applicable. However, this technique suffers from low sensitivity. In order to overcome this shortcoming, a multi-beam laser ultrasonic system was developed to increase signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and steer beam direction. The system consisted of eight pulsed Nd:YAG lasers used for ultrasonic generation, and a two-wave mixing interferometer with a long-pulsed Nd:YAG used for ultrasonic detection. Spatial and temporal control of the firing of the individual lasers permitted the generation of both phased array single pulse and narrow-band ultrasonic signals. The performance of developed system was verified using aluminum specimens with the wave generation in a slight ablation mode. A significant increase in sensitivity was obtained, with an increase in signal amplitude with no change in noise level. In the narrow band case, tone bursts were successfully generated in both surface and bulk waves. Beam steering of bulk waves was also performed, and the directivity was confirmed by visualization using a conventional transducer. The developed system was applied to flaw sizing using two techniques: shadow and short-path of diffraction (SPOD), using aluminum specimens with 2-mm, 5-mm, 8-mm slit depths. The shadow technique accurately measured the 5- and 8-mm slits, but not the 2-mm slit. The SPOD technique, carried out using a 5-MHz normal longitudinal transducer as a detector instead of TWN interferometer, accurately measured slits in all specimens with an error less than 0.5 mm. (author)

  9. Pavement Management Systems on a Local Level

    OpenAIRE

    Vasquez, Cristian A.

    2011-01-01

    Roads are one of the most valuable infrastructure assets within a community. Proper maintenance of the roadway network can promote the prosperity of a community. In recent times maintenance has become much more difficult with the price of asphalt increasing drastically and city budgets contracting due to the economic downturn. With these conditions, the proper management of an agency’s street network is necessary. The use of pavement management systems provides the help needed in the preserva...

  10. An online detection system for aggregate sizes and shapes based on digital image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianhong; Chen, Sijia

    2017-02-01

    Traditional aggregate size measuring methods are time-consuming, taxing, and do not deliver online measurements. A new online detection system for determining aggregate size and shape based on a digital camera with a charge-coupled device, and subsequent digital image processing, have been developed to overcome these problems. The system captures images of aggregates while falling and flat lying. Using these data, the particle size and shape distribution can be obtained in real time. Here, we calibrate this method using standard globules. Our experiments show that the maximum particle size distribution error was only 3 wt%, while the maximum particle shape distribution error was only 2 wt% for data derived from falling aggregates, having good dispersion. In contrast, the data for flat-lying aggregates had a maximum particle size distribution error of 12 wt%, and a maximum particle shape distribution error of 10 wt%; their accuracy was clearly lower than for falling aggregates. However, they performed well for single-graded aggregates, and did not require a dispersion device. Our system is low-cost and easy to install. It can successfully achieve online detection of aggregate size and shape with good reliability, and it has great potential for aggregate quality assurance.

  11. Automatic calibration method of voxel size for cone-beam 3D-CT scanning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Min; Wang Xiaolong; Wei Dongbo; Liu Yipeng; Meng Fanyong; Li Xingdong; Liu Wenli

    2014-01-01

    For a cone-beam three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) scanning system, voxel size is an important indicator to guarantee the accuracy of data analysis and feature measurement based on 3D-CT images. Meanwhile, the voxel size changes with the movement of the rotary stage along X-ray direction. In order to realize the automatic calibration of the voxel size, a new and easily-implemented method is proposed. According to this method, several projections of a spherical phantom are captured at different imaging positions and the corresponding voxel size values are calculated by non-linear least-square fitting. Through these interpolation values, a linear equation is obtained that reflects the relationship between the voxel size and the rotary stage translation distance from its nominal zero position. Finally, the linear equation is imported into the calibration module of the 3D-CT scanning system. When the rotary stage is moving along X-ray direction, the accurate value of the voxel size is dynamically exported. The experimental results prove that this method meets the requirements of the actual CT scanning system, and has virtues of easy implementation and high accuracy. (authors)

  12. Models of governance in multihospital systems. Implications for hospital and system-level decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morlock, L L; Alexander, J A

    1986-12-01

    This study utilizes data from a national survey of 159 multihospital systems in order to describe the types of governance structures currently being utilized, and to compare the policy making process for various types of decisions in systems with different approaches to governance. Survey results indicate that multihospital systems most often use one of three governance models. Forty-one percent of the systems (including 33% of system hospitals) use a parent holding company model in which there is a system-wide corporate governing board and separate governing boards for each member hospital. Twenty-two percent of systems in the sample (but 47% of all system hospitals) utilize what we have termed a modified parent holding company model in which there is one system-wide governing board, but advisory boards are substituted for governing boards at the local hospital level. Twenty-three percent of the sampled systems (including 11% of system hospitals) use a corporate model in which there is one system-wide governing board but no other governing or advisory boards at either the divisional, regional or local hospital levels. A comparison of systems using these three governance approaches found significant variation in terms of system size, ownership and the geographic proximity of member hospitals. In order to examine the relationship between alternative approaches to governance and patterns of decision-making, the three model types were compared with respect to the percentages of systems reporting that local boards, corporate management and/or system-wide corporate boards have responsibility for decision-making in a number of specific issue areas. Study results indicate that, regardless of model type, corporate boards are most likely to have responsibility for decisions regarding the transfer, pledging and sale of assets; the formation of new companies; purchase of assets greater than $100,000; changes in hospital bylaws; and the appointment of local board members. In

  13. Multi-level RF identification system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Kerry D.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Gilbert, Ronald W.

    2004-07-20

    A radio frequency identification system having a radio frequency transceiver for generating a continuous wave RF interrogation signal that impinges upon an RF identification tag. An oscillation circuit in the RF identification tag modulates the interrogation signal with a subcarrier of a predetermined frequency and modulates the frequency-modulated signal back to the transmitting interrogator. The interrogator recovers and analyzes the subcarrier signal and determines its frequency. The interrogator generates an output indicative of the frequency of the subcarrier frequency, thereby identifying the responding RFID tag as one of a "class" of RFID tags configured to respond with a subcarrier signal of a predetermined frequency.

  14. Size-Dependent Regulation of Intracellular Trafficking of Polystyrene Nanoparticle-Based Drug-Delivery Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Wang, Lu; Li, Xiaoming; Hu, Xingjie; Han, Yuping; Luo, Yao; Wang, Zejun; Li, Qian; Aldalbahi, Ali; Wang, Lihua; Song, Shiping; Fan, Chunhai; Zhao, Yun; Wang, Maolin; Chen, Nan

    2017-06-07

    Nanoparticles (NPs) have shown great promise as intracellular imaging probes or nanocarriers and are increasingly being used in biomedical applications. A detailed understanding of how NPs get "in and out" of cells is important for developing new nanomaterials with improved selectivity and less cytotoxicity. Both physical and chemical characteristics have been proven to regulate the cellular uptake of NPs. However, the exocytosis process and its regulation are less explored. Herein, we investigated the size-regulated endocytosis and exocytosis of carboxylated polystyrene (PS) NPs. PS NPs with a smaller size were endocytosed mainly through the clathrin-dependent pathway, whereas PS NPs with a larger size preferred caveolae-mediated endocytosis. Furthermore, our results revealed exocytosis of larger PS NPs and tracked the dynamic process at the single-particle level. These results indicate that particle size is a key factor for the regulation of intracellular trafficking of NPs and provide new insight into the development of more effective cellular nanocarriers.

  15. Autonomous bed-sediment imaging-systems for revealing temporal variability of grain size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscombe, Daniel; Rubin, David M.; Lacy, Jessica R.; Storlazzi, Curt D.; Hatcher, Gerald; Chezar, Henry; Wyland, Robert; Sherwood, Christopher R.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a remotely operated video microscope system, designed to provide high-resolution images of seabed sediments. Two versions were developed, which differ in how they raise the camera from the seabed. The first used hydraulics and the second used the energy associated with wave orbital motion. Images were analyzed using automated frequency-domain methods, which following a rigorous partially supervised quality control procedure, yielded estimates to within 20% of the true size as determined by on-screen manual measurements of grains. Long-term grain-size variability at a sandy inner shelf site offshore of Santa Cruz, California, USA, was investigated using the hydraulic system. Eighteen months of high frequency (min to h), high-resolution (μm) images were collected, and grain size distributions compiled. The data constitutes the longest known high-frequency record of seabed-grain size at this sample frequency, at any location. Short-term grain-size variability of sand in an energetic surf zone at Praa Sands, Cornwall, UK was investigated using the ‘wave-powered’ system. The data are the first high-frequency record of grain size at a single location of a highly mobile and evolving bed in a natural surf zone. Using this technology, it is now possible to measure bed-sediment-grain size at a time-scale comparable with flow conditions. Results suggest models of sediment transport at sandy, wave-dominated, nearshore locations should allow for substantial changes in grain-size distribution over time-scales as short as a few hours.

  16. Density-functional errors in ionization potential with increasing system size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittleton, Sarah R.; Sosa Vazquez, Xochitl A.; Isborn, Christine M., E-mail: cisborn@ucmerced.edu [Chemistry and Chemical Biology, School of Natural Sciences, University of California, Merced, 5200 North Lake Road, Merced, California 95343 (United States); Johnson, Erin R., E-mail: erin.johnson@dal.ca [Chemistry and Chemical Biology, School of Natural Sciences, University of California, Merced, 5200 North Lake Road, Merced, California 95343 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Dalhousie University, 6274 Coburg Road, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4R2 (Canada)

    2015-05-14

    This work investigates the effects of molecular size on the accuracy of density-functional ionization potentials for a set of 28 hydrocarbons, including series of alkanes, alkenes, and oligoacenes. As the system size increases, delocalization error introduces a systematic underestimation of the ionization potential, which is rationalized by considering the fractional-charge behavior of the electronic energies. The computation of the ionization potential with many density-functional approximations is not size-extensive due to excessive delocalization of the incipient positive charge. While inclusion of exact exchange reduces the observed errors, system-specific tuning of long-range corrected functionals does not generally improve accuracy. These results emphasize that good performance of a functional for small molecules is not necessarily transferable to larger systems.

  17. Sample size calculation to externally validate scoring systems based on logistic regression models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Palazón-Bru

    Full Text Available A sample size containing at least 100 events and 100 non-events has been suggested to validate a predictive model, regardless of the model being validated and that certain factors can influence calibration of the predictive model (discrimination, parameterization and incidence. Scoring systems based on binary logistic regression models are a specific type of predictive model.The aim of this study was to develop an algorithm to determine the sample size for validating a scoring system based on a binary logistic regression model and to apply it to a case study.The algorithm was based on bootstrap samples in which the area under the ROC curve, the observed event probabilities through smooth curves, and a measure to determine the lack of calibration (estimated calibration index were calculated. To illustrate its use for interested researchers, the algorithm was applied to a scoring system, based on a binary logistic regression model, to determine mortality in intensive care units.In the case study provided, the algorithm obtained a sample size with 69 events, which is lower than the value suggested in the literature.An algorithm is provided for finding the appropriate sample size to validate scoring systems based on binary logistic regression models. This could be applied to determine the sample size in other similar cases.

  18. Effective size of density-dependent two-sex populations: the effect of mating systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhre, A M; Engen, S; SAEther, B-E

    2017-08-01

    Density dependence in vital rates is a key feature affecting temporal fluctuations of natural populations. This has important implications for the rate of random genetic drift. Mating systems also greatly affect effective population sizes, but knowledge of how mating system and density regulation interact to affect random genetic drift is poor. Using theoretical models and simulations, we compare N e in short-lived, density-dependent animal populations with different mating systems. We study the impact of a fluctuating, density-dependent sex ratio and consider both a stable and a fluctuating environment. We find a negative relationship between annual N e /N and adult population size N due to density dependence, suggesting that loss of genetic variation is reduced at small densities. The magnitude of this decrease was affected by mating system and life history. A male-biased, density-dependent sex ratio reduces the rate of genetic drift compared to an equal, density-independent sex ratio, but a stochastic change towards male bias reduces the N e /N ratio. Environmental stochasticity amplifies temporal fluctuations in population size and is thus vital to consider in estimation of effective population sizes over longer time periods. Our results on the reduced loss of genetic variation at small densities, particularly in polygamous populations, indicate that density regulation may facilitate adaptive evolution at small population sizes. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  19. Portable Water Level Monitoring System via SMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jomar S. Vitales

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Damages and lives taken by the typhoon Ondoy and other super typhoons brought the researchers to think and develop a device that warns people an hour or more than an hour before the devastating phenomena. In this project the researchers have thought of using text messaging in which the country’s leading means of communication. The development of the project was guided by the Engineering Design Cycle of Dr. Allan Cheville in his book entitled “Rocket Engineering”. The researchers have identified and used the needed materials which are suited in the intended function of the project. The project was already evaluated and had gathered a favorable response from the knowledgeable respondents in the field where the design project is intended to use. The project has a high acceptability level in the respondents’ point of view. The researchers are highly recommending the implementation of the project for a better testing in the incoming rainy season and also recommending to be placed in the Pantalan Bridge in Pantalan, Nasugbu, Batangas, Philippines. The researchers are also suggesting another study for a better water proof casing of the project.

  20. A review on recent size optimization methodologies for standalone solar and wind hybrid renewable energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-falahi, Monaaf D.A.; Jayasinghe, S.D.G.; Enshaei, H.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Possible combinations and configurations for standalone PV-WT HES were discussed. • Most recently used assessment parameters for standalone PV-WT HES were explained. • Optimization algorithms and software tools were comprehensively reviewed. • The recent trend of using hybrid algorithms over single algorithms was discussed. • Optimization algorithms for sizing standalone PV-WT HES were critically compared. - Abstract: Electricity demand in remote and island areas are generally supplied by diesel or other fossil fuel based generation systems. Nevertheless, due to the increasing cost and harmful emissions of fossil fuels there is a growing trend to use standalone hybrid renewable energy systems (HRESs). Due to the complementary characteristics, matured technologies and availability in most areas, hybrid systems with solar and wind energy have become the popular choice in such applications. However, the intermittency and high net present cost are the challenges associated with solar and wind energy systems. In this context, optimal sizing is a key factor to attain a reliable supply at a low cost through these standalone systems. Therefore, there has been a growing interest to develop algorithms for size optimization in standalone HRESs. The optimal sizing methodologies reported so far can be broadly categorized as classical algorithms, modern techniques and software tools. Modern techniques, based on single artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms, are becoming more popular than classical algorithms owing to their capabilities in solving complex optimization problems. Moreover, in recent years, there has been a clear trend to use hybrid algorithms over single algorithms mainly due to their ability to provide more promising optimization results. This paper aims to present a comprehensive review on recent developments in size optimization methodologies, as well as a critical comparison of single algorithms, hybrid algorithms, and software tools

  1. Multi-shell spherical GaAs /AlxGa1-x As quantum dot shells-size distribution as a mechanism to generate intermediate band energy levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Magdaleno, K. A.; Pérez-Álvarez, R.; Martínez-Orozco, J. C.; Pernas-Salomón, R.

    2017-04-01

    In this work the generation of an intermediate band of energy levels from multi-shell spherical GaAs /AlxGa1-x As quantum dot shells-size distribution is reported. Within the effective mass approximation the electronic structure of a GaAs spherical quantum-dot surrounded by one, two and three shells is studied in detail using a numerically stable transfer matrix method. We found that a shells-size distribution characterized by continuously wider GaAs domains is a suitable mechanism to generate the intermediate band whose width is also dependent on the Aluminium concentration x. Our results suggest that this effective mechanism can be used for the design of wider intermediate band than reported in other quantum systems with possible solar cells enhanced performance.

  2. 12 CFR 1282.17 - Affordability-Income level definitions-family size and income known (owner-occupied units, actual...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... GOALS AND MISSION Housing Goals § 1282.17 Affordability—Income level definitions—family size and income..., for rental housing, family size and income information for the dwelling unit is known to the... sizes: Number of persons in family Percentageof area median income 1 70 2 80 3 90 4 100 5 or more...

  3. 24 CFR 81.17 - Affordability-Income level definitions-family size and income known (owner-occupied units, actual...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... definitions-family size and income known (owner-occupied units, actual tenants, and prospective tenants). 81...—Income level definitions—family size and income known (owner-occupied units, actual tenants, and...-income families, where the unit is owner-occupied or, for rental housing, family size and income...

  4. Technical impacts of high penetration levels of wind power on power system stability

    OpenAIRE

    Flynn, Damian; Rather, Z.; Ardal, Atle; Darco, Salvatore; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar; Estanqueiro, Ana; Gomez, Emilio; Menemenlis, Nickie; Smith, Charlie; Wang, Ye

    2017-01-01

    With increasing penetrations of wind generation, based on power-electronic converters, power systems are transitioning away from well-understood synchronous generator-based systems, with growing implications for their stability. Issues of concern will vary with system size, wind penetration level, geographical distribution and turbine type, network topology, electricity market structure, unit commitment procedures, and other factors. However, variable-speed wind turbines, both onshore and con...

  5. Standalone Photovoltaic System Sizing using Peak Sun Hour Method and Evaluation by TRNSYS Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Riza, Dimas Firmanda Al; Gilani, Syed Ihtshamul-Haq

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents sizing and evaluation of a standalone photovoltaic system for residential load. Peak Sun Hour method is used to determine photovoltaic panel and battery capacity, then the sizing results is tested and evaluated using hourly time-step transient simulation model by using TRNSYS 16.0. The results shows for typical Malaysian terraced house that have about 6 kWh daily electricity load, the photovoltaic system requirement consist of 1.9 kWp photovoltaic panel and 2200 Ah battery...

  6. Trap-size scaling in confined-particle systems at quantum transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campostrini, Massimo; Vicari, Ettore

    2010-01-01

    We develop a trap-size scaling theory for trapped particle systems at quantum transitions. As a theoretical laboratory, we consider a quantum XY chain in an external transverse field acting as a trap for the spinless fermions of its quadratic Hamiltonian representation. We discuss trap-size scaling at the Mott insulator to superfluid transition in the Bose-Hubbard model. We present exact and accurate numerical results for the XY chain and for the low-density Mott transition in the hard-core limit of the one-dimensional Bose-Hubbard model. Our results are relevant for systems of cold atomic gases in optical lattices.

  7. Optimal placement and sizing of wind / solar based DG sources in distribution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Wanlin; Guo, Niao; Yu, Chunlai; Chen, Xiaoguang; Yu, Haiyang; Liu, Zhipeng; Cui, Jiapeng

    2017-06-01

    Proper placement and sizing of Distributed Generation (DG) in distribution system can obtain maximum potential benefits. This paper proposes quantum particle swarm algorithm (QPSO) based wind turbine generation unit (WTGU) and photovoltaic (PV) array placement and sizing approach for real power loss reduction and voltage stability improvement of distribution system. Performance modeling of wind and solar generation system are described and classified into PQ\\PQ (V)\\PI type models in power flow. Considering the WTGU and PV based DGs in distribution system is geographical restrictive, the optimal area and DG capacity limits of each bus in the setting area need to be set before optimization, the area optimization method is proposed . The method has been tested on IEEE 33-bus radial distribution systems to demonstrate the performance and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  8. The Suitability of Expert System Application in Czech Small and Medium‑Sized Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Khitilova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium-sized enterprises play an important role in the economy of Czech Republic. Expert systems are one of the alternatives evaluated the effectiveness of the relationship between supplier and customer. Currently, measurement and increase in efficiency of supplier-customer relations is very topical subject. The requirements for tools the improvement supplier- customer relationship can be specified on the base the literature analysis. The article defines basic requirements for expert system. The presentation of expert system and its suitability in the surroundings of small and medium sized enterprises is the part of this article. The comparison of the expert system possibilities and the compiled requirements leads to suitability analysis of selected solution. Actual questions and the way of future work are derived from current results, presented in the paper. The article defined the directions of development this expert system.

  9. EVOLUTION OF INNOVATION ACTIVITY IN THE CONTEXT OF SIZE OF ENTERPRISES IN WEST POMERANIAN PROVINCE – SYSTEM APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Świadek

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In transitions countries firms’ size and equity property flown on economy processes, including innovation activity in industry. Driven researches show that the key to accelerate economy development is a technology transfer from foreign countries. Implementing of new solutions depends on medium and large organizations, rather than micro and small. Traditional micro and small regional enterprises feature a low level of taking up risks capability. An innovation activity in industry systems grows up during a time flow, but only in a small domestic enterprises, and it’s similar to their foreign and larger competitors. This paper discusses the problems of size and equity own of enterprises for innovation activity in regional industry systems in West Pomeranian province in the period 2004-2006 and 2009-2011.

  10. Unit-level voluntary turnover rates and customer service quality: implications of group cohesiveness, newcomer concentration, and size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausknecht, John P; Trevor, Charlie O; Howard, Michael J

    2009-07-01

    Despite substantial growth in the service industry and emerging work on turnover consequences, little research examines how unit-level turnover rates affect essential customer-related outcomes. The authors propose an operational disruption framework to explain why voluntary turnover impairs customers' service quality perceptions. On the basis of a sample of 75 work units and data from 5,631 employee surveys, 59,602 customer surveys, and organizational records, results indicate that unit-level voluntary turnover rates are negatively related to service quality perceptions. The authors also examine potential boundary conditions related to the disruption framework. Of 3 moderators studied (group cohesiveness, group size, and newcomer concentration), results show that turnover's negative effects on service quality are more pronounced in larger units and in those with a greater concentration of newcomers.

  11. Settlement-Size Scaling among Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherer Settlement Systems in the New World.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Randall Haas

    Full Text Available Settlement size predicts extreme variation in the rates and magnitudes of many social and ecological processes in human societies. Yet, the factors that drive human settlement-size variation remain poorly understood. Size variation among economically integrated settlements tends to be heavy tailed such that the smallest settlements are extremely common and the largest settlements extremely large and rare. The upper tail of this size distribution is often formalized mathematically as a power-law function. Explanations for this scaling structure in human settlement systems tend to emphasize complex socioeconomic processes including agriculture, manufacturing, and warfare-behaviors that tend to differentially nucleate and disperse populations hierarchically among settlements. But, the degree to which heavy-tailed settlement-size variation requires such complex behaviors remains unclear. By examining the settlement patterns of eight prehistoric New World hunter-gatherer settlement systems spanning three distinct environmental contexts, this analysis explores the degree to which heavy-tailed settlement-size scaling depends on the aforementioned socioeconomic complexities. Surprisingly, the analysis finds that power-law models offer plausible and parsimonious statistical descriptions of prehistoric hunter-gatherer settlement-size variation. This finding reveals that incipient forms of hierarchical settlement structure may have preceded socioeconomic complexity in human societies and points to a need for additional research to explicate how mobile foragers came to exhibit settlement patterns that are more commonly associated with hierarchical organization. We propose that hunter-gatherer mobility with preferential attachment to previously occupied locations may account for the observed structure in site-size variation.

  12. Systemic granuloma observed in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar raised to market size in a freshwater recirculation aquaculture system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Systemic granuloma was observed in sampled adult Atlantic salmon Salmo salar raised to harvest size in a freshwater recirculation aquaculture system. The prevalence of this condition was estimated at 10-20% of the population, with affected individuals grossly demonstrating pathology in varying degre...

  13. Finite-key-size effect in a commercial plug-and-play QKD system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiwongkhot, Poompong; Sajeed, Shihan; Lydersen, Lars; Makarov, Vadim

    2017-12-01

    A security evaluation against the finite-key-size effect was performed for a commercial plug-and-play quantum key distribution (QKD) system. We demonstrate the ability of an eavesdropper to force the system to distill key from a smaller length of sifted-key. We also derive a key-rate equation that is specific for this system. This equation provides bounds above the upper bound of secure key under finite-key-size analysis. From this equation and our experimental data, we show that the keys that have been distilled from the smaller sifted-key size fall above our bound. Thus, their security is not covered by finite-key-size analysis. Experimentally, we could consistently force the system to generate the key outside of the bound. We also test manufacturer’s software update. Although all the keys after the patch fall under our bound, their security cannot be guaranteed under this analysis. Our methodology can be used for security certification and standardization of QKD systems.

  14. ANFIS-based genetic algorithm for predicting the optimal sizing coefficient of photovoltaic supply systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellit, A. [Medea Univ., Medea (Algeria). Inst. of Science Engineering, Dept. of Electronics

    2007-07-01

    Stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) power supply systems are regarded as reliable and economical sources of electricity in rural remote areas, particularly in developing countries. However, the sizing of stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) systems is an important part of the system design. Choosing the optimal number of solar cell panels and the size of the storage battery to be used for a certain application at a particular site is an important economical problem. In this paper, a genetic algorithm (GA) and an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference scheme (ANFIS) were proposed as a means for determining the optimal size of PV system, particularly, in isolated areas. The GA-ANFIS model was shown to be suitable for modelling the optimal sizing parameters of PVS systems. The GA was used to determine the PV-array capacity and the storage capacity for 60 sites. From this database, 56 pairs relative to 56 sites were used for training the network. Four pairs were used for testing and validating the ANFIS model. A correlation of 99 per cent was achieved when complete unknown data parameters were presented to the model. The proposed technique provided more accurate results than the alternative artificial neural network (ANN) with GA. The advantage of this model was that it could estimate the PV-array area and the useful capacity of the battery from only geographical coordinates. Although the technique was applied and tested in Algeria, it can be generalized for any location in the world. 15 refs., 4 tabs., 8 figs.

  15. Differential responses of nitrate reducer community size, structure, and activity to tillage systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chèneby, D; Brauman, A; Rabary, B; Philippot, L

    2009-05-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine how the size, structure, and activity of the nitrate reducer community were affected by adoption of a conservative tillage system as an alternative to conventional tillage. The experimental field, established in Madagascar in 1991, consists of plots subjected to conventional tillage or direct-seeding mulch-based cropping systems (DM), both amended with three different fertilization regimes. Comparisons of size, structure, and activity of the nitrate reducer community in samples collected from the top layer in 2005 and 2006 revealed that all characteristics of this functional community were affected by the tillage system, with increased nitrate reduction activity and numbers of nitrate reducers under DM. Nitrate reduction activity was also stimulated by combined organic and mineral fertilization but not by organic fertilization alone. In contrast, both negative and positive effects of combined organic and mineral fertilization on the size of the nitrate reducer community were observed. The size of the nitrate reducer community was a significant predictor of the nitrate reduction rates except in one treatment, which highlighted the inherent complexities in understanding the relationships the between size, diversity, and structure of functional microbial communities along environmental gradients.

  16. Stand-alone flat-plate photovoltaic power systems: System sizing and life-cycle costing methodology for Federal agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borden, C. S.; Volkmer, K.; Cochrane, E. H.; Lawson, A. C.

    1984-01-01

    A simple methodology to estimate photovoltaic system size and life-cycle costs in stand-alone applications is presented. It is designed to assist engineers at Government agencies in determining the feasibility of using small stand-alone photovoltaic systems to supply ac or dc power to the load. Photovoltaic system design considerations are presented as well as the equations for sizing the flat-plate array and the battery storage to meet the required load. Cost effectiveness of a candidate photovoltaic system is based on comparison with the life-cycle cost of alternative systems. Examples of alternative systems addressed are batteries, diesel generators, the utility grid, and other renewable energy systems.

  17. Transient queue-size distribution in a finite-capacity queueing system with server breakdowns and Bernoulli feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempa, Wojciech M.

    2017-12-01

    A finite-capacity queueing system with server breakdowns is investigated, in which successive exponentially distributed failure-free times are followed by repair periods. After the processing a customer may either rejoin the queue (feedback) with probability q, or definitely leave the system with probability 1 - q. The system of integral equations for transient queue-size distribution, conditioned by the initial level of buffer saturation, is build. The solution of the corresponding system written for Laplace transforms is found using the linear algebraic approach. The considered queueing system can be successfully used in modelling production lines with machine failures, in which the parameter q may be considered as a typical fraction of items demanding corrections. Morever, this queueing model can be applied in the analysis of real TCP/IP performance, where q stands for the fraction of packets requiring retransmission.

  18. Liquid hydrogen transfer pipes and level regulation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquet, M.; Prugne, P.; Roubeau, P.

    1961-01-01

    Describes: 1) Transfer pipes - Plunging rods in liquid hydrogen Dewars; transfer pipes: knee-joint system for quick and accurate positioning of plunging Dewar rods; system's rods: combined valve and rod; valves are activated either by a bulb pressure or by a solenoid automatically or hand controlled. The latter allows intermittent filling. 2) Level regulating systems: Level bulbs: accurate to 1 or 4 m; maximum and minimum level bulbs: automatic control of the liquid hydrogen valve. (author) [fr

  19. The effect of food portion sizes on the obesity prevention using system dynamics modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidin, Norhaslinda Zainal; Zulkepli, Jafri Hj; Zaibidi, Nerda Zura

    2014-09-01

    The rise in income and population growth have increased the demand for food and induced changes in food habits, food purchasing and consumption patterns in Malaysia. With this transition, one of the plausible causes of weight gain and obesity is the frequent consumption of outside food which is synonymous with bigger portion size. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to develop a system dynamics model to analyse the effect of reducing food portion size on weight and obesity prevention. This study combines the different strands of knowledge comprise of nutrition, physical activity and body metabolism. These elements are synthesized into a system dynamics model called SIMULObese. Findings from this study suggested that changes in eating behavior should not emphasize only on limiting the food portion size consumption. The efforts should also consider other eating events such as controlling the meal frequency and limiting intake of high-calorie food in developing guidelines to prevent obesity.

  20. Sizing criteria for a low footprint passive mine water treatment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapsford, D J; Williams, K P

    2009-02-01

    The objective of this paper is to present data from a novel vertical flow mine water treatment system, demonstrate how these data can be used to generate sizing formulae for this technology, and present a comparison between the size of system based on these formulae and those of conventionally designed passive systems. The paper focuses on passive treatment of circum-neutral ferruginous mine waters bearing up to 50 mgl(-1) of iron in either ferrous or ferric form. The Vertical Flow Reactor (VFR) operates by passing mine water down through an accreting bed of ochre, the ochre bed being responsible for the intensification of iron removal by self-filtration and/or autocatalytic iron oxidation and precipitation. Key to the design and operation of the VFR system is the decrease in permeability in this ochre bed over time. The paper demonstrates that the VFR system can remove iron at many times the 10 g/m2/day removal rate - an often employed figure for the sizing of aerobic settling ponds and wetlands. The paper demonstrates that VFRs are viable and novel passive treatment system for mine waters with a smaller footprint than conventional systems.

  1. A new database sub-system for grain-size analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckow, Axel

    2013-04-01

    Detailed grain-size analyses of large depth profiles for palaeoclimate studies create large amounts of data. For instance (Novothny et al., 2011) presented a depth profile of grain-size analyses with 2 cm resolution and a total depth of more than 15 m, where each sample was measured with 5 repetitions on a Beckman Coulter LS13320 with 116 channels. This adds up to a total of more than four million numbers. Such amounts of data are not easily post-processed by spreadsheets or standard software; also MS Access databases would face serious performance problems. The poster describes a database sub-system dedicated to grain-size analyses. It expands the LabData database and laboratory management system published by Suckow and Dumke (2001). This compatibility with a very flexible database system provides ease to import the grain-size data, as well as the overall infrastructure of also storing geographic context and the ability to organize content like comprising several samples into one set or project. It also allows easy export and direct plot generation of final data in MS Excel. The sub-system allows automated import of raw data from the Beckman Coulter LS13320 Laser Diffraction Particle Size Analyzer. During post processing MS Excel is used as a data display, but no number crunching is implemented in Excel. Raw grain size spectra can be exported and controlled as Number- Surface- and Volume-fractions, while single spectra can be locked for further post-processing. From the spectra the usual statistical values (i.e. mean, median) can be computed as well as fractions larger than a grain size, smaller than a grain size, fractions between any two grain sizes or any ratio of such values. These deduced values can be easily exported into Excel for one or more depth profiles. However, such a reprocessing for large amounts of data also allows new display possibilities: normally depth profiles of grain-size data are displayed only with summarized parameters like the clay

  2. Developing an interactive portion size assessment system (IPSAS) for use with children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, E; Hawkins, A; Simpson, E; Adamson, A J

    2014-01-01

    Novel methods of assessing dietary intake are required to reduce the participant burden in dietary surveys, improve participation rates and thereby improve the representativeness of the sample and minimise the impact of measuring dietary intake on a subject's food intake during the recording period. One method of reducing the burden placed on participants in recording dietary intake is to replace weighing of foods with estimation of portion size using tools such as food photographs. The interactive portion size assessment system (IPSAS) is an interactive portion size assessment system for use in assessing portion sizes of foods consumed by children aged 18 months to 16 years. The system is computer-based and is designed to be administered during an interview for a food diary or 24-h recall. The portion sizes depicted are age-specific and based on the weights of foods served to children during the UK National Diet and Nutrition Surveys. The system displays digital images of food used to estimate the amount of each food served to the child and the amount of any food left over. Foods are categorised within the system using a three-tier structure. Twenty-seven food group icons are used with two further drop-down menus to select first the food group, then the food category and, finally, the actual food product. Each food is linked to UK food composition codes and all photographs are linked to the weight of the food depicted. Nutritional output is via a companion database. The present study describes the development of the IPSAS and the structure of the system. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  3. Inverter sizing of grid-connected photovoltaic systems in the light of local solar resource distribution characteristics and temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Bruno [Fraunhofer-Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Department of Electrical Energy Systems, Heidenhofstr. 2, 79110 Freiburg (Germany); Ruether, Ricardo [LABSOLAR-Laboratorio de Energia Solar, LabEEE-Laboratorio de Eficiencia Energetica em Edificacoes, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina/UFSC, Caixa Postal 476, Florianopolis-SC 88040-900 (Brazil)

    2006-01-15

    Inverter sizing strategies for grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems often do not take into account site-dependent peculiarities of ambient temperature, inverter operating temperature and solar irradiation distribution characteristics. The operating temperature affects PV modules and inverters in different ways and PV systems will hardly ever have a DC output equal to or above their STC-rated nominal power. Inverters are usually sized with a nominal AC output power some 30% (sometimes even more) below the PV array nominal power. In this paper, we show that this practice might lead to considerable energy losses, especially in the case of PV technologies with high temperature coefficients of power operating at sites with cold climates and of PV technologies with low temperature coefficients of power operating at sites with warm climates and an energy distribution of sunlight shifted to higher irradiation levels. In energy markets where PV kWh are paid premium tariffs, like in Germany, energy yield optimization might result in a favorable payback of the extra capital invested in a larger inverter. This paper discusses how the time resolution of solar radiation data influences the correct sizing of PV plants. We demonstrate that using instant (10s) irradiation values instead of average hourly irradiation values leads to considerable differences in optimum inverter sizing. When calculating inverter yearly efficiency values using both, hourly averages and 1-min averages, we can show that with increased time resolution of solar irradiation data there are higher calculated losses due to inverter undersizing. This reveals that hourly averages hide important irradiation peaks that need to be considered. We performed these calculations for data sets from pyranometer readings from Freiburg (48{sup o}N, Germany) and Florianopolis (27{sup o}S, Brazil) to further show the peculiarities of the site-dependent distribution of irradiation levels and its effects on inverter sizing

  4. A new cone-beam X-ray CT system with a reduced size planar detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Liang; Chen Zhiqiang; Zhang Li; Xing Yuxiang; Kang Kejun

    2006-01-01

    In a traditional cone-beam CT system, the cost of product and computation is very high. The authors propose a transversely truncated cone-beam X-ray CT system with a reduced size detector positioned off-center, in which X-ray beams only cover half of the object. The reduced detector size cuts the cost and the X-ray dose of the CT system. The existing CT reconstruction algorithms are not directly applicable in this new CT system. Hence, the authors develop a BPF-type direct backprojection algorithm. Different from the traditional rebinding methods, our algorithm directly backprojects the pretreated projection data without rebinding. This makes the algorithm compact and computationally more efficient. Finally, some numerical simulations and practical experiments are done to validate the proposed algorithm. (authors)

  5. Determinants of the Level of Care Provided for Various Types and Sizes of Dogs in New Providence, The Bahamas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fielding, William J.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the level of care offered 424 dogs, classified as small dogs, large dogs, pit bulls and potcakes (the colloquial name for the local mongrel in New Providence, The Bahamas. Levels of care that meet the legal minimum –food water and shelter– as well as care considered essential and enriched in The Bahamas were less common for large dogs than small dogs. Small dogs tended to get more care than other dogs and so were at lowest risk of being neglected.It is suggested that the size of the dog is an important factor which determines the level of care provided. Pit bulls generally received similar care to potcakes which are often considered neglected. Large dogs were more likely to be kept outside and less likely to be allowed inside the home than small dogs. It is conjectured that in many instances the level of care offered constitutes partial abandonment due to a lack of interaction between caregivers and their dogs.

  6. A low-cost, high-magnification imaging system for particle sizing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tipnis, Tanmay J; Lawson, Nicholas J; Tatam, Ralph P

    2014-01-01

    A low-cost imaging system for high magnification and high resolution was developed as an alternative to long-working-distance microscope-based systems, primarily for particle sizing applications. The imaging optics, comprising an inverted fixed focus lens coupled to a microscope objective, were able to provide a working distance of approximately 50 mm. The system magnification could be changed by using an appropriate microscope objective. Particle sizing was achieved using shadow-based techniques with the backlight illumination provided by a pulsed light-emitting diode light source. The images were analysed using commercial sizing software which gave the particle sizes and their distribution. A range of particles, from 6 to 8 µm to over 100 µm, was successfully measured with a minimum spatial resolution of approximately 2.5 µm. This system allowed measurement of a wide range of particles at a lower cost and improved operator safety without disturbing the flow. (technical design note)

  7. Photovoltaic system sizing and performance by the comparison of demand and expected radiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasnier, France; Sivoththaman, S [Asian Inst. of Tech., Bangkok (TH). Div. of Energy Technology

    1990-01-01

    Two models have been developed and proposed for the calculation of required radiation and for the prediction of available radiation (with a certain probability). These can be used for the sizing and performance prediction of stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) systems in a specified region. The first model computes the minimum daily average radiation required for the system to survive without failure, given the load and consecutive days-of-run. The component ratings of the system, PV panel size and battery size are observed to have great influence on the necessary radiation. The second model calculates the probable minimum radiation in the future, given the number of consecutive run-days and the percentage probability with which the values are to be minimized. The five-year radiation data for Bangkok (1983-1987) were statistically processed for use in the model as data. The output of the two models, when superimposed on each other, gives a clear idea about the system performance and about the optimum sizing. (author).

  8. Flock Size and System of Turkey Management by Farmers in Zuru ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined flock size and system of management by Turkey producers in Zuru Emirate of Kebbi State, Nigeria. Proportionate random sampling technique was used to select one hundred and eighty seven (187) Turkey producers from four Local Government Areas of the Emirate. Primary data were collected using ...

  9. Size, Democracy, and the Economic Costs of Running the Political System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blom-Hansen, Jens; Houlberg, Kurt; Serritzlew, Søren

    2014-01-01

    , are amalgamated to harvest scale effects. The purpose of this article is to evaluate the argument on economies of scale in the economic costs of running political systems. Our testing ground is a recent Danish reform. It allows us to avoid endogeneity problems often facing researchers of size reforms. The reform...

  10. A finite size scaling test of an SU(2) gauge-spin system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomiya, M.; Hattori, T.

    1984-01-01

    We calculate the correlation functions in the SU(2) gauge-spin system with spins in the fundamental representation. We analyze the result making use of finite size scaling. There is a possibility that there are no second order phase transition lines in this model, contrary to previous assertions. (orig.)

  11. Solar Energy: System Sizing, Design, and Retrofit: Student Material. First Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younger, Charles; Orsak, Charles G., Jr.

    Designed for student use in "System Sizing, Design, and Retrofit," one of 11 courses in a 2-year associate degree program in solar technology, this manual provides readings, exercises, worksheets, bibliographies, and illustrations for 13 course modules. The manual, which corresponds to an instructor guide for the same course, covers the…

  12. Solar heating and cooling of residential buildings: sizing, installation and operation of systems. 1980 edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-09-01

    This manual was prepared as a text for a training course on solar heating and cooling of residential buildings. The course and text are directed toward sizing, installation, operation, and maintenance of solar systems for space heating and hot water supply, and solar cooling is treated only briefly. (MHR)

  13. An autonomous photovoltaic system sizing program for office applications in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Herteleer, Bert; Cappelle, Jan; Driesen, Johan

    2012-01-01

    A spreadsheet tool and underlying model was developed to aid non-expert users in sizing off- or on-grid photovoltaic systems with battery back-up for office applications in Africa. The tool offers the user a number of choices which help in the decision process. The model is based on the concept of energy equivalence and extended by taking into account non-ideal behaviours of photovoltaic system components, modelled as efficiency deviations. The spreadsheet tool uses freely available dat...

  14. Computing physical properties with quantum Monte Carlo methods with statistical fluctuations independent of system size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaraf, Roland

    2014-12-01

    We show that the recently proposed correlated sampling without reweighting procedure extends the locality (asymptotic independence of the system size) of a physical property to the statistical fluctuations of its estimator. This makes the approach potentially vastly more efficient for computing space-localized properties in large systems compared with standard correlated methods. A proof is given for a large collection of noninteracting fragments. Calculations on hydrogen chains suggest that this behavior holds not only for systems displaying short-range correlations, but also for systems with long-range correlations.

  15. MODULAR AND FULL SIZE SIMPLIFIED BOILING WATER REACTOR DESIGN WITH FULLY PASSIVE SAFETY SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, M.; Revankar, S. T.; Downar, T.; Xu, Y.; Yoon, H. J.; Tinkler, D.; Rohatgi, U. S.

    2003-01-01

    system scaling analysis, design parameters were obtained and designs of the compact modular 200 MWe SBWR and the full size 1200 MWe SBWR were developed. These reactors are provided with passive safety systems. A new passive vacuum breaker check valve was designed to replace the mechanical vacuum beaker check valve. The new vacuum breaker check valve was based on a hydrostatic head, and was fail safe. The performance of this new valve was evaluated both by the thermal-hydraulic code RELAP5 and by the experiments in a scaled SBWR facility, PUMA. In the core neutronic design a core depletion model was implemented to PARCS code. A lattice design for the SBWR fuel assemblies was performed. Design improvements were made to the neutronics/thermal-hydraulics models of SBWR-200 and SBWR-1200, and design analyses of these reactors were performed. The design base accident analysis and evaluation of all the passive safety systems were completed as scheduled in tasks 4 and 5. Initial conditions for the small break loss of coolant accidents (LOCA) and large break LOCA using REALP5 code were obtained. Small and large break LOCA tests were performed and the data was analyzed. An anticipated transient with scram was simulated using the RELAP5 code for SBWR-200. The transient considered was an accidental closure of the main steam isolation valve (MSIV), which was considered to be the most significant transient. The evaluation of the RELAP5 code against experimental data for SBWR-1200 was completed. In task 6, the instability analysis for the three SBWR designs (SBWR-1200, SBWR-600 and SBWR-200) were simulated for start-up transients and the results were similar. Neither the geysering instability, nor the loop type instability was predicted by RAMONA-4B in the startup simulation following the recommended procedure by GE. The density wave oscillation was not observed at all because the power level used in the simulation was not high enough. A study was made of the potential instabilities by

  16. Multi-objective analytical model for optimal sizing of stand-alone photovoltaic water pumping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olcan, Ceyda

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An analytical optimal sizing model is proposed for PV water pumping systems. • The objectives are chosen as deficiency of power supply and life-cycle costs. • The crop water requirements are estimated for a citrus tree yard in Antalya. • The optimal tilt angles are calculated for fixed, seasonal and monthly changes. • The sizing results showed the validity of the proposed analytical model. - Abstract: Stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) water pumping systems effectively use solar energy for irrigation purposes in remote areas. However the random variability and unpredictability of solar energy makes difficult the penetration of PV implementations and complicate the system design. An optimal sizing of these systems proves to be essential. This paper recommends a techno-economic optimization model to determine optimally the capacity of the components of PV water pumping system using a water storage tank. The proposed model is developed regarding the reliability and cost indicators, which are the deficiency of power supply probability and life-cycle costs, respectively. The novelty is that the proposed optimization model is analytically defined for two-objectives and it is able to find a compromise solution. The sizing of a stand-alone PV water pumping system comprises a detailed analysis of crop water requirements and optimal tilt angles. Besides the necessity of long solar radiation and temperature time series, the accurate forecasts of water supply needs have to be determined. The calculation of the optimal tilt angle for yearly, seasonally and monthly frequencies results in higher system efficiency. It is, therefore, suggested to change regularly the tilt angle in order to maximize solar energy output. The proposed optimal sizing model incorporates all these improvements and can accomplish a comprehensive optimization of PV water pumping systems. A case study is conducted considering the irrigation of citrus trees yard located in Antalya, Turkey

  17. Developing A Family-Size Biogas-Fueled Electricity Generating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Haryanto

    2017-06-01

     Keywords: biogas; family size; generator; electricity; bio-filter.  Article History: Received Janury 16th 2017; Received in revised form 2nd June 2017; Accepted 18th June 2017; Available online How to Cite This Article: Haryanto, A., Marotin, F., Triyono, S., Hasanudin, U. (2017, Developing A Family-Size Biogas-Fueled Electricity Generating System. International Journal of Renewable Energy Develeopment, 6(2, 111-118. https://doi.org/10.14710/ijred.6.2.111-118

  18. An Improved Method for Sizing Standalone Photovoltaic Systems Using Generalized Regression Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer Khatib

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research an improved approach for sizing standalone PV system (SAPV is presented. This work is an improved work developed previously by the authors. The previous work is based on the analytical method which faced some concerns regarding the difficulty of finding the model’s coefficients. Therefore, the proposed approach in this research is based on a combination of an analytical method and a machine learning approach for a generalized artificial neural network (GRNN. The GRNN assists to predict the optimal size of a PV system using the geographical coordinates of the targeted site instead of using mathematical formulas. Employing the GRNN facilitates the use of a previously developed method by the authors and avoids some of its drawbacks. The approach has been tested using data from five Malaysian sites. According to the results, the proposed method can be efficiently used for SAPV sizing whereas the proposed GRNN based model predicts the sizing curves of the PV system accurately with a prediction error of 0.6%. Moreover, hourly meteorological and load demand data are used in this research in order to consider the uncertainty of the solar energy and the load demand.

  19. Load management as a smart grid concept for sizing and designing of hybrid renewable energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltamaly, Ali M.; Mohamed, Mohamed A.; Al-Saud, M. S.; Alolah, Abdulrahman I.

    2017-10-01

    Optimal sizing of hybrid renewable energy systems (HRES) to satisfy load requirements with the highest reliability and lowest cost is a crucial step in building HRESs to supply electricity to remote areas. Applying smart grid concepts such as load management can reduce the size of HRES components and reduce the cost of generated energy considerably. In this article, sizing of HRES is carried out by dividing the load into high- and low-priority parts. The proposed system is formed by a photovoltaic array, wind turbines, batteries, fuel cells and a diesel generator as a back-up energy source. A smart particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm using MATLAB is introduced to determine the optimal size of the HRES. The simulation was carried out with and without division of the load to compare these concepts. HOMER software was also used to simulate the proposed system without dividing the loads to verify the results obtained from the proposed PSO algorithm. The results show that the percentage of division of the load is inversely proportional to the cost of the generated energy.

  20. Optimal sizing method for constituent elements of stand-alone photovoltaic power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otsuka, Hirotada; Oi, Yoichi [Hokuriku Electric Power Co., Inc. Toyama (Japan)

    1988-12-25

    The purpose of the report was to calculate the optimal volume of constituent elements of stand-alone photovoltaic power systems, based on the distribution of global radiation on an inclined surface (herein-after called flux of solar radiation), which had been previously measured, and the size of load to be supplied. The least power generation cost was calculated, supposing that setting load was 176kWh/month and the loss of load probability (LOLP) was 1%, by using actual amount of solar radiation in May 1985. The cost was divided into two components: one was proportionate to the size of solar cell, and the other was in proportion to the battery volume. And then, the cost of twenty-year operation(TLC) was calculated. The size of array and the battery volume, which minimize the cost, can be determined when TLC is differentiate. Since auxiliary power source is not attached to this system, it is necessary to restrict the load in order to meet the electric power shortage. In case of the cost at construction in 1984, a standard model indicating the least power generation cost is a photovoltaic system with the array size of A=49.0m{sup 2} and the battery volume of Q=568(Ah). 4 refs., 9 figs., 10 tabs.

  1. A Population of planetary systems characterized by short-period, Earth-sized planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Jason H.; Coughlin, Jeffrey L.

    2016-01-01

    We analyze data from the Quarter 1–17 Data Release 24 (Q1–Q17 DR24) planet candidate catalog from NASA’s Kepler mission, specifically comparing systems with single transiting planets to systems with multiple transiting planets, and identify a population of exoplanets with a necessarily distinct system architecture. Such an architecture likely indicates a different branch in their evolutionary past relative to the typical Kepler system. The key feature of these planetary systems is an isolated, Earth-sized planet with a roughly 1-d orbital period. We estimate that at least 24 of the 144 systems we examined (≳17%) are members of this population. Accounting for detection efficiency, such planetary systems occur with a frequency similar to the hot Jupiters. PMID:27790984

  2. A Population of planetary systems characterized by short-period, Earth-sized planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Jason H; Coughlin, Jeffrey L

    2016-10-25

    We analyze data from the Quarter 1-17 Data Release 24 (Q1-Q17 DR24) planet candidate catalog from NASA's Kepler mission, specifically comparing systems with single transiting planets to systems with multiple transiting planets, and identify a population of exoplanets with a necessarily distinct system architecture. Such an architecture likely indicates a different branch in their evolutionary past relative to the typical Kepler system. The key feature of these planetary systems is an isolated, Earth-sized planet with a roughly 1-d orbital period. We estimate that at least 24 of the 144 systems we examined ([Formula: see text]17%) are members of this population. Accounting for detection efficiency, such planetary systems occur with a frequency similar to the hot Jupiters.

  3. Method of calibrating a fluid-level measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Stanley E. (Inventor); Taylor, Bryant D. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method of calibrating a fluid-level measurement system is provided. A first response of the system is recorded when the system's sensor(s) is (are) not in contact with a fluid of interest. A second response of the system is recorded when the system's sensor(s) is (are) fully immersed in the fluid of interest. Using the first and second responses, a plurality of expected responses of the system's sensor(s) is (are) generated for a corresponding plurality of levels of immersion of the sensor(s) in the fluid of interest.

  4. Uncertainties in different level assessments of domestic ventilation systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokel, R.M.J.; Yang, Z.; Cauberg, J.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve the quality of ventilation systems, assessments are widely used. In this paper, 3 main assessment levels are distinguished based on the number of ventilation systems to be assessed and the assessment objective. The main assessment levels distinguished in this paper are global

  5. Radar Based Flow and Water Level Forecasting in Sewer Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren; Rasmussen, Michael R.; Grum, M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the first radar based forecast of flow and/or water level in sewer systems in Denmark. The rainfall is successfully forecasted with a lead time of 1-2 hours, and flow/levels are forecasted an additional ½-1½ hours using models describing the behaviour of the sewer system. Bot...

  6. Many-body localization in disorder-free systems: The importance of finite-size constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papić, Z., E-mail: zpapic@perimeterinstitute.ca [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Stoudenmire, E. Miles [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Abanin, Dmitry A. [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of Geneva, 24 quai Ernest-Ansermet, 1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada)

    2015-11-15

    Recently it has been suggested that many-body localization (MBL) can occur in translation-invariant systems, and candidate 1D models have been proposed. We find that such models, in contrast to MBL systems with quenched disorder, typically exhibit much more severe finite-size effects due to the presence of two or more vastly different energy scales. In a finite system, this can artificially split the density of states (DOS) into bands separated by large gaps. We argue for such models to faithfully represent the thermodynamic limit behavior, the ratio of relevant coupling must exceed a certain system-size depedent cutoff, chosen such that various bands in the DOS overlap one another. Setting the parameters this way to minimize finite-size effects, we study several translation-invariant MBL candidate models using exact diagonalization. Based on diagnostics including entanglement and local observables, we observe thermal (ergodic), rather than MBL-like behavior. Our results suggest that MBL in translation-invariant systems with two or more very different energy scales is less robust than perturbative arguments suggest, possibly pointing to the importance of non-perturbative effects which induce delocalization in the thermodynamic limit.

  7. Optimal unit sizing of a hybrid renewable energy system for isolated applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, D.

    2006-07-01

    In general, the methods used to conceive a renewable energy production system overestimate the size of the generating units. These methods increase the investment cost and the production cost of energy. The work presented in this thesis proposes a methodology to optimally size a renewable energy system.- This study shows that the classic approach based only on a long term analysis of system's behaviour is not sufficient and a complementary methodology based on a short term analysis is proposed. A numerical simulation was developed in which the mathematical models of the solar panel, the wind turbines and battery are integrated. The daily average solar energy per m2 is decomposed into a series of hourly I energy values using the Collares-Pereira equations. The time series analysis of the wind speed is made using the Monte Carlo Simulation Method. The second part of this thesis makes a detailed analysis of an isolated wind energy production system. The average energy produced by the system depends on the generator's rated power, the total swept area of the wind turbine, the gearbox's transformation ratio, the battery voltage and the wind speed probability function. The study proposes a methodology to determine the optimal matching between the rated power of the permanent magnet synchronous machine and the wind turbine's rotor size. This is made taking into account the average electrical energy produced over a period of time. (author)

  8. Conceptual design of small-sized HTGR system (3). Core thermal and hydraulic design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaba, Yoshitomo; Sato, Hiroyuki; Goto, Minoru; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Tachibana, Yukio

    2012-06-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency has started the conceptual designs of small-sized High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) systems, aiming for the 2030s deployment into developing countries. The small-sized HTGR systems can provide power generation by steam turbine, high temperature steam for industry process and/or low temperature steam for district heating. As one of the conceptual designs in the first stage, the core thermal and hydraulic design of the power generation and steam supply small-sized HTGR system with a thermal power of 50 MW (HTR50S), which was a reference reactor system positioned as a first commercial or demonstration reactor system, was carried out. HTR50S in the first stage has the same coated particle fuel as HTTR. The purpose of the design is to make sure that the maximum fuel temperature in normal operation doesn't exceed the design target. Following the design, safety analysis assuming a depressurization accident was carried out. The fuel temperature in the normal operation and the fuel and reactor pressure vessel temperatures in the depressurization accident were evaluated. As a result, it was cleared that the thermal integrity of the fuel and the reactor coolant pressure boundary is not damaged. (author)

  9. Usage of Parameterized Fatigue Spectra and Physics-Based Systems Engineering Models for Wind Turbine Component Sizing: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsons, Taylor; Guo, Yi; Veers, Paul; Dykes, Katherine; Damiani, Rick

    2016-01-26

    Software models that use design-level input variables and physics-based engineering analysis for estimating the mass and geometrical properties of components in large-scale machinery can be very useful for analyzing design trade-offs in complex systems. This study uses DriveSE, an OpenMDAO-based drivetrain model that uses stress and deflection criteria to size drivetrain components within a geared, upwind wind turbine. Because a full lifetime fatigue load spectrum can only be defined using computationally-expensive simulations in programs such as FAST, a parameterized fatigue loads spectrum that depends on wind conditions, rotor diameter, and turbine design life has been implemented. The parameterized fatigue spectrum is only used in this paper to demonstrate the proposed fatigue analysis approach. This paper details a three-part investigation of the parameterized approach and a comparison of the DriveSE model with and without fatigue analysis on the main shaft system. It compares loads from three turbines of varying size and determines if and when fatigue governs drivetrain sizing compared to extreme load-driven design. It also investigates the model's sensitivity to shaft material parameters. The intent of this paper is to demonstrate how fatigue considerations in addition to extreme loads can be brought into a system engineering optimization.

  10. Optimal sizing of a hybrid grid-connected photovoltaic and wind power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González, Arnau; Riba, Jordi-Roger; Rius, Antoni; Puig, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Hybrid renewable energy systems are efficient mechanisms to generate electrical power. • This work optimally sizes hybrid grid-connected photovoltaic–wind power systems. • It deals with hourly wind, solar irradiation and electricity demand data. • The system cost is minimized while matching the electricity supply with the demand. • A sensitivity analysis to detect the most critical design variables has been done. - Abstract: Hybrid renewable energy systems (HRES) have been widely identified as an efficient mechanism to generate electrical power based on renewable energy sources (RES). This kind of energy generation systems are based on the combination of one or more RES allowing to complement the weaknesses of one with strengths of another and, therefore, reducing installation costs with an optimized installation. To do so, optimization methodologies are a trendy mechanism because they allow attaining optimal solutions given a certain set of input parameters and variables. This work is focused on the optimal sizing of hybrid grid-connected photovoltaic–wind power systems from real hourly wind and solar irradiation data and electricity demand from a certain location. The proposed methodology is capable of finding the sizing that leads to a minimum life cycle cost of the system while matching the electricity supply with the local demand. In the present article, the methodology is tested by means of a case study in which the actual hourly electricity retail and market prices have been implemented to obtain realistic estimations of life cycle costs and benefits. A sensitivity analysis that allows detecting to which variables the system is more sensitive has also been performed. Results presented show that the model responds well to changes in the input parameters and variables while providing trustworthy sizing solutions. According to these results, a grid-connected HRES consisting of photovoltaic (PV) and wind power technologies would be

  11. System-Level Monitoring and Diagnosis of Building HVAC System

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Siyu

    2013-01-01

    Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) is an indoor environmental technology that is extensively instrumented for large-scale buildings. Among all subsystems of buildings, the HVAC system dominates the energy consumption and accounts for 57% of the energy used in U.S. commercial and residential buildings. Unfortunately, the HVAC system may fail to meet the performance expectations due to various faults, including not only complete hardware failures, but also non-optimal operations....

  12. Influence of Li-ion Battery Models in the Sizing of Hybrid Storage Systems with Supercapacitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinto, Claudio; Barreras, Jorge Varela; de Castro, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative study of the influence of different aggregated electrical circuit battery models in the sizing process of a hybrid energy storage system (ESS), composed by Li-ion batteries and supercapacitors (SCs). The aim is to find the number of cells required to propel...... a certain vehicle over a predefined driving cycle. During this process, three battery models will be considered. The first consists in a linear static zeroeth order battery model over a restricted operating window. The second is a non-linear static model, while the third takes into account first......-order dynamics of the battery. Simulation results demonstrate that the adoption of a more accurate battery model in the sizing of hybrid ESSs prevents over-sizing, leading to a reduction in the number of cells of up to 29%, and a cost decrease of up to 10%....

  13. Simulation of the electron acoustic instability for a finite-size electron beam system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, C.S.; Winske, D.

    1987-01-01

    Satellite observations at midlatitudes (≅20,000 km) near the earth's dayside polar cusp boundary layer indicate that the upward electron beams have a narrow latitudinal width up to 0.1 0 . In the cusp boundary layer where the electron population consists of a finite-size electron beam in a background of uniform cold and hot electrons, the electron acoustic mode is unstable inside the electron beam but damped outside the electron beam. Simulations of the electron acoustic instability for a finite-size beam system are carried out with a particle-in-cell code to investigate the heating phenomena associated with the instability and the width of the heating region. The simulations show that the finite-size electron beam radiates electrostatic electron acoustic waves. The decay length of the electron acoustic waves outside the beam in the simulation agrees with the spatial decay length derived from the linear dispersion equation

  14. Constraints on relaxation rates for N-level quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schirmer, S.G.; Solomon, A.I.

    2004-01-01

    We study the constraints imposed on the population and phase relaxation rates by the physical requirement of completely positive evolution for open N-level systems. The Lindblad operators that govern the evolution of the system are expressed in terms of observable relaxation rates, explicit formulas for the decoherence rates due to population relaxation are derived, and it is shown that there are additional, nontrivial constraints on the pure dephasing rates for N>2. Explicit, experimentally testable inequality constraints for the decoherence rates are derived for three- and four-level systems, and the implications of the results are discussed for generic ladder, Λ, and V systems and transitions between degenerate energy levels

  15. N-Level Quantum Systems and Legendre Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Mazurenko, A. S.; Savva, V. A.

    2001-01-01

    An excitation dynamics of new quantum systems of N equidistant energy levels in a monochromatic field has been investigated. To obtain exact analytical solutions of dynamic equations an analytical method based on orthogonal functions of a real argument has been proposed. Using the orthogonal Legendre functions we have found an exact analytical expression for a population probability amplitude of the level n. Various initial conditions for the excitation of N-level quantum systems have been co...

  16. Accuracy of various impression materials and methods for two implant systems: An effect size study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Alexander; Häussling, Teresa; Rehmann, Peter; Schaaf, Heidrun; Wöstmann, Bernd

    2018-04-01

    An accurate impression is required for implant treatment. The aim of this in-vitro study was to determine the effect size of the impression material/method, implant system and implant angulation on impression transfer precision. An upper jaw model with three BEGO and three Straumann implants (angulations 0°, 15°, 20°) in the left and right maxilla was used as a reference model. One polyether (Impregum Penta) and two polyvinyl siloxanes (Flexitime Monophase/Aquasil Ultra Monophase) were examined with two impression techniques (open and closed tray). A total of 60 impressions were made. A coordinate measurement machine was used to measure the target variables for 3D-shift, implant axis inclination and implant axis rotation. All the data were subjected to a four-way ANOVA. The effect size (partial eta-squared [η 2 P ]) was reported. The impression material had a significant influence on the 3D shift and the implant axis inclination deviation (p-values=.000), and both factors had very large effect sizes (3D-shift [η 2 P ]=.599; implant axis inclination [η 2 P ]=.298). Impressions made with polyvinyl siloxane exhibited the highest transfer precision. When the angulation of the implants was larger, more deviations occurred for the implant axis rotational deviation. The implant systems and impression methods showed partially significant variations (p-values=.001-.639) but only very small effect sizes (η 2 P =.001-.031). The impression material had the greatest effect size on accuracy in terms of the 3D shift and the implant axis inclination. For multiunit restorations with disparallel implants, polyvinyl siloxane materials should be considered. In addition, the effect size of a multivariate investigation should be reported. Copyright © 2017 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Optimization of Domestic-Size Renewable Energy System Designs Suitable for Cold Climate Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpan, Itoro Etim; Sasaki, Masafumi; Endoh, Noboru

    Five different kinds of domestic-size renewable energy system configurations for very cold climate regions were investigated. From detailed numerical modeling and system simulations, it was found that the consumption of fuel oil for the auxiliary boiler in residential-type households can almost be eliminated with a renewable energy system that incorporates photovoltaic panel arrays for electricity generation and two storage tanks: a well-insulated electric water storage tank that services the hot water loads, and a compact boiler/geothermal heat pump tank for room heating during very cold seasons. A reduction of Greenhouse Gas Emissions (GHG) of about 28% was achieved for this system compared to an equivalent conventional system. The near elimination of the use of fuel oil in this system makes it very promising for very cold climate regions in terms of energy savings because the running cost is not so dependent on the unstable nature of global oil prices.

  18. Optimal Placement and Sizing of Fault Current Limiters in Distributed Generation Systems Using a Hybrid Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Bayati

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Distributed Generation (DG connection in a power system tends to increase the short circuit level in the entire system which, in turn, could eliminate the protection coordination between the existing relays. Fault Current Limiters (FCLs are often used to reduce the short-circuit level of the network to a desirable level, provided that they are dully placed and appropriately sized. In this paper, a method is proposed for optimal placement of FCLs and optimal determination of their impedance values by which the relay operation time, the number and size of the FCL are minimized while maintaining the relay coordination before and after DG connection. The proposed method adopts the removal of low-impact FCLs and uses a hybrid Genetic Algorithm (GA optimization scheme to determine the optimal placement of FCLs and the values of their impedances. The suitability of the proposed method is demonstrated by examining the results of relay coordination in a typical DG network before and after DG connection.

  19. The impact of BPO on cost reduction in mid-sized health care systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Andy; Kocakülâh, Mehmet C

    2010-01-01

    At the convergence of two politico-economic "hot topics" of the day--outsourcing and the cost of health care-lie opportunities for mid-sized health systems to innovate, collaborate, and reduce overhead. Competition in the retail health care market can serve as both an impetus and an inhibitor to such measures, though. Here we are going to address the motivations, influences, opportunities, and limitations facing mid-sized, US non-profit health systems in business process outsourcing (BPO). Advocates cite numerous benefits to BPO, particularly in cost reduction and strategy optimization. BPO can elicit cost savings due to specialization among provider firms, returns to scale and technology, standardization and automation, and gains in resource arbitrage (off-shoring capabilities). BPO can also free an organization of non-critical tasks and focus resources on core competencies (treating patients). The surge in BPO utilization has rarely extended to the back-office functions of many mid-sized health systems. Health care providers, still a largely fragmented bunch with many rural, independent non-profit systems, have not experienced the consolidation and organizational scale growth to make BPO as attractive as other industries. Smaller firms, spurning merger and acquisition pressure from large, tertiary health systems, often wish to retain their autonomy and identity; hence, they face a competitive cost disadvantage compared to their larger competitors. This article examines the functional areas for these health systems in which BPO is not currently utilized and dissects the various methods available in which to practice BPO. We assess the ongoing adoption of BPO in these areas as well as the barriers to adoption, and identify the key processes that best represent opportunity for success. An emphasis is placed on a collaborative model with other health systems compared to a single system, unilateral BPO arrangement.

  20. A stochastic simulation model for reliable PV system sizing providing for solar radiation fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplani, E.; Kaplanis, S.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Solar radiation data for European cities follow the Extreme Value or Weibull distribution. ► Simulation model for the sizing of SAPV systems based on energy balance and stochastic analysis. ► Simulation of PV Generator-Loads-Battery Storage System performance for all months. ► Minimum peak power and battery capacity required for reliable SAPV sizing for various European cities. ► Peak power and battery capacity reduced by more than 30% for operation 95% success rate. -- Abstract: The large fluctuations observed in the daily solar radiation profiles affect highly the reliability of the PV system sizing. Increasing the reliability of the PV system requires higher installed peak power (P m ) and larger battery storage capacity (C L ). This leads to increased costs, and makes PV technology less competitive. This research paper presents a new stochastic simulation model for stand-alone PV systems, developed to determine the minimum installed P m and C L for the PV system to be energy independent. The stochastic simulation model developed, makes use of knowledge acquired from an in-depth statistical analysis of the solar radiation data for the site, and simulates the energy delivered, the excess energy burnt, the load profiles and the state of charge of the battery system for the month the sizing is applied, and the PV system performance for the entire year. The simulation model provides the user with values for the autonomy factor d, simulating PV performance in order to determine the minimum P m and C L depending on the requirements of the application, i.e. operation with critical or non-critical loads. The model makes use of NASA’s Surface meteorology and Solar Energy database for the years 1990–2004 for various cities in Europe with a different climate. The results obtained with this new methodology indicate a substantial reduction in installed peak power and battery capacity, both for critical and non-critical operation, when compared to

  1. Adaptive evolution of body size subject to indirect effect in trophic cascade system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Fan, Meng; Hao, Lina

    2017-09-01

    Trophic cascades represent a classic example of indirect effect and are wide-spread in nature. Their ecological impact are well established, but the evolutionary consequences have received even less theoretical attention. We theoretically and numerically investigate the trait (i.e., body size of consumer) evolution in response to indirect effect in a trophic cascade system. By applying the quantitative trait evolutionary theory and the adaptive dynamic theory, we formulate and explore two different types of eco-evolutionary resource-consumer-predator trophic cascade model. First, an eco-evolutionary model incorporating the rapid evolution is formulated to investigate the effect of rapid evolution of the consumer's body size, and to explore the impact of density-mediate indirect effect on the population dynamics and trait dynamics. Next, by employing the adaptive dynamic theory, a long-term evolutionary model of consumer body size is formulated to evaluate the effect of long-term evolution on the population dynamics and the effect of trait-mediate indirect effect. Those models admit rich dynamics that has not been observed yet in empirical studies. It is found that, both in the trait-mediated and density-mediated system, the body size of consumer in predator-consumer-resource interaction (indirect effect) evolves smaller than that in consumer-resource and predator-consumer interaction (direct effect). Moreover, in the density-mediated system, we found that the evolution of consumer body size contributes to avoiding consumer extinction (i.e., evolutionary rescue). The trait-mediate and density-mediate effects may produce opposite evolutionary response. This study suggests that the trophic cascade indirect effect affects consumer evolution, highlights a more comprehensive mechanistic understanding of the intricate interplay between ecological and evolutionary force. The modeling approaches provide avenue for study on indirect effects from an evolutionary perspective

  2. Optimal sizing of grid-independent hybrid photovoltaic–battery power systems for household sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, M.; Branchini, L.; Ferrari, C.; Melino, F.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A feasibility study on a stand-alone solar–battery power generation system is carried out. • An in-house developed calculation code able to estimate photovoltaic panels behaviour is described. • The feasibility of replacing grid electricity with hybrid system is examined. • Guidelines for optimal photovoltaic design are given. • Guidelines for optimal storage sizing in terms of batteries number and capacity are given. - Abstract: The penetration of renewable sources into the grid, particularly wind and solar, have been increasing in recent years. As a consequence, there have been serious concerns over reliable and safety operation of power systems. One possible solution, to improve grid stability, is to integrate energy storage devices into power system network: storing energy produced in periods of low demand to later use, ensuring full exploitation of intermittent available sources. Focusing on stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) energy system, energy storage is needed with the purpose of ensuring continuous power flow, to minimize or, if anything, to neglect electrical grid supply. A comprehensive study on a hybrid stand-alone photovoltaic power system using two different energy storage technologies has been performed. The study examines the feasibility of replacing electricity provided by the grid with hybrid system to meet household demand. In particular, this paper presents first results for photovoltaic (PV)/battery (B) hybrid configuration. The main objective of this paper is focused on PV/B system, to recommend hybrid system optimal design in terms of PV module number, PV module tilt, number and capacity of batteries to minimize or, if possible, to neglect grid supply. This paper is the early stage of a theoretical and experimental study in which two different hybrid power system configurations will be evaluated and compared: (i) PV/B system and (ii) PV/B/fuel cell (FC) system. The aim of the overall study will be the definition of the

  3. Modeling and sizing a Storage System coupled with intermittent renewable power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridier, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    This thesis aims at presenting an optimal management and sizing of an Energy Storage System (ESS) paired up with Intermittent Renewable Energy Sources (IReN). Firstly, we developed a technical-economic model of the system which is associated with three typical scenarios of utility grid power supply: hourly smoothing based on a one-day-ahead forecast (S1), guaranteed power supply (S2) and combined scenarios (S3). This model takes the form of a large-scale non-linear optimization program. Secondly, four heuristic strategies are assessed and lead to an optimized management of the power output with storage according to the reliability, productivity, efficiency and profitability criteria. This ESS optimized management is called 'Adaptive Storage Operation' (ASO). When compared to a mixed integer linear program (MILP), this optimized operation that is practicable under operational conditions gives rapidly near-optimal results. Finally, we use the ASO in ESS optimal sizing for each renewable energy: wind, wave and solar (PV). We determine the minimal sizing that complies with each scenario, by inferring the failure rate, the viable feed-in tariff of the energy, and the corresponding compliant, lost or missing energies. We also perform sensitivity analysis which highlights the importance of the ESS efficiency and of the forecasting accuracy and the strong influence of the hybridization of renewables on ESS technical-economic sizing. (author) [fr

  4. KOI-3158: The oldest known system of terrestrial-size planets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campante T. L.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The first discoveries of exoplanets around Sun-like stars have fueled efforts to find ever smaller worlds evocative of Earth and other terrestrial planets in the Solar System. While gas-giant planets appear to form preferentially around metal-rich stars, small planets (with radii less than four Earth radii can form under a wide range of metallicities. This implies that small, including Earth-size, planets may have readily formed at earlier epochs in the Universe’s history when metals were far less abundant. We report Kepler spacecraft observations of KOI-3158, a metal-poor Sun-like star from the old population of the Galactic thick disk, which hosts five planets with sizes between Mercury and Venus. We used asteroseismology to directly measure a precise age of 11.2 ± 1.0 Gyr for the host star, indicating that KOI-3158 formed when the Universe was less than 20 % of its current age and making it the oldest known system of terrestrial-size planets. We thus show that Earth-size planets have formed throughout most of the Universe’s 13.8-billion-year history, providing scope for the existence of ancient life in the Galaxy.

  5. Optimal Sizing of Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Systems for Residential Applications Based on Battery Electrochemical Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinan Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The penetration of solar photovoltaic (PV systems in residential areas contributes to the generation and usage of renewable energy. Despite its advantages, the PV system also creates problems caused by the intermittency of renewable energy. As suggested by researchers, such problems deteriorate the applicability of the PV system and have to be resolved by employing a battery energy storage system (BESS. With concern for the high investment cost, the choice of a cost-effective BESS with proper sizing is necessary. To this end, this paper proposes the employment of a vanadium redox flow battery (VRB, which possesses a long cycle life and high energy efficiency, for residential users with PV systems. It further proposes methods of computing the capital and maintenance cost of VRB systems and evaluating battery efficiency based on VRB electrochemical characteristics. Furthermore, by considering the cost and efficiency of VRB, the prevalent time-of-use electricity price, the solar feed-in tariff, the solar power profile and the user load pattern, an optimal sizing algorithm for VRB systems is proposed. Simulation studies are carried out to show the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  6. An automated system for the preparation of Large Size Dried (LSD) Spikes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verbruggen, A.; Bauwens, J.; Jakobsson, U.; Eykens, R.; Wellum, R.; Aregbe, Y. [European Commission - Joint Research Centre, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), Retieseweg 211, B2440 Geel (Belgium); Van De Steene, N. [Nucomat, Mercatorstraat 206, B9100 Sint Niklaas (Belgium)

    2008-07-01

    Large size dried (LSD) spikes have been produced to fulfill the existing requirement for reliable and traceable isotopic reference materials for nuclear safeguards. A system to produce certified nuclear isotopic reference material as a U/Pu mixture in the form of large size dried spikes, comparable to those produced using traditional methods has been installed in collaboration with Nucomat, a company with a recognized reputation in design and development of integrated automated systems. The major components of the system are a robot, two balances, a dispenser and a drying unit fitted into a glove box. The robot is software driven and designed to control all movements inside the glove-box, to identify unambiguously the penicillin vials with a bar-code reader, to dispense the LSD batch solution into the vials and to weigh the amount dispensed. The system functionality has been evaluated and the performance validated by comparing the results from a series of samples dispensed and weighed by the automated system with the results by manual substitution weighing. After applying the proper correction factors to the data from the automated system balance no significant difference was observed between the two. However, an additional component of uncertainty of 3*10{sup -4} is introduced in the uncertainty budget for the certified weights provided by the automatic system. (authors)

  7. An automated system for the preparation of Large Size Dried (LSD) Spikes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbruggen, A.; Bauwens, J.; Jakobsson, U.; Eykens, R.; Wellum, R.; Aregbe, Y.; Van De Steene, N.

    2008-01-01

    Large size dried (LSD) spikes have been produced to fulfill the existing requirement for reliable and traceable isotopic reference materials for nuclear safeguards. A system to produce certified nuclear isotopic reference material as a U/Pu mixture in the form of large size dried spikes, comparable to those produced using traditional methods has been installed in collaboration with Nucomat, a company with a recognized reputation in design and development of integrated automated systems. The major components of the system are a robot, two balances, a dispenser and a drying unit fitted into a glove box. The robot is software driven and designed to control all movements inside the glove-box, to identify unambiguously the penicillin vials with a bar-code reader, to dispense the LSD batch solution into the vials and to weigh the amount dispensed. The system functionality has been evaluated and the performance validated by comparing the results from a series of samples dispensed and weighed by the automated system with the results by manual substitution weighing. After applying the proper correction factors to the data from the automated system balance no significant difference was observed between the two. However, an additional component of uncertainty of 3*10 -4 is introduced in the uncertainty budget for the certified weights provided by the automatic system. (authors)

  8. Design for testability and diagnosis at the system-level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, William R.; Sheppard, John W.

    1993-01-01

    The growing complexity of full-scale systems has surpassed the capabilities of most simulation software to provide detailed models or gate-level failure analyses. The process of system-level diagnosis approaches the fault-isolation problem in a manner that differs significantly from the traditional and exhaustive failure mode search. System-level diagnosis is based on a functional representation of the system. For example, one can exercise one portion of a radar algorithm (the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) function) by injecting several standard input patterns and comparing the results to standardized output results. An anomalous output would point to one of several items (including the FFT circuit) without specifying the gate or failure mode. For system-level repair, identifying an anomalous chip is sufficient. We describe here an information theoretic and dependency modeling approach that discards much of the detailed physical knowledge about the system and analyzes its information flow and functional interrelationships. The approach relies on group and flow associations and, as such, is hierarchical. Its hierarchical nature allows the approach to be applicable to any level of complexity and to any repair level. This approach has been incorporated in a product called STAMP (System Testability and Maintenance Program) which was developed and refined through more than 10 years of field-level applications to complex system diagnosis. The results have been outstanding, even spectacular in some cases. In this paper we describe system-level testability, system-level diagnoses, and the STAMP analysis approach, as well as a few STAMP applications.

  9. Stationary states of two-level open quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardas, Bartlomiej; Puchala, Zbigniew

    2011-01-01

    A problem of finding stationary states of open quantum systems is addressed. We focus our attention on a generic type of open system: a qubit coupled to its environment. We apply the theory of block operator matrices and find stationary states of two-level open quantum systems under certain conditions applied on both the qubit and the surrounding.

  10. System Thinking Skills at the Elementary School Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaraf, Orit Ben-Zvi; Orion, Nir

    2010-01-01

    This study deals with the development of system thinking skills at the elementary school level. It addresses the question of whether elementary school students can deal with complex systems. The sample included 40 4th grade students from one school in a small town in Israel. The students studied an inquiry-based earth systems curriculum that…

  11. System size effects on the mechanical response of cohesive-frictional granular ensembles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Saurabh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Shear resistance in granular ensembles is a result of interparticle interaction and friction. However, even the presence of small amounts of cohesion between the particles changes the landscape of the mechanical response considerably. Very often such cohesive frictional (c-ϕ granular ensembles are encountered in nature as well as while handling and storage of granular materials in the pharmaceutical, construction and mining industries. Modeling of these c-ϕ materials, especially in engineering applications have relied on the oft-made assumption of a “continua” and have utilized the popular tenets of continuum plasticity theory. We present an experimental investigation on the fundamental mechanics of c-ϕ materials specifically; we investigate if there exists a system size effect and any additional length scales beyond the continuum length scale on their mechanical response. For this purpose, we conduct a series of 1-D compression (UC tests on cylindrical specimens reconstituted in the laboratory with a range of model particle–binder combinations such as sandcement, sand-epoxy, and glass ballotini-epoxy mixtures. Specimens are reconstituted to various diameters ranging from 10 mm to 150 mm (with an aspect ratio of 2 to a predefined packing fraction. In addition to the effect of the type of binder (cement, epoxy and system size, the mean particle size is also varied from 0.5 to 2.5 mm. The peak strength of these materials is significant as it signals the initiation of the cohesive-bond breaking and onset of mobilization of the inter particle frictional resistance. For these model systems, the peak strength is a strong function of the system size of the ensemble as well as the mean particle size. This intriguing observation is counter to the traditional notion of a continuum plastic typical granular ensemble. Microstructure studies in a computed-tomograph have revealed the existence of a web patterned ‘entangled-chain’ like structure

  12. System size effects on the mechanical response of cohesive-frictional granular ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Saurabh; Kandasami, Ramesh Kannan; Mahendran, Rupesh Kumar; Murthy, Tejas

    2017-06-01

    Shear resistance in granular ensembles is a result of interparticle interaction and friction. However, even the presence of small amounts of cohesion between the particles changes the landscape of the mechanical response considerably. Very often such cohesive frictional (c-ϕ) granular ensembles are encountered in nature as well as while handling and storage of granular materials in the pharmaceutical, construction and mining industries. Modeling of these c-ϕ materials, especially in engineering applications have relied on the oft-made assumption of a "continua" and have utilized the popular tenets of continuum plasticity theory. We present an experimental investigation on the fundamental mechanics of c-ϕ materials specifically; we investigate if there exists a system size effect and any additional length scales beyond the continuum length scale on their mechanical response. For this purpose, we conduct a series of 1-D compression (UC) tests on cylindrical specimens reconstituted in the laboratory with a range of model particle-binder combinations such as sandcement, sand-epoxy, and glass ballotini-epoxy mixtures. Specimens are reconstituted to various diameters ranging from 10 mm to 150 mm (with an aspect ratio of 2) to a predefined packing fraction. In addition to the effect of the type of binder (cement, epoxy) and system size, the mean particle size is also varied from 0.5 to 2.5 mm. The peak strength of these materials is significant as it signals the initiation of the cohesive-bond breaking and onset of mobilization of the inter particle frictional resistance. For these model systems, the peak strength is a strong function of the system size of the ensemble as well as the mean particle size. This intriguing observation is counter to the traditional notion of a continuum plastic typical granular ensemble. Microstructure studies in a computed-tomograph have revealed the existence of a web patterned `entangled-chain' like structure, we argue that this ushers

  13. The relation of collector and storage tank size in solar heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Çomaklı, Kemal; Çakır, Uğur; Kaya, Mehmet; Bakirci, Kadir

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A storage tank is used in many solar water heating systems for the storage of hot water. ► Using larger storage tanks decrease the efficiency and increases the cost of the system. ► The optimum tank size for the collector area is very important for economic solar heating systems. ► The optimum sizes of the collectors and the storage tank are determined. - Abstract: The most popular method to benefit from the solar energy is to use solar water heating systems since it is one of the cheapest way to benefit from the solar energy. The investment cost of a solar water heating system is very low, and the maintenance costs are nearly zero. Using the solar energy for solar water heating (SWH) technology has been greatly improved during the past century. A storage tank is used in many solar water heating systems for the conservation of heat energy or hot water for use when some need it. In addition, domestic hot water consumption is strongly variable in many buildings. It depends on the geographical situation, also on the country customs, and of course on the type of building usage. Above all, it depends on the inhabitants’ specific lifestyle. For that reason, to provide the hot water for consumption at the desirable temperature whenever inhabitants require it, there must be a good relevance between the collectors and storage tank. In this paper, the optimum sizes of the collectors and the storage tank are determined to design more economic and efficient solar water heating systems. A program has been developed and validated with the experimental study and environmental data. The environmental data were obtained through a whole year of operation for Erzurum, Turkey.

  14. Multi-Level Formation of Complex Software Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a multi-level formation model for complex software systems. The previous works extract the software systems to software networks for further studies, but usually investigate the software networks at the class level. In contrast to these works, our treatment of software systems as multi-level networks is more realistic. In particular, the software networks are organized by three levels of granularity, which represents the modularity and hierarchy in the formation process of real-world software systems. More importantly, simulations based on this model have generated more realistic structural properties of software networks, such as power-law, clustering and modularization. On the basis of this model, how the structure of software systems effects software design principles is then explored, and it could be helpful for understanding software evolution and software engineering practices.

  15. System-level Modeling of Wireless Integrated Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virk, Kashif M.; Hansen, Knud; Madsen, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Wireless integrated sensor networks have emerged as a promising infrastructure for a new generation of monitoring and tracking applications. In order to efficiently utilize the extremely limited resources of wireless sensor nodes, accurate modeling of the key aspects of wireless sensor networks...... is necessary so that system-level design decisions can be made about the hardware and the software (applications and real-time operating system) architecture of sensor nodes. In this paper, we present a SystemC-based abstract modeling framework that enables system-level modeling of sensor network behavior...... by modeling the applications, real-time operating system, sensors, processor, and radio transceiver at the sensor node level and environmental phenomena, including radio signal propagation, at the sensor network level. We demonstrate the potential of our modeling framework by simulating and analyzing a small...

  16. Solar Desalination System Model for Sizing of Photovoltaic Reverse Osmosis (PVRO)

    KAUST Repository

    Habib, Abdulelah

    2015-06-28

    The focus of this paper is to optimize the solar energy utilization in the water desalination process. Due to variable nature of solar energy, new system design is needed to address this challenge. Here, reverse osmosis units, as the electrical loads, are considered as an ON/OFF units to track these solar energy variations. Reverse osmosis units are different in sizes and numbers. Various combinations of reverse osmosis units in size and capacity provide different water desalination system performances. To assess each scenario of reverse osmosis units, the total capital cost and operation and maintenance (O&M) cost are considered. The implemented optimization algorithm search all of the possible scenarios to find the best solution. This paper deploys the solar irradiance data which is provided from west coast (Red Sea) of Saudi Arabia for model construction and optimization algorithm implementation.

  17. Entanglement of a two-atom system driven by the quantum vacuum in arbitrary cavity size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores-Hidalgo, G., E-mail: gfloreshidalgo@unifei.edu.br [Instituto de Física e Química, Universidade Federal de Itajubá, 37500-903, Itajubá, MG (Brazil); Rojas, M., E-mail: moises.leyva@dfi.ufla.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Lavras, CP 3037, 37200-000, Lavras, MG (Brazil); Rojas, Onofre, E-mail: ors@dfi.ufla.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Lavras, CP 3037, 37200-000, Lavras, MG (Brazil)

    2017-05-10

    We study the entanglement dynamics of two distinguishable atoms confined into a cavity and interacting with a quantum vacuum field. As a simplified model for this system, we consider two harmonic oscillators linearly coupled to a massless scalar field which are inside a spherical cavity of radius R. Through the concurrence, the entanglement dynamics for the two-atom system is discussed for a range of initial states composed of a superposition of atomic states. Our results reveal how the entanglement of the two atoms behaves through the time evolution, in a precise way, for arbitrary cavity size and for arbitrary coupling constant. All our computations are analytical and only the final step is numerical. - Highlights: • Entanglement time evolution in arbitrary cavity size is considered. • In free space concurrence approaches a fixed value at large time. • For finite cavity, concurrence behaves almost as a periodic function of time.

  18. AN ANCIENT EXTRASOLAR SYSTEM WITH FIVE SUB-EARTH-SIZE PLANETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campante, T. L.; Davies, G. R.; Chaplin, W. J.; Handberg, R. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Barclay, T.; Huber, D.; Burke, C. J.; Quintana, E. V. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Swift, J. J. [Department of Astronomy and Department of Planetary Science, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Adibekyan, V. Zh. [Centro de Astrofísica, Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Cochran, W. [Department of Astronomy and McDonald Observatory, The University of Texas at Austin, TX 78712-1205 (United States); Isaacson, H. [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Silva Aguirre, V.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Metcalfe, T. S.; Bedding, T. R. [Stellar Astrophysics Centre (SAC), Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Ragozzine, D. [Department of Physics and Space Sciences, Florida Institute of Technology, 150 West University Boulevard, Melbourne, FL 32901 (United States); Riddle, R. [Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Baranec, C. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai' i at Mānoa, Hilo, HI 96720-2700 (United States); Basu, S., E-mail: campante@bison.ph.bham.ac.uk [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); and others

    2015-02-01

    The chemical composition of stars hosting small exoplanets (with radii less than four Earth radii) appears to be more diverse than that of gas-giant hosts, which tend to be metal-rich. This implies that small, including Earth-size, planets may have readily formed at earlier epochs in the universe's history when metals were more scarce. We report Kepler spacecraft observations of Kepler-444, a metal-poor Sun-like star from the old population of the Galactic thick disk and the host to a compact system of five transiting planets with sizes between those of Mercury and Venus. We validate this system as a true five-planet system orbiting the target star and provide a detailed characterization of its planetary and orbital parameters based on an analysis of the transit photometry. Kepler-444 is the densest star with detected solar-like oscillations. We use asteroseismology to directly measure a precise age of 11.2 ± 1.0 Gyr for the host star, indicating that Kepler-444 formed when the universe was less than 20% of its current age and making it the oldest known system of terrestrial-size planets. We thus show that Earth-size planets have formed throughout most of the universe's 13.8 billion year history, leaving open the possibility for the existence of ancient life in the Galaxy. The age of Kepler-444 not only suggests that thick-disk stars were among the hosts to the first Galactic planets, but may also help to pinpoint the beginning of the era of planet formation.

  19. An Improved Genetic Algorithm for Optimal Stationary Energy Storage System Locating and Sizing

    OpenAIRE

    Bin Wang; Zhongping Yang; Fei Lin; Wei Zhao

    2014-01-01

    The application of a stationary ultra-capacitor energy storage system (ESS) in urban rail transit allows for the recuperation of vehicle braking energy for increasing energy savings as well as for a better vehicle voltage profile. This paper aims to obtain the best energy savings and voltage profile by optimizing the location and size of ultra-capacitors. This paper firstly raises the optimization objective functions from the perspectives of energy savings, regenerative braking cancellation a...

  20. AN ANCIENT EXTRASOLAR SYSTEM WITH FIVE SUB-EARTH-SIZE PLANETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campante, T. L.; Davies, G. R.; Chaplin, W. J.; Handberg, R.; Barclay, T.; Huber, D.; Burke, C. J.; Quintana, E. V.; Swift, J. J.; Adibekyan, V. Zh.; Cochran, W.; Isaacson, H.; Silva Aguirre, V.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Metcalfe, T. S.; Bedding, T. R.; Ragozzine, D.; Riddle, R.; Baranec, C.; Basu, S.

    2015-01-01

    The chemical composition of stars hosting small exoplanets (with radii less than four Earth radii) appears to be more diverse than that of gas-giant hosts, which tend to be metal-rich. This implies that small, including Earth-size, planets may have readily formed at earlier epochs in the universe's history when metals were more scarce. We report Kepler spacecraft observations of Kepler-444, a metal-poor Sun-like star from the old population of the Galactic thick disk and the host to a compact system of five transiting planets with sizes between those of Mercury and Venus. We validate this system as a true five-planet system orbiting the target star and provide a detailed characterization of its planetary and orbital parameters based on an analysis of the transit photometry. Kepler-444 is the densest star with detected solar-like oscillations. We use asteroseismology to directly measure a precise age of 11.2 ± 1.0 Gyr for the host star, indicating that Kepler-444 formed when the universe was less than 20% of its current age and making it the oldest known system of terrestrial-size planets. We thus show that Earth-size planets have formed throughout most of the universe's 13.8 billion year history, leaving open the possibility for the existence of ancient life in the Galaxy. The age of Kepler-444 not only suggests that thick-disk stars were among the hosts to the first Galactic planets, but may also help to pinpoint the beginning of the era of planet formation

  1. Meeting increased logistical demands : Developing as a small- and medium-sized system supplier

    OpenAIRE

    Carlsson, Inga-Lill

    2009-01-01

    Many subcontractors choose to implement a strategy of “system supply” in order to meetincreasing global competition. They are then confronted with increased demands to take agreater overall responsibility in this role. It is important to investigate the implications of theseresponsibilities before investing in developing the organization, especially for a small- ormedium-sized subcontractor with limited resources. The customer’s view of different demandsdoes not necessarily correspond to how ...

  2. 46 CFR 108.437 - Pipe sizes and discharge rates for enclosed ventilation systems for rotating electrical equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pipe sizes and discharge rates for enclosed ventilation systems for rotating electrical equipment. 108.437 Section 108.437 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.437 Pipe sizes and discharge rates for...

  3. Comparative study of a small size wind generation system efficiency for battery charging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayouf Messaoud

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an energetic comparison between two control strategies of a small size wind generation system for battery charging. The output voltage of the direct drive PMSG is connected to the battery through a switch mode rectifier. A DC-DC boost converter is used to regulate the battery bank current in order to achieve maximum power from the wind. A maximum powertracking algorithm calculates the current command that corresponds to maximum power output of the turbine. The DC-DC converter uses this current to calculate the duty cycle witch is necessary to control the pulse width modulated (PWM active switching device (IGPT. The system overview and modeling are presented including characteristics of wind turbine, generator, batteries, power converter, control system, and supervisory system. A simulation of the system is performed using MATLAB/SIMULINK.

  4. Interim design status and operational report for semiremote handling fixtures: size reduction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballard, A.S.

    1977-02-01

    Crushing of HTGR fuel elements is accomplished by a three-stage crushing system consisting of two overhead eccentric jaw crushers, a double-roll crusher, and an oversize reduction system to ensure complete reduction to the desired size. The crushing system is mounted in a special framework which enables gravity flow, eliminates material transport, and minimizes material holdup. The system has been designated UNIFRAME because of the integrated nature of the equipment. This report addresses the demonstration of semiremote maintenance of the crusher in a nonradioactive environment. Although the crusher maintenance system has some remote handling capability inherent in its design, the scope of this initial program is limited to the handling of selected components and allows for manual assistance in certain circumstances. This mode of operation is designated semiremote maintenance and is intended as an effort to gather experience

  5. A nationwide low-level waste management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The National Governors' Association, in conjunction with the Department of Energy's National Low-Level Waste Management Program, invited various representatives of states, regions, and federal agencies to comment on their perceptions of what major features would constitute a nationwide low-level waste management system. Three meetings were conducted and this report summarizes results of those meetings. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 placed primary responsibility on the states for disposal of low-level waste. Although initial efforts of states have been directed toward establishing compacts, it is evident that a successful long term system requires significant cooperation and communication among states, regions, federal agencies, and Congress

  6. Proposal for a level 0 calorimeter trigger system for LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Bertin, A; Capponi, M; D'Antone, I; De Castro, S; Donà, R; Galli, D; Giacobbe, B; Marconi, U; Massa, I; Piccinini, M; Poli, M; Semprini-Cesari, N; Spighi, R; Vecchi, S; Villa, M; Vitale, A; Zoccoli, A; Zoccoli, Antonio

    1999-01-01

    In this note we present a complete system for the Level-0 LHCb calorimeter triggers. The system is derived from the electromagnetic calorimeter pre-trigger developed for the HERA-B experiment. The proposed system follows closely the Level-0 trigger algorithms presented in the LHCb Technical Proposal based on an electromagnetic and hadronic showers analysis performed on 3x3 calorimeter matrix. The general architecture presented is completely synchronous and quite flexible to allow adaptation to further improvements on the Level-0 trigger algorithms.

  7. DAEDALUS: System-Level Design Methodology for Streaming Multiprocessor Embedded Systems on Chips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stefanov, T.; Pimentel, A.; Nikolov, H.; Ha, S.; Teich, J.

    2017-01-01

    The complexity of modern embedded systems, which are increasingly based on heterogeneous multiprocessor system-on-chip (MPSoC) architectures, has led to the emergence of system-level design. To cope with this design complexity, system-level design aims at raising the abstraction level of the design

  8. System design optimization for stand-alone photovoltaic systems sizing by using superstructure model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azau, M A M; Jaafar, S; Samsudin, K

    2013-01-01

    Although the photovoltaic (PV) systems have been increasingly installed as an alternative and renewable green power generation, the initial set up cost, maintenance cost and equipment mismatch are some of the key issues that slows down the installation in small household. This paper presents the design optimization of stand-alone photovoltaic systems using superstructure model where all possible types of technology of the equipment are captured and life cycle cost analysis is formulated as a mixed integer programming (MIP). A model for investment planning of power generation and long-term decision model are developed in order to help the system engineer to build a cost effective system.

  9. A Distributed Approach to System-Level Prognostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigle, Matthew J.; Bregon, Anibal; Roychoudhury, Indranil

    2012-01-01

    Prognostics, which deals with predicting remaining useful life of components, subsystems, and systems, is a key technology for systems health management that leads to improved safety and reliability with reduced costs. The prognostics problem is often approached from a component-centric view. However, in most cases, it is not specifically component lifetimes that are important, but, rather, the lifetimes of the systems in which these components reside. The system-level prognostics problem can be quite difficult due to the increased scale and scope of the prognostics problem and the relative Jack of scalability and efficiency of typical prognostics approaches. In order to address these is ues, we develop a distributed solution to the system-level prognostics problem, based on the concept of structural model decomposition. The system model is decomposed into independent submodels. Independent local prognostics subproblems are then formed based on these local submodels, resul ting in a scalable, efficient, and flexible distributed approach to the system-level prognostics problem. We provide a formulation of the system-level prognostics problem and demonstrate the approach on a four-wheeled rover simulation testbed. The results show that the system-level prognostics problem can be accurately and efficiently solved in a distributed fashion.

  10. An Improved Genetic Algorithm for Optimal Stationary Energy Storage System Locating and Sizing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The application of a stationary ultra-capacitor energy storage system (ESS in urban rail transit allows for the recuperation of vehicle braking energy for increasing energy savings as well as for a better vehicle voltage profile. This paper aims to obtain the best energy savings and voltage profile by optimizing the location and size of ultra-capacitors. This paper firstly raises the optimization objective functions from the perspectives of energy savings, regenerative braking cancellation and installation cost, respectively. Then, proper mathematical models of the DC (direct current traction power supply system are established to simulate the electrical load-flow of the traction supply network, and the optimization objections are evaluated in the example of a Chinese metro line. Ultimately, a methodology for optimal ultra-capacitor energy storage system locating and sizing is put forward based on the improved genetic algorithm. The optimized result shows that certain preferable and compromised schemes of ESSs’ location and size can be obtained, acting as a compromise between satisfying better energy savings, voltage profile and lower installation cost.

  11. Implications of access hole size on tank waste retrieval system design and cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babcock, S.M.; Kwon, D.S.; Burks, B.L.; Stoughton, R.S.; Evans, M.S.

    1994-05-01

    The DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Robotics Technology Development Program has been investigating the application of robotics technology to the retrieval of waste from single-shell storage tanks for several years. The use of a large, ''long-reach'' manipulator to position and orient a variety of tools and other equipment has been recommended. The objective of this study is to determine the appropriate access hole size for the tank waste retrieval system installation. Previous reports on the impact of access hole size on manipulator performance are summarized. In addition, the practical limitation for access hole size based on structural limitations of the waste storage tanks, the state-of-the-art size limitations for the installation of new risers, the radiation safety implications of various access hole sizes, and overall system cost implications are considered. Basic conclusions include: (1) overall cost of remediation will; be dominated by the costs of the balance of plant and time required to perform the task rather than the cost of manipulator hardware or the cost of installing a riser, (2) the most desirable solution from a manipulator controls point of view is to make the manipulator as stiff as possible and have as high as possible a natural frequency, which implies a large access hole diameter, (3) beyond some diameter; simple, uniform cross-section elements become less advantageous from a weight standpoint and alternative structures should be considered, and (4) additional shielding and contamination control measures would be required for larger holes. Parametric studies summarized in this report considered 3,790,000 1 (1,000,000 gal) tanks, while initial applications are likely to be for 2,840,000 1 (750,000 gal) tanks. Therefore, the calculations should be somewhat conservative, recognizing the limitations of the specific conditions considered

  12. The Architecture of the CMS Level-1 Trigger Control and Monitoring System

    CERN Document Server

    Magrans de Abril, Marc; Hammer, Josef; Hartl, Christian; Xie, Zhen

    2011-01-01

    The architecture of the Level-1 Trigger Control and Monitoring system for the CMS experiment is presented. This system has been installed and commissioned on the trigger online computers and is currently used for data taking at the LHC. This is a medium-size distributed system that runs over 40 PCs and 200 processes that control about 4000 electronic boards. It has been designed to handle the trigger configuration and monitoring during data taking as well as all communications with the main run control of CMS. Furthermore its design has foreseen the provision of the software infrastructure for detailed testing of the trigger system during beam down time.

  13. The tracking of high level waste shipments-TRANSCOM system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P.E.; Joy, D.S.; Pope, R.B.

    1995-01-01

    The TRANSCOM (transportation tracking and communication) system is the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) real-time system for tracking shipments of spent fuel, high-level wastes, and other high-visibility shipments of radioactive material. The TRANSCOM system has been operational since 1988. The system was used during FY1993 to track almost 100 shipments within the US.DOE complex, and it is accessed weekly by 10 to 20 users

  14. The tracking of high level waste shipments - TRANSCOM system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P.E.; Joy, D.S.; Pope, R.B.; Thomas, T.M.; Lester, P.B.

    1994-01-01

    The TRANSCOM (transportation tracking and communication) system is the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) real-time system for tracking shipments of spent fuel, high-level wastes, and other high-visibility shipments of radioactive material. The TRANSCOM system has been operational since 1988. The system was used during FY 1993 to track almost 100 shipments within the US DOE complex, and it is accessed weekly by 10 to 20 users

  15. An Artificial Immune System with Feedback Mechanisms for Effective Handling of Population Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shangce; Wang, Rong-Long; Ishii, Masahiro; Tang, Zheng

    This paper represents a feedback artificial immune system (FAIS). Inspired by the feedback mechanisms in the biological immune system, the proposed algorithm effectively manipulates the population size by increasing and decreasing B cells according to the diversity of the current population. Two kinds of assessments are used to evaluate the diversity aiming to capture the characteristics of the problem on hand. Furthermore, the processing of adding and declining the number of population is designed. The validity of the proposed algorithm is tested for several traveling salesman benchmark problems. Simulation results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed algorithm when compared with the traditional genetic algorithm and an improved clonal selection algorithm.

  16. Modeling of changes in particle size distribution of solids in multistage separation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lagereva E.A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The presented method of calculation of the separation of solid particles from gas streams to multistage separation sys-tems, consisting of a number of sequentially installed separational devices of various design and principle of operation. It is based on a separate analysis of the sequential processes of capture and transmission of individual fractions of solid particles of a polydisperse structure. The technique provides information about changes in particle size distribution of solids with the passage of the gas flow in the treatment system and allows you to specifically select the effective combination of different types of separators.

  17. Wireless Fluid-Level Measurement System Equips Boat Owners

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    While developing a measurement acquisition system to be used to retrofit aging aircraft with vehicle health monitoring capabilities, Langley Research Center developed an innovative wireless fluid-level measurement system. The NASA technology was of interest to Tidewater Sensors LLC, of Newport News, Virginia, because of its many advantages over conventional fuel management systems, including its ability to provide an accurate measurement of volume while a boat is experiencing any rocking motion due to waves or people moving about on the boat. These advantages led the company to license this novel fluid-level measurement system from NASA for marine applications.

  18. Mathematical model comparing of the multi-level economics systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brykalov, S. M.; Kryanev, A. V.

    2017-12-01

    The mathematical model (scheme) of a multi-level comparison of the economic system, characterized by the system of indices, is worked out. In the mathematical model of the multi-level comparison of the economic systems, the indicators of peer review and forecasting of the economic system under consideration can be used. The model can take into account the uncertainty in the estimated values of the parameters or expert estimations. The model uses the multi-criteria approach based on the Pareto solutions.

  19. System Level Analysis of a Water PCM HX Integrated into Orion's Thermal Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Moses; Hansen, Scott; Seth, Rubik; Ungar, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    In a cyclical heat load environment such as low Lunar orbit, a spacecraft's radiators are not sized to reject the full heat load requirement. Traditionally, a supplemental heat rejection device (SHReD) such as an evaporator or sublimator is used to act as a "topper" to meet the additional heat rejection demands. Utilizing a Phase Change Material (PCM) heat exchanger (HX) as a SHReD provides an attractive alternative to evaporators and sublimators as PCM HXs do not use a consumable, thereby leading to reduced launch mass and volume requirements. In continued pursuit of water PCM HX development an Orion system level analysis was performed using Thermal Desktop for a water PCM HX integrated into Orion's thermal control system in a 100km Lunar orbit. The study verified of the thermal model by using a wax PCM and analyzed 1) placing the PCM on the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) versus the External Thermal Control System (ETCS) 2) use of 30/70 PGW verses 50/50 PGW and 3) increasing the radiator area in order to reduce PCM freeze times. The analysis showed that for the assumed operating and boundary conditions utilizing a water PCM HX on Orion is not a viable option for any case. Additionally, it was found that the radiator area would have to be increased by at least 40% in order to support a viable water-based PCM HX.

  20. System Level Analysis of a Water PCM HX Integrated Into Orion's Thermal Control System Abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Moses; Hansen, Scott; Ungar, Eugene; Sheth, Rubik

    2015-01-01

    In a cyclical heat load environment such as low Lunar orbit, a spacecraft's radiators are not sized to reject the full heat load requirement. Traditionally, a supplemental heat rejection device (SHReD) such as an evaporator or sublimator is used to act as a "topper" to meet the additional heat rejection demands. Utilizing a Phase Change Material (PCM) heat exchanger (HX) as a SHReD provides an attractive alternative to evaporators and sublimators as PCM HXs do not use a consumable, thereby leading to reduced launch mass and volume requirements. In continued pursuit of water PCM HX development an Orion system level analysis was performed using Thermal Desktop for a water PCM HX integrated into Orion's thermal control system and in a 100km Lunar orbit. The study analyzed 1) placing the PCM on the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) versus the External Thermal Control System (ETCS) 2) use of 30/70 PGW verses 50/50 PGW and 3) increasing the radiator area in order to reduce PCM freeze times. The analysis showed that for the assumed operating and boundary conditions utilizing a water PCM HX on Orion is not a viable option. Additionally, it was found that the radiator area would have to be increased over 20% in order to have a viable water-based PCM HX.

  1. NeoCASS: An integrated tool for structural sizing, aeroelastic analysis and MDO at conceptual design level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavagna, Luca; Ricci, Sergio; Travaglini, Lorenzo

    2011-11-01

    This paper presents a design framework called NeoCASS (Next generation Conceptual Aero-Structural Sizing Suite), developed at the Department of Aerospace Engineering of Politecnico di Milano in the frame of SimSAC (Simulating Aircraft Stability And Control Characteristics for Use in Conceptual Design) project, funded by EU in the context of 6th Framework Program. It enables the creation of efficient low-order, medium fidelity models particularly suitable for structural sizing, aeroelastic analysis and optimization at the conceptual design level. The whole methodology is based on the integration of geometry construction, aerodynamic and structural analysis codes that combine depictive, computational, analytical, and semi-empirical methods, validated in an aircraft design environment. The work here presented aims at including the airframe and its effect from the very beginning of the conceptual design. This aspect is usually not considered in this early phase. In most cases, very simplified formulas and datasheets are adopted, which implies a low level of detail and a poor accuracy. Through NeoCASS, a preliminar distribution of stiffness and inertias can be determined, given the initial layout. The adoption of empirical formulas is reduced to the minimum in favor of simple numerical methods. This allows to consider the aeroelastic behavior and performances, as well, improving the accuracy of the design tools during the iterative steps and lowering the development costs and reducing the time to market. The result achieved is a design tool based on computational methods for the aero-structural analysis and Multi-Disciplinary Optimization (MDO) of aircraft layouts at the conceptual design stage. A complete case study regarding the TransoniCRuiser aircraft, including validation of the results obtained using industrial standard tools like MSC/NASTRAN and a CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) code, is reported. As it will be shown, it is possible to improve the degree of

  2. A model for size- and rotation-invariant pattern processing in the visual system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitboeck, H J; Altmann, J

    1984-01-01

    The mapping of retinal space onto the striate cortex of some mammals can be approximated by a log-polar function. It has been proposed that this mapping is of functional importance for scale- and rotation-invariant pattern recognition in the visual system. An exact log-polar transform converts centered scaling and rotation into translations. A subsequent translation-invariant transform, such as the absolute value of the Fourier transform, thus generates overall size- and rotation-invariance. In our model, the translation-invariance is realized via the R-transform. This transform can be executed by simple neural networks, and it does not require the complex computations of the Fourier transform, used in Mellin-transform size-invariance models. The logarithmic space distortion and differentiation in the first processing stage of the model is realized via "Mexican hat" filters whose diameter increases linearly with eccentricity, similar to the characteristics of the receptive fields of retinal ganglion cells. Except for some special cases, the model can explain object recognition independent of size, orientation and position. Some general problems of Mellin-type size-invariance models-that also apply to our model-are discussed.

  3. Impact of Particle Size and Polydispersity Index on the Clinical Applications of Lipidic Nanocarrier Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danaei, M; Dehghankhold, M; Ataei, S; Hasanzadeh Davarani, F; Javanmard, R; Dokhani, A; Khorasani, S; Mozafari, M R

    2018-05-18

    Lipid-based drug delivery systems, or lipidic carriers, are being extensively employed to enhance the bioavailability of poorly-soluble drugs. They have the ability to incorporate both lipophilic and hydrophilic molecules and protecting them against degradation in vitro and in vivo. There is a number of physical attributes of lipid-based nanocarriers that determine their safety, stability, efficacy, as well as their in vitro and in vivo behaviour. These include average particle size/diameter and the polydispersity index (PDI), which is an indication of their quality with respect to the size distribution. The suitability of nanocarrier formulations for a particular route of drug administration depends on their average diameter, PDI and size stability, among other parameters. Controlling and validating these parameters are of key importance for the effective clinical applications of nanocarrier formulations. This review highlights the significance of size and PDI in the successful design, formulation and development of nanosystems for pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and other applications. Liposomes, nanoliposomes, vesicular phospholipid gels, solid lipid nanoparticles, transfersomes and tocosomes are presented as frequently-used lipidic drug carriers. The advantages and limitations of a range of available analytical techniques used to characterize lipidic nanocarrier formulations are also covered.

  4. Modeling and simulation of the agricultural sprayer boom leveling system

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Jian

    2011-01-01

    According to the agricultural precision requirements, the distance from sprayer nozzles to the corps should be kept between 50 cm to 70 cm. The sprayer boom also needs to be kept parallel to the field during the application process. Thus we can guarantee the quality of the chemical droplets distribution on the crops. In this paper we design a sprayer boom leveling system for agricultural sprayer vehicles combined with a four-rod linkage self-leveling suspension and electro-hydraulic auto-leveling system. The dynamic analysis shows that the suspension can realize an excellent self-leveling in a comparative small inclination range. In addition we build compensation controller for the electro-hydraulic system based on the mathematical model. With simulations we can optimize the performance of this controller to make sure a fast leveling response to the inclined sprayer boom. © 2011 IEEE.

  5. Viral Richness is Positively Related to Group Size, but Not Mating System, in Bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Quinn M R; Fletcher, Quinn E; Willis, Craig K R

    2017-12-01

    Characterizing host traits that influence viral richness and diversification is important for understanding wildlife pathogens affecting conservation and/or human health. Behaviors that affect contact rates among hosts could be important for viral diversification because more frequent intra- and inter-specific contacts among hosts should increase the potential for viral diversification within host populations. We used published data on bats to test the contact-rate hypothesis. We predicted that species forming large conspecific groups, that share their range with more heterospecifics (i.e., sympatry), and with mating systems characterized by high contact rates (polygynandry: multi-male/multi-female), would host higher viral richness than species with small group sizes, lower sympatry, or low contact-rate mating systems (polygyny: single male/multi-female). Consistent with our hypothesis and previous research, viral richness was positively correlated with conspecific group size although the relationship plateaued at group sizes of approximately several hundred thousand bats. This pattern supports epidemiological theory that, up to a point, larger groups have higher contact rates, greater likelihood of acquiring and transmitting viruses, and ultimately greater potential for viral diversification. However, contrary to our hypothesis, there was no effect of sympatry on viral richness and no difference in viral richness between mating systems. We also found no residual effect of host phylogeny on viral richness, suggesting that closely related species do not necessarily host similar numbers of viruses. Our results support the contact-rate hypothesis that intra-specific viral transmission can enhance viral diversification within species and highlight the influence of host group size on the potential of viruses to propagate within host populations.

  6. Size influences the effect of hydrophobic nanoparticles on lung surfactant model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Mridula V; Harishchandra, Rakesh Kumar; Koshkina, Olga; Maskos, Michael; Galla, Hans-Joachim

    2014-01-07

    The alveolar lung surfactant (LS) is a complex lipid protein mixture that forms an interfacial monolayer reducing the surface tension to near zero values and thus preventing the lungs from collapse. Due to the expanding field of nanotechnology and the corresponding unavoidable exposure of human beings from the air, it is crucial to study the potential effects of nanoparticles (NPs) on the structural organization of the lung surfactant system. In the present study, we investigated both, the domain structure in pure DPPC monolayers as well as in lung surfactant model systems. In the pure lipid system we found that two different sized hydrophobic polymeric nanoparticles with diameter of ~12 nm and ~136 nm have contrasting effect on the functional and structural behavior. The small nanoparticles inserted into fluid domains at the LE-LC phase transition are not visibly disturbing the phase transition but disrupting the domain morphology of the LE phase. The large nanoparticles led to an expanded isotherm and to a significant decrease in the line tension and thus to a drastic disruption of the domain structures at a much lower number of nanoparticles with respect to the lipid. The surface activity of the model LS films again showed drastic variations due to presence of different sized NPs illustrated by the film balance isotherms and the atomic force microscopy. AFM revealed laterally profuse multilayer protrusion formation on compression but only in the presence of 136 nm sized nanoparticles. Moreover we investigated the vesicle insertion process into a preformed monolayer. A severe inhibition was observed only in the presence of ~136 nm NPs compared to minor effects in the presence of ~12 nm NPs. Our study clearly shows that the size of the nanoparticles made of the same material determines the interaction with biological membranes. Copyright © 2014 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Experimental Hamiltonian identification for controlled two-level systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schirmer, S.G.; Kolli, A.; Oi, D.K.L.

    2004-01-01

    We present a strategy to empirically determine the internal and control Hamiltonians for an unknown two-level system (black box) subject to various (piecewise constant) control fields when direct readout by measurement is limited to a single, fixed observable

  8. Modifying scoring system at South African University rugby level ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Success in rugby is measured by winning the game and in order to do so, teams need to score more points ... if modifying the scoring system at South African University rugby level changes the game dynamics. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  9. The upper level of control system of electron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gribov, I.V.; Nedeoglo, F.N.; Shvedunov, I.V.

    2005-01-01

    The upper level software of a three-level control system that supports several electron accelerators is described. This software operates in the Linux and RTLinux (Real Time Linux) environment. The object information model functions on the basis of a parametric description supported by the SQLite Data Base Management System. The Javascript sublanguage is used for script forming, and the Qt Designer application is used to construct the user interface [ru

  10. STANDALONE PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS SIZING OPTIMIZATION USING DESIGN SPACE APPROACH: CASE STUDY FOR RESIDENTIAL LIGHTING LOAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. F. AL RIZA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a sizing optimization methodology of panel and battery capacity in a standalone photovoltaic system with lighting load. Performance of the system is identified by performing Loss of Power Supply Probability (LPSP calculation. Input data used for the calculation is the daily weather data and system components parameters. Capital Cost and Life Cycle Cost (LCC is calculated as optimization parameters. Design space for optimum system configuration is identified based on a given LPSP value, Capital Cost and Life Cycle Cost. Excess energy value is used as an over-design indicator in the design space. An economic analysis, including cost of the energy and payback period, for selected configurations are also studied.

  11. Compressed air energy storage system reservoir size for a wind energy baseload power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavallo, A.J.

    1996-12-31

    Wind generated electricity can be transformed from an intermittent to a baseload resource using an oversized wind farm in conjunction with a compressed air energy storage (CAES) system. The size of the storage reservoir for the CAES system (solution mined salt cavern or porous media) as a function of the wind speed autocorrelation time (C) has been examined using a Monte Carlo simulation for a wind class 4 (wind power density 450 W m{sup -2} at 50 m hub height) wind regime with a Weibull k factor of 2.5. For values of C typically found for winds over the US Great Plains, the storage reservoir must have a 60 to 80 hour capacity. Since underground reservoirs account for only a small fraction of total system cost, this larger storage reservoir has a negligible effect on the cost of energy from the wind energy baseload system. 7 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Multi-level predictive maintenance for multi-component systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Kim-Anh; Do, Phuc; Grall, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a novel predictive maintenance policy with multi-level decision-making is proposed for multi-component system with complex structure. The main idea is to propose a decision-making process considered on two levels: system level and component one. The goal of the decision rules at the system level is to address if preventive maintenance actions are needed regarding the predictive reliability of the system. At component level the decision rules aim at identifying optimally a group of several components to be preventively maintained when preventive maintenance is trigged due to the system level decision. Selecting optimal components is based on a cost-based group improvement factor taking into account the predictive reliability of the components, the economic dependencies as well as the location of the components in the system. Moreover, a cost model is developed to find the optimal maintenance decision variables. A 14-component system is finally introduced to illustrate the use and the performance of the proposed predictive maintenance policy. Different sensitivity analysis are also investigated and discussed. Indeed, the proposed policy provides more flexibility in maintenance decision-making for complex structure systems, hence leading to significant profits in terms of maintenance cost when compared with existing policies. - Highlights: • A predictive maintenance policy for complex structure systems is proposed. • Multi-level decision process based on prognostic results is proposed. • A cost-based group importance measure is introduced for decision-making. • Both positive and negative dependencies between components are investigated. • A cost model and Monte Carlo simulation are developed for optimization process.

  13. LevelScheme: A level scheme drawing and scientific figure preparation system for Mathematica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprio, M. A.

    2005-09-01

    LevelScheme is a scientific figure preparation system for Mathematica. The main emphasis is upon the construction of level schemes, or level energy diagrams, as used in nuclear, atomic, molecular, and hadronic physics. LevelScheme also provides a general infrastructure for the preparation of publication-quality figures, including support for multipanel and inset plotting, customizable tick mark generation, and various drawing and labeling tasks. Coupled with Mathematica's plotting functions and powerful programming language, LevelScheme provides a flexible system for the creation of figures combining diagrams, mathematical plots, and data plots. Program summaryTitle of program:LevelScheme Catalogue identifier:ADVZ Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADVZ Operating systems:Any which supports Mathematica; tested under Microsoft Windows XP, Macintosh OS X, and Linux Programming language used:Mathematica 4 Number of bytes in distributed program, including test and documentation:3 051 807 Distribution format:tar.gz Nature of problem:Creation of level scheme diagrams. Creation of publication-quality multipart figures incorporating diagrams and plots. Method of solution:A set of Mathematica packages has been developed, providing a library of level scheme drawing objects, tools for figure construction and labeling, and control code for producing the graphics.

  14. Microcontroller based multi-channel ultrasonic level monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambastha, K.P.; Chaudhari, Y.V.; Singh, Inder Jeet; Chadda, V.K.

    2004-01-01

    Microcontroller based Multi-channel Ultrasonic Level Monitoring System developed by Computer Division is based on echo ranging techniques to monitor level. The transmitter directs an ultrasonic burst towards the liquid, which gets reflected from the top of the liquid surface. The time taken for ultrasound to travel from the transmitter to the top of liquid surface is measured and used to calculate the liquid level. The system provides for temperature compensation for accurate measurement as the ultrasound velocity depends on the ambient temperature. It can measure liquid level up to 5 meters. A single monitor can be used to measure level in 6 tanks. PC connectivity has been provided via RS 232 and RS 485 for remote operation and data logging of level. A GUI program developed using LABVIEW package displays level on PC monitor. The program provides for pictorial as well as numerical display for level and temperature in the front panel on the PC monitor. A user can monitor level for any or all tanks from the PC. One unit is installed at CIRUS for measuring level in Acid/ Alkali tanks and one is installed at APSARA for measuring water level in the reactor pool. (author)

  15. Levels and Speciation of Platinum in Size-Fractionated Atmospheric Aerosol in Urban and Rural Sites across Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Martin; Antkiewicz, Dagmara; Overdier, Joel; Schauer, James

    2016-04-01

    In this study we characterized the levels and speciation of platinum in a unique set of size-resolved atmospheric aerosol (PM) samples obtained from urban environments across Europe. From April-July 2012 we collected PM from roadside canyon, roadside motorway, and background urban sites in each of six European cities (Amsterdam, Frankfurt, London, Milan, Stockholm, and Thessaloniki). A Hi-Vol sampler was used to collect PM in three size classes (>PM7, PM7-PM3, PM3) and characterized for total platinum, soluble platinum (in a suite of physiologically relevant fluids - lung fluid (ALF), Gambles saline, 0.07M HCl, and MQ) and speciated forms (colloidal and anionic) within the soluble fractions. In addition we measured 50 other elements by SF-ICPMS, soluble ions by IC, and soluble organic carbon in the PM. Order-of-magnitude differences in air concentrations of total platinum were observed between urban sites, ranging from 4 to over 45 pg/m3; with a median level of 6 pg/m3. When platinum concentrations are normalized to PM mass the cross Europe and site-to-site variability was substantially reduced - a 3-fold variation from 200 to 600 ng/g was observed. Roadside canyon sites in London, Stockholm and Thessaloniki exhibited the highest concentrations; however levels at urban background sites were remarkably similar across the cities. Relatively consistent and low concentrations (1 to 2 pg/m3) of total platinum were observed at rural background sites across Europe. The contribution of coarse particles (>7 micron and 7-3 micron) to air concentrations of total platinum was very significant (>35% at nearly all sites). Soluble platinum fractions ranged from 2 to 6% (MQ to HCl) in rural background sites to 5 to 20% (MQ to HCl) in roadway canyon sites in London and Thessaloniki; with the extractable platinum fractions a strong function of pH. With the exception of urban canyon sites in London and Thessaloniki, soluble platinum concentrations in the fine aerosol (PM3) were all

  16. Systematic procedures for sizing photovoltaic pumping system, using water tank storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamidat, A.; Benyoucef, B.

    2009-01-01

    In this work, the performances of the photovoltaic pumping destined to supply drinking water in remote and scattered small villages have been studied. The methodology adopted proposes various procedures based on the water consumption profiles, total head, tank capacity and photovoltaic array peak power. A method of the load losses probability (LLP) has been used to optimize sizing of the photovoltaic pumping systems with a similarity between the storage energy in batteries and water in tanks. The results were carried out using measured meteorological data for four localities in Algeria: Algiers and Oran in the north, Bechar and Tamanrasset in the south. The results show that the performance of the photovoltaic pumping system depends deeply on the pumping total head and the peak power of the photovoltaic array. Also, for the southern localities, the LLP method shows that the size of the photovoltaic array varies versus LLP on a small scale. On the other hand, for the northern localities, the sizing of the photovoltaic array is situated on a large scale power. Because of the current high crud-oil price, the photovoltaic pumping still to be the best adopted energy resource to supply drinking water in remote and scattered villages

  17. Analytical Approach for Loss Minimization in Distribution Systems by Optimum Placement and Sizing of Distributed Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakshi Surbhi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Distributed Generation has drawn the attention of industrialists and researchers for quite a time now due to the advantages it brings loads. In addition to cost-effective and environmentally friendly, but also brings higher reliability coefficient power system. The DG unit is placed close to the load, rather than increasing the capacity of main generator. This methodology brings many benefits, but has to address some of the challenges. The main is to find the optimal location and size of DG units between them. The purpose of this paper is distributed generation by adding an additional means to reduce losses on the line. This paper attempts to optimize the technology to solve the problem of optimal location and size through the development of multi-objective particle swarm. The problem has been reduced to a mathematical optimization problem by developing a fitness function considering losses and voltage distribution line. Fitness function by using the optimal value of the size and location of this algorithm was found to be minimized. IEEE-14 bus system is being considered, in order to test the proposed algorithm and the results show improved performance in terms of accuracy and convergence rate.

  18. Hydrogen production system from photovoltaic panels: experimental characterization and size optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, M.L.; Rivarolo, M.; Massardo, A.F.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Plant optimization for hydrogen generation from renewable sources. • Experimental tests on a 42 kW alkaline electrolyser. • Time-dependent hierarchical thermo-economic optimization. • Italian case for electricity costs and solar irradiation (Savona). - Abstract: In this paper an approach for the determination of the optimal size and management of a plant for hydrogen production from renewable source (photovoltaic panels) is presented. Hydrogen is produced by a pressurized alkaline electrolyser (42 kW) installed at the University Campus of Savona (Italy) in 2014 and fed by electrical energy produced by photovoltaic panels. Experimental tests have been carried out in order to analyze the performance curve of the electrolyser in different operative conditions, investigating the influence of the different parameters on the efficiency. The results have been implemented in a software tool in order to describe the behavior of the systems in off-design conditions. Since the electrical energy produced by photovoltaic panels and used to feed the electrolyser is strongly variable because of the random nature of the solar irradiance, a time-dependent hierarchical thermo-economic analysis is carried out to evaluate both the optimal size and the management approach related to the system, considering a fixed size of 1 MW for the photovoltaic panels. The thermo-economic analysis is performed with the software tool W-ECoMP, developed by the authors’ research group: the Italian energy scenario is considered, investigating the impact of electricity cost on the results as well.

  19. In-situ monitoring of blood glucose level for dialysis machine by AAA-battery-size ATR Fourier spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosono, Satsuki; Sato, Shun; Ishida, Akane; Suzuki, Yo; Inohara, Daichi; Nogo, Kosuke; Abeygunawardhana, Pradeep K.; Suzuki, Satoru; Nishiyama, Akira; Wada, Kenji; Ishimaru, Ichiro

    2015-07-01

    For blood glucose level measurement of dialysis machines, we proposed AAA-battery-size ATR (Attenuated total reflection) Fourier spectroscopy in middle infrared light region. The proposed one-shot Fourier spectroscopic imaging is a near-common path and spatial phase-shift interferometer with high time resolution. Because numerous number of spectral data that is 60 (= camera frame rare e.g. 60[Hz]) multiplied by pixel number could be obtained in 1[sec.], statistical-averaging improvement realize high-accurate spectral measurement. We evaluated the quantitative accuracy of our proposed method for measuring glucose concentration in near-infrared light region with liquid cells. We confirmed that absorbance at 1600[nm] had high correlations with glucose concentrations (correlation coefficient: 0.92). But to measure whole-blood, complex light phenomenon caused from red blood cells, that is scattering and multiple reflection or so, deteriorate spectral data. Thus, we also proposed the ultrasound-assisted spectroscopic imaging that traps particles at standing-wave node. Thus, if ATR prism is oscillated mechanically, anti-node area is generated around evanescent light field on prism surface. By elimination complex light phenomenon of red blood cells, glucose concentration in whole-blood will be quantify with high accuracy. In this report, we successfully trapped red blood cells in normal saline solution with ultrasonic standing wave (frequency: 2[MHz]).

  20. Effects of stored feed cropping systems and farm size on the profitability of Maine organic dairy farm simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshide, A K; Halloran, J M; Kersbergen, R J; Griffin, T S; DeFauw, S L; LaGasse, B J; Jain, S

    2011-11-01

    United States organic dairy production has increased to meet the growing demand for organic milk. Despite higher prices received for milk, organic dairy farmers have come under increasing financial stress due to increases in concentrated feed prices over the past few years, which can make up one-third of variable costs. Market demand for milk has also leveled in the last year, resulting in some downward pressure on prices paid to dairy farmers. Organic dairy farmers in the Northeast United States have experimented with growing different forage and grain crops to maximize on-farm production of protein and energy to improve profitability. Three representative organic feed systems were simulated using the integrated farm system model for farms with 30, 120, and 220 milk cows. Increasing intensity of equipment use was represented by organic dairy farms growing only perennial sod (low) to those with corn-based forage systems, which purchase supplemental grain (medium) or which produce and feed soybeans (high). The relative profitability of these 3 organic feed systems was strongly dependent on dairy farm size. From results, we suggest smaller organic dairy farms can be more profitable with perennial sod-based rather than corn-based forage systems due to lower fixed costs from using only equipment associated with perennial forage harvest and storage. The largest farm size was more profitable using a corn-based system due to greater economies of scale for growing soybeans, corn grain, winter cereals, and corn silages. At an intermediate farm size of 120 cows, corn-based forage systems were more profitable if perennial sod was not harvested at optimum quality, corn was grown on better soils, or if milk yield was 10% higher. Delayed harvest decreased the protein and energy content of perennial sod crops, requiring more purchased grain to balance the ration and resulting in lower profits. Corn-based systems were less affected by lower perennial forage quality, as corn silage

  1. PSO-Based Smart Grid Application for Sizing and Optimization of Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Mohamed A; Eltamaly, Ali M; Alolah, Abdulrahman I

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces an optimal sizing algorithm for a hybrid renewable energy system using smart grid load management application based on the available generation. This algorithm aims to maximize the system energy production and meet the load demand with minimum cost and highest reliability. This system is formed by photovoltaic array, wind turbines, storage batteries, and diesel generator as a backup source of energy. Demand profile shaping as one of the smart grid applications is introduced in this paper using load shifting-based load priority. Particle swarm optimization is used in this algorithm to determine the optimum size of the system components. The results obtained from this algorithm are compared with those from the iterative optimization technique to assess the adequacy of the proposed algorithm. The study in this paper is performed in some of the remote areas in Saudi Arabia and can be expanded to any similar regions around the world. Numerous valuable results are extracted from this study that could help researchers and decision makers.

  2. PSO-Based Smart Grid Application for Sizing and Optimization of Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Mohamed A.; Eltamaly, Ali M.; Alolah, Abdulrahman I.

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces an optimal sizing algorithm for a hybrid renewable energy system using smart grid load management application based on the available generation. This algorithm aims to maximize the system energy production and meet the load demand with minimum cost and highest reliability. This system is formed by photovoltaic array, wind turbines, storage batteries, and diesel generator as a backup source of energy. Demand profile shaping as one of the smart grid applications is introduced in this paper using load shifting-based load priority. Particle swarm optimization is used in this algorithm to determine the optimum size of the system components. The results obtained from this algorithm are compared with those from the iterative optimization technique to assess the adequacy of the proposed algorithm. The study in this paper is performed in some of the remote areas in Saudi Arabia and can be expanded to any similar regions around the world. Numerous valuable results are extracted from this study that could help researchers and decision makers. PMID:27513000

  3. Thermal study of bare tips with various system parameters and incision sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osher, Robert H; Injev, Valentine P

    2006-05-01

    To identify major and minor surgeon-controlled parameters that affect incision temperature when performing microincision lens removal using the Alcon Infiniti Vision System. In vitro research and development laboratory, Alcon Research, Irvine, California, USA. Phacoemulsification was performed in eye-bank cadaver eyes and the following parameters evaluated: incision, duty cycle, ultrasound (US) power, aspiration flow rate (AFR), vacuum, pulse, bottle height and balanced salt solution temperature, and tip design/size. Each parameter was varied while the others remained constant. The resulting temperature of the incision and US tip was measured using a thermal camera. Major contributors to elevated incision temperature included incision size, US power, duty cycle, AFR, vacuum setting, tip design, and presence of an ophthalmic viscosurgical device (OVD). Minor contributors included pulse frequency, bottle height, and temperature of the infusate. Microincision lens removal can be performed at safe temperatures with the knowledgeable selection of surgeon-controlled parameters.

  4. Cooper-pair size and binding energy for unconventional superconducting systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinóla Neto, F.; Neto, Minos A.; Salmon, Octavio D. Rodriguez

    2018-06-01

    The main proposal of this paper is to analyze the size of the Cooper pairs composed by unbalanced mass fermions from different electronic bands along the BCS-BEC crossover and study the binding energy of the pairs. We are considering an interaction between fermions with different masses leading to an inter-band pairing. In addiction to the attractive interaction we have an hybridization term to couple both bands, which in general acts unfavorable for the pairing between the electrons. We get first order phase transitions as the hybridization breaks the Cooper pairs for the s-wave symmetry of the gap amplitude. The results show the dependence of the Cooper-pair size as a function of the hybridization for T = 0 . We also propose the structure of the binding energy of the inter-band system as a function of the two-bands quasi-particle energies.

  5. Organization of the two-level memory in the image processing system on scanning measuring projectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sychev, A.Yu.

    1977-01-01

    Discussed are the problems of improving the efficiency of the system for processing pictures taken in bubble chambers with the use of scanning measuring projectors. The system comprises 20 to 30 pro ectors linked with the ICL-1903A computer provided with a mainframe memory, 64 kilobytes in size. Because of the insufficient size of a mainframe memory, a part of the programs and data is located in a second-level memory, i.e. in an external memory. The analytical model described herein is used to analyze the effect of the memory organization on the characteristics of the system. It is shown that organization of pure procedures and introduction of the centralized control of the tWo-leVel memory result in substantial improvement of the efficiency of the picture processing system

  6. Mesozooplankton size data from the fjord branch Kapisigdlit located in the Godthaabsfjord system, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    branch, in the middle of a shallower inner creek . St. 1-4 was covering deeper parts of the fjord, and St. 5 was located on the slope leading up to the shallow inner creek. Mesozooplankton was sampled by vertical net tows using a Hydrobios Multinet (type Mini) equipped with a flow meter and 50 µm mesh...... to lowest possible taxonomic level (approx. 400 per sample), length measured and counted. Copepods were sorted into development stages (nauplii stage 1 - copepodite stage 6) using morphological features and sizes, and up to 10 individuals of each stage was length measured...

  7. National high-level waste systems analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristofferson, K.; Oholleran, T.P.; Powell, R.H.

    1995-09-01

    This report documents the assessment of budgetary impacts, constraints, and repository availability on the storage and treatment of high-level waste and on both existing and pending negotiated milestones. The impacts of the availabilities of various treatment systems on schedule and throughput at four Department of Energy sites are compared to repository readiness in order to determine the prudent application of resources. The information modeled for each of these sites is integrated with a single national model. The report suggests a high-level-waste model that offers a national perspective on all high-level waste treatment and storage systems managed by the Department of Energy.

  8. National high-level waste systems analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristofferson, K.; Oholleran, T.P.; Powell, R.H.

    1995-09-01

    This report documents the assessment of budgetary impacts, constraints, and repository availability on the storage and treatment of high-level waste and on both existing and pending negotiated milestones. The impacts of the availabilities of various treatment systems on schedule and throughput at four Department of Energy sites are compared to repository readiness in order to determine the prudent application of resources. The information modeled for each of these sites is integrated with a single national model. The report suggests a high-level-waste model that offers a national perspective on all high-level waste treatment and storage systems managed by the Department of Energy

  9. The ATLAS Data Acquisition and High Level Trigger system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the data acquisition and high level trigger system of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, as deployed during Run 1. Data flow as well as control, configuration and monitoring aspects are addressed. An overview of the functionality of the system and of its performance is presented and design choices are discussed.

  10. Establishing a national safeguards system at the State level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Lizana, Fernando

    2001-01-01

    This paper is the guide to a workshop designed to enable the participants to gain a better understanding of National Safeguards Systems and their functions. The workshop provides an opportunity to address the requirements for the organization that has to carry out the system functions at the State level in a country having a research reactor and ancillary laboratories

  11. System Specification for Immobilized High-Level Waste Interim Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CALMUS, R.B.

    2000-01-01

    This specification establishes the system-level functional, performance, design, interface, and test requirements for Phase 1 of the IHLW Interim Storage System, located at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The IHLW canisters will be produced at the Hanford Site by a Selected DOE contractor. Subsequent to storage the canisters will be shipped to a federal geologic repository

  12. Entry Level Systems Analysts: What Does the Industry Want?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna M. Grant

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the skill sets necessary for entry level systems analysts. Towards this end, the study combines two sources of data, namely, a content analysis of 200 systems analysts’ online job advertisements and a survey of 20 senior Information Systems (IS professionals. Based on Chi-square tests, the results reveal that most employers prefer entry level systems analysts with an undergraduate Computer Science degree. Furthermore, most of the employers prefer entry level systems analysts to have some years of experience as well as industry certifications. The results also reveal that there is a higher preference for entry level systems analysts who have non-technical and people skills (e.g., problem solving and oral communication. The empirical results from this study will inform IS educators as they develop future systems analysts. Additionally, the results will be useful to the aspiring systems analysts who need to make sure that they have the necessary job skills before graduating and entering the labor market.

  13. Conceptual design of small-sized HTGR system (4). Plant design and technical feasibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohashi, Hirofumi; Sato, Hiroyuki; Yan, Xing L.; Sumita, Junya; Nomoto, Yasunobu; Tazawa, Yujiro; Noguchi, Hiroki; Imai, Yoshiyuki; Tachibana, Yukio

    2013-09-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has started a conceptual design of a 50MWt small-sized high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) for steam supply and electricity generation (HTR50S), which is a first-of-kind of the commercial plant or a demonstration plant of a small-sized HTGR system for steam supply to the industries and district heating and electricity generation by a steam turbine, to deploy in developing countries in the 2020s. HTR50S was designed for steam supply and electricity generation by the steam turbine with the reactor outlet temperature of 750degC as a reference plant configuration. On the other hand, the intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) will be installed in the primary loop to demonstrate the electricity generation by the helium gas turbine and hydrogen production by thermochemical water splitting by utilizing the secondary helium loop with the reactor outlet temperature of 900degC as a future plant configuration. The plant design of HTR50S for the steam supply and electricity generation was performed based on the plant specification and the requirements for each system taking into account for the increase of the reactor outlet coolant temperature from 750degC to 900degC and the installation of IHX. The technical feasibility of HTR50S was confirmed because the designed systems (i.e., reactor internal components, reactor pressure vessel, vessel cooling system, shutdown cooling system, steam generator (SG), gas circulator, SG isolation and drainage system, reactor containment vessel, steam turbine and heat supply system) satisfies the design requirements. The conceptual plant layout was also determined. This paper provides the summary of the plan design and technical feasibility of HTR50S. (author)

  14. Measuring healthcare productivity - from unit to system level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kämäräinen, Vesa Johannes; Peltokorpi, Antti; Torkki, Paulus; Tallbacka, Kaj

    2016-04-18

    Purpose - Healthcare productivity is a growing issue in most Western countries where healthcare expenditure is rapidly increasing. Therefore, accurate productivity metrics are essential to avoid sub-optimization within a healthcare system. The purpose of this paper is to focus on healthcare production system productivity measurement. Design/methodology/approach - Traditionally, healthcare productivity has been studied and measured independently at the unit, organization and system level. Suggesting that productivity measurement should be done in different levels, while simultaneously linking productivity measurement to incentives, this study presents the challenges of productivity measurement at the different levels. The study introduces different methods to measure productivity in healthcare. In addition, it provides background information on the methods used to measure productivity and the parameters used in these methods. A pilot investigation of productivity measurement is used to illustrate the challenges of measurement, to test the developed measures and to prove the practical information for managers. Findings - The study introduces different approaches and methods to measure productivity in healthcare. Practical implications - A pilot investigation of productivity measurement is used to illustrate the challenges of measurement, to test the developed measures and to prove the practical benefits for managers. Originality/value - The authors focus on the measurement of the whole healthcare production system and try to avoid sub-optimization. Additionally considering an individual patient approach, productivity measurement is examined at the unit level, the organizational level and the system level.

  15. Elevated systemic galectin-1 levels characterize HELLP syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnabel, Annegret; Blois, Sandra M; Meint, Peter; Freitag, Nancy; Ernst, Wolfgang; Barrientos, Gabriela; Conrad, Melanie L; Rose, Matthias; Seelbach-Göbel, Birgit

    2016-04-01

    Galectin-1 (gal-1), a member of a family of conserved β-galactoside-binding proteins, has been shown to exert a key role during gestation. Though gal-1 is expressed at higher levels in the placenta from HELLP patients, it is still poorly understood whether systemic gal-1 levels also differ in HELLP patients. In the present study, we evaluated the systemic expression of gal-1, together with the angiogenic factors, placental growth factor (PlGF) and soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt-1) in conjunction with HELLP syndrome severity. Systemic levels of gal-1 and sFlt-1 were elevated in patients with both early- and late-onset HELLP syndrome as compared to healthy controls. In contrast, peripheral PlGF levels were decreased in early- and late-onset HELLP. A positive correlation between systemic gal-1 levels and sFlt-1/PlGF ratios was found in early onset HELLP patients. Our results show that HELLP syndrome is associated with increased circulating levels of gal-1; integrating systemic gal-1 measurements into the diagnostic analyses of pregnant women may provide more effective prediction of HELLP syndrome development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Beyond different levels: embodiment and the developmental system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    The value of studying a phenomenon at multiple levels of analysis is often emphasized in psychology, but a lack of clarity about the nature of levels and the relations among them remains an impediment to progress. The suggestion here is that an approach combining the tenets of embodiment with the construct of the developmental system provides a way forward. Embodiment opposes the splitting off and elevation of a level of mechanisms that has characterized much of cognitive science. In contrast, a constructivist embodied approach places a level of mechanisms in the context of a formal or systems level of analysis, with developmental process framing the interpenetrating relations between levels. Such an approach stems from a relational worldview that opposes conceptual splits and posits that levels of structure and process comprise an indissociable complementarity. The combination of embodiment and developmental systems within a relational worldview is discussed and elaborated through outlining the integrative approach of relational developmental systems, which has been proposed as a scientific paradigm within which formulations of the interrelations among brain, body, and mind can be advanced.

  17. Reliability review of the LHC collimators low level control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masi, A.; Donze, M.; Losito, R.

    2011-01-01

    The LHC collimators' low level control system is responsible for the positioning, with an accuracy of a few um, of more than 500 motor axes located around the entire LHC tunnel and synchronized at us level,The collimators' axes position is verified in Real Time, monitoring at 100 Hz more than 700 LVDT positioning sensors. Apart from the challenging requirements of timing and positioning accuracy, the system is characterized by a high level of reliability since the collimators have the crucial function of machine protection. In this paper we focus on the architectural and technical choices adopted to guarantee the level of reliability required by the application. We also present the tools and solutions developed to manage this huge control system making the support easier and faster for its operation. (authors)

  18. Mirror distortion of the levels of a compound system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khvalchenko, I.I.

    1995-01-01

    The problem of the action of an arbitrary perturbation on a system of two identical atoms in the radiation field is analyzed. For simplicity, only two-level atoms are considered, the field is assumed to be classical, and the spontaneous transitions are ignored. The polarizations are calculated for the open-quotes two atoms + fieldclose quotes and open-quotes two atoms + field + particleclose quotes systems. A comparison of the obtained relationships allows us to clarify the character of the level distortions caused by the external perturbation in the compound system. 10 refs

  19. System-Level Design Methodologies for Networked Multiprocessor Systems-on-Chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virk, Kashif Munir

    2008-01-01

    is the first such attempt in the published literature. The second part of the thesis deals with the issues related to the development of system-level design methodologies for networked multiprocessor systems-on-chip at various levels of design abstraction with special focus on the modeling and design...... at the system-level. The multiprocessor modeling framework is then extended to include models of networked multiprocessor systems-on-chip which is then employed to model wireless sensor networks both at the sensor node level as well as the wireless network level. In the third and the final part, the thesis...... to the transaction-level model. The thesis, as a whole makes contributions by describing a design methodology for networked multiprocessor embedded systems at three layers of abstraction from system-level through transaction-level to the cycle accurate level as well as demonstrating it practically by implementing...

  20. The role of strategic information systems planning a typical Small or Medium-sized Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicky Meyer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about how Strategic Information Systems Planning (SISP and small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs are linked in a developing country. SISP has also been a concern for many in the Information Technology (IT industry and IT based businesses as a whole. This research seeks to address this shortcoming by exploring what constitutes a typical SME, what role Information Systems (ISs play in SMEs and what role SISP plays in SMEs. Consequently, a Delphi panel comprising a questionnaire in the first phase and an interview in the second phase was employed. Some correlation was found to exist with the literature, with the exception of the role of IS in SMEs, whether SISP is an on-going activity, and the fact that SISP can be outsourced. Some new facts were discovered, especially on the topic of outsourcing. Keywords: company strategy; strategic information systems planning; small and mediumsized enterprises; SME sustainability; stakeholders and management; Viewpoint Training and Consulting

  1. Nonstandard scaling law of fluctuations in finite-size systems of globally coupled oscillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Isao; Tanaka, Gouhei; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2013-08-01

    Universal scaling laws form one of the central issues in physics. A nonstandard scaling law or a breakdown of a standard scaling law, on the other hand, can often lead to the finding of a new universality class in physical systems. Recently, we found that a statistical quantity related to fluctuations follows a nonstandard scaling law with respect to the system size in a synchronized state of globally coupled nonidentical phase oscillators [I. Nishikawa et al., Chaos 22, 013133 (2012)]. However, it is still unclear how widely this nonstandard scaling law is observed. In the present paper, we discuss the conditions required for the unusual scaling law in globally coupled oscillator systems and validate the conditions by numerical simulations of several different models.

  2. Artificial Neural Network-Based Clutter Reduction Systems for Ship Size Estimation in Maritime Radars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Jarabo-Amores

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The existence of clutter in maritime radars deteriorates the estimation of some physical parameters of the objects detected over the sea surface. For that reason, maritime radars should incorporate efficient clutter reduction techniques. Due to the intrinsic nonlinear dynamic of sea clutter, nonlinear signal processing is needed, what can be achieved by artificial neural networks (ANNs. In this paper, an estimation of the ship size using an ANN-based clutter reduction system followed by a fixed threshold is proposed. High clutter reduction rates are achieved using 1-dimensional (horizontal or vertical integration modes, although inaccurate ship width estimations are achieved. These estimations are improved using a 2-dimensional (rhombus integration mode. The proposed system is compared with a CA-CFAR system, denoting a great performance improvement and a great robustness against changes in sea clutter conditions and ship parameters, independently of the direction of movement of the ocean waves and ships.

  3. Study Of Solar PV Sizing Of Water Pumping System For Irrigation Of Asparagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mya Su Kyi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The motivation for this system come from the countries where economy is depended on agriculture and the climatic conditions lead to lack of rains. The farmers working in the farm lands are dependent on the rains and bore wells. Even if the farm land has a water-pump manual involvement by farmers is required to turn the pump onoff when on earth needed. This paper presents design and calculation analysis of efficient Solar PV water pumping system for irrigation of Asparagus. The study area falls 21-58-30 N Latitude and 96-5-0 E Longitude of Mandalay. The PV system sizing was made in such a way that it was capable of irrigation one acre of Asparagus plot with a daily water requirement of 25mday.

  4. South African small and medium-sized enterprise owners’ intention to implement an environmental management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrika (Miemie W. Struwig

    2017-06-01

    Aim: This article investigates South African small and medium-sized enterprise (SME owners’ intentions to implement an environmental management system based on the theory of planned behaviour. Setting: Although large businesses are clearly of interest with respect to their environmental management, especially given their prominence in many of the most environmentally impactful sectors, the relative neglect of the environmental management of SMEs is disconcerting, given their overall importance in most economies. In addition, very little research used the theory of planned behaviour to empirically test SME owners’ intentions, to implement an environmental management system. Method: A quantitative survey was used to collect primary data from 326 SME owners by a structured questionnaire. Results: Regression analysis results confirmed the influence of SME owners’ attitudes towards an environmental management system and pro-environmental norms on their intention to implement an environmental management system. Perceived behavioural control, however, did not significantly influence the SME owners’ intention to implement an environmental management system. Conclusion: These findings provide valuable insights into the implementation of environmental management systems among South African SMEs. The theory of planned behaviour also seems to be an appropriate means to investigate the intentions of SMEs to implement an environmental management system.

  5. Numerical simulations of the melting behavior of bulk and nanometer-sized Cu systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manai, G.; Delogu, F.

    2007-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been employed to investigate the melting mechanisms of four different Cu systems consisting of a surface-free crystalline bulk, a semi-crystal terminating with a free surface and two unsupported particles with a radius of about 4 and 8 nm, respectively. Starting from a relaxed configuration at 300 K, the systems were gradually heated up to the characteristic melting points. The surface-free bulk system underwent homogeneous melting at the limit of superheating, whereas the melting of the semi-crystal and of the nanometer-sized particles occurred with heterogeneous features. In these latter cases, the structural and energetic properties revealed a two-state character with a definite difference between disordered surface layers and bulk-like interiors. In addition, the melting point and the latent heat of fusion of the nanometer-sized particles were significantly depressed with respect to the ones of the semi-crystal, approximately corresponding to the equilibrium values. Pre-melting phenomena took place at the free surfaces at temperatures significantly below the melting point, determining the formation of a solid-liquid interface. Numerical findings indicate that in all the cases the onset of melting is connected with the proliferation and migration of lattice defects and that an intimate relationship exists between homogeneous and heterogeneous melting mechanisms

  6. Carbon Storage in Soil Size Fractions Under Two Cacao Agroforestry Systems in Bahia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama-Rodrigues, Emanuela F.; Ramachandran Nair, P. K.; Nair, Vimala D.; Gama-Rodrigues, Antonio C.; Baligar, Virupax C.; Machado, Regina C. R.

    2010-02-01

    Shaded perennial agroforestry systems contain relatively high quantities of soil carbon (C) resulting from continuous deposition of plant residues; however, the extent to which the C is sequestered in soil will depend on the extent of physical protection of soil organic C (SOC). The main objective of this study was to characterize SOC storage in relation to soil fraction-size classes in cacao ( Theobroma cacao L.) agroforestry systems (AFSs). Two shaded cacao systems and an adjacent natural forest in reddish-yellow Oxisols in Bahia, Brazil were selected. Soil samples were collected from four depth classes to 1 m depth and separated by wet-sieving into three fraction-size classes (>250 μm, 250-53 μm, and cacao AFSs, the C contained in the macroaggregate fraction might become stabilized in the soil. The study shows the role of cacao AFSs in mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emission through accumulation and retention of high amounts of organic C in the soils and suggests the potential benefit of this environmental service to the nearly 6 million cacao farmers worldwide.

  7. A Binary System in the Hyades Cluster Hosting a Neptune-Sized Planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Adina; Ciardi, David; Crossfield, Ian; Schlieder, Joshua; Petigura, Erik; David, Trevor J.; Bristow, Makennah; Patel, Rahul; Arnold, Lauren; Benneke, Björn; Christiansen, Jessie; Dressing, Courtney; Fulton, Benjamin; Howard, Andrew; Isaacson, Howard; Sinukoff, Evan; Thackeray, Beverly

    2018-01-01

    We report the discovery of a Neptune-size planet (Rp = 3.0Rearth) in the Hyades Cluster. The host star is in a binary system, comprising a K5V star and M7/8V star with a projected separation of 40 AU. The planet orbits the primary star with an orbital period of 17.3 days and a transit duration of 3 hours. The host star is bright (V = 11.2, J = 9.1) and so may be a good target for precise radial velocity measurements. The planet is the first Neptune-sized planet to be found orbiting in a binary system within an open cluster. The Hyades is the nearest star cluster to the Sun, has an age of 625-750 Myr, and forms one of the fundamental rungs in the distance ladder; understanding the planet population in such a well-studied cluster can help us understand and set contraints on the formation and evolution of planetary systems.

  8. Optimizing the passenger air bag of an adaptive restraint system for multiple size occupants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zhonghao; Jiang, Binhui; Zhu, Feng; Cao, Libo

    2014-01-01

    The development of the adaptive occupant restraint system (AORS) has led to an innovative way to optimize such systems for multiple size occupants. An AORS consists of multiple units such as adaptive air bags, seat belts, etc. During a collision, as a supplemental protective device, air bags can provide constraint force and play a role in dissipating the crash energy of the occupants' head and thorax. This article presents an investigation into an adaptive passenger air bag (PAB). The purpose of this study is to develop a base shape of a PAB for different size occupants using an optimization method. Four typical base shapes of a PAB were designed based on geometric data on the passenger side. Then 4 PAB finite element (FE) models and a validated sled with different size dummy models were developed in MADYMO (TNO, Rijswijk, The Netherlands) to conduct the optimization to obtain the best baseline PAB that would be used in the AORS. The objective functions-that is, the minimum total probability of injuries (∑Pcomb) of the 5th percentile female and 50th and 95th percentile male dummies-were adopted to evaluate the optimal configurations. The injury probability (Pcomb) for each dummy was adopted from the U.S. New Car Assessment Program (US-NCAP). The parameters of the AORS were first optimized for different types of PAB base shapes in a frontal impact. Then, contact time duration and force between the PAB and dummy head/chest were optimized by adjusting the parameters of the PAB, such as the number and position of tethers, lower the Pcomb of the 95th percentile male dummy. According to the optimization results, 4 typical PABs could provide effective protection to 5th and 50th percentile dummies. However, due to the heavy and large torsos of the 95th percentile occupants, the current occupant restraint system does not demonstrate satisfactory protective function, particularly for the thorax.

  9. Optimal Siting and Sizing of Energy Storage System for Power Systems with Large-scale Wind Power Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Haoran; Wu, Qiuwei; Huang, Shaojun

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes algorithms for optimal sitingand sizing of Energy Storage System (ESS) for the operationplanning of power systems with large scale wind power integration.The ESS in this study aims to mitigate the wind powerfluctuations during the interval between two rolling Economic......Dispatches (EDs) in order to maintain generation-load balance.The charging and discharging of ESS is optimized consideringoperation cost of conventional generators, capital cost of ESSand transmission losses. The statistics from simulated systemoperations are then coupled to the planning process to determinethe...

  10. Estimation of the sizes of hot nuclear systems from particle-particle large angle kinematical correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Ville, J.L.; Bizard, G.; Durand, D.; Jin, G.M.; Rosato, E.

    1990-06-01

    Light fragment emission, when triggered by large transverse momentum protons shows specific kinematical correlations due to recoil effects of the excited emitting source. Such effects have been observed in azimuthal angular distributions of He-particles produced in collisions induced by 94 MeV/u 16 0 ions on Al, Ni and Au targets. A model calculation assuming a two-stage mechanism (formation and sequential decay of a hot source) gives a good description of these whole data. From this succesfull confrontation, it is possible to estimate the size of the emitting system

  11. Sizing of Energy Storage Systems for Output Smoothing of Renewable Energy Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Renewable energy sources (RESs), such as photovoltaic (PV) and wind power generation, have the characteristics of random fluctuation and intermittence. The output of RESs should be smoothed to inhibit the adverse effects of RESs fluctuations on the power grid. The energy storage system (ESS) is playing a more and more important role in the application of RESs due to its discharge/charge characteristic. Therefore, the optimal planning and design of ESS is of vital importance because of the expensive cost of ESS.

  12. Multi-level and hybrid modelling approaches for systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardini, R; Politano, G; Benso, A; Di Carlo, S

    2017-01-01

    During the last decades, high-throughput techniques allowed for the extraction of a huge amount of data from biological systems, unveiling more of their underling complexity. Biological systems encompass a wide range of space and time scales, functioning according to flexible hierarchies of mechanisms making an intertwined and dynamic interplay of regulations. This becomes particularly evident in processes such as ontogenesis, where regulative assets change according to process context and timing, making structural phenotype and architectural complexities emerge from a single cell, through local interactions. The information collected from biological systems are naturally organized according to the functional levels composing the system itself. In systems biology, biological information often comes from overlapping but different scientific domains, each one having its own way of representing phenomena under study. That is, the different parts of the system to be modelled may be described with different formalisms. For a model to have improved accuracy and capability for making a good knowledge base, it is good to comprise different system levels, suitably handling the relative formalisms. Models which are both multi-level and hybrid satisfy both these requirements, making a very useful tool in computational systems biology. This paper reviews some of the main contributions in this field.

  13. Size reduction of high- and low-moisture corn stalks by linear knife grid system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igathinathane, C. [Agricultural and Biological Engineering Department, 130 Creelman Street, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, Mississippi 39762 (United States); Womac, A.R. [Department of Biosystems Engineering and Soil Science, 2506 E. J. Chapman Drive, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States); Sokhansanj, S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge, P. O. Box 2008, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Narayan, S. [First American Scientific Company, 100 Park Royal South West Vancouver, British Columbia, V7T 1A2 (Canada)

    2009-04-15

    High- and low-moisture corn stalks were tested using a linear knife grid size reduction device developed for first-stage size reduction. The device was used in conjunction with a universal test machine that quantified shearing stress and energy characteristics for forcing a bed of corn stalks through a grid of sharp knives. No published engineering performance data for corn stover with similar devices are available to optimize performance; however, commercial knife grid systems exist for forage size reduction. From the force-displacement data, mean and maximum ultimate shear stresses, cumulative and peak mass-based cutting energies for corn stalks, and mean new surface area-based cutting energies were determined from 4-5 refill runs at two moisture contents (78.8% and 11.3% wet basis), three knife grid spacings (25.4, 50.8, and 101.6 mm), and three bed depths (50.8, 101.6, and 152.4 mm). In general, the results indicated that peak failure load, ultimate shear stress, and cutting energy values varied directly with bed depth and inversely with knife grid spacing. Mean separation analysis established that high- and low-moisture conditions and bed depths {>=} 101.6 mm did not differ significantly (P < 0.05) for ultimate stress and cutting energy values, but knife grid spacing were significantly different. Linear knife grid cutting energy requirements for both moisture conditions of corn stalks were much smaller than reported cutting energy requirements. Ultimate shear stress and cutting energy results of this research should aid the engineering design of commercial scale linear knife gird size reduction equipment for various biomass feedstocks. (author)

  14. Size-scaling behaviour of the electronic polarizability of one-dimensional interacting systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappe, G.; Louis, E.; Vergés, J. A.

    2018-05-01

    Electronic polarizability of finite chains is accurately calculated from the total energy variation of the system produced by small but finite static electric fields applied along the chain direction. Normalized polarizability, that is, polarizability divided by chain length, diverges as the second power of length for metallic systems but approaches a constant value for insulating systems. This behaviour provides a very convenient way to characterize the wave-function malleability of finite systems as it avoids the need of attaching infinite contacts to the chain ends. Hubbard model calculations at half filling show that the method works for a small U  =  1 interaction value that corresponds to a really small spectral gap of 0.005 (hopping t  =  ‑1 is assumed). Once successfully checked, the method has been applied to the long-range hopping model of Gebhard and Ruckenstein showing 1/r hopping decay (Gebhard and Ruckenstein 1992 Phys. Rev. Lett. 68 244; Gebhard et al 1994 Phys. Rev. B 49 10926). Metallicity for U values below the reported metal-insulator transition is obtained but the surprise comes for U values larger than the critical one (when a gap appears in the spectral density of states) because a steady increase of the normalized polarizability with size is obtained. This critical size-scaling behaviour can be understood as corresponding to a molecule which polarizability is unbounded. We have checked that a real transfer of charge from one chain end to the opposite occurs as a response to very small electric fields in spite of the existence of a large gap of the order of U for one-particle excitations. Finally, ab initio quantum chemistry calculations of realistic poly-acetylene chains prove that the occurrence of such critical behaviour in real systems is unlikely.

  15. Sea Level Forecasts Aggregated from Established Operational Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Taylor

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A system for providing routine seven-day forecasts of sea level observable at tide gauge locations is described and evaluated. Forecast time series are aggregated from well-established operational systems of the Australian Bureau of Meteorology; although following some adjustments these systems are only quasi-complimentary. Target applications are routine coastal decision processes under non-extreme conditions. The configuration aims to be relatively robust to operational realities such as version upgrades, data gaps and metadata ambiguities. Forecast skill is evaluated against hourly tide gauge observations. Characteristics of the bias correction term are demonstrated to be primarily static in time, with time varying signals showing regional coherence. This simple approach to exploiting existing complex systems can offer valuable levels of skill at a range of Australian locations. The prospect of interpolation between observation sites and exploitation of lagged-ensemble uncertainty estimates could be meaningfully pursued. Skill characteristics define a benchmark against which new operational sea level forecasting systems can be measured. More generally, an aggregation approach may prove to be optimal for routine sea level forecast services given the physically inhomogeneous processes involved and ability to incorporate ongoing improvements and extensions of source systems.

  16. The cultural evolution of human communication systems in different sized populations: usability trumps learnability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Nicolas; Ellison, T Mark

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the intergenerational transfer of human communication systems. It tests if human communication systems evolve to be easy to learn or easy to use (or both), and how population size affects learnability and usability. Using an experimental-semiotic task, we find that human communication systems evolve to be easier to use (production efficiency and reproduction fidelity), but harder to learn (identification accuracy) for a second generation of naïve participants. Thus, usability trumps learnability. In addition, the communication systems that evolve in larger populations exhibit distinct advantages over those that evolve in smaller populations: the learnability loss (from the Initial signs) is more muted and the usability benefits are more pronounced. The usability benefits for human communication systems that evolve in a small and large population is explained through guided variation reducing sign complexity. The enhanced performance of the communication systems that evolve in larger populations is explained by the operation of a content bias acting on the larger pool of competing signs. The content bias selects for information-efficient iconic signs that aid learnability and enhance usability.

  17. The cultural evolution of human communication systems in different sized populations: usability trumps learnability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Fay

    Full Text Available This study examines the intergenerational transfer of human communication systems. It tests if human communication systems evolve to be easy to learn or easy to use (or both, and how population size affects learnability and usability. Using an experimental-semiotic task, we find that human communication systems evolve to be easier to use (production efficiency and reproduction fidelity, but harder to learn (identification accuracy for a second generation of naïve participants. Thus, usability trumps learnability. In addition, the communication systems that evolve in larger populations exhibit distinct advantages over those that evolve in smaller populations: the learnability loss (from the Initial signs is more muted and the usability benefits are more pronounced. The usability benefits for human communication systems that evolve in a small and large population is explained through guided variation reducing sign complexity. The enhanced performance of the communication systems that evolve in larger populations is explained by the operation of a content bias acting on the larger pool of competing signs. The content bias selects for information-efficient iconic signs that aid learnability and enhance usability.

  18. Hybrid neural intelligent system to predict business failure in small-to-medium-size enterprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrajo, M Lourdes; Baruque, Bruno; Corchado, Emilio; Bajo, Javier; Corchado, Juan M

    2011-08-01

    During the last years there has been a growing need of developing innovative tools that can help small to medium sized enterprises to predict business failure as well as financial crisis. In this study we present a novel hybrid intelligent system aimed at monitoring the modus operandi of the companies and predicting possible failures. This system is implemented by means of a neural-based multi-agent system that models the different actors of the companies as agents. The core of the multi-agent system is a type of agent that incorporates a case-based reasoning system and automates the business control process and failure prediction. The stages of the case-based reasoning system are implemented by means of web services: the retrieval stage uses an innovative weighted voting summarization of self-organizing maps ensembles-based method and the reuse stage is implemented by means of a radial basis function neural network. An initial prototype was developed and the results obtained related to small and medium enterprises in a real scenario are presented.

  19. Low Level RF Control System of J-PARC Synchrotrons

    CERN Document Server

    Tamura, Fumihiko; Ezura, Eizi; Hara, Keigo; Nomura, Masahiro; Ohmori, Chihiro; Schnase, Alexander; Takagi, Akira; Yamamoto, Masanobu; Yoshii, Masahito

    2005-01-01

    We present the concept and the design of the low level RF (LLRF) control system of the J-PARC synchrotrons. The J-PARC synchrotrons are the rapid cycling 3-GeV synchrotron (RCS) and the 50-GeV main ring (MR) which require very precise and stable LLRF control systems to accelerate the ultra-high proton beam current. The LLRF system of the synchrotron is a full-digital system based on the direct digital synthesis (DDS). The functions of the system are (1) the multi-harmonic RF generation for the acceleration and the longitudinal bunch shaping, (2) the feedbacks for stabilizing the beam, (3) the feedforward for compensating the heavy beam loading, and (4) other miscellaneous functions such as the synchronization and chopper timing. The LLRF system of the RCS is now under construction. We present the details of the system. Also, we show preliminary results of performance tests of the control modules.

  20. Alpha low-level stored waste systems design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feizollahi, F.; Teheranian, B. (Morrison Knudson Corp., San Francisco, CA (United States). Environmental Services Div.); Quapp, W.J. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States))

    1992-08-01

    The Stored Waste System Design Study (SWSDS), commissioned by the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examines relative life-cycle costs associated with three system concepts for processing the alpha low-level waste (alpha-LLW) stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Transuranic Storage Area at the INEL. The three system concepts are incineration/melting; thermal treatment/solidification; and sort, treat, and repackage. The SWSDS identifies system functional and operational requirements and assesses implementability; effectiveness; cost; and demonstration, testing, and evaluation (DT E) requirements for each of the three concepts.

  1. Alpha low-level stored waste systems design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feizollahi, F.; Teheranian, B. [Morrison Knudson Corp., San Francisco, CA (United States). Environmental Services Div.; Quapp, W.J. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1992-08-01

    The Stored Waste System Design Study (SWSDS), commissioned by the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examines relative life-cycle costs associated with three system concepts for processing the alpha low-level waste (alpha-LLW) stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex`s Transuranic Storage Area at the INEL. The three system concepts are incineration/melting; thermal treatment/solidification; and sort, treat, and repackage. The SWSDS identifies system functional and operational requirements and assesses implementability; effectiveness; cost; and demonstration, testing, and evaluation (DT&E) requirements for each of the three concepts.

  2. Alpha low-level stored waste systems design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feizollahi, F.; Teheranian, B.

    1992-08-01

    The Stored Waste System Design Study (SWSDS), commissioned by the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examines relative life-cycle costs associated with three system concepts for processing the alpha low-level waste (alpha-LLW) stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Transuranic Storage Area at the INEL. The three system concepts are incineration/melting; thermal treatment/solidification; and sort, treat, and repackage. The SWSDS identifies system functional and operational requirements and assesses implementability; effectiveness; cost; and demonstration, testing, and evaluation (DT ampersand E) requirements for each of the three concepts

  3. The geometric phase in two-level atomic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Mingzhen; Barber, Zeb W.; Fischer, Joe A.; Randall Babbitt, Wm.

    2004-01-01

    We report the observation of the geometric phase in a closed two-level atomic system using stimulated photon echoes. The two-level system studied consists of the two-electronic energy levels ( 3 H 4 and 3 H 6 ) of Tm 3+ doped in YAG crystal. When a two-level atom at an arbitrary superposition state is excited by a pair of specially designed laser pulses, the excited state component gains a relative phase with respect to the ground state component. We identified the phase shift to be of pure geometric nature. The dynamic phase associated to the driving Hamiltonian is unchanged. The experiment results of the phase change agree with the theory to the extent of the measurement limit

  4. Commissioning the ATLAS Level-1 Central Trigger System

    CERN Document Server

    Sherman, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS Level-1 central trigger is a critical part of ATLAS operation. It receives the 40 MHz bunch clock from the LHC and distributes it to all sub-detectors. It initiates their read-out by forming the Level-1 Accept decision, which is based on information from the calorimeter and muon trigger processors and a variety of additional trigger inputs from detectors in the forward region. It also provides trigger summary information to the data acquisition system and the Level-2 trigger system. In this paper, we present the completion of the installed central trigger system, its performance during cosmic-ray data taking and the experience gained with triggering on the first LHC beams.

  5. Interconnection test framework for the CMS level-1 trigger system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, J.; Magrans de Abril, M.; Wulz, C.E.

    2012-01-01

    The Level-1 Trigger Control and Monitoring System is a software package designed to configure, monitor and test the Level-1 Trigger System of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at CERN's Large Hadron Collider. It is a large and distributed system that runs over 50 PCs and controls about 200 hardware units. The objective of this paper is to describe and evaluate the architecture of a distributed testing framework - the Interconnection Test Framework (ITF). This generic and highly flexible framework for creating and executing hardware tests within the Level-1 Trigger environment is meant to automate testing of the 13 major subsystems interconnected with more than 1000 links. Features include a web interface to create and execute tests, modeling using finite state machines, dependency management, automatic configuration, and loops. Furthermore, the ITF will replace the existing heterogeneous testing procedures and help reducing both maintenance and complexity of operation tasks. (authors)

  6. Nonadiabatic population transfer in a driven four-level system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prants, S.V.

    1994-01-01

    The coherent dynamics of a four-level quantum system with an arbitrary level configuration is described analytically in the modulated polychromatic laser field. The method of dynamical symmetries is invoked to develop the formalism for explicit calculation of the evolution matrix of the system in the resonance fields. The method is free of the usual adiabatic-passage, weak-field approximations, and approximation of the slowly varying amplitudes. The conditions for occurrence of the coherent effects of the total inversion and the total depletion of the initial level of a system driven simultaneously driven simultaneously at several transitions by the laser pulses of arbitrary shape are derived analytically. The obtained results can be applied to problems of the control of quantum processes in multilevel atoms and molecules. 14 refs

  7. High-Level Waste System Process Interface Description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Entremont, P.D.

    1999-01-01

    The High-Level Waste System is a set of six different processes interconnected by pipelines. These processes function as one large treatment plant that receives, stores, and treats high-level wastes from various generators at SRS and converts them into forms suitable for final disposal. The three major forms are borosilicate glass, which will be eventually disposed of in a Federal Repository, Saltstone to be buried on site, and treated water effluent that is released to the environment

  8. Intelligent sizing of a series hybrid electric power-train system based on Chaos-enhanced accelerated particle swarm optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Quan; Zhang, Wei; Cash, Scott; Olatunbosun, Oluremi; Xu, Hongming; Lu, Guoxiang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel algorithm for hybrid electric powertrain intelligent sizing is introduced and applied. • The proposed CAPSO algorithm is capable of finding the real optimal result with much higher reputation. • Logistic mapping is the most effective strategy to build CAPSO. • The CAPSO gave more reliable results and increased the efficiency by 1.71%. - Abstract: This paper firstly proposed a novel HEV sizing method using the Chaos-enhanced Accelerated Particle Swarm Optimization (CAPSO) algorithm and secondly provided a demonstration on sizing a series hybrid electric powertrain with investigations of chaotic mapping strategies to achieve the global optimization. In this paper, the intelligent sizing of a series hybrid electric powertrain is formulated as an integer multi-objective optimization issue by modelling the powertrain system. The intelligent sizing mechanism based on APSO is then introduced, and 4 types of the most effective chaotic mapping strategy are investigated to upgrade the standard APSO into CAPSO algorithms for intelligent sizing. The evaluation of the intelligent sizing systems based on standard APSO and CAPSOs are then performed. The Monte Carlo analysis and reputation evaluation indicate that the CAPSO outperforms the standard APSO for finding the real optimal sizing result with much higher reputation, and CAPSO with logistic mapping strategy is the most effective algorithm for HEV powertrain components intelligent sizing. In addition, this paper also performs the sensitivity analysis and Pareto analysis to help engineers customize the intelligent sizing system.

  9. Heuristic Storage System Sizing for Optimal Operation of Electric Vehicles Powered by Photovoltaic Charging Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Blasius

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the utilisation of PV systems for electric vehicles charging for transportation requirements of smart cities. The gap between PV power output and vehicles charging demand is highly variable. Therefore, there is a need for additional support from a public distribution grid or a storage device in order to handle the residual power. Long term measurement data retrieved from a charging station for 15 vehicles equipped with a PV system were used in the research. Low and high irradiation seasons influenced the PV output. The charging demand of electric vehicles varied over the course of a year and was correlated to weather conditions. Therefore, the sizing and performance of a supportive storage device should be evaluated in a statistical manner using long period observations.

  10. Adoption of an information systems security policy in small and medium sized enterprises.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Maria Lopes

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Information Systems Security (ISS is a relevant fact for current organizations. This paper focuses on Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs. This article aims to constitute an empirical study on the applicability of the Action Research (AR method in information systems, more specifically by assessing the adoption of an ISS policy in six SMEs, and identifying the critical success factors in adopting an ISS policy. The research question we intend to answer is to what extent this research method is adequate to reach the proposed goal. The results of the study suggest that AR is a promising means for the evaluation of ISS policies adoption. It can both act as a research method that improves the understanding about the reasons why the policy has been abandoned, and as a change method, assisting practitioners to overcome barriers and suggesting measures to be implemented.

  11. Rapid prototyping of nanofluidic systems using size-reduced electrospun nanofibers for biomolecular analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seung-Min; Huh, Yun Suk; Szeto, Kylan; Joe, Daniel J; Kameoka, Jun; Coates, Geoffrey W; Edel, Joshua B; Erickson, David; Craighead, Harold G

    2010-11-05

    Biomolecular transport in nanofluidic confinement offers various means to investigate the behavior of biomolecules in their native aqueous environments, and to develop tools for diverse single-molecule manipulations. Recently, a number of simple nanofluidic fabrication techniques has been demonstrated that utilize electrospun nanofibers as a backbone structure. These techniques are limited by the arbitrary dimension of the resulting nanochannels due to the random nature of electrospinning. Here, a new method for fabricating nanofluidic systems from size-reduced electrospun nanofibers is reported and demonstrated. As it is demonstrated, this method uses the scanned electrospinning technique for generation of oriented sacrificial nanofibers and exposes these nanofibers to harsh, but isotropic etching/heating environments to reduce their cross-sectional dimension. The creation of various nanofluidic systems as small as 20 nm is demonstrated, and practical examples of single biomolecular handling, such as DNA elongation in nanochannels and fluorescence correlation spectroscopic analysis of biomolecules passing through nanochannels, are provided.

  12. Seismic response characteristics of full-size buildings with base isolation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.Y.; Gvildys, J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper investigates the response characteristics of full-size reinforced concrete buildings via numerical simulations and actual observations. The test facility consists of two identical three-story buildings constructed side by side at Tohoku University in Sendai, Japan. Since the installation of high-damping isolation bearings in April 1989, data from over twenty earthquakes have been recorded. In this paper, three representative earthquake records, No. 2, No. 6, and No. 17 are used to study the detailed response characteristics. Numerical simulations are carried out with the system response program, SISEC. In general, good agreement has been found between numerical solutions and actual observations. The system is stiff enough to prevent the building displacement under minor earthquakes and wind loads, but is relatively soft for reducing the acceleration response during earthquakes with moderate and strong ground motion. Lessons learned in this effort are applicable to base isolation design of nuclear power plants. 7 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs

  13. Portfolio of automated trading systems: complexity and learning set size issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raudys, Sarunas

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, we consider using profit/loss histories of multiple automated trading systems (ATSs) as N input variables in portfolio management. By means of multivariate statistical analysis and simulation studies, we analyze the influences of sample size (L) and input dimensionality on the accuracy of determining the portfolio weights. We find that degradation in portfolio performance due to inexact estimation of N means and N(N - 1)/2 correlations is proportional to N/L; however, estimation of N variances does not worsen the result. To reduce unhelpful sample size/dimensionality effects, we perform a clustering of N time series and split them into a small number of blocks. Each block is composed of mutually correlated ATSs. It generates an expert trading agent based on a nontrainable 1/N portfolio rule. To increase the diversity of the expert agents, we use training sets of different lengths for clustering. In the output of the portfolio management system, the regularized mean-variance framework-based fusion agent is developed in each walk-forward step of an out-of-sample portfolio validation experiment. Experiments with the real financial data (2003-2012) confirm the effectiveness of the suggested approach.

  14. Design of protein-responsive micro-sized hydrogels for self-regulating microfluidic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Mayu; Tsuruta, Kazuhiro; Kawamura, Akifumi; Ohara, Masayuki; Shoji, Kan; Kawano, Ryuji; Miyata, Takashi

    2018-03-01

    Diagnosis sensors using micro-total analysis systems (µ-TAS) have been developed for detecting target biomolecules such as proteins and saccharides because they are signal biomolecules for monitoring body conditions and diseases. In this study, biomolecularly stimuli-responsive micro-sized hydrogels that exhibited quick shrinkage in response to lectin concanavalinA (ConA) were prepared in a microchannel by photopolymerization using a fluorescence microscope. In preparing the micro-size hydrogels, glycosyloxyethyl methacrylate (GEMA) as a ligand monomer was copolymerized with a crosslinker in the presence of template ConA in molecular imprinting. The ConA-imprinted micro-hydrogel showed greater shrinkage in response to target ConA than nonimprinted micro-hydrogel. When a buffer solution was switched to an aqueous ConA solution in the Y-shaped microchannel, the flow rates changed quickly because of the responsive shrinkage of the micro-hydrogel prepared in the microchannel. These results suggest that the ConA-imprinted micro-hydrogel acted as a self-regulated microvalve in microfluidic systems.

  15. Excited-state quantum phase transitions in systems with two degrees of freedom: Level density, level dynamics, thermal properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stránský, Pavel; Macek, Michal; Cejnar, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Quantum systems with a finite number of freedom degrees f develop robust singularities in the energy spectrum of excited states as the system’s size increases to infinity. We analyze the general form of these singularities for low f, particularly f=2, clarifying the relation to classical stationary points of the corresponding potential. Signatures in the smoothed energy dependence of the quantum state density and in the flow of energy levels with an arbitrary control parameter are described along with the relevant thermodynamical consequences. The general analysis is illustrated with specific examples of excited-state singularities accompanying the first-order quantum phase transition. -- Highlights: •ESQPTs found in infinite-size limit of systems with low numbers of freedom degrees f. •ESQPTs related to non-analytical evolutions of classical phase–space properties. •ESQPT signatures analyzed for general f, particularly f=2, extending known case f=1. •ESQPT signatures identified in smoothened density and flow of energy spectrum. •ESQPTs shown to induce a new type of thermodynamic anomalies

  16. From street level to system level bureaucracies. How ICT is transforming administrative discretion and constitutional control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovens, M.A.P.; Zouridis, S.

    2002-01-01

    The use of ICT is rapidly changing the structure of a number of large executive public agencies. They used to be machine bureaucracies in which street level officials exercised ample administrative discretion in dealing with individual clients. This was kept in check by elaborate systems of external

  17. Breakdown of the few-level approximation in collective systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiffner, M.; Evers, J.; Keitel, C. H.

    2007-01-01

    The validity of the few-level approximation in dipole-dipole interacting collective systems is discussed. As an example system, we study the archetype case of two dipole-dipole interacting atoms, each modeled by two complete sets of angular momentum multiplets. We establish the breakdown of the few-level approximation by first proving the intuitive result that the dipole-dipole induced energy shifts between collective two-atom states depend on the length of the vector connecting the atoms, but not on its orientation, if complete and degenerate multiplets are considered. A careful analysis of our findings reveals that the simplification of the atomic level scheme by artificially omitting Zeeman sublevels in a few-level approximation generally leads to incorrect predictions. We find that this breakdown can be traced back to the dipole-dipole coupling of transitions with orthogonal dipole moments. Our interpretation enables us to identify special geometries in which partial few-level approximations to two- or three-level systems are valid

  18. Low-level radioactive waste treatment systems in northern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeblom, R.

    1987-08-01

    In the United States, the use of low-level waste (LLW) treatment systems by low level waste generators can be expected to expand with increasing costs for disposal and continuing uncertainty over the availability of disposal space. This development increases the need for performance information and operational data and has prompted the US Department of Energy to commission several compilations of LLW systems experience. The present paper summarizes some of the know-how from Northern Europe where the incentive for LLW treatment and volume reduction is very high since deposition space has not been available for many years. 65 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs

  19. Continuous liquid level monitoring sensor system using fiber Bragg grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Dipankar; Kishore, Putha

    2014-01-01

    The design and packaging of simple, small, and low cost sensor heads, used for continuous liquid level measurement using uniformly thinned (etched) optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG) are proposed. The sensor system consists of only an FBG and a simple detection system. The sensitivity of sensor is found to be 23 pm/cm of water column pressure. A linear optical fiber edge filter is designed and developed for the conversion of Bragg wavelength shift to its equivalent intensity. The result shows that relative power measured by a photo detector is linearly proportional to the liquid level. The obtained sensitivity of the sensor is nearly -15 mV/cm.

  20. The necessity of desalination technology for designing and sizing multi-loop aquaponics systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goddek, Simon; Keesman, Karel J.

    2018-01-01

    Providing both fish and plants with optimal environmental conditions is a classical problem in the field of aquaponics. Several studies have tackled this problem by decoupling fish and plant systems. However, in order to achieve both high nutrient levels for the plants and low nutrient and

  1. Carbon storage of different soil-size fractions in Florida silvopastoral systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haile, Solomon G; Nair, P K Ramachandran; Nair, Vimala D

    2008-01-01

    Compared with open (treeless) pasture systems, silvopastoral agroforestry systems that integrate trees into pasture production systems are likely to enhance soil carbon (C) sequestration in deeper soil layers. To test this hypothesis, total soil C contents at six soil depths (0-5, 5-15, 15-30, 30-50, 50-75, and 75-125 cm) were determined in silvopastoral systems with slash pine (Pinus elliottii) + bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum) and an adjacent open pasture (OP) with bahiagrass at four sites, representing Spodosols and Ultisols, in Florida. Soil samples from each layer were fractionated into three classes (250-2000, 53-250, and <53 microm), and the C contents in each were determined. Averaged across four sites and all depths, the total soil organic carbon (SOC) content was higher by 33% in silvopastures near trees (SP-T) and by 28% in the alleys between tree rows (SP-A) than in adjacent open pastures. It was higher by 39% in SP-A and 20% in SP-T than in open pastures in the largest fraction size (250-2000 microm) and by 12.3 and 18.8%, respectively, in the intermediate size fraction (53-250 microm). The highest SOC increase (up to 45 kg m(-2)) in whole soil of silvopasture compared with OP was at the 75- to 125-cm depth at the Spodosol sites. The results support the hypothesis that, compared with open pastures, silvopastures contain more C in deeper soil layers under similar ecological settings, possibly as a consequence of a major input to soil organic matter from decomposition of dead tree-roots.

  2. Grain size and shape analysis of the AD 1226 tephra layer, Reykjanes volcanic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ösp Magnúsdóttir, Agnes; Höskuldsson, Ármann; Larsen, Guðrún; Tumi Guðmunsson, Magnús; Sigurgeirsson, Magnús Á.

    2014-05-01

    Recent explosive eruptions in Iceland have drawn attention to long range tephra transport in the atmosphere. In Iceland tephra forming explosion eruptions are frequent, due to abundance of water. However, the volcanism on the island is principally basaltic. Volcanism along the Reykjanes Peninsula is divided into five distinct volcanic systems. Volcano-tectonic activity within these systems is periodic, with recurrence intervals in the range of 1 ka. Last volcano-tectonic sequence began around AD 940, shortly after settlement of Iceland, and lasted through AD 1340. During this period activity was characterized by basaltic fissure eruptions. Furthermore, this activity period on the Reykjanes peninsula began within the eastern most volcanic system and gradually moved towards the west across the peninsula. The 1226 eruption was a basaltic fissure eruption with in the Reykjanes volcanic system. The eruption began on land and gradually progressed towards the SW until the volcanic fissure extended into the sea. Water-magma interaction changed the eruption from effusive into explosive forming the largest tephra layer on the peninsula. Due to its close proximity to the Keflavik international airport and that of the capital of Iceland it is important to get an insight into, the characteristics, generation and distribution of such tephra deposits. In this eruption the tephra produced had an approximate volume of 0.1 km3 and covered an area of some 3500 km2 within the 0.5 cm isopach. Total grain size distribution of this tephra layer will be presented along with analysis of principal grain shapes of the finer portion of the tephra layer as a function of distance from the source. The tephra grain size is dominated by particles finer than 1 millimeter with an almost complete absence of large grains independent of distance from the source. Comprehensive understanding of the characteristics of tephra generated in this eruption can help us to understand hazards posed by future

  3. An optimization of robust SMES with specified structure H∞ controller for power system stabilization considering superconducting magnetic coil size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngamroo, Issarachai

    2011-01-01

    Even the superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) is the smart stabilizing device in electric power systems, the installation cost of SMES is very high. Especially, the superconducting magnetic coil size which is the critical part of SMES, must be well designed. On the contrary, various system operating conditions result in system uncertainties. The power controller of SMES designed without taking such uncertainties into account, may fail to stabilize the system. By considering both coil size and system uncertainties, this paper copes with the optimization of robust SMES controller. No need of exact mathematic equations, the normalized coprime factorization is applied to model system uncertainties. Based on the normalized integral square error index of inter-area rotor angle difference and specified structured H ∞ loop shaping optimization, the robust SMES controller with the smallest coil size, can be achieved by the genetic algorithm. The robustness of the proposed SMES with the smallest coil size can be confirmed by simulation study.

  4. A Multi Size-Level Assessment of Benthic Marine Communities in a Coastal Environment: Are They Different Sides of the Same Coin?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vannini, Claudia; Volpi, Marta; Lardicci, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Organism body size has been demonstrated to be a discriminating element in shaping the response of living beings to environmental factors, thus playing a fundamental role in community structuring. Despite the importance of studies elucidating relations among communities of different size levels...... have no (or very low) influence on the community composition at other size-levels. Moreover, each community responds in a different way to the environmental parameters and with a degree of sensitivity which seems to increase with organism size. Therefore, our data indicate that the characterization...... in ecosystems, the attempts that have been made in this sense are still very scarce and a reliable approach for these research still has to be defined. We characterized the benthic communities of bacteria, microbial eukaryotes, meiofauna and macrofauna in a coastal environment, encompassing a 10000-fold...

  5. Serum osteopontin and vitronectin levels in systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundogdu, Baris; Yolbas, Servet; Yilmaz, Musa; Aydin, Suleyman; Koca, Sulayman Serdar

    2017-11-01

    Osteopontin a matricellular protein has pro-fibrotic effects and binds integrin such as αvβ1 and αvβ3. Vitronectin is one of the integrin αvβ3 ligands and is a multifunctional glycoprotein. The aim of the present study was to evaluate serum osteopontin and vitronectin levels in a cohort of patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). Eighty-six patients with SSc, 46 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and 38 healthy controls (HC) were enrolled in the study. Serum osteopontin, vitronectin, IL-6, and TGF-β levels were analyzed. Serum osteopontin levels were higher in the SSc and SLE groups compared to the HC group (p < 0.01 and p < 0.001, respectively). However, it was not correlated with disease activity and severity scores in the SSc group. On the other hand, serum vitronectin levels were lower in the SSc group than in the SLE and HC groups (p < 0.001 for both). These results may suggest that osteopontin levels may be increased due to the inflammatory process and osteopontin has not a specific role on fibrosis in SSc. On the other hand, serum vitronectin levels decrease in SSc in contrast to SLE. It may be concluded that the one cause of decreased serum vitronectin levels in SSc may be its accumulation in fibrotic area.

  6. Variability of mass-size relationships in tropical Mesoscale Convective Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Emmanuel; Leroy, Delphine; Delanoë, Julien; Dupuy, Régis; Lilie, Lyle; Strapp, Walter; Protat, Alain; Schwarzenböeck, Alfons

    2015-04-01

    The mass of individual ice hydrometeors in Mesoscale Convective Systems (MCS) has been investigated in the past using different methods in order to retrieve power law type mass-size relationships m(D) with m = α D^β. This study focuses on the variability of mass-size relationships in different types of MCS. Three types of tropical MCS were sampled during different airborne campaigns: (i) continental MCS during the West African monsoon (Megha-Tropique 2010), (ii) oceanic MCS over the Indian Ocean (Megha-Tropique 2011), and (iii) coastal MCS during the North-Australian monsoon (HAIC-HIWC). Mass-size relationships of ice hydrometeors are derived from a combined analysis of particle images from 2D-array probes and associated reflectivity factors measured with a Doppler cloud radar (94GHz) on the same research aircraft. A theoretical study of numerous hydrometeor shapes simulated in 3D and arbitrarily projected on a 2D plan allowed to constrain the exponent β of the m(D) relationship as a function of the derived surface-diameter relationship S(D), which is likewise written as a power law. Since S(D) always can be determined for real data from 2D optical array probes or other particle imagers, the evolution of the m(D) exponent β can be calculated along the flight trajectory. Then the pre-factor α of m(D) is constrained from theoretical simulations of the radar reflectivity factor matching the measured reflectivity factor along the aircraft trajectory. Finally, the Condensed Water Content (CWC) is deduced from measured particle size distributions (PSD) and retrieved m(D) relationships along the flight trajectory. Solely for the HAIC-HIWC campaign (North Australian Monsoon) a bulk reference measurement (IKP instrument) of high CWC could be performed in order to compare with the above described CWC deduced from ice hydrometeor images and reflectivity factors. Both CWC are coherent. Mean profiles of m(D) coefficients, PSD, and CWC are calculated as a function of the

  7. Mixing phases of unstable two-level systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, V.V.; Brentano, P. von.

    1993-01-01

    An unstable two-level system decaying into an arbitrary number of channels is considered. It is shown that the mixing phases of the two overlapping resonances can be expressed in the terms of their partial widths and one additional universal mixing parameter. Some applications to a doublet of 2 + resonances in 8 Be and to the ρ-ω systems are considered. 18 refs

  8. Simulating the DIRCM engagement: component and system level performance

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Willers, CJ

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available , spectrally matched, pyrophoric. Jammers with arc lamps and steered (directional) beams. Early directional laser beams: soft- kill - jamming & dazzling. Single head, complex gimbals. Advanced direction- al laser beams: hard kill - power levels cause damage... countermeasures (DIRCM), employing high power lamps or lasers as sources of infrared energy. The larger aircraft self-protection scenario, comprising the missile, aircraft and DIRCM hardware is a complex system. In this system, each component presents major...

  9. Classical Information Storage in an n-Level Quantum System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenkel, Péter E.; Weiner, Mihály

    2015-12-01

    A game is played by a team of two—say Alice and Bob—in which the value of a random variable x is revealed to Alice only, who cannot freely communicate with Bob. Instead, she is given a quantum n-level system, respectively a classical n-state system, which she can put in possession of Bob in any state she wishes. We evaluate how successfully they managed to store and recover the value of x by requiring Bob to specify a value z and giving a reward of value f ( x, z) to the team. We show that whatever the probability distribution of x and the reward function f are, when using a quantum n-level system, the maximum expected reward obtainable with the best possible team strategy is equal to that obtainable with the use of a classical n-state system. The proof relies on mixed discriminants of positive matrices and—perhaps surprisingly—an application of the Supply-Demand Theorem for bipartite graphs. As a corollary, we get an infinite set of new, dimension dependent inequalities regarding positive operator valued measures and density operators on complex n-space. As a further corollary, we see that the greatest value, with respect to a given distribution of x, of the mutual information I ( x; z) that is obtainable using an n-level quantum system equals the analogous maximum for a classical n-state system.

  10. Levels of Business to Business E-Commerce Adoption and Competitive Advantage in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: A Comparison Study Between Egypt and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Elbeltagi, I; Hamad, H; Moizer, J; Abou-Shouk, M

    2016-01-01

    Business-to-business e-commerce adoption has become increasingly important for small and medium-sized enterprises, allowing them to gain and sustain competitive advantage. Business-to-business adopted at different levels based on different resource endowments leads to competitive advantage being gained and sustained in proportion to that level of adoption. This study uses structural equation modeling to investigate how levels of business-to-business e-commerce adoption affects and contributes...

  11. System level permeability modeling of porous hydrogen storage materials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanouff, Michael P.; Dedrick, Daniel E.; Voskuilen, Tyler (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN)

    2010-01-01

    A permeability model for hydrogen transport in a porous material is successfully applied to both laboratory-scale and vehicle-scale sodium alanate hydrogen storage systems. The use of a Knudsen number dependent relationship for permeability of the material in conjunction with a constant area fraction channeling model is shown to accurately predict hydrogen flow through the reactors. Generally applicable model parameters were obtained by numerically fitting experimental measurements from reactors of different sizes and aspect ratios. The degree of channeling was experimentally determined from the measurements and found to be 2.08% of total cross-sectional area. Use of this constant area channeling model and the Knudsen dependent Young & Todd permeability model allows for accurate prediction of the hydrogen uptake performance of full-scale sodium alanate and similar metal hydride systems.

  12. Size and Velocity Distributions of Particles and Droplets in Spray Combustion Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-11-01

    34Particle Sizing by Optical , Nonimaging Techniques," Liquid Particle Size _Mjur-mentTechnjgjwi, ASTM publications STP848, ed. by J. MI. Tishkoff, R. D... Optical Nonimaging predictions do not account for nonideal lens effects. Techniques," in Liquid Particle Size Measurement Techniques, J.M.Tishkoff, ed...4S E. Dan Hirleman’ Particle Sizing by Optical , Nonimaging Techniques REFERENCE: Hieleman, E. D., "Particle Sizing by Optical , Nonimaging Tech- niques

  13. Formal Development and Verification of Railway Control Systems - In the context of ERTMS/ETCS Level 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu, Linh Hong

    This dissertation presents a holistic, formal method for efficient modelling and verification of safety-critical railway control systems that have product line characteristics, i.e., each individual system is constructed by instantiating common generic applications with concrete configuration dat...... standardized railway control systems ERTMS/ETCS Level 2. Experiments showed that the method can be used for specification, verification and validation of systems of industrial size....

  14. Break of slope in earthquake size distribution and creep rate along the San Andreas Fault system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shebalin, P.; Narteau, C.; Vorobieva, I.

    2017-12-01

    Crustal faults accommodate slip either by a succession of earthquakes or continuous slip, andin most instances, both these seismic and aseismic processes coexist. Recorded seismicity and geodeticmeasurements are therefore two complementary data sets that together document ongoing deformationalong active tectonic structures. Here we study the influence of stable sliding on earthquake statistics.We show that creep along the San Andreas Fault is responsible for a break of slope in the earthquake sizedistribution. This slope increases with an increasing creep rate for larger magnitude ranges, whereas itshows no systematic dependence on creep rate for smaller magnitude ranges. This is interpreted as a deficitof large events under conditions of faster creep where seismic ruptures are less likely to propagate. Theseresults suggest that the earthquake size distribution does not only depend on the level of stress but also onthe type of deformation.

  15. Sustainable transportation according to certification systems: A viability analysis based on neighborhood size and context relevance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouda, Amr Ah.; Masoumi, Houshmand E.

    2017-01-01

    Urban sustainability certification (USC) systems comprehensively assess and benchmark the sustainability of neighborhoods, communities, etc. However, it is important to understand what USCs mean by neighborhoods and communities in terms of definition and their certified developments' size. This study focuses on sustainable transportation and its measures in USCs in order to discern: how relevant are these measures to the varied local conditions, especially in developing countries? And whether they can generate palpable benefits vis-à-vis the certified developments' site areas. Taking descriptive analysis methods, this study focuses on four prominent USCs, namely, LEED for Neighborhood Development, BREEAM Communities, CASBEE for Urban Development, and The Pearl Community Rating System. The four USCs prescribed multiple measures for sustainable transportation, particularly in favor of active transportation and public transportation. However, the relatively small size of their citified developments and the varying transportation conditions among different contexts attenuate the viability and relevance of the advocated measures for both modes. In order to yield more benefits, USCs should underscore the integrative nature of neighborhoods and communities, and transportation within their prescribed criteria and measures. Moreover, sustainable transportation as a theme should be tailored to the local conditions rather than being adopted or adapted from global USCs. - Highlights: • Transportation measures in four prominent certification systems were investigated. • Most certified neighborhoods, communities and developments have small site areas. • Certifications are insensitive to realities of transport in developing countries. • Benefits from advocating active transport only within certified areas are minimal. • Certifications devalue the integrative nature of neighborhoods and transportation.

  16. Sustainable transportation according to certification systems: A viability analysis based on neighborhood size and context relevance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gouda, Amr Ah., E-mail: amr.gouda@eng.asu.edu.eg [Center for Technology and Society, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstr, 16-18, Berlin 10623 (Germany); Architecture Department, Faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams University, 1 Sarayat St., Abassia, Cairo (Egypt); Masoumi, Houshmand E. [Center for Technology and Society, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstr, 16-18, Berlin 10623 (Germany)

    2017-03-15

    Urban sustainability certification (USC) systems comprehensively assess and benchmark the sustainability of neighborhoods, communities, etc. However, it is important to understand what USCs mean by neighborhoods and communities in terms of definition and their certified developments' size. This study focuses on sustainable transportation and its measures in USCs in order to discern: how relevant are these measures to the varied local conditions, especially in developing countries? And whether they can generate palpable benefits vis-à-vis the certified developments' site areas. Taking descriptive analysis methods, this study focuses on four prominent USCs, namely, LEED for Neighborhood Development, BREEAM Communities, CASBEE for Urban Development, and The Pearl Community Rating System. The four USCs prescribed multiple measures for sustainable transportation, particularly in favor of active transportation and public transportation. However, the relatively small size of their citified developments and the varying transportation conditions among different contexts attenuate the viability and relevance of the advocated measures for both modes. In order to yield more benefits, USCs should underscore the integrative nature of neighborhoods and communities, and transportation within their prescribed criteria and measures. Moreover, sustainable transportation as a theme should be tailored to the local conditions rather than being adopted or adapted from global USCs. - Highlights: • Transportation measures in four prominent certification systems were investigated. • Most certified neighborhoods, communities and developments have small site areas. • Certifications are insensitive to realities of transport in developing countries. • Benefits from advocating active transport only within certified areas are minimal. • Certifications devalue the integrative nature of neighborhoods and transportation.

  17. Design of safeguards information treatment system at the facility level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Dae Yong; Lee, Byung Doo; Kwack, Eun Ho; Choi, Young Myong

    2001-05-01

    We are developing Safeguards Information Treatment System at the facility level(SITS) to manage synthetically safeguards information and to implement efficiently the obligations under the Korea-IAEA Safeguards Agreement, bilateral agreements with other countries and domestic law. In this report, we described the contents of the detailed design of SITS such as database, I/O layout and program. In the present, we are implementing the SITS based on the contents of the design of SITS, and then we plan to provide the system for the facilities after we finish implementing and testing the system.

  18. Design of safeguards information treatment system at the facility level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Dae Yong; Lee, Byung Doo; Kwack, Eun Ho; Choi, Young Myong

    2001-05-01

    We are developing Safeguards Information Treatment System at the facility level(SITS) to manage synthetically safeguards information and to implement efficiently the obligations under the Korea-IAEA Safeguards Agreement, bilateral agreements with other countries and domestic law. In this report, we described the contents of the detailed design of SITS such as database, I/O layout and program. In the present, we are implementing the SITS based on the contents of the design of SITS, and then we plan to provide the system for the facilities after we finish implementing and testing the system

  19. An intermediate level of abstraction for computational systems chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jakob L.; Flamm, Christoph; Merkle, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    system, well grounded in category theory, at the right level of abstraction for the analysis of large and complex reaction networks. An extension of the basic formalism into the realm of integer hyperflows allows for the identification of complex reaction patterns, such as autocatalysis, in large...

  20. Greenhouse effect, sea level rise, and coastal drainage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titus, J G; Kuo, C Y; Gibbs, M J; LaRoche, T B; Webb, M K; Waddell, J O

    1987-01-01

    Increasing concentrations of carbon dioxide and other gases are expected to warm the earth several degrees in the next century, which would raise sea level a few feet and alter precipitation patterns. Both of these changes would have major impacts on the operation of coastal drainage systems. However, because sea level rise and climate change resulting from the greenhouse effect are still uncertain, most planners and engineers are ignoring the potential implications. Case studies of the potential impact on watersheds in Charleston, South Carolina, and Fort Walton Beach, Florida, suggest that the cost of designing a new system to accommodate a rise in sea level will sometimes be small compared with the retrofit cost that may ultimately be necessary if new systems are not designed for a rise. Rather than ignore the greenhouse effect until its consequences are firmly established, engineers and planners should evaluate whether it would be worthwhile to insure that new systems are not vulnerable to the risks of climate change and sea level rise.