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Sample records for level-1 psa computer

  1. Improvement of level-1 PSA computer code package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Woon; Park, C. K.; Kim, K. Y.; Han, S. H.; Jung, W. D.; Chang, S. C.; Yang, J. E.; Sung, T. Y.; Kang, D. I.; Park, J. H.; Lee, Y. H.; Kim, S. H.; Hwang, M. J.; Choi, S. Y.

    1997-07-01

    This year the fifth (final) year of the phase-I of the Government-sponsored Mid- and Long-term Nuclear Power Technology Development Project. The scope of this subproject titled on `The improvement of level-1 PSA Computer Codes` is divided into two main activities : (1) improvement of level-1 PSA methodology, (2) development of applications methodology of PSA techniques to operations and maintenance of nuclear power plant. Level-1 PSA code KIRAP is converted to PC-Windows environment. For the improvement of efficiency in performing PSA, the fast cutset generation algorithm and an analytical technique for handling logical loop in fault tree modeling are developed. Using about 30 foreign generic data sources, generic component reliability database (GDB) are developed considering dependency among source data. A computer program which handles dependency among data sources are also developed based on three stage bayesian updating technique. Common cause failure (CCF) analysis methods are reviewed and CCF database are established. Impact vectors can be estimated from this CCF database. A computer code, called MPRIDP, which handles CCF database are also developed. A CCF analysis reflecting plant-specific defensive strategy against CCF event is also performed. A risk monitor computer program, called Risk Monster, are being developed for the application to the operation and maintenance of nuclear power plant. The PSA application technique is applied to review the feasibility study of on-line maintenance and to the prioritization of in-service test (IST) of motor-operated valves (MOV). Finally, the root cause analysis (RCA) and reliability-centered maintenance (RCM) technologies are adopted and applied to the improvement of reliability of emergency diesel generators (EDG) of nuclear power plant. To help RCA and RCM analyses, two software programs are developed, which are EPIS and RAM Pro. (author). 129 refs., 20 tabs., 60 figs.

  2. Improvement of level-1 PSA computer code package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Woon; Park, C. K.; Kim, K. Y.; Han, S. H.; Jung, W. D.; Chang, S. C.; Yang, J. E.; Sung, T. Y.; Kang, D. I.; Park, J. H.; Lee, Y. H.; Kim, S. H.; Hwang, M. J.; Choi, S. Y.

    1997-07-01

    This year the fifth (final) year of the phase-I of the Government-sponsored Mid- and Long-term Nuclear Power Technology Development Project. The scope of this subproject titled on 'The improvement of level-1 PSA Computer Codes' is divided into two main activities : 1) improvement of level-1 PSA methodology, 2) development of applications methodology of PSA techniques to operations and maintenance of nuclear power plant. Level-1 PSA code KIRAP is converted to PC-Windows environment. For the improvement of efficiency in performing PSA, the fast cutset generation algorithm and an analytical technique for handling logical loop in fault tree modeling are developed. Using about 30 foreign generic data sources, generic component reliability database (GDB) are developed considering dependency among source data. A computer program which handles dependency among data sources are also developed based on three stage bayesian updating technique. Common cause failure (CCF) analysis methods are reviewed and CCF database are established. Impact vectors can be estimated from this CCF database. A computer code, called MPRIDP, which handles CCF database are also developed. A CCF analysis reflecting plant-specific defensive strategy against CCF event is also performed. A risk monitor computer program, called Risk Monster, are being developed for the application to the operation and maintenance of nuclear power plant. The PSA application technique is applied to review the feasibility study of on-line maintenance and to the prioritization of in-service test (IST) of motor-operated valves (MOV). Finally, the root cause analysis (RCA) and reliability-centered maintenance (RCM) technologies are adopted and applied to the improvement of reliability of emergency diesel generators (EDG) of nuclear power plant. To help RCA and RCM analyses, two software programs are developed, which are EPIS and RAM Pro. (author). 129 refs., 20 tabs., 60 figs

  3. Improvement of Level-1 PSA computer code package -A study for nuclear safety improvement-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chang Kyu; Kim, Tae Woon; Ha, Jae Joo; Han, Sang Hoon; Cho, Yeong Kyun; Jeong, Won Dae; Jang, Seung Cheol; Choi, Young; Seong, Tae Yong; Kang, Dae Il; Hwang, Mi Jeong; Choi, Seon Yeong; An, Kwang Il

    1994-07-01

    This year is the second year of the Government-sponsored Mid- and Long-Term Nuclear Power Technology Development Project. The scope of this subproject titled on 'The Improvement of Level-1 PSA Computer Codes' is divided into three main activities : (1) Methodology development on the under-developed fields such as risk assessment technology for plant shutdown and external events, (2) Computer code package development for Level-1 PSA, (3) Applications of new technologies to reactor safety assessment. At first, in the area of PSA methodology development, foreign PSA reports on shutdown and external events have been reviewed and various PSA methodologies have been compared. Level-1 PSA code KIRAP and CCF analysis code COCOA are converted from KOS to Windows. Human reliability database has been also established in this year. In the area of new technology applications, fuzzy set theory and entropy theory are used to estimate component life and to develop a new measure of uncertainty importance. Finally, in the field of application study of PSA technique to reactor regulation, a strategic study to develop a dynamic risk management tool PEPSI and the determination of inspection and test priority of motor operated valves based on risk importance worths have been studied. (Author)

  4. Research on the improvement of nuclear safety -Improvement of level 1 PSA computer code package-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chang Kyoo; Kim, Tae Woon; Kim, Kil Yoo; Han, Sang Hoon; Jung, Won Dae; Jang, Seung Chul; Yang, Joon Un; Choi, Yung; Sung, Tae Yong; Son, Yung Suk; Park, Won Suk; Jung, Kwang Sub; Kang Dae Il; Park, Jin Heui; Hwang, Mi Jung; Hah, Jae Joo

    1995-07-01

    This year is the third year of the Government-sponsored mid- and long-term nuclear power technology development project. The scope of this sub project titled on 'The improvement of level-1 PSA computer codes' is divided into three main activities : (1) Methodology development on the underdeveloped fields such as risk assessment technology for plant shutdown and low power situations, (2) Computer code package development for level-1 PSA, (3) Applications of new technologies to reactor safety assessment. At first, in this area of shutdown risk assessment technology development, plant outage experiences of domestic plants are reviewed and plant operating states (POS) are decided. A sample core damage frequency is estimated for over draining event in RCS low water inventory i.e. mid-loop operation. Human reliability analysis and thermal hydraulic support analysis are identified to be needed to reduce uncertainty. Two design improvement alternatives are evaluated using PSA technique for mid-loop operation situation: one is use of containment spray system as backup of shutdown cooling system and the other is installation of two independent level indication system. Procedure change is identified more preferable option to hardware modification in the core damage frequency point of view. Next, level-1 PSA code KIRAP is converted to PC-windows environment. For the improvement of efficiency in performing PSA, the fast cutest generation algorithm and an analytical technique for handling logical loop in fault tree modeling are developed. 48 figs, 15 tabs, 59 refs. (Author)

  5. Research on the improvement of nuclear safety -Improvement of level 1 PSA computer code package-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chang Kyoo; Kim, Tae Woon; Kim, Kil Yoo; Han, Sang Hoon; Jung, Won Dae; Jang, Seung Chul; Yang, Joon Un; Choi, Yung; Sung, Tae Yong; Son, Yung Suk; Park, Won Suk; Jung, Kwang Sub; Kang Dae Il; Park, Jin Heui; Hwang, Mi Jung; Hah, Jae Joo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    This year is the third year of the Government-sponsored mid- and long-term nuclear power technology development project. The scope of this sub project titled on `The improvement of level-1 PSA computer codes` is divided into three main activities : (1) Methodology development on the underdeveloped fields such as risk assessment technology for plant shutdown and low power situations, (2) Computer code package development for level-1 PSA, (3) Applications of new technologies to reactor safety assessment. At first, in this area of shutdown risk assessment technology development, plant outage experiences of domestic plants are reviewed and plant operating states (POS) are decided. A sample core damage frequency is estimated for over draining event in RCS low water inventory i.e. mid-loop operation. Human reliability analysis and thermal hydraulic support analysis are identified to be needed to reduce uncertainty. Two design improvement alternatives are evaluated using PSA technique for mid-loop operation situation: one is use of containment spray system as backup of shutdown cooling system and the other is installation of two independent level indication system. Procedure change is identified more preferable option to hardware modification in the core damage frequency point of view. Next, level-1 PSA code KIRAP is converted to PC-windows environment. For the improvement of efficiency in performing PSA, the fast cutest generation algorithm and an analytical technique for handling logical loop in fault tree modeling are developed. 48 figs, 15 tabs, 59 refs. (Author).

  6. Improvement of level-1 PSA computer code package - Modeling and analysis for dynamic reliability of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Hoon; Baek, Sang Yeup; Shin, In Sup; Moon, Shin Myung; Moon, Jae Phil; Koo, Hoon Young; Kim, Ju Shin [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Jung Sik [Seoul National Polytechnology University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Tae Jin [Soongsil University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-08-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a methodology of the dynamic reliability analysis for NPP. The first year`s research was focused on developing a procedure for analyzing failure data of running components and a simulator for estimating the reliability of series-parallel structures. The second year`s research was concentrated on estimating the lifetime distribution and PM effect of a component from its failure data in various cases, and the lifetime distribution of a system with a particular structure. Computer codes for performing these jobs were also developed. The objectives of the third year`s research is to develop models for analyzing special failure types (CCFs, Standby redundant structure) that were nor considered in the first two years, and to complete a methodology of the dynamic reliability analysis for nuclear power plants. The analysis of failure data of components and related researches for supporting the simulator must be preceded for providing proper input to the simulator. Thus this research is divided into three major parts. 1. Analysis of the time dependent life distribution and the PM effect. 2. Development of a simulator for system reliability analysis. 3. Related researches for supporting the simulator : accelerated simulation analytic approach using PH-type distribution, analysis for dynamic repair effects. 154 refs., 5 tabs., 87 figs. (author)

  7. Results of level 1 PSA in Trillo 1 NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, F.; Lopez, C.

    1998-01-01

    In July 1991, C. N. Trillo I was requested by the Spanish Regulatory Body (CSN) to perform a PSA that should include: - Level 1 PSA at power - Internal flooding analysis - Level 2 PSA including containment capacity analysis. - External event analyses (fires, external flooding, seismic events and other external events) - Risk analysis for off power conditions (shutdown and low power) - Risk analysis due to other sources of radioactivity In 1992 the Project Plan was issued and the PSA team for the performance of Level 1 PSA was established. Before finishing the Project, it was decided to develop a Phase B to take into account some important modifications that had been accomplished in the Plant and that, probably, could affect the results. Level 1 PSA was finished in March 1998. Both the results of the study and the main conclusions derived from the importance, uncertainty and sensibility analysis performed are presented in this paper. These results de not include the internal flooding analysis conclusions and correspond to PSA revision 0 that is currently being evaluated by the Spanish Regulatory Body. (Author)

  8. Regulatory review of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) level 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-02-01

    Probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) is increasingly being used as part of the decision making process to assess the level of safety of nuclear power plants. The methodologies in use are maturing and the insights gained from the PSAs are being used along with those from the deterministic analysis. Many regulatory authorities consider that the current state of the art in PSA (especially Level 1 PSA) is sufficiently well developed that it can be used centrally in the regulatory decision making process - referred to as 'risk informed regulation'. For these applications to be successful, it will be necessary for regulatory authorities to have a high degree of confidence in PSA. However, at the IAEA Technical Committee Meeting on Use of PSA in the Regulatory Process in 1994 and at the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency Committee for Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA) 'Special Issues' Meeting in 1997 on Review Procedures and Criteria for Different Regulatory Applications of PSA, it was recognized that formal regulatory review guidance for PSA did not exist. The senior regulators noted that there was a need to produce some international guidance for reviewing PSAs to establish an agreed basis for assessing whether important technological and methodological issues in PSAs are treated adequately and to verify that conclusions reached are appropriate. In 1997 the IAEA and OECD Nuclear Energy Agency agreed to produce in co-operation a technical document on the regulatory review of PSA. This publication is intended to provide guidance to regulatory authorities on how to review the PSA for a nuclear power plant to gain confidence that it has been carried out to an acceptable standard so that it can be used as the basis for taking risk informed decisions within a regulatory decision making process. The document gives guidance on how to set about reviewing a PSA and on the technical issues that need to be addressed. This publication gives guidance for the review of Level 1 PSA for

  9. IC modelling in the IRSN EPR level 1 PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delache, J.

    2012-01-01

    Today in France, an EPR (European Pressurized Water Reactor) Unit is under construction at the Flamanville site. The creation authorization was granted in April 2007 and the plant commissioning is planned for 2012. The plant operator (EDF) provided for the construction license several PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment) studies. IRSN, as TSO (Technical Safety Organisation), wishes to dispose of the appropriate knowledge and tools for the independent verification of the operator studies and so developed its own model of PSA level 1. The goal is not to rebuild the plant operator PSA (with a full scope...) but to dispose of a simplified model able to clearly point out specific important issues. In the IRSN model a particular effort has recently been done on the Digital IC modelling. The IC (Instrumentation and Control) is modelled in the IRSN EPR PSA by using Fault Trees. Instead, EDF EPR PSA applies the COMPACT model to simplify the command and instrumentation logics. The IRSN model is more detailed in order to be more accurate in the global analysis of the Digital IC. For instance the communication ways between automates are considered as well as the failure of support systems. The model is still under development mainly in order to define the CCF (Common Cause Failure) which may be considered. (authors)

  10. Development of the Level 1 PSA Model for PGSFR Regulatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Hyun Ju; Lee, Yong Suk; Shin, Andong; Suh, Nam Duk

    2014-01-01

    SFR (sodium-cooled fast reactor) is Gen-IV nuclear energy system, which is designed for stability, sustainability and proliferation resistance. KALIMER-600 and PGSFR (Prototype Gen-IV SFR) are under development in Korea with enhanced passive safety concepts, e.g. passive reactor shutdown, passive residual heat removal, and etc. Risk analysis from a regulatory perspective is necessary for regulatory body to support the safety and licensing review of SFR. Safety issues should be identified in the early design phase in order to prevent the unexpected cost increase and the delay of PGSFR licensing schedule. In this respect, the preliminary PSA Model of KALIMER-600 had been developed for regulatory. In this study, the development of PSA Level 1 Model is presented. The important impact factors in the risk analysis for the PGSFR, such as Core Damage Frequency (CDF), have been identified and the related safety insights have been derived. The PSA level 1 model for PGSFR regulatory is developed and the risk analysis is conducted. Regarding CDF, LOISF frequency, uncertainty parameter for passive system CCF, loss of 125V DC control center bus and damper CCF are identified as the important factors. Sensitivity analyses show that the CDF would be differentiated (lowered) according to their values

  11. Upgrade of internal events PSA model using the AESJ level-1 PSA standard for operating state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Teruyoshi; Yoneyama, Mitsuru; Hirokawa, Naoki; Sato, Chikahiro; Sato, Eisuke; Tomizawa, Shigeatsu

    2009-01-01

    In 2003, the Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ) started to develop the Level-1 Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) standard of internal events for operating state (AESJ standard). The AESJ standard has been finished to be asked for public comment. Using the AESJ standard (draft version), the authors have upgraded the PSA model for Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) BWR-5 plant not only to reflect latest knowledge but also to ensure high quality of PSA model (not yet peer-reviewed) for the purpose of better operation and maintenance management of TEPCO BWR plants. For example, the categorization of structures, systems and components (SSCs) will be performed to improve nuclear reactor safety using information of risk importance. (author)

  12. Towards a PSA harmonization French-Belgian comparison of the level 1 PSA for two similar PWR types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuy, P.; Corenwinder, F.; Lanore, J.M.; Gryffroy, D.; Gelder, P. de; Hulsmans, M.

    2002-06-01

    In the framework of the cooperation between French and Belgian regulatory authorities, a PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment) comparison exercise has been carried out for several years. This comparison deals with two PSA level 1 studies for internal events, performed for both power and shutdown states: the French PSA of the 900 MWe-series PWR, and the Belgian PSA of the Tihange 1 PWR, which both concern PWRs with a similar Framatome design. The purpose of this paper is to describe the PSA comparison methodology and to present, in a qualitative way, an overview of the insights obtained up to now. It also shows that such an 'a posteriori' benchmark exercise turns out to be a step towards PSA harmonization, and gives more confidence in the results of plant specific PSA when used for applications like precursor analysis or evaluations of importance to safety. (authors)

  13. Benchmark exercises on PWR level-1 PSA (step 3). Analyses of accident sequence and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niwa, Yuji; Takahashi, Hideaki.

    1996-01-01

    The results of level 1 PSA generate fluctuations due to the assumptions based on several engineering judgements set in the stages of PSA analysis. On the purpose of the investigation of uncertainties due to assumptions, three kinds of a standard problem, what we call benchmark exercise have been set. In this report, sensitivity studies (benchmark exercise) of sequence analyses are treated and conclusions are mentioned. The treatment of inter-system dependency would generate uncertainly of PSA. In addition, as a conclusion of the PSA benchmark exercise, several findings in the sequence analysis together with previous benchmark analyses in earlier INSS Journals are treated. (author)

  14. Level 1 PSA study of Mochovce unit 1 NPP (SM AA 10 and 08)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cillik, I.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents genesis of Level 1 PSA project preparation for all operational modes of Mochovce NPP unit 1 including the description of its' main objectives, scope and working method. The PSA study which includes full power (FPSA) as well as shutdown and low power conditions (SPSA) Level 1 PSA has to support the nuclear safety improvements of the unit. They evaluate the basic design and the benefits of all improvements, which were found necessary to be incorporated before the start-up of the unit. The study includes internal events (transients and under-loss of coolant accident, LOCAs), internal hazards as fires and floods and selected external hazards as earthquake, influence of external industry, extreme meteorological conditions and aircraft crash.The PSA (both FPSA and SPSA) models is developed using the RISK SPECTRUM PSA code. (author)

  15. Level-1 PSA to support the design of the KALIMER-600 Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Sang Hoon; Kim, Tae-Woon; Jeong, Hae-Yong; Han, Seok Joong; Ahn, Kwang-Il; Yang, Joon-Eon

    2012-01-01

    A sodium-cooled fast reactor, KALIMER-600, is under development. Its fuel is the metal fuel of U-TRU-Zr and it uses sodium as a coolant. KALIMER-600 has passive safety features such as passive shutdown functions, passive pump coast-down features, and passive decay heat removal systems. It has inherent reactivity feedback effects. The probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) will be one of the initiating subjects for designing KALIMER-600 from the aspects of risk informed design. A preliminary level-1 internal full power PSA has been performed to evaluate the safety level and its applicability for the KALIMER-600 conceptual design. Various design alternatives are evaluated from the viewpoint of PSA in order to support the design of the KALIMER-600. Sensitivity studies are also performed to evaluate the assumptions made for the PSA. The applicability and weakness of the KALIMER-600 PSA are discussed. The technical issues to be solved in performing the PSA will be discussed. (authors)

  16. Application of PSA level 1 for the Fugen prototype ATR plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, H.; Iguchi, Y.; Sotsu, M.; Seki, O.; Satou, S.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents application of PSA Level-1 for Prototype Advanced Thermal Reactor Plant ''Fugen'' in consideration of the design characteristics of such reactor and verify the safety aspect of Fugen using thus established procedure, ATR resembles the boiling water reactor (BWR) in a number of points, but there are also some differences between the ATR and the BWR. Therefore. PSA procedure have been established by taking such difference into consideration and by referring to experience of PSA in USA and Japan. Moreover, the core damage frequency was calculated on Fugen by using thus established procedure. As a result, it was verified that results including the maximum value of the uncertainty estimation were found to be quite satisfactory against the target value of reactor damage frequency defined by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). (author)

  17. Multi-Unit Initiating Event Analysis for a Single-Unit Internal Events Level 1 PSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong San; Park, Jin Hee; Lim, Ho Gon [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The Fukushima nuclear accident in 2011 highlighted the importance of considering the risks from multi-unit accidents at a site. The ASME/ANS probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) standard also includes some requirements related to multi-unit aspects, one of which (IE-B5) is as follows: 'For multi-unit sites with shared systems, DO NOT SUBSUME multi-unit initiating events if they impact mitigation capability [1].' However, the existing single-unit PSA models do not explicitly consider multi-unit initiating events and hence systems shared by multiple units (e.g., alternate AC diesel generator) are fully credited for the single unit and ignores the need for the shared systems by other units at the same site [2]. This paper describes the results of the multi-unit initiating event (IE) analysis performed as a part of the at-power internal events Level 1 probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) for an OPR1000 single unit ('reference unit'). In this study, a multi-unit initiating event analysis for a single-unit PSA was performed, and using the results, dual-unit LOOP initiating event was added to the existing PSA model for the reference unit (OPR1000 type). Event trees were developed for dual-unit LOOP and dual-unit SBO which can be transferred from dual- unit LOOP. Moreover, CCF basic events for 5 diesel generators were modelled. In case of simultaneous SBO occurrences in both units, this study compared two different assumptions on the availability of the AAC D/G. As a result, when dual-unit LOOP initiating event was added to the existing single-unit PSA model, the total CDF increased by 1∼ 2% depending on the probability that the AAC D/G is available to a specific unit in case of simultaneous SBO in both units.

  18. External hazards analysis approach to level 1 PSA of Mochovce NPP - Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stojka, Tibor

    2000-01-01

    Analyses of external events had been first time performed at the design stage of the Mochovce NPP showing sufficiently low contribution of external hazards to core damage frequency. But, based on IAEA document 'Safety problems of WWER-440/213 NPPs and the categorization' (IAEA-EBP-WWER-03, 1996), the need of new reassessment arose due to discrepancy of some origin recommendations in compare with present IAEA ones. Mochovce NPP Nuclear Safety Improvements Program elaborated at the same time included the IAEA recommendations and following improvements were proposed to perform in context of external events. 1. Seismic project and new locality seismic evaluation This safety improvement includes also some 'on site' technical improvements in seismic stability of structures and equipment. 2. Unit specific analyses of extreme meteorologic conditions. This safety improvement focuses on impact of feasible extreme conditions on NPP systems caused by rain, snow and hail storms, frost, winds, low and high temperatures. 3. Analyses of external hazards caused by humans. In this safety improvement were specified: feasible sources of explosions; analyses of hydrogen, gas and propane-calor gas depots; air crash risk. The results of these implemented safety improvements were considered in the PSA study. The External hazards analysis is also part of Level 1 PSA Mochovce NPP performed by PSA Department of VUJE Trnava Inc., Engineering, Design and Research Organization, Slovakia. Some partial analyses are performed in cooperation with following companies DS and S - SAIC, USA and Geophysical Institute Academy of Science, Slovakia Relko, Slovakia. Basic documents are: NUREG/CR-2300 'PRA Procedures Guide - A Guide to the Performance of Probabilistic Risk Assessments for Nuclear Power Plants' and IAEA SS No. 50-P-7 'Treatment of External Hazards in PSA for NPPs. The external hazards analysis consists of following parts: 1. Geography and plant locality; 2. Nearby industry; 3. Extreme

  19. Treatment of the loss of ultimate heat sink initiating events in the IRSN level 1 PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuy, Patricia; Georgescu, Gabriel; Corenwinder, Francois

    2014-01-01

    The total loss of the ultimate heat sink is an initiating event which, even it is mainly of external origin, has been considered in the frame of internal events Level 1 PSA by IRSN. The on-going actions on the development of external hazards PSA and the recent incident of loss of the heat sink induced by the ingress of vegetable matter that occurred in France in 2009 have pointed out the need to improve the modeling of the loss of the heat sink initiating event and sequences to better take into account the fact that this loss may be induced by external hazards and thus affect all the site units. The paper presents the historical steps of the modeling of the total loss of the heat sink, the safety stakes of this modeling, the main assumptions used by IRSN in the associated PSA for the 900 MWe reactors and the results obtained. The total loss of the heat sink was not initially addressed in the safety demonstration of French NPPs. On the basis of the insights of the first probabilistic assessments performed in the 80's, the risks associated to this 'multiple failure situation' turned out to be very significant and design and organisational improvements were implemented on the plants. Reviews of the characterization of external hazards and of their consequences on the installations and French operating feedback have revealed that extreme hazards may induce a total loss of the heat sink. Moreover, the accident that occurred at Fukushima in 2011 has pointed out the risk of such a loss of long duration at all site units in case of extreme hazards. In this context, it seems relevant to further improve the modelling of the total loss of the heat sink by considering the external hazards that may cause this loss. In a first step, IRSN has improved the assumptions and data used in the loss of the heat sink PSA model, in particular by considering that such a loss may affect all the site units. The next challenge will be the deeper analysis of the impact of external hazards on

  20. Attributes of Full Scope Level 1 Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) for Applications in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-10-01

    This publication supersedes IAEA-TECDOC-1511, Determining the Quality of Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) for Applications in Nuclear Power Plants (published in 2006), which provided detailed information on technical features of a restricted scope PSA aimed at analysing only internal initiating events caused by random component failures and human errors, and accident sequences that may lead to reactor core damage during operation. The present publication extends the scope of the PSA to cover a broader range of internal and external hazards, and low power and shutdown modes of nuclear power plant operation. In addition, some PSA aspects relevant to lessons learned from the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant are also considered

  1. Computer codes for level 1 probabilistic safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) entails several laborious tasks suitable for computer codes assistance. This guide identifies these tasks, presents guidelines for selecting and utilizing computer codes in the conduct of the PSA tasks and for the use of PSA results in safety management and provides information on available codes suggested or applied in performing PSA in nuclear power plants. The guidance is intended for use by nuclear power plant system engineers, safety and operating personnel, and regulators. Large efforts are made today to provide PC-based software systems and PSA processed information in a way to enable their use as a safety management tool by the nuclear power plant overall management. Guidelines on the characteristics of software needed for management to prepare a software that meets their specific needs are also provided. Most of these computer codes are also applicable for PSA of other industrial facilities. The scope of this document is limited to computer codes used for the treatment of internal events. It does not address other codes available mainly for the analysis of external events (e.g. seismic analysis) flood and fire analysis. Codes discussed in the document are those used for probabilistic rather than for phenomenological modelling. It should be also appreciated that these guidelines are not intended to lead the user to selection of one specific code. They provide simply criteria for the selection. Refs and tabs

  2. Achievement of the level 1 PSA in support to the CEA 2400 MWth gas-cooled fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balmain, M.; Bassi, C.; Azria, P.

    2012-01-01

    Within Generation IV International Forum, the CEA has developed since 2006 a Level 1 PSA to support the design of the 2400 MWth GFR (Gas-cooled Fast Reactor). A first period, with insights published in 2008, consisted in a model with few initiators representative of medium and high pressure situations, those used for the deterministic design of the Decay Heat Removal (DHR) dedicated loops. In a second period, an iterative work reached the probabilistic targets used for generation III reactors, with prior use of normal loops, and increase of DHR reliability in high pressure conditions. The PSA team covered all the internal initiators, and supported the design of components with instrumentation and control and electrical supplies, and the shutdown operating modes of secondary, tertiary circuits, with possible re-alignment to dedicated DHR loops. Besides, the completed PSA integrated more realistic success criteria than the preliminary model and than the deterministic approach, thanks to CATHARE2 code. In case of loss of Forced Convection, the probability of success of the Natural Convection DHR was assessed by a reliability method for passive systems. The paper underlines the PSA methodology knowledge from the EDF expertise, the improvements co-developed with CEA, and the iteration design-PSA-design. (authors)

  3. Level 1 and 2 PSA methodology taking into account new design, operating and safety factors. Rev. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jirsa, P.; Patrik, M.

    2000-11-01

    The status of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) is discussed (i) in relation to the expected nature of 'revolutionary' innovations and (ii) in the light of the EUR document, summarizing requirements put by European NPP operators on the future NPP design. The aims included: (1) analysis of limitations to the current PSA methodology; (2) specification of physical and operation processes the knowledge of which is necessary to ensure the safety criteria of advanced reactors; (3) summarisation of existing knowledge and description formats of the processes; (4) identification of theoretical and experimental work required to address the problem, preparation of data and computer codes, ensuring traceability to EU developmental programs. (P.A.)

  4. Summary report of already existing guidance on the implementation of External Hazards in extended Level 1 PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klug, J.; Kumar, M.; Prochaska, J.; Brac, P.; Vasseur, D.; Brinkman, H.; Kahia, S.; Nitoi, Mirela; Apostol, M.; Georgescu, G.; Volkanovski, Andrija; Mustoe, J.; Alzbutas, R.; La Rovere, S.

    2015-08-01

    The report provides a summary of already existing guidance on the implementation of external hazards in extended level 1 PSA. It summarized the lessons learnt from existing standards, existing gaps and possibility for future development within the work-package WP22 'How to introduce hazards in L1 PSA and all possibilities of events combinations'. The report is focused on the four following areas, for several hazards: 1) Impact on the SSCs modelled in L1 PSA event trees; 2) Impact on Human Reliability Assessment modelling in L1 PSA; 3) Site impact modelling in L1 PSA event trees; 4) Link between external initiating events of PSA and NPP design basis conditions. During the review of existing guidance, it appeared that many of the references form a suitable basis to introduce external hazards in L1 PSA including event combination. Available guidelines provide usable recommendations to evaluate failure probabilities of SSCs depending on the influence of single hazard or events combination. The most detailed guidelines are devoted to the seismic events and fires. Even if these guidelines deal only with single event impact, they can be also used for combined events purpose to evaluate particular effects induced by analyzed external hazards. Guidelines provide general systematic framework how to determine the scope of SSCs for extended PSA and failure modes (develop an extended list of components). In general available guidelines provide detailed framework for analysis of seismic event. The other external hazards are not always covered so deeply. This is probably caused by specific site nature of these hazards like external floods, fires etc. In case of HRA, more detailed information and HRA models are available for seismic events or fire events. For the other external hazards, the literature with regard to HRA is not well developed. The PSA for external hazards should take account the potential for human response to be affected by the external event. More realistic Human

  5. Main factors determining the KNP units 5 and 6 safety level according to the PSA level 1 result

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manchev, B.; Marinova, B.; Nenkova, B.

    2004-01-01

    The Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) is a powerful tool for ascertainment of the safety level reached at nuclear power plants operation. The results of PSA determine very clearly the functions, systems, equipment or operator actions that have to be improved in order to increase the plant safety level as a whole. The present report presents the main results of the last upgraded revision of PSA level 1 of units 5 and 6 of KNPP. The objective of the report is to lay emphasis on the factors determining the result obtained, i.e. to demonstrate the scopes whose improvement leads to an increase of the safety level reached at the units power operation. In the frame of the study presented the following categories of initiating events are included: Internal initiating events; Initiating events result of internal fires; Initiating events result of seismic action; Floods. Only the reactor core is considered as a source of radioactive contamination. Only initiating events related to the reactor work on power are analyzed. Unit 5 of KNPP is accepted as a basic unit for the study. All modifications and design changes implemented up to year 2000 are taken into account. The results of PSA level 1 for units 5 and 6 of KNPP covering the risk of internal initiators are presented. The assessment of the core damage due to internal initiators is based on the analysis of 18 groups of initiating events. 932 consequences and two groups of initial events are identified, leading to core damage. As a result of the quantitative calculation, over 15000 minimal cuts for the core damage are obtained. The first 80 cuts bear over 75% of the frequency obtained, and the first 700 cuts bear over 90%. Distribution of the core damage frequency by different groups of initiators is presented in tables and diagrams. A comparison of the result obtained for the reactor core damage of KNPP units 5 and 6 with assessment obtained for similar power plants is presented. The data for different NPPs are taken

  6. Analysis of convergence of uncertainty and important factors affecting uncertainty in level 1 PSA for pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Yoshio

    2002-01-01

    We analyzed how the convergence of mean core damage frequency (CDF) depends on the number of minimal cut sets, the sampling method and the random seed, using level 1 PSA models for Surry 1 and a Japanese 4 loop PWR plant. As a result, the followings were clarified: the good convergence efficiency of the latin hypercube sampling (LHS), the relationship between number of minimal cut sets and mean CDF, as well as the standard deviation and the easy method of judgment for mean CDF convergence. In addition, it was seen that the relationship between the number of probability variables (i.e. the number of basic events) and the number of samplings needed to converge for mean CDF. Analysis of important factors affecting uncertainty was also performed. As a result, it was found that the initiating events (especially loss of coolant accidents) were the dominant important factors. Finally, comparisons were made for the 95% confidence interval of the calculated results from the operating experience of the worldwide nuclear power plants with (1) the mean core damage frequency by PSA for 108 US plants and 51 Japanese plants and (2) the 95% confidence interval of the US and the Japanese Plant PSA model used in this research. As a result, it was clarified that the mean core damage frequency of almost all US pressurized and boiling light water reactors in the US was in the 90% confidence interval calculated from the operating experience of the nuclear power plants (PWRs and BWRs) in the world, but that of those reactors in Japan was smaller then that level. (author)

  7. Analysis of convergence of uncertainty and important factors affecting uncertainty in level 1 PSA for pressurized water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, Yoshio [Inst. of Nuclear Safety System Inc., Mihama, Fukui (Japan)

    2002-09-01

    We analyzed how the convergence of mean core damage frequency (CDF) depends on the number of minimal cut sets, the sampling method and the random seed, using level 1 PSA models for Surry 1 and a Japanese 4 loop PWR plant. As a result, the followings were clarified: the good convergence efficiency of the latin hypercube sampling (LHS), the relationship between number of minimal cut sets and mean CDF, as well as the standard deviation and the easy method of judgment for mean CDF convergence. In addition, it was seen that the relationship between the number of probability variables (i.e. the number of basic events) and the number of samplings needed to converge for mean CDF. Analysis of important factors affecting uncertainty was also performed. As a result, it was found that the initiating events (especially loss of coolant accidents) were the dominant important factors. Finally, comparisons were made for the 95% confidence interval of the calculated results from the operating experience of the worldwide nuclear power plants with (1) the mean core damage frequency by PSA for 108 US plants and 51 Japanese plants and (2) the 95% confidence interval of the US and the Japanese Plant PSA model used in this research. As a result, it was clarified that the mean core damage frequency of almost all US pressurized and boiling light water reactors in the US was in the 90% confidence interval calculated from the operating experience of the nuclear power plants (PWRs and BWRs) in the world, but that of those reactors in Japan was smaller then that level. (author)

  8. Investigation of the efficiency and qualification of computer codes for PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andernacht, M.; Dinsmore, S.

    1992-01-01

    An international selection of computer codes for the quantification of level 1 PSA models was evaluated due to the consistence of results of different Benchmark exercises. The exercises in this project are based on those developed during the first benchmark project (Phase I). Due to several large differences in the results during Phase I of the Benchmark, the exercises in Phase II were more precisely defined. Due to the improved definition of the benchmark exercises, the results delivered from the different computer codes for Phase II are much more consistent. In general, the results of Benchmark II show, that the exercises were defined well enough to allow consistant results to be generated. Thus, the exercises can also be used to support the evaluation of additional PSA programs. (orig.) [de

  9. Advancement of the methodology for automated integration of external hazards into level 1 PSA modeling. Technical report; Weiterentwicklung der Methodik zur automatisierten Integration uebergreifender Einwirkungen in PSA-Modelle der Stufe 1. Technischer Fachbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berner, Nadine; Herb, Joachim

    2017-03-15

    In the course of the research and development project RS1539 funded by the German Federal Ministry for Economics and Energy (BMWi) the methodology for the automated integration of hazards in Level 1 PSA models has been enhanced. Thereby, the analysis tool pyRiskRobot provides the methodological framework for mapping a generic spectrum of internal and external hazards onto complex PSA plant models. The reimplementation of the software tool via the programming language python extends the applicability and facilitates the handling of pyRiskRobot in comparison to the previous Ruby-based version RiskRobot. Moreover, the development of functions to perform the topological modelling of fault trees and the probabilistic specification of modified fault tree elements have been continued. Due to the reimplementation and further developments, the tool enables to systematically generate fault trees of varying complexity, to flexibly integrate fault trees in existing PSA models and to automatically duplicate interconnected topologies. Thus, pyRiskRobot allows the efficient and traceable realization of hazard specific, usually laborious modifications of PSA models. In addition, pyRiskRobot has been extended to serve as a functional interface between the data compilations comprising the potential influences of hazards on PSA relevant components and the data base of a PSA plant model. Based on this conceptual design, additional analyses of the data can be carried out prior to the integration within the PSA model topology. The reimplemented functionalities of pyRiskRobot have been validated with respect to reference applications, such as the modelling of an internal fire scenario, against the previous version RiskRobot. The existing method collection for the automated modification of fault tree topologies has been extended based on the requirements for further applications, among others the modelling of an external flooding scenario. The deduced hazard specific modelling approaches

  10. Human reliability analysis approach to level 1 PSA - shutdown and low power operation of Mochovce NPP, Unit 1, Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stojka, Tibor; Holy, Jaroslav

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents general approach, used methods and form of documentation of the results as have been applied within the Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) task of the shutdown and low power PSA (SPSA) study for Mochovce nuclear power plant, Unit 1, Slovakia. The paper describes main goals of the HRA task within the SPSA project, applied methods and data sources. Basic steps of the HRA task and human errors (HE) classification are also specified in its first part. The main part of the paper deals with pre-initiator human errors, human-induced initiators and response to initiator human errors. Since the expert judgment method (SLIM) was used for the last type of human errors probability assessment, also related activities are described including preparation works (performance shaping factors (PSFs) selection, development of PSF classification tables, preparation of aid tools for interview with plant experts), qualitative analysis (sources of information and basic steps) and quantitative analysis itself (human errors classification for final quantification including criteria used for the classification, description of structure of the spreadsheet used for quantification and treatment with dependencies). The last part of the paper describes form of documentation of the final results and provides some findings. (author)

  11. Development of computing code system for level 3 PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Jong Tae; Yu, Dong Han; Kim, Seung Hwan.

    1997-07-01

    Among the various research areas of the level 3 PSA, the effect of terrain on the transport of radioactive material was investigated through wind tunnel experiment. These results will give a physical insight in the development of a new dispersion model. Because there are some discrepancies between the results from Gaussian plume model and those from field test, the effect of terrain on the atmospheric dispersion was investigated by using CTDMPLUS code. Through this study we find that the model which can treat terrain effect is essential in the atmospheric dispersion of radioactive materials and the CTDMPLUS model can be used as a useful tool. And it is suggested that modification of a model and experimental study should be made through the continuous effort. The health effect assessment near the Yonggwang site by using IPE (Individual plant examination) results and its site data was performed. The health effect assessment is an important part of consequence analysis of a nuclear power plant site. The MACCS was used in the assessment. Based on the calculation of CCDF for each risk measure, it is shown that CCDF has a slow slope and thus wide probability distribution in cases of early fatality, early injury, total early fatality risk, and total weighted early fatality risk. And in cases of cancer fatality and population dose within 48km and 80km, the CCDF curve have a steep slope and thus narrow probability distribution. The establishment of methodologies for necessary models for consequence analysis resulting form a server accident in the nuclear power plant was made and a program for consequence analysis was developed. The models include atmospheric transport and diffusion, calculation of exposure doses for various pathways, and assessment of health effects and associated risks. Finally, the economic impact resulting form an accident in a nuclear power plant was investigated. In this study, estimation models for each cost terms that considered in economic

  12. Development of computing code system for level 3 PSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jong Tae; Yu, Dong Han; Kim, Seung Hwan

    1997-07-01

    Among the various research areas of the level 3 PSA, the effect of terrain on the transport of radioactive material was investigated through wind tunnel experiment. These results will give a physical insight in the development of a new dispersion model. Because there are some discrepancies between the results from Gaussian plume model and those from field test, the effect of terrain on the atmospheric dispersion was investigated by using CTDMPLUS code. Through this study we find that the model which can treat terrain effect is essential in the atmospheric dispersion of radioactive materials and the CTDMPLUS model can be used as a useful tool. And it is suggested that modification of a model and experimental study should be made through the continuous effort. The health effect assessment near the Yonggwang site by using IPE (Individual plant examination) results and its site data was performed. The health effect assessment is an important part of consequence analysis of a nuclear power plant site. The MACCS was used in the assessment. Based on the calculation of CCDF for each risk measure, it is shown that CCDF has a slow slope and thus wide probability distribution in cases of early fatality, early injury, total early fatality risk, and total weighted early fatality risk. And in cases of cancer fatality and population dose within 48km and 80km, the CCDF curve have a steep slope and thus narrow probability distribution. The establishment of methodologies for necessary models for consequence analysis resulting form a server accident in the nuclear power plant was made and a program for consequence analysis was developed. The models include atmospheric transport and diffusion, calculation of exposure doses for various pathways, and assessment of health effects and associated risks. Finally, the economic impact resulting form an accident in a nuclear power plant was investigated. In this study, estimation models for each cost terms that considered in economic

  13. Quality PSA for PSA applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carska, K.; Rybar, J.

    2012-03-01

    The safety guideline defines with more precision Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic requirements of the quality of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) for PSA application. Term of quality of PSA is explained in detail. Procedure for determining the quality of PSA is provided. The categorization of PSA study according the quality of PSA is suggested. A comprehensive list of PSA applications for nuclear facilities is provided. What technical features of a PSA should be satisfied to support the PSA applications of interest is stated. (authors)

  14. Enlarged level-1 PSA in regard to assessment of cross-cutting effects of hazards and consideration of their uncertainties for a KONVOI type PWR reference plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haider, C.; Hofer, E.; Kloos, M.; Kuntze, W.; Liemersdorf, H.; Roewekamp, M.; Schwinges, B.; Tuerschmann, M.; Brenig, H.W.; Sommerfeld, H.

    2001-01-01

    In the frame of supporting BMU regarding generic questions concerning probabilistic safety analyses for nuclear power plants as well as regarding evaluation of nuclear specific standards and guidelines the significant contributions to damage states resulting from plant internal and external hazards had to be estimated for a German Konvoi type PWR reference plant. Furthermore, the suitability of the available methods for assessing these hazards should be checked. In the report presented hereafter, only the plant internal hazard Fire out of all the hazards to be considered was probabilistically analysed in detail First of all, screening analyses were carried out for identifying relevant plant areas and to assess their respective efficiency for a proper selection procedure. For a selected, plant area identified to be relevant (area of the cable distributions inside the reactor containment) an indepth analysis was performed. This analysis included all the steps of the probabilistic assessment, starting from the estimation of the fire occurrence frequency, followed by investigations on the fire effects and fire propagation, up to the determination of the fire induced failure probabilities of safety related equipment including the consequences on systems. In addition, the analyses contained particular uncertainty and sensitivity studies, for which aleatoric and epistemic uncertainties were distinguished. As a result of the screening analyses as well as of the in-depth investigations regarding the fire hazard, no significant contributions for the total frequencies for system, core, or plant damage states have been found. In this context, it has to be noticed that the study presented hereafter does not cover a complete fire PSA. With respect to assessing the available methods it has been found that improvements concerning the screening process as well as concerning the probabilistic fire event tree analyses are necessary. With regard to further hazards, a site specific

  15. Development of the fire PSA methodology and the fire analysis computer code system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsunori, Ogura; Tomomichi, Ito; Tsuyoshi, Uchida; Yusuke, Kasagawa

    2009-01-01

    Fire PSA methodology has been developed and was applied to NPPs in Japan for power operation and LPSD states. CDFs of preliminary fire PSA for power operation were the higher than that of internal events. Fire propagation analysis code system (CFAST/FDS Network) was being developed and verified thru OECD-PRISME Project. Extension of the scope for LPSD state is planned to figure out the risk level. In order to figure out the fire risk level precisely, the enhancement of the methodology is planned. Verification and validation of phenomenological fire propagation analysis code (CFAST/FDS Network) in the context of Fire PSA. Enhancement of the methodology such as an application of 'Electric Circuit Analysis' in NUREG/CR-6850 and related tests in order to quantify the hot-short effect precisely. Development of seismic-induced fire PSA method being integration of existing seismic PSA and fire PSA methods is ongoing. Fire PSA will be applied to review the validity of fire prevention and mitigation measures

  16. Living PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, M.G.K.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this presentation is to gain an understanding of the requirements for a PSA to be considered a Living PSA. The presentation is divided into the following topics: Definition; Planning/Documentation; Task Performance; Maintenance; Management. 4 figs

  17. Research on the improvement of nuclear safety -Development of computing code system for level 3 PSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jong Tae; Kim, Dong Ha; Park, Won Seok; Hwang, Mi Jeong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    Among the various research areas of the level 3 PSA, the effect of terrain on the transport of radioactive material was investigated. These results will give a physical insight in the development of a new dispersion model. A wind tunnel experiment with bell shaped hill model was made in order to develop a new dispersion model. And an improved dispersion model was developed based on the concentration distribution data obtained from the wind tunnel experiment. This model will be added as an option to the atmospheric dispersion code. A stand-alone atmospheric code using MS Visual Basic programming language which runs at the Windows environment of a PC was developed. A user can easily select a necessary data file and type input data by clicking menus, and can select calculation options such building wake, plume rise etc., if necessary. And a user can easily understand the meaning of concentration distribution on the map around the plant site as well as output files. Also the methodologies for the estimation of radiation exposure and for the calculation of risks was established. These methodologies will be used for the development of modules for the radiation exposure and risks respectively. These modules will be developed independently and finally will be combined to the atmospheric dispersion code in order to develop a level 3 PSA code. 30 tabs., 56 figs., refs. (Author).

  18. Research on the improvement of nuclear safety -Development of computing code system for level 3 PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Jong Tae; Kim, Dong Ha; Park, Won Seok; Hwang, Mi Jeong

    1995-07-01

    Among the various research areas of the level 3 PSA, the effect of terrain on the transport of radioactive material was investigated. These results will give a physical insight in the development of a new dispersion model. A wind tunnel experiment with bell shaped hill model was made in order to develop a new dispersion model. And an improved dispersion model was developed based on the concentration distribution data obtained from the wind tunnel experiment. This model will be added as an option to the atmospheric dispersion code. A stand-alone atmospheric code using MS Visual Basic programming language which runs at the Windows environment of a PC was developed. A user can easily select a necessary data file and type input data by clicking menus, and can select calculation options such building wake, plume rise etc., if necessary. And a user can easily understand the meaning of concentration distribution on the map around the plant site as well as output files. Also the methodologies for the estimation of radiation exposure and for the calculation of risks was established. These methodologies will be used for the development of modules for the radiation exposure and risks respectively. These modules will be developed independently and finally will be combined to the atmospheric dispersion code in order to develop a level 3 PSA code. 30 tabs., 56 figs., refs. (Author)

  19. Seismic Level 2 PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirksen, Gerben; Pellissetti, Manuel; Duncan-Whiteman, Paul

    2014-01-01

    For most external events, the calculation of the core damage frequency (CDF) in Level 1 PSA is sufficient to be able to show that the contribution of the event to the plant risk is negligible. However, it is not sufficient to compare the CDF due to the external event to the total plant CDF; instead the Level 1 PSA result for the event should be compared to the large early release frequency (LERF), or alternatively arguments should be given why the CDF from the external event will not contribute mostly to LERF. For seismic events in particular, it can often not be easily excluded that sequences leading to core damage would not also result in LERF. Since the confinement function is one of the most essential functions for Level 2 PSA, special care must be taken of the containment penetrations. For example systems with containment penetrations that are normally closed during operation or are designed to withstand more than the maximum containment pressure are normally screened out in the Level 2 PSA for the containment isolation function, however the possibility of LOCA in such systems due to an earthquake may nevertheless lead to containment bypass. Additionally, the functionality of passive features may be compromised in case of a beyond design earthquake. In the present paper, we present crucial ingredients of a methodology for a Level 2 seismic PSA. This methodology consists of the following steps: Extension of the seismic equipment list (SEL) to include Level 2 PSA relevant systems (e.g. containment isolation system, features for core melt stabilization, hydrogen mitigation systems), Determination of the systems within the existing SEL with increased demands in case of severe accidents, Determination of essential components for which a dedicated fragility analysis needs to be performed. (author)

  20. Incorporating Level-2 PSA Feature of CONPAS into AIMS-PSA Software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Sang Hoon; Lim, Hogon; Ahn, Kwang Il

    2014-01-01

    CONPAS (CONtainment Performance Analysis System) utilizes a methodology to treat containment phenomena in detail like APET but in simple way. In mid 2000's, KAERI has developed very fast cut set generator FTREX and PC's OS (Operating system) has changed into Windows 95. Thus, KAERI has developed new Level-1 PSA software, called AIMS-PSA (Advanced Information Management System for PSA) to replace KIRAP. Recently, KAERI has been developing an integrated PSA platform, called OCEANS (On-line Consolidator and Evaluator of All mode risk for Nuclear System), for the risk assessment of all power modes and all hazards. CONPAS for Level-2 PSA was developed in 1990's using the Visual Basic 6.0 compiler which is not supported any more. It needs to be updated for the integrated PSA software framework. This paper describes a study to incorporate the features of CONPAS into AIMS-PSA. The basic idea is to follow the approach of CONPAS, but in the integrated way. Various approaches for Level-2 PSA have been used since WASH-1400. APET approach of NUREG-1150 study would be most comprehensive and complex methodology for containment event tree analysis. CONPAS is the Level-2 PSA software to utilize an approach to treat containment phenomena in detail like APET but in simple way. But, new Level-2 PSA software is required to develop more integrated PSA framework. A modified approach of CONPAS is developed and incorporated in AIMS-PSA software that can handle Level-1 and Level-2 PSA in the integrated way (from the viewpoint of event tree and fault tree). AIMS-PSA combines whole Level-2 PSA model to produce a One Top fault tree and to generate cut sets in the same way as Level-1 PSA. Quantification results of Level-2 PSA such as frequency for each STC can be calculated from the minimal cut sets

  1. PSA methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magne, L

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of this text is first to ask a certain number of questions on the methods related to PSAs. Notably we will explore the positioning of the French methodological approach - as applied in the EPS 1300{sup 1} and EPS 900{sup 2} PSAs - compared to other approaches (Part One). This reflection leads to more general reflection: what contents, for what PSA? This is why, in Part Two, we will try to offer a framework for definition of the criteria a PSA should satisfy to meet the clearly identified needs. Finally, Part Three will quickly summarize the questions approached in the first two parts, as an introduction to the debate. 15 refs.

  2. PSA methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magne, L.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this text is first to ask a certain number of questions on the methods related to PSAs. Notably we will explore the positioning of the French methodological approach - as applied in the EPS 1300 1 and EPS 900 2 PSAs - compared to other approaches (Part One). This reflection leads to more general reflection: what contents, for what PSA? This is why, in Part Two, we will try to offer a framework for definition of the criteria a PSA should satisfy to meet the clearly identified needs. Finally, Part Three will quickly summarize the questions approached in the first two parts, as an introduction to the debate. 15 refs

  3. PSA applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubreuil Chambardel, A

    1997-12-31

    The IAEA now defines three types of PSA applications: Validation of design and of operation procedures; optimization of plant operation; and regulatory applications. The applications of PSA are manifold: only a few are dealt with here (precursor analysis is dealt with in session 3, topic 4). For each of them, we will do the utmost to demonstrate the main difficulties encountered, EDF`s viewpoint on the matter, and the points remaining to be solved. In what follows, unless explicitly stated otherwise, we have made every effort to represent the different applications as they are practiced by all concerned in the international community, and to describe the inherent difficulties the international community has encountered with these applications with all objectivity. It goes without saying that the comments below are simply those of the ESF department, and are submitted here for discussion by the experts. 13 refs.

  4. PSA applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubreuil Chambardel, A.

    1996-01-01

    The IAEA now defines three types of PSA applications: Validation of design and of operation procedures; optimization of plant operation; and regulatory applications. The applications of PSA are manifold: only a few are dealt with here (precursor analysis is dealt with in session 3, topic 4). For each of them, we will do the utmost to demonstrate the main difficulties encountered, EDF's viewpoint on the matter, and the points remaining to be solved. In what follows, unless explicitly stated otherwise, we have made every effort to represent the different applications as they are practiced by all concerned in the international community, and to describe the inherent difficulties the international community has encountered with these applications with all objectivity. It goes without saying that the comments below are simply those of the ESF department, and are submitted here for discussion by the experts. 13 refs

  5. Development and perspectives of PSA in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    During the last decade the GDA/PSA has carried out the pre-operational PSA task for the Juragua Nuclear Power Plant. Since 1991 the work has been accomplished in the frames of the IAEA Technical Assistance Project CUB/9/008. The paper describes the stages of this study, (concluding with the Final Report of the pre-operational Level 1 PSA Rev. O), its assumptions, limitations and the main results and concluding remarks

  6. Applicability of living PSA in NPP modernization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himanen, R.

    1999-01-01

    Recently the utility Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) has modernized the Olkiluoto 1 and 2 nuclear units and increased the net electric power by 18 per cent. Level 2 PSA was performed during the modernization project and the living level 1 PSA was used to support the design of the plant modifications. The plant specific living PSA model was a powerful tool when evaluating modernization alternatives. Successive support of safety management with the PSA model requires, that both the utility and the Regulatory Body understand capability and limitations of the model in details. TVO has prepared an internal procedure that presents in detail the practices and responsibilities concerning living PSA. The procedure is based on general guidelines and requirements on probabilistic safety analysis of nuclear power plants in Finland, released by the Regulatory Body. Living PSA requires that also the procedure for the use of living PSA is living. The recently published USNRC Regulatory Guides on PSA will be taken into account in the next version of the TVO PSA procedure. The PSA Peer Review Certification Process is one way to evaluate the quality of PSA in general, but also to detect the weaknesses of the PSA. However, the Certification Process cover only limited scope of PSA omitting e.g. all other external events except internal floods. This paper gives an overview on the scope of living PSA for Olkiluoto 1 and 2, and presents some examples on the real use of PSA concerning the modernization of the plant. Definition of quantitative dependability requirements for renovated systems is possible, but on the other hand, proving of these targets is in some cases extremely difficult, because of lacking dependability data. The problems are mainly concerned in systems with of programmable logic control. (au)

  7. PSAPACK 4.2. A code for probabilistic safety assessment level 1. User`s manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    Only limited use has been made until now of the large amount of information contained in probabilistic safety assessments (PSAs). This is mainly due to the complexity of the PSA reports and the difficulties in obtaining intermediate results and in performing updates and recalculations. Moreover, PSA software was developed for mainframe computers, and the files of information such as fault trees and accident sequences were intended for the use of the analysts carrying out PSA studies or other skilled PSA practitioners. The increasing power and availability of personal computers (PCs) and developments in recent years in both hardware and software have made it possible to develop PSA software for use in PCs. Furthermore, the operational characteristics of PCs make them attractive not only for performing PSAs but also for updating the results and in using them in day-to-day applications. The IAEA has therefore developed in co-operation with its Member States, a software package (PSAPACK) for PCs for use in performing a Level 1 PSA and for easy interrogation of the results. Figs.

  8. PSAPACK 4.2. A code for probabilistic safety assessment level 1. User's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Only limited use has been made until now of the large amount of information contained in probabilistic safety assessments (PSAs). This is mainly due to the complexity of the PSA reports and the difficulties in obtaining intermediate results and in performing updates and recalculations. Moreover, PSA software was developed for mainframe computers, and the files of information such as fault trees and accident sequences were intended for the use of the analysts carrying out PSA studies or other skilled PSA practitioners. The increasing power and availability of personal computers (PCs) and developments in recent years in both hardware and software have made it possible to develop PSA software for use in PCs. Furthermore, the operational characteristics of PCs make them attractive not only for performing PSAs but also for updating the results and in using them in day-to-day applications. The IAEA has therefore developed in co-operation with its Member States, a software package (PSAPACK) for PCs for use in performing a Level 1 PSA and for easy interrogation of the results. Figs

  9. Methodology - PSA Regulatory handbook. Comparisons to a modern PSA study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostroem, Urban; Jung, Gunnar; Flodin, Yngve

    2003-03-01

    The regulatory handbook is applicable to all types of initiating events and all operating conditions. It should be noted that it does not make the traditional subdivision of PSA into internal and external events, level 1 and level 2 PSA, or power operation and shut-down. The reason for this is that this has given the regulatory handbook a more logical structure, and that this approach underlines the integrated character of PSA when it comes to creating the plan risk profile. The regulatory handbook has been structured following the requirements on a PSA for a nuclear power plant, as this is the most demanding application. However, it is applicable also to the analysis of other nuclear installations. The purpose of the comparative review presented in this report has been to, as part of a quality review establish the PSA Handbook, compare (parts of) the handbook and its criteria with a recent PSA analysis, and to identify major discrepancies. Considerable weight has also been allocated to a review of the plant model (Risk Spectrum event trees and fault trees). The results presented in the report are not based on a complete review of the PSA in question (or of the complete PSA Handbook). Following discussions between the SKI and SwedPower, and based on the experience of the SwedPower reviewers, the following issues were chosen to be the main parts of the project: 1) General comparison according to content and transparency - Levels of ambition in PSA Handbook, PSA method description and actual PSA report. 2) Detailed comparison of: Selected component failure data - Assumptions regarding room events - CCI frequencies, realism, identification, categorisation - Taking credit for non-safety classified systems - Event tree modelling - Presentation of results 3) Fault tree model, specifically - Time frame for crediting of battery capacity - Modelling of regulators - Modelling of dependencies for room events - general quality, like how the paper documentation and the logic

  10. Estimative of core damage frequency in IPEN's IEA-R1 research reactor (PSA level 1) due to the initiating event of loss of coolant caused by large rupture in the pipe of the primary circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Daniel Massami

    2009-01-01

    This work applies the methodology of probabilistic safety assessment level 1 to the research reactor IEA-R1 IPEN-CNEN/SP. Two categories of identified initiating events of accidents in the reactor are studied: loss of flow and loss of primary coolant. Among the initiating events, blockage of flow channel and loss of cooling fluid by major pipe rupture in the primary circuit are chosen for a detailed analysis. The event tree technique is used to analyze the evolution of the accident, including the actuation or the fail of actuation of the safety systems and the reactor damages. Using the fault tree the reliability of the following reactor safety systems is evaluated: reactor shutdown system, isolation of the reactor pool, emergency core cooling system (ECCS) and the electric system. Estimative for the frequency of damage to the reactor core and the probability of failure of the analyzed systems are calculated. The estimated values for the frequencies of core damage are within the expected margins and are of the same order of magnitude as those found for similar reactors. The reliability of the reactor shutdown system, isolation of the reactor pool and ECCS are satisfactory for the conditions these systems are required. However, for the electric system it is suggested an upgrade to increase its reliability. (author)

  11. SERIAL PERCENT-FREE PSA IN COMBINATION WITH PSA FOR POPULATION-BASED EARLY DETECTION OF PROSTATE CANCER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankerst, Donna Pauler; Gelfond, Jonathan; Goros, Martin; Herrera, Jesus; Strobl, Andreas; Thompson, Ian M.; Hernandez, Javier; Leach, Robin J.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE To characterize the diagnostic properties of serial percent-free prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in relation to PSA in a multi-ethnic, multi-racial cohort of healthy men. MATERIALS AND METHODS 6,982 percent-free PSA and PSA measures were obtained from participants in a 12 year+ Texas screening study comprising 1625 men who never underwent biopsy, 497 who underwent one or more biopsies negative for prostate cancer, and 61 diagnosed with prostate cancer. Area underneath the receiver-operating-characteristic-curve (AUC) for percent-free PSA, and the proportion of patients with fluctuating values across multiple visits were determined according to two thresholds (under 15% versus 25%) were evaluated. The proportion of cancer cases where percent-free PSA indicated a positive test before PSA > 4 ng/mL did and the number of negative biopsies that would have been spared by percent-free PSA testing negative were computed. RESULTS Percent-free PSA fluctuated around its threshold of PSA tested positive earlier than PSA in 71.4% (34.2%) of cancer cases, and among men with multiple negative biopsies and a PSA > 4 ng/mL, percent-free PSA would have tested negative in 31.6% (65.8%) instances. CONCLUSIONS Percent-free PSA should accompany PSA testing in order to potentially spare unnecessary biopsies or detect cancer earlier. When near the threshold, both tests should be repeated due to commonly observed fluctuation. PMID:26979652

  12. Putting PSA to work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubler, R.; Gomez-Cobo, A.

    1998-01-01

    The IAEA has, during the last three years, been working intensively on PSA applications. The draft TECDOC prepared during these activities, ''PSA Applications'' is summarized in this paper. Actual events at nuclear facilities provide an important basis to compare PSAs with reality. PSA based operational event analysis therefore can be used to evaluate the importance of operational events from a risk perspective but also can contribute to validating and enhancing PSAs and to continuously check whether or not the PSA models are adequate, appropriate and complete. The work of the IAEA in this area is therefore summarized as well. In a companion paper, titled ''Towards a credible PSA fit for applications'', two specific aspects regarding the quality of the PSA to be used are discussed in detail, namely the Living PSA concept, which ensures that the PSA reflects actual design and operational features and Quality Assurance for PSA. (author)

  13. PSA Review Handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallman, Anders; Nyman, Ralph; Knochenhauer, Michael

    2004-05-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) expresses requirements on the performance of PSAs as well as on PSA activities in general in the the regulatory document 'Regulations Concerning Safety in Certain Nuclear Facilities', SKlFS 1998:1. The follow-up of these activities is part of the inspection tasks of the SKI. In view or this, there is a need for documented guidelines on now to perform these inspections and reviews. The SKI PSA Review Handbook is intended to be a support in the SKI inspection and control of the PSA activities or the licensees. These PSA activities include both the organisation and working procedures of the licensee, the layout and contents of the PSA, and its areas of application. Using the regulation SKIFS 1998:1 as a starting point, the review handbook presents important aspects to be considered when judging whether a licensee fulfils the requirements on PSA activities, including the performance of PSA:s or PSA applications. The handbook shall also be a guidance for the review of PSA:s. However, the intention of the PSA Review Handbook is not to be a handbook for how a PSA is performed. The PSA Review Handbook is applicable to all types or initiating events and all operating conditions, and has been structured in a way, which stresses the integrated characteristics of PSA in the creation of the risk picture of a plant. The PSA Review Handbook has been based on the requirements for PSA of nuclear power plants, as this is the most extensive application. However, the relevant parts of it are also applicable when analysing other nuclear installations. The PSA Review Handbook is published as a research report as its contents are judged to be of general interest, and the SKI welcomes comments to the handbook. An update or the PSA Review Handbook may be required as experience with the use of the handbook is acquired and if general PSA requirements change

  14. Improving PSA quality of KSNP PSA model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Joon Eon; Ha, Jae Joo

    2004-01-01

    In the RIR (Risk-informed Regulation), PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment) plays a major role because it provides overall risk insights for the regulatory body and utility. Therefore, the scope, the level of details and the technical adequacy of PSA, i.e. the quality of PSA is to be ensured for the successful RIR. To improve the quality of Korean PSA, we evaluate the quality of the KSNP (Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plant) internal full-power PSA model based on the 'ASME PRA Standard' and the 'NEI PRA Peer Review Process Guidance.' As a working group, PSA experts of the regulatory body and industry also participated in the evaluation process. It is finally judged that the overall quality of the KSNP PSA is between the ASME Standard Capability Category I and II. We also derive some items to be improved for upgrading the quality of the PSA up to the ASME Standard Capability Category II. In this paper, we show the result of quality evaluation, and the activities to improve the quality of the KSNP PSA model

  15. Enlarged level-1 PSA in regard to assessment of cross-cutting effects of hazards and consideration of their uncertainties for a KONVOI type PWR reference plant; Erweiterte PSA der Stufe 1 im Hinblick auf die Behandlung uebergreifender Einwirkungen und die Beruecksichtigung ihrer Unsicherheiten am Beispiel einer Anlage vom Typ Konvoi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haider, C.; Hofer, E.; Kloos, M.; Kuntze, W.; Liemersdorf, H.; Roewekamp, M.; Schwinges, B.; Tuerschmann, M.; Brenig, H.W.; Sommerfeld, H.

    2001-06-01

    In the frame of supporting BMU regarding generic questions concerning probabilistic safety analyses for nuclear power plants as well as regarding evaluation of nuclear specific standards and guidelines the significant contributions to damage states resulting from plant internal and external hazards had to be estimated for a German Konvoi type PWR reference plant. Furthermore, the suitability of the available methods for assessing these hazards should be checked. In the report presented hereafter, only the plant internal hazard Fire out of all the hazards to be considered was probabilistically analysed in detail First of all, screening analyses were carried out for identifying relevant plant areas and to assess their respective efficiency for a proper selection procedure. For a selected, plant area identified to be relevant (area of the cable distributions inside the reactor containment) an indepth analysis was performed. This analysis included all the steps of the probabilistic assessment, starting from the estimation of the fire occurrence frequency, followed by investigations on the fire effects and fire propagation, up to the determination of the fire induced failure probabilities of safety related equipment including the consequences on systems. In addition, the analyses contained particular uncertainty and sensitivity studies, for which aleatoric and epistemic uncertainties were distinguished. As a result of the screening analyses as well as of the in-depth investigations regarding the fire hazard, no significant contributions for the total frequencies for system, core, or plant damage states have been found. In this context, it has to be noticed that the study presented hereafter does not cover a complete fire PSA. With respect to assessing the available methods it has been found that improvements concerning the screening process as well as concerning the probabilistic fire event tree analyses are necessary. With regard to further hazards, a site specific

  16. Survey of Dynamic PSA Methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hansul; Kim, Hyeonmin; Heo, Gyunyoung; Kim, Taewan

    2015-01-01

    Event Tree(ET)/Fault Tree(FT) are significant methodology in Probabilistic Safety Assessment(PSA) for Nuclear Power Plants(NPPs). ET/FT methodology has the advantage for users to be able to easily learn and model. It enables better communication between engineers engaged in the same field. However, conventional methodologies are difficult to cope with the dynamic behavior (e.g. operation mode changes or sequence-dependent failure) and integrated situation of mechanical failure and human errors. Meanwhile, new possibilities are coming for the improved PSA by virtue of the dramatic development on digital hardware, software, information technology, and data analysis.. More specifically, the computing environment has been greatly improved with being compared to the past, so we are able to conduct risk analysis with the large amount of data actually available. One method which can take the technological advantages aforementioned should be the dynamic PSA such that conventional ET/FT can have time- and condition-dependent behaviors in accident scenarios. In this paper, we investigated the various enabling techniques for the dynamic PSA. Even though its history and academic achievement was great, it seems less interesting from industrial and regulatory viewpoint. Authors expect this can contribute to better understanding of dynamic PSA in terms of algorithm, practice, and applicability. In paper, the overview for the dynamic PSA was conducted. Most of methodologies share similar concepts. Among them, DDET seems a backbone for most of methodologies since it can be applied to large problems. The common characteristics sharing the concept of DDET are as follows: • Both deterministic and stochastic approaches • Improves the identification of PSA success criteria • Helps to limit detrimental effects of sequence binning (normally adopted in PSA) • Helps to avoid defining non-optimal success criteria that may distort the risk • Framework for comprehensively considering

  17. Survey of Dynamic PSA Methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hansul; Kim, Hyeonmin; Heo, Gyunyoung [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Taewan [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Event Tree(ET)/Fault Tree(FT) are significant methodology in Probabilistic Safety Assessment(PSA) for Nuclear Power Plants(NPPs). ET/FT methodology has the advantage for users to be able to easily learn and model. It enables better communication between engineers engaged in the same field. However, conventional methodologies are difficult to cope with the dynamic behavior (e.g. operation mode changes or sequence-dependent failure) and integrated situation of mechanical failure and human errors. Meanwhile, new possibilities are coming for the improved PSA by virtue of the dramatic development on digital hardware, software, information technology, and data analysis.. More specifically, the computing environment has been greatly improved with being compared to the past, so we are able to conduct risk analysis with the large amount of data actually available. One method which can take the technological advantages aforementioned should be the dynamic PSA such that conventional ET/FT can have time- and condition-dependent behaviors in accident scenarios. In this paper, we investigated the various enabling techniques for the dynamic PSA. Even though its history and academic achievement was great, it seems less interesting from industrial and regulatory viewpoint. Authors expect this can contribute to better understanding of dynamic PSA in terms of algorithm, practice, and applicability. In paper, the overview for the dynamic PSA was conducted. Most of methodologies share similar concepts. Among them, DDET seems a backbone for most of methodologies since it can be applied to large problems. The common characteristics sharing the concept of DDET are as follows: • Both deterministic and stochastic approaches • Improves the identification of PSA success criteria • Helps to limit detrimental effects of sequence binning (normally adopted in PSA) • Helps to avoid defining non-optimal success criteria that may distort the risk • Framework for comprehensively considering

  18. A PSA study for the SMART basic design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Sang Hoon; Kim, H. C.; Yang, S. H.; Lee, D. J.

    2002-03-01

    SMART (System-Integrated Modular Advanced Reactor) is under development that is an advanced integral type small and medium category nuclear power reactor with the rated thermal power of 330 MW. A Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) for the SMART basic design has been performed to evaluate the safety and optimize the design. Currently, the basic design is done and the detailed design is not available for the SMART, we made several assumptions about the system design before performing the PSA. The scope of the PSA was limited to the Level-1 internal full power PSA. The level-2 and 3 PSA, the external PSA, and the low power/shutdown PSA will be performed in the final design stage

  19. Comparative evaluation of PSA-Density, percent free PSA and total PSA

    OpenAIRE

    Ströbel, Greta

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND The objective of this study was to evaluate the prostate specific antigen (PSA) density (PSAD) (the quotient of PSA and prostate volume) compared with the percent free PSA (%fPSA) and total PSA (tPSA) in different total PSA (tPSA) ranges from 2 ng/mL to 20 ng/mL. Possible cut-off levels depending on the tPSA should be established. METHODS In total, 1809 men with no pretreatment of the prostate were enrolled between 1996 and 2004. Total and free PSA were measured with t...

  20. Methodology for fire PSA during design process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kollasko, Heiko; Blombach, Joerg

    2009-01-01

    Fire PSA is an essential part of a full scope level 1 PSA. Cable fires play an important role in fire PSA. Usually, cable routing is therefore modeled in detail. During the design of new nuclear power plants the information on cable routing is not yet available. However, for the use of probabilistic safety insights during the design and for licensing purposes a fire PSA may be requested. Therefore a methodology has been developed which makes use of the strictly divisional separation of redundancies in the design of modern nuclear power plants: cable routing is not needed within one division but replaced by the conservative assumption that all equipment fails due to a fire in the concerned division; critical fire areas are defined where components belonging to different divisions may be affected by a fire. For the determination of fire frequencies a component based approach is proposed. The resulting core damage frequencies due to fire are conservative. (orig.)

  1. Experimental and computational investigation of adsorption performance of TC-5A and PSA-5A for manned spacecraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Meng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Two kinds of molecular sieve materials, TC-5A and PSA-5A, were produced to satisfy with special requirement of manned space flight. Their CO2 adsorption performances were investigated and compared through two experiments, the thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA experiment and packed bed column experiment. Besides, some kinetic equations were compared according to the TGA experimental data, and their errors were analyzed. Finally, the classic linear driving force (LDF model is improved to the new Avrami’s model, and two models are analyzed based on the packed bed data. The TGA data shows that the CO2 loading has an approximately linear relationship with the CO2 concentration, and the best fit adsorption temperature range is from 283 to 303 K. The packed bed column results show that water vapor in air can affect the CO2 adsorption performance badly. The new Avrami’s model is proved more suitable to reflect the complex adsorption mechanism for two molecular sieves. The materials are proved having much better adsorption capacity than the other adsorbents with room temperature and low CO2 concentration (⩽1.0% in volume, and they can meet the aerospace requirements. This work will benefit the optimal design and simulation of the air revitalization (AR system for Chinese manned spacecraft.

  2. PSA, PSA derivatives, proPSA and prostate health index in the diagnosis of prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ayyıldız, Sema Nur; Ayyıldız, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Currently, prostate- specific antigen (PSA) is the most common oncological marker used for prostate cancer screening. However, high levels of PSA in benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatitis decrease the specificity of PSA as a cancer marker. To increase the specificity of PSA, PSA derivatives and PSA kinetics have been used. However, these new techniques were not able to increase the diagnostic specificity for prostate cancer. Therefore, the search for new molecules and derivatives of PSA...

  3. Temporal evaluation of computed tomographic scans at a Level 1 trauma department in a central South African hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Tiemesmann

    2016-03-01

    Objectives: The present study analyses the authors’ institution’s multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT scan process as part of the imaging turnaround time of trauma patients. It is intended to serve as a baseline for the institution, to offer a comparison with institutions worldwide and to improve service delivery. Method: Relevant categorical data were collected from the trauma patient register and radiological information system (RIS from 01 February 2013 to 31 January 2014. A population of 1107 trauma patients who received a MDCT scan was included in the study. Temporal data were analysed as a continuum with reference to triage priority, time of day, type of CT scan and admission status. Results: The median trauma arrival to MDCT scan time (TTS and reporting turnaround time (RTAT were 69 (39–126 and 86 (53–146 minutes respectively. TTS was subdivided into the time when the patient arrived at trauma to the radiology referral (TTRef and submission of the radiology request, to the arrival at the MDCT (RefTS location. TTRef was statistically significantly longer than RefTS (p < 0.0001. RTAT was subdivided into the arrival at the MDCT to the start of the radiology report (STR and time taken to complete the report (RT. STR was statistically significantly longer than RT (p < 0.0001. Conclusion: The time to scan (TTS was comparable to, but unfortunately the report turnaround time (RTAT lagged behind, the findings of some first-world institutions.

  4. Spinopelvic dissociation: multidetector computed tomographic evaluation of fracture patterns and associated injuries at a single level 1 trauma center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Pushpender; Barnwell, Jonathan C; Lenchik, Leon; Wuertzer, Scott D; Miller, Anna N

    2016-06-01

    The objective of the present study is to evaluate multidetector computed tomographic (MDCT) fracture patterns and associated injuries in patients with spinopelvic dissociation (SPD). Our institutional trauma registry database was reviewed from Jan. 1, 2006, to Sept. 30, 2012, specifically evaluating patients with sacral fractures. MDCT scans of patients with sacral fractures were reviewed to determine the presence of SPD. SPD cases were characterized into the following fracture patterns: U-shaped, Y-shaped, T-shaped, H-shaped, and burst. The following MDCT features were recorded: level of the horizontal fracture, location of vertical fracture, kyphosis between major fracture fragments, displacement of fracture fragment, narrowing of central spinal canal, narrowing of neural foramina, and extension into sacroiliac joints. Quantitative evaluation of the sacral fractures was performed in accordance with the consensus statement by the Spine Trauma Study Group. Medical records were reviewed to determine associated pelvic and non-pelvic fractures, bladder and bowel injuries, nerve injuries, and type of surgical intervention. Twenty-one patients had SPD, of whom 13 were men and eight were women. Mean age was 41.8 years (range 18.8 to 87.7). Five fractures (24 %) were U-shaped, six (29 %) H-shaped, four (19 %) Y-shaped, and six (29 %) burst. Nine patients (43 %) had central canal narrowing, and 19 (90 %) had neural foramina narrowing. Eleven patients (52 %) had kyphotic angulation between major fracture fragments, and seven patients (33 %) had either anterior (24 %) or posterior (10 %) displacement of the proximal fracture fragment. Fourteen patients (67 %) had associated pelvic fractures, and 20 (95 %) had associated non-pelvic fractures. Two patients (10 %) had associated urethral injuries, and one (5 %) had an associated colon injury. Seven patients (33 %) had associated nerve injuries. Six patients (29 %) had surgical fixation while 15 (71 %) were

  5. Use of PSA for improving the safety of French PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanore, J.M.; Chambon, J.L.

    1994-06-01

    Two French PWR Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) studies were conducted for the standardized PWR series of 900 and 1300 MWe. Both PSA 900 and PSA 1300 are level 1 PSAs, that means their objective is the evaluation of core meltdown frequency. These studies have some specific features, in particular the treatment of shutdown conditions, the treatment of long term post-accidental situations, and a wide use of French experience feedback. The PSAs are used for safety improvements of the French PWRs. Following the PSA results, several modifications to plants concerning the dominant sequences were decided. (R.P.). 2 refs., 4 figs

  6. The level 1 and 2 specification for parallel benchmark and a benchmark test of scalar-parallel computer SP2 based on the specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orii, Shigeo

    1998-06-01

    A benchmark specification for performance evaluation of parallel computers for numerical analysis is proposed. Level 1 benchmark, which is a conventional type benchmark using processing time, measures performance of computers running a code. Level 2 benchmark proposed in this report is to give the reason of the performance. As an example, scalar-parallel computer SP2 is evaluated with this benchmark specification in case of a molecular dynamics code. As a result, the main causes to suppress the parallel performance are maximum band width and start-up time of communication between nodes. Especially the start-up time is proportional not only to the number of processors but also to the number of particles. (author)

  7. Lessons learned form IRSN review of Flamanville 3 Level PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgescu, G.; Corenwinder, F.

    2012-01-01

    In the frame of the construction and licensing of Flamanville 3 NPP the PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment)plays an important role for the EPR Project assessment. The PSA was used for early design verification of EPR Reactor, several design improvement being defined based on these PSA insights and following the discussions with the French and German safety authorities. IRSN, as the French Safety Authority (ASN) technical support organization, performs the review of the PSA developed by the plant operator (EDF). The paper presents the main issues regarding the using of 'design PSA', identified by IRSN following the review of the internal events Level 1 PSA transmitted by EDF in the frame of the anticipated instruction of the application for operating license of the Flamanville 3 reactor. (authors)

  8. PSA in design of passive/active safety reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, T.; Tanabe, A.; Kondo, S.

    1995-01-01

    PSAs in the design of advanced reactors are applied mainly in level 1 PSA areas. However, even in level 1 PSA, there are certain areas where special care must be taken depending on plant design concepts. This paper identifies these areas both for passive and active safety reactor concepts. For example, 'long-term PSA' and shutdown PSA are very important for a passive safety reactor concept from the standpoint of effectiveness of a grace period and passive safety systems. External events are also important for an active safety reactor concept. These kinds of special PSAs are difficult to conduct precisely in a conceptual design stage. This paper shows methods of conducting these kinds of special PSAs simply and conveniently and the use of acquired insights for the design of advanced reactors. This paper also clarifies the meaning or definition of a grace period from the standpoint of PSA

  9. Experience from the comparison of two PSA-studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmberg, J.; Pulkkinen, U.

    2001-03-01

    Two probabilistic safety assessments (PSA) made for nearly identical reactors units (Forsmark 3 and Oskarshamn 3) have been compared. Two different analysis teams made the PSAs, and the analyses became quite different. The goal of the study is to identify, clarify and explain differences between PSA-studies. The purpose is to understand limitations and uncertainties in PSA, to explain reasons for differences between PSA-studies, and to give recommendations for comparison of PSA-studies and for improving the PSA-methodology. The reviews have been made by reading PSA-documentation, using the computer model and interviewing persons involved in the projects. The method and findings have been discussed within the project group. Both the PSA-project and various parts in the PSA-model have been reviewed. A major finding was that the two projects had different purpose and thus had different resources, scope and even methods in their study. The study shows that comparison of PSA results from different plants is normally not meaningful. It takes a very deep knowledge of the PSA studies to make a comparison of the results and usually one has to ensure that the compared studies have the same scope and are based on the same analysis methods. Harmonisation of the PSA-methodology is recommended in the presentation of results, presentation of methods, scope main limitation and assumption, and definitions for end states, initiating events and common cause failures. This would facilitate the comparison of the studies. Methods for validation of PSA for different application areas should be developed. The developed PSA review standards can be applied for a general validation of a study. The most important way to evaluate the real feasibility of PSA can take place only with practical applications. The PSA-documentation and models can be developed to facilitate the communication between PSA-experts and users. In any application consultation with the PSA-expert is however needed. Many

  10. Whooping Cough PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 30 second PSA encourages pregnant women to get the whooping cough vaccine, called Tdap, during the third trimester of each pregnancy in order to pass antibodies to their babies so they are born with protection against this serious disease.

  11. Development of seismic PSA methodology at JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muramatsu, K.; Ebisawa, K.; Matsumoto, K.; Oikawa, T.; Kondo, M.

    1995-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) is developing a methodology for seismic probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) of nuclear power plants, aiming at providing a set of procedures, computer codes and data suitable for performing seismic PSA in Japan. In order to demonstrate the usefulness of JAERI's methodology and to obtain better understanding on the controlling factors of the results of seismic PSAs, a seismic PSA for a BWR is in progress. In the course of this PSA, various improvements were made on the methodology. In the area of the hazard analysis, the application of the current method to the model plant site is being carried out. In the area of response analysis, the response factor method was modified to consider the non-linear response effect of the building. As for the capacity evaluation of components, since capacity data for PSA in Japan are very scarce, capacities of selected components used in Japan were evaluated. In the systems analysis, the improvement of the SECOM2 code was made to perform importance analysis and sensitivity analysis for the effect of correlation of responses and correlation of capacities. This paper summarizes the recent progress of the seismic PSA research at JAERI with emphasis on the evaluation of component capacity and the methodology improvement of systems reliability analysis. (author)

  12. Perspectives of Living PSA in NPP Krsko

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrbanic, I.; Kastelan, M.

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear power plant Krsko has completed the Level 1/Level 2 Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) for internal initiating events and is in the process of completing the same for the external initiators. The analysis completed up to now has provided a valuable insight into a plant risk profile. In NPP Krsko there is a plan to use the PSA model as a permanent tool for the risk based applications and incorporate it into a decision making process. In order to achieve this there is a need to permanently maintain the PSA model in a manner that it reflects both the plan configuration/design at a time point and the operational experience up to the time point. All the activities aimed toward keeping the PSA model up-to-dated in this sense are usually referred to as a Living PSA (LPSA) program. NPP Krsko is in the process of defining and proceduralizing a LPSA program that would be plant specific and based on known world practices. Further, in order to be suitable for risk based applications the PSA model must be flexible in a sense that modifications to the base case model may be done easily and requantifications performed quickly as to evaluate various conditions imposed by real or hypothetical situations. NPP Krsko PSA model has been based on licensing type software. The requirements specified above dictate the transfer of the overall model to an application oriented software of newer generation with larger capabilities. The transfer becomes a part of a mentioned ongoing effort aimed at establishing LPSA model and concept. The paper present this effort and the perspectives of LPSA concept and risk based applications in NPP Krsko. (author)

  13. Level-1 probability safety assessment of the Iranian heavy water reactor using SAPHIRE software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faghihi, F. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, School of Engineering, Shiraz University, 71348-51153 Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Center for Radiation Protection, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nuclear Safety Research Center, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: faghihif@shirazu.ac.ir; Ramezani, E. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, School of Engineering, Shiraz University, 71348-51153 Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yousefpour, F. [Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mirvakili, S.M. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, School of Engineering, Shiraz University, 71348-51153 Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-10-15

    The main goal of this review paper is to analyze the total frequency of the core damage of the Iranian Heavy Water Research Reactor (IHWRR) compared with standard criteria and to determine the strengths and the weaknesses of the reactor safety systems towards improving its design and operation. The PSA has been considered for full-power state of the reactor and this article represents a level-1 PSA analysis using System Analysis Programs for Hands-On Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE) software. It is specifically designed to permit a listing of the potential accident sequences, compute their frequencies of occurrence and assign each sequence to a consequence. The method used for modeling the systems and accident sequences, is Large Fault Tree/Small Event Tree method. This PSA level-1 for IHWRR indicates that, based on conservative assumptions, the total frequency of accidents that would lead to core damage from internal initiating events is 4.44E-05 per year of reactor operation.

  14. Level-1 probability safety assessment of the Iranian heavy water reactor using SAPHIRE software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faghihi, F.; Ramezani, E.; Yousefpour, F.; Mirvakili, S.M.

    2008-01-01

    The main goal of this review paper is to analyze the total frequency of the core damage of the Iranian Heavy Water Research Reactor (IHWRR) compared with standard criteria and to determine the strengths and the weaknesses of the reactor safety systems towards improving its design and operation. The PSA has been considered for full-power state of the reactor and this article represents a level-1 PSA analysis using System Analysis Programs for Hands-On Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE) software. It is specifically designed to permit a listing of the potential accident sequences, compute their frequencies of occurrence and assign each sequence to a consequence. The method used for modeling the systems and accident sequences, is Large Fault Tree/Small Event Tree method. This PSA level-1 for IHWRR indicates that, based on conservative assumptions, the total frequency of accidents that would lead to core damage from internal initiating events is 4.44E-05 per year of reactor operation

  15. Performance indicators at Embalse NPP: PSA and safety system indicators based on PSA models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornero, D.A.

    2001-01-01

    Several indicators have been implemented at Embalse NPP. The objective was selecting some representative parameters to evaluate the performance of both the plant and the personnel activities, important for safety. A first set of indicators was defined in accordance with plant technical staff criteria. A complementary set of them was addressed later based on WANO guidance. This report presents the set of indicators used at Embalse NPP, centering the description to related to safety systems performance indicators (SSPI). Some considerations are done about the calculation methods, the need for aligning and updating their values following Embalse Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) development, and some pros and cons of using the PSA model for getting systems indicators. Owing to the fact that PSA ownership by utilities is also a subject of the meeting, some characteristics of the organization of the PSA Project are described at the beginning of the report. At Embalse NPP a Level 1 PSA has been developed under the responsibility of its own plant and with an important contribution from the IAEA. PSA was developed at the site, conducting this to a study strongly interactive with the station staff. (author)

  16. Estimation of the uncertainties considered in NPP PSA level 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalchev, B.; Hristova, R.

    2005-01-01

    The main approaches of the uncertainties analysis are presented. The sources of uncertainties which should be considered in PSA level 2 for WWER reactor such as: uncertainties propagated from level 1 PSA; uncertainties in input parameters; uncertainties related to the modelling of physical phenomena during the accident progression and uncertainties related to the estimation of source terms are defined. The methods for estimation of the uncertainties are also discussed in this paper

  17. UV/EB curable psa's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glotfelter, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    The author describe both water-based and 100% solids UV/EB curable PSA's (Pressure Sensitive Adhesives) and their properties. A new acrylate monomer, ethoxylated nonyl phenol acrylate, has great utility in the formulation of water-based PSA's

  18. Tools for PSA reviews

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linden, J. von

    1998-01-01

    It is desirable to have a uniform and competent procedure for the review of PSAs which are performed within the framework of the Periodic Safety Review of German Nuclear Power Plants. Guidelines for the review process should therefore be evaluated within task A. 1 of project SR 2096. The basis for this work is the experience and knowledge within GRS derived from PSA-related work and from several review projects as well as the German PSA Guide with its appendices. Furthermore, the review processes in the USA, Switzerland and Sweden and the Guidelines for the International Peer Review Service (IPERS Guidelines) were utilized. As a result, recommendations are given for the review process, with individual recommendations concerning the organization of the review, task allocation between the reviewers, interface problems, assessment criteria, the scope and depth of the review as well as the supporting documents. An additional result are checklists for the technical elements of the PSA, which are listed to facilicate the review work. It is not the intention of this report to work out complete review guidelines. Its aims is rather more to give recommondations and support for the review in addition to what can be derived from the existing documents that should be used for the review. The recommendations reflect the view of GRS and go beyond the statements given in the German PSA Guide (Leitfaden Probabilistische Sicherheitsanalyse /PSUe97/) in some points. (orig.) [de

  19. Binge Drinking PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This PSA is based on the October, 2010 CDC Vital Signs report which indicates that drinking too much, including binge drinking, causes more than 79,000 deaths in the U.S. each year and is the third leading preventable cause of death.

  20. Introduction to PSA applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, M.G.K.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this presentation is to show how the PSA can be used to determine the risk impact of the various deterministic processes for plant design or operational changes, and the evaluation of off normal events that occurred at the plant. The presentation is divided into the following topics: Identification of issues; Tasks/element identification; Modelling changes; Data changes. 6 figs

  1. Guideline level-3 PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roelofsen, P.M.; Van der Steen, J.

    1993-09-01

    For several applications of radioactive materials calculations must be executed to determine the radiation risk for the population. A guideline for the risk calculation method of two main sources: nuclear power plants, and other intended and unintended activities with radioactive materials, is given. The standards, recommendations and regulations in this report concern mainly the analysis of the radiological (external) consequences of nuclear power plant accidents, classified as level-3 PSA (Probabilistic Safety Analysis). Level-3 PSA falls within the scales 5-7 of the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES). The standards, etc., focus on the risks for groups of people and the so-called maximum individual risk. In chapter two the standards and regulations are formulated for each part of level-3 PSA: the source term spectrum, atmospheric distribution and deposition, exposure to radiation doses and calculation of radiation doses, dose-response relationships, measures to reduce the effect of radiation doses, design basis accidents, and finally uncertainty analysis. In chapter four, modelled descriptions are given of the standards and regulations, which could or should be used in a calculation program in case of level-3 PSA. In chapter three the practical execution of a probabilistic consequences analysis, the collection of input data and the presentation of the results are dealt with. 2 figs., 14 tabs., 64 refs

  2. Babesiosis PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-25

    This 60 second PSA describes babesiosis, a preventable and treatable tickborne disease, including the signs and symptoms of infection and ways to prevent it.  Created: 4/25/2012 by Center for Global Health, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria.   Date Released: 4/26/2012.

  3. Regulatory review of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) Level 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-07-01

    Probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) is increasingly being used as part of the decision making process to assess the level of safety of nuclear power plants. The methodologies in use are maturing and the insights gained from the PSAs are being used along with those from deterministic analysis. Many regulatory authorities consider the current state of the art in PSA to be sufficiently well developed for results to be used centrally in the regulatory decision making process-referred to as risk informed regulation. For these applications to be successful, it will be necessary for the regulatory authority to have a high degree of confidence in the PSA. However, at the 1994 IAEA Technical Committee Meeting on Use of PSA in the Regulatory Process and at the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency Committee for Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA) 'Special Issues' meeting in 1997 on Review Procedures and Criteria for Different Regulatory Applications of PSA, it was recognized that formal regulatory review guidance for PSA did not exist. The senior regulators noted that there was a need to produce some international guidance for reviewing PSAs to establish an agreed basis for assessing whether important technological and methodological issues in PSAs are treated adequately and to verify that conclusions reached are appropriate. In 1997, the IAEA and OECD Nuclear Energy Agency agreed to produce, in cooperation, guidance on Regulatory Review of PSA. This led to the publication of IAEA-TECDOC-1135 on the Regulatory Review of Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) Level 1, which gives advice for the review of Level 1 PSA for initiating events occurring at power plants. This TECDOC extends the coverage to address the regulatory review of Level 2 PSA.These publications are intended to provide guidance to regulatory authorities on how to review the PSA for a nuclear power plant to gain confidence that it has been carried out to an acceptable level of quality so that it can be used as the

  4. PSA in America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linn, M.A.; Cunningham, M.A.; Johnson, D.H.

    1996-01-01

    Although the concept of acceptable risk has always been the foundation of the nuclear industry design, the use of formal PSA (or PRA-probabilistic risk assessment) in the U.S. nuclear power industry has followed an unusual path in arriving at its current level of notability. Prior to 1975, probabilistic evaluations were limited to a few specific applications such as the evaluation of man-made (i.e., airplane crashes) and natural (i.e., earthquakes) hazards. In 1975, the industry was introduced to comprehensive PSA by the Reactor Safety Study (WASH-1400). However, the study languished in relative obscurity until the accident at Three Mile Island 2 (TMI-2) in 1979. This event significantly altered the industry's view of severe accidents in the U.S. and worldwide. Investigative committees of TMI-2 recommended that PSA techniques be more widely used to augment the traditional deterministic methods of determining nuclear plant safety. This initiated an unprecedented effort by nuclear regulators and licensees worldwide to significantly improve the state of knowledge of severe accidents at nuclear power plants. In the U.S., use of PSA began to increase as evidenced by its application in the anticipated transient without scram and station blackout rulemakings, generic issue prioritization and resolution, risk-based inspection guidelines, backfit policy, and technical specification improvements. However, broad application of probabilistic techniques to the industry as a whole was initiated in 1986 with the publication of Safety Goals for the Operation of Nuclear Power Plant; Policy Statement. This put PSA front and center in the U.S. regulatory arena by open-quotes establish[ing] goals that broadly define an acceptable level of radiological risk that might be imposed on the public as a result of nuclear power plant operation.close quotes Both qualitative safety goals and quantitative objectives were articulated in this policy statement

  5. PSA in operator training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nos, V.; Faig, J.; Plesa, P.; Delgado, J. L.

    2000-01-01

    The systematic approach to training is internationally accepted as the best method to achieve and maintain the qualification and competence of power plant personnel and to guarantee the quality of their training. Following the recommendations and guidelines of international organisations competent in the field, TECNATOM SA has developed projects based on the systematic approach to training for all Spanish nuclear power plants. One of the latest projects was the systematic approach to training developed for the operation personnel of ASCO Nuclear Power Plant. In this case, certain results of the Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) which complement the systematic safety and reliability criteria of the systematic approach to training process have been incorporated in the traditional processes of work and task analysis and training plan design. This incorporation provides the training manager with additional criteria based not only on safety aspects obtained through the statistical treatment of considerations of skilled technical personnel (operators, operation chief supervisors, etc), but also on the independent criterion of the PSA. The inclusion of this approach basically affects all systematics in two of its stages: During the selection process of operating practices in SMR or SGI, the possible scenarios have been associated with all those situations where human actions which lead to an initiating event or human actions to mitigate an initiating event, may take place, as defined in the PSA. During the scenario development process, the instruments involved in the performance of human actions which originate or mitigate an event taking place have been identified. This pakes it possible to reconcile the scenario event sequence with the sequence considered in the PSA study, as the most likely to provoke a more serious accident. The incorporation of these PSA results contributes to the strengthening of safety aspects in training in an objective way, and confirms that

  6. Regulatory aspects of the use of PSA to evaluate technical specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumpf, J.

    1991-01-01

    Based on experiences gained in PSA activities the regulatory body of the GDR initiated a programme to investigate the feasibility of using PSA for the evaluation of technical specifications. This programme is just under work. In addition, to improve PSA, the GDR takes part in a programme which is aimed at performing plant specific level 1, PSA as well as and which enables operating organizations to carry out PSA on their own. The most important of some preliminary general findings presented in this paper are: - Technical specifications form a well established envelope of operational conditions and procedures. A total re-evaluation is not considered necessary; Probabilistic evaluation of technical specifications should be an integrated part of PSA activities (at least level 1). Single assessment is not considered reasonable; Probabilistic evaluation of technical specifications has to be based on plant specific information and realistic accident sequence calculations; Up to now no quantitative probabilistic criteria for technical specifications have been established. (author)

  7. NPP Krsko Living PSA Concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrbanic, I.; Spiler, J.

    2000-01-01

    NPP Krsko developed PSA model of internal and external initiators within the frame of the Individual Plant Examination (IPE) project. Within this project PSA model was used to examine the existing plant design features. In order to continue with use of this PSA model upon the completion of IPE in various risk-informed applications in support of plant operation and evaluations of design changes, an appropriate living PSA concept needed to be defined. The Living PSA concept is in NPP Krsko considered as being a set of activities pursued in order to update existing PSA model in a manner that it appropriately represents the plant design, operation practice and history. Only a PSA model which is being updated in this manner can serve as a platform for plant-specific risk informed applications. The NPP Krsko living PSA concept is based on the following major ponts. First, the baseline PSA model is defined, which is to be maintained and updated and which is to be reference point for any risk-informed application. Second, issues having a potential for impact on baseline PSA model are identified and procedure and responsibilities for their permanent monitoring and evaluation are established. Third, manner is defined in which consequential changes to baseline PSA model are implemented and controlled, together with associated responsibilities. Finally, the process is defined by which the existing version of baseline PSA model is superseded by a new one. Each time a new version of baseline PSA model is released, it would be re-quantified and the results evaluated and interpreted. By documenting these re-quantifications and evaluations of results in a sequence, the track is being kept of changes in long-term averaged risk perspective, represented by long-term averaged frequencies of core damage and pre-defined release categories. These major topics of NPP Krsko living PSA concept are presented and discussed in the paper. (author)

  8. Level 2 PSA methodology and severe accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the work was to review current Level 2-PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment) methodologies and practices and to investigate how Level 2-PSA can support severe accident management programmes, i.e. the development, implementation, training and optimisation of accident management strategies and measures. For the most part, the presented material reflects the state in 1996. Current Level 2 PSA results and methodologies are reviewed and evaluated with respect to plant type specific and generic insights. Approaches and practices for using PSA results in the regulatory context and for supporting severe accident management programmes by input from level 2 PSAs are examined. The work is based on information contained in: PSA procedure guides, PSA review guides and regulatory guides for the use of PSA results in risk informed decision making; plant specific PSAs and PSA related literature exemplifying specific procedures, methods, analytical models, relevant input data and important results, use of computer codes and results of code calculations. The PSAs are evaluated with respect to results and insights. In the conclusion section, the present state of risk informed decision making, in particular in the level 2 domain, is described and substantiated by relevant examples

  9. Whooping Cough PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-22

    This 30 second PSA encourages pregnant women to get the whooping cough vaccine, called Tdap, during the third trimester of each pregnancy in order to pass antibodies to their babies so they are born with protection against this serious disease.  Created: 1/22/2015 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Bacterial Diseases (DBD), Meningitis and Vaccine Preventable Diseases Branch (MVPDB).   Date Released: 1/22/2015.

  10. Binge Drinking PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-05

    This PSA is based on the October, 2010 CDC Vital Signs report which indicates that drinking too much, including binge drinking, causes more than 79,000 deaths in the U.S. each year and is the third leading preventable cause of death.  Created: 10/5/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 10/5/2010.

  11. PSA kinetics after prostate brachytherapy: PSA bounce phenomenon and its implications for PSA doubling time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciezki, Jay P.; Reddy, Chandana A.; Garcia, Jorge; Angermeier, Kenneth; Ulchaker, James; Mahadevan, Arul; Chehade, Nabil; Altman, Andrew; Klein, Eric A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze prostate-specific antigen (PSA) kinetics in patients treated with prostate brachytherapy (PI) with a minimum of 5 years of PSA follow-up. Methods and Materials: The records of 162 patients treated with PI for localized prostate cancer with a minimum of 5 years of PSA follow-up were reviewed. A variety of pretreatment and posttreatment variables were examined. Patients were coded as having a PSA bounce if their PSA achieved a nadir, elevated at least 0.2 ng/mL greater than that nadir, and decreased to, or below, the initial nadir. Two definitions of biochemical failure (bF) or biochemical relapse-free survival (bRFS) were used: the classic American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology consensus definition of three consecutive rises (bF3) and the nadir plus 2 ng/mL definition (bFn+2). Associations between a PSA bounce and the various pre- and posttreatment factors were assessed with logistic regression analysis, and the association between a PSA bounce and bF was examined with the log-rank test. The Mann-Whitney U test was applied to test for differences in the PSA doubling time (PSADT) and the time to a PSA rise between the PSA bounce patients and the bF patients. PSADT was calculated from the nadir to the time of the first PSA rise, because this point is known first in the clinical setting. Results: The 5-year overall bRFS rate was 87% for the bF3 definition and 96% for the bFn+2 definition. A PSA bounce was experienced by 75 patients (46.3%). Patients who experienced a PSA bounce were less likely to have a bF, regardless of the bRFS definition used (bF3: p = 0.0015; bFn+2: p = 0.0040). Among the pre- and posttreatment factors, only younger age predicted for a PSA bounce on multivariate analysis (p = 0.0018). The use of androgen deprivation had no effect on PSA bounce. No difference was found in the PSADT between patients who had a PSA bounce and those with bF. The median PSADT for those with a PSA bounce was 8.3 months vs. 10.3 months

  12. Prioritization of design changes based on PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krajnc, B.; Mavko, B.

    1996-01-01

    Effective use of Probabilistic Safety Analyses (PSA) in the day to day plant operation is subject of intensive discussions among plant operators and regulators. There are several possible applications in which the PSA can be used, among those also to use the PSA approach for the quantification of influence of different proposed design changes to nuclear safety - influence on public safety - health. NPP Krsko is one of those plants that successfully completed its PSA project, with Level 1 and Level 2 analyses and effective know-how transfer. It also faces a number of regulatory and internally generated requirements for different design changes, mainly due to the fact that the plant is committed to continuous augmentation of nuclear safety. It is considered that the available tools and knowledge should be used and therefore applicable methodology should be developed for effective prioritization of proposed design changes by performing cost-benefit analyses for all major modifications - focusing on their influence on nuclear safety. Based on the above a new method for prioritization of design changes is proposed. The method uses Level 1 results (in the sense of plant damage states and their frequencies) directly as an input for further processing - first decision step to decide whether the proposed modification has or has no influence on nuclear safety. In Level 2 analyses the combination of probabilistic and deterministic approach was adopted. In fact the results of the deterministic analyses of severe accidents are treated in probabilistic manner due to large uncertainty of results. Finally to be able to perform plant specific cost benefit analyses so called partial Level 3 was defined. The proposed methods was preliminary tested and it gave favorable results. (author)

  13. External Events PSA for the Paks NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bareith, Attila; Karsa, Zoltan; Siklossy, Tamas; Vida, Zoltan

    2014-01-01

    Initially, probabilistic safety assessment of external events was limited to the analysis of earthquakes for the Paks Nuclear Power Plant in Hungary. The level 1 seismic PSA was completed in 2002 showing a significant contribution of seismic failures to core damage risk. Although other external events of natural origin had previously been screened out from detailed plant PSA mostly on the basis of event frequencies, a review of recent experience on extreme weather phenomena made during the periodic safety review of the plant led to the initiation of PSA for external events other than earthquakes in 2009. In the meantime, the accident of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant confirmed further the importance of such an analysis. The external event PSA for the Paks plant followed the commonly known steps: selection and screening of external hazards, hazard assessment for screened-in external events, analysis of plant response and fragility, PSA model development, and risk quantification and interpretation of results. As a result of event selection and screening the following weather related external hazards were subject to detailed analysis: extreme wind, extreme rainfall (precipitation), extreme snow, extremely high and extremely low temperatures, lightning, frost and ice formation. The analysis proved to be a significant challenge due to scarcity of data, lack of knowledge, as well as limitations of existing PSA methodologies. This paper presents an overview of the external events PSA performed for the Paks NPP. Important methodological aspects are summarised. Key analysis findings and unresolved issues that need further elaboration are highlighted. Development of external events PSA for the Paks NPP was completed by the end of 2012. The analysis followed the commonly known steps: selection and screening of external hazards, hazard assessment for screened-in external events, analysis of plant response and fragility, PSA model development, and risk

  14. PSA results and trends for Spain's NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carretero, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    The Spain regulatory authority CSN demanded performance of PSA for all Spain nuclear power plants. The specific data analysis carried out as a part of the PSA has contributed to the realistic view on the results which could be achieved by the PSA. The main characteristics of the PSA in Spain and PSA trends in the development are presented in the paper

  15. Implementation guidelines for seismic PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coman, Ovidiu; Samaddar, Sujit; Hibino, Kenta; )

    2014-01-01

    The presentation was devoted to development of guidelines for implementation of a seismic PSA. If successful, these guidelines can close an important gap. ASME/ANS PRA standards and the related IAEA Safety Guide (IAEA NS-G-2.13) describe capability requirements for seismic PSA in order to support risk-informed applications. However, practical guidance on how to meet these requirements is limited. Such guidelines could significantly contribute to improving risk-informed safety demonstration, safety management and decision making. Extensions of this effort to further PSA areas, particularly to PSA for other external hazards, can enhance risk-informed applications

  16. PSA LEVEL 3 DAN IMPLEMENTASINYA PADA KAJIAN KESELAMATAN PWR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pande Made Udiyani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Kajian keselamatan PLTN menggunakan metodologi kajian probabilistik sangat penting selain kajian deterministik. Metodologi kajian menggunakan Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA Level 3 diperlukan terutama untuk estimasi kecelakaan parah atau kecelakaan luar dasar desain PLTN. Metode ini banyak dilakukan setelah kejadian kecelakaan Fukushima. Dalam penelitian ini dilakukan implementasi PSA Level 3 pada kajian keselamatan PWR, postulasi kecelakan luar dasar desain PWR AP-1000 dan disimulasikan di contoh tapak Bangka Barat. Rangkaian perhitungan yang dilakukan adalah: menghitung suku sumber dari kegagalan teras yang terjadi, pemodelan kondisi meteorologi tapak dan lingkungan, pemodelan jalur paparan, analisis dispersi radionuklida dan transportasi fenomena di lingkungan, analisis deposisi radionuklida, analisis dosis radiasi, analisis perlindungan & mitigasi, dan analisis risiko. Kajian menggunakan rangkaian subsistem pada perangkat lunak PC Cosyma. Hasil penelitian membuktikan bahwa implementasi metode kajian keselamatan PSA Level 3 sangat efektif dan komprehensif terhadap estimasi dampak, konsekuensi, risiko, kesiapsiagaan kedaruratan nuklir (nuclear emergency preparedness, dan manajemen kecelakaan reaktor terutama untuk kecelakaan parah atau kecelakaan luar dasar desain PLTN. Hasil kajian dapat digunakan sebagai umpan balik untuk kajian keselamatan PSA Level 1 dan PSA Level 2. Kata kunci: PSA level 3, kecelakaan, PWR   Reactor safety assessment of nuclear power plants using probabilistic assessment methodology is most important in addition to the deterministic assessment. The methodology of Level 3 Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA is especially required to estimate severe accident or beyond design basis accidents of nuclear power plants. This method is carried out after the Fukushima accident. In this research, the postulations beyond design basis accidentsof PWR AP - 1000 would be taken, and simulated at West Bangka sample site. The

  17. Comparison and lessons learned from plant specific PSA of German NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balfanz, Hans-Peter; Berg, H.P.

    2000-01-01

    PSA are launched in frame of Periodic Safety Reviews (PSR) in Germany. The aims are to identify overall safety level and relative weak points. Some backfitting measures have been realized for older plants to remove relative weak points and to bring these plants to the state of the art. In this field PSA is well accepted today and is seen as a valuable tool supplementing the deterministic analysis. Main application of PSA within PSR is planned to become mandatory as part of the revision of the German Atomic Energy Act. According to the German PSA Guideline plant specific PSA level 1+ were performed for all 19 In comparison with international practice German PSA are very detailed. Otherwise they do not handle all external events, non-power states and accident management measures as discussed before. The New PSA guideline will cover these aspects and therefore analysts have to take them into account in further PSA. Moreover gathering of plant specific data is needed. The development in this field is driven by the utilities (for instance in frame of their so-called ZEDB project). Public discussion about quantitative risk of industrial hazards is quite limited in Germany and PSA results have only few impacts to this respect. Independent from this PSA for NPP is understood as a diverse tool in supporting the deterministic licensing and supervision process. Risk based decision making as well as informed regulation are just only of the beginning. State of PSA of NPP in Germany, comparison of PSA result of different NPP, German PSA guideline and state of discussion of further development and recommendation of further development of PSA of NPP are discussed in this paper in more detail. (S.Y.)

  18. Comparison and lessons learned from plant specific PSA of German NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balfanz, Hans-Peter [TUEV Nord, Hamburg (Germany); Berg, H.P.

    2000-07-01

    PSA are launched in frame of Periodic Safety Reviews (PSR) in Germany. The aims are to identify overall safety level and relative weak points. Some backfitting measures have been realized for older plants to remove relative weak points and to bring these plants to the state of the art. In this field PSA is well accepted today and is seen as a valuable tool supplementing the deterministic analysis. Main application of PSA within PSR is planned to become mandatory as part of the revision of the German Atomic Energy Act. According to the German PSA Guideline plant specific PSA level 1+ were performed for all 19 In comparison with international practice German PSA are very detailed. Otherwise they do not handle all external events, non-power states and accident management measures as discussed before. The New PSA guideline will cover these aspects and therefore analysts have to take them into account in further PSA. Moreover gathering of plant specific data is needed. The development in this field is driven by the utilities (for instance in frame of their so-called ZEDB project). Public discussion about quantitative risk of industrial hazards is quite limited in Germany and PSA results have only few impacts to this respect. Independent from this PSA for NPP is understood as a diverse tool in supporting the deterministic licensing and supervision process. Risk based decision making as well as informed regulation are just only of the beginning. State of PSA of NPP in Germany, comparison of PSA result of different NPP, German PSA guideline and state of discussion of further development and recommendation of further development of PSA of NPP are discussed in this paper in more detail. (S.Y.)

  19. PSA Update Procedures, an Ultimate Need for Living PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegedus, D.

    1998-01-01

    Nuclear facilities by their complex nature, change with time. These changes can be both physical (plant modification, etc.), operational (enhanced procedures, etc.) and organizational. In addition, there are also changes in our understanding of the plant, due to operational experience, data collection, technology enhancements, etc. Therefore, it is imperative that PSA model must be frequently up-dated or modified to reflect these changes. Over the last ten years. these has been a remarkable growth of the use of Probabilistic Safety Assessments (PSAs). The most rapidly growing area of the PSA Applications is their use to support operational decision-making. Many of these applications are characterized by the potential for not only improving the safety level but also for providing guidance on the optimal use of resources and reducing regulatory burden. To enable a wider use of the PSA model as a tool for safety activities it is essential to maintain the model in a controlled state. Moreover, to fulfill requirements for L iving PSA , the PSA model has to be constantly updated and/or monitored to reflect the current plant configuration. It should be noted that the PSA model should not only represent the plant design but should also represent the operational and emergency procedures. To keep the PSA model up-to-date several issues should be clearly defined including: - Responsibility should be divided among the PSA group, - Procedures for implementing changes should be established, and - QA requirements/program should be established to assure documentation and reporting. (author)

  20. Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Prostate Cancer Screening Research Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Test On This Page What is the PSA ... parts of the body before being detected. The PSA test may give false-positive or false-negative ...

  1. Generation of risk importance information from severe accident PSA model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Mi Ro; Kim, Hyeong Taek; Moon, Chan Kook

    2012-01-01

    One of the important objects conducting Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) is the relative evaluation of importance of the component or function that is greatly affected to the plant safety. This evaluation is performed by the importance assessment methods such as Risk Reduction Worth, Risk Achievement Worth, and Fuss el Vessley method from the aspect of core damage frequency (CDF). In the Level 1 PSA model, the importance of each component can be evaluated since the CDF is calculated by the combination of the branch probability of event tree and the component failure probability in the fault tree. But, the Level 2 PSA model in order to assess the containment integrity cannot evaluate the risk importance by the above methods because the model is consisted of 3 parts, plant damage status, containment event tree, and source term category. So, in the field that the Level 2 PSA risk importance information should be reflected, such as maintenance rule program, risk importance has been determined by the subjective judgment of the model developer. This study was performed in order to generate the risk importance information more objectively and systematically in the Level 2 PSA model, focused on the containment event tree in the domain PHWR Level 2 PSA model

  2. Safety and efficacy of procedural sedation and analgesia (PSA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Safety and efficacy of procedural sedation and analgesia (PSA) conducted by medical officers in a level 1 hospital in Cape Town. ... Respiratory complications were treated with simple airway manoeuvres; no patient required intubation or experienced respiratory problems after waking up. There was no significant difference ...

  3. Development of PSA workstation KIRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Un; Han, Sang Hoon; Kim, Kil You; Yang, Jun Eon; Jeong, Won Dae; Chang, Seung Cheol; Sung, Tae Yong; Kang, Dae Il; Park, Jin Hee; Lee, Yoon Hwan; Hwang, Mi Jeong

    1997-01-01

    Advanced Research Group of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute has been developing the Probabilistic Safety Assessment(PSA) workstation KIRAP from 1992. This report describes the recent development activities of PSA workstation KIRAP. The first is to develop and improve the methodologies for PSA quantification, that are the incorporation of fault tree modularization technique, the improvement of cut set generation method, the development of rule-based recovery, the development of methodology to solve a fault tree which has the logical loops and to handle a fault tree which has several initiators. These methodologies are incorporated in the PSA quantification software KIRAP-CUT. The second is to convert PSA modeling softwares for Windows, which have been used on the DOS environment since 1987. The developed softwares are the fault tree editor KWTREE, the event tree editor CONPAS, and Data manager KWDBMAN for event data and common cause failure (CCF) data. With the development of PSA workstation, it makes PSA modeling and PSA quantification and automation easier and faster. (author). 8 refs.

  4. Development of PSA workstation KIRAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Un; Han, Sang Hoon; Kim, Kil You; Yang, Jun Eon; Jeong, Won Dae; Chang, Seung Cheol; Sung, Tae Yong; Kang, Dae Il; Park, Jin Hee; Lee, Yoon Hwan; Hwang, Mi Jeong.

    1997-01-01

    Advanced Research Group of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute has been developing the Probabilistic Safety Assessment(PSA) workstation KIRAP from 1992. This report describes the recent development activities of PSA workstation KIRAP. The first is to develop and improve the methodologies for PSA quantification, that are the incorporation of fault tree modularization technique, the improvement of cut set generation method, the development of rule-based recovery, the development of methodology to solve a fault tree which has the logical loops and to handle a fault tree which has several initiators. These methodologies are incorporated in the PSA quantification software KIRAP-CUT. The second is to convert PSA modeling softwares for Windows, which have been used on the DOS environment since 1987. The developed softwares are the fault tree editor KWTREE, the event tree editor CONPAS, and Data manager KWDBMAN for event data and common cause failure (CCF) data. With the development of PSA workstation, it makes PSA modeling and PSA quantification and automation easier and faster. (author). 8 refs

  5. Detection of prostate cancer with complexed PSA and complexed/total PSA ratio - is there any advantage?

    OpenAIRE

    Strittmatter, F; Stieber, P; Nagel, D; Füllhase, C; Walther, S; Stief, CG; Waidelich, R

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To evaluate the performance of total PSA (tPSA), the free/total PSA ratio (f/tPSA), complexed PSA (cPSA) and the complexed/total PSA ratio (c/tPSA) in prostate cancer detection. Methods Frozen sera of 442 patients have been analysed for tPSA, free PSA (fPSA) and cPSA. 131 patients had prostate cancer and 311 patients benign prostatic hyperplasia. Results Differences in the distribution of the biomarkers were seen as follows: tPSA, cPSA and c/tPSA were significantly higher i...

  6. Risk Metrics and Measures for an Extended PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wielenberg, A.; Loeffler, H.; Hasnaoui, C.; Burgazzi, L.; Cazzoli, E.; Jan, P.; La Rovere, S.; Siklossy, T.; Vitazkova, J.; Raimond, E.

    2016-01-01

    This report provides a review of the main used risk measures for Level 1 and Level 2 PSA. It depicts their advantages, limitations and disadvantages and develops some more precise risk measures relevant for extended PSAs and helpful for decision-making. This report does not recommend or suggest any quantitative value for the risk measures. It does not discuss in details decision-making based on PSA results neither. The choice of one appropriate risk measure or a set of risk measures depends on the decision making approach as well as on the issue to be decided. The general approach for decision making aims at a multi-attribute approach. This can include the use of several risk measures as appropriate. Section 5 provides some recommendations on the main risk metrics to be used for an extended PSA. For Level 1 PSA, Fuel Damage Frequency and Radionuclide Mobilization Frequency are recommended. For Level 2 PSA, the characterization of loss of containment function and a total risk measure based on the aggregated activity releases of all sequences rated by their frequencies is proposed. (authors)

  7. Short overview of PSA quantification methods, pitfalls on the road from approximate to exact results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banov, Reni; Simic, Zdenko; Sterc, Davor

    2014-01-01

    Over time the Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) models have become an invaluable companion in the identification and understanding of key nuclear power plant (NPP) vulnerabilities. PSA is an effective tool for this purpose as it assists plant management to target resources where the largest benefit for plant safety can be obtained. PSA has quickly become an established technique to numerically quantify risk measures in nuclear power plants. As complexity of PSA models increases, the computational approaches become more or less feasible. The various computational approaches can be basically classified in two major groups: approximate and exact (BDD based) methods. In recent time modern commercially available PSA tools started to provide both methods for PSA model quantification. Besides availability of both methods in proven PSA tools the usage must still be taken carefully since there are many pitfalls which can drive to wrong conclusions and prevent efficient usage of PSA tool. For example, typical pitfalls involve the usage of higher precision approximation methods and getting a less precise result, or mixing minimal cuts and prime implicants in the exact computation method. The exact methods are sensitive to selected computational paths in which case a simple human assisted rearrangement may help and even switch from computationally non-feasible to feasible methods. Further improvements to exact method are possible and desirable which opens space for a new research. In this paper we will show how these pitfalls may be detected and how carefully actions must be done especially when working with large PSA models. (authors)

  8. Influence of PSA, PSA velocity and PSA doubling time on contrast-enhanced {sup 18}F-choline PET/CT detection rate in patients with rising PSA after radical prostatectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schillaci, Orazio [University ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Biopathology and Diagnostic Imaging, Interventional, Rome (Italy); IRCCS Neuromed, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Pozzilli (Italy); Calabria, Ferdinando [IRCCS Neuromed, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Pozzilli (Italy); Tavolozza, Mario; Caracciolo, Cristiana Ragano; Orlacchio, Antonio; Danieli, Roberta; Simonetti, Giovanni [University ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Biopathology and Diagnostic Imaging, Interventional, Rome (Italy); Agro, Enrico Finazzi; Miano, Roberto [University Hospital ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Urology, Rome (Italy)

    2012-04-15

    To evaluate the accuracy of contrast-enhanced {sup 18}F-choline PET/CT in restaging patients with prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy in relation to PSA, PSA velocity (PSAve) and PSA doubling time (PSAdt). PET/CT was performed in 49 patients (age range 58-87 years) with rising PSA (mean 4.13 ng/ml) who were divided in four groups according to PSA level: {<=}1 ng/ml, 1 to {<=}2 ng/ml, 2 to {<=}4 ng/ml, and >4 ng/ml. PSAve and PSAdt were measured. PET and CT scans were interpreted separately and then together. PET/CT diagnosed relapse in 33 of the 49 patients (67%). The detection rates were 20%, 55%, 80% and 87% in the PSA groups {<=}1, 1 to {<=}2, 2 to {<=}4 and >4 ng/ml, respectively. PET/CT was positive in 7 of 18 patients (38.9%) with a PSA {<=}2 ng/ml, and in 26 of 31 (83.9%) with a PSA >2 ng/ml. PET/CT was positive in 7 of 25 patients (84%) with PSAdt {<=}6 months, and in 12 of 24 patients (50%) with PSAdt >6 months, and was positive in 26 of 30 patients (86%) with a PSAve >2 ng/ml per year, and in 7 of 19 patients (36.8%) with PSAve {<=}2 ng/ml per year. PET alone was positive in 31 of 49 patients (63.3%), and of these 31 patients, CT was negative in 14 but diagnosed bone lesions in 2 patients in whom PET alone was negative. CT with the administration of intravenous contrast medium did not provide any further information. Detection rate of {sup 18}F-choline imaging is closely related to PSA and PSA kinetics. In particular, {sup 18}F-choline PET/CT is recommended in patients with PSA >2 ng/ml, PSAdt {<=}6 months and PSAve >2 ng/ml per year. CT is useful for detecting bone metastases that are not {sup 18}F-choline-avid. The use of intravenous contrast agent seems unnecessary. (orig.)

  9. Development of a simple computer code to obtain relevant data on H2 and CO combustion in severe accidents and to aid in PSA-2 assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robledo, F.; Martin-Valdepenas, J.M.; Jimenez, M.A.; Martin-Fuertes, F.

    2007-01-01

    By following Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear (CSN) requirements, all of the Spanish NPPs performed plant specific PSA level 2 studies and implemented Severe Accident Management Guidelines during the first years of this century. CSN and contractors made an independent detailed review of these PSA level 2 studies. This independent review included the performance of plant specific calculations by using the MELCOR code and some other stand-alone codes and the calculation of the fission product release frequencies for each plant. One of the aspects treated in detail by CSN evaluations was the calculation of the containment failure probability due to the burn of combustible gases generated during a severe accident. It was shown that it would be useful to have a fast running code with capability to provide the most relevant data concerning H 2 and CO combustion. Therefore, the Polytechnic University of Madrid (UPM) developed the CPPC code for the CSN. This stand-alone module makes fast calculations on maximum static pressures in the containment building generated from H 2 and CO combustion in severe accidents, considering well-mixed atmospheres and includes the most recent advances and developments in the field of H 2 and CO combustion. Code input is simple: mass of H 2 and CO, initial environmental conditions inside the containment before the combustion and simple geometric data, such as the volume of the building enclosing the combustible gases. The code calculates the containment temperature assuming steam saturated atmosphere and provides the following output: - Combustion completeness (CC); - Adiabatic and isochoric combustion pressure (p AICC ); - Chapman-Jouguet pressure (p CJ ); - Chapman-Jouguet reflected pressure (p Cjrefl ). When the combustion regime results in dynamic pressure loads, the CPPC code calculates the equivalent static pressure (effective pressure p eff ) by modeling the containment structure as a simple harmonic oscillator. Additionally, the code

  10. Determining if pretreatment PSA doubling time predicts PSA trajectories after radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto, Daniel E.; Andridge, Rebecca R.; Pan, Charlie C.; Williams, Scott G.; Taylor, Jeremy M.G.; Sandler, Howard M.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: To determine if pretreatment PSA doubling time (PSA-DT) can predict post-radiation therapy (RT) PSA trajectories for localized prostate cancer. Materials and methods: Three hundred and seventy-five prostate cancer patients treated with external beam RT without androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) were identified with an adequate number of PSA values. We utilized a linear mixed model (LMM) analysis to model longitudinal PSA data sets after definitive treatment. Post-treatment PSA trajectories were allowed to depend on the pre-RT PSA-DT, pre-RT PSA (iPSA), Gleason score (GS), and T-stage. Results: Pre-RT PSA-DT had a borderline impact on predicting the rate of PSA rise after nadir (p = 0.08). For a typical low risk patient (T1, GS ≤ 6, iPSA 10), the predicted PSA-DT post-nadir was 21% shorter for pre-RT PSA-DT 24 month (19 month vs. 24 month). Additional significant predictors of post-RT PSA rate of rise included GS (p < 0.0001), iPSA (p < 0.0001), and T-stage (p = 0.02). Conclusions: We observed a trend between rapidly rising pre-RT PSA and the post-RT post-nadir PSA rise. This effect appeared to be independent of iPSA, GS, or T-stage. The results presented suggest that pretreatment PSA-DT may help predict post-RT PSA trajectories

  11. Blackpool: More evidence on PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullingford, M.

    1985-01-01

    PSA is spreading widely throughout the world, with 30 IAEA Member States having active programmes in this area. The main reason for its popularity is that it offers insights critical in the safety decision-making process available from no other method. It allows power plant designers, regulators, and operators to discriminate between issues important to safety and those which are trivial. Although it is beneficial to perform a PSA to utilize the potential products available from such a study, it is especially important to realize that the PSA process itself is a valuable experience. The main points such as potential users of PSA, safety evaluations, treatment of uncertainties as well as future trends are briefly discussed in this paper

  12. Development of a PSA information database system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Hwan

    2005-01-01

    The need to develop the PSA information database for performing a PSA has been growing rapidly. For example, performing a PSA requires a lot of data to analyze, to evaluate the risk, to trace the process of results and to verify the results. PSA information database is a system that stores all PSA related information into the database and file system with cross links to jump to the physical documents whenever they are needed. Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute is developing a PSA information database system, AIMS (Advanced Information Management System for PSA). The objective is to integrate and computerize all the distributed information of a PSA into a system and to enhance the accessibility to PSA information for all PSA related activities. This paper describes how we implemented such a database centered application in the view of two areas, database design and data (document) service

  13. Comparison of the N Reactor and Ignalina Unit No. 2 Level 1 Probabilistic Safety Assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coles, G.A.; McKay, S.L.

    1995-06-01

    A multilateral team recently completed a full-scope Level 1 Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) on the Ignalina Unit No. 2 reactor plant in Lithuania. This allows comparison of results to those of the PSA for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) N Reactor. The N Reactor, although unique as a Western design, has similarities to Eastern European and Soviet graphite block reactors

  14. Human behaviour in PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schott, H.

    1999-01-01

    Based on the current international state of the art of methodology for evaluation of human errors for PSA, many research projects have been initiated by the competent departments of the BMU and the BfS (Federal Min. of the Environment and Reactor Safety, Federal Radiation Protection Office). Three major areas of the research activities are discussed: Database: - Specific investigations into the applicability of generic data (THERP) to other than the original cases, possibly elaboration of approaches for application-specific modification, further evaluation of operating results; - general enhancement of insight into human performance and errors, e.g. with respect to causes of error and application areas (influence of organisation, cognitive performance); interviews with experts as a supplementary approach for data verification and database enhancement. Sensitivity analysis: - Identification of information describing human errors essentially contributing to frequency of occurrence of incidents and system non-availability; - establishment of relevance rating system, methodology for uncertainty analysis. Further development of methodology: - Modelling of repair activities and knowledge-based behaviour. (orig./CB) [de

  15. The JET level-1 software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCullen, P.A.; Farthing, J.W.

    1998-01-01

    The complex nature of the JET machine requires a large amount of control parameter preparation, selection and validation before a pulse may be started. Level-1 is defined as the centralized, cross-subsystem control of JET. Before it was introduced over 10 years ago, the Session Leader (SL) who is responsible for specifying the parameter settings for a JET pulse, had virtually no software available to help him except for a simple editor used for the creation of control waveforms. Most of the required parameter settings were calculated by hand and then passed on either verbally or via hand-written forms. These parameters were then set by a large number of people - Local Unit Responsible Officers (LUROs) and CODAS Duty Officers (CDOs) using a wide selection of dedicated software. At this time the Engineer in Charge (EiC) would largely depend on the LUROs to inform him that conditions were ready. He never set control parameters personally and had little or no software available to him to see what many of the settings were. The first implementation of Level-1 software went some way towards improving the task of pulse schedule preparation in that the SL could specify his requirements via a computer interface and store them in a database for later use. At that time the maximum number of parameters that could be handled was 500. (author)

  16. NRC regulatory uses of PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murley, T.E.

    1991-01-01

    The publication in 1975 of WASH-1400, with its new probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) methodology, had the effect of presenting a pair of eyeglasses to a man with poor eyesight. Suddenly, it gave us a view of nuclear safety with a new clarity, and it allowed us to sort out the important safety issues from the unimportant. In the intervening years, PSA insights have permeated the fabric of nearly all our safety judgments. This acceptance can be seen from the following list of broad areas where the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff uses PSA insights and methodology: evaluating the safety significance of operating events and recommending safety improvements where warranted; requesting licensees to systematically look for design vulnerabilities in each operating reactor; evaluating the safety significance of design weaknesses or non-compliances when judging the time frame for necessary improvements; conducting sensitivity analyses to judge where safety improvements are most effective; assessing the relative safety benefits of design features for future reactors. In judging where PSA methodology can be improved to give better safety insights, it is believed that the following areas need more attention: better modeling of cognitive errors; more comprehensive modeling of accident sequences initiated from conditions other than full power; more comprehensive modeling of inter-system loss of coolant accident (ISLOCA) sequences. Although PSA is widely used in the staff's regulatory activities, the NRC deliberately chooses not to include probabilistic prescriptions in regulations or guidance documents. The staff finds the bottom line risk estimates to be one of the least reliable products of a PSA. The reason for this view is that PSA cannot adequately address cognitive errors nor assess the effects of a pervasive poor safety attitude

  17. Experience in PSA fault tree modularization at the ASCO NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nos Llorens, V.; Frances Urmeneta, M.; Fraig Sureda, J.

    1995-01-01

    Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) is a basic tool in decision-making for the optimization of back fittings, procedures and maintenance practices. ASCO NPP PSA was developed with a high level of detail in the models. This required considerable computer resources (long running time) to carry out the quantification. The quantification time had therefore to be flexible to allow continuous evaluation of the impact on the estimation and reduction of risk in the plant, and also to facilitate post-PSA applications. The most suitable way of achieving this flexibility was by compacting and reducing the detailed fault trees of the project by means of a modularization process. The purpose of the paper is to present the practical experience acquired with modularization carried out in the UTE UNITEC-INYPSA-EMPRESARIOS AGRUPADOS framework and the method applied, the support computer programs devised and their degree of effectiveness. (Author)

  18. Seismic PSA method for multiple nuclear power plants in a site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakata, Tadakuni [Nuclear Safety Commission, Tokyo (Japan)

    2007-07-15

    The maximum number of nuclear power plants in a site is eight and about 50% of power plants are built in sites with three or more plants in the world. Such nuclear sites have potential risks of simultaneous multiple plant damages especially at external events. Seismic probabilistic safety assessment method (Level-1 PSA) for multi-unit sites with up to 9 units has been developed. The models include Fault-tree linked Monte Carlo computation, taking into consideration multivariate correlations of components and systems from partial to complete, inside and across units. The models were programmed as a computer program CORAL reef. Sample analysis and sensitivity studies were performed to verify the models and algorithms and to understand some of risk insights and risk metrics, such as site core damage frequency (CDF per site-year) for multiple reactor plants. This study will contribute to realistic state of art seismic PSA, taking consideration of multiple reactor power plants, and to enhancement of seismic safety. (author)

  19. A formal treatment of uncertainty sources in a level 2 PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Kwang Il; Yang, Joon Eon

    2003-01-01

    The methodological framework of the level 2 PSA appears to be currently standardized in a formalized fashion, but there have been different opinions on the way the sources of uncertainty are characterized and treated. This is primarily because the level 2 PSA deals with complex phenomenological processes that are deterministic in nature rather than random processes, and there are no probabilistic models characterizing them clearly. As a result, the probabilistic quantification of the level 2 PSA is often subjected to two sources of uncertainty: (a) incomplete modeling of accident pathways or different predictions for the behavior of phenomenological events and (b) expert-to-expert variation in estimating the occurrence probability of phenomenological events. While a clear definition of the two sources of uncertainty involved in the level 2 PSA makes it possible to treat an uncertainty in a consistent manner, careless application of these different sources of uncertainty may produce different conclusions in the decision-making process. The primary purpose of this paper is to characterize typical sources of uncertainty that would often be addressed in the level 2 PSA and their impacts on the PSA level 2 risk results. An additional purpose of this paper is to give a formal approach on how to combine random uncertainties addressed in the level 1 PSA with subjectivistic uncertainties addressed in the level 2 PSA

  20. A formal guidance for handling different uncertainty sources employed in the level 2 PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Kwang Il; Yang, Joon Eon; Ha, Jae Joo

    2004-01-01

    The methodological framework of the level 2 PSA appears to be currently standardized in a formalized fashion, but there have been different opinions on the way the sources of uncertainty are characterized and treated. This is primarily because the level 2 PSA deals with complex phenomenological processes that are deterministic in nature rather than random processes, and there are no probabilistic models characterizing them clearly. As a result, the probabilistic quantification of the level 2 PSA CET/APET is often subjected to two sources of uncertainty: (a) incomplete modeling of accident pathways or different predictions for the behavior of phenomenological events and (b) expert-to-expert variation in estimating the occurrence probability of phenomenological events. While a clear definition of the two sources of uncertainty involved in the level 2 PSA makes it possible to treat an uncertainty in a consistent manner, careless application of these different sources of uncertainty may produce different conclusions in the decision-making process. The primary purpose of this paper is to characterize typical sources of uncertainty that would often be addressed in the level 2 PSA and to provide a formal guidance for quantifying their impacts on the PSA level 2 risk results. An additional purpose of this paper is to give a formal approach on how to combine random uncertainties addressed in the level 1 PSA with subjectivistic uncertainties addressed in the level 2 PSA

  1. Workshop on PSA applications, Sofia, Bulgaria, 7-11 October 1996. Lecturing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this workshop was to present detailed, systematic and useful information about PSA-based tools and PSA applications. The first presentation of the workshop was titled ''The role of PSA in safety management''. This topic served to introduce the workshop and to highlight several concepts that were afterwards stressed during the week, i.e. the defence in depth principle and the use of deterministic and probabilistic approaches in a complementary way. This presentation provided a basis for the discussion of ''PSA applications''. As a complement to the theoretical lectures, there was a workshop during which three different exercises were run in parallel. For two of these, computer-based PSA tools were used. One of them was focused towards the analysis of design modifications and the other one towards demonstrating configuration control strategies. The objective of the third practice was to obtain Allowed Outage Times using different PSA-based approaches and to discuss the differences observed and the insights obtained. To conclude the workshop, stress was put on the importance of the quality of the PSA (the development of a high quality Living PSA should be the first step), the necessity to be cautious (before taking decisions both the qualitative and numerical results should be carefully analyzed), and the logical order for the implementation of PSA applications. Refs, figs, tabs

  2. The role of PSA in safety management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szikszai, T.

    1997-01-01

    The presentation discusses the following issues: defence in depth principle (the role of the barriers, how does PSA represents the barriers?); the safety management and nuclear power plants; the probabilistic and deterministic approaches; the PSA applications and safety management

  3. Comparison of SKIFS 2004:1 and Tillsynshandbok PSA against the ASME PRA Standard and European requirements on PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellstroem, Per

    2005-04-01

    Requirements on PSA for risk informed applications are expressed in different international documents. The ASME PRA standard published in spring 2002 is one such document, PSA requirements are also expressed in the European Utility Requirements (EUR) for new reactors. The Swedish PSA requirements are provided in the Swedish regulators (SKI) statutes SKIFS 2004:1. SKI also has a review handbook for PSA activities (SKI report 2003:48). The review handbook is a support during review of the utilities PSA activities and the PSAs themselves. The review handbook expresses SKIs expectations by providing so called important aspects for both the PSA work and the PSAs, A comparison of SKIFS requirements and the important aspects in the Review handbook, on one side, and the requirements on PSA in EUR and ASME on the other side, is presented. The comparison shows a large difference in the level of detail in the different documents, where ASME is most detailed and specific. This is expected since the SKI review handbook not is a 'PSA guide' in the same way as the ASME PRA standard. A direct comparison of the ASME PRA standard requirements with the important aspects in the review handbook cannot answer the question which ASME capacity level that is achieved by a PSA meeting all important aspects. The conclusion is that it is not likely to achieve capacity level 2 and 3, since very few ASME level 3 attributes are explicitly expressed as important aspects, though many are expressed in general terms. The review handbook important aspects that are most similar to the ASME capacity level 1 attributes are initiating events, sequence analysis, and system analysis while less similarity is found for analysis of operator actions data analysis, quantification and containment analysis (level 2). Less similarity is found for capacity level 2 and 3. However, the number of additional ASME attributes on capacity level 2 and 3 are few. There are also important aspects in the review handbook that

  4. Development of a PSA information management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Seok; Dong Kyu, Kim; Sun Koo, Kang

    2007-01-01

    In general, Probabilistic Safety Agreement (PSA) is a very complicated work that uses and generates a lot of resources such as reports, procedures, drawings, assumptions, calculation sheets, PSA model, and so on. In many PSAs, however, the data, materials and knowledge considered and generated during performing PSA are scattered in many documents so that overall structure of PSA and information relationship between documents and models cannot easily be understood. To organize and manage all documents related to PSA, to capture knowledge of analysts, and finally to improve the quality of PSA, a PSA information management system (PIMS) was developed. The PIMS can manage all the documents of a PSA in a database and connect the causal relation between one information to another in the scattered documents via link. The PIMS can manage all the assumptions and technical basis used in PSA, and it can keep the record of the design changes the revision of PSA model. It can also control the review results of PSA models. The link of the PIMS can explicitly describe and reveal the expertise of the PSA analysts, and it enables the users to capture the knowledge and to understand the structure and contents of a PSA with ease. We are planning to apply the PIMS to the PSA of Shin Kori Units 1 and 2 as feasibility study and then to all the PSAs of the nuclear power plants in Korea. The PIMS is expected to contribute to enhancing the quality and confidence of PSA and reducing the efforts and costs of maintenance and update of PSA. (authors)

  5. PSA - a tool for the nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himanen, R.

    1992-01-01

    The PSA-model for BWR-type reactors of Finnish power company, Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) was finished in year 1989. This basic PSA model included all safety systems, normal operating systems and auxiliary systems. Today TVO is working to enlarge the PSA to level 2 (environmental effects, for the fires, for the floodings and the outages). The TVO's experiences has been showed the PSA an useful tool for the developing the safety of BWR's (orig.)

  6. Development of a PSA information management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Seok; Dong Kyu, Kim; Sun Koo, Kang [Korea Power Engineering Company, Inc (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    In general, Probabilistic Safety Agreement (PSA) is a very complicated work that uses and generates a lot of resources such as reports, procedures, drawings, assumptions, calculation sheets, PSA model, and so on. In many PSAs, however, the data, materials and knowledge considered and generated during performing PSA are scattered in many documents so that overall structure of PSA and information relationship between documents and models cannot easily be understood. To organize and manage all documents related to PSA, to capture knowledge of analysts, and finally to improve the quality of PSA, a PSA information management system (PIMS) was developed. The PIMS can manage all the documents of a PSA in a database and connect the causal relation between one information to another in the scattered documents via link. The PIMS can manage all the assumptions and technical basis used in PSA, and it can keep the record of the design changes the revision of PSA model. It can also control the review results of PSA models. The link of the PIMS can explicitly describe and reveal the expertise of the PSA analysts, and it enables the users to capture the knowledge and to understand the structure and contents of a PSA with ease. We are planning to apply the PIMS to the PSA of Shin Kori Units 1 and 2 as feasibility study and then to all the PSAs of the nuclear power plants in Korea. The PIMS is expected to contribute to enhancing the quality and confidence of PSA and reducing the efforts and costs of maintenance and update of PSA. (authors)

  7. Hepatitis Awareness Month PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-05-11

    May is National Hepatitis Awareness Month. This 30 second PSA discusses hepatitis and encourages listners to talk to their health care professional about getting tested.  Created: 5/11/2011 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention.   Date Released: 5/11/2011.

  8. World AIDS Day PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-11-16

    December 1 is World AIDS Day. In this PSA, communities are encouraged to get tested for HIV.  Created: 11/16/2011 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 11/16/2011.

  9. Raccoon Roundworm Infection PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-08-27

    This 60 second PSA describes the signs and symptoms of and ways to prevent Baylisascaris infection, a parasitic roundworm infection that is spread through raccoon feces.  Created: 8/27/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 8/28/2012.

  10. Methods and use of PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaurio, J.

    2005-01-01

    The objective is to introduce possible methods and methodological issues for application of PSA for decision making at nuclear power plants based on risk and cost, to present a number of application examples, and to describe recommendations and regulatory guides for risk-informed applications. (orig.)

  11. Evaluation of postradiotherapy PSA patterns and correlation with 10-year disease free survival outcomes for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelefsky, Michael J.; Ben-Porat, Leah; Chan, Heather M.; Fearn, Paul A.; Venkatraman, Ennapadam S.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) pattern profiles observed after external beam radiotherapy with and without short-term neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy (ST-ADT) and to report the association of established posttreatment PSA patterns with long-term disease-free survival outcomes. Methods and Materials: A total of 1,665 patients were treated with conformal external beam radiotherapy for clinically localized prostate cancer. Of 570 patients who had the requisite >10 consecutive PSA measurements for statistical analysis, 194 patients received a median of 3 months of ADT before radiotherapy and 376 were treated with radiotherapy alone. The median follow up was 103 months. Results: In the group treated with ST-ADT, three distinct postradiotherapy PSA patterns were identified: a stable trend (44%), an increasing trend followed by stabilization of the PSA (25%), and an increasing trend (31%). Among the subgroup that demonstrated a rising and subsequent stabilizing patterns, PSA levels had gradually risen to a median value of 0.9 ng/mL after therapy, stabilized, and remained durably suppressed. The only identified trends among patients treated with external beam radiotherapy without ST-ADT were declining PSA levels followed by stable PSA trends or declining patterns followed by rising levels. Patients whose PSA levels stabilized after an initial rise or those with slowly rising PSA profiles had a lower incidence of distant metastasis compared to those with accelerated rises after therapy. Conclusions: For those treated with external beam radiotherapy in conjunction with ST-ADT, a significant percentage who develop a rising PSA after treatment are expected to manifest subsequent stabilization at plateaued levels of approximately 1.0 ng/mL, which can remain durably suppressed. The likelihood of distant metastasis in these patients is low despite the PSA stabilization at levels 1.0 ng/mL or higher and comparable to outcomes observed for those

  12. Serum PSA Evaluations during salvage radiotherapy for post-prostatectomy biochemical failures as prognosticators for treatment outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Do, Tri; Dave, Giatri; Parker, Robert; Kagan, A. Robert

    2001-01-01

    Introduction: Serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels have proved to be sensitive markers for the diagnosis of prostate cancer. In addition, PSA levels are useful for detecting and monitoring prostate cancer progression after radiotherapy. Serum PSA evaluations during radiotherapy, however, have not been well documented. In this study, we investigate the prognostic value of PSA evaluations during salvage radiotherapy for prostatectomy failures. Methods: Forty-one patients with biochemical failures after prostatectomy treated with salvage radiotherapy consented to have their serum PSA levels evaluated at 30 Gy and 45 Gy of irradiation. All 41 patients had negative metastatic workup and pathologically uninvolved pelvic lymph nodes at the time of referral for salvage radiotherapy. Radiation therapy was delivered with 10-25 MV photons, with doses of 59.4-66.6 Gy. No patients received hormonal ablation therapy before irradiation. Results: The mean follow-up for all patients was 30.9 months. At last follow-up, 28/41 patients (68.3%) were free from biochemical failure, with 20 of 41 patients (48.8%) expressing undetectable PSA levels. Serum PSA evaluations at 30 Gy did not significantly predict for either biochemical (p=0.0917) or clinical (p=0.106) disease-free outcome. However, serum PSA evaluations at 45 Gy significantly predicted for both biochemical (p=0.0043) and clinical (p=0.0244) disease-free outcomes, with PSA elevations at 45 Gy significantly associated with poor outcomes. On univariate analysis of prognosticators for biochemical failures, the following were significant: an elevation in serum PSA levels at 45 Gy, detectable serum PSA immediately after prostatectomy, Gleason score 7-10, and serum PSA level >1 ng/ml before salvage radiotherapy. Conclusion: Evaluation of serum PSA level at 45 Gy of salvage radiotherapy for biochemical relapses after prostatectomy may serve as a significant prognosticator for both biochemical and clinical disease-free outcomes

  13. Insights of PSA studies made for operating nuclear power stations in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laaksonen, J.; Virolainen, R.

    1991-01-01

    In 1984 the Finnish regulatory authority (STUK) required the utilities to make plant specific probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) studies for each plant. It was also strongly recommended that most of the work be made by plant personnel. This advice was well observed by both utilities. Results of level 1 PSA studies were submitted for regulatory review in June 1989. Only internal initiating events, including loss-of-offsite power and human errors, were considered at this stage. Each study took an effort of 12 to 20 man years. A thorough regulatory review, about two man years per plant, is currently underway, and will cause some changes in the initial results of the studies. The utilities are continuing their PSA work with the fire and flood analysis, and then with the analysis of risks during start-up and shutdown conditions. As soon as a level 1 PSA study has been reviewed, and a common understanding of the models and data has been reached between the utility and the STUK, this basic PSA version will be the first element of a living PSA. The second element is a user friendly PSA code that can rapidly run through the quantitative part of the study and thus easily indicate the influence of any deviation from the basic version. The third element is plant specific data collection and processing system. The living PSA for the first plant is expected to be fully operational sometime next year. The first use of the living PSA will be the safety assessment of proposed plant modifications and a systematic re-evaluation of technical specifications

  14. State of living PSA and further development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    In October 1985 OECD-Principal Working Group (PWG 5) - Risk Assessment has initiated the Task Force 7 'Use of PSA in Nuclear Power Plant Management' to explore and report on the principles, characteristics, requirements and status of PSA oriented safety management. During this study, it became apparent that the utilisation of PSA techniques in nuclear plant safety management requires the development of supporting programmes to ensure that PSA models are being updated to reflect plant changes, and to direct their use towards the evaluation and determination of plant changes. These requirements also influence the software and hardware characteristics necessary to support the programme. This overall process is known as Living PSA. In this context OECD-PWG 5 has arranged international workshops on Living PSA application to support this development, to facilitate exchange of international experience and to summarise the state-of-the-art of L-PSA methodology. These activities were accompanied by following Task Groups of OECD-PWG 5 and the work results were published in state-of-the-art reports. According to the increasing development of Living PSA in the international field and its capacity to support plant safety management in a broad sense, OECD PWG 5 continues its work in setting up the Task Group 96-1 'State of Living PSA and Further Development' to clarify specific aspects of Living PSA. This report summarises the state of Living PSA in the international field based on the four Living PSA Workshops from 1988 to 1994 (Chapter 2) and the state of Reliability Data Collection based on the results of Task Group 12 'Reliability Data Collection and Analysis to Support PSA' and the two Data-Workshops from 1995 and 1998 (Chapter 3). The specific items of further development of Living PSA application as mentioned above are treated in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 gives a summary of the current state of Living PSA as well as outlook and recommendations of further development

  15. Review process of PSA level 2 of KBR - Concept and Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andernacht, M.; Glaser, H.; Sonnenkalb, M.

    2013-01-01

    In Germany, a periodic safety review (PSR) has to be performed every ten years by the utility. In the past, a PSR only included a plant-specific probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) Level 1 study. Since a revised version of the German PSA guideline has been released in 2005, these plant-specific PSAs have to include a PSA Level 2, too. For the NPP Brokdorf (KBR) PSA Level 2 project, an agreement was reached between all parties involved that the study will be performed not as a part of the PSR process, but supplementary to it. This paper will focus on conclusions and findings from an ongoing parallel review process of the first full scope PSA Level 2 performed by the utility for KBR, a typical German PWR-1300. The responsible authority 'Ministerium fuer Soziales, Gesundheit, Familie, Jugend und Senioren des Landes Schleswig- Holstein' (MSGF) initiated this parallel review process in agreement with the utility KBR and the E.ON Kernkraft in 2006. The project will be completed soon. Such a review process allows that essential steps of the PSA will be reviewed and commented before the PSA Level 2 will be finished. So the benefit from this parallel review process is a significant enhancement of the quality and completeness of the PSA Level 2 study as the majority of the recommendations given by the review team has been taken over by the utility and the developer of the PSA, the AREVA NP company. Further, a common understanding and agreement will be reached at the end between all parties involved on the major topics of the PSA Level 2 study. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation. (authors)

  16. Review process of PSA Level 2 of KBR. Concept and experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andernacht, Martin; Glaser, Hendrik; Sonnenkalb, Martin

    2009-01-01

    In Germany, a periodic safety review (PSR) has to be performed every 10 years by the utility. In the past, a PSR only included a plant-specific probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) Level 1 study. For the NPP Brokdorf (KBR) PSA Level 2 project, an agreement was reached between all parties involved that the study will be performed not as a part of the PSR process, but supplementary to it. Since a revised version of the German PSA guideline has been released in 2005, these plant-specific PSAs have to include a PSA Level 2, too. This paper will focus on conclusions and findings from a ongoing parallel review process of the first full scope PSA Level 2 performed by the utility for KBR, a typical German PWR-1300. The responsible authority 'Ministerium fuer Soziales, Gesundheit, Familie, Jugend und Senioren des Landes Schleswig-Holstein (MSGF)' (Ministry of Social Affairs, Health, Family, Youth and Senior Citizens of Schleswig-Holstein) initiated this parallel review process in agreement with the utility KBR and the E.ON Kernkraft in 2006. The project will be completed soon. Such a review process allows that essential steps of the PSA will be reviewed and commented before the PSA Level 2 will be finished. So the benefit from this parallel review process is a significant enhancement of the quality and completeness of the PSA Level 2 study as the majority of the recommendations given by the review team has been taken over by the utility and the developer of the PSA, the Areva NP company. Further, a common understanding and agreement will be reached at the end between all parties involved on the major topics of the PSA Level 2 study. (orig.)

  17. Prevalence and causes of abnormal PSA recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautenbach, Noémie; Müntener, Michael; Zanoni, Paolo; Saleh, Lanja; Saba, Karim; Umbehr, Martin; Velagapudi, Srividya; Hof, Danielle; Sulser, Tullio; Wild, Peter J; von Eckardstein, Arnold; Poyet, Cédric

    2018-01-26

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test is of paramount importance as a diagnostic tool for the detection and monitoring of patients with prostate cancer. In the presence of interfering factors such as heterophilic antibodies or anti-PSA antibodies the PSA test can yield significantly falsified results. The prevalence of these factors is unknown. We determined the recovery of PSA concentrations diluting patient samples with a standard serum of known PSA concentration. Based on the frequency distribution of recoveries in a pre-study on 268 samples, samples with recoveries 120% were defined as suspect, re-tested and further characterized to identify the cause of interference. A total of 1158 consecutive serum samples were analyzed. Four samples (0.3%) showed reproducibly disturbed recoveries of 10%, 68%, 166% and 4441%. In three samples heterophilic antibodies were identified as the probable cause, in the fourth anti-PSA-autoantibodies. The very low recovery caused by the latter interference was confirmed in serum, as well as heparin- and EDTA plasma of blood samples obtained 6 months later. Analysis by eight different immunoassays showed recoveries ranging between PSA which however did not show any disturbed PSA recovery. About 0.3% of PSA determinations by the electrochemiluminescence assay (ECLIA) of Roche diagnostics are disturbed by heterophilic or anti-PSA autoantibodies. Although they are rare, these interferences can cause relevant misinterpretations of a PSA test result.

  18. PSA applications. Good practices and documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewailly, J.; Magne, L.

    1997-10-01

    In this paper, it is shown what the condensed documentation of the main strategic choices and technical assumptions related to a PSA could contain: how to select the internal and external initiating events, how the detail the plant configuration and the general organization of the plant and operating staff, how to highlight the assumptions related to physical models, etc. The proposals in this documentation are based on the R and D D's experience with PSA (construction of PSA models, use of PSA models for operation or maintenance, PSA tools). This document also presents different types of rules or recommendations related to PSA modelling for various applications involved in nuclear power plant operating. Finally, the paper stresses the main difficulties encountered (appropriate use of uncertainties, communication of PSA results to non-specialist users) and it also outlines some prospects for the future. (author)

  19. Methodology for seismic PSA of NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jirsa, P.

    1999-09-01

    A general methodology is outlined for seismic PSA (probabilistic safety assessment). The main objectives of seismic PSA include: description of the course of an event; understanding the most probable failure sequences; gaining insight into the overall probability of reactor core damage; identification of the main seismic risk contributors; identification of the range of peak ground accelerations contributing significantly to the plant risk; and comparison of the seismic risk with risks from other events. The results of seismic PSA are typically compared with those of internal PSA and of PSA of other external events. If the results of internal and external PSA are available, sensitivity studies and cost benefit analyses are performed prior to any decision regarding corrective actions. If the seismic PSA involves analysis of the containment, useful information can be gained regarding potential seismic damage of the containment. (P.A.)

  20. Quantification of human errors in level-1 PSA studies in NUPEC/JINS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, M.; Hirose, M.; Sugawara, M.; Hashiba, T.

    1991-01-01

    THERP (Technique for Human Error Rate Prediction) method is mainly adopted to evaluate the pre-accident and post-accident human error rates. Performance shaping factors are derived by taking Japanese operational practice into account. Several examples of human error rates with calculational procedures are presented. The important human interventions of typical Japanese NPPs are also presented. (orig./HP)

  1. Re-examining Prostate-specific Antigen (PSA) Density: Defining the Optimal PSA Range and Patients for Using PSA Density to Predict Prostate Cancer Using Extended Template Biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jue, Joshua S; Barboza, Marcelo Panizzutti; Prakash, Nachiketh S; Venkatramani, Vivek; Sinha, Varsha R; Pavan, Nicola; Nahar, Bruno; Kanabur, Pratik; Ahdoot, Michael; Dong, Yan; Satyanarayana, Ramgopal; Parekh, Dipen J; Punnen, Sanoj

    2017-07-01

    To compare the predictive accuracy of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) density vs PSA across different PSA ranges and by prior biopsy status in a prospective cohort undergoing prostate biopsy. Men from a prospective trial underwent an extended template biopsy to evaluate for prostate cancer at 26 sites throughout the United States. The area under the receiver operating curve assessed the predictive accuracy of PSA density vs PSA across 3 PSA ranges (10 ng/mL). We also investigated the effect of varying the PSA density cutoffs on the detection of cancer and assessed the performance of PSA density vs PSA in men with or without a prior negative biopsy. Among 1290 patients, 585 (45%) and 284 (22%) men had prostate cancer and significant prostate cancer, respectively. PSA density performed better than PSA in detecting any prostate cancer within a PSA of 4-10 ng/mL (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC]: 0.70 vs 0.53, P PSA >10 mg/mL (AUC: 0.84 vs 0.65, P PSA density was significantly more predictive than PSA in detecting any prostate cancer in men without (AUC: 0.73 vs 0.67, P PSA increases, PSA density becomes a better marker for predicting prostate cancer compared with PSA alone. Additionally, PSA density performed better than PSA in men with a prior negative biopsy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Risk evaluations of aging: Procedures guide for an age-dependent PSA with emphasis on prioritization and sensitivity studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesely, W.E.

    1991-01-01

    Based on the previous work which has been performed in the project, a procedures guide is being developed for carrying out an age-dependent probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) for evaluating the core damage frequency with aging effects explicitly treated. A PSA is basically a Level 1 Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA). The emphasis of the guide is on prioritization and sensitivity studies. Focus is also on active components although consideration of aging effects in passive components is also treated. The guide is intended to become a NUREG/CR and is the first of three volumes which are being developed. The following topics with demonstrations and applications are described in the presentation: (1) the age-dependent PSA versus the standard PSA; (2) component reliability models used in an age-dependent PSA; (3) approaches for transforming a PSA into an age-dependent PSA; (4) application of an age-dependent PSA; (5) using a PSA to evaluate the risk effects from aging passive components; (6) evaluation of the risk importance of passive components; (7) prioritizations of aging contributors; (8) evaluations of test and maintenance effectiveness; and (9) sensitivity studies and uncertainty analyses of aging effects

  3. Peer review of the Barselina Level 1 probabilistic safety assessment of the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKay, S.L.; Coles, G.A.

    1995-01-01

    The Barselina Project is a Swedish-funded, cooperative effort among Lithuania, Russia and Sweden to transfer Western probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) methodology to the designers/operators of Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (INPP). The overall goal is to use the PSA as a tool for assessing plant operational safety. The INPP is a two-unit, Former Soviet Union-designed nuclear facility located in Lithuania. The results of this PSA will ultimately be used to identify plant-specific improvements in system design and the conduct of facility operations, allowing improved operational safety. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was asked to perform an independent expert peer review of the Barselina PSA. This report documents the findings of this review. This review, financed with nuclear safety assistance funds through the US Agency for International Development (USAID) and the US Department of Energy (DOE), satisfies Task II of the PNL peer review of the Barselina project. The objective is to provide an independent, in-proce ss examination of the Barselina Level 1 PSA of Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 2. The review consisted of an investigation of the project documentation, interviews, and extensive discussions with the PSA staff during critical stages of the project. PNL assessed the readability, completeness, consistency, validity, and applicability of the PSA. The major aspects explored were its purpose, major assumptions, analysis/modeling, results, and interpretation. It was not within the scope of this review to perform plant walkdowns or to review material other than the PSA documentation

  4. Living PSA program for VVER 440/213 in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husak, S.; Patrik, M.

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents an overview of a Living PSA concept in the Czech Republic for the VVER 440/213 NPP Dukovany unit. The first step of PSA program was a Level 1 basic study for Unit No. 1 which was completed in 1995. The main objective of the study was to determine the risk level of full power operation and its contributors as well as to reveal the weak points of the plant. Living PSA program for a Level 1 study has been afterwards established as a framework for all activities related to risk assessment and risk based decision-making support in NPP Dukovany. The basic parts of the project are: a management of PSA models and studies to implement design and procedures, modifications or new data inputs from data collection; continuous improvement based of new analyses, experiments or more detailed models; an extensions of the scope (external events, all plant operating modes, other sources of radioactive releases). The Living PSA program in NPP Dukovany provides basis for three kinds of PSA activities: risk assessment applications, risk monitoring and risk assessment of operational. (author)

  5. Too Much Sodium PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second PSA is based on the February 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. Ninety percent of Americans age two and older eat too much sodium which can increase your risk for high blood pressure and often leads to heart disease and stroke, two leading causes of death in the US. Learn several small steps you can take to reduce the amount of sodium in your diet.

  6. Programmable automation systems in PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulkkinen, U.

    1997-06-01

    The Finnish safety authority (STUK) requires plant specific PSAs, and quantitative safety goals are set on different levels. The reliability analysis is more problematic when critical safety functions are realized by applying programmable automation systems. Conventional modeling techniques do not necessarily apply to the analysis of these systems, and the quantification seems to be impossible. However, it is important to analyze contribution of programmable automation systems to the plant safety and PSA is the only method with system analytical view over the safety. This report discusses the applicability of PSA methodology (fault tree analyses, failure modes and effects analyses) in the analysis of programmable automation systems. The problem of how to decompose programmable automation systems for reliability modeling purposes is discussed. In addition to the qualitative analysis and structural reliability modeling issues, the possibility to evaluate failure probabilities of programmable automation systems is considered. One solution to the quantification issue is the use of expert judgements, and the principles to apply expert judgements is discussed in the paper. A framework to apply expert judgements is outlined. Further, the impacts of subjective estimates on the interpretation of PSA results are discussed. (orig.) (13 refs.)

  7. Status of the PSA use in the Czech regulatory process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dusek, J.

    1994-01-01

    A review of previous probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) activities initiated by regulatory body and preparation of the preliminary PSA study and final PSA study (released in January 1994) for the nuclear power plant Dukovany with WWER-440 type 213 reactor is described. A brief information about the NPP Temelin (with WWER-1000) PSA Study, shutdown and PSA risk monitor current activities for the NPP Dukovany, next PSA activities in 1994 and about planned PSA activities in future is attached. (author). 21 refs

  8. THE DISCRIMINATIVE ABILITY OF PERCENT FREE PSA IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood samples were collected from all patients, and total PSA, free PSA and % free PSA were calculated in all specimens. Total PSA was measured using the Imx ... Un prélèvement de sang a été réalisé chez tous les patients avec un dosage du PSA total et de la fraction libre de PSA. Le PSA total a été mesuré par un kit ...

  9. Qualification of calculation aids for PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetz, K.; Hennigs, W.; Kirstein, B.M.; Reinhardt, C.

    1998-01-01

    In Germany Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) are part of the evaluation of a nuclear power plants safety. The German PSA guide stipulates that the used software must enable a PSA according to the state of the art. This software must be qualified to assure that its features, mathematic methods and its performance enable a PSA like this. In this research work specifications and requirements are developed, which allow the testing of software. A procedure was developed to qualify PSA software according to the PSA guide and the experiences of users of PSA. Setting up a procedure, a tool for a systematic and uniform examination was crated. Additionally the options, mathematic fundamentals and performance of PSA-programs were analyzed. According to this all programs that were analyzed are capable to sovle their original task, that is the calculation of the safety of high available system based on high available components. Against that the requirements of modern PSA, e.g. to handle less available functions, HRA and fire analyses, based on the use of modern software and the implementation of new developments in the field of PSA are not supported adequately by all programs. (orig.) [de

  10. Use of PSA in a regulatory framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, P.J.

    1994-01-01

    The paper will briefly describe the use of PSA in the licensing process for the Sizewell 'B' PWR Power Station currently under construction in the U.K. There are two distinct phases in the licensing process - (i) A PSA has been performed to support the application to construct Sizewell 'B'. At that stage the PSA was used as a design tool (along with deterministic design requirements) for Sizewell 'B' and as such lead to a number of significant design changes in the early design process. (ii) A PSA is currently being performed to support the application to operate Sizewell 'B'. The PSA is required to support the claim that the design has included all reasonably practical measures to prevent and mitigate accidents. The comprehensive PSA being produced for the second phase of the licensing process will be described. The way the regulators/designer/analysts have interacted over the years has affected the scope, complexity, detail and bias of the comprehensive PSA. The paper will discuss these issues and highlight some of the more significant ones. The benefits and drawbacks of providing a PSA in a regulatory framework will be discussed. One of the conclusions of the paper is that the use of true ''best-estimates'' in the PSA is difficult to achieve in a regulatory framework where persistent bias to the conservative side is apparent in the designers, analysts and regulators judgements. The usefulness of the PSA is therefore, potentially, compromised by giving misleading outputs or diverting resources to unnecessary areas. (author)

  11. Methodologies for uncertainty analysis in the level 2 PSA and their implementation procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Kwang Il; Yang, Joon Eun; Kim, Dong Ha

    2002-04-01

    Main purpose of this report to present standardized methodologies for uncertainty analysis in the Level 2 Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) and their implementation procedures, based on results obtained through a critical review of the existing methodologies for the analysis of uncertainties employed in the Level 2 PSA, especially Accident Progression Event Tree (APET). Uncertainties employed in the Level 2 PSA, quantitative expressions of overall knowledge of analysts' and experts' participating in the probabilistic quantification process of phenomenological accident progressions ranging from core melt to containment failure, their numerical values are directly related to the degree of confidence that the analyst has that a given phenomenological event or accident process will or will not occur, or analyst's subjective probabilities of occurrence. These results that are obtained from Level 2 PSA uncertainty analysis, become an essential contributor to the plant risk, in addition to the Level 1 PSA and Level 3 PSA uncertainties. Uncertainty analysis methodologies and their implementation procedures presented in this report was prepared based on the following criteria: 'uncertainty quantification process must be logical, scrutable, complete, consistent and in an appropriate level of detail, as mandated by the Level 2 PSA objectives'. For the aforementioned purpose, this report deals mainly with (1) summary of general or Level 2 PSA specific uncertainty analysis methodologies, (2) selection of phenomenological branch events for uncertainty analysis in the APET, methodology for quantification of APET uncertainty inputs and its implementation procedure, (3) statistical propagation of uncertainty inputs through APET and its implementation procedure, and (4) formal procedure for quantification of APET uncertainties and source term categories (STCs) through the Level 2 PSA quantification codes

  12. Antigenic determinants of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and development of assays specific for different forms of PSA.

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, O.; Peter, A.; Andersson, I.; Nilsson, K.; Grundstr?m, B.; Karlsson, B.

    1997-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies were raised against prostate-specific antigen (PSA) by immunization with purified free PSA, i.e. not in complex with any protease inhibitor (F-PSA) and PSA in complex with alpha1-anti-chymotrypsin (PSA-ACT). Epitope mapping of PSA using the established monoclonal antibody revealed a complex pattern of independent and partly overlapping antigenic domains in the PSA molecule. Four independent antigenic domains and at least three partly overlapping domains were exposed both...

  13. Opium consumption is negatively associated with serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA), free PSA, and percentage of free PSA levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safarinejad, Mohammad Reza; Asgari, Seyyed Alaeddin; Farshi, Alireza; Iravani, Shahrokh; Khoshdel, Alireza; Shekarchi, Babak

    2013-01-01

    Addiction to opium continues to be a major worldwide medical and social problem. The study addressing the association between opium consumption and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level is lacking. We determined the effects of opium consumption on serum PSA levels in opium-addict men. Our study subjects comprised 438 opium-addict men with a mean age of 52.2 ± 6.4 years (group 1). We compared these men with 446 men who did not indicate current or past opium use (group 2). Serum total PSA (tPSA), free PSA (fPSA), % fPSA, and sex hormones were compared between the 2 groups. The mean serum tPSA level was significantly lower in group 1 (1.05 ng/mL) than in controls (1.45 ng/mL) (P = 0.001). Opium consumption was also associated with lower fPSA (P = 0.001) and % fPSA (P = 0.001). Serum free testosterone level in opium-addict patients (132.5 ± 42 pg/mL) was significantly lower than that in controls (156.2 ± 43 pg/mL) (P = 0.03). However, no significant correlation existed between tPSA and free testosterone levels (r = 0.28, 95% CI, -0.036 to 0.51, P = 0.34). Among the patients with cancer in group 1, 35% were found to have high-grade tumor (Gleason score ≥ 7) compared with 26.7% in group 2 (P = 0.02). Total PSA and fPSA were strongly correlated with duration of opium use (r = -0.06, 95% CI, -0.04 to -0.08, P = 0.0001; and r = -0.05, 95% CI, -0.03 to -0.07, P = 0.0001, respectively). Opium consumption is independently and negatively associated with serum tPSA, fPSA, and % fPSA levels.

  14. Living PSA issues in France on pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewailly, J.; Deriot, S.; Dubreuil Chambardel, A.; Francois, P.; Magne, L.

    1993-09-01

    Two Probabilistic Safety Assessments (PSAs) carried out in France on 900 and 1300 MWe Pressurized Water Reactor units ended in 1990. These PSAs determined the core damage frequency for all plant operating conditions ranging from cold shutdown for refuelling to full power operation. Since 1990, these PSAs have been used increasingly as tools for applications such as accident precursor analysis, risk-based Technical Specifications, and maintenance optimization. In turn, these applications are used to enhance the initial PSAs. The notion of a ''living'' PSA which can be used and updated is slowly taking form. The accident precursor analysis consists in applying PSA event trees to obtain quick information on the potential consequences of a precursor event and on the corresponding probabilities of occurrence. A feedback on PSAs is provided by comparing them with actual operating incidents. The computation of the allowed outage time during power operation, based on the computerized models of Probabilistic Safety Assessments, requires adjustments: calculation of hourly risk of core damage under different reactor conditions without equipment unavailabilities. The proposed method also turns out to be an aid in determining the safe shutdown condition and procedure. Furthermore, when introducing a sufficient level of detail, PSA reliability models make it possible to compute contributions and to perform sensitivity studies in order to highlight those components for which a maintenance effort should be made. From the experience acquired up to now, there was felt to be a strong need to create guidelines for using PSAs that would simplify their implementation by the experts in charge of determining Technical Specifications, of maintenance programs, etc. who are not generally specialists in PSAs. For this purpose, it is necessary to improve the intelligibility of the models made in order for them to be used and to offer user's guides adapted to each application. Documents

  15. Level 1 - level 2 interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boneham, P.

    2003-01-01

    The Plant Damage States (PDS) are the starting point for the level 2 analysis. A PDS is group of core damage sequences that are expected to have similar severe accident progressions. In this paper an overview of Level 1/Level 2 interface, example PDS parameters, example PDS definitions using codes and example Bridge Tree are presented. PDS frequency calculation (identification of sequences for each PDS in level 1,split some CD sequences which have different level 2 progressions), code calculations providing support for grouping decisions and timings as well as PDS frequencies and definitions input to level 2 are also discussed

  16. Use of simplified PSA studies in support of the ASTRID design process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauthe, P.; Curnier, F.; Bertrand, F.; Vincon, L.; Jouve, S.; Balmain, M.; Rychkov, V.; Banchieri, Y.

    2012-01-01

    In the framework of the French Act of 28 June 2006 about nuclear materials and waste management, a GEN IV and actinides incineration demonstration prototype is to be commissioned in the 2020 decade. In this objective a prototype called ASTRID (Advanced Sodium Technological Reactor for Industrial Demonstration) is proposed to demonstrate the progress made in SFR technology at an industrial scale by qualifying innovative options, some of which still remain open in the areas requiring improvements, especially safety and operability. More specifically, we aim for a level of safety that is at least equivalent to that of the EPR (third generation), with improvements made in SFR-specific fields. The integration of safety issues in the early phase of the design of ASTRID is necessarily expected. For this purpose, CEA and its partners AREVA and EDF have planned to perform a level-1 PSA to support and orientate the preliminary design of ASTRID reactor. This paper presents the PSA approach and current studies for the assessment of safety systems and the future work to be done for the 2012-2014 period. The preliminary preparation of PSA studies is presented: objectives and scope of the early design phase PSA, definition of core damage states, selection and grouping of initiating events, assessment of safety functions and related systems. Work under progress is also presented: modelling of event trees, construction of fault trees of safety systems, transient calculations of accident sequences with the CATHARE2 code and reliability data assessment. Main objectives of a level-1 PSA performed at conceptual design stage are an early assessment of the safety architecture of the reactor and findings about the most effective areas for improvement, but also the identification of dominant accident sequences and comparison with alternative designs. After the elaboration of a simplified level-1 PSA model for nominal state and main internal initiators, various design alternatives will be

  17. PSA, subjective probability and decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarotti, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    PSA is the natural way to making decisions in face of uncertainty relative to potentially dangerous plants; subjective probability, subjective utility and Bayes statistics are the ideal tools for carrying out a PSA. This paper reports that in order to support this statement the various stages of the PSA procedure are examined in detail and step by step the superiority of Bayes techniques with respect to sampling theory machinery is proven

  18. Status and use of PSA in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knochenhauer, M.

    1996-05-01

    The performance and use of PSA:s in Sweden goes back about two decades. During all of this time, the field of PSA has been developing intensively, both internationally and within Sweden. The latest years have been characterised by an increased use of PSA models and results, and by major extensions of existing PSA models. The aim of this document is to describe PSA in Sweden with respect to development, scope and maturity, as well as to the contents of the analyses and the use of results. PSA activities will be described from the point of view of both the authorities and the utilities. The report gives an overview of the development within the area of PSA in Sweden both its history and current trends. The aim has been to include a reasonable amount of detail, both on the methods and results in PSA:s performed and on the numerous supporting research programs dealing with various aspects of PSA. 39 refs 39 refs

  19. Status and use of PSA in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knochenhauer, M

    1996-05-01

    The performance and use of PSA:s in Sweden goes back about two decades. During all of this time, the field of PSA has been developing intensively, both internationally and within Sweden. The latest years have been characterised by an increased use of PSA models and results, and by major extensions of existing PSA models. The aim of this document is to describe PSA in Sweden with respect to development, scope and maturity, as well as to the contents of the analyses and the use of results. PSA activities will be described from the point of view of both the authorities and the utilities. The report gives an overview of the development within the area of PSA in Sweden both its history and current trends. The aim has been to include a reasonable amount of detail, both on the methods and results in PSA:s performed and on the numerous supporting research programs dealing with various aspects of PSA. 39 refs 39 refs.

  20. Model engineering in a modular PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedlhuber, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    For the purpose of PSA (Probabilistic Safety Analysis) for complex industrial systems, often PSA models in the form of fault and event trees are developed to model the risk of unwanted situations (hazards). While the recent decades, PSA models have gained high acceptance and have been developed massively. This lead to an increase in model sizes and complexity. Today, PSA models are often difficult to understand and maintain. This manuscript presents the concept of a modular PSA. A modular PSA tries to cope with the increased complexity by the techniques of modularization and instantiation. Modularization targets to treat a model by smaller pieces (the 'modules') to regain control over models. Instantiation aims to configure a generic model to different contexts. Both try to reduce model complexity. A modular PSA proposes new functionality to manage PSA models. Current model management is rather limited and not efficient. This manuscript shows new methods to manage the evolutions (versions) and deviations (variants) of PSA models in a modular PSA. The concepts of version and variant management are presented in this thesis. In this context, a model comparison and fusion of PSA models is precised. Model comparison provides important feedback to model engineers and model fusion kind of combines the work from different model engineers (concurrent model engineering). Apart from model management, methods to understand the content of PSA models are presented. The methods focus to highlight the dependencies between modules rather than their contents. Dependencies are automatically derived from a model structure. They express relations between model objects (for example a fault tree may have dependencies to basic events). To visualize those dependencies (for example in form of a model cartography) can constitute a crucial aid to model engineers for understanding complex interrelations in PSA models. Within the scope of this thesis, a software named 'Andromeda' has been

  1. Selection of important initiating events for Level 1 probabilistic safety assessment study at Puspati TRIGA Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maskin, M.; Charlie, F.; Hassan, A.; Prak Tom, P.; Ramli, Z.; Mohamed, F.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Identifying possible important initiating events (IEs) for Level 1 probabilistic safety assessment performed on research nuclear reactor. • Methods in screening and grouping IEs are addressed. • Focusing only on internal IEs due to random failures of components. - Abstract: This paper attempts to present the results in identifying possible important initiating events (IEs) as comprehensive as possible to be applied in the development of Level-1 probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) study. This involves the approaches in listing and the methods in screening and grouping IEs, by focusing only on the internal IEs due to random failures of components and human errors with full power operational conditions and reactor core as the radioactivity source. Five approaches were applied in listing the IEs and each step of the methodology was described and commented. The criteria in screening and grouping the IEs were also presented. The results provided the information on how the Malaysian PSA team applied the approaches in selecting the most probable IEs as complete as possible in order to ensure the set of IEs was identified systematically and as representative as possible, hence providing confidence to the completeness of the PSA study. This study is perhaps one of the first to address classic comprehensive steps in identifying important IEs to be used in a Level-1 PSA study.

  2. Too Much Sodium PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-07

    This 60 second PSA is based on the February 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. Ninety percent of Americans age two and older eat too much sodium which can increase your risk for high blood pressure and often leads to heart disease and stroke, two leading causes of death in the US. Learn several small steps you can take to reduce the amount of sodium in your diet.  Created: 2/7/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 2/7/2012.

  3. A method for using expert judgement in PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulkkinen, U.; Holmberg, J.

    1997-03-01

    The report discusses an expert judgement methodology development for applications at all levels of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA). The main applications are expected to be at PSA-levels 1 and 2. The method consists of several phases, including the selection and training of the experts, elicitation of experts' judgements, probabilistic modeling and combination of experts' judgements and documentation of the judgement process. The expert training and elicitation process is rather similar to that applied in the NUREG-1150 study. The combination of experts judgements is based on a Bayesian framework utilizing hierarchic models. The posterior distributions of the variables under analysis can be interpreted as a Bayesian counterpart of the combined or aggregated (consensus) distributions, and they are determined by applying Markov chain Monte-Carlo methods. The properties of the method are illustrated by some simple examples. The method is tested in a case study belonging to the benchmark exercise on the use of expert judgement in level 2 PSA, organized as a concerted action of European Commission Fourth Framework Programme on Nuclear Fission Safety. (14 refs.)

  4. PSA Level 2 activities for RBMK reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubler, R.

    1998-01-01

    Probabilistic safety analyses (PSAs) of the boiling water graphite moderated pressure tube reactors (RBMKs) have been developed only recently and they are limited to Level 1. Activities at the IAEA were first motivated because of the difficulties to characterize core damage for RBMK reactors. Core damage probability is used in documents of the IAEA as a convenient single valued measure, for example for probabilistic safety criteria. The limited number of PSAs that have been completed for the RBMK reactors have shown that several special features of these channel type reactors necessitate revisiting of the characterization of core damage for these reactors. Furthermore, it has become increasingly evident that detailed deterministic analysis of DBAs and beyond design basis accidents reveal considerable insights into RBMK response to various accident conditions. These analyses can also help in better characterizing the outstanding phenomenological uncertainties, improved EOPs and AM strategies, including potential risk-beneficial accident negative backfits. The deterministic efforts should be focused first on elucidating accident progression processes and phenomena, and second on finding, qualifying and implementing procedures to minimize the risk of severe accident states The IAEA PSA procedures were mainly developed in New of vessel type LWRs, and would therefore require extensions to make them directly applicable. to channel type reactors. (author) (author)

  5. Upgrade of Common Cause Failure Modelling of NPP Krsko PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukovic, I.; Mikulicic, V.; Vrbanic, I.

    2006-01-01

    -16187 and this too was considered. Similarly to the argument related to methodological aspects, it is desirable that NEK CCF parameters are in general accordance with recommended set of WOG parameters. The paper considers the approach undertaken on upgrade of common cause failure modelling in NPP Krsko PSA Level 1 model and discusses the results and lessons learned from this complex project. (author)

  6. PSA-based evaluation and rating of operational events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Cobo, A.

    1997-01-01

    The presentation discusses the PSA-based evaluation and rating of operational events, including the following: historical background, procedures for event evaluation using PSA, use of PSA for event rating, current activities

  7. Report 2: Guidance document on practices to model and implement external flooding hazards in extended PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebour, V.; Georgescu, G.; Leteinturier, D.; Raimond, E.; La Rovere, S.; Bernadara, P.; Vasseur, D.; Brinkman, H.; Groudev, P.; Ivanov, I.; Turschmann, M.; Sperbeck, S.; Potempski, S.; Hirata, K.; Kumar, Manorma

    2016-01-01

    This report provides a review of existing practices to model and implement external flooding hazards in existing level 1 PSA. The objective is to identify good practices on the modelling of initiating events (internal and external hazards) with a perspective of development of extended PSA and implementation of external events modelling in extended L1 PSA, its limitations/difficulties as far as possible. The views presented in this report are based on the ASAMPSA-E partners' experience and available publications. The report includes discussions on the following issues: - how to structure a L1 PSA for external flooding events, - information needed from geosciences in terms of hazards modelling and to build relevant modelling for PSA, - how to define and model the impact of each flooding event on SSCs with distinction between the flooding protective structures and devices and the effect of protection failures on other SSCs, - how to identify and model the common cause failures in one reactor or between several reactors, - how to apply HRA methodology for external flooding events, - how to credit additional emergency response (post-Fukushima measures like mobile equipment), - how to address the specific issues of L2 PSA, - how to perform and present risk quantification. (authors)

  8. PSA Level 2:Scope And Method Of PSA Level 2 For Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widodo, Surip; Antariksawan, Anhar R.

    2001-01-01

    A study of scope and method of PSA Level 2 had been conducted. The background of the study is the need to gain the capability to well perform PSA Level 2 for nuclear facilities. This study is a literature survey. The scope of PSA Level 2 consists of generating plant damage states, accident progression analysis, and grouping source terms. Concerning accident progression analysis, several methods are used, among others event tree method, named accident progression event tree (APET) or containment event tree (CET), and fault tree method. The end result of PSA Level 2 is release end states which is grouped into release bins. The results will be used for PSA Level 3

  9. [PSA interest and prostatitis: literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruyère, F; Amine Lakmichi, M

    2013-12-01

    Prostatitis is easily diagnosed but sometimes associated with PSA measurement. An increased PSA in an asymptomatic patient may be associated with antibiotic use to eliminate the inflammatory part and to confirm prostate biopsy. It seems interesting to confirm or infirm these attitudes with a systematic review of the literature We performed a literature review using the words [prostatitis], [acute prostatitis], [prostate specific antigen], [PSA], in the MEDLINE, Pubmed and AMBASE database searching for articles in French or English published in the past 20 years. PSA is not always increased during an acute prostatitis episode. An increased PSA in an asymptomatic man does not seem to be systematically correlated to prostate inflammation. Analyzing the studies, it seems inaccurate to measure PSA value during a febrile urinary infection episode in men. Systematic use of antibiotic to decrease PSA and not performing prostate biopsy is not relevant and may induce resistance to antibiotic and doesn't induce a reduction risk of having prostate biopsy. PSA is unnecessary in case of febrile urinary tract infection in men. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Impact of total PSA, PSA doubling time and PSA velocity on detection rates of 11C-Choline positron emission tomography in recurrent prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rybalov, Maxim; Breeuwsma, Anthonius J.; Leliveld, Anna M.; Pruim, Jan; Dierckx, Rudi A.; de Jong, Igle J.

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of total PSA (tPSA) and PSA kinetics on the detection rates of (11)C-Choline PET in patients with biochemical recurrence (BCR) after radical prostatectomy (RP) or external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). METHODS: We included 185 patients with BCR after RP (PSA >0.2 ng/ml)

  11. Development of level 2 PSA technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Ha; Park, Soo Yong; Kim, See Darl; Song, Yong Mann; Ahn, Kwang Il; Park, Jae Wu; Jin, Young Ho.

    1997-07-01

    The objective of this project is the development of the computer code system for level 2 probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) of nuclear power plants. The scope of the project can be divided into three areas. The first area is to develop the computer code (CONPAS) which can quantify the accident progression event trees. CONPAS beta version has been developed this year and it is comprised of four modules : 1) EDITOR for generating the event tree logic diagrams and 1) COMPUTER for event tree quantification and for additional use of the calculated results. 3) TEXT EDITOR and 4) CODE PLOTTER. Comparing with the existing computer code, the present code provides a flexible code reusability and user interface, convenient edition of logic diagram, data operation, and systematic quantification of the results. The methodology development of containment structural analysis is the second area. The specific tasks included the collection and analysis of the containment failure modes for the various containment types, and the methodology establishment for the containment structure analysis. Over twenty large dry PWR containments, the database for containment failure mode and pressure has been constructed and the simplified fragility model has been proposed to calculate the containment failure probability. They will be used as an important input not only in the containment analysis but also in the source term analysis. For the last, source term analyzing methodology and its applied computer code that is named as 'KORSOR' are developed. KORSOR which used parametric model approach combined modules which consist of accident sequence input module via user's logic rule, random sample generating module, parametric database module, and source term uncertainty quantification module. The characteristics of parametric data which use din the source term analyzing model is analyzed and the constructing idea and example for the parametric database is suggested. (author). 67 refs., 66 tabs

  12. Comparison of global sensitivity analysis techniques and importance measures in PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgonovo, E.; Apostolakis, G.E.; Tarantola, S.; Saltelli, A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses application and results of global sensitivity analysis techniques to probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) models, and their comparison to importance measures. This comparison allows one to understand whether PSA elements that are important to the risk, as revealed by importance measures, are also important contributors to the model uncertainty, as revealed by global sensitivity analysis. We show that, due to epistemic dependence, uncertainty and global sensitivity analysis of PSA models must be performed at the parameter level. A difficulty arises, since standard codes produce the calculations at the basic event level. We discuss both the indirect comparison through importance measures computed for basic events, and the direct comparison performed using the differential importance measure and the Fussell-Vesely importance at the parameter level. Results are discussed for the large LLOCA sequence of the advanced test reactor PSA

  13. Decision criteria in PSA applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmberg, J.E.; Pulkkinen, U.; Rosqvist, T.; Simola, K.

    2001-11-01

    Along with the adoption of risk informed decision making principles, the need for formal probabilistic decision rule or criteria has been risen. However, there are many practical and theoretical problems in the application of probabilistic criteria. One has to think what is the proper way to apply probabilistic rules together with deterministic ones and how the criteria are weighted with respect to each other. In this report, we approach the above questions from the decision theoretic point of view. We give a short review of the most well known probabilistic criteria, and discuss examples of their use. We present a decision analytic framework for evaluating the criteria, and we analyse how the different criteria behave under incompleteness or uncertainty of the PSA model. As the conclusion of our analysis we give recommendations on the application of the criteria in different decision situations. (au)

  14. Level 1 shutdown and low power operation of Mochovce NPP, Unit 1, Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halada, P.; Cillik, I.; Stojka, T.; Kuzma, M.; Prochaska, J.; Vrtik, L.

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents general approach, used methods and form of documentation of the results that have been applied within the shutdown and low power PSA (SPSA) study for Mochovce NPP, Unit 1, Slovakia. The SPSA project was realized by VUJE Trnava Inc., Slovakia in 2001-2002 years. The Level 1 SPSA study for Mochovce NPP Unit 1 covers internal events as well as internal (fires, floods and heavy load drop) and external (aircraft crash, extreme meteorological conditions, seismic event and influence of surrounding industry) hazards. Mochovce NPP consists of two operating units equipped with VVER 440/V213 reactors safety upgraded before construction finishing and operation start. 87 safety measures based on VVER 440 operational experience and international mission insights were implemented to enhance its operational and nuclear safety. The SPSA relates to full power PSA (FPSA) as a continuation of the effort to create a harmonized level 1 PSA model for all operational modes of the plant with the goal to use it for further purposes as follows: Real Time Risk Monitor, Maintenance Optimization, Technical Specifications Optimization, Living PSA. (author)

  15. Processing TES Level-1B Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBaca, Richard C.; Sarkissian, Edwin; Madatyan, Mariyetta; Shepard, Douglas; Gluck, Scott; Apolinski, Mark; McDuffie, James; Tremblay, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    TES L1B Subsystem is a computer program that performs several functions for the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES). The term "L1B" (an abbreviation of "level 1B"), refers to data, specific to the TES, on radiometric calibrated spectral radiances and their corresponding noise equivalent spectral radiances (NESRs), plus ancillary geolocation, quality, and engineering data. The functions performed by TES L1B Subsystem include shear analysis, monitoring of signal levels, detection of ice build-up, and phase correction and radiometric and spectral calibration of TES target data. Also, the program computes NESRs for target spectra, writes scientific TES level-1B data to hierarchical- data-format (HDF) files for public distribution, computes brightness temperatures, and quantifies interpixel signal variability for the purpose of first-order cloud and heterogeneous land screening by the level-2 software summarized in the immediately following article. This program uses an in-house-developed algorithm, called "NUSRT," to correct instrument line-shape factors.

  16. Methods and results of a PSA level 2 for a German BWR of the 900 MWe class

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loffler, H.; Sonnenkalb, M.

    2006-01-01

    On behalf of the federal Ministry for Environment, Nature Conservation and Reactor Safety (BMU) GRS has performed a PSA level 2 for a BWR type 69 NPP of the 900 MWe class, equipped with a N 2 inerted steel containment and a pressure suppression system. Integral deterministic accident analyses have been performed with the computer code MELCOR 1.8.5. Additional analyses have been done for those events and phenomena which are not or not sufficiently covered by MELCOR. The probabilistic event tree analysis begins with the core damage states received from PSA level 1, and it ends with the definition of release categories and the determination of their frequencies. Uncertainties about the frequency of core damage states and about events during the accident progression are taken into account by means of Monte Carlo simulations. If there is a core damage state there is a high probability (>50 %) for a very high and rapid release of radionuclides into the environment. This high conditional probability is due to the very low probability to retain a partly destroyed core inside the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and because the containment almost certainly fails at the bottom of the control rod drives room after melt release from the failed RPV. (authors)

  17. Data analysis at Level-1 Trigger level

    CERN Document Server

    Wittmann, Johannes; Aradi, Gregor; Bergauer, Herbert; Jeitler, Manfred; Wulz, Claudia; Apanasevich, Leonard; Winer, Brian; Puigh, Darren Michael

    2017-01-01

    With ever increasing luminosity at the LHC, optimum online data selection is getting more and more important. While in the case of some experiments (LHCb and ALICE) this task is being completely transferred to computer farms, the others - ATLAS and CMS - will not be able to do this in the medium-term future for technological, detector-related reasons. Therefore, these experiments pursue the complementary approach of migrating more and more of the offline and High-Level Trigger intelligence into the trigger electronics. This paper illustrates how the Level-1 Trigger of the CMS experiment and in particular its concluding stage, the Global Trigger, take up this challenge.

  18. Radiometric assays for the measurement of PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatesh, M.

    1997-01-01

    Prostate Specific Antigen, a serine protease enzyme, of M.W. ∼ 26-33 kDa, is widely considered to be a very useful marker for prostate cancer. It satisfies nearly all the requirements of an ideal 'Tumour Marker' and has hence attracted a lot of attention in the past decade. PSA is present in multiple forms in serum, with an appreciable fraction bound to the protease inhibitor α-1-antichymotrypsin (ACT) and to a small extent to other proteins such as α-2-macroglobulin (AMG) leaving the rest in the free form. The total PSA levels have been reported to have 80% sensitivity and 60% specificity towards the detection of prostate cancer. The lack of specificity occurs mainly due to the high levels of t-PSA in benign prostatic hypertrophy(BPH) apart from the cancer. The concept of free PSA has been introduced in the recent past and the ratio of free/total PSA levels have been shown to be advantageous in the differential diagnosis of BPH from prostate cancer. The f/t ratio is considered to be particularly useful in the grey zones of decision making (t-PSA levels 4-20 ng/mL). The need for the development of assays for total and free PSA is felt due to: a. the high incidence of prostate cancers being detected currently; b. the high cost of tests (higher for free PSA assay, and the cost becomes an important parameter when a patient has to be regularly monitored after therapy) that is not affordable for many patients; c. the potential for research in the area of prostate cancer management where the PSA (total and free) assays will be of great help

  19. The clinical study of serum PSA and fPSA assayed by CLIA in diagnosing prostate disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Jiang; Qian Xiaoyu; Ji Hong; Yang Su; Ding Ying; Zhu Ruisen; Chen Zhong

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical value of PSA (prostate specific antigen) and fPSA(free prostate specific antigen) in differentiating prostate disease. CLIA was used to quantitatively assay PSA, fPSA and fPSA/PSA in 30 cases of normal controls, 32 cases of prostate cancer patients and 76 cases of BPH patients. The result showed that if liminal value of PSA was set at 4 ng/mL, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of prostate cancer were 100% and 50.6% respectively. Meanwhile, if liminal value of fPSA/PSA set at 16% was added, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of prostate cancer were 100% and 85.3% respectively. It was concluded that the combining assay of PSA and fPSA could increase the diagnostic specificity of prostate cancer in a certain degree

  20. PSA as a tool for decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niehaus, F.; Lederman, L.

    1986-01-01

    The question on ''How safe is safe enough'' is being responded presently by deterministic criteria. Probabilistic criteria in support to more rational and less emotional decisions in regulatory and licensing issues, rationalization of resource allocation and research prioritization, among others, have a potential which is only marginally being explored. This paper discussed PSA limitations and proposes three areas for the use of PSA in decision making, namely: preventing accidents, mitigating accidents, and defining regulatory requirements. Current activities of the International Atomic Energy Agency in these areas are mentioned. PSA studies depict clearly the uncertainties and this is viewed as a positive aspect, which is unique to the use of probabilistic methods. (orig.)

  1. PSA as a tool for decision making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niehaus, F; Lederman, L

    1986-05-01

    The question on ''How safe is safe enough'' is being responded presently by deterministic criteria. Probabilistic criteria in support to more rational and less emotional decisions in regulatory and licensing issues, rationalization of resource allocation and research prioritization, among others, have a potential which is only marginally being explored. This paper discussed PSA limitations and proposes three areas for the use of PSA in decision making, namely: preventing accidents, mitigating accidents, and defining regulatory requirements. Current activities of the International Atomic Energy Agency in these areas are mentioned. PSA studies depict clearly the uncertainties and this is viewed as a positive aspect, which is unique to the use of probabilistic methods.

  2. The diagnostic value of PSA, cPSA and bone scintigraphy for early skeletal metastasis of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Zhongguang

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the value of prostate specific antigen (PSA), complexed prostate specific antigen (cPSA) and bone scintigraphic imaging in diagnosis of early skeletal metastasis of prostate cancer. Methods: 152 patients (74 with prostate cancer, 78 with benign prostate disease) and 90 controls were examined for the serum concentrations of PSA and cPSA. At the same time, the 74 patients with PCa were examined with bone scintigraphy. The cPSA/PSA ratio was calculated. Results: Serum PSA, cPSA levels and cPSA/PSA ratio of patients with prostate cancer were significantly higher than those in benign prostate patients and controls. In addition, the serum PSA, cPSA levels and cPSA/PSA ratio in prostate cancer patients with skeletal metastasis were remarkably higher than those in patients without skeletal metastasis, and the differences were significant (P 20 μg/L, cPSA>10 μg/L, cPSA/PSA>0.80, there is a high probability that skeletal metastasis of prostate cancer would be present and bone scintigraphy should be performed. (authors)

  3. Issues reporting PSA in prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, Paul H.

    1996-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute Prostate; Lung; Colon; Ovarian Cancer Screening (PLCO) project is a multi-center trial developed to investigate the effectiveness of DRE and PSA testing in the early detection and outcome of patients with prostate cancer. Accordingly, the Prostate Cancer Intervention versus Observation Trial (PIVOT) has been launched and is a randomized trial comparing radical prostatectomy versus expectant management for ALCaP. PSA: Initially PSA was thought to be of little value for diagnosis because 20% of men undergoing radical prostatectomy have 'normal' PSA and patients with apparently only symptomatic BPH have 'elevated' levels as follows: 4-10 ng/ml (Tandem-R) - 20%, >10 ng/ml -3%. Yet, PSA has looked attractive as a diagnostic tool in many studies; for example, when PSA was used in a screening approach as the first test which then drove further evaluation (Catalona, Brawer). It was shown that the positive predictive value for PSA's between 4 and 10 is approximately 20% and > 10 approximately 55%. The value of serial PSA's (velocity) is unknown but is under intense study: one major issue is determination of what represents a significant rise (details to be presented). Studies have also revealed that a DRE and PSA are important for optimal results. About 18% of clinically detectable cancers are only DRE positive while about 25 - 30% are only PSA positive. When both a DRE and PSA are used together, very few clinically apparent cancers are missed (3-5%). Recent ROC curves suggest that 4 ng/ml is reasonable. Recently, PSA values for men without apparent cancer were stratified by age, and taking the 2SD, age specific reference values were generated as follows: age 40-49 (0-2.5 ng/ml), 50-59 (0-3.5), 60-69 (0-4.5), 70-70 (0-6.5). Finally, there is the issue about different PSA assays regarding the compatabilities/reliability of the upper limit of normal and serial values. Much of the confusion is because there is no international PSA standard and

  4. Probability of an Abnormal Screening PSA Result Based on Age, Race, and PSA Threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espaldon, Roxanne; Kirby, Katharine A.; Fung, Kathy Z.; Hoffman, Richard M.; Powell, Adam A.; Freedland, Stephen J.; Walter, Louise C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the distribution of screening PSA values in older men and how different PSA thresholds affect the proportion of white, black, and Latino men who would have an abnormal screening result across advancing age groups. Methods We used linked national VA and Medicare data to determine the value of the first screening PSA test (ng/mL) of 327,284 men age 65+ who underwent PSA screening in the VA healthcare system in 2003. We calculated the proportion of men with an abnormal PSA result based on age, race, and common PSA thresholds. Results Among men age 65+, 8.4% had a PSA >4.0ng/mL. The percentage of men with a PSA >4.0ng/mL increased with age and was highest in black men (13.8%) versus white (8.0%) or Latino men (10.0%) (PPSA >4.0ng/mL ranged from 5.1% of Latino men age 65–69 to 27.4% of black men age 85+. Raising the PSA threshold from >4.0ng/mL to >10.0ng/mL, reclassified the greatest percentage of black men age 85+ (18.3% absolute change) and the lowest percentage of Latino men age 65–69 (4.8% absolute change) as being under the biopsy threshold (PPSA threshold together affect the pre-test probability of an abnormal screening PSA result. Based on screening PSA distributions, stopping screening among men whose PSA 10ng/ml has the greatest effect on reducing the number of older black men who will face biopsy decisions after screening. PMID:24439009

  5. Application of PSA to Assess the Safety Level of Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, H. P.; Goertz, R.

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews the application of PSA in German nuclear power plant regulation. From a fundamental point of view, it has to be mentioned that as stipulated in the corresponding requirements, regulatory decision making in Germany is primarily based on deterministic analyses and evaluations. Therefore, PSA is not used as a stand alone but as a supplementary basis. In this context PSA has developed a valuable tool with continuously growing importance. Level 1+ PSAs are now elaborated for all German nuclear power plants in operation, most of them are already reviewed by the competent supervisory authority and its experts. Current research activities on the federal level primarily concentrate on the further development of the methodology in the areas human factor, common cause failures, accident management measures and reduction of uncertainties in methods and data. (author)

  6. More Adults Are Walking PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second PSA is based on the August 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. While more adults are walking, only half get the recommended amount of physical activity. Listen to learn how communities, employers, and individuals may help increase walking.

  7. A preliminary investigation of PSA validation methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unwin, S D [Science Applications International Corp., (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This document has been prepared to support the initial phase of the Atomic Energy Control Board`s program to review and evaluate Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) studies conducted by nuclear generating station designers and licensees. The document provides (1) a review of current and prospective applications of PSA technology in the Canadian nuclear power industry; (2) an assessment of existing practices and techniques for the review or risk and hazard identification studies in the international nuclear power sector and other technological sectors; and (3) proposed analytical framework in which to develop systematic techniques for the scrutiny and evaluation of a PSA model. These frameworks are based on consideration of the mathematical structure of a PSA model and are intended to facilitate the development of methods to evaluate a model relative to intended end-uses. (author). 34 refs., 10 tabs., 3 figs.

  8. A preliminary investigation of PSA validation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unwin, S.D.

    1995-09-01

    This document has been prepared to support the initial phase of the Atomic Energy Control Board's program to review and evaluate Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) studies conducted by nuclear generating station designers and licensees. The document provides (1) a review of current and prospective applications of PSA technology in the Canadian nuclear power industry; (2) an assessment of existing practices and techniques for the review or risk and hazard identification studies in the international nuclear power sector and other technological sectors; and (3) proposed analytical framework in which to develop systematic techniques for the scrutiny and evaluation of a PSA model. These frameworks are based on consideration of the mathematical structure of a PSA model and are intended to facilitate the development of methods to evaluate a model relative to intended end-uses. (author). 34 refs., 10 tabs., 3 figs

  9. PDS4 Challenges in the PSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiz, J.; Barbarisi, I.; Docasal, R.; Rios, C.; Montero, A.; Macfarlane, A.; Laantee, C.; Besse, S.; Vallat, C.; Marcos, J.; Arenas, J.; Osinde, J.; Arviset, C.

    2018-04-01

    The Planetary Science Archive (PSA) stores products from all planetary ESA missions. Adopting PDS4 as the standard for new missions, while being compatible with existing PDS3 products, has driven a design with several difficulties to overcome.

  10. Proceedings of the 10th Korea-Japan joint workshop on PSA. For Asian PSA network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Joon-Eon; Homma, Toshimitsu

    2009-12-01

    The tenth Korea-Japan Joint Workshop on Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) was held in the Jeju island of Korea, on May 18-20, 2009 organized by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). The purpose of the workshop was to provide a forum for presentation and discussions on experiences and technical achievements related to PSA, risk-informed and performance-based approach, and other relevant issues in both countries. Since the first Korea-Japan Joint Workshop on PSA started in 1992, the workshops have provided an important and timely opportunity for exchange and discussion of the relevant information to all PSA practitioners and users of risk information in the industry, research, academia and regulatory arena. This was the tenth anniversary of the Joint Workshop with the main theme of 'For Asian PSA Network' and participants included those from China, Taiwan and the United States of America besides Korea and Japan. Two keynote speeches were presented by the former chairmen of this workshop, Prof. Chang-Sun Kang of Seoul National University and Prof. emeritus Shunsuke Kondo of Tokyo University. We had two special lectures, 70 papers presented by experts at 10 technical sessions related PSA, the special session on the status of PSA in Korea, Japan, China and Taiwan and panel discussion on their cooperation in PSA. This report provides the summary of each session, and all the presentation materials presented in the 10th Korea-Japan Joint Workshop on PSA. (author)

  11. IAEA work with guides for PSA quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellstroem, Per

    2004-09-01

    IAEA has a project on development of a TECDOC 'PSA Quality for Various Applications'. The project develops the guidance document in stages with intermediate meetings with exchange of ideas, thoughts and experience. Draft versions are being produced successively. The objective with the project is to use attributes to describe the quality of different elements of a PSA (Analysis of initiating events, accident progression, system, data, human reliability, etc) making the PSA suitable for application in various risk informed activities. Two of the meetings in this project took place in February 2004 and in July 2004. The February meeting discussed different aspects of PSA quality in relation to applications and a draft of the TECDOC was reviewed. The meeting made recommendations for preparation of a final document and set priorities for further work in the area. The July meeting elaborated the document further in a small working group and a new draft version was prepared. A final version is expected to be published during 2005. The project has come to the conclusion that it is a limited number of PSA element attributes that are specific for a certain application. Most of the attributes concern plant specificity, realism and level of detail in a general manner, how plant specific is the model, how realistic and how detailed? Many attributes have the characteristic that they are good to have, but not necessarily needed to do the job. This last statement is valid both for a baseline PSA and a PSA application. The IAEA project has identified a limited number of attributes that are necessary to describe characteristics needed for specific applications. The PSA scope needed for a specific application is not covered by the project/document, even though it is obvious that different applications will need different scope or approaches to handle scope limitations. The guidance on performing a PSA available today is old. It is a need to review these guides and update with regard

  12. Summary report of seismic PSA of BWR model plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-05-01

    This report presents a seismic PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment) methodology developed at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) for evaluating risks of nuclear power plants (NPPs) and the results from an application of the methodology to a BWR plant in Japan, which is termed Model Plant'. The seismic PSA procedures developed at JAERI are to evaluate core damage frequency (CDF) and have the following four steps: (1) evaluation of seismic hazard, (2) evaluation of realistic response, (3) evaluation of component capacities and failure probabilities, and (4) evaluation of conditional probability of system failure and CDF. Although these procedures are based on the methodologies established and used in the United States, they include several unique features: (1) seismic hazard analysis is performed with use of available knowledge and database on seismological conditions in Japan; (2) response evaluation is performed with a response factor method which is cost effective and associated uncertainties can be reduced with use of modern methods of design calculations; (3) capacity evaluation is performed with use of test results available in Japan in combination with design information and generic capacity data in the U.S.A.; (4) systems reliability analysis, performed with use of the computer code SECOM-2 developed at JAERI, includes identification of dominant accident sequences, importance analysis of components and systems as well as the CDF evaluation with consideration of the effect of correlation of failures by a newly developed method based on the Monte Carlo method. The effect of correlation has been recognized as an important issue in seismic PSAs. The procedures was used to perform a seismic PSA of a 1100 MWe BWR plant. Results are shown as well as the insights derived and future research needs identified in this seismic PSA. (J.P.N.)

  13. Recent Developments in Level 2 PSA and Severe Accident Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ang, Ming Leang; Shepherd, Charles; Gauntt, Randall; Landgren, Vickie; Van Dorsselaere, Jean Pierre; Chaumont, Bernard; Raimond, Emmanuel; Magallon, Daniel; Prior, Robert; Mlady, Ondrej; Khatib-Rahbar, Mohsen; Lajtha, Gabor; Tinkler, Charles; Siu, Nathan

    2007-01-01

    In 1997, CSNI WGRISK produced a report on the state of the art in Level 2 PSA and severe accident management - NEA/CSNI/R(1997)11. Since then, there have been significant developments in that more Level 2 PSAs have been carried out worldwide for a variety of nuclear power plant designs including some that were not addressed in the original report. In addition, there is now a better understanding of the severe accident phenomena that can occur following core damage and the way that they should be modelled in the PSA. As requested by CSNI in December 2005, the objective of this study was to produce a report that updates the original report and gives an account of the developments that have taken place since 1997. The aim has been to capture the most significant new developments that have occurred rather than to provide a full update of the original report, most of which is still valid. This report is organised using the same structure as the original report as follows: Chapter 2: Summary on state of application, results and insights from recent Level 2 PSAs. Chapter 3: Discussion on key severe accident phenomena and modelling issues, identification of severe accident issues that should be treated in Level 2 PSAs for accident management applications, review of severe accident computer codes and the use of these codes in Level 2 PSAs. Chapter 4: Review of approaches and practices for accident management and SAM, evaluation of actions in Level 2 PSAs. Chapter 5: Review of available Level 2 PSA methodologies, including accident progression event tree / containment event tree development. Chapter 6: Aspects important to quantification, including the use of expert judgement and treatment of uncertainties. Chapter 7: Examples of the use of the results and insights from the Level 2 PSA in the context of an integrated (risk informed) decision making process

  14. Review of APR+ Level 2 PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehner, J.R.; Mubayi, V.; Pratt, W.T.

    2012-01-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) assisted the Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS) in reviewing the Level 2 Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) of the APR+ Advanced Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) prepared by the Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd (KHNP) and KEPCO Engineering and Construction Co., Inc. (KEPCO-E and C). The work described in this report involves a review of the APR+ Level 2 PSA submittal (Ref. 1). The PSA and, therefore, the review is limited to consideration of accidents initiated by internal events. As part of the review process, the review team also developed three sets of Requests for Additional Information (RAIs). These RAIs were provided to KHNP and KEPCO-E and C for their evaluation and response. This final detailed report documents the review findings for each technical element of the PSA and includes consideration of all of the RAIs made by the reviewers as well as the associated responses. This final report was preceded by an interim report (Ref. 2) that focused on identifying important issues regarding the PSA. In addition, a final meeting on the project was held at BNL on November 21-22, 2011, where BNL and KINS reviewers discussed their preliminary review findings with KHNP and KEPCO-E and C staffs. Additional information obtained during this final meeting was also used to inform the review findings of this final report. The review focused not only on the robustness of the APR+ design to withstand severe accidents, but also on the capability and acceptability of the Level 2 PSA in terms of level of detail and completeness. The Korean nuclear regulatory authorities will decide whether the PSA is acceptable and the BNL review team is providing its comments for KINS consideration. Section 2.0 provides the basis for the BNL review. Section 3.0 presents the review of each technical element of the PSA. Conclusions and a summary are presented in Section 4.0. Section 5.0 contains the references.

  15. State of the art of probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) in the FRG, and principles of a PSA-guideline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balfanz, H.P.

    1987-01-01

    Contents of the articles: Survey of PSA performed during licensing procedures of an NPP; German Nuclear Standards' requirements on the reliability of safety systems; PSA-guideline for NPP: Principles and suggestions; Motivation and tasks of PSA; Aspects of the methodology of safety analyses; Structure of event tree and fault tree analyses; Extent of safety analyses; Performance and limits of PSA. (orig./HSCH)

  16. PSA Level 2 as element of an integral safety assessment before plant commissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeffler, H.; Mildenberger, O.; Sonnenkalb, M.; Steinroetter, T.

    2012-01-01

    In Argentina the Central Nuclear Atucha II is near to completion. This is a pressurized heavy water reactor. PSA (Probability Safety Assessment) level 1, level 2 and level 3 have to be performed in order to show compliance with the Argentinean dose limit. Such studies have been done first by the former KWU in the 1980's to get the construction license (FABIAN 1985). Nowadays the plant owner NA-SA performs PSA level 1 and provides information about the core damage states to GRS, who does the subsequent PSA level 2 part. GRS delivers source terms to the environment and the associated frequencies to the Argentinean research institute CNEA, which performs level 3 together with NA-SA. Since GRS is situated in the middle of the chain, interface definition with both ends has been a significant task of the GRS activities. Experience gained during this process will be highlighted in the presentation. The analysis of PSA level 2 proper follows a traditional approach: -) deterministic accident simulation with integral code MELCOR; -) analyses of specific issues which are not covered by MELCOR; and -) probabilistic accident progression analysis with EVNTRE event tree methodology. It appears that MELCOR and EVNTRE and PSA guidelines in general are flexible enough to analyse new or uncommon reactor designs. It also appears that the plant specific design features may require analyses beyond present code capabilities, calling for expert judgment and they can largely determine PSA results. The behaviour of iodine is not yet covered satisfactorily by state-of-the-art models in MELCOR

  17. Development and application of probabilistic safety assessment PSA in Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Weigang; Chen Jiefei; Guo Jianbing; Zhen Wei

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the development and application of Level 1 PSA used for safety review, risk monitoring and on line maintenance of the nuclear power plant. PSA development includes the analysis of event tree, fault tree, FMEA, PSA quantification and the equipment reliability database. We have collected and processed the reliability data of external power source, the equipment reliability data and the initial event frequency. The thermal-hydraulics analysis of some important events and accidents, human factor analysis, and the calculation of human error probability have been made. During the development of event trees and fault trees, the effect of some support systems such as compressed air distribution system, ventilation system and electrical system have been taken into account. The system manuals, operation procedures and emergency operating procedures of Daya Bay NPP are referred to in this project. The operators of the NPP were involved in the establishment of all event trees and fault trees analysis. Furthermore, we have accepted the suggestion of IAEA experts, completed the logic chart of initial events to the initial events analysis of Daya Bay NPP, and optimized the code system of PSA model again. Together with the development of the reliability database, by absorbing the advanced experience of EDF, we have gained the reports about equipment's classifying, function and experience feedback information of Daya Bay NPP. According to the quantitative calculation of the latest Level 1 PSA Model of Daya Bay NPP, the results of Core Damage Frequency (CDF) is: CDF = 2.13E-5/reactor . year. The latest PSA Model of Daya Bay NPP includes: 1) 12 sorts of initial events, 67 sub-initial events, 70 fault trees; 2) 25 nuclear safety related systems were developed by fault trees and FMEA ; 3) 2609 fault tree logic gates; 4) 2146 basic events; 5) 680 core damage accident sequences. (authors)

  18. Development of multipurpose regulatory PSA model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang Ju; Sung, Key Yong; Kim, Hho Jung; Yang, Joon Eon; Ha, Jae Joo

    2004-01-01

    Generally, risk information for nuclear facilities comes from the results of Probabilistic safety assessment (PSA). PSA is a systematic tool to ensure the safety of nuclear facilities, since it is based on thorough and consistent application of probability models. In particular, the PSA has been widely utilized for risk-informed regulation (RIR), including various licensee-initiated risk-informed applications (RIA). In any regulatory decision, the main goal is to make a sound safety decision based on technically defensible information. Also, due to the increased public requests for giving a safety guarantee, the regulator should provide the visible means of safety. The use of PSA by the regulator can give the answer on this problem. Therefore, in order to study the applicability of risk information for regulatory safety management, it is a demanding task to prepare a well-established regulatory PSA model and tool. In 2002, KINS and KAERI together made a research cooperation to form a working group to develop the regulatory PSA model - so-called MPAS model. The MPAS stands for multipurpose probabilistic analysis of safety. For instance, a role of the MPAS model is to give some risk insights in the preparation of various regulatory programs. Another role of this model is to provide an independent risk information to the regulator during regulatory decision-making, not depending on the licensee's information

  19. Report 5: Guidance document. Implementation of biological infestation hazards in extended PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasnaoui, C.; Georgescu, G.; Joel, P.; Sperbeck, S.; Kollasko, H.; Kumar, M.

    2016-01-01

    This report covers the assessment of biological hazards with PSA. It provides an overview of the available data and available practices in modelling this type of hazard. First researches in the national and international literature regarding PSA for external and internal hazards shows that probabilistic analyses were very rarely carried out in order to quantify the risk induced by biological hazards. Nevertheless, Section 3 provides some data from some countries. History has shown that this hazard can happened and can be highly safety significant. Screening out this event must be done with great care. The overall analysis approach for Level 1 PSA for internal events can be used for the biological hazards with some care to take into impact the nature of the hazard as it impacts many systems at different times and duration. A proposed detailed methodology is described in Section 4. Still some open issues remain: the methodology must also consider event combination of biological infestation with other external hazards wind or flooding or rainfall and multi-units impact. These aspects present still a lot of challenges to PSA developers. The ASAMPSA-E report recommends that further emphasis shall be put on these two aspects of PSA modelling: multi-units site impact and hazards combinations. (authors)

  20. Lessons Learnt in the Development of Level 1 PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor Probability Safety Assessment: A Collaboration Project under the Norwegian Extra Budgetary Fund

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazleha Maskin; Tom, P.P.; Ahmad Hassan Sallehudin Mohd Sarif; Faizal Mohamed; Mohd Fazli Zakaria; Muhamad Puad Abu

    2014-01-01

    This article reports about the lessons learnt from the development of level 1 probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) project that was implemented under the IAEA mentoring program for TRIGA MARK II PUSPATI research reactor (RTP). As a project that involved more than 3 organizations, a strategic planning of the management and implementation of individual assignment is truly a hectic task. This report compiles all related activities from the forming of the Malaysian PSA team up to the final report submitted to the IAEA. (author)

  1. Main Aspects and Results of Level 2 PSA for KNPP WWER-1000/B320

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mancheva, Kaliopa

    2014-01-01

    The PSA Level 2 for Kozloduy NPP (KNPP) is an update of an older study with wider scope of analysis. The older study represented the status of the units up to 2001. The current PSA Level 2 is based on the PSA Level 1 and represents the status of the units up to 2007 year concerning the systems and procedures included in PSA level 1 and status up to 2011 for the systems and procedures (e.g. SAMG) related to containment and severe accident aspects. The study is performed after the PSA level 1 has been finished and approved by the customer. Compare to the older analysis all modes of operation for analyzed in PSA level 1 event groups as well Spent Fuel Pool accidents are investigated. The analysis consists of both deterministic and probabilistic analysis. As part of deterministic analysis a contemporary containment strength analysis and accident progression deterministic analysis using last version of MELCOR are performed. The probabilistic analysis contains of two part: Interface PSA and CET are calculated using Riskspectrum program code. Two types of models for CET have been developed: one for conditional probabilities calculations and a set of simplified CET's for each PDS group-for integral model. The purpose of the first model is to be able to perform quick calculations and for sensitivity analyses as well. The simplified CET's are used for integral calculation of the model. Source Term analysis is mainly based on the MELCOR analyses results. All characteristics of the releases have been defined, i.e. location, mass, energy of radionuclide groups and activity of the released isotopes (most important are reported only). The main goals of the study are to analyze the status of the containment, systems designed to prevent containment failure and operator action required under the severe accident and to give quantitative assessment of the risk parameter LERF (Large Early Release Frequency). This report will present main aspects, results, finding and

  2. Evaluation of total PSA assay on vitros ECi and correlation with Kryptor-PSA assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassinat, B; Wacquet, M; Toubert, M E; Rain, J D; Schlageter, M H

    2001-01-01

    An increasing number of multiparametric immuno-analysers for PSA assays are available. As different immuno-assays may vary in their analytical quality and their accuracy for the follow-up of patients, expertise is necessary for each new assay. The PSA assay on the Vitros-ECi analyser has been evaluated and compared with the PSA assay from the Kryptor analyser. Variation coefficients were 0.91 to 1.98% for within-run assays, and 4.2% to 5.4% for interassay (PSA levels = 0.8 microgram/L to 33.6 micrograms/L). Dilution tests showed 93 to 136% recovery until 70 micrograms/L PSA. Functional sensitivity was estimated at 0.03 microgram/L. Equimolarity of the test was confirmed. Correlation of PSA levels measured with Vitros-ECi and Kryptor analysers displayed a correlation coefficient r2 of 0.9716. The half-lives and doubling times of PSA were similar using both methods. Vitros-ECi PSA assay meets the major criteria for the management of prostate cancer patients.

  3. Application of FIRE PSA in case of modifications for post-operational shutdown states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuerschmann, Michael; Babst, Siegfried [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Berlin (Germany); Roewekamp, Marina [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Koeln (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    This contribution presents results of recent research and development activities in the field of Hazards PSA (HPSA). The reactor accidents at Fukushima Dai-ichi in March 2011 gave reason and indications for checking the risk assessment approach for internal and external hazards as currently described in the German PSA Guideline and its supplementary technical documents. A standardized approach for performing a comprehensive HPSA has been developed emphasizing the complete consideration of all potential failure dependencies induced by hazards. The systematic extension of the given plant model of Level 1 PSA is the real crux of the new HPSA approach. The extension is carried out for each hazard H using the corresponding Hazard Equipment List (H-EL) and the corresponding Hazard Dependency List (H-DL). Parts of the approach have already been tested. In the paper a successful application for the plant internal hazard fire is presented. A German licensee plans a system modification of the spent fuel pool cooling, therefore a Level 1 PSA has been carried out to compare the fuel damage frequencies for the existing and the modified version. It is described how the systematic (and partly automatic) extension of the fault trees is performed using the Fire Equipment List (F-EL). The F-EL contains a compartment assignment for all relevant components and cables. The probability of a room failure by fire must be determined for any mapped room. This is the conditional probability that the components and cables within the room are destroyed by the fire. (orig.)

  4. Purification of PSA from human semen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatesh, M.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: 1. Human seminal plasma collected from many volunteers are pooled and passed through a column of phenyl sepharose equilibrated with 1.25 M ammonium sulphate. Elution is carried out with 1.25 M ammonium sulphate initially, to remove the bulk non-adsorbing proteins. Gradient elution of the absorbed proteins with 0.01 M Tris-HCl, 0.25 M NaCl, pH 7.0 buffer gives a sharp peak containing PSA. At each stage, PSA has to be identified by an independent method such as immunodiffusion or an immunoassay. 2. The absorbed protein peak containing PSA is then lyophilised, redissolved in Tris-HCl buffer and chromatographed in a Superdex-75 or Sephadex-75 column. The absorbed proteins elute out as multiple peaks and PSA is eluted as a sharp peak.At each stage, PSA has to be identified by an independent method such as immunodiffusion or an immunoassay. 3. Step 2 is repeated for better purity. 4. The PSA peak is lyophilised, dissolved in Tris-HCl buffer without NaCl and further purified on an ion exchange column (either anion or cation exchange columns such as DEAE Sephadex or CM-Sephadex or Mono Q). Gradient elution using Tris-HCl buffer without NaCl and Tris-HCl buffer with 0.25 M NaCl resulted in a sharp pure PSA peak (homogenous, sharp single band on SDS-PAGE). This procedure is based on that reported by Wang et al., Oncology, 39,1,1982

  5. Vergleichende Einschätzung der diagnostischen Aussagekraft der Kenngrößen freies PSA, Alpha1-Antichymotrypsin-PSA und komplexiertes PSA in der Diagnostik des Prostatakarzinoms

    OpenAIRE

    Baumgart E; Deger S; Jung K; Lein M; Loening SA; Schnorr D

    2001-01-01

    Ziel der Studie war die vergleichende Einschätzung der diagnostischen Aussagekraft von Gesamt-PSA (tPSA), freiem PSA (fPSA), alpha1-Antichymotrypsin-PSA (ACT-PSA) und komplexiertem PSA (cPSA) sowie der entsprechenden Quotienten zur Differenzierung zwischen einem Prostatakarzinom (PCa) und einer Benignen Prostatahyperplasie (BPH). Die Bestimmung erfolgte bei insgesamt 324 Männern (PCa: n = 144; BPH: n = 89; Kontrollen: n = 91). Die tPSA- und cPSA-Konzentrationen wurden mit dem Bayer Immuno 1 S...

  6. Correlative study of SPECT bone scan, serum tPSA and fPSA/tPSA ratio and the pathological grade of prostate cancer with bone metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Haiqing; Duan Jun

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the rules and characteristics of SPECT bone scan, serum TPSA, fPSA/tPSA ratio and the pathological grade of prostate cancer with bone metastasis. Methods: Nuclear medicine SPECT bone scan as the gold standard, retrospective analysis of the in vitro radioimmunoassay in 107 patients with prostate cancer serum PSA (prostate specific antigen) levels, serum fPSA/tPSA ratio and whole body bone imaging studies and pathological classification. Results: 107 patients with prostate cancer : 49 patients had bone metastases, accounting for 45.8% (49/107), in which groups of different pathological comparison between the incidence of bone metastasis significantly, the lower the degree of differentiation, the more the incidence of bone metastases high; with elevated levels of tPSA, the incidence of bone metastasis increased significantly; serum tPSA 4 - 40 ng/ml, the use of fPSA/tPSA ratio may improve the diagnostic specificity of prostate cancer. Conclusion: Patients with bone metastases of prostate cancer incidence and degree of differentiation of prostate cancer, serum PSA levels and fPSA/tPSA ratio of a certain relationship. The lower degree of differentiation,the higher the incidence of bone metastasis. (authors)

  7. Can PSA Reflex Algorithm be a valid alternative to other PSA-based prostate cancer screening strategies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldarelli, G; Troiano, G; Rosadini, D; Nante, N

    2017-01-01

    The available laboratory tests for the differential diagnosis of prostate cancer, are represented by the total PSA, the free PSA, and the free/total PSA ratio. In Italy most of doctors tend to request both total and free PSA for their patients even in cases where the total PSA doesn't justify the further request of free PSA, with a consequent growth of the costs for the National Health System. The aim of our study was to predict the saving in Euro (due to reagents) and reduction in free PSA tests, applying the "PSA Reflex" algorithm. We calculated the number of total PSA and free PSA exams performed in 2014 in the Hospital of Grosseto and, simulating the application of the "PSA Reflex" algorithm in the same year, we calculated the decrease in the number of free PSA requests and we tried to predict the Euro savings in reagents, obtained from this reduction. In 2014 in the Hospital of Grosseto 25,955 total PSA tests have been performed: 3,631 (14%) resulted greater than 10 ng / ml; 7,686 (29.6%) between 2 and 10 ng / ml; 14,638 (56.4%) lower than 2 ng / ml. The performed free PSA tests were 16904. Simulating the use of "PSA Reflex" algorithm, the free PSA tests would be performed only in cases with total PSA values between 2 and 10 ng / mL with a saving of 54.5% of free PSA exams and of 8,971 euros, only for reagents. Our study showed that the "PSA Reflex" algorithm is a valid alternative leading to a reduction of the costs. The estimated intralaboratory savings, due to the reagents, seem to be modest, however, they are followed by the additional savings due to the other diagnostic processes for prostate cancers.

  8. Insulin promotes cell migration by regulating PSA-NCAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monzo, Hector J.; Coppieters, Natacha [Centre for Brain Research, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, The University of Auckland, Private Bag, 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Department of Anatomy and Medical Imaging, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, The University of Auckland, Private Bag, 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Park, Thomas I.H. [Centre for Brain Research, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, The University of Auckland, Private Bag, 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, The University of Auckland, Private Bag, 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Dieriks, Birger V.; Faull, Richard L.M. [Centre for Brain Research, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, The University of Auckland, Private Bag, 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Department of Anatomy and Medical Imaging, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, The University of Auckland, Private Bag, 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Dragunow, Mike [Centre for Brain Research, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, The University of Auckland, Private Bag, 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, The University of Auckland, Private Bag, 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Curtis, Maurice A., E-mail: m.curtis@auckland.ac.nz [Centre for Brain Research, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, The University of Auckland, Private Bag, 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Department of Anatomy and Medical Imaging, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, The University of Auckland, Private Bag, 92019, Auckland (New Zealand)

    2017-06-01

    Cellular interactions with the extracellular environment are modulated by cell surface polysialic acid (PSA) carried by the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM). PSA-NCAM is involved in cellular processes such as differentiation, plasticity, and migration, and is elevated in Alzheimer's disease as well as in metastatic tumour cells. Our previous work demonstrated that insulin enhances the abundance of cell surface PSA by inhibiting PSA-NCAM endocytosis. In the present study we have identified a mechanism for insulin-dependent inhibition of PSA-NCAM turnover affecting cell migration. Insulin enhanced the phosphorylation of the focal adhesion kinase leading to dissociation of αv-integrin/PSA-NCAM clusters, and promoted cell migration. Our results show that αv-integrin plays a key role in the PSA-NCAM turnover process. αv-integrin knockdown stopped PSA-NCAM from being endocytosed, and αv-integrin/PSA-NCAM clusters co-labelled intracellularly with Rab5, altogether indicating a role for αv-integrin as a carrier for PSA-NCAM during internalisation. Furthermore, inhibition of p-FAK caused dissociation of αv-integrin/PSA-NCAM clusters and counteracted the insulin-induced accumulation of PSA at the cell surface and cell migration was impaired. Our data reveal a functional association between the insulin/p-FAK-dependent regulation of PSA-NCAM turnover and cell migration through the extracellular matrix. Most importantly, they identify a novel mechanism for insulin-stimulated cell migration. - Highlights: • Insulin modulates PSA-NCAM turnover through upregulation of p-FAK. • P-FAK modulates αv-integrin/PSA-NCAM clustering. • αv-integrin acts as a carrier for PSA-NCAM endocytosis. • Cell migration is promoted by cell surface PSA. • Insulin promotes PSA-dependent migration in vitro.

  9. Insulin promotes cell migration by regulating PSA-NCAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monzo, Hector J.; Coppieters, Natacha; Park, Thomas I.H.; Dieriks, Birger V.; Faull, Richard L.M.; Dragunow, Mike; Curtis, Maurice A.

    2017-01-01

    Cellular interactions with the extracellular environment are modulated by cell surface polysialic acid (PSA) carried by the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM). PSA-NCAM is involved in cellular processes such as differentiation, plasticity, and migration, and is elevated in Alzheimer's disease as well as in metastatic tumour cells. Our previous work demonstrated that insulin enhances the abundance of cell surface PSA by inhibiting PSA-NCAM endocytosis. In the present study we have identified a mechanism for insulin-dependent inhibition of PSA-NCAM turnover affecting cell migration. Insulin enhanced the phosphorylation of the focal adhesion kinase leading to dissociation of αv-integrin/PSA-NCAM clusters, and promoted cell migration. Our results show that αv-integrin plays a key role in the PSA-NCAM turnover process. αv-integrin knockdown stopped PSA-NCAM from being endocytosed, and αv-integrin/PSA-NCAM clusters co-labelled intracellularly with Rab5, altogether indicating a role for αv-integrin as a carrier for PSA-NCAM during internalisation. Furthermore, inhibition of p-FAK caused dissociation of αv-integrin/PSA-NCAM clusters and counteracted the insulin-induced accumulation of PSA at the cell surface and cell migration was impaired. Our data reveal a functional association between the insulin/p-FAK-dependent regulation of PSA-NCAM turnover and cell migration through the extracellular matrix. Most importantly, they identify a novel mechanism for insulin-stimulated cell migration. - Highlights: • Insulin modulates PSA-NCAM turnover through upregulation of p-FAK. • P-FAK modulates αv-integrin/PSA-NCAM clustering. • αv-integrin acts as a carrier for PSA-NCAM endocytosis. • Cell migration is promoted by cell surface PSA. • Insulin promotes PSA-dependent migration in vitro.

  10. Lessons of the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident for PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, M.; Klug, J.; Alzbutas, R.; Burgazzi, L.; Farcasiu, M.; Nitoi, M.; Ivanov, I.; Bogdanov, D.; Hashimoto, K.; Hirata, K.; La Rovere, S.; Sevbo, O.; Vitazkova, J.; Hustak, S.; Wielenberg, A.; Raimond, E.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this document is to identify some lessons learned from the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident for PSA. Based on the public information on the causes that have led to major radioactive release during the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident (initiating events, material and human response), the authors, ASAMPSA-E WP30 members have performed a review to examine the gaps/insufficiencies/incompleteness in the existing Level 1 and Level 2 PSAs. This is the aim of this report which is one of WP30 deliverables i.e. D30.2. The consideration of external initiating events for the different levels of defense-in-depth is one of the focal points in this review. Recommendations in the way of developing the different elements of PSAs have been proposed by the authors and were completed later during the ASAMPSA-E project. Moreover, first recommendations on the use of PSA information in decision making have been included as well. (authors)

  11. A methodology for PSA model validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unwin, S.D.

    1995-09-01

    This document reports Phase 2 of work undertaken by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) in support of the Atomic Energy Control Board's Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) review. A methodology is presented for the systematic review and evaluation of a PSA model. These methods are intended to support consideration of the following question: To within the scope and depth of modeling resolution of a PSA study, is the resultant model a complete and accurate representation of the subject plant? This question was identified as a key PSA validation issue in SAIC's Phase 1 project. The validation methods are based on a model transformation process devised to enhance the transparency of the modeling assumptions. Through conversion to a 'success-oriented' framework, a closer correspondence to plant design and operational specifications is achieved. This can both enhance the scrutability of the model by plant personnel, and provide an alternative perspective on the model that may assist in the identification of deficiencies. The model transformation process is defined and applied to fault trees documented in the Darlington Probabilistic Safety Evaluation. A tentative real-time process is outlined for implementation and documentation of a PSA review based on the proposed methods. (author). 11 refs., 9 tabs., 30 refs

  12. Proteolytic activity of prostate-specific antigen (PSA towards protein substrates and effect of peptides stimulating PSA activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna M Mattsson

    Full Text Available Prostate-specific antigen (PSA or kallikrein-related peptidase-3, KLK3 exerts chymotrypsin-like proteolytic activity. The main biological function of PSA is the liquefaction of the clot formed after ejaculation by cleavage of semenogelins I and II in seminal fluid. PSA also cleaves several other substrates, which may explain its putative functions in prostate cancer and its antiangiogenic activity. We compared the proteolytic efficiency of PSA towards several protein and peptide substrates and studied the effect of peptides stimulating the activity of PSA with these substrates. An endothelial cell tube formation model was used to analyze the effect of PSA-degraded protein fragments on angiogenesis. We showed that PSA degrades semenogelins I and II much more efficiently than other previously identified protein substrates, e.g., fibronectin, galectin-3 and IGFBP-3. We identified nidogen-1 as a new substrate for PSA. Peptides B2 and C4 that stimulate the activity of PSA towards small peptide substrates also enhanced the proteolytic activity of PSA towards protein substrates. Nidogen-1, galectin-3 or their fragments produced by PSA did not have any effect on endothelial cell tube formation. Although PSA cleaves several other protein substrates, in addition to semenogelins, the physiological importance of this activity remains speculative. The PSA levels in prostate are very high, but several other highly active proteases, such as hK2 and trypsin, are also expressed in the prostate and may cleave protein substrates that are weakly cleaved by PSA.

  13. Proteolytic Activity of Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) towards Protein Substrates and Effect of Peptides Stimulating PSA Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, Johanna M.; Ravela, Suvi; Hekim, Can; Jonsson, Magnus; Malm, Johan; Närvänen, Ale; Stenman, Ulf-Håkan; Koistinen, Hannu

    2014-01-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA or kallikrein-related peptidase-3, KLK3) exerts chymotrypsin-like proteolytic activity. The main biological function of PSA is the liquefaction of the clot formed after ejaculation by cleavage of semenogelins I and II in seminal fluid. PSA also cleaves several other substrates, which may explain its putative functions in prostate cancer and its antiangiogenic activity. We compared the proteolytic efficiency of PSA towards several protein and peptide substrates and studied the effect of peptides stimulating the activity of PSA with these substrates. An endothelial cell tube formation model was used to analyze the effect of PSA-degraded protein fragments on angiogenesis. We showed that PSA degrades semenogelins I and II much more efficiently than other previously identified protein substrates, e.g., fibronectin, galectin-3 and IGFBP-3. We identified nidogen-1 as a new substrate for PSA. Peptides B2 and C4 that stimulate the activity of PSA towards small peptide substrates also enhanced the proteolytic activity of PSA towards protein substrates. Nidogen-1, galectin-3 or their fragments produced by PSA did not have any effect on endothelial cell tube formation. Although PSA cleaves several other protein substrates, in addition to semenogelins, the physiological importance of this activity remains speculative. The PSA levels in prostate are very high, but several other highly active proteases, such as hK2 and trypsin, are also expressed in the prostate and may cleave protein substrates that are weakly cleaved by PSA. PMID:25237904

  14. Design review of SPWR with PSA methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikawa, Tetsukuni; Muramatsu, Ken; Iwamura, Takamichi; Tone, Tatsuzo; Kasahara, Takeo; Mizuno, Yoshio

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the procedures and results of a PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment) of the SPWR (System-Integrated PWR), which is being developed at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) as a medium sized innovative passive safe reactor, to assist in the design improvement of the SPWR by reviewing the design and identifying the design weaknesses. This PSA was performed in four steps: (1) identification of initiating events by the failure mode effect analysis and other methods, (2) delineation of accident sequences for three selected initiating events using accident progression flow charts and event trees, (3) quantification of event trees based on the review of past PSAs for LWRs, and (4) sensitivity analysis and interpretation of results. Qualitative and quantitative results of PSA provided very useful information for decision makings of design improvement and recommendations for further consideration in the process of detailed design

  15. Fire propagation equation for the explicit identification of fire scenarios in a fire PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Ho Gon; Han, Sang Hoon; Moon, Joo Hyun

    2011-01-01

    When performing fire PSA in a nuclear power plant, an event mapping method, using an internal event PSA model, is widely used to reduce the resources used by fire PSA model development. Feasible initiating events and component failure events due to fire are identified to transform the fault tree (FT) for an internal event PSA into one for a fire PSA using the event mapping method. A surrogate event or damage term method is used to condition the FT of the internal PSA. The surrogate event or the damage term plays the role of flagging whether the system/component in a fire compartment is damaged or not, depending on the fire being initiated from a specified compartment. These methods usually require explicit states of all compartments to be modeled in a fire area. Fire event scenarios, when using explicit identification, such as surrogate or damage terms, have two problems: there is no consideration of multiple fire propagation beyond a single propagation to an adjacent compartment, and there is no consideration of simultaneous fire propagations in which an initiating fire event is propagated to multiple paths simultaneously. The present paper suggests a fire propagation equation to identify all possible fire event scenarios for an explicitly treated fire event scenario in the fire PSA. Also, a method for separating fire events was developed to make all fire events a set of mutually exclusive events, which can facilitate arithmetic summation in fire risk quantification. A simple example is given to confirm the applicability of the present method for a 2x3 rectangular fire area. Also, a feasible asymptotic approach is discussed to reduce the computational burden for fire risk quantification

  16. PSA levels as a predictor of 68Ga PSMA PET/CT positivity in patients with prostate cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soydal, Cigdem; Urun, Yuksel; Suer, Evren; Nak, Demet; Ozkan, Elgin; Kucuk, Ozlem N

    2018-05-10

    The aim of this study is to evaluate predictive factors of 68Gallium (68Ga) Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) Positron Emission Tomography (PET)/Computed Tomography (CT) positivity. Relationships between serum Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA), Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels, Gleason Score (GS) and positivity of 68Ga PSMA PET in patients who underwent 68Ga PSMA PET/CT for restaging for PCa were evaluated retrospectively. One hundred and four (median age: 67; range: 51-88) patients were included in this study. Of these patients, PSMA PET was positive in 75 (72%) patients. Mean serum PSA levels for PET negative and positive groups were 0.76±1.00 and 180.85±324.93 ng/ml (pPSA cut-off and 92% and 90%, respectively, for the 2 ng/ml PSA cut-off values. The positivity rates for patients with PSA levels PSA recurrence. Patients with higher GS and early PSA recurrence could benefit from 68Ga PSMA PET/CT.

  17. A Preliminary Fire PSA on PGSFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kilyoo; Han, Sanghoon; Lee, KwiLim

    2017-01-01

    A Prototype Generation IV Sodium Fast Reactor (PGSFR) is under design with defense in depth concept with active, passive, and inherent safety features to acquire a design approval for PGSFR from Korean regulatory authority by around 2017. A preliminary fire PSA on PGSFR is done in 2016 and a final fire PSA of PGSFR will be done in 2017. The characteristics of the preliminary fire PSA on PGSFR are described in this paper. Since PGSFR is very safe reactor, it is not bad approach to use a conservative assumption in the preliminary PSA. In addition, several drawings including cable routing are not yet issued, a conservative calculation for CDF is performed. As shown in Table 2, the CDF caused by the fire in the control room takes 89% portion of total CDF. Thus, a detailed fire modeling for control room is necessary for the final fire PSA on PGSFR. Also, the increased ignition frequency due to sodium leak would be derived by considering the sodium piping complexity in the final fire PSA on PGSFR. The 4th column of Table 2 is derived the 3rd column by multiplying the factor (592/1177). The 5th column is the ignition frequency caused by the sodium leak. The 6th column is derived by summing the 4th column and the 5th column. The 7th column is the CDF portion of each fire area. The control room (fire area F-A404A) is the most important area since the control room fire takes 89% portion of total CDF.

  18. Procedures for conducting probabilistic safety assessments of nuclear power plants (Level 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report provides guidance for conducting a Level 1 of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), that is a PSA concerned with events leading to core damage. The scope of this report is confined to internal initiating events (excluding internal fires and floods). A particular aim is to promote a standardized framework, terminology and form of documentation for PSAs so as to facilitate external review of the results of such studies. The report is divided into the following major sections: management and organization; identification of sources of radioactive releases and accident initiators; accident sequence modelling; data assessment and parameter estimation; accident sequence quantification; documentation of the analysis: display and interpretation of result. 45 refs, 7 figs, 23 tabs

  19. Cutset Quantification Error Evaluation for Shin-Kori 1 and 2 PSA model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jong Soo

    2009-01-01

    Probabilistic safety assessments (PSA) for nuclear power plants (NPPs) are based on the minimal cut set (MCS) quantification method. In PSAs, the risk and importance measures are computed from a cutset equation mainly by using approximations. The conservatism of the approximations is also a source of quantification uncertainty. In this paper, exact MCS quantification methods which are based on the 'sum of disjoint products (SDP)' logic and Inclusion-exclusion formula are applied and the conservatism of the MCS quantification results in Shin-Kori 1 and 2 PSA is evaluated

  20. Seminal plasma PSA in spinal cord injured men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasso, K; Sønksen, J; Sommer, P

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of spinal cord injury on seminal plasma PSA concentration.......The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of spinal cord injury on seminal plasma PSA concentration....

  1. Regulatory requirements on PSA level 2: Review, aspects and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husarcek, J.

    2003-01-01

    The general requirements concerning utility obligations, probabilistic safety criteria (CDF should not exceed 1.0E-4/reactor year and LERF should not exceed 1.0E-5/reactor year), documentation and results, living PSA requirements and major steps in level 2 PSA are presented. PSA developments in Slovakia, collection and assembly of information, plant damage states, containment performance and failure modes, severe accident progression analyses, containment failure modes and source terms as a part of performed level 2 PSA are discussed. The PSA applications in design and operation evaluation, support to plant upgrade and modifications are also described. At the end, the following conclusion is made: more extensive PSA application needs to foster the exchange of experience and communication between PSA specialists, non-PSA engineers, designers, and the regulatory body staff responsible for safety assessment, inspection and enforcement

  2. Use of PSA to support accident management at NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Cobo, A.

    1997-01-01

    The presentation discusses the following: Overview of PSA level 2; Introduction: Framework; Accident Progression Phenomena in the Confinement/containment; Severe Accident Sequences; Examples; Results and Insights. Accident Management: Concepts; Process; Use of PSA to support Accident; Management

  3. Molecular Form Differences Between Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Standards Create Quantitative Discordances in PSA ELISA Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    McJimpsey, Erica L.

    2016-01-01

    The prostate-specific antigen (PSA) assays currently employed for the detection of prostate cancer (PCa) lack the specificity needed to differentiate PCa from benign prostatic hyperplasia and have high false positive rates. The PSA calibrants used to create calibration curves in these assays are typically purified from seminal plasma and contain many molecular forms (intact PSA and cleaved subforms). The purpose of this study was to determine if the composition of the PSA molecular forms found in these PSA standards contribute to the lack of PSA test reliability. To this end, seminal plasma purified PSA standards from different commercial sources were investigated by western blot (WB) and in multiple research grade PSA ELISAs. The WB results revealed that all of the PSA standards contained different mass concentrations of intact and cleaved molecular forms. Increased mass concentrations of intact PSA yielded higher immunoassay absorbance values, even between lots from the same manufacturer. Standardization of seminal plasma derived PSA calibrant molecular form mass concentrations and purification methods will assist in closing the gaps in PCa testing measurements that require the use of PSA values, such as the % free PSA and Prostate Health Index by increasing the accuracy of the calibration curves. PMID:26911983

  4. Molecular Form Differences Between Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Standards Create Quantitative Discordances in PSA ELISA Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    McJimpsey, Erica L.

    2016-02-01

    The prostate-specific antigen (PSA) assays currently employed for the detection of prostate cancer (PCa) lack the specificity needed to differentiate PCa from benign prostatic hyperplasia and have high false positive rates. The PSA calibrants used to create calibration curves in these assays are typically purified from seminal plasma and contain many molecular forms (intact PSA and cleaved subforms). The purpose of this study was to determine if the composition of the PSA molecular forms found in these PSA standards contribute to the lack of PSA test reliability. To this end, seminal plasma purified PSA standards from different commercial sources were investigated by western blot (WB) and in multiple research grade PSA ELISAs. The WB results revealed that all of the PSA standards contained different mass concentrations of intact and cleaved molecular forms. Increased mass concentrations of intact PSA yielded higher immunoassay absorbance values, even between lots from the same manufacturer. Standardization of seminal plasma derived PSA calibrant molecular form mass concentrations and purification methods will assist in closing the gaps in PCa testing measurements that require the use of PSA values, such as the % free PSA and Prostate Health Index by increasing the accuracy of the calibration curves.

  5. Severe Accident Research Network (SARNET). Level 2 PSA work package: comparison of partners methods for uncertainties assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaumont, B.; Haesendonck, M.; Vidal, S.; Eyink, J.; Loeffler, H.; Radu, G.; Kopustinskas, V.; Ming, A.; Guntay, S.; Gustavsson, V.; Ivanov, I.; Dienstbier, J.; Bareith, A.; Hollo, E.; Lajtha, G.

    2007-01-01

    The PSA2 work package (PSA2 WP) is a part of the Joined Programme Activity of the European Severe Accident Network (SARNET) related to level 2 PSA methodologies. The general objectives of this work package is to provide a comparison of the different methodologies used or under development for level 2 PSA application by the partners involved in the work package and to promote their harmonization. The PSA2 WP is organized into three main topics: methodologies in general, methodologies for uncertainties assessment, and dynamic reliability methods. The different tasks initially defined for these three topics are shortly described and the partners involved identified. Attention is then paid on the methodologies used so far by the different partners to assess the uncertainties in their level 2 PSA. A review of partners approaches to assess - as far as possible - the different sources of possible uncertainties is done for the different following topics: - uncertainties propagated from the level 1 PSA, - uncertainties (in sense of approximation) due to the binning of the level 1 sequences in Plant Damage, - uncertainties related to the structure of the Accident Progression Event Tree, - uncertainties related to the probabilities of stochastic events (system failure or recovery, human actions, some physical phenomena such as ignition of hydrogen combustion or triggering of steam explosion), - uncertainties elated to the modelling of the different physical phenomena, - uncertainties related to the cut-off frequency used in the probabilistic quantification of the Accident Progression Event Tree; - uncertainties related to the binning of level 2 sequences in Release Categories (variables not considered, values of eventual continuous variables). First conclusions of the comparison are given in terms of improvement needs and then of perspectives of the work for the following period of work. (authors)

  6. Reviewing PSA-based analyses to modify technical specifications at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, P.K.; Martinez-Guridi, G.; Vesely, W.E.

    1995-12-01

    Changes to Technical Specifications (TSs) at nuclear power plants (NPPs) require review and approval by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC). Currently, many requests for changes to TSs use analyses that are based on a plant's probabilistic safety assessment (PSA). This report presents an approach to reviewing such PSA-based submittals for changes to TSs. We discuss the basic objectives of reviewing a PSA-based submittal to modify NPP TSs; the methodology of reviewing a TS submittal, and the differing roles of a PSA review, a PSA Computer Code review, and a review of a TS submittal. To illustrate this approach, we discuss our review of changes to allowed outage time (AOT) and surveillance test interval (STI) in the TS for the South Texas Project Nuclear Generating Station. Based on this experience gained, a check-list of items is given for future reviewers; it can be used to verify that the submittal contains sufficient information, and also that the review has addressed the relevant issues. Finally, recommended steps in the review process and the expected findings of each step are discussed

  7. Development and Application of Level 1 Probabilistic Safety Assessment for Nuclear Power Plants. Specific Safety Guide; РАЗРАБОТКА И ПРИМЕНЕНИЕ ВЕРОЯТНОСТНОЙ ОЦЕНКИ БЕЗОПАСНОСТИ УРОВНЯ 1 ДЛЯ АТОМНЫХ ЭЛЕКТРОСТАНЦИЙ. СПЕЦИАЛЬНОЕ РУКОВОДСТВО ПО БЕЗОПАСНОСТИ. СПЕЦИАЛЬНОЕ РУКОВОДСТВО ПО БЕЗОПАСНОСТИ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-05-15

    The objective of this Safety Guide is to provide recommendations for meeting the IAEA safety requirements in performing or managing a level 1 probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) project for a nuclear power plant. These recommendations promote technical consistency among level 1 PSA studies and support applications of PSA and risk informed decision making. The Safety Guide's scope encompasses all operational conditions of the plant and potential initiating events and hazards. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. General considerations relating to the performance and use of PSA; 3. Project management and organization for PSA; 4. Familiarization with the plant and collection of information; 5. Level 1 PSA for internal initiating events for full power operating conditions; 6. General methodology for level 1 PSA for internal and external hazards; 7. Specifics of level 1 PSA for internal hazards; 8. Specifics of level 1 PSA for external hazards; 9. Level 1 PSA for low power and shutdown modes; 10. Use and applications of PSA; Annex I: Example of a generic list of internal and external hazards; Annex II: Examples of fire propagation event trees and seismic event trees; Annex III: Supporting information on PSA for low power and shutdown modes.

  8. Study of possibility using LANL PSA-methodology for accident probability RBMK researches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrin, S.V.; Yuferev, V.Y.; Zlobin, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    The reactor facility probabilistic safety analysis methodologies are considered which are used at U.S. LANL and RF NIKIET. The methodologies are compared in order to reveal their similarity and differences, determine possibilities of using the LANL technique for RBMK type reactor safety analysis. It is found that at the PSA-1 level the methodologies practically do not differ. At LANL the PHA, HAZOP hazards analysis methods are used for more complete specification of the accounted initial event list which can be also useful at performance of PSA for RBMK. Exchange of information regarding the methodology of detection of dependent faults and consideration of human factor impact on reactor safety is reasonable. It is accepted as useful to make a comparative study result analysis for test problems or PSA fragments using various computer programs employed at NIKIET and LANL

  9. The use of PSA in the French regulatory practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mennesiez, H.

    1994-01-01

    The presentation gives a description of fundamental documents (since 1977-1978) through which have been set up in France probabilistic objectives, and PSAs, including shutdown states, performed for 900-1300 MWe PWR-type nuclear power plants. PSA developments and use, including fire PSA, level 2 and PSA for the future French-German European Pressurized Reactor (EPR) are also discussed

  10. PSA methodology development and application in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazuo Sato; Toshiaki Tobioka; Kiyoharu Abe

    1987-01-01

    The outlines of Japanese activities on development and application of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) methodologies are described. First the activities on methodology development are described for system reliability analysis, operational data analysis, core melt accident analysis, environmental consequence analysis and seismic risk analysis. Then the methodoligy application examples by the regulatory side and the industry side are described. (author)

  11. Screen for Life: Meryl Streep PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-05-16

    In this 30 second PSA, Academy Award®-winning actress Meryl Streep urges viewers to get screened for colorectal cancer.  Created: 5/16/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 5/16/2013.

  12. Screen for Life: Meryl Streep PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-05-16

    In this 60 second PSA, Academy Award®-winning actress Meryl Streep urges viewers to get screened for colorectal cancer.  Created: 5/16/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 5/16/2013.

  13. French 900 MWe PWR PSA preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanore, J.M.; Brisbois, J.

    1988-10-01

    A PSA is performed by the Safety Assessment Department of CEA for a 900 MWe standardized plant. The paper presents the objectives, the scope of the study and the relative preliminary results. Some general insights are drawn, especially the benefit related to the implementation of emergency procedures

  14. Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill PSA (:24)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 24 second PSA from Dr. Regina Benjamin, U.S. Surgeon General, encourages people to get help if they are feeling sad, angry, depressed, or stressed as a result of the Gulf oil spill. It was recorded so that localities can add their own "For more information" at the end, as appropriate.

  15. Take Charge. Take the Test. PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    As part of the Take Charge. Take the Test. campaign, this 30 second PSA encourages African American women to get tested for HIV. Locations for a free HIV test can be found by visiting hivtest.org/takecharge or calling 1-800-CDC-INFO (1-800-232-4636).

  16. Communication Can Save Lives PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second public service announcement (PSA) is based on the August 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Antibiotic-resistant germs cause at least 23,000 deaths each year. Learn how public health authorities and health care facilities can work together to save lives.

  17. Safer Food Saves Lives PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second PSA is based on the November 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Contaminated food sent to several states can cause multistate outbreaks of foodborne illness and make a lot of people seriously ill. Learn what can be done to prevent and stop outbreaks.

  18. Interoperability in the Planetary Science Archive (PSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios Diaz, C.

    2017-09-01

    The protocols and standards currently being supported by the recently released new version of the Planetary Science Archive at this time are the Planetary Data Access Protocol (PDAP), the EuroPlanet- Table Access Protocol (EPN-TAP) and Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards. We explore these protocols in more detail providing scientifically useful examples of their usage within the PSA.

  19. Secundaire analyses organisatiebeleid psychosociale arbeidsbelasting (PSA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraan, K.O.; Houtman, I.L.D.

    2016-01-01

    Hoe het organisatiebeleid rond psychosociale arbeidsbelasting (PSA) eruit ziet anno 2014 en welke samenhang er is met ander beleid en uitkomstmaten, zijn de centrale vragen in dit onderzoek. De resultaten van deze verdiepende analyses kunnen ten goede komen aan de lopende campagne ‘Check je

  20. STD Awareness PSA - College 2 (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-04-22

    This PSA, targeted to college-aged youth and young adults, encourages listeners to get tested for STDs.  Created: 4/22/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/22/2010.

  1. STD Awareness PSA - College 1 (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-04-22

    This PSA, targeted to college-aged youth and young adults, encourages listeners to get tested for STDs.  Created: 4/22/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/22/2010.

  2. STD Awareness PSA - Male Announcer 2 (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-04-22

    This PSA encourages listeners to get tested for STDs. Target - Men who have sex with other men.  Created: 4/22/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/22/2010.

  3. Stop C. difficile Infections PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second PSA is based on the March 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. C. difficile is a germ that causes diarrhea linked to 14,000 deaths in the US each year. This podcast helps health care professionals learn how to prevent C. difficile infections.

  4. Time to PSA rise differentiates the PSA bounce after HDR and LDR brachytherapy of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchardt, Wojciech; Skowronek, Janusz

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the differences in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) bounce (PB) after high-dose-rate (HDR-BT) or low-dose-rate (LDR-BT) brachytherapy alone in prostate cancer patients. Ninety-four patients with localized prostate cancer (T1-T2cN0), age ranged 50-81 years, were treated with brachytherapy alone between 2008 and 2010. Patients were diagnosed with adenocarcinoma, Gleason score ≤ 7. The LDR-BT total dose was 144-145 Gy, in HDR-BT - 3 fractions of 10.5 or 15 Gy. The initial PSA level (iPSA) was assessed before treatment, then PSA was rated every 3 months over the first 2 years, and every 6 months during the next 3 years. Median follow-up was 3.0 years. Mean iPSA was 7.8 ng/ml. In 58 cases, PSA decreased gradually without PB or biochemical failure (BF). In 24% of patients, PB was observed. In 23 cases (24%), PB was observed using 0.2 ng/ml definition; in 10 cases (11%), BF was diagnosed using nadir + 2 ng/ml definition. The HDR-BT and LDR-BT techniques were not associated with higher level of PB (26 vs. 22%, p = 0.497). Time to the first PSA rise finished with PB was significantly shorter after HDR-BT then after LDR-BT (median, 10.5 vs. 18.0 months) during follow-up. Predictors for PB were observed only after HDR-BT. Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and higher Gleason score decreased the risk of PB (HR = 0.11, p = 0.03; HR = 0.51, p = 0.01). The higher PSA nadir and longer time to PSA nadir increased the risk of PB (HR 3.46, p = 0.02; HR 1.04, p = 0.04). There was no predictors for PB after LDR-BT. HDR-BT and LDR-BT for low and intermediate risk prostate cancer had similar PB rate. The PB occurred earlier after HDR-BT than after LDR-BT. ADT and higher Gleason score decreased, and higher PSA nadir and longer time to PSA nadir increased the risk of PB after HDR-BT.

  5. PSA testing anxiety, psychological morbidity, and PSA utility in the management of prostate cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Micsunescu, Anamaria Elia

    2017-01-01

    Anecdotal reports from urologists and medical oncologists have suggested that patients with prostate cancer (PCa) often present with anxiety related to ongoing monitoring of their PSA levels as part of their disease management. The purpose of the current study, therefore, was to determine the prevalence and severity of prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing anxiety in a population of patients with either localised or metastatic PCa living in Australia. Other aspects of psychological morbidit...

  6. State of the art on the probabilistic safety assessment (P.S.A.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devictor, N.; Bassi, A.; Saignes, P.; Bertrand, F.

    2008-01-01

    The use of Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) is internationally increasing as a means of assessing and improving the safety of nuclear and non-nuclear facilities. To support the development of a competence on Probabilistic Safety Assessment, a set of states of the art regarding these tools and their use has been made between 2001 and 2005, in particular on the following topics: - Definition of the PSA of level 1, 2 and 3; - Use of PSA in support to design and operation of nuclear plants (risk-informed applications); - Applications to Non Reactor Nuclear Facilities. The report compiled in a single document these states of the art in order to ensure a broader use; this work has been done in the frame of the Project 'Reliability and Safety of Nuclear Facility' of the Nuclear Development and Innovation Division of the Nuclear Energy Division. As some of these states of the art have been made in support to exchanges with international partners and were written in English, a section of this document is written in English. This work is now applied concretely in support to the design of 4. Generation nuclear systems as Sodium-cooled Fast Reactors and especially Gas-cooled Fast Reactor, that have been the subject of communications during the conferences ANS (Annual Meeting 2007), PSA'08, ICCAP'08 and in the journal Science and Technology of Nuclear Installations. (authors)

  7. Management and organisational factors in PSA; Organisations- und Management-Faktoren in der PSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balfanz, H.P. [TUEV Nord e.V., Hamburg (Germany)

    1999-04-01

    The constraints of PSA are increasingly considered with increasing application of PSA for the safety management of nuclear power plants (see US-NRC, 'Risk Informed Regulation', NRC-1). There is a vivid international discourse about the applicability of the variables of plant management and organisation in PSAs, which has lead to a great variety of research activities into this matter (see PSAM 4). This paper here summarizes the current state of progress of research work and discusses the applicability of results. The studies for comparative assessment of methodology and results were performed by the TUeV Nord under the roof of the BMU/BfS-sponsored project SR 2260, ''Further development of probabilistic methods for nuclear power plant safety assessment. (orig./CB) [German] Mit zunehmender Anwendung der PSA (Probabilistische Sicherheitsanalyse) im Sicherheitsmanagement von KKW (vergl. US-NRC, Einfuehrung des Konzepts 'Risk Informed Regulation' NRC-1) gewinnt die Beachtung der Grenzen der PSA zusaetzliche Bedeutung. International ist eine intensive Diskussion ueber die Moeglichkeiten einer Einbindung der Einflussgroesse von Organisation und Management in der PSA zu verzeichnen und wird belegt durch vielfaeltige Forschungs- und Entwicklungsarbeiten (vergl. PSAM 4). Dieser Beitrag setzt sich in erster Linie mit diesem Entwicklungsstand auseinander und diskutiert seinen Anwendungsstand fuer die PSA. Die hierzu vom TUeV Nord durchgefuehrten Arbeiten basieren auf dem BMU/BfS-Vorhaben SR 2260, 'Weiterentwicklung probabilistischer Methoden zur Sicherheitsbeurteilung von KKW'. (orig.)

  8. Generation of monoclonal antibodies against prostate specific antigen (PSA) for the detection of PSA and its purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acevedo Castro, Boris Ernesto

    2012-01-01

    The prostate cancer in Cuba is a problem of health (2672 diagnosed cases and 2769 deaths in 2007). Various diagnostic methods have been implemented for the detection and management of this disease, emphasizing among them (PSA) prostate-specific antigen serological determination. At this work was generated and characterized a panel of 11 antibodies (AcMs) monoclonal IgG1 detected with high affinity described major epitopes of the PSA, both in solution and attached to the test plate. From the panel obtained AcMs was the standardization of an essay type ELISA for the detection of serum total PSA (associated and free) equimolar, based on antibody monoclonal CB-PSA.4 in the coating and the CB-PSA.9 coupled with biotin as liner, with a detection limit of 0.15 ng/mL. Similarly, standardized system for detection in serum free PSA, based on the AcMs CB-PSA.4 (coating) and CB-PSA.2 coupled with biotin (liner), with a detection limit of 0.5 ng/mL. Finally, with the purpose of using PSA as standard in trials type ELISA, developed a simple method of inmunopurificación based on the AcM, CB-PSA.2, which was obtained the PSA with a purity exceeding 90%. Immunoassay Centre on the basis of the AcMs panel and the results of this study, developed and recorded two diagnostic systems for the detection of PSA in human serum. (author)

  9. Clinical performance of serum [-2]proPSA derivatives, %p2PSA and PHI, in the detection and management of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ya-Qiang; Sun, Tong; Zhong, Wei-De; Wu, Chin-Lee

    2014-01-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) has been widely used as a serum marker for prostate cancer (PCa) screening or progression monitoring, which dramatically increased rate of early detection while significantly reduced PCa-specific mortality. However, a number of limitations of PSA have been noticed. Low specificity of PSA may lead to overtreatment in men who presenting with a total PSA (tPSA) level of PHI) and %p2PSA, which were defined as [(p2PSA/fPSA) × √ tPSA] and [(p2PSA/fPSA) × 100] respectively, have been suggested to be increased in PCa and can better distinguish PCa from benign prostatic diseases than tPSA or fPSA. We performed a systematic review of the available scientific evidences to evaluate the potentials of %p2PSA and PHI in clinical application. Mounting evidences suggested that both %p2PSA and PHI possess higher area under the ROC curve (AUC) and better specificity at a high sensitivity for PCa detection when compare with tPSA and %fPSA. It indicated that measurements of %p2PSA and PHI significantly improved the accuracy of PCa detection and diminished unnecessary biopsies. Furthermore, elevations of %p2PSA and PHI are related to more aggressive diseases. %p2PSA and PHI might be helpful in reducing overtreatment on indolent cases or assessing the progression of PCa in men who undergo active surveillance. Further studies are needed before being applied in routine clinical practice.

  10. Impact of radiation dose on achieving nadir PSA levels after 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for patients with localized prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelefsky, Michael J.; Leibel, Steven A.; Kelson, Suzanne; Fuks, Zvi

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Several reports have documented the prognostic value of a post-irradiation nadir PSA of ≤1 ng/ml in prostatic cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to determine which pre-treatment and treatment-related variables impact upon achieving such nadir levels. Materials and Methods: Between January 1987 and June 1995, 740 patients with clinically localized prostate cancer were treated with 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT). 214 (29%) patients were treated with neo-adjuvant androgen ablation prior to therapy and were excluded from this analysis. Among the 526 evaluable patients, the clinical stage were as follows: T 1 C=128 (24%); T 2 A=76 (14%); T 2 B=116 (22%); T 2 C=99 (19%) and T 3 =107 (21%). The prescription dose to the planning target volume (PTV) was 64.8-68.4 Gy in 87 patients (17%); 70.2 Gy in 191 (36%); 75.6 Gy in 209 (40%) and 81 Gy in 39 (7%). The median pre-treatment PSA value was 11.2 ng/ml (range 0.3-114). The median follow-up was 20 months (range: 6-76 months). Results: 242 patients (46%) had PSA levels which declined to ≤1.0 ng/ml. The median time to a nadir level of ≤1.0 was 15.6 months (range: 1-43 months) from completion of 3D-CRT. 154 (29%) patients continued to show declining PSA levels within the first 2 years after therapy, and 130 patients (25%) failed to nadir at PSA levels of ≤1.0 ng/ml. Among patients with nadir PSA levels ≤1, the 3 year PSA relapse-free survival was 91% compared to 29% for patients with nadir PSA levels >1 ng/ml (p<0.0001). A Cox-regression analysis demonstrated that nadir PSA ≤1 was the strongest predictor of PSA relapse-free survival (p<0.001) followed by Gleason score ≤ 6 (p<0.001) and stage< T3 (p=0.004). Among patients who received doses of ≥75.6 Gy, the likelihood of achieving PSA nadir levels ≤1.0 at 24 and 36 months was 86% and 93%, respectively, compared to 74 and 80%, respectively, among those who received lower doses (p<0.001). Doses of ≥75.6 Gy was the strongest

  11. MOPITT Beta Level 1 Radiances V107

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MOPITT Beta Level 1 data product consists of the geolocated, calibrated earth scene radiances, associated instrument engineering data summaries, and inflight...

  12. MOPITT Level 1 Radiances V007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MOPITT Level 1 data product consists of the geolocated, calibrated earth scene radiances, associated instrument engineering data summaries, and inflight...

  13. An approach to develop a PSA workstation in KAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, T. W.; Han, S. H.; Park, C. K.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes three kinds of efforts for the development of PSA workstation in KAERI; Development of a PSA tool, KIRAP, Reliability Database Development, Living PSA tool development. Korea has 9 nuclear power plants (NPPs) in operation and 9 NPPs under design or construction. For the NPPs recently constructed or designed, the probabilistic safety assessments (PSAs) have been performed by the Government requirements. For these PSAs, the MSDOS version of KIRAP has been used. For the consistent data management and the easiness of information handling needed in PSA, APSA workstation, KIRAP-Win is under development under Windows environment. For the reliability database on component failure rate, human error rate, and common cause failure rate, data used in international PSA or reliability data handbook are collected and processed to use in Korean new plants' PSAs. Finally, an effort for the development of a living PSA tool in KAERI based on dynamic PSA concept is described

  14. A Joint Report on PSA for New and Advanced Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This report addresses the application of Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) to new and advanced nuclear reactors. As far as advanced reactors are concerned, the objectives were to characterize the ability of current PSA technology to address key questions regarding the development, acceptance and licensing of advanced reactor designs, to characterize the potential value of advanced PSA methods and tools for application to advanced reactors, and to develop recommendations for any needed developments regarding PSA for these reactors. As far as the design and commissioning of new nuclear power plants is concerned, the objectives were to identify and characterize current practices regarding the role of PSA, to identify key technical issues regarding PSA, lessons learned and issues requiring further work; to develop recommendations regarding the use of PSA, and to identify future international cooperative work on the identified issues. In order to reach these objectives, questionnaires had been sent to participating countries and organisations

  15. Early detection of prostate cancer in Syria using T.PSA and F.PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adel, M.; Abu Daher, D.

    2009-12-01

    The aim of the current study is performing an initial prostate cancer screening test using PSA and F PSA tumour markers. A total of 3000 men in 40-75 years of age were participated in this study. Demographic and clinical data for subjects were collected by the programme staff. Total PSA and free PSA assays were determined using the ImunoTech total and free PSA assay kits, based on IRMA technique (kindly provided by the International Atomic Energy Agency). Criteria for participating in this study included : 1) men of age 50-75 (men of age as low as 40 were included in case of positive family history). 2) No previous history of prostate cancer. The following parameters were followed to refer the suspicious cases to a specialized hospital specific tests: 1)PSA>3 ng/ml . 2)High PSA value according to the participant age group. 3) Low F/TPSA ratio. In the hospital the following tests were performed:1) Complete clinical exam including DRE.2)TRUS in some cases.3) Biopsy for highly suspicious cases. 4)The low suspicious cases were retested in six months. Out of 338 cases referred to a specialized hospital, 264 cases were shown prostatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH),while 36 cases proved to be prostatic cancer. However, the contact was lost in 36 cases because of changing the phone number or travelling outside the country . The detection rate of prostate cancer among all participating cases in this study was 1.2%, while this ratio was 10.7% among the referred cases. F/TPSA ratio has shown a good ability to discriminate between prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia. (author)

  16. Development and methodology of level 1 probability safety assessment at PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maskin, Mazleha; Tom, Phongsakorn Prak; Lanyau, Tonny Anak; Saad, Mohamad Fauzi; Ismail, Ahmad Razali; Abu, Mohamad Puad Haji; Brayon, Fedrick Charlie Matthew; Mohamed, Faizal

    2014-01-01

    As a consequence of the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant in Japan, the safety aspects of the one and only research reactor (31 years old) in Malaysia need be reviewed. Based on this decision, Malaysian Nuclear Agency in collaboration with Atomic Energy Licensing Board and Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia develop a Level-1 Probability Safety Assessment on this research reactor. This work is aimed to evaluate the potential risks of incidents in RTP and at the same time to identify internal and external hazard that may cause any extreme initiating events. This report documents the methodology in developing a Level 1 PSA performed for the RTP as a complementary approach to deterministic safety analysis both in neutronics and thermal hydraulics. This Level-1 PSA work has been performed according to the procedures suggested in relevant IAEA publications and at the same time numbers of procedures has been developed as part of an Integrated Management System programme implemented in Nuclear Malaysia

  17. Development and methodology of level 1 probability safety assessment at PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazleha Maskin; Phongsakorn, P.T.; Tonny, A.L.; Fedrick, C.M.B.; Faizal Mohamed; Mohamad Fauzi Saad; Ahmad Razali Ismail; Mohamad Puad Haji Abu

    2013-01-01

    Full-text: As a consequence of the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant in Japan, the safety aspects of the one and only research reactor (31 years old) in Malaysia need be reviewed. Based on this decision, Malaysian Nuclear Agency in collaboration with Atomic Energy Licensing Board and Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia develop a Level-1 Probability Safety Assessment on this research reactor. This work is aimed to evaluate the potential risks of incidents in RTP and at the same time to identify internal and external hazard that may cause any extreme initiating events. This report documents the methodology in developing a Level 1 PSA performed for the RTP as a complementary approach to deterministic safety analysis both in neutronics and thermal hydraulics. This Level-1 PSA work has been performed according to the procedures suggested in relevant IAEA publications and at the same time numbers of procedures has been developed as part of an Integrated Management System programme implemented in Nuclear Malaysia. (author)

  18. Procedures and applications to enlarge the level 1+ PSA to internal fires in German nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, H.P.; Breiling, G.; Hoffmann, H.H.

    1997-01-01

    Investigations have shown that the consequences from fires in nuclear power plants can be significant. Methodologies considering fire in probabilistic safety analyses have been evolving in the last few years. In order to provide a basis for further discussions on benefits and limits of such an analysis in Germany, current methods are investigated. As a result a qualitative screening process is proposed to identify critical fire zones followed by a quantitative event tree analysis in which the fire caused frequency of initiating events and different core damage states will be determined. The models and data proposed for a probabilistic fire risk analysis have been successfully applied in complete and partial fire risk assessments in German nuclear power plants

  19. One safety critical indicators model for regulatory actions on nuclear power plants based on a level 1 PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Jefferson Borges

    2006-03-01

    This study presents a general methodology to the establishment, selection and use of safety indicators for a two loop PWR plant, as Angra 1. The study performed identifies areas considered critical for the plant operational safety. For each of these areas, strategic sub-areas are defined. For each strategic sub-area, specific safety indicators are defined. These proposed Safety Indicators are based on the contribution to risk considering a quantitative risk analysis. For each safety indicator, a goal, a bounded interval and proper bases are developed, to allow for a clear and comprehensive individual behavior evaluation. Additionally, an integrated evaluation of the indicators, using expert systems, was done to obtain an overview of the plant general safety. This methodology can be used for identifying situations where the plant safety is challenged, by giving a general overview of the plant operational condition. Additionally, this study can also identify eventual room for improvements by generating suggestions and recommendations, as a complement for regulatory actions and inspections, focusing resources on eventual existing weaknesses, in order to increase or maintain a high pattern of operational safety. (author)

  20. Management and organisational factors in PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balfanz, H.P.

    1999-01-01

    The constraints of PSA are increasingly considered with increasing application of PSA for the safety management of nuclear power plants (see US-NRC, 'Risk Informed Regulation', NRC-1). There is a vivid international discourse about the applicability of the variables of plant management and organisation in PSAs, which has lead to a great variety of research activities into this matter (see PSAM 4). This paper here summarizes the current state of progress of research work and discusses the applicability of results. The studies for comparative assessment of methodology and results were performed by the TUeV Nord under the roof of the BMU/BfS-sponsored project SR 2260, ''Further development of probabilistic methods for nuclear power plant safety assessment. (orig./CB) [de

  1. Framework for ensuring appropriate maintenance of baseline PSA and risk monitor models in a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrbanic, I.; Sorman, J.

    2005-01-01

    The necessity of observing both long term and short term risk changes many times imposes the need for a nuclear power plant to have a baseline PSA model to produce an estimate of long term averaged risk and a risk monitor to produce a time-dependent risk curve and/or safety functions status at points in time or over a shorter time period of interest. By nature, a baseline PSA reflects plant systems and operation in terms of average conditions and provides time-invariant quantitative risk metrics. Risk monitor, on the other hand, requires condition-specific modeling to produce a quantitative and/or qualitative estimate of plant's condition-specific risk metrics. While risk monitor is used for computing condition-specific risk metrics over time, a baseline PSA model is needed for variety of other risk oriented applications, such as assessments of proposed design modifications or risk ranking of equipment. Having in mind their importance and roles, it is essential that both models, i.e. baseline PSA model and risk monitor are maintained in the way that they represent, as accurately as practically achievable, the actual plant status (e.g. systems' design and plant's procedures in effect) and its history (e.g. numbers of equipment failures and demands that influence relevant PSA parameters). Paper discusses the requirements for appropriate maintenance of plant's baseline PSA model and risk monitor model and presents the framework for plant's engineering and administrative procedures that would ensure they are met. (author)

  2. Safer Food Saves Lives PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-11-03

    This 60 second PSA is based on the November 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Contaminated food sent to several states can cause multistate outbreaks of foodborne illness and make a lot of people seriously ill. Learn what can be done to prevent and stop outbreaks.  Created: 11/3/2015 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/3/2015.

  3. Communication Can Save Lives PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-08-04

    This 60 second public service announcement (PSA) is based on the August 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Antibiotic-resistant germs cause at least 23,000 deaths each year. Learn how public health authorities and health care facilities can work together to save lives.  Created: 8/4/2015 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/4/2015.

  4. Take Charge. Take the Test. PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-03-07

    As part of the Take Charge. Take the Test. campaign, this 30 second PSA encourages African American women to get tested for HIV. Locations for a free HIV test can be found by visiting hivtest.org/takecharge or calling 1-800-CDC-INFO (1-800-232-4636).  Created: 3/7/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 3/7/2012.

  5. More Adults Are Walking PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-07-31

    This 60 second PSA is based on the August 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. While more adults are walking, only half get the recommended amount of physical activity. Listen to learn how communities, employers, and individuals may help increase walking.  Created: 7/31/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 8/7/2012.

  6. Stop C. difficile Infections PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-03-06

    This 60 second PSA is based on the March 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. C. difficile is a germ that causes diarrhea linked to 14,000 deaths in the US each year. This podcast helps health care professionals learn how to prevent C. difficile infections.  Created: 3/6/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 3/6/2012.

  7. PSA application on the Tokai Reprocessing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Michihiko; Nakano, Takafumi; Morimoto, Kazuyuki; Nojiri, Ichiro

    2003-01-01

    The Periodic Safety Review (PSR) of the Tokai Reprocessing Plant (TRP) has been carrying out to obtain an overall view of actual plant safety. As a part of the PSR, Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) methodology has been applied to evaluate the relative importance of safety functions that prevent the progress of events causing to postulated accidents. Based on the results of the safety reassessments of the TRP that was carried out in 1999, event trees were developed to model sequences of postulated accidents. Event trees were quantified by using the results of fault tree analysis and human reliability analysis. In the quantification, the reliability data generally used in PSA of nuclear power plants were mainly used. Operating experiences of the TRP were also utilized to evaluated both component/system reliability and human reliability. The relative importance of safety functions was evaluated by using two major importance measures, Fussell-Vesely and Risk Achievement Worth both generally used in PSA of nuclear power plants. Through these evaluations, some useful insights into the safety of the TRP have been obtained. The results of the relative importance measures would be utilized to qualify TRP component/equipment important to the safety. (author)

  8. The organizational factor in PSA framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farcasiu, Mita, E-mail: mmfarcasiu@yahoo.com; Nitoi, Mirela

    2015-11-15

    The goals of the Man–Machine–Organization system analysis are to develop the suitable studies and techniques to identify, prevent and predict the cause of system unavailability. A descriptive concept of man–machine–organization system was developed. MMOS is defined in probability theory in the attempt to find ways for its qualitative and quantitative quantification in a PSA framework. The need for this study was demonstrated by analysis of variance of the complex system unavailability in relation to human error probability (HEP) and organizational error probability (OMP). The PSA model proposed in this paper assesses the organizational factor in MMOS by observing its influence on the human factor and equipment. Thus the influence of organizational factors is evaluated not only on component but also on the human performance. The study highlights the need to improve the understanding of the influence of organizational factors on the safe operation of nuclear installations. Using MMOS concept in PSA could identify any serious deficiencies of human and equipment performance which can sometime be corrected by improvement of the organizational factor.

  9. The organizational factor in PSA framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farcasiu, Mita; Nitoi, Mirela

    2015-01-01

    The goals of the Man–Machine–Organization system analysis are to develop the suitable studies and techniques to identify, prevent and predict the cause of system unavailability. A descriptive concept of man–machine–organization system was developed. MMOS is defined in probability theory in the attempt to find ways for its qualitative and quantitative quantification in a PSA framework. The need for this study was demonstrated by analysis of variance of the complex system unavailability in relation to human error probability (HEP) and organizational error probability (OMP). The PSA model proposed in this paper assesses the organizational factor in MMOS by observing its influence on the human factor and equipment. Thus the influence of organizational factors is evaluated not only on component but also on the human performance. The study highlights the need to improve the understanding of the influence of organizational factors on the safe operation of nuclear installations. Using MMOS concept in PSA could identify any serious deficiencies of human and equipment performance which can sometime be corrected by improvement of the organizational factor.

  10. PSA applications: combination of probabilistic and deterministic techniques during the decision making process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, M.D.; Gutierrez, E.; Fuente, I.; Perez, F.

    1993-01-01

    Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) is a complete, systematic and reproducible method to analyze the evolution of transients and accidents in a Nuclear Power Plant, so too the behaviour and importance of mitigation system in each case .This serves to evaluate the impact of any design modification or procedure (components, system, accident sequence or core damage). Under this assumption, it is possible to carry out multiple applications of PSAs that can be useful to keep or improve the Safety. The safety focusses on the study performed for the Almaraz Nuclear Power Plants in Spain. Almaraz has finished a PSA level 1 study which afterwards has been used for different applications like training, new procedures for maintenance, data acquisition and analysis, optimization of technical specifications, protocol of tests and maintenance, analysis of fires, definition of strategies to improve safety and modifications of design

  11. Report 3: Guidance document on practices to model and implement Extreme Weather hazards in extended PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alzbutas, R.; Ostapchuk, S.; Borysiewicz, M.; Decker, K.; Kumar, Manorma; Haeggstroem, A.; Nitoi, M.; Groudev, P.; Parey, S.; Potempski, S.; Raimond, E.; Siklossy, T.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this report is to provide guidance on practices to model Extreme Weather hazards and implement them in extended level 1 PSA. This report is a joint deliverable of work package 21 (WP21) and work package 22 (WP22). The general objective of WP21 is to provide guidance on all of the individual hazards selected at the End Users Workshop. This guidance is focusing on extreme weather hazards, namely: extreme wind, extreme temperature and snow pack. Other hazards, however, are considered in cases where they are correlated/ associated with the hazard under discussion. Guidance developed refers to existing guidance whenever possible. As it was recommended by end users this guidance covers questions of developing integrated and/or separated extreme weathers PSA models. (authors)

  12. Applicability of PSA Issues for Risk Assessment during Optimisation of In-Service Inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolykhanov, V.; Skalozubov, V.; Kovrigkin, Y.

    2006-01-01

    The current codes determining periodicity of in-service inspection of the NPP equipment have been formed using deterministic approaches and have an unnecessary degree of conservatism. A perspective direction of perfection of normative base is decision making on a basis of risk-informed methodologies. It allows to increase safety of NPP equipment's operation and to optimise programs on inspection of the equipment subject to limited resources by focusing efforts on the most safety significant elements of the equipment. It is internationally accepted that methodology of the probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) is the most universal and comprehensive tool focused on the general assessment of safety of NPP as a whole. By now, PSA Level 1 is fulfilled for all pilot units of the Ukrainian NPPs that is a valuable result, which should be taken into account at an assessment of reliability of the equipment. However, specificity of PSA methodology should be taken into account at the decision of the particular tasks aimed at optimisation of maintenance of the equipment within individual systems. The estimation of the contribution to core damage frequency (CDF) is a PSA issue usually used to assess the significance of consequences of failure of a system/equipment during risk-informed decision-making. This work shows that above factor is only a part of assessment of the significance of consequences as core damage can be expressed in different amount of the damaged fuel elements and, hence, severity of consequences. Besides CDF is directly affected only by active elements which failure can be an initiating event. PSA methodology uses averaged reliability factors of the equipment for all possible operating modes occurring at transitive accident process. Here, there are limited opportunities to account impact of periodicity of maintenance of the equipment on reliability and to predict impact of change of the inspection program. PSA methodology does not allow taking into account

  13. Clinical performance of serum [-2]proPSA derivatives, %p2PSA and PHI, in the detection and management of prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Ya-Qiang; Sun, Tong; Zhong, Wei-De; Wu, Chin-Lee

    2014-01-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) has been widely used as a serum marker for prostate cancer (PCa) screening or progression monitoring, which dramatically increased rate of early detection while significantly reduced PCa-specific mortality. However, a number of limitations of PSA have been noticed. Low specificity of PSA may lead to overtreatment in men who presenting with a total PSA (tPSA) level of < 10 ng/mL. As a type of free PSA (fPSA), [-2]proPSA is differentially expressed in peripheral ...

  14. Development of PSA audit guideline and regulatory PSA model for SMART

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Namchul; Lee, Chang-Ju; Kim, I.S.

    2012-01-01

    SMART is under development for dual purposes of power generation and seawater desalination in Korea. It is an integral reactor type with a thermal power output of 330 MW and employs advanced design features such as a passive system for the removal of residual heat and also the setting of all the components of the primary system inside the reactor pressure vessel. It is essential to develop new probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) validation guidance for SMART. For the purpose of regulatory verification to the risk level of SMART, the insights and key issues on the PSA are identified with referring some worldwide safety guides as well as its design characteristics. Regulatory PSA model under the development for the design confirmation and its preliminary result are also described. (authors)

  15. PSA-operations synergism for the advanced test reactor shutdown operations PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, S.A.

    1996-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) for shutdown operations, cask handling, and canal draining is a successful example of the importance of good PSA-operations synergism for achieving a realistic and accepted assessment of the risks and for achieving desired risk reduction and safety improvement in a best and cost-effective manner. The implementation of the agreed-upon upgrades and improvements resulted in the reductions of the estimated mean frequency for core or canal irradiated fuel uncovery events, a total reduction in risk by a factor of nearly 1000 to a very low and acceptable risk level for potentially severe events

  16. Workshop on PSA for New and Advanced Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This workshop was organized by the NEA Working Group on Risk Assessment (WGRISK). The key objective of the workshop was to share the current state-of-the art on the PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment) applied for new reactors and advanced reactors. Fifty experts from 13 countries and one international organization (IAEA) participated in the present workshop, and 35 technical papers were presented. The main topics of interest, discussed during the workshop, included the followings: regulatory aspects, risk-informed methods, technical aspects of the PSA for new and advanced reactors, hazards of PSA (internal and external), severe accident/source term/Level 2 PSA, and consequence analysis/Level 3 PSA. Among the technical aspects of the PSA, the assessment of the reliability of passive safety systems appears to be a recurrent issue

  17. Experiences of Uncertainty in Men With an Elevated PSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Caitlin; Brasel, Alicia; Underwood, Willie; Orom, Heather

    2015-05-15

    A significant proportion of men, ages 50 to 70 years, have, and continue to receive prostate specific antigen (PSA) tests to screen for prostate cancer (PCa). Approximately 70% of men with an elevated PSA level will not subsequently be diagnosed with PCa. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 13 men with an elevated PSA level who had not been diagnosed with PCa. Uncertainty was prominent in men's reactions to the PSA results, stemming from unanswered questions about the PSA test, PCa risk, and confusion about their management plan. Uncertainty was exacerbated or reduced depending on whether health care providers communicated in lay and empathetic ways, and provided opportunities for question asking. To manage uncertainty, men engaged in information and health care seeking, self-monitoring, and defensive cognition. Results inform strategies for meeting informational needs of men with an elevated PSA and confirm the primary importance of physician communication behavior for open information exchange and uncertainty reduction. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Elevation of PSA after prostate radiotherapy: Rebound or biochemical recurrence?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toledano, A.; Kanoui, A.; Chiche, R.; Lamallem, H.; Beley, S.; Thibault, F.; Sebe, P.

    2008-01-01

    The fact that external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy are now considered to be curative techniques has led to major review of the modalities of follow-up after radiotherapy for prostate cancer. The problem concerns both the diagnosis of recurrence, rapidly announced by elevation of prostatic-specific antigen (PSA), usually at a subclinical stage, and the validity of criteria of biochemical recurrence to allow comparison of various study. Physicians involved in follow-up should be aware of the potential of bounce in PSA follow-up after external beam radiotherapy or brachytherapy. The PSA bounce phenomenon was defined by a rise of PSA values (+ 0.1 -0.8 ng/ml) with a subsequent fall. Biochemical failure after external beam radiotherapy or brachytherapy (with or without hormonotherapy) was defined by Phoenix criteria by a rise of 2 ng/ml above an initial PSA nadir. This definition was more correlated to PSA bounce phenomenon. (authors)

  19. Evaluating the Phoenix definition of biochemical failure after (125)I prostate brachytherapy: Can PSA kinetics distinguish PSA failures from PSA bounces?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Anna; Keyes, Mira; Pickles, Tom; Palma, David; Moravan, Veronika; Spadinger, Ingrid; Lapointe, Vincent; Morris, W James

    2010-10-01

    To evaluate the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) kinetics of PSA failure (PSAf) and PSA bounce (PSAb) after permanent (125)I prostate brachytherapy (PB). The study included 1,006 consecutive low and "low tier" intermediate-risk patients treated with (125)I PB, with a potential minimum follow-up of 4 years. Patients who met the Phoenix definition of biochemical failure (nadir + 2 ng/mL(-1)) were identified. If the PSA subsequently fell to ≤0.5 ng/mL(-1)without intervention, this was considered a PSAb. All others were scored as true PSAf. Patient, tumor and dosimetric characteristics were compared between groups using the chi-square test and analysis of variance to evaluate factors associated with PSAf or PSAb. Median follow-up was 54 months. Of the 1,006 men, 57 patients triggered the Phoenix definition of PSA failure, 32 (56%) were true PSAf, and 25 PSAb (44%). The median time to trigger nadir + 2 was 20.6 months (range, 6-36) vs. 49 mo (range, 12-83) for PSAb vs. PSAf groups (p < 0.001). The PSAb patients were significantly younger (p < 0.0001), had shorter time to reach the nadir (median 6 vs. 11.5 months, p = 0.001) and had a shorter PSA doubling time (p = 0.05). Men younger than age 70 who trigger nadir +2 PSA failure within 38 months of implant have an 80% likelihood of having PSAb and 20% chance of PSAf. With adequate follow-up, 44% of PSA failures by the Phoenix definition in our cohort were found to be benign PSA bounces. Our study reinforces the need for adequate follow-up when reporting PB PSA outcomes, to ensure accurate estimates of treatment efficacy and to avoid unnecessary secondary interventions. 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluating the Phoenix Definition of Biochemical Failure After 125I Prostate Brachytherapy: Can PSA Kinetics Distinguish PSA Failures From PSA Bounces?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, Anna; Keyes, Mira; Pickles, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) kinetics of PSA failure (PSAf) and PSA bounce (PSAb) after permanent 125 I prostate brachytherapy (PB). Methods and Materials: The study included 1,006 consecutive low and 'low tier' intermediate-risk patients treated with 125 I PB, with a potential minimum follow-up of 4 years. Patients who met the Phoenix definition of biochemical failure (nadir + 2 ng/mL -1 ) were identified. If the PSA subsequently fell to ≤0.5 ng/mL -1 without intervention, this was considered a PSAb. All others were scored as true PSAf. Patient, tumor and dosimetric characteristics were compared between groups using the chi-square test and analysis of variance to evaluate factors associated with PSAf or PSAb. Results: Median follow-up was 54 months. Of the 1,006 men, 57 patients triggered the Phoenix definition of PSA failure, 32 (56%) were true PSAf, and 25 PSAb (44%). The median time to trigger nadir + 2 was 20.6 months (range, 6-36) vs. 49 mo (range, 12-83) for PSAb vs. PSAf groups (p < 0.001). The PSAb patients were significantly younger (p < 0.0001), had shorter time to reach the nadir (median 6 vs. 11.5 months, p = 0.001) and had a shorter PSA doubling time (p = 0.05). Men younger than age 70 who trigger nadir +2 PSA failure within 38 months of implant have an 80% likelihood of having PSAb and 20% chance of PSAf. Conclusions: With adequate follow-up, 44% of PSA failures by the Phoenix definition in our cohort were found to be benign PSA bounces. Our study reinforces the need for adequate follow-up when reporting PB PSA outcomes, to ensure accurate estimates of treatment efficacy and to avoid unnecessary secondary interventions.

  1. Temporal evaluation of computed tomographic scans at a Level 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-03-18

    Mar 18, 2016 ... improve efficiency and workflow.1 The 60-minute timeframe between injury and definitive ... surgical discipline are required to do a three-month rotation ..... the statistical analyses. A heartfelt thank you to Dr Elize. Esterhuizen, and the Pelonomi radiographers and Trauma. Department staff. References. 1.

  2. Low Power Shutdown PSA for CANDU Type Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Yeon Kyoung; Kim, Myung Su [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    KHNP also have concentrated on full power PSA. Some recently constructed OPR1000 type plants and APR1400 type plants have performed the low power and shutdown (LPSD) PSA. The purpose of LPSD PSA is to identify the main contributors on the accident sequences of core damage and to find the measure of safety improvement. After the Fukushima accident, Korean regulatory agency required the shutdown severe accident management guidelines (SSAMG) development for safety enhancement. For the reliability of SSAMG, KHNP should develop the LPSD PSA. Especially, the LPSD PSA for CANDU type plant had developed for the first time in Korea. This paper illustrates how the LPSD PSA for CANDU type developed and the core damage frequency (CDF) is different with that of full power PSA. KHNP performed LPSD PSA to develop the SSAMG after the Fukushima accidents. The results show that risk at the specific operation mode during outage is higher than that of full power operation. Also, the results indicated that recovery failure of class 4 power at the POS 5A, 5B contribute dominantly to the total CDF from importances analysis. LPSD PSA results such as CDF with initiating events and POSs, risk results with plant damage state, and containment failure probability and frequency with POSs can be used by inputs for developing the SSAMG.

  3. PSA data base, comparison of the German and French approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreuser, A.; Tirira, J.

    2001-01-01

    The results of probabilistic safety assessments (PSA) of nuclear power plants strongly depend on the reliability data used. This report describes coarsely the general process to generate reliability data for components and resumes the differences between the German and French approaches. As has been shown in former studies which compared international PSA data, PSA data are closely related to the model definitions of the PSA. Therefore single PSA data cannot be compared directly without regard e.g. to the corresponding fault trees. These findings are confirmed by this study. The comparison of German and French methods shows a lot of differences concerning various details of the data generation process. Some differences between single reliability data should be eliminated when taking into account the complete fault tree analysis. But there are some other differences which have a direct impact on the obtained results of a PSA. In view of the all differences between both approaches concerning the definition of data and the data collection process, it is not possible to compare directly German and French PSA data. However, the database differences give no indication on the influence on the PSA results. Therefore, it is a need to perform a common IPSN/GRS assessment on how the different databases impact the PSA results. (orig.)

  4. DIAGNOSTIC AND PROGNOSTIC UTILITY OF SERUM PSA IN BREAST CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张淑群; 强水云; 李妙羡; 纪宗正

    2004-01-01

    Objective To investigate the diagnostic and prognostic value of total and free prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in breast cancer women. Methods Using the microparticle enzyme immunoassay system, we measured the concentrations of these markers in the sera of 85 women with breast cancer and in 30 healthy women.Results Free PSA levels were significantly higher in women with breast cancer than healthy women (P <0. 05 ).The percentage of free PSA predominant subjects was 37. 6% in breast cancer patients and 3. 3% in healthy women.In women with breast cancer,total PSA positivity was 23.5% and free PSA positivity was 27. 1%. When compared to negatives,total PSA positive patients had a higher percentage of lymph node involvement tamours ( P >0. 05).However, patients with predominant free PSA had a higher percentage of early stage than patients with predominant PSA-ACT. Conclusion This study indicate clinical significance of preoperative measurement of serum total and free PSA in diagnosis and prognosis of women with breast cancer. The expression of KLKs is correlated with carcinogenesis of breast cancer.

  5. Serum PSA levels in the Indian population: Is it different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Amit; Karan, Shailesh Chandra

    2017-04-01

    Serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is an important tumour, marker which is widely used to trigger trans-rectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsy. However, the PSA levels vary with race and ethnicity. Therefore, there is a need to have an Indian reference range. All adult male patients meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria were enrolled in this study. They were subjected to assessment of serum total PSA, digital rectal examination and trans-abdominal ultrasound. If any one or more of these were found abnormal, then a TRUS-guided 12-core prostate biopsy was done. Patients who were detected to have prostatic cancer were excluded from the final analysis. The data so obtained was grouped among the following three age groups: 40-49, 50-59 and 60-70 years, and the age-specific PSA values, prostatic volume and PSA density were found. A total of 1772 patients were analysed. The mean serum total PSA was 1.76 ng/ml with a standard deviation of 2.566 ng/ml. Group-wise age distribution of the mean serum total PSA was 1.22, 1.97 and 2.08 ng/ml in 40-49, 50-59 and 60-70 years age groups. The mean total PSA and the age-specific PSA range tend to be lower in the Indians than the Western population.

  6. Institute of nuclear power operations perspectives on PSA applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, W.E.; Miller, W.J. Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The investment to develop a PSA is very substantial, and therefore, there is motivation to recover this investment through further use of the techniques used to develop it. It is not surprising that nuclear power plant staff are beginning to use PSA to make operational decisions. The Institute of Nuclear Power Operations is interested in those factors that impact the conduct of plant operations and therefore is actively monitoring the increased usage of PSA techniques. The purpose of this paper is to provide some thoughts and perspectives on the use of PSA as a factor in operational decision making, including decision making in activities performed by engineering, maintenance and operation personnel. (author)

  7. Level 1 Processing of MODIS Direct Broadcast Data From Terra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynnes, Christopher; Smith, Peter; Shotland, Larry; El-Ghazawi, Tarek; Zhu, Ming

    2000-01-01

    In February 2000, an effort was begun to adapt the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Level 1 production software to process direct broadcast data. Three Level 1 algorithms have been adapted and packaged for release: Level 1A converts raw (level 0) data into Hierarchical Data Format (HDF), unpacking packets into scans; Geolocation computes geographic information for the data points in the Level 1A; and the Level 1B computes geolocated, calibrated radiances from the Level 1A and Geolocation products. One useful aspect of adapting the production software is the ability to incorporate enhancements contributed by the MODIS Science Team. We have therefore tried to limit changes to the software. However, in order to process the data immediately on receipt, we have taken advantage of a branch in the geolocation software that reads orbit and altitude information from the packets themselves, rather than external ancillary files used in standard production. We have also verified that the algorithms can be run with smaller time increments (2.5 minutes) than the five-minute increments used in production. To make the code easier to build and run, we have simplified directories and build scripts. Also, dependencies on a commercial numerics library have been replaced by public domain software. A version of the adapted code has been released for Silicon Graphics machines running lrix. Perhaps owing to its origin in production, the software is rather CPU-intensive. Consequently, a port to Linux is underway, followed by a version to run on PC clusters, with an eventual goal of running in near-real-time (i.e., process a ten-minute pass in ten minutes).

  8. Daily Pill Can Prevent HIV PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second public service announcement (PSA) is based on the November 24, 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Preexposure prophylaxis, or PrEP, is a daily medicine that can be used to prevent getting HIV. PrEP is for people who don’t have HIV but who are at very high risk for getting it from sex or injection drug use. Unfortunately, many people who can benefit from PrEP aren’t taking it.

  9. Development of kits for total PSA monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suprarop, P.

    1999-01-01

    The development of kits for Total PSA assay has shown promising results. All essential components of the assay were prepared with reproducibility and used to optimize the assay. By choosing two steps method, we could avoid the hook effect and obtain satisfactory Q.C. parameters of the standard curve i.e. blank = 0.8%, maximum binding = 65%. If reference material for calibration of the standard is agree upon, the validation could then be carried out with total confidence. Our final goal is to reduce the step of incubation to just one step with no interference from hook effect

  10. The ATLAS Level-1 Topological Trigger Performance

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00371751; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The LHC will collide protons in the ATLAS detector with increasing luminosity through 2016, placing stringent operational and physical requirements to the ATLAS trigger system in order to reduce the 40 MHz collision rate to a manageable event storage rate of 1 kHz, while not rejecting interesting physics events. The Level-1 trigger is the first rate-reducing step in the ATLAS trigger system with an output rate of 100 kHz and decision latency smaller than 2.5 μs. It consists of a calorimeter trigger, muon trigger and a central trigger processor. During the LHC shutdown after the Run 1 finished in 2013, the Level-1 trigger system was upgraded including hardware, firmware and software updates. In particular, new electronics modules were introduced in the real-time data processing path: the Topological Processor System (L1Topo). It consists of a single AdvancedCTA shelf equipped with two Level-1 topological processor blades. They receive real-time information from the Level-1 calorimeter and muon triggers, which...

  11. Micronesian Mathematics Program, Level 1, Children's Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gring, Carolyn

    This workbook for children was prepared especially to accompany the level 1 Micronesian Mathematics Program Teacher's Guide. It is to be used to check whether children have learned concepts taught by activities and activity cards. Work is provided for such concepts as color recognition, categorizing, counting, ordering, numeration, contrasting,…

  12. MODIFICATION OF THE SPAR-H METHOD TO SUPPORT HRA FOR LEVEL 2 PSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    St. Germain, S.; Boring, R.; Banaseanu, G.; Akl, Y.; Xu, M.

    2016-10-01

    Currently, available Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) methods were generally developed to support Level 1 Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) models. There has been an increased emphasis placed on Level 2 PSA in recent years; however, the currently used HRA methods are not ideal for this application, including the SPAR-H method. Challenges that will likely be present during a severe accident such as degraded or hazardous operating conditions, shift in control from the main control room to the technical support center, unavailability of instrumentation, and others are not routinely considered for Level 1 HRA analysis. These factors combine to create a much more uncertain condition to be accounted for in the HRA analysis. While the SPAR-H shaping factors were established to support Level 1 HRA, previous studies have shown it may be used for Level 2 HRA analysis as well. The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) and Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in a joint project are investigating modifications to the SPAR-H method to create more consistency in applying the performance shaping factors used in the method for Level 2 analysis.

  13. Preliminary Development of Regulatory PSA Models for SFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yong Won; Shin, Andong; Bae, Moohoon; Suh, Namduk; Lee, Yong Suk

    2013-01-01

    Well developed PRA methodology exists for LWR (Light Water Reactor) and PHWR (Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor). Since KAERI is developing a prototype SFR targeting to apply for a license by 2017, KINS needs to have a PRA models to assess the safety of this prototype reactor. The purpose of this study is to develop the regulatory PSA models for the independent verification of the SFR safety. Since the design of the prototype SFR is not mature yet, we have tried to develop the preliminary models based on the design data of KAERI's previous SFR design. In this study, the preliminary initiating events of level 1 internal event for SFR were selected through reviews of existing PRA (LWR, PRISM, ASTRID and KALIMER-600) models. Then, the event tree for each selected initiating event was developed. The regulatory PRA models of SFR developed are preliminary in a sense, because the prototype SFR design is not mature and provided yet. Still it might be utilized for the forthcoming licensing review in assessing the risk of safety issues and the configuration control of the design

  14. Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/labtests/prostatespecificantigenpsatest.html Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Test To use the sharing features on this ... enable JavaScript. What is a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test? A prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test measures ...

  15. Regulatory approaches to, and practice of, PSA in Finland, France, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baier, M.; Schaefer, A.

    2005-01-01

    Performing level-1 probabilistic safety analyses (PSA) is the established standard in most countries using nuclear power. In addition, level-2 PSA has become more and more widespread over the past few years. However, regulatory requirements and practice differ from country to country, especially with respect to level-2 analyses. In an effort to determine these differences more precisely, the ISaR Institute for Safety and Reliability, on behalf of VGB PowerTech Service GmbH, conducted a study of these seven countries: Finland, France, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The study focused on level-2 PSA carried out by plant operators within the framework of periodic safety reviews. The findings of the study are based on extensive interviews of at least one expert each on the operators' and the authorities' side for each of the seven countries. Points taken into account in particular included the criteria imposed by regulators on PSA carried out by operators; the rank of PSA within the regulatory framework; the required versus the actual scopes of analysis; the objectives and uses of PSA; reviews of the analyses; the methods employed. (orig.)

  16. PSA - A utility perspective from the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, P.J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides an outline of the three stages of PSA used for the Sizewell B PWR. These stages cover the use of PSA during design, licensing and (in future) operation of Sizewell B. The paper discusses each of these stages in some detail, highlighting the differences in approach and lessons learnt at each stage. (author)

  17. Use of PSA in the development of SMRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maioli, A.; Finnicum, D.J.; Lichtenstein, R.H.; Harsche, S.Y.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews the potential new scenarios where PSA (probabilistic safety assessment) may be of significant support to design and operation of SMRs (Small Modular Reactors); it reviews Westinghouse's experience and lessons learned in this endeavour and will discuss related challenges and what the PSA community is currently developing to address them. (authors)

  18. Child Injury: What You Need to Know PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second PSA is based on the April 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. Many childhood deaths and injuries are preventable, including those caused by crashes, suffocation, poisoning, drowning, fires, and falls. The PSA discusses ways to help prevent these deaths and injuries.

  19. Quality of the current low power and shutdown PSA practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Seung Cheol; Park, Jin Hee; Lim, Ho Gon; Kim, Tae Woon

    2004-01-01

    A probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) for the low-power and shutdown (LPSD) modes in a Korea standard nuclear power plant (KSNP) has been performed for the purpose of estimating the LPSD risk and identifying the vulnerabilities of LPSD operations. Both the operational experience and PSA results indicate that the risks from LPSD operations could be comparable with those from power operations. However, the application of the LPSD risk insights to risk-informed decision making has been slow to be adopted in practice. It is largely due to the question of whether the current LPSD PSA practice is appropriate for application to risk-informed decision making or not. Such a question has to do with the quality of the current LPSD PSA practice. In this paper, we have performed self-assessment of the KSNP LPSD PSA quality based on the ANS Standard (draft as of 13 Sep. 2002). The aims of the work are to find the LPSD PSA technical areas insufficient for application to risk-informed decision making and to efficiently allocate the limited research resources to improve the LPSD PSA model quality. Many useful findings regarding the current LPSD PSA quality are presented in this paper

  20. The ATLAS Level-1 Trigger Timing Setup

    CERN Document Server

    Spiwoks, R; Ellis, Nick; Farthouat, P; Gällnö, P; Haller, J; Krasznahorkay, A; Maeno, T; Pauly, T; Pessoa-Lima, H; Resurreccion-Arcas, I; Schuler, G; De Seixas, J M; Torga-Teixeira, R; Wengler, T

    2005-01-01

    The ATLAS detector at CERN's LHC will be exposed to proton-proton collisions at a bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz. In order to reduce the data rate, a three-level trigger system selects potentially interesting physics. The first trigger level is implemented in electronics and firmware. It aims at reducing the output rate to less than 100 kHz. The Central Trigger Processor combines information from the calorimeter and muon trigger processors and makes the final Level-1-Accept decision. It is a central element in the timing setup of the experiment. Three aspects are considered in this article: the timing setup with respect to the Level-1 trigger, with respect to the expriment, and with respect to the world.

  1. The ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achenbach, R; Andrei, V; Adragna, P; Apostologlou, P; Barnett, B M; Brawn, I P; Davis, A O; Edwards, J P; Asman, B; Bohm, C; Ay, C; Bauss, B; Bendel, M; Dahlhoff, A; Eckweiler, S; Booth, J R A; Thomas, P Bright; Charlton, D G; Collins, N J; Curtis, C J

    2008-01-01

    The ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger uses reduced-granularity information from all the ATLAS calorimeters to search for high transverse-energy electrons, photons, τ leptons and jets, as well as high missing and total transverse energy. The calorimeter trigger electronics has a fixed latency of about 1 μs, using programmable custom-built digital electronics. This paper describes the Calorimeter Trigger hardware, as installed in the ATLAS electronics cavern

  2. The ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achenbach, R; Andrei, V [Kirchhoff-Institut fuer Physik, University of Heidelberg, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Adragna, P [Physics Department, Queen Mary, University of London, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Apostologlou, P; Barnett, B M; Brawn, I P; Davis, A O; Edwards, J P [STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Asman, B; Bohm, C [Fysikum, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Ay, C; Bauss, B; Bendel, M; Dahlhoff, A; Eckweiler, S [Institut fuer Physik, University of Mainz, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Booth, J R A; Thomas, P Bright; Charlton, D G; Collins, N J; Curtis, C J [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)], E-mail: e.eisenhandler@qmul.ac.uk (and others)

    2008-03-15

    The ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger uses reduced-granularity information from all the ATLAS calorimeters to search for high transverse-energy electrons, photons, {tau} leptons and jets, as well as high missing and total transverse energy. The calorimeter trigger electronics has a fixed latency of about 1 {mu}s, using programmable custom-built digital electronics. This paper describes the Calorimeter Trigger hardware, as installed in the ATLAS electronics cavern.

  3. Updating the Psoriatic Arthritis (PsA) Core Domain Set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orbai, Ana-Maria; de Wit, Maarten; Mease, Philip J

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To include the patient perspective in accordance with the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Filter 2.0 in the updated Psoriatic Arthritis (PsA) Core Domain Set for randomized controlled trials (RCT) and longitudinal observational studies (LOS). METHODS: At OMERACT 2016, research...... conducted to update the PsA Core Domain Set was presented and discussed in breakout groups. The updated PsA Core Domain Set was voted on and endorsed by OMERACT participants. RESULTS: We conducted a systematic literature review of domains measured in PsA RCT and LOS, and identified 24 domains. We conducted...... and breakout groups at OMERACT 2016 in which findings were presented and discussed. The updated PsA Core Domain Set endorsed with 90% agreement by OMERACT 2016 participants included musculoskeletal disease activity, skin disease activity, fatigue, pain, patient's global assessment, physical function, health...

  4. Flooding PSA with Plant Specific Operating Experiences of Korean PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sun Yeong; Yang, Joon Yull

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to update the flooding PSA with Korean plant specific operating experience data and the appropriate estimation method for the flooding frequency to improve the PSA quality. The existing flooding PSA used the NPE (Nuclear Power Experience) database up to 1985 for the flooding frequency. They are all USA plant operating experiences. So an upgraded flooding frequency with Korean specific plant operation experience is required. We also propose a method of only using the PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) data for the flooding frequency estimation in the case of the flooding area in the primary building even though the existing flooding PSA used both PWR and BWR (Boiled Water Reactor) data for all kinds of plant areas. We evaluate the CDF (Core Damage Frequency) with the modified flooding frequency and compare the results with that of the existing flooding PSA method

  5. ESA Swarm Mission - Level 1b Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tøffner-Clausen, Lars; Floberghagen, Rune; Mecozzi, Riccardo; Menard, Yvon

    2014-05-01

    Swarm, a three-satellite constellation to study the dynamics of the Earth's magnetic field and its interactions with the Earth system, has been launched in November 2013. The objective of the Swarm mission is to provide the best ever survey of the geomagnetic field and its temporal evolution, which will bring new insights into the Earth system by improving our understanding of the Earth's interior and environment. The Level 1b Products of the Swarm mission contain time-series of the quality screened, calibrated, corrected, and fully geo-localized measurements of the magnetic field intensity, the magnetic field vector (provided in both instrument and Earth-fixed frames), the plasma density, temperature, and velocity. Additionally, quality screened and pre-calibrated measurements of the nongravitational accelerations are provided. Geo-localization is performed by 24- channel GPS receivers and by means of unique, three head Advanced Stellar Compasses for high-precision satellite attitude information. The Swarm Level 1b data will be provided in daily products separately for each of the three Swarm spacecrafts. This poster will present detailed lists of the contents of the Swarm Level 1b Products and brief descriptions of the processing algorithms used in the generation of these data.

  6. Applications of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-02-01

    This report, which compiles information on a comprehensive set of PSA applications in the areas of NPP design, operation, and accident mitigation and management, is the culmination of an IAEA project on PSA Applications and Tools to Improve NPP Safety. In this regard, the Technical Committee Meeting (TCM) held in Madrid in February 1998 allowed participants to review and provide very valuable comments for this report. Several important facts related to PSA and its applications were highlighted during this TCM: living PSAs are the basis for the risk informed approach to decision making; development and use of safety/risk monitors as tools for configuration management is spreading fast; the different uses of PSA to support NPP testing and maintenance planning and optimization are amongst the most widespread PSA applications; plant specific PSAs are being used to support the safety upgrading programmes of plants built to earlier standards; not all countries have a regulatory framework for the use of the probabilistic approach in decision making. Some countries are still far from 'risk-informed' regulation, and this means that there is still considerable work ahead, both for regulators and utilities, to clarify approaches, to establish a framework and to reach a common understanding in relation to the use of PSA in decision making. This report is based on the premise that the use of PSA can provide useful information for the decision maker. This report is intended to provide an overview of current PSA applications. Section 2 addresses the PSA application process, outlines the general requirements for PSA tools and provides a discussion on PSA aspects such as PSA level, scope and level of detail, which have to be considered when planning/performing PSA applications. Section 3 discusses the technical aspects of individual applications and is divided into three parts. Section 3.1 is dedicated to the design related PSA applications. The second part of Section 3 considers

  7. Severe accident management at the Loviisa NPP - Application of integrated ROAAM and PSA level 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siltanen, S.; Routamo, T.; Tuomisto, H.; Lundstrom, P.

    2007-01-01

    PSA fault and event tree modelling approaches can be meaningfully applied when statistical reliability data are available (which is the case on level 1), and phenomenological issues are not the dominant source of uncertainty. With PSA studies it is also possible to continuously improve the overall safety by noticing possible weak points and study the influences of planned modifications and design improvements. PSA level 2 is also important because source terms are calculated as the end results, which is not done in the Integrated ROAAM. The source term analysis in PSA level 2 allows us to understand fission product behaviour, which is extremely important when dealing with containment bypass sequences. Source terms can also be directly linked to radioactive release limits set by the Finnish safety authority. Due to ROAAM approach in the SAM strategy it has been possible to simplify the PSA level 2 containment event tree significantly. The usage of ROAAM assures that the phenomenological uncertainties are covered well during this simplification process. (authors)

  8. The open PSA standard as a framework for migration of probabilistic models. Experiences with the KKB PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, G.; Hussels, U.; Epstein, S.; Rauzy, A.; Schubert, B.

    2008-01-01

    In its present state, the open PSA standard is helpful to determine capabilities of PSA approaches, which have been taken into account by those who formulated it. As soon, as tools come up, which can automatically bring a given PSA into the standard form, the data will be accessible by other software tools, which either are supplementary to the original one, or they may act in the context of quality control. Taking into account, that a PSA model represents a value of some two to ten person years (dependent on level of completeness and level of detail), it is important to have the data in a transparent way, which does not depend on proprietary formats, and can thus be used for more purposes than those, which are implemented in given PSA codes. (orig.)

  9. 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT for the detection of bone metastasis in recurrent prostate cancer and a PSA level <2 ng/ml

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars J; Nielsen, Julie B; Dettmann, Katja

    2017-01-01

    /computed tomography ((68)Ga-PSMA PET/CT) is a novel and promising method for imaging in prostate cancer. The present study reports two cases of patients with prostate cancer with biochemical recurrence, with evidence of bone metastases on (68)Ga-PSMA PET/CT images and low prostate specific antigen PSA levels (.../ml) and PSA doubling time >6 months. The bone metastases were verified by supplementary imaging with (18)F-sodium fluoride PET/CT and magnetic resonance imaging as well as biochemical responses to androgen deprivation therapy. Therefore, (68)Ga-PSMA PET/CT is promising for the restaging of patients...... with prostate cancer with biochemical recurrence, including patients with low PSA levels and low PSA kinetics....

  10. Daily Pill Can Prevent HIV PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-11-24

    This 60 second public service announcement (PSA) is based on the November 24, 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Preexposure prophylaxis, or PrEP, is a daily medicine that can be used to prevent getting HIV. PrEP is for people who don’t have HIV but who are at very high risk for getting it from sex or injection drug use. Unfortunately, many people who can benefit from PrEP aren’t taking it.  Created: 11/24/2015 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 11/24/2015.

  11. Policy and System Approach (PSA: A primer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrakant Lahariya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of public health challenges have emerged at global and national level in the last two decades. The response to these challenges has rarely been swift and often “knee-jerk.” The national and state level program officials responsible for the activities often apportion the blame on weak health systems or fragmented health service delivery mechanisms, amongst other. In India, the viral illnesses (including those due to dengue and chikungunya are becoming the increasing realities. The Public health response of early identification, disease surveillance, reporting and the preventive and curative measures, remains suboptimal. The health challenges which require multidimensional interventions are usuallyattempted to be resolved through piece meal solutions. This article proposes “policy and system approach (PSA,” combining concepts of “Health in all policies” for intersectoral coordination and “health system approach” for intra-sectoral tackling of the emerging and existing health challenges.

  12. Cancer of the prostate - role of PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shittu, O.B.

    1999-02-01

    Since 1979 when prostate specific antigen (PSA), found in the cytoplasm of benign and malignant prostatic cells, was first purified, it has attained world wide popularity in prostate cancer detection. It is also a sensitive test for skeletal meta states from carcinoma of the prostate. Prostate cancer has become the number one cancer in men and constitutes 11% of all cancers. Approximately 50% of men over 50 years have symptoms referable to the lower urinary tract. 50% or more of patients at Ibadan present an advanced stage of the disease and are therefore not curable. Thus, lacking the skill to manage advanced manifestations, early detection and screening programs are the best means to reduce mortality due to prostate cancer

  13. A framework for a quality assurance programme for PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-08-01

    Reviews organized by the IAEA of probabilistic safety assessments (PSAs) of nuclear facilities have, in the past years, shown significant progress in the technical methods and data used for these studies. The IAEA has made a considerable effort to support the development of technical capabilities for PSA in Member States and in writing technical procedures for carrying out PSAs. However, the reviews have also shown significant deficiencies in quality assurance (QA) for PSAs, ranging from no QA at all to inappropriate, inefficient or unbalanced QA. As a PSA represents a very complex model which describes the risk associated with a nuclear facility, an appropriate and efficient QA programme is crucial to obtain a quality PSA. Historically, in the first integral PSAs, many of the PSA elements were handled by independent groups. These elements were finally integrated and put together in the overall model. Many of the interfaces between the elements or tasks were handled as appropriate by exchanging information in oral or written form. Since WASH-1400, the first integral PSA, the process of constructing the PSA model has been further developed. PSA elements previously considered separately can now be handled together with the capable software developed in recent years. Software has made interface control and data transfer easier to perform, but also permits the development of more detailed and complex models. Previously, QA for PSA projects was organized in an ad hoc manner and was sometimes very limited. In recent years, increasingly comprehensive QA programmes have been developed and implemented for PSA projects. Today, a comprehensive, effective and performance-oriented QA is considered to be essential for a reliable and credible PSA. This report describes the framework for developing an adequate QA programme for PSA studies. The framework is based on and is in accordance with the related QA guidelines of the IAEA for safety in nuclear power plants and other nuclear

  14. Ascertaining the international state of the art of PSA methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linden, J. von

    1998-01-01

    Plant-specific PSAs, to be performed within the framework of the Periodic Safety Review of German Nuclear Power Plants require further development of the methodology. For that purpose foreign PSA-guidelines and PSA-reviewes as well as relevant literature are examined and appropriate insights are adopted within task A.2 of project SR 2096. The main goal of these activities is to achieve a comparison of the state of the art of PSA-methodologies applied abroad and in Germany. The German state of the art refers to the extent as is documented in the German PSA Guide (Leitfaden Probabilistische Sicherheitsanalyse /PSUe97/) which has to be used for the Periodic Safety Review of German Nuclear Power Plants. The structure for the evaluation is based on the working steps of a PSA. In total, according to the objectives of the Periodic Safety Review the German approach for plant-specific PSAs based on the German PSA Guide is conform to the state of the art abroad. Identified deviations in some details are evaluated reflecting the view of GRS. Particular aspects resulting from the evaluation should be considered for further development of the German PSA Guide. (orig.) [de

  15. Development of System Model for Level 1 Probabilistic Safety Assessment of TRIGA PUSPATI Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tom, P.P; Mazleha Maskin; Ahmad Hassan Sallehudin Mohd Sarif; Faizal Mohamed; Mohd Fazli Zakaria; Shaharum Ramli; Muhamad Puad Abu

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear safety is a very big issue in the world. As a consequence of the accident at Fukushima, Japan, most of the reactors in the world have been reviewed their safety of the reactors including also research reactors. To develop Level 1 Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) of TRIGA PUSPATI Reactor (RTP), three organizations are involved; Nuclear Malaysia, AELB and UKM. PSA methodology is a logical, deductive technique which specifies an undesired top event and uses fault trees and event trees to model the various parallel and sequential combinations of failures that might lead to an undesired event. Fault Trees (FT) methodology is use in developing of system models. At the lowest level, the Basic Events (BE) of the fault trees (components failure and human errors) are assigned probability distributions. In this study, Risk Spectrum software used to construct the fault trees and analyze the system models. The results of system models analysis such as core damage frequency (CDF), minimum cut set (MCS) and common cause failure (CCF) uses to support decision making for upgrading or modification of the RTP?s safety system. (author)

  16. Application of PSA in risk informed decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hari Prasad, M.; Vinod, Gopika; Saraf, R.K.; Ghosh, A.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.

    2006-01-01

    Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) models have been successfully employed during design evaluation to assess weak links and carry out design modifications to improve system reliability and safety. Recently, studies are directed towards applying PSA in various decision making issues concerned with plant operations and safety regulations. This necessitates development of software tools like Living PSA, Risk Monitor etc. Risk Monitor is a PC based tool developed to assess the risk, based on the actual status of systems and components. Such tools find wide application with plant personnel and regulatory authorities since they can provide solutions to various plant issues and regulatory decision making issues respectively. (author)

  17. Quality assurance in the Juragua Nuclear Power Plant preoperational PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valhuerdi Debesa, C.

    1996-01-01

    Quality Assurance (QA) is nowadays an important requirement for the competence of any production or service, making possible to get the desired quality at the lowest cost In the case of PSA, which are multidisciplinary, very detailed and complex analysis, with many interfaces between analyst tasks, QA plays an important role as a tool for the analytical process management, and it is recognized as one of the PSA issues which require additional development In this paper the QA system developed for the Juragua NPP preoperational PSA, its antecedents and the experiences of its application are described

  18. Development of Tsunami PSA method for Korean NPP site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min Kyu; Choi, In Kil; Park, Jin Hee

    2010-01-01

    A methodology of tsunami PSA was developed in this study. A tsunami PSA consists of tsunami hazard analysis, tsunami fragility analysis and system analysis. In the case of tsunami hazard analysis, evaluation of tsunami return period is major task. For the evaluation of tsunami return period, numerical analysis and empirical method can be applied. The application of this method was applied to a nuclear power plant, Ulchin 56 NPP, which is located in the east coast of Korean peninsula. Through this study, whole tsunami PSA working procedure was established and example calculation was performed for one of real nuclear power plant in Korea

  19. Characteristics Studies of 125I- and total PSA antibody's Binding with prostate specific antigen (PSA) in Human Uterus Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mudaffar, S.; Al-Salihi, J.

    2005-01-01

    Two groups of uterus tumors (benign and malignant) postmenopausal patients were used to investigate the presence of prostate specific antigen (PSA). Preliminary experiments were performed to follow the binding of '1 25 I-anti total PSA antibody with PSA in uterus tissues homogenates of the two groups with their corresponding antigen and found to be (8.8,7.1%) for benign and malignant tumors, respectively. An Immuno Radio Metric Assay (IRMA) procedure was developed for measuring PSA in benign and malignant uterus tumors homogenates. The optimum conditions of the binding of 125 I-anti total PSA antibody with PSA were as follows: PSA concentration (150,200 μg protein),tracer antibody concentration (125,250 μg protein), p H (7.6,7.2), temp (15,25?C) and time (1.5 hrs) for postmenopausal benign and malignant uterus tumors tissue homogenates, respectively. The use of different concentrations of Na + and Mg 2+ ions were shown to cause an increase in the binding at concentration of (125,75 mΜ) of Na 1+ ions (75,225 mΜ) of Mg 2+ ions for benign and malignant uterus tumors homogenates, respectively, while the use of different concentrations of urea and polyethylene glycol (PEG) Caused a decrease in the binding with the increase in the concentration of each of urea and PEG in the both cases

  20. Analytical tool for the periodic safety analysis of NPP according to the PSA guideline. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balfanz, H.P.; Boehme, E.; Musekamp, W.; Hussels, U.; Becker, G.; Behr, H.; Luettgert, H.

    1994-01-01

    The SAIS (Safety Analysis and Informationssystem) Programme System is based on an integrated data base, which consists of a plant-data and a PSA related data part. Using SAIS analyses can be performed by special tools, which are connected directly to the data base. Two main editors, RISA+ and DEDIT, are used for data base management. The access to the data base is done via different types of pages, which are displayed on a displayed on a computer screen. The pages are called data sheets. Sets of input and output data sheets were implemented, such as system or component data sheets, fault trees or event trees. All input information, models and results needed for updated results of PSA (Living PSA) can be stored in the SAIS. The programme system contains the editor KVIEW which guarantees consistency of the stored data, e.g. with respect to names and codes of components and events. The information contained in the data base are called in by a standardized users guide programme, called Page Editor. (Brunsbuettel on reference NPP). (orig./HP) [de

  1. Hybrid approach for the assessment of PSA models by means of binary decision diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibanez-Llano, Cristina; Rauzy, Antoine; Melendez, Enrique; Nieto, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    Binary decision diagrams are a well-known alternative to the minimal cutsets approach to assess the reliability Boolean models. They have been applied successfully to improve the fault trees models assessment. However, its application to solve large models, and in particular the event trees coming from the PSA studies of the nuclear industry, remains to date out of reach of an exact evaluation. For many real PSA models it may be not possible to compute the BDD within reasonable amount of time and memory without considering the truncation or simplification of the model. This paper presents a new approach to estimate the exact probabilistic quantification results (probability/frequency) based on combining the calculation of the MCS and the truncation limits, with the BDD approach, in order to have a better control on the reduction of the model and to properly account for the success branches. The added value of this methodology is that it is possible to ensure a real confidence interval of the exact value and therefore an explicit knowledge of the error bound. Moreover, it can be used to measure the acceptability of the results obtained with traditional techniques. The new method was applied to a real life PSA study and the results obtained confirm the applicability of the methodology and open a new viewpoint for further developments.

  2. Hybrid approach for the assessment of PSA models by means of binary decision diagrams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibanez-Llano, Cristina, E-mail: cristina.ibanez@iit.upcomillas.e [Instituto de Investigacion Tecnologica (IIT), Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria ICAI, Universidad Pontificia Comillas, C/Santa Cruz de Marcenado 26, 28015 Madrid (Spain); Rauzy, Antoine, E-mail: Antoine.RAUZY@3ds.co [Dassault Systemes, 10 rue Marcel Dassault CS 40501, 78946 Velizy Villacoublay Cedex (France); Melendez, Enrique, E-mail: ema@csn.e [Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear (CSN), C/Justo Dorado 11, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Nieto, Francisco, E-mail: nieto@iit.upcomillas.e [Instituto de Investigacion Tecnologica (IIT), Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria ICAI, Universidad Pontificia Comillas, C/Santa Cruz de Marcenado 26, 28015 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    Binary decision diagrams are a well-known alternative to the minimal cutsets approach to assess the reliability Boolean models. They have been applied successfully to improve the fault trees models assessment. However, its application to solve large models, and in particular the event trees coming from the PSA studies of the nuclear industry, remains to date out of reach of an exact evaluation. For many real PSA models it may be not possible to compute the BDD within reasonable amount of time and memory without considering the truncation or simplification of the model. This paper presents a new approach to estimate the exact probabilistic quantification results (probability/frequency) based on combining the calculation of the MCS and the truncation limits, with the BDD approach, in order to have a better control on the reduction of the model and to properly account for the success branches. The added value of this methodology is that it is possible to ensure a real confidence interval of the exact value and therefore an explicit knowledge of the error bound. Moreover, it can be used to measure the acceptability of the results obtained with traditional techniques. The new method was applied to a real life PSA study and the results obtained confirm the applicability of the methodology and open a new viewpoint for further developments.

  3. PSA application for the scram system of Romanian TRIGA Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laslau, Florica; Negut, Gheorghe

    2008-01-01

    The paper is dedicated to the fault tree analysis of the scram system in TRIGA-INR Pitesti reactor. It is a brief description of the scram system which involves instrumentation, mechanical, electrical,and control devices. The failure criteria considered is fail to drop 5 of 8 control rods. Fault tree was developed using immediate cause principle. The reliability data base used is developed in INR Pitesti based on the IAEA data available. The fault tree was analyzed by an original PC code developed for Romanian PSA program. The dominant for this fault tree appeared to be the human errors. This deserves a sensitivity analysis. If we do not consider the CCF errors contribution, the system computed unavailability is: A = 1.25 · 10 -7 . The failure rate is 1.087 · 10 -2 eV/1000 yr. The mean time between failures is 105 years. Taking in the account roads stuck common cause failure, unavailability will increase by two magnitude orders, A = 3.02 · 10 -5 . We considered this number still provides a reassuring mean time between failures. This value is within the limits accepted by similar scram system studies, but is higher than the value obtained in a similar way for the TRIGA reactor of University of Texas. The reason was the taking into account in our case the human error and CCF

  4. Pattern of Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Failure Dictates the Probability of a Positive Bone Scan in Patients With an Increasing PSA After Radical Prostatectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotan, Zohar A.; Bianco, Fernando J.; Rabbani, Farhang; Eastham, James A.; Fearn, Paul; Scher, Howard I.; Kelly, Kevin W.; Chen, Hui-Ni; Schöder, Heiko; Hricak, Hedvig; Scardino, Peter T.; Kattan, Michael W.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose Physicians often order periodic bone scans (BS) to check for metastases in patients with an increasing prostate-specific antigen (PSA; biochemical recurrence [BCR]) after radical prostatectomy (RP), but most scans are negative. We studied patient characteristics to build a predictive model for a positive scan. Patients and Methods From our prostate cancer database we identified all patients with detectable PSA after RP. We analyzed the following features at the time of each bone scan for association with a positive BS: preoperative PSA, time to BCR, pathologic findings of the RP, PSA before the BS (trigger PSA), PSA kinetics (PSA doubling time, PSA slope, and PSA velocity), and time from BCR to BS. The results were incorporated into a predictive model. Results There were 414 BS performed in 239 patients with BCR and no history of androgen deprivation therapy. Only 60 (14.5%) were positive for metastases. In univariate analysis, preoperative PSA (P = .04), seminal vesicle invasion (P = .02), PSA velocity (P < .001), and trigger PSA (P < .001) predicted a positive BS. In multivariate analysis, only PSA slope (odds ratio [OR], 2.71; P = .03), PSA velocity (OR, 0.93; P = .003), and trigger PSA (OR, 1.022; P < .001) predicted a positive BS. A nomogram for predicting the bone scan result was constructed with an overfit-corrected concordance index of 0.93. Conclusion Trigger PSA, PSA velocity, and slope were associated with a positive BS. A highly discriminating nomogram can be used to select patients according to their risk for a positive scan. Omitting scans in low-risk patients could reduce substantially the number of scans ordered. PMID:15774789

  5. Hand Hygiene in Healthcare Settings 2 PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 30 second PSA encourages people to wash their hands often while in the hospital or visiting someone in the hospital. It also encourages them to remind their healthcare providers to wash their hands, too.

  6. Hand Hygiene in Healthcare Settings 1 PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 30 second PSA encourages people to wash their hands often while in the hospital or visiting someone in the hospital. It also encourages them to remind their healthcare providers to wash their hands, too.

  7. PSA Velocity Does Not Improve Prostate Cancer Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rapid increase in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels is not grounds for automatically recommending a prostate biopsy, according to a study published online February 24, 2011, in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

  8. Influence of PSA, PSA velocity and PSA doubling time on contrast-enhanced 18F-choline PET/CT detection rate in patients with rising PSA after radical prostatectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schillaci, Orazio; Calabria, Ferdinando; Tavolozza, Mario; Caracciolo, Cristiana Ragano; Orlacchio, Antonio; Danieli, Roberta; Simonetti, Giovanni; Agro, Enrico Finazzi; Miano, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of contrast-enhanced 18 F-choline PET/CT in restaging patients with prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy in relation to PSA, PSA velocity (PSAve) and PSA doubling time (PSAdt). PET/CT was performed in 49 patients (age range 58-87 years) with rising PSA (mean 4.13 ng/ml) who were divided in four groups according to PSA level: ≤1 ng/ml, 1 to ≤2 ng/ml, 2 to ≤4 ng/ml, and >4 ng/ml. PSAve and PSAdt were measured. PET and CT scans were interpreted separately and then together. PET/CT diagnosed relapse in 33 of the 49 patients (67%). The detection rates were 20%, 55%, 80% and 87% in the PSA groups ≤1, 1 to ≤2, 2 to ≤4 and >4 ng/ml, respectively. PET/CT was positive in 7 of 18 patients (38.9%) with a PSA ≤2 ng/ml, and in 26 of 31 (83.9%) with a PSA >2 ng/ml. PET/CT was positive in 7 of 25 patients (84%) with PSAdt ≤6 months, and in 12 of 24 patients (50%) with PSAdt >6 months, and was positive in 26 of 30 patients (86%) with a PSAve >2 ng/ml per year, and in 7 of 19 patients (36.8%) with PSAve ≤2 ng/ml per year. PET alone was positive in 31 of 49 patients (63.3%), and of these 31 patients, CT was negative in 14 but diagnosed bone lesions in 2 patients in whom PET alone was negative. CT with the administration of intravenous contrast medium did not provide any further information. Detection rate of 18 F-choline imaging is closely related to PSA and PSA kinetics. In particular, 18 F-choline PET/CT is recommended in patients with PSA >2 ng/ml, PSAdt ≤6 months and PSAve >2 ng/ml per year. CT is useful for detecting bone metastases that are not 18 F-choline-avid. The use of intravenous contrast agent seems unnecessary. (orig.)

  9. [Use of prostatic specific antigen in primary care (PSA)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panach-Navarrete, J; Gironés-Montagud, A; Sánchez-Cano, E; Doménech-Pérez, C; Martínez-Jabaloyas, J M

    2017-04-01

    In the literature it is shown that the use of PSA is occasionally wrong, by requesting this marker in very young or very old men, and repeated measurements in short periods of time. The main objective of this study was to describe the use of PSA in daily practice by primary care physicians in our area, dealing with aspects such as the importance of patient age, the value in the screening for prostate cancer, or the subjective beliefs about its usefulness. A secondary objective was the comparison of use, and beliefs among doctors who claim to know PSA well, and those who do not. A descriptive and comparative study was conducted using questionnaires that were handed to primary care doctors in all health centres in our area. A descriptive analysis was performed and response rates among doctors who thought they had enough information about PSA, and those who did not, were compared using the Chi-squared test. A total of 103 questionnaires were received from the physicians, with 83.5% claiming to have sufficient knowledge about the PSA. The professionals in this latter group request PSA at an earlier age (P=.029), with a higher frequency (P=.011) and have more doubts about its usefulness (P=.009) than those with less knowledge. Almost half (49.5%) said they request less than 50 determinations per year, and 33% between 50 and 100. More than half (53.4%) of doctors would not request the first PSA on a patient until their 50s, and up to 49% request it up to 80 years. The true value of PSA has been established many times by 64.1% of requesters, and 29.1% believe it is unhelpful in the diagnosis of cancer. In our study, 64% of primary care physicians have considered the true value of the PSA several times, and 29% believe it to be of little use in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. In addition, some data suggest it has limited use due to the fact that 50% made less than 50 PSA requests per years, and 28% of the professionals would never request it on a male without urinary

  10. The optimal timing to perform 18F/11C-choline PET/CT in patients with suspicion of relapse of prostate cancer: trigger PSA versus PSA velocity and PSA doubling time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabria, Ferdinando; Rubello, Domenico; Schillaci, Orazio

    2014-12-09

    In the present short communication we considered the main publications focused on trigger prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and PSA kinetics that systematically compared 18F to 11C-choline PET/CT in order to establish the optimal time to perform choline PET/CT in relation to the trigger values and velocity, as well as doubling time of PSA serum levels.

  11. Activities relating to PSA in the regulatory process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.F.; Grint, G.C.

    1994-01-01

    In addition to the IAEA activities concerning the use of PSA in the regulatory process there are two other international initiatives in this area by the European Commission and the OECD's Committee for Nuclear Regulatory Authorities (CRNA). The paper gives a brief outline of these activities as well as introducing an update on the regulatory use of PSA in the UK. 3 refs, 3 tabs

  12. Child Injury: What You Need to Know PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-16

    This 60 second PSA is based on the April 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. Many childhood deaths and injuries are preventable, including those caused by crashes, suffocation, poisoning, drowning, fires, and falls. The PSA discusses ways to help prevent these deaths and injuries.  Created: 4/16/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/16/2012.

  13. The ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger Architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Garvey, J; Mahout, G; Moye, T H; Staley, R J; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Achenbach, R; Hanke, P; Kluge, E E; Meier, K; Meshkov, P; Nix, O; Penno, K; Schmitt, K; Ay, Cc; Bauss, B; Dahlhoff, A; Jakobs, K; Mahboubi, K; Schäfer, U; Trefzger, T M; Eisenhandler, E F; Landon, M; Moyse, E; Thomas, J; Apostoglou, P; Barnett, B M; Brawn, I P; Davis, A O; Edwards, J; Gee, C N P; Gillman, A R; Perera, V J O; Qian, W; Bohm, C; Hellman, S; Hidvégi, A; Silverstein, S; RT 2003 13th IEEE-NPSS Real Time Conference

    2004-01-01

    The architecture of the ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger system (L1Calo) is presented. Common approaches have been adopted for data distribution, result merging, readout, and slow control across the three different subsystems. A significant amount of common hardware is utilized, yielding substantial savings in cost, spares, and development effort. A custom, high-density backplane has been developed with data paths suitable for both the em/tt cluster processor (CP) and jet/energy-summation processor (JEP) subsystems. Common modules also provide interfaces to VME, CANbus and the LHC Timing, Trigger and Control system (TTC). A common data merger module (CMM) uses FPGAs with multiple configurations for summing electron/photon and tau/hadron cluster multiplicities, jet multiplicities, or total and missing transverse energy. The CMM performs both crate- and system-level merging. A common, FPGA-based readout driver (ROD) is used by all of the subsystems to send input, intermediate and output data to the data acquis...

  14. Progress on the Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger

    CERN Multimedia

    Eric Eisenhandler

    The Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger (L1Calo) has recently passed a number of major hurdles. The various electronic modules that make up the trigger are either in full production or are about to be, and preparations in the ATLAS pit are well advanced. L1Calo has three main subsystems. The PreProcessor converts analogue calorimeter signals to digital, associates the rather broad trigger pulses with the correct proton-proton bunch crossing, and does a final calibration in transverse energy before sending digital data streams to the two algorithmic trigger processors. The Cluster Processor identifies and counts electrons, photons and taus, and the Jet/Energy-sum Processor looks for jets and also sums missing and total transverse energy. Readout drivers allow the performance of the trigger to be monitored online and offline, and also send region-of-interest information to the Level-2 Trigger. The PreProcessor (Heidelberg) is the L1Calo subsystem with the largest number of electronic modules (124), and most of its fu...

  15. Safety Goal, Multi-unit Risk and PSA Uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Joon-Eon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The safety goal is an answer of each country to the question 'How safe is safe enough?'. Table 1 shows some examples of the safety goal. However, many countries including Korea do not have the official safety goal for NPPs up to now since the establishment of safety goal is not just a technical issue but a very complex socio-technical issue. In establishing the safety goal for nuclear facilities, we have to consider various factors including not only technical aspects but also social, cultural ones. Recently, Korea is trying to establish the official safety goal. In this paper, we will review the relationship between the safety goal and Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA). We will also address some important technical issues to be considered in establishing the safety goal for NPPs from PSA point of view, i.e. a multi-unit risk issue and the uncertainty of PSA. In this paper, we reviewed some issues related to the safety goal and PSA. We believe that the safety goal is to be established in Korea considering the multi-unit risk. In addition, the relationship between the safety goal and PSA should be also defined clearly since PSA is the only way to answer to the question 'How safe is safe enough?'.

  16. Development of Integrated PSA Database and Application Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Sang Hoon; Park, Jin Hee; Kim, Seung Hwan; Choi, Sun Yeong; Jung, Woo Sik; Jeong, Kwang Sub; Ha Jae Joo; Yang, Joon Eon; Min Kyung Ran; Kim, Tae Woon

    2005-04-15

    The purpose of this project is to develop 1) the reliability database framework, 2) the methodology for the reactor trip and abnormal event analysis, and 3) the prototype PSA information DB system. We already have a part of the reactor trip and component reliability data. In this study, we extend the collection of data up to 2002. We construct the pilot reliability database for common cause failure and piping failure data. A reactor trip or a component failure may have an impact on the safety of a nuclear power plant. We perform the precursor analysis for such events that occurred in the KSNP, and to develop a procedure for the precursor analysis. A risk monitor provides a mean to trace the changes in the risk following the changes in the plant configurations. We develop a methodology incorporating the model of secondary system related to the reactor trip into the risk monitor model. We develop a prototype PSA information system for the UCN 3 and 4 PSA models where information for the PSA is inputted into the system such as PSA reports, analysis reports, thermal-hydraulic analysis results, system notebooks, and so on. We develop a unique coherent BDD method to quantify a fault tree and the fastest fault tree quantification engine FTREX. We develop quantification software for a full PSA model and a one top model.

  17. Development of PSA procedure for a criticality in reprocessing facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Shigeki; Takanashi, Mitsuhiro; Ueda, Yoshinori

    2012-08-01

    Utilization of risk information for the nuclear safety regulation is being discussed in Japan. The development of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) procedure is indispensable for the utilization of risk information. The Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES) has been conducting trial PSA to a model plant for major events, i.e. hydrogen explosion, solution boiling, rapid decomposition of TBP complexes, criticality, solvent fire, leakage of molten glass, leakage of high active concentrated liquid waste, loss of all AC electricity, drop of a fuel assembly, for the purpose of developing the PSA procedure for reprocessing facilities. For criticality events results of trial PSA were summarized as a report in which how to evaluate an amount of radioactive materials released from a facility and a health effect on the public were emphasized. Therefore, for criticality events the results of trial PSA were summarized in this report to emphasize procedures from making event progression scenarios to quantifying event sequences, which were not handled in the previous report, in a style of a document describing PSA procedures. (author)

  18. PSA Model Improvement Using Maintenance Rule Function Mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Mi Ro [KHNP-CRI, Nuclear Safety Laboratory, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    The Maintenance Rule (MR) program, in nature, is a performance-based program. Therefore, the risk information derived from the Probabilistic Safety Assessment model is introduced into the MR program during the Safety Significance determination and Performance Criteria selection processes. However, this process also facilitates the determination of the vulnerabilities in currently utilized PSA models and offers means of improving them. To find vulnerabilities in an existing PSA model, an initial review determines whether the safety-related MR functions are included in the PSA model. Because safety-related MR functions are related to accident prevention and mitigation, it is generally necessary for them to be included in the PSA model. In the process of determining the safety significance of each functions, quantitative risk importance levels are determined through a process known as PSA model basic event mapping to MR functions. During this process, it is common for some inadequate and overlooked models to be uncovered. In this paper, the PSA model and the MR program of Wolsong Unit 1 were used as references

  19. One Approach to the Fire PSA Uncertainty Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simic, Z.; Mikulicic, V.; Vukovic, I.

    2002-01-01

    Experienced practical events and findings from the number of fire probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) studies show that fire has high relative importance for nuclear power plant safety. Fire PSA is a very challenging phenomenon and a number of issues are still in the area of research and development. This has a major impact on the conservatism of fire PSA findings. One way to reduce the level of conservatism is to conduct uncertainty analysis. At the top-level, uncertainty of the fire PSA can be separated in to three segments. The first segment is related to fire initiating events frequencies. The second uncertainty segment is connected to the uncertainty of fire damage. Finally, there is uncertainty related to the PSA model, which propagates this fire-initiated damage to the core damage or other analyzed risk. This paper discusses all three segments of uncertainty. Some recent experience with fire PSA study uncertainty analysis, usage of fire analysis code COMPBRN IIIe, and uncertainty evaluation importance to the final result is presented.(author)

  20. Methodological approaches to perform a site specific PSA on the effects of comprehensive events; Methodische Ansaetze zur Durchfuehrung einer standortspezifischen PSA zu den Auswirkungen uebergreifender Einwirkungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuerschmann, Michael; Sperbeck, Silvio; Frey, Walter

    2016-12-15

    Main objective of the project 3612R01550 performed on behalf of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety (BMUB) is the development of an approach for systematic consideration of dependencies in case of internal and external hazards and their combinations in the probabilistic plant model for nuclear power plants. One of the major aspects of a site specific Level 1 PSA carried out for a nuclear power plant outlined in this report is taking comprehensively into account the entire risks resulting from internal and external hazards. In a first step, all the hazards which may occur at the site under investigation have to be identified. This requires a compilation of the potential hazards and their possible combinations: Based on this compilation of generic hazards a site specific list of hazards to be considered in the analysis can be derived based on a screening process taking into account regulatory requirements and insights from site and plant walk-downs. In a second step, the hazards to be considered for the specific site have to be classified with respect to the depth of the probabilistic analyses to be carried out. This classification covers three categories: hazards with a negligible contribution to the overall risk, hazards with such a low risk contribution that a rough quantitative assessment is sufficient, and hazards which need in-depth probabilistic analysis. Based on the available Level 1 PSA model for internal events, a systematic approach for in-depth probabilistic analyses of hazards and their combinations is proposed. In this context, lists of those structures, systems and components, which can be impaired in their required function resulting in a risk increase, are provided. One of these lists contains the equipment, the other one the dependencies to be considered for the corresponding hazard. In addition to the general approach for performing site specific PSA, a procedure for modelling dependencies in

  1. Level-1 Milestone 350 Definitions v1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, T

    2006-11-17

    This milestone is the direct result of work that started seven years ago with the planning for a 100-teraFLOP platform and will be satisfied when 100 teraFLOPS is placed in operation and readied for Stockpile Stewardship Program simulations. The end product of this milestone will be a production-level, high-performance computing system, code named Purple, designed to be used to solve the most demanding stockpile stewardship problems, that is, the large-scale application problems at the edge of our understanding of weapon physics. This fully functional 100 teraFLOPS system must be able to serve a diverse scientific and engineering workload. It must also have a robust code development and production environment, both of which facilitate the workload requirements. This multi-year effort includes major activities in contract management, facilities, infrastructure, system software, and user environment and support. Led by LLNL, the trilabs defined the statement of work for a 100-teraFLOP system that resulted in a contract with IBM known as the Purple contract. LLNL worked with IBM throughout the contract period to resolve issues and collaborated with the Program to resolve contractual issues to ensure delivery of a platform that best serves the Program for a reasonable cost. The Purple system represents a substantial increase in the classified compute resources at LLNL for NNSA. The center computer environment must be designed to accept the Purple system and to scale with the increase of compute resources to achieve required end-to-end services. Networking, archival storage, visualization servers, global file systems, and system software will all be enhanced to support Purple's size and architecture. IBM and LLNL are sharing responsibility for Purple's system software. LLNL is responsible for the scheduler, resource manager, and some code development tools. Through the Purple contract, IBM is responsible for the remainder of the system software including the

  2. Predictor of response to salvage radiotherapy in patients with PSA recurrence after radical prostatectomy. The usefulness of PSA doubling time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numata, Kousaku; Azuma, Koji; Hashine, Katsuyoshi; Sumiyoshi, Yoshiteru

    2005-01-01

    We assessed predictors of response to salvage radiotherapy (sRT) in patients with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) recurrence after radical prostatectomy. A total of 21 patients receiving sRT for PSA recurrence without systemic progression after radical prostatectomy had medical records available for retrospective review. We defined sRT as external beam radiotherapy for patients with a continuous increase in PSA level≥0.2 ng/ml after radical prostatectomy. Response was defined as achievement of a PSA nadir of ≤0.1 ng/ml. Various pre-treatment parameters were evaluated retrospectively. The median follow-up period after sRT was 38 months. Of the 21 patients, 15 were good responders (71%). The only predictive factor was PSA doubling time (PSADT). Age and PSA level at diagnosis, Gleason score and surgical margin status were not significant predictors of response. The median PSADT in responders was 6.2 months versus 1.9 months in non-responders (P=0.019). The patients with a PSADT of ≥5 months were all responders. PSADT appears to be a good predictor of response to sRT. sRT was especially effective when PSADT was ≥5 months. (author)

  3. Murine polyomavirus virus-like particles carrying full-length human PSA protect BALB/c mice from outgrowth of a PSA expressing tumor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilda Eriksson

    Full Text Available Virus-like particles (VLPs consist of capsid proteins from viruses and have been shown to be usable as carriers of protein and peptide antigens for immune therapy. In this study, we have produced and assayed murine polyomavirus (MPyV VLPs carrying the entire human Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA (PSA-MPyVLPs for their potential use for immune therapy in a mouse model system. BALB/c mice immunized with PSA-MPyVLPs were only marginally protected against outgrowth of a PSA-expressing tumor. To improve protection, PSA-MPyVLPs were co-injected with adjuvant CpG, either alone or loaded onto murine dendritic cells (DCs. Immunization with PSA-MPyVLPs loaded onto DCs in the presence of CpG was shown to efficiently protect mice from tumor outgrowth. In addition, cellular and humoral immune responses after immunization were examined. PSA-specific CD4(+ and CD8(+ cells were demonstrated, but no PSA-specific IgG antibodies. Vaccination with DCs loaded with PSA-MPyVLPs induced an eight-fold lower titre of anti-VLP antibodies than vaccination with PSA-MPyVLPs alone. In conclusion, immunization of BALB/c mice with PSA-MPyVLPs, loaded onto DCs and co-injected with CpG, induces an efficient PSA-specific tumor protective immune response, including both CD4(+ and CD8(+ cells with a low induction of anti-VLP antibodies.

  4. Murine Polyomavirus Virus-Like Particles Carrying Full-Length Human PSA Protect BALB/c Mice from Outgrowth of a PSA Expressing Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Mathilda; Andreasson, Kalle; Weidmann, Joachim; Lundberg, Kajsa; Tegerstedt, Karin

    2011-01-01

    Virus-like particles (VLPs) consist of capsid proteins from viruses and have been shown to be usable as carriers of protein and peptide antigens for immune therapy. In this study, we have produced and assayed murine polyomavirus (MPyV) VLPs carrying the entire human Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) (PSA-MPyVLPs) for their potential use for immune therapy in a mouse model system. BALB/c mice immunized with PSA-MPyVLPs were only marginally protected against outgrowth of a PSA-expressing tumor. To improve protection, PSA-MPyVLPs were co-injected with adjuvant CpG, either alone or loaded onto murine dendritic cells (DCs). Immunization with PSA-MPyVLPs loaded onto DCs in the presence of CpG was shown to efficiently protect mice from tumor outgrowth. In addition, cellular and humoral immune responses after immunization were examined. PSA-specific CD4+ and CD8+ cells were demonstrated, but no PSA-specific IgG antibodies. Vaccination with DCs loaded with PSA-MPyVLPs induced an eight-fold lower titre of anti-VLP antibodies than vaccination with PSA-MPyVLPs alone. In conclusion, immunization of BALB/c mice with PSA-MPyVLPs, loaded onto DCs and co-injected with CpG, induces an efficient PSA-specific tumor protective immune response, including both CD4+ and CD8+ cells with a low induction of anti-VLP antibodies. PMID:21858228

  5. Involvement of Union Fenosa skills in the thermohydraulic area of the Jose Cabrera NPP PSA. Applications of the RELAPS5/MOD2 Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, L.; Saenz Tejada, P.

    1993-01-01

    When performing a level 1 Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) on a standard power plant, in order to model plant response to the potential occurrence of the various initiating events postulated in a PSA, reference documentation applicable to the type of plant in question is frequently consulted. Because of the specific design characteristics of the Jose Cabrera NPP, most of the reference documentation for the W-PWR-type power plants is not applicable to this plant. To fill in these gaps in the documentation and to construct the most realistic model of plant behaviour possible, assistance was sought from Union Fenosa by way of infrastructure, capabilities and thermohydraulic experience of the Nuclear Engineering and Fuel Group, and especially the use of calculations performed with the RELAP5/ MOD2 code. This paper will provide an overview of the general assistance rendered to the PSA by the technical experts in thermohydraulics, the calculations performed with RELAP5/MOD2 and the influence all of this has had on the development, quality and results of the Jose Cabrera NPP level 1 PSA Project. (author)

  6. Development of PSA module for computerized accident management support (CAMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iguchi, Yukihiro

    1996-10-01

    CAMS (Computerised Accident Management Support) is a system that will provide assistance in case of the accidents in a nuclear power plant. The PSA module was developed in order to give useful information in this situation applying the PSA method, which is a comprehensive source of safety knowledge. This module contains plant-specific PSA data, comprising event trees, failure probabilities etc. It has several event trees categorised according to the initiating events. Each event tree has an initiating event frequency and branching probabilities. The various support systems for branches are considered and their dependencies are calculated logically. This module can be activated by data from the state identification (SI) module of CAMS. If an initiating event occurs, the event tree is re-calculated and the PSA module shows which systems of the plant should be activated to bring the plant to a safe state. If the plant responds to the event in the normal way, the plant will be shut down and come to a safe state. However, if some functions do not work, the PSA module generates another path and gives information about the critical systems. If the state of the plant is changed, either by the operators or automatically by the control system, the PSA module follows the new path. Because the estimation of the core damage frequency should be very quick in the accident situation, a simplified model of the event tree and fault trees was adopted. It enabled the PSA module to calculates the CDF within 5 seconds on a standard type work station. The development of the module has been successful. However, further development of the functionality of the module is suggested like real connection to a plant and to the strategy generator module of CAMS, applications for operational support, low power operation optimisation, etc. (author)

  7. International network on incorporation of ageing effects into PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchsteiger, C.; Patrik, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the background and status of a new International Network on ''Incorporating Ageing Effects into Probabilistic Safety Assessment''. The Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission organized in September 2004 the kickoff meeting of this Network at JRC's Institute for Energy in Petten, Netherlands, with the aims to open the APSA Network, to start discussion of ageing issues in relation to incorporating ageing effects into PSA tools and to come to consensus on objectives and work packages of the Network, taking into account the specific expectations of potential Network partners. The presentations and discussions at the meeting confirmed the main conclusion from the previously organized PSAM 7 pre-conference workshop on ''Incorporating PSA into Ageing Management'', Budapest, June 2004, namely that incorporating ageing effects into PSA seems to be more and more a hot topic particularly for risk assessment and ageing management of nuclear power plants operating at advanced age (more than 25-30 years) and for the purpose of plant life extension. However, it also appeared that, especially regarding the situation in Europe, at present there are several on-going feasibility or full studies in this area, but not yet a completed Ageing PSA leading to applications. The project's working method is a NETWORK of operators, industry, research, academia and consultants with an active interest in the area (physical networking via a series of workshops and virtual networking via the Internet). The resulting knowledge should help PSA developers and users to incorporate the effects of equipment ageing into current PSA tools and models, to identify and/or develop most effective corresponding methods, to focus on dominant ageing contributors and components and to promote the use of PSA for ageing management of Nuclear Power Plants. (orig.)

  8. Comparative Study on Atmospheric Dispersion Module of Level 3 PSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Dahye; Jang, Misuk; Kang, Hyun Sik; Kim, Seoung Rae [NESS, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Some regulation documents such as Regulatory Guides and NUREG publications from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) have influences on domestic radiation environmental analyses. As renewal versions of NUREG-0800 and NUREG-1555 have issued lately, the assessment for Severe Accident (SA) with Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) should be added to Safety Analysis Report (SAR) and Radiation Environmental Report (RER). Because these reports are the required documents for obtaining the construction permit and operating license, it is important to understand the PSA methodology and it needs to improve the site-specific input data of L3PSA codes for SA. First, our review focuses on the atmospheric dispersion and deposition related input data of L3PSA code in this paper. Then we will continue to review the improvements of other input data. Two atmospheric dispersion models, which are PAVAN developed for design basis accident and ATMOS of MACCS2 code developed for SA, were reviewed in this paper. L3PSA deals with the effects of severe accidents and basically includes the evaluation of both short- and long-term effects. Therefore, both the deposition effects and nuclide information(type, amount, and chemical characteristics of released radionuclide) would be considered as the input parameters of atmospheric dispersion model for L3PSA. Additionally, the meteorological data would be sampled randomly to meet the purpose of probabilistic method. However, the sampling method would be selected according to analysis purpose. After review, ATMOS module and its input data are suitably developed for the atmospheric dispersion analysis of L3PSA. However, ATMOS module was developed using the site-specific terrain and environment characteristics. For the domestic application, it needs to study the input data reflecting the Korean terrain and environment characteristics. It would be also continuously improved in response to the time- and site-specific changes of weather

  9. Metastatic prostate cancer in the modern era of PSA screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip A. Fontenot Jr

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction To characterize initial presentation and PSA screening status in a contemporary cohort of men treated for metastatic prostate cancer at our institution. Materials and methods We reviewed records of 160 men treated for metastatic prostate cancer between 2008-2014 and assessed initial presentation, categorizing patients into four groups. Groups 1 and 2 presented with localized disease and received treatment. These men suffered biochemical recurrence late (>1 year or earlier (<1 year, respectively, and developed metastases. Groups 3 and 4 had asymptomatic and symptomatic metastases at the outset of their diagnosis. Patients with a first PSA at age 55 or younger were considered to have guideline-directed screening. Results Complete records were available on 157 men for initial presentation and 155 men for PSA screening. Groups 1, 2, 3 and 4 included 27 (17%, 7 (5%, 69 (44% and 54 (34% patients, respectively. Twenty (13% patients received guideline-directed PSA screening, 5/155 (3% patients presented with metastases prior to age 55 with their first PSA, and 130/155 (84% had their first PSA after age 55, of which 122/130 (94% had metastasis at the time of diagnosis. Conclusion Despite widespread screening, most men treated for metastatic prostate cancer at our institution presented with metastases rather than progressed after definitive treatment. Furthermore, 25 (16% patients received guideline-directed PSA screening at or before age 55. These data highlight that, despite mass screening efforts, patients treated for incurable disease at our institution may not have been a result of a failed screening test, but a failure to be screened.

  10. Metastatic prostate cancer in the modern era of PSA screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenot, Philip A.; Nehra, Avinash; Parker, William; Wyre, Hadley; Mirza, Moben; Duchene, David A.; Holzbeierlein, Jeffrey; Thrasher, James Brantley; Veldhuizen, Peter Van; Lee, Eugene K.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction To characterize initial presentation and PSA screening status in a contemporary cohort of men treated for metastatic prostate cancer at our institution. Materials and methods We reviewed records of 160 men treated for metastatic prostate cancer between 2008-2014 and assessed initial presentation, categorizing patients into four groups. Groups 1 and 2 presented with localized disease and received treatment. These men suffered biochemical recurrence late (>1 year) or earlier (<1 year), respectively, and developed metastases. Groups 3 and 4 had asymptomatic and symptomatic metastases at the outset of their diagnosis. Patients with a first PSA at age 55 or younger were considered to have guideline-directed screening. Results Complete records were available on 157 men for initial presentation and 155 men for PSA screening. Groups 1, 2, 3 and 4 included 27 (17%), 7 (5%), 69 (44%) and 54 (34%) patients, respectively. Twenty (13%) patients received guideline-directed PSA screening, 5/155 (3%) patients presented with metastases prior to age 55 with their first PSA, and 130/155 (84%) had their first PSA after age 55, of which 122/130 (94%) had metastasis at the time of diagnosis. Conclusion Despite widespread screening, most men treated for metastatic prostate cancer at our institution presented with metastases rather than progressed after definitive treatment. Furthermore, 25 (16%) patients received guideline-directed PSA screening at or before age 55. These data highlight that, despite mass screening efforts, patients treated for incurable disease at our institution may not have been a result of a failed screening test, but a failure to be screened. PMID:28338310

  11. Seismic PSA of nuclear power plants a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hari Prasad, M.; Dubey, P.N.; Reddy, G.R.; Saraf, R.K.; Ghosh, A.K.

    2006-07-01

    Seismic Probabilistic Safety Assessment (Seismic PSA) analysis is an external event PSA analysis. The objective of seismic PSA for the plants is to examine the existence of plant vulnerabilities against postulated earthquakes by numerically assessing the plant safety and to take appropriate measures to enhance the plant safety. Seismic PSA analysis integrates the seismic hazard analysis, seismic response analysis, seismic fragility analysis and system reliability/ accident sequence analysis. In general, the plant consists of normally operating and emergency standby systems and components. The failure during an earthquake (induced directly by excessive inertial stresses or indirectly following the failure of some other item) of an operating component will lead to a change in the state of the plant. In that case, various scenarios can follow depending on the initiating event and the status of other sub-systems. The analysis represents these possible chronological sequences by an event tree. The event trees and the associated fault trees model the sub-systems down to the level of individual components. The procedure has been applied for a typical Indian nuclear power plant. From the internal event PSA level I analysis significant contribution to the Core Damage Frequency (CDF) was found due to the Fire Water System. Hence, this system was selected to establish the procedure of seismic PSA. In this report the different elements that go into seismic PSA analysis have been discussed. Hazard curves have been developed for the site. Fragility curve for the seismically induced failure of Class IV power has been developed. The fragility curve for fire-water piping system has been generated. Event tree for Class IV power supply has been developed and the dominating accident sequences were identified. CDF has been estimated from these dominating accident sequences by convoluting hazard curves of initiating event and fragility curves of the safety systems. (author)

  12. ASAMPSA-E guidance for level 2 PSA Volume 2. Implementing external Events modelling in Level 2 PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cazzoli, E.; Vitazkova, J.; Loeffler, H.; Burgazzi, L.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present document is to provide guidance on the implementation of external events into an 'extended' L2 PSA. It has to be noted that L2 PSA addresses issues beginning with fuel degradation and ending with the release of radionuclides into the environment. Therefore, the present document may touch upon, but does not evaluate explicitly issues that involve events or phenomena which occur before the fuel begins to degrade. Following the accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi, the nuclear safety community has realized that much attention should be given to the areas of operator interventions and accidents that may develop at the same time in more than one unit if they are initiated by one or more common external events. For this reason and to fulfill the PSA end-users' wish list (as reflected by an ASAMPSA-E survey), the attention is mostly focused on interface between L1 and L2 PSA, fragility analysis, human response analysis and some consideration is given to L2 PSA modeling of severe accidents for multiple unit sites, even though it is premature to provide extensive guidance in this area. The following recommendations, mentioned in various sections within this document, are summarized here: 1. Vulnerability/fragility analyses should be performed with respect to all external hazards and all structures, systems and components potentially affected that could be relevant to L2 PSA, 2. Importance should be given to the assessment of human performance following extreme external events; for extreme circumstances with high stress level, low confidence is justified for SAM human interventions and for such conditions, human interventions could be analyzed as sensitivity cases only in L2 PSA, 3. Results presentation should include assessment of total risk measures compared with risk targets able to assess all contributions to the risk and to judge properly the safety, 4. Total risk measures shall be associated to appropriate information on all

  13. Improvement of PSA Models Using Monitoring and Prognostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Gyun Young; Chang, Yoon Suk; Kim, Hyun Dae [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) has performed a significant role for quantitative decision-making by finding design and operational vulnerability and evaluating cost-benefit in improving such weak points. Especially, it has been widely used as the core methodology for Risk-Informed Applications (RIAs). Even though the nature of PSA seeks realistic results, there are still 'conservative' aspects. The sources for the conservatism come from the assumption of safety analysis and the estimation of failure frequency. Surveillance, Diagnosis, and Prognosis (SDP) utilizing massive database and information technology is worthwhile to be highlighted in terms of the capability of alleviating the conservatism in the conventional PSA. This paper provides enabling techniques to concretize the method to provide time- and condition-dependent risk by integrating a conventional PSA model with condition monitoring and prognostics techniques. We will discuss how to integrate the results with frequency of initiating events (IEs) and failure probability of basic events (BEs). Two illustrative examples will be introduced: how the failure probability of a passive system can be evaluated under different plant conditions and how the IE frequency for Steam Generator Tube Rupture (SGTR) can be updated in terms of operating time. We expect that the proposed PSA model can take a role of annunciator to show the variation of Core Damage Frequency (CDF) in terms of time and operational conditions.

  14. Impact of Pre-Initiators on PSA in Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochirbat, Chimedtseren [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sok Chul [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Most of nuclear power plants had already conducted PSA work to examine their plant safety for identifying vulnerability and preparing the mitigating strategies for severe accident. However, the PSA for research reactor has been conducted limitedly comparing with nuclear power plants due to lack of awareness and resources. Most of PSA results demonstrated that human failure events (HFEs) take a major role of risk contributor in terms of core damage frequency. HFEs are categorized as the following three types: pre-initiating event interaction (e.g., maintenance of errors, testing errors, calibration errors), initiating event related interactions (e.g., human error causing loss of power, human error causing system trip), and post-initiating event (e.g., all action actuating manual safety system backup of an automatic system). Lack of resources and utilization of research reactor calls a vicious circle in terms of safety degradation. The safety degradation poses the vulnerability of human failure during research reactor utilization process. Typically, evaluation of pre-initiators related to test and maintenance are not taking into account in PSA for research reactors. This paper aims to investigate the impact of pre-initiating events related to test and maintenance activities on PSA results in terms of core damage frequency for a research reactor.

  15. Impact of Pre-Initiators on PSA in Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochirbat, Chimedtseren; Kim, Sok Chul

    2014-01-01

    Most of nuclear power plants had already conducted PSA work to examine their plant safety for identifying vulnerability and preparing the mitigating strategies for severe accident. However, the PSA for research reactor has been conducted limitedly comparing with nuclear power plants due to lack of awareness and resources. Most of PSA results demonstrated that human failure events (HFEs) take a major role of risk contributor in terms of core damage frequency. HFEs are categorized as the following three types: pre-initiating event interaction (e.g., maintenance of errors, testing errors, calibration errors), initiating event related interactions (e.g., human error causing loss of power, human error causing system trip), and post-initiating event (e.g., all action actuating manual safety system backup of an automatic system). Lack of resources and utilization of research reactor calls a vicious circle in terms of safety degradation. The safety degradation poses the vulnerability of human failure during research reactor utilization process. Typically, evaluation of pre-initiators related to test and maintenance are not taking into account in PSA for research reactors. This paper aims to investigate the impact of pre-initiating events related to test and maintenance activities on PSA results in terms of core damage frequency for a research reactor

  16. Review of updated design of SPWR with PSA methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikawa, Tetsukuni; Muramatsu, Ken

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the procedures and results of a PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment) of the SPWR (System-Integrated PWR), which is being developed at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) as a medium sized innovative passive safe reactor, to assist in the design improvement of the SPWR at the basic or conceptual design phase by reviewing the design and identifying the design vulnerability. The first phase PSA, which was carried out in 1991, was a scoping analysis in order to understand overall plant characteristics and to search for general design weakness. After discussing the results of the first phase PSA, the SPWR designer group changed some designs of the SPWR. The second phase PSA of the SPWR was performed for the modified design in order to identify the design vulnerability as well as to grasp its overall safety level. Special items of these PSAs are as follows: (1) systematic identification of initiating events related to newly designed systems by the failure mode effect analysis (FMEA), (2) delineation of accident sequences for the internal initiating events using accident progression flow charts which is cost effective for conceptual design phase, (3) quantification of event trees based on many engineering judgement, and (4) lots of sensitivity analyses to examine applicability of data assignment. Qualitative and quantitative results of PSA provided very useful information for decision makings of design improvement and recommendations for further consideration in the process of detailed design. (author)

  17. The CMS Level-1 Trigger Barrel Track Finder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ero, J.; Wulz, C.; Evangelou, I.; Flouris, G.; Foudas, C.; Loukas, N.; Manthos, N.; Papadopoulos, I.; Paradas, E.; Guiducci, L.; Sotiropoulos, S.; Sphicas, P.; Triossi, A.

    2016-01-01

    The design and performance of the upgraded CMS Level-1 Trigger Barrel Muon Track Finder (BMTF) is presented. Monte Carlo simulation data as well as cosmic ray data from a CMS muon detector slice test have been used to study in detail the performance of the new track finder. The design architecture is based on twelve MP7 cards each of which uses a Xilinx Virtex-7 FPGA and can receive and transmit data at 10 Gbps from 72 input and 72 output fibers. According to the CMS Trigger Upgrade TDR the BMTF receives trigger primitive data which are computed using both RPC and DT data and transmits data from a number of muon candidates to the upgraded Global Muon Trigger. Results from detailed studies of comparisons between the BMTF algorithm results and the results of a C++ emulator are also presented. The new BMTF will be commissioned for data taking in 2016

  18. Association of PSA, free-PSA and testosteron levels in serum of patients with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiwin Mailana; Kristina Dwi P; Sri Insani WW; Puji Widayati

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer screening can be done by measuring the concentration levels of PSA, free-PSA and testosterone in serum that examined with radioimmunoassay (RIA). A total of 30 patients of 45-81 years old had enrolled in this study and were taken their venous blood. The aim of research is to know the relationship between PSA and testosterone free-PSA with BPH and prostate cancer. Results showed that there was no correlation between age with BPH and prostate cancer (p = 0.06), but there is a relationship between PSA with BPH and prostate cancer (p = 0.002), the relationship between free-PSA with BPH and prostate cancer (p = 0.001). No correlation was found between PSA ratio with BPH and prostate cancer as well as the absence of a relationship between testosterone with BPH and prostate cancer (p = 0.924). (author)

  19. Improved Monte Carlo Method for PSA Uncertainty Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jongsoo

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of uncertainty is an important issue for regulatory decisions. Uncertainties exist from knowledge limitations. A probabilistic approach has exposed some of these limitations and provided a framework to assess their significance and assist in developing a strategy to accommodate them in the regulatory process. The uncertainty analysis (UA) is usually based on the Monte Carlo method. This paper proposes a Monte Carlo UA approach to calculate the mean risk metrics accounting for the SOKC between basic events (including CCFs) using efficient random number generators and to meet Capability Category III of the ASME/ANS PRA standard. Audit calculation is needed in PSA regulatory reviews of uncertainty analysis results submitted for licensing. The proposed Monte Carlo UA approach provides a high degree of confidence in PSA reviews. All PSA needs accounting for the SOKC between event probabilities to meet the ASME/ANS PRA standard

  20. Study of methodology for low power/shutdown fire PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Zhen; Li Zhaohua; Li Lin; Song Lei

    2014-01-01

    As a risk assessment technology based on probability, the fire PSA is accepted abroad by nuclear industry in its application in the risk assessment for nuclear power plants. Based on the industry experience, the fire-induced impact on the plant safety during low power and shutdown operation cannot be neglected, therefore fire PSA can be used to assess the corresponding fire risk. However, there is no corresponding domestic guidance/standard as well as accepted analysis methodology up to date. Through investigating the latest evolvement on fire PSA during low power and shutdown operation, and integrating its characteristic with the corresponding engineering experience, an engineering methodology to evaluate the fire risk during low power and shutdown operation for nuclear power plant is established in this paper. In addition, an analysis demonstration as an example is given. (authors)

  1. Simulation and optimization of an industrial PSA unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barg C.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA units have been used as a low cost alternative to the usual gas separation processes. Its largest commercial application is for hydrogen purification systems. Several studies have been made about the simulation of pressure swing adsorption units, but there are only few reports on the optimization of such processes. The objective of this study is to simulate and optimize an industrial PSA unit for hydrogen purification. This unit consists of six beds, each of them have three layers of different kinds of adsorbents. The main impurities are methane, carbon monoxide and sulfidric gas. The product stream has 99.99% purity in hydrogen, and the recovery is around 90%. A mathematical model for a commercial PSA unit is developed. The cycle time and the pressure swing steps are optimized. All the features concerning with complex commercial processes are considered.

  2. Improved Monte Carlo Method for PSA Uncertainty Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jongsoo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The treatment of uncertainty is an important issue for regulatory decisions. Uncertainties exist from knowledge limitations. A probabilistic approach has exposed some of these limitations and provided a framework to assess their significance and assist in developing a strategy to accommodate them in the regulatory process. The uncertainty analysis (UA) is usually based on the Monte Carlo method. This paper proposes a Monte Carlo UA approach to calculate the mean risk metrics accounting for the SOKC between basic events (including CCFs) using efficient random number generators and to meet Capability Category III of the ASME/ANS PRA standard. Audit calculation is needed in PSA regulatory reviews of uncertainty analysis results submitted for licensing. The proposed Monte Carlo UA approach provides a high degree of confidence in PSA reviews. All PSA needs accounting for the SOKC between event probabilities to meet the ASME/ANS PRA standard.

  3. PROSTATE CANCER SCREENING: PSA TEST AWARENESS AMONG ADULT MALES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obana, Michael; O'Lawrence, Henry

    2015-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study was to determine whether visits to the doctor in the last 12 months, education level, and annual household income for adult males increased the awareness of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests. The effect of these factors for the knowledge of PSA exams was performed using statistical analysis. A retrospective secondary database was utilized for this study using the questionnaire in the California Health Interview Survey from 2009. Based on this survey, annual visits to the doctor, higher educational levels attained, and greater take-home pay were statistically significant and the results of the study were equivalent to those hypothesized. This also reflects the consideration of marketing PSA blood test screenings to those adult males who are poor, uneducated, and do not see the doctor on a consistent basis.

  4. Report of the IPERS (International Peer Review Service) phase 1 review mission for the Temelin nuclear power plant Level 1 probabilistic safety assessment in the Czech Republic 24 April to 5 May 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the results of the IAEA International Peer Review Services Phase 1 review of the internal events, Level 1 probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) for the Temelin Unit 1 and 2 NPP. The review was based on the PSA documentation available and on intensive communications with the analysis team and representatives from the utility and future plant operator. The results presented herein reflect the views of the international experts carrying out the review. They are provided for consideration by the responsible authorities of the Czech Republic. 2 refs, 1 fig., 5 tabs

  5. The relationship between serum PSA, six sex hormones and the benign or malignant prostate diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yancun

    2008-01-01

    In order to study clinical significance of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA), free prostate specific antigen (PSA), f/tPSA and six sex hormones in prostate diseases, the serum levels of PSA, fPSA, f/tPSA, T, P, E 2 , PRL, LH and FSH in 72 cases of hyperplasia of prostate patients and 40 patients with prostate cancer were determined by RIA. The results showed that the serum levels of T, E 2 , PRL, LH, FSH in the BPH Group were significantly lower than those of in Pca group, the serum level of P in Pca group were significantly lower than those in BPH group; the levels of fPSA and f/tPSA ratio in BPH Group were significantly higher than those in Pca group. The results suggest that benign and malignant prostate disease (BPH and Pca) was related with the hormone imbalance. The serum total PSA and fPSA can be regarded as important indicators in the diagnosis of BPH and Pea. The combined determination of PSA, fPSA and f/tPSA may improve the diagnostic accuracy of Pca. (authors)

  6. PSA modeling of long-term accident sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgescu, Gabriel; Corenwinder, Francois; Lanore, Jeanne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    In the context of the extension of PSA scope to include external hazards, in France, both operator (EDF) and IRSN work for the improvement of methods to better take into account in the PSA the accident sequences induced by initiators which affect a whole site containing several nuclear units (reactors, fuel pools,...). These methodological improvements represent an essential prerequisite for the development of external hazards PSA. However, it has to be noted that in French PSA, even before Fukushima, long term accident sequences were taken into account: many insight were therefore used, as complementary information, to enhance the safety level of the plants. IRSN proposed an external events PSA development program. One of the first steps of the program is the development of methods to model in the PSA the long term accident sequences, based on the experience gained. At short term IRSN intends to enhance the modeling of the 'long term' accident sequences induced by the loss of the heat sink or/and the loss of external power supply. The experience gained by IRSN and EDF from the development of several probabilistic studies treating long term accident sequences shows that the simple extension of the mission time of the mitigation systems from 24 hours to longer times is not sufficient to realistically quantify the risk and to obtain a correct ranking of the risk contributions and that treatment of recoveries is also necessary. IRSN intends to develop a generic study which can be used as a general methodology for the assessment of the long term accident sequences, mainly generated by external hazards and their combinations. This first attempt to develop this generic study allowed identifying some aspects, which may be hazard (or combinations of hazards) or related to initial boundary conditions, which should be taken into account for further developments. (authors)

  7. Cost implications of PSA screening differ by age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Karthik; Liang, Stella; Cardamone, Michael; Joshu, Corinne E; Marmen, Kyle; Bhavsar, Nrupen; Nelson, William G; Ballentine Carter, H; Albert, Michael C; Platz, Elizabeth A; Pollack, Craig E

    2018-05-09

    Multiple guidelines seek to alter rates of prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-based prostate cancer screening. The costs borne by payers associated with PSA-based screening for men of different age groups-including the costs of screening and subsequent diagnosis, treatment, and adverse events-remain uncertain. We sought to develop a model of PSA costs that could be used by payers and health care systems to inform cost considerations under a range of different scenarios. We determined the prevalence of PSA screening among men aged 50 and higher using 2013-2014 data from a large, multispecialty group, obtained reimbursed costs associated with screening, diagnosis, and treatment from a commercial health plan, and identified transition probabilities for biopsy, diagnosis, treatment, and complications from the literature to generate a cost model. We estimated annual total costs for groups of men ages 50-54, 55-69, and 70+ years, and varied annual prostate cancer screening prevalence in each group from 5 to 50% and tested hypothetical examples of different test characteristics (e.g., true/false positive rate). Under the baseline screening patterns, costs of the PSA screening represented 10.1% of the total costs; costs of biopsies and associated complications were 23.3% of total costs; and, although only 0.3% of all screen eligible patients were treated, they accounted for 66.7% of total costs. For each 5-percentage point decrease in PSA screening among men aged 70 and older for a single calendar year, total costs associated with prostate cancer screening decreased by 13.8%. For each 5-percentage point decrease in PSA screening among men 50-54 and 55-69 years old, costs were 2.3% and 7.3% lower respectively. With constrained financial resources and with national pressure to decrease use of clinically unnecessary PSA-based prostate cancer screening, there is an opportunity for cost savings, especially by focusing on the downstream costs disproportionately associated with

  8. Repeat prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test before prostate biopsy: a 20% decrease in PSA values is associated with a reduced risk of cancer and particularly of high-grade cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nunzio, Cosimo; Lombardo, Riccardo; Nacchia, Antonio; Tema, Giorgia; Tubaro, Andrea

    2018-07-01

    To analyse the impact of repeating a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level assessment on prostate biopsy decision in a cohort of men undergoing prostate biopsy. From 2015 onwards, we consecutively enrolled, at a single institution in Italy, men undergoing 12-core transrectal ultrasonography-guided prostate needle biopsy. Indication for prostate biopsy was a PSA level of ≥4 ng/mL. Demographic, clinical, and histopathological data were collected. The PSA level was tested at enrolment (PSA 1 ) and 4 weeks later on the day before biopsy (PSA 2 ). Variations in PSA level were defined as: stable PSA 2 within a 10% variation, stable PSA 2 within a 20% variation, PSA 2 decreased by ≥10%, PSA 2 decreased by ≥20%, PSA 2 increased by ≥10%, PSA 2 increased by ≥20%, and PSA 2 PSA within 20% variation had a higher risk of prostate cancer (odds ratio [OR] 1.80, P PSA2 decreased by ≥20% had a lower risk of prostate cancer (OR 0.37, P PSA2 increased by ≥10% had an increased risk of high-grade prostate cancer (OR 1.93, P PSA returned to normal values (PSA levels significantly reduced the risk of high-grade prostate cancer. Further multicentre studies should validate our present results. © 2018 The Authors BJU International © 2018 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. ASAMPSA-E guidance for level 2 PSA Volume 3. Verification and improvement of SAM strategies with L2 PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahni, N.; Raimond, E.; Jan, P.; Lopez, J.; Loeffler, H.; Mildenberger, O.; Kubicek, J.; Vitazkova, J.; Ivanov, I.; Groudev, P.; Lajtha, G.; Serrano, C.; Zhabin, O.; Prosek, Andrej; Dirksen, G.; Yu, S.; Oury, L.; Hultqvist, G.

    2016-01-01

    For each NPP, severe accident management (SAM) strategies shall make use of components or systems and human resources to limit as far as possible the consequences of any severe accident on-site and off-site. L2 PSA is one of the tools that can be used to verify and improve these strategies. The present report (deliverable D40.5 of the project ASAMPSA-E) provides an opportunity for a comparison of objectives in the different countries in terms of SAM strategies verification and improvement. The report summarizes also experience of each partner (including potential deficiencies) involved in this activity, in order to derive some good practices and required progress, addressing: - SAM modeling in L2 PSA, - Positive and negative aspects in current SAM practices, - Discussion on possible criteria related to L2 PSA for verification and improvement: risk reduction (in relation with WP30 activities on risk metrics), reduction of uncertainties on the severe accident progression paths until NPP stabilization, reduction of human failure conditional probabilities (depending on the SAM strategy, the environmental conditions...), - Review with a perspective of verification and improvement of the main SAM strategies (corium cooling, RCS depressurization, control of flammable gases, reactivity control, containment function, containment pressure control, limitation of radioactive releases,...), - SAM strategies to be considered in the context of an extended L2 PSA (as far possible, depending on existing experience), taking into account all operating modes, accidents also occurring in the SFPs and long term and multi-unit accidents. The deliverable D40.5 is developed from the partners' experience. Many of the topics described here are beyond the common practices of L2 PSA applications: in some countries, L2 PSA application is limited to the calculations of frequencies of release categories with no formal requirement for SAM verification and improvement. (authors)

  10. Clinical diagnostic value of combined determination of serum tPSA, cPSA and IGF-I levels in patients with prostatic disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Bashan; Zhang Zigang; Lai Fudi

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the diagnostic value of combined determination of serum total prostatic specific antigen (tPSA), complex prostatic specific antigen (cPSA) and IGF-I levels in patients with prostatic disorders. Methods: Serum tPSA, cPSA (with CLIA) and IGF-I (with IRMA) levels were determined in 41 patients with prostatic carcinoma, 60 patients with benign prosta- tic hypertrophy (BPH) and 55 controls. Results: The serum tPSA, cPSA and IGF-I levels in patients with prostatic cancer were significantly higher than those in patients with BPH and controls (P<0.01). Taking the cut-off values of 4ng/ml, 3.6ng/ml and 150 for tPSA, cPSA and IGF-I respectively, the combined determination of these three items would yield a sensitivity of 88.6%, specificity of 84.9%, positive predicative value of 83% and negative predicative value of 90.0% for diagnosis of prostatic cancer. Conclusion: Combined determination of tPSA, cPSA and IGF-I would yield better sensitive and accurate diagnostic rate in patients with prostatic cancer, especially in those with laboratory values within the 'grey zone'. (authors)

  11. Relationship of chronic histologic prostatic inflammation in biopsy specimens with serum isoform [-2]proPSA (p2PSA), %p2PSA, and prostate health index in men with a total prostate-specific antigen of 4-10 ng/ml and normal digital rectal examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzeri, Massimo; Abrate, Alberto; Lughezzani, Giovanni; Gadda, Giulio Maria; Freschi, Massimo; Mistretta, Francesco; Lista, Giuliana; Fossati, Nicola; Larcher, Alessandro; Kinzikeeva, Ella; Buffi, Nicolòmaria; Dell'Acqua, Vincenzo; Bini, Vittorio; Montorsi, Francesco; Guazzoni, Giorgio

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the relationship between serum [-2]proPSA (p2PSA) and derivatives with chronic histologic prostatic inflammation (CHPI) in men undergoing prostate biopsy for suspected prostate cancer (PCa). This nested case-control study resulted from an observational prospective trial for the definition of sensibility, specificity, and accuracy of p2PSA, %p2PSA, and Beckman Coulter Prostate Health Index (PHI), in men undergoing prostate biopsy, with a total prostate-specific antigen (PSA) of 4-10 ng/mL and normal digital rectal examination. CHPI was the outcome of interest and defined as the presence of moderate to large infiltration of lymphomononuclear cells with interstitial and/or glandular disruption in absence of PCa. p2PSA, %p2PSA, and PHI were considered the index tests and compared with the established biomarker reference standard tests: tPSA, fPSA, %fPSA. Of 267 patients subjected to prostate biopsy, 73 (27.3%) patients were diagnosed with CHPI. Comparing CHPI with PCa patients, %p2PSA and PHI were found to be significantly lower, whereas fPSA and %fPSA were significantly higher. %p2PSA and PHI were the most accurate predictors of CHPI at biopsy, significantly outperforming tPSA, fPSA, and %fPSA. On the contrary, no significant differences were found in PSA, p2PSA, and derivatives between CHPI and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients. Our findings showed that p2PSA, %p2PSA, and PHI values might discriminate PCa from CHPI or BPH, but not CHPI from BPH, in men with a total PSA 4-10 ng/mL and normal digital rectal examination. p2PSA isoform and its derivatives could be useful in clinical decision making to avoid unnecessary biopsies in patients with CHPI and elevated tPSA value. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Time from first detectable PSA following radical prostatectomy to biochemical recurrence: A competing risk analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boo, Leonora; Pintilie, Melania; Yip, Paul; Baniel, Jack; Fleshner, Neil; Margel, David

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In this study, we estimated the time from first detectable prostate-specific antigen (PSA) following radical prostatectomy (RP) to commonly used definitions of biochemical recurrence (BCR). We also identified the predictors of time to BCR. Methods: We identified subjects who underwent a RP and had an undetectable PSA after surgery followed by at least 1 detectable PSA between 2000 and 2011. The primary outcome was time to BCR (PSA ≥0.2 and successive PSA ≥0.2) and prediction of the rate of PSA rise. Outcomes were calculated using a competing risk analysis, with univariable and multivariable Fine and Grey models. We employed a mixed effect model to test clinical predictors that are associated with the rate of PSA rise. Results: The cohort included 376 patients. The median follow-up from surgery was 60.5 months (interquartile range [IQR] 40.8–91.5) and from detectable PSA was 18 months (IQR 11–32). Only 45.74% (n = 172) had PSA values ≥0.2 ng/mL, while 15.16% (n = 57) reached the PSA level of ≥0.4 ng/mL and rising. On multivariable analysis, the values of the first detectable PSA and pathologic Gleason grade 8 or higher were consistently independent predictors of time to BCR. In the mixed effect model rate, the PSA rise was associated with time from surgery to first detectable PSA, Gleason score, and prostate volume. The main limitation of this study is the large proportion of patients that received treatment without reaching BCR. It is plausible that shorter estimated median times would occur at a centre that does not use salvage therapy at such an early state. Conclusion: The time from first detectable PSA to BCR may be lengthy. Our analyses of the predictors of the rate of PSA rise can help determine a personalized approach for patients with a detectable PSA after surgery. PMID:25624961

  13. Rapid elimination kinetics of free PSA or human kallikrein-related peptidase 2 after initiation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone-antagonist treatment of prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulmert, David; Vickers, Andrew J; Scher, Howard I

    2012-01-01

    The utility of conventional prostate-specific antigen (PSA) measurements in blood for monitoring rapid responses to treatment for prostate cancer is limited because of its slow elimination rate. Prior studies have shown that free PSA (fPSA), intact PSA (iPSA) and human kallikrein-related peptidase...... of tPSA, fPSA, iPSA and hK2 after rapid induction of castration with degarelix (Firmagon(®)), a novel GnRH antagonist....

  14. Level 1 Electric Vehicle Charging Stations at the Workplace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Margaret [Energetics Incorporated, Columbia, MD (United States)

    2016-07-29

    Level 1 charging (110-120 V) can be a good fit for many workplace charging programs. This document highlights the experiences of a selection of Workplace Charging Challenge partners that use Level 1 charging.

  15. The correlation of PSA nadir and biochemical freedom from cancer after external beam treatment: effects of stage, grade and pretreatment PSA groupings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinover, W.H.; Hanlon, A.L.; Lee, W.R.; Hanks, G.E.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: This study demonstrates the correlation of various post-irradiation PSA nadirs with long term biochemical freedom from disease (bNED) survival in patients treated mainly with conformal external beam radiation therapy. It also shows the effects of various groupings of pretreatment (prerx) PSA level, stage, and Gleason score on the rate of achieving a favorable PSA nadir. Materials and Methods: Three hundred forty patients with known pretreatment PSA, >2 years followup treated with radiation alone (278 conformal, 62 conventional) are reported. The median followup is 41 months (range 24 to 96 mos.). Patient grouping by pretreatment PSA levels are <10 ng/ml (143 patients), 10-19.9 ng/ml (108 patients), ≥20 ng/ml (89 patients); by palpation stage are T1C,2AB (240 patients) and T2C,3,4 (100 patients); and by differentiation are Gleason 2-4 (108 patients), Gleason 5-7 (221 patients), Gleason 8-10 (11 patients). The PSA nadir response is given for all patients, and for each of the above prerx groupings. The 5 year actuarial bNED survival is determined for all patients by PSA nadir. Biochemical failure is a PSA ≥1.5 ng/ml and rising on two consecutive measures. Multivariate analysis (MVA) is performed to determine factors predictive of favorable PSA nadir response and predictive of bNED survival. Results: The PSA nadir responses and 5 year bNED survival rates are shown in the table for all patients according to PSA nadir. 66% of patients achieved a favorable nadir (<1.0 ng/ml) which was associated with a 75%-87% 5 year bNED rate, while 34% achieved an unfavorable nadir associated with an 18-32% bNED survival rate at 5 years. The figure illustrates the dramatic separation in outcome associated with the nadir response. The table also illustrates the fraction of patients that achieve various nadir levels subdivided by prerx PSA level, palpation stage and Gleason score. A favorable PSA nadir is obtained in 90%, 63%, and 31% of patients with a prerx PSA <10, 10

  16. Understanding PSA and its derivatives in prediction of tumor volume: Addressing health disparities in prostate cancer risk stratification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinea, Felix M; Lyapichev, Kirill; Epstein, Jonathan I; Kwon, Deukwoo; Smith, Paul Taylor; Pollack, Alan; Cote, Richard J; Kryvenko, Oleksandr N

    2017-03-28

    To address health disparities in risk stratification of U.S. Hispanic/Latino men by characterizing influences of prostate weight, body mass index, and race/ethnicity on the correlation of PSA derivatives with Gleason score 6 (Grade Group 1) tumor volume in a diverse cohort. Using published PSA density and PSA mass density cutoff values, men with higher body mass indices and prostate weights were less likely to have a tumor volume PSA derivatives when predicting for tumor volume. In receiver operator characteristic analysis, area under the curve values for all PSA derivatives varied across race/ethnicity with lower optimal cutoff values for Hispanic/Latino (PSA=2.79, PSA density=0.06, PSA mass=0.37, PSA mass density=0.011) and Non-Hispanic Black (PSA=3.75, PSA density=0.07, PSA mass=0.46, PSA mass density=0.008) compared to Non-Hispanic White men (PSA=4.20, PSA density=0.11 PSA mass=0.53, PSA mass density=0.014). We retrospectively analyzed 589 patients with low-risk prostate cancer at radical prostatectomy. Pre-operative PSA, patient height, body weight, and prostate weight were used to calculate all PSA derivatives. Receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed for each PSA derivative per racial/ethnic group to establish optimal cutoff values predicting for tumor volume ≥0.5 cm3. Increasing prostate weight and body mass index negatively influence PSA derivatives for predicting tumor volume. PSA derivatives' ability to predict tumor volume varies significantly across race/ethnicity. Hispanic/Latino and Non-Hispanic Black men have lower optimal cutoff values for all PSA derivatives, which may impact risk assessment for prostate cancer.

  17. Generation of monoclonal antibodies against prostate specific antigen (PSA) for the detection of PSA and its purification; Generación de anticuerpos monoclonales contra el antígeno específico de próstata (PSA) para la detección del PSA y su purificación

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acevedo Castro, Boris Ernesto [Centro de Ingeniería Genética y Biotecnología, CIGB, La Habana (Cuba)

    2012-07-01

    The prostate cancer in Cuba is a problem of health (2672 diagnosed cases and 2769 deaths in 2007). Various diagnostic methods have been implemented for the detection and management of this disease, emphasizing among them (PSA) prostate-specific antigen serological determination. At this work was generated and characterized a panel of 11 antibodies (AcMs) monoclonal IgG1 detected with high affinity described major epitopes of the PSA, both in solution and attached to the test plate. From the panel obtained AcMs was the standardization of an essay type ELISA for the detection of serum total PSA (associated and free) equimolar, based on antibody monoclonal CB-PSA.4 in the coating and the CB-PSA.9 coupled with biotin as liner, with a detection limit of 0.15 ng/mL. Similarly, standardized system for detection in serum free PSA, based on the AcMs CB-PSA.4 (coating) and CB-PSA.2 coupled with biotin (liner), with a detection limit of 0.5 ng/mL. Finally, with the purpose of using PSA as standard in trials type ELISA, developed a simple method of inmunopurificación based on the AcM, CB-PSA.2, which was obtained the PSA with a purity exceeding 90%. Immunoassay Centre on the basis of the AcMs panel and the results of this study, developed and recorded two diagnostic systems for the detection of PSA in human serum. (author)

  18. EOS MLS Level 1B Data Processing Software. Version 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perun, Vincent S.; Jarnot, Robert F.; Wagner, Paul A.; Cofield, Richard E., IV; Nguyen, Honghanh T.; Vuu, Christina

    2011-01-01

    This software is an improvement on Version 2, which was described in EOS MLS Level 1B Data Processing, Version 2.2, NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 33, No. 5 (May 2009), p. 34. It accepts the EOS MLS Level 0 science/engineering data, and the EOS Aura spacecraft ephemeris/attitude data, and produces calibrated instrument radiances and associated engineering and diagnostic data. This version makes the code more robust, improves calibration, provides more diagnostics outputs, defines the Galactic core more finely, and fixes the equator crossing. The Level 1 processing software manages several different tasks. It qualifies each data quantity using instrument configuration and checksum data, as well as data transmission quality flags. Statistical tests are applied for data quality and reasonableness. The instrument engineering data (e.g., voltages, currents, temperatures, and encoder angles) is calibrated by the software, and the filter channel space reference measurements are interpolated onto the times of each limb measurement with the interpolates being differenced from the measurements. Filter channel calibration target measurements are interpolated onto the times of each limb measurement, and are used to compute radiometric gain. The total signal power is determined and analyzed by each digital autocorrelator spectrometer (DACS) during each data integration. The software converts each DACS data integration from an autocorrelation measurement in the time domain into a spectral measurement in the frequency domain, and estimates separately the spectrally, smoothly varying and spectrally averaged components of the limb port signal arising from antenna emission and scattering effects. Limb radiances are also calibrated.

  19. On-line maintenance PSA support at NPP Krsko

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prosen, R.; Vrbanic, I.; Kastelan, M.

    2000-01-01

    In 1997 Krsko NPP initiated the on-line maintenance (OLM) practice. On-line maintenance constitutes of corrective activities, preventive activities, surveillance activities, tests and inspections, as well as calibrations and modifications, taking place during the normal power operations. The on-line maintenance is a multidisciplinary process consisting of activity specification, planning, and preparation and performing of the OLM activity of interest. The primary role of the PSA group is to assess from the r isk perspective , using the plant-specific NEK PSA model, system unavailability and the impact to the plant operational risk. The intent is to support planning of the on-line maintenance activities from the risk perspective. The risk evaluation of the OLM activities is based on the probability of core damage evaluation for the defined discrete plant configuration states, determined by the OLM activities. Within this application, the optimized, plant-specific PSA model is used on Risk Spectrum platform. To perform the risk assessment of the on-line maintenance activities, first the systems to be affected are defined based on the planned OLM activities. The next important step is the assessment of the planned work schedule. To define the final schedule, the co-ordination and optimizing the planned OLM activities needs activation of all participating departments, supported also from PSA group. The P3 (i.e. Primavera) planning tool system windows are defined for different systems and groups of systems, and the activities are sorted in particular weeks according to these windows. (author)

  20. System analysis procedures for conducting PSA of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yoon Hwan; Jeong, Won Dae; Kim, Tae Un; Kim, Kil You; Han, Sang Hoon; Chang, Seung Chul; Sung, Tae Yong; Yang, Jun Eon; Kang, Dae Il; Park, Jin Hee; Hwang, Mi Jeong; Jin, Young Ho.

    1997-03-01

    This document, the Probabilistic Safety Assessment(PSA) procedures guide for system analysis, is intended to provide the guidelines to analyze the target of system consistently and technically in the performance of PSA for nuclear power plants(NPPs). The guide has been prepared in accordance with the procedures and techniques for fault tree analysis(FTA) used in system analysis. Normally the main objective of system analysis is to assess the reliability of system modeled by Event Tree Analysis(ETA). A variety of analytical techniques can be used for the system analysis, however, FTA method is used in this procedures guide. FTA is the method used for representing the failure logic of plant systems deductively using AND, OR or NOT gates. The fault tree should reflect all possible failure modes that may contribute to the system unavailability. This should include contributions due to the mechanical failures of the components, Common Cause Failures (CCFs), human errors and outages for testing and maintenance. After the construction of fault tree is completed, system unavailability is calculated with the CUT module of KIRAP, and the qualitative and quantitative analysis is performed through the process as above stated. As above mentioned, the procedures for system analysis is based on PSA procedures and methods which has been applied to the safety assessments of constructing NPPs in the country. Accordingly, the method of FTA stated in this procedures guide will be applicable to PSA for the NPPs to be constructed in the future. (author). 6 tabs., 11 figs., 7 refs

  1. Asian and Pacific Islander HIV/AIDS Awareness PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-05-12

    In this PSA, Asians and Pacific Islanders are encouraged to talk about HIV and get tested for HIV.  Created: 5/12/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 5/12/2010.

  2. Take Charge. Take the Test. "You Know" PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    As part of the Take Charge. Take the Test. campaign, this 60 second PSA encourages African American women to get tested for HIV. Locations for a free HIV test can be found by visiting hivtest.org/takecharge or calling 1-800-CDC-INFO (1-800-232-4636).

  3. Reducing the Risk of Methadone Overdose PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-07-03

    This 60 second PSA is based on the July 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. Approximately 14 people die every day of overdoses related to methadone. Listen to learn how to reduce your risk of an overdose.  Created: 7/3/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 7/3/2012.

  4. System analysis procedures for conducting PSA of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yoon Hwan; Jeong, Won Dae; Kim, Tae Un; Kim, Kil You; Han, Sang Hoon; Chang, Seung Chul; Sung, Tae Yong; Yang, Jun Eon; Kang, Dae Il; Park, Jin Hee; Hwang, Mi Jeong; Jin, Young Ho

    1997-03-01

    This document, the Probabilistic Safety Assessment(PSA) procedures guide for system analysis, is intended to provide the guidelines to analyze the target of system consistently and technically in the performance of PSA for nuclear power plants(NPPs). The guide has been prepared in accordance with the procedures and techniques for fault tree analysis(FTA) used in system analysis. Normally the main objective of system analysis is to assess the reliability of system modeled by Event Tree Analysis(ETA). A variety of analytical techniques can be used for the system analysis, however, FTA method is used in this procedures guide. FTA is the method used for representing the failure logic of plant systems deductively using AND, OR or NOT gates. The fault tree should reflect all possible failure modes that may contribute to the system unavailability. This should include contributions due to the mechanical failures of the components, Common Cause Failures (CCFs), human errors and outages for testing and maintenance. After the construction of fault tree is completed, system unavailability is calculated with the CUT module of KIRAP, and the qualitative and quantitative analysis is performed through the process as above stated. As above mentioned, the procedures for system analysis is based on PSA procedures and methods which has been applied to the safety assessments of constructing NPPs in the country. Accordingly, the method of FTA stated in this procedures guide will be applicable to PSA for the NPPs to be constructed in the future. (author). 6 tabs., 11 figs., 7 refs.

  5. GIS Technologies for the Planetary Science Archive (PSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docasal, R.

    2017-09-01

    In my abstract I try to show how a GIS and 3D visual tools architecture could handle the different approaches for visualizing the spatial info, depending on the nature and shape of the object (planet, satellite, comet...etc) to be mapped in a multi-mission website such as the new PSA.

  6. Teen Pregnancy - What You Need to Know PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second PSA is based on the April, 2011 CDC Vital Signs report. Having a child during the teen years comes at a high cost to the young mother, her child, and the community. Get tips to help break the cycle of teen pregnancy.

  7. Asthma - What You Need to Know PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement (PSA) is based on the May, 2011 CDC Vital Signs report. Children and adults can have asthma and attacks can be frightening. To help control asthma, know the warning signs of an attack, stay away from asthma triggers, and follow your health care provider's advice.

  8. The PSA assessment of Defense in Depth Memorandum and proposals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorini, Gian-Luigi; La Rovere, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    This report concerns the peculiar roles of the Defence-in-Depth (DiD) concept and the Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) approach for the optimization of the safety performances of the nuclear installation. It proposes a conceptual framework and related process for the assessment of the 'safety architecture' implementing DiD, which is articulated in four main steps devoted to (1) the formulation of the safety objectives, (2) the identification of loads and environmental conditions, (3) the representation of the safety architecture and (4) the evaluation of the physical performance and reliability of the levels of DiD. A final additional step achieves the practical assessment of the safety architecture and the corresponding DiD with the support of the PSA. The comprehensive safety assessment of the implemented architecture needs its multi-dimensional representation, i.e. for given initiating event, sequence of possible failures, affected safety function and level of DiD. The risk space (frequency/probability of occurrence, versus consequences) is the framework for the integration between the DiD concept and the PSA approach. Additional qualitative key-notions are introduced in order to address the compliance of the safety architecture with a number of international safety requirements. In this context, the role of the PSA is no longer limited to the verification of the fulfilment of probabilistic targets but includes different contributions to the assessment of the DiD identified in this report. (authors)

  9. PyPSA: Python for Power System Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Brown

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Python for Power System Analysis (PyPSA is a free software toolbox for simulating and optimising modern electrical power systems over multiple periods. PyPSA includes models for conventional generators with unit commitment, variable renewable generation, storage units, coupling to other energy sectors, and mixed alternating and direct current networks. It is designed to be easily extensible and to scale well with large networks and long time series. In this paper the basic functionality of PyPSA is described, including the formulation of the full power flow equations and the multi-period optimisation of operation and investment with linear power flow equations. PyPSA is positioned in the existing free software landscape as a bridge between traditional power flow analysis tools for steady-state analysis and full multi-period energy system models. The functionality is demonstrated on two open datasets of the transmission system in Germany (based on SciGRID and Europe (based on GridKit.   Funding statement: This research was conducted as part of the CoNDyNet project, which is supported by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research under grant no. 03SF0472C. The responsibility for the contents lies solely with the authors

  10. Hand Hygiene in Healthcare Settings 1 PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-08-19

    This 30 second PSA encourages people to wash their hands often while in the hospital or visiting someone in the hospital. It also encourages them to remind their healthcare providers to wash their hands, too.  Created: 8/19/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 8/19/2010.

  11. Hand Hygiene in Healthcare Settings 2 PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-08-19

    This 30 second PSA encourages people to wash their hands often while in the hospital or visiting someone in the hospital. It also encourages them to remind their healthcare providers to wash their hands, too.  Created: 8/19/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 8/19/2010.

  12. Complement of existing ASAMPSA2 guidance for Level 2 PSA for shutdown states of reactors, Spent Fuel Pool and recent R and D results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, M.; Olsson, A.; Loeffler, H.; Morandi, S.; Gumenyuk, D.; Dejardin, P.; Yu, S.; Jan, P.; Kubicek, J.; Serrano, C.; Raimond, E.; Dirksen, G.; Ivanov, I.; Groudev, P.; Kowal, K.; Prosek, Andrej; Nitoi, M.; Vitazkova, J.; Hirata, K.; Burgazzi, L.

    2016-01-01

    impact, size of rooms on the path etc. In any case the impact of very hot gas and of hydrogen has to be considered. The dependencies between reactor accident and SFP management appear to be an important issue for L2 PSA risk assessment. The report provides information on ongoing R and D activities which may support the preparation of guidelines for 'traditional' and extended L2 PSA. In addition, a list is provided for those topics which seem to have inadequate covering in present activities. Appendices cover the level 1 shutdown states PSA and country-specific examples related to shutdown PSA and spent fuel pool PSA from ASAMPSA-E WP40 contributing organizations. (authors)

  13. A Study on the Risk Reduction Effect by MLCS (Mid-loop Level Control System) of EUAPR using the Low-Power and Shutdown PSA Result

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Keunsung; Choi, Sunmi; Kim, Eden

    2016-01-01

    The EU-APR design has been developed in order to expand and diversify the global nuclear power market of APR1400. For the improvement of shutdown risk for the EUAPR, the mid-loop level control system (MLCS) is considered during mid-loop operation for the EU-APR, which is not incorporated into SKN 3 and 4 (APR1400 Type) in Korea. Commonly, the risk associated with the NPP can be identified through the PSA. Thus, this paper discusses the low power and shutdown (LPSD) risk reduction effect by MLCS using the Low-Power and Shutdown PSA Result. LPSD level 1 PSA models for EU-APR have been developed. The risk reduction effect by MLCS is discussed. Because the loss of shutdown cooling function during mid-loop is one of the most vulnerable events, the MLCS have a significant influence on CDF in LPSD PSA. The shutdown risk of domestic power plants would likely be reduced if the MLCS is adopted in all operating NPPs in Korea during the mid-loop operation. It is expected that this work will contribute to reduce shutdown risk of domestic power plants

  14. [Relationship between tumor volume and PSA recurrence after radical prostatectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Yasuhiro; Momose, Akishi; Okamoto, Akiko; Yamamoto, Hayato; Hatakeyama, Shingo; Iwabuchi, Ikuya; Yoneyama, Takahiro; Koie, Takuya; Kamimura, Noritaka; Ohyama, Chikara

    2010-02-01

    We examined whether the tumor volume (TV) is a good predictor of PSA recurrence after radical prostatectomy. Data were collected for 158 patients with clinically localized prostate cancer undergoing radical prostatectomy without neoadjuvant hormonal therapy in our hospital since April 2005 to September 2007. Along with the routine pathological assessment, TV was assessed in all prostatectomy specimens. PSA recurrence was defined as PSA levels of greater than 0.2 ng/ml. The TVs were 1.81+/-1.66 ml (mean +/-SD) ranging from 0.02 to 8.20 ml. The TV in cT1c was 1.77+/-1.64, and 1.89+/-1.72 ml in cT2 (not significant). Significant differences were observed between TV and pT. The TVs in pT2a, pT2b and pT3/4 were 0.54+/-0.54, 1.63+/-1.47 and 2.67+/-1.80 ml, respectively. The median follow-up period was 32.3 months (range from 15 to 45) after radical prostatectomy, and PSA recurrence was observed in 32 cases. Patients with smaller TV (TV TV (TV > or = 1.3 ml, 66.7%) with a significant difference atp TV, pT, Gleason Score (GS), and surgical margins. Significant differences were observed for GS, and surgical margins, but not for TV. Clinically organ-confined disease in Japanese patients with prostate cancer included various cancers from clinically insignificant to locally advanced ones. In our series, TV was not regarded as a predictor of PSA recurrence after radical prostatectomy.

  15. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) density in the diagnostic algorithm of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordström, Tobias; Akre, Olof; Aly, Markus; Grönberg, Henrik; Eklund, Martin

    2018-04-01

    Screening for prostate cancer using prostate-specific antigen (PSA) alone leads to un-necessary biopsying and overdiagnosis. PSA density is easily accessible, but early evidence on its use for biopsy decisions was conflicting and use of PSA density is not commonly recommended in guidelines. We analyzed biopsy outcomes in 5291 men in the population-based STHLM3 study with PSA ≥ 3 ng/ml and ultrasound-guided prostate volume measurements by using percentages and regression models. PSA density was calculated as total PSA (ng/ml) divided by prostate volume (ml). Main endpoint was clinically significant cancer (csPCa) defined as Gleason Score ≥ 7. The median PSA-density was 0.10 ng/ml 2 (IQR 0.075-0.14). PSA-density was associated with the risk of finding csPCa both with and without adjusting for the additional clinical information age, family history, previous biopsies, total PSA and free/total PSA (OR 1.06; 95% CI:1.05-1.07 and OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.06-1.08). Discrimination for csPCa was better when PSA density was added to a model with additional clinical information (AUC 0.75 vs. 0.73, P PSA-density. Omitting prostate biopsy for men with PSA-density ≤0.07 ng/ml 2 would save 19.7% of biopsy procedures, while missing 6.9% of csPCa. PSA-density cutoffs of 0.10 ng/ml 2 and 0.15 ng/ml 2 resulted in detection of 77% (729/947) and 49% (461/947) of Gleason Score ≥7 tumors. PSA-density might inform biopsy decisions, and spare some men from the morbidity associated with a prostate biopsy and diagnosis of low-grade prostate cancer.

  16. Procedure for conducting probabilistic safety assessment: level 1 full power internal event analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Won Dae; Lee, Y. H.; Hwang, M. J. [and others

    2003-07-01

    This report provides guidance on conducting a Level I PSA for internal events in NPPs, which is based on the method and procedure that was used in the PSA for the design of Korea Standard Nuclear Plants (KSNPs). Level I PSA is to delineate the accident sequences leading to core damage and to estimate their frequencies. It has been directly used for assessing and modifying the system safety and reliability as a key and base part of PSA. Also, Level I PSA provides insights into design weakness and into ways of preventing core damage, which in most cases is the precursor to accidents leading to major accidents. So Level I PSA has been used as the essential technical bases for risk-informed application in NPPs. The report consists six major procedural steps for Level I PSA; familiarization of plant, initiating event analysis, event tree analysis, system fault tree analysis, reliability data analysis, and accident sequence quantification. The report is intended to assist technical persons performing Level I PSA for NPPs. A particular aim is to promote a standardized framework, terminology and form of documentation for PSAs. On the other hand, this report would be useful for the managers or regulatory persons related to risk-informed regulation, and also for conducting PSA for other industries.

  17. Application and Use of PSA-based Event Analysis in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulsmans, M.; De Gelder, P.

    2003-01-01

    The paper describes the experiences of the Belgian nuclear regulatory body AVN with the application and the use of the PSAEA guidelines (PSA-based Event Analysis). In 2000, risk-based precursor analysis has increasingly become a part of the AVN process of feedback of operating experience, and constitutes in fact the first PSA application for the Belgian plants. The PSAEA guidelines were established by a consultant in the framework of an international project. In a first stage, AVN applied the PSAEA guidelines to two test cases in order to explore the feasibility and the interest of this type of probabilistic precursor analysis. These pilot studies demonstrated the applicability of the PSAEA method in general, and its applicability to the computer models of the Belgian state-of-the- art PSAs in particular. They revealed insights regarding the event analysis methodology, the resulting event severity and the PSA model itself. The consideration of relevant what-if questions allowed to identify - and in some cases also to quantify - several potential safety issues for improvement. The internal evaluation of PSAEA was positive and AVN decided to routinely perform several PSAEA studies per year. During 2000, PSAEA has increasingly become a part of the AVN process of feedback of operating experience. The objectives of the AVN precursor program have been clearly stated. A first pragmatic set of screening rules for operational events has been drawn up and applied. Six more operational events have been analysed in detail (initiating events as well as condition events) and resulted in a wide spectrum of event severity. In addition to the particular conclusions for each event, relevant insights have been gained regarding for instance event modelling and the interpretation of results. Particular attention has been devoted to the form of the analysis report. After an initial presentation of some key concepts, the particular context of this program and of AVN's objectives, the

  18. Diagnostic value of serum free PSA and the ratio of free to total PSA in the diagnosis of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Ningyan; Zhang Jingxin; Wu Jinchang; Gong Yiming; Li Huiping

    2005-01-01

    In order to evaluate the value of free prostate specific antigen (FPSA) and F/T PSA ratio in differential diagnosis of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) from prostate cancer (PC), serum FPSA and TPSA levels were measured in 85 patients with PC, 97 BPH and 89 healthy volunteers by chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA), and the ratio of F/T PSA was calculated. The results showed that serum FPSA and TPSA levels were increased in healthy volunteers of 41-88 years old and were significantly higher in healthy volunteers of 61-88 years old than that in 20-40 gear old (P 10.0 μg/L were 65.0%, 30.9% and 4.1%, respectively, while they were 5.9%, 20.0% and 74.1% in PC patients (P<0.01). When the TPSA value was between 4.0-10.0 μg/L and the ratio of F/T PSA was at 0.10 and below, the probability of PC was larger(88.9%). But the ratio of F/T PSA was at 0.25 and above, the probability of PC was smaller(6.20%). Serum FPSA and TPSA both increased with age in healthy volunteers of 41-88 years old and were positively correlated with age. There were about 30.9% of BPH and 20.0% of PC patients with overlapping of TPSA level. Our conclusion is that the F/T PSA ratio can significantly enhance the specificity for PC diagnosis, especially when the TPSA is within the diagnostic gray zone. (authors)

  19. PSA-2, Stress Analysis, Thermal Expansion and Loads in Multi Anchor Piping System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickols, A N [Codes Coordinator, Atomics International, P. O. Box 309, Canoga Park, California 91304 (United States)

    1975-03-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: PSA2 computes the reactions and stresses caused by thermal expansion and loads in a multi-anchor piping system which may contain loops and may be partially restrained at any point in any direction. 2 - Method of solution: The linear equations for the statically indeterminate pipe system are set up by a generalization of Brock's matrix method. By a systematic use of linear transforms, the matrix of the system of linear equations can be obtained by incidence algebra in the form of a symmetric banded matrix. 2 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem - Maximum of: 36 sections. 3 - Unusual features of the program - PSA2 takes into account: (a) elasticity of the attachment of the pipe to the foundation, (b) restraints on pipe displacements by anchors and intermediate partial constraints of linear type, (c) given constant forces and moments acting upon the pipe system, (d) thermal expansion, (e) any geometrical structure of the pipe system, (f) several cases of stressing per pipe system, and (g) both metric and English units.

  20. PSA-2, Stress Analysis, Thermal Expansion and Loads in Multi Anchor Piping System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickols, A.N.

    1975-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: PSA2 computes the reactions and stresses caused by thermal expansion and loads in a multi-anchor piping system which may contain loops and may be partially restrained at any point in any direction. 2 - Method of solution: The linear equations for the statically indeterminate pipe system are set up by a generalization of Brock's matrix method. By a systematic use of linear transforms, the matrix of the system of linear equations can be obtained by incidence algebra in the form of a symmetric banded matrix. 2 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem - Maximum of: 36 sections. 3 - Unusual features of the program - PSA2 takes into account: (a) elasticity of the attachment of the pipe to the foundation, (b) restraints on pipe displacements by anchors and intermediate partial constraints of linear type, (c) given constant forces and moments acting upon the pipe system, (d) thermal expansion, (e) any geometrical structure of the pipe system, (f) several cases of stressing per pipe system, and (g) both metric and English units

  1. Summary report for the second TUV-workshop proceedings on living PSA application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This workshop on living PSA Application was organized to support the OECD/NEA CSNI-Principal Working Group No.5 on Risk Assessment for an international exchange of experience on living PSA application. The first session was devoted to Living PSA Applications and the second session to Tools for Living PSA. Living PSA Applications: Reasons for performing PSA (regulatory requirement, targets; corporate requirement, targets; safety related activity prioritization; other); Logistic of Living PSA Management (Corporate management involvement, Decision making levels and guidance, Plant level involvement, Required personnel commitment, Frequency and extent of re-quantification of PSA, Types of safety/risk parameters to be monitored, Quality assurance on maintaining Living PSA); Examples of Application (Experiences of application, State of Living PSA/e.g. all accident sequences involved, Details of component level involvement). Tools for Living PSA: Data Collection Systems and Codes (Source and type of data collected, Probabilistic parameter quantification, Interface to basic event data, Data code systems). An executive summary of the workshop is given

  2. Prediction of PSA bounce after permanent prostate brachytherapy for localized prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanai, Kunimitsu; Nakashima, Jun; Sugawara, Akitomo

    2009-01-01

    We aimed to calculate the frequency and features of the development of a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) bounce after prostate brachytherapy alone, to correlate the bounce with clinical and dosimetric factors and to identify factors that predict PSA bounce. PSA bounce was evaluated in 86 patients with T1-T2 prostate cancer who underwent radioactive seed implantation using iodine-125 (I-125) without hormonal therapy or external-beam radiation therapy (EBRT) from September 2004 to December 2007. A PSA bounce was defined as a rise of at least 0.4 ng/ml greater than a previous PSA level with a subsequent decline equal to, or less than, the initial nadir. Calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method, the incidence of PSA bounce at a 2-year follow-up was 26%. Median time to the PSA bounce was 15 months. Univariate analysis demonstrated that age, dose received by 90% of the prostate gland (D90), volume of gland receiving 100% of the prescribed dose (V100), and V150 were significantly associated with the PSA bounce, while pretreatment PSA level, Gleason score, pretreatment prostate volume, clinical T stage, and V200 were not. In multivariate analysis, age 67 years or less and D90 more than 180 Gy were identified as independent factors for predicting the PSA bounce (P<0.05). PSA bounce is not a rare phenomenon after prostate brachytherapy. It is more common in younger patients and patients receiving higher doses of radiation. (author)

  3. PSA testing for men at average risk of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce K Armstrong

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Prostate-specific antigen (PSA testing of men at normal risk of prostate cancer is one of the most contested issues in cancer screening. There is no formal screening program, but testing is common – arguably a practice that ran ahead of the evidence. Public and professional communication about PSA screening has been highly varied and potentially confusing for practitioners and patients alike. There has been much research and policy activity relating to PSA testing in recent years. Landmark randomised controlled trials have been reported; authorities – including the 2013 Prostate Cancer World Congress, the Prostate Cancer Foundation of Australia, Cancer Council Australia, and the National Health and Medical Research Council – have made or endorsed public statements and/or issued clinical practice guidelines; and the US Preventive Services Task Force is revising its recommendations. But disagreement continues. The contention is partly over what the new evidence means. It is also a result of different valuing and prioritisation of outcomes that are hard to compare: prostate cancer deaths prevented (a small and disputed number; prevention of metastatic disease (somewhat more common; and side-effects of treatment such as incontinence, impotence and bowel trouble (more common again. A sizeable proportion of men diagnosed through PSA testing (somewhere between 20% and 50% would never have had prostate cancer symptoms sufficient to prompt investigation; many of these men are older, with competing comorbidities. It is a complex picture. Below are four viewpoints from expert participants in the evolving debate, commissioned for this cancer screening themed issue of Public Health Research & Practice. We asked the authors to respond to the challenge of PSA testing of asymptomatic, normal-risk men. They raise important considerations: uncertainty, harms, the trustworthiness and interpretation of the evidence, cost (e.g. of using multiparametric

  4. Development of IRMA reagent and methodology for PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najafi, R.

    1997-01-01

    The PSA test is a solid phase two-site immunoassay. Rabbit anti PSA is coated or bound on surface of solid phase and monoclonal anti PSA labeled with 1-125. The PSA molecules present in the standard solution or serum are 'Sandwiched' between the two antibodies. After formation of coated antibody-antigen-labeled antibody complex, the unbound labeled antibody will removed by washing. The complex is measured by gamma counter. The concentration of analyte is proportional to the counts of test sample. In order to develop kits for IRMA PSA, it should be prepared three essential reagents Antibody coated solid phase, labeled antibody, standards and finally optimizing them to obtain an standard curve fit to measure specimen PSA in desired range of concentration. The type of solid phase and procedure(s) to coat or bind to antibody, is still main debatable subject in development and setting up RIA/IRMA kits. In our experiments, polystyrene beads, because of their easy to coat with antibody as well as easy to use, can be considered as a desired solid phase. Most antibodies are passively adsorbed to a plastic surface (e.g. Polystyrene, Propylene, and Polyvinyl chloride) from a diluted buffer. The antibody coated plastic surface, then acts as solid phase reagent. Poor efficiency and time required to reach equilibrium and also lack of reproducibility especially batch-to-batch variation between materials, are disadvantages in this simple coating procedure. Improvements can be made by coating second antibody on surface of beads, and reaction between second and primary antibodies. There is also possible to enhance more coating efficiency of beads by using Staphylococcus ureus-Protein A. Protein A is a major component of staphylococcus aureus cell wall which has an affinity for FC segment of immunoglobulin G (IgG) of some species, including human; rabbit; and mice. This property of Staphylococcal Protein A has made it a very useful tool in the purification of classes and subclasses

  5. Variability of assay methods for total and free PSA after WHO standardization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foj, L; Filella, X; Alcover, J; Augé, J M; Escudero, J M; Molina, R

    2014-03-01

    The variability of total PSA (tPSA) and free PSA (fPSA) results among commercial assays has been suggested to be decreased by calibration to World Health Organization (WHO) reference materials. To characterize the current situation, it is necessary to know its impact in the critical cutoffs used in clinical practice. In the present study, we tested 167 samples with tPSA concentrations of 0 to 20 μg/L using seven PSA and six fPSA commercial assays, including Access, ARCHITECT i2000, ADVIA Centaur XP, IMMULITE 2000, Elecsys, and Lumipulse G1200, in which we only measured tPSA. tPSA and fPSA were measured in Access using the Hybritech and WHO calibrators. Passing-Bablok analysis was performed for PSA, and percentage of fPSA with the Hybritech-calibrated access comparison assay. For tPSA, relative differences were more than 10 % at 0.2 μg/L for ARCHITECT i2000, and at a critical concentration of 3, 4, and 10 μg/L, the relative difference was exceeded by ADVIA Centaur XP and WHO-calibrated Access. For percent fPSA, at a critical concentration of 10 %, the 10 % relative difference limit was exceeded by IMMULITE 2000 assay. At a critical concentration of 20 and 25 %, ADVIA Centaur XP, ARCHITECT i2000, and IMMULITE 2000 assays exceeded the 10 % relative difference limit. We have shown significant discordances between assays included in this study despite advances in standardization conducted in the last years. Further harmonization efforts are required in order to obtain a complete clinical concordance.

  6. Method comparison for determination of the tumor markers AFP, CEA, PSA and free PSA between Immulite 2000 XPI and Dimension Vista 1500.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zur, Berndt; Holdenrieder, Stefan; Walgenbach-Brünagel, Gisela; Albers, Eike; Stoffel-Wagner, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    For the Luminescent Oxygen Channeling Immunoassay (LOCI) technology as established for Dimension Vista 1500, assays have been developed for the serum tumor markers AFP, CEA, PSA and free PSA. We performed a method analysis for these parameters using the Immulite 2000 XPI. Determination of within-day and total imprecision of the methods was carried out according to CLSI guidelines with three serum pools. In addition, parallel measurements were performed with both systems in 1,871 routine serum samples and correlations were calculated. Calculated total imprecision of the three serum pools for AFP was 3.8 - 4.3%, for CEA 3.3 - 4.3%, for tPSA 3.6 - 4.0% and for fPSA it was 3.5 - 8.2%. Correlations of these markers across the entire value range were very good with the following correlation coefficients: 0.997 for AFP, 0.996 for CEA, 0.971 for tPSA and 0.988 for fPSA. While values for AFP and tPSA from both methods were comparable (slopes 1.02 and 1.01), lower values were measured for CEA and fPSA with the Dimension Vista (slopes 0.83 and 0.91). For AFP, a sample cluster with considerably higher values than with Dimension Vista was observed in the lower measurement range (CEA, tPSA and fPSA, as developed with the LOCI technology for the Dimension Vista, show good comparability with results obtained from the Immulite 2000 XPI. However, lower measurement ranges for CEA and fPSA as well as individual divergences, especially with AFP, must be taken into consideration in the event of method changeover.

  7. MOPITT Level 1 Radiances HDF file V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MOPITT Level 1 data product consists of the geolocated, calibrated earth scene radiances, associated instrument engineering data summaries, and inflight...

  8. PSA for the shutdown mode for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    The meeting, which was attended by more than 75 participants from 20 countries, provided a broad discussion forum where all the currently active major shutdown PSA programmes were reviewed. The meeting also addressed the issues related to actual performance of shutdown PSA studies as well as insight gained from the studies. This document, which was prepared during the TCM, contains the results of extensive discussions which were held in specific working groups. The papers presented at the meeting provide a comprehensive overview of the state of the art of shutdown risk assessment and remedial measures taken to reduce the risk in outages. It is hoped that this document will be very useful to all individuals with interest in increasing safety during outages at NPPs. Refs, figs and tabs

  9. Severe accident analysis for level 2 PSA of SMART reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jin Yong; Lee, Jeong Hun; Kim, Jong Uk; Yoo, Tae Geun; Chung, Soon Il; Kim, Min Gi [FNC Technology Co., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    The objectives of this study are to produce data for level 2 PSA and evaluation results of severe accident by analyzing severe accident sequence of transient events, producing fault tree of containment systems and evaluating direct containment heating of the SMART. In this project, severe accident analysis results were produced for general transient, loss of feedwater, station blackout, and steam line break events, and based on the results, design safety of SMART was verified. Also, direct containment heating phenomenon of the SMART was evaluated using TCE methodology. For level 2 PSA, fault tree of the containment isolation system, reactor cavity flooding system, plant chilled water system, and reactor containment building HVAC system was produced and analyzed

  10. Development of the SKI Handbook for reviewing PSA after the review of the of a PSA level 2 study; Utveckling av SKIs Tillsynshandbok foer PSA utifraan granskningen av en PSA Nivaa-2 studie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindholm, Ilona; Sairanen, Risto [VTT Processes, Helsinki (Finland)

    2003-02-01

    A review of the Oskarshamn 2 Level 2 PSA has been conducted by VTT Processes. One objective of the review was validation and development of Tillsynshandbok PSA applying it to Oskarshamn 2 PSA Level 2 study. The review was based on the PSA Level 2 documentation: the main report, the supporting reports on containment success criteria and release calculations with the MAAP4 code, and five phenomenological reports for selected specific questions. The main result of the phenomenological analyses is that none of the phenomena considered contributes to the conditional failure probability of the Oskarshamn 2 containment in severe accidents. The project was conducted as a set of separate studies and the project quality assurance has also focused on one part at the time. As such, the quality assurance is adequate. A high level QA ensuring that all separate studies and analysis steps use same assumptions seems to be missing. Results from the phenomenology reports are not always transferred to accident analyses and vice versa. There is no specific discussion of uncertainty or sensitivity analyses. In general, the number of sensitivity analyses could be larger. Such should have been provided for sequences or phenomena that could result in early or unmitigated release. Examples are pressure vessel failure at high pressure, the effect of larger hydrogen production, and the key assumptions used for steam explosion and direct containment heating. Suggestions for additional sensitivity studies have been given in discussion of phenomenological reports. The project documentation is generally good. Missing information is usually associated with transfer of results from one study to another. It can be assumed that the information exists also in this cases but has not been documented in the reports above. Documentation of the containment event trees and the assumptions used for them could be more detailed, maybe similar to the approach used in the Appendix of this report. More effort

  11. PSA use in accident management studies in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Mitsumasa

    1994-01-01

    The safety of NPPs in Japan is secured by stringent safety regulations based on the deterministic method, minimizing the possibility a severe accident to a technologically negligible level. PSA is not required in the current regulatory procedures. Accident management based on PSA is a 'knowledge-based' action dependent on utilities' technical knowledge aimed at further reduction of the risk which is kept small enough by existing measures. The paper discusses the following three kinds of PSAs that have been conducted practically and efficiently on NPPs to provide supplemental information about their safety characteristics in addition to the deterministic evaluation used in the regulatory safety review: PSAs on typical NPPs, PSAs on all NPPs to examine candidates for accident management, and PSAs as part of periodic safety review (PSR). 1 fig., 5 tabs

  12. International survey of living PSA and safety indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmberg, J.; Laakso, K.; Lehtinen, E.; Bjoere, S.

    1992-01-01

    The report contains an international overview of applications of living probabilistic assessment and development of operational safety indicators. Features of an ideal living PSA tool are summarized as well as a limited survey of code systems for managing a living probabilistic safety assessment (living PSA) is included. The international survey is used as an input for planning and performance of related tasks within the nordic NKS/SIK-1 project conducted in 1990-93. The research notes are distributed to the Nordic organizations involved or interested in the subject. The report includes an overview and conclusions from technical reports and articles available and presentations and discussions related to development and use of above methods for the evaluation and management of the operational safety of nuclear power plants. A large part of this material is based on material collected and discussed in connection to international specialist meetings relating to the subject

  13. PSA Duration: Conquering the Prepayment Risk of Mortgage Portfolios

    OpenAIRE

    Boleslav Gulko

    1996-01-01

    Money managers have little control over the values of their individual holdings, but they have considerable control over the risk exposure of their portfolios. This article introduces new tools for the risk management of mortgage portfolios. We extend the traditional duration analysis to two dimensions, interest rates and mortgage prepayments, and develop independent hedging rules for the interest rate risk and the prepayment risk. In particular, we define the PSA duration as a formal measure...

  14. Take Charge. Take the Test. "You Know" PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-03-07

    As part of the Take Charge. Take the Test. campaign, this 60 second PSA encourages African American women to get tested for HIV. Locations for a free HIV test can be found by visiting hivtest.org/takecharge or calling 1-800-CDC-INFO (1-800-232-4636).  Created: 3/7/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 3/7/2012.

  15. Asthma - What You Need to Know PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-05-03

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement (PSA) is based on the May, 2011 CDC Vital Signs report. Children and adults can have asthma and attacks can be frightening. To help control asthma, know the warning signs of an attack, stay away from asthma triggers, and follow your health care provider's advice.  Created: 5/3/2011 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 5/3/2011.

  16. Regulatory requirement of the Juragua nuclear Power Plant PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valhuerdi Debesa, C.

    1996-01-01

    Probabilistic Safety Assessment has proved to be a powerful tool for improving the knowledge of the safety insides of Nuclear Power Plants and increasing the efficiency of the safety measures adopted by both operators and regulators. In this paper the regulatory approach adopted in Cuba with regard to the PSA , the scope of the requirement and the basis and proposal of this decision are presented

  17. Teen Pregnancy - What You Need to Know PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-05

    This 60 second PSA is based on the April, 2011 CDC Vital Signs report. Having a child during the teen years comes at a high cost to the young mother, her child, and the community. Get tips to help break the cycle of teen pregnancy.  Created: 4/5/2011 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/5/2011.

  18. Colorectal Cancer - What You Need to Know PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement (PSA) is based on the July, 2011 CDC Vital Signs report. Colorectal cancer kills about 50,000 men and women every year. Screening can save lives! Screening can find abnormal growths so they can be removed before turning into cancer, and can find the cancer early, when it's easiest to treat. If you're over 50, talk to your doctor about getting screened for colorectal cancer.

  19. A living PSA based on use of expert systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ancelin, C.; Bouissou, M.; Le, P.; De Saint-Quentin, S.; Villatte, N.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the expert systems that are developed by EDF in the framework of the French PSA. Aimed at automatically generating reliability models (fault trees, state graphs....), these expert systems are used for the reliability studies of safety systems in the Paluel nuclear power plant. Beyond the description of the implemented method, this paper insists on the new approach proposed to the reliability engineer, when using artificial intelligence techniques

  20. Review of SFR Design Safety using Preliminary Regulatory PSA Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Hyun Ju; Lee, Yong Suk; Shin, Andong; Suh, Nam Duk

    2013-01-01

    The major objective of this research is to develop a risk model for regulatory verification of the SFR design, and thereby, make sure that the SFR design is adequate from a risk perspective. In this paper, the development result of preliminary regulatory PSA model of SFR is discussed. In this paper, development and quantification result of preliminary regulatory PSA model of SFR is discussed. It was confirmed that the importance PDRC and ADRC dampers is significant as stated in the result of KAERI PSA model. However, the importance can be changed significantly depending on assumption of CCCG and CCF factor of PDRC and ADRC dampers. SFR (sodium-cooled fast reactor) which is Gen-IV nuclear energy system, is designed to accord with the concept of stability, sustainability and proliferation resistance. KALIMER-600, which is under development in Korea, includes passive safety systems (e. g. passive reactor shutdown, passive residual heat removal, and etc.) as well as active safety systems. Risk analysis from a regulatory perspective is needed to support the regulatory body in its safety and licensing review for SFR (KALIMER-600). Safety issues should be identified in the early design phase in order to prevent the unexpected cost increase and delay of the SFR licensing schedule that may be caused otherwise

  1. Long-term longitudinal changes in baseline PSA distribution and estimated prevalence of prostate cancer in male Japanese participants of population-based PSA screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, Ryo; Ito, Kazuto; Suzuki, Rie; Fujizuka, Yuji; Arai, Seiji; Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki; Sekine, Yoshitaka; Koike, Hidekazu; Matsui, Hiroshi; Shibata, Yasuhiro; Suzuki, Kazuhiro

    2018-04-26

    Japan has experienced a drastic increase in the incidence of prostate cancer (PC). To assess changes in the risk for PC, we investigated baseline prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels in first-time screened men, across a 25-year period. In total, 72,654 men, aged 50-79, underwent first-time PSA screening in Gunma prefecture between 1992 and 2016. Changes in the distribution of PSA levels were investigated, including the percentage of men with a PSA above cut-off values and linear regression analyses comparing log 10 PSA with age. The 'ultimate incidence' of PC and clinically significant PC (CSPC) were estimated using the PC risk calculator. Changes in the age-standardized incidence rate (AIR) during this period were analyzed. The calculated coefficients of linear regression for age versus log 10 PSA fluctuated during the 25-year period, but no trend was observed. In addition, the percentage of men with a PSA above cut-off values varied in each 5-year period, with no specific trend. The 'risk calculator (RC)-based AIR' of PC and CSPC were stable between 1992 and 2016. Therefore, the baseline risk for developing PC has remained unchanged in the past 25 years, in Japan. The drastic increase in the incidence of PC, beginning around 2000, may be primarily due to increased PSA screening in the country. © 2018 UICC.

  2. Clinical outcomes and nadir prostate-specific antigen (PSA) according to initial PSA levels in primary androgen deprivation therapy for metastatic prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Yasuhide; Ueno, Satoru; Izumi, Kouji; Kadono, Yoshifumi; Mizokami, Atsushi; Hinotsu, Shiro; Akaza, Hideyuki; Namiki, Mikio

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the clinical outcomes of metastatic prostate cancer patients and the relationship between nadir prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels and different types of primary androgen deprivation therapy (PADT). This study utilized data from the Japan Study Group of Prostate Cancer registry, which is a large, multicenter, population-based database. A total of 2982 patients treated with PADT were enrolled. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to compare progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients treated using combined androgen blockade (CAB) and non-CAB therapies. The relationships between nadir PSA levels and PADT type according to initial serum PSA levels were also investigated. Among the 2982 enrolled patients, 2101 (70.5 %) were treated with CAB. Although CAB-treated patients had worse clinical characteristics, their probability of PFS and OS was higher compared with those treated with a non-CAB therapy. These results were due to a survival benefit with CAB in patients with an initial PSA level of 500-1000 ng/mL. Nadir PSA levels were significantly lower in CAB patients than in non-CAB patients with comparable initial serum PSA levels. A small survival benefit for CAB in metastatic prostate cancer was demonstrated in a Japanese large-scale prospective cohort study. The clinical significance of nadir PSA levels following PADT was evident, but the predictive impact of PSA nadir on OS was different between CAB and non-CAB therapy.

  3. Modular belt drive concept for the gasoline engine constructed in a cooperative project by BMW-PSA; Modulares Riemenantriebskonzept fuer den Ottomotor aus der BMW-PSA-Kooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Giacomo, T. [Dayco Group, Chieti Scalo (Italy); D' Amicantonio, L. [Dayco Europe Srl, Chieti Scalo (Italy); Lemberger, H. [BMW AG, Muenchen (Germany)

    2007-12-15

    BMW and PSA cooperated in developing a new series of four-cylinder engines. Apart from maximum power and optimum rotary momentum, the focus was on minimum fuel consumption. Dayco was chosen as supplier of the complete front belt drive system and developed an innovative, modular solution in cooperation with BMW and PSA. (orig.)

  4. Rate of PSA rise predicts metastatic versus local recurrence after definitive radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartor, C.I.; Strawderman, M.H.; Lin, X.; Kish, K.E.; McLaughlin, P.W.; Lichter, A.S.; Sandler, H.S.

    1995-01-01

    Objective: A rising PSA following treatment for adenocarcinoma of the prostate indicates eventual clinical failure, but the rate of rise can be quite different from patient to patient, as can the pattern of clinical failure. We sought to determine whether the rate of PSA rise could differentiate future local vs. metastatic failure. Materials and Methods: PSA values from our series of 671 patients treated between 1987 and 1994 with 3-D conformal radiotherapy for localized adenocarcinoma were analyzed. Patients who had a pre-treatment PSA and >4 post-treatment PSA values available, had received no hormonal therapy, and had information detailing clinical outcome were used in this analysis. First site of failure was determined by abnormal DRE or biopsy, abnormal bone scan or radiographic evidence of metastasis as directed by clinical symptoms or follow-up clinical exam. Each patient's PSA pattern was defined by the function PSA(t)=C 1 e - a 1 (t) + C 2 e a 2 (t) where -a 1 relates to the rate of decline and a 2 to the rate of rise, if any. Univariate analysis was used to determine the correlation between initial PSA or rising PSA and clinical failure. Adjacent category logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the rate of rise and pattern of clinical failure. Results: 671 patients were reviewed; 401 patients met the requirements and 2667 PSA values were analyzed. We confirmed the finding of others that pre-treatment PSA is a prognostic indicator: patients presenting with PSA 3-20ng/ml had a relative risk of 9 (p=0.03) and PSA>20ng/ml had a RR of 26 (p=0.002) for clinical failure when compared to presenting PSA 2 >1.5/year predicted metastatic as opposed to local failure when compared to PSA rise with a 2 between 0.5-1.5/yr or 1.5 log(ng/ml)/year vs. 0.5-1.5 log(ng/ml)/yr or <0.5 log(ng/ml)/yr. Conclusions: The rate of rise of PSA following definitive radiotherapy can predict clinical failure patterns, with a rapidly rising PSA indicating metastatic as opposed to

  5. [Prostate specific antigen--PSA and histopathological findings of endometrium in women with fibrocystic breast disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radowicki, Stanisław; Kunicki, Michał

    2010-02-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between serum free and total PSA and histopathological findings in women with fibrocystic mastopathy. 176 women with fibrocystic breast disease, aged 18 to 45 years.--Group I: comprised 114 patients with cysts 10 mm in diameter. The control group consisted of 46 healthy women aged 18 - 45 years who had no breast pathology Total PSA (PSA-T) and free PSA (PSA-Free) were measured by an ultra-sensitive fluoroimmunometric DELFIA assay (Prostatus PSA Free/Total Wallac, Turku, Finland). The detection limit for PSA was 0.01 ng/ml. Endometrial samples have been obtained with Pipelle probe between 22 and 24 days of the menstrual cycle. In the control group secretory endometrium was more frequently detected than in the mastopathy group (chi2 = 11,15, p = 0.01). Proliferatory (chi2 = 8.27, p = 0.004) and presecretory endometrium (chi2 = 4.61, p = 0.03) were more frequently detected in the mastopathy group than in controls. We did not find statistically significant relationship between the mean PSA concentrations between the groups in relation to histopathological findings. No relationships between free and total PSA measured in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle and endometrial findings were detected in our study. Further research is required to evaluate the relationship between PSA and endometrial findings.

  6. Image Guided Hypofractionated Radiotherapy by Helical Tomotherapy for Prostate Carcinoma: Toxicity and Impact on Nadir PSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvina Barra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the toxicity of a hypofractionated schedule for primary radiotherapy (RT of prostate cancer as well as the value of the nadir PSA (nPSA and time to nadir PSA (tnPSA as surrogate efficacy of treatment. Material and Methods. Eighty patients underwent hypofractionated schedule by Helical Tomotherapy (HT. A dose of 70.2 Gy was administered in 27 daily fractions of 2.6 Gy. Acute and late toxicities were graded on the RTOG/EORTC scales. The nPSA and the tnPSA for patients treated with exclusive RT were compared to an equal cohort of 20 patients treated with conventional fractionation and standard conformal radiotherapy. Results. Most of patients (83% did not develop acute gastrointestinal (GI toxicity and 50% did not present genitourinary (GU toxicity. After a median follow-up of 36 months only grade 1 of GU and GI was reported in 6 and 3 patients as late toxicity. Average tnPSA was 30 months. The median value of nPSA after exclusive RT with HT was 0.28 ng/mL and was significantly lower than the median nPSA (0.67 ng/mL of the conventionally treated cohort (P=0.02. Conclusions. Hypofractionated RT schedule with HT for prostate cancer treatment reports very low toxicity and reaches a low level of nPSA that might correlate with good outcomes.

  7. Determination of Component Failure Modes for a Fire PSA by Using Decision Trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Dae Il; Han, Sang Hoon; Lim, Jae Won

    2007-01-01

    KAERI developed the method, called a mapping technique, for the quantification of external events PSA models with one top model for an internal events PSA. The mapping technique can be implemented by the construction of mapping tables. The mapping tables include initiating events and transfer events of fire, and internal PSA basic events affected by a fire. This year, KAERI is making mapping tables for the one top model for Ulchin Unit 3 and 4 fire PSA with previously conducted Fire PSA results for Ulchin Unit 3 and 4. A Fire PSA requires a PSA analyst to determine component failure modes affected by a fire. The component failure modes caused by a fire depend on several factors. These several factors are whether components are located at fire initiation and propagation areas or not, fire effects on control and power cables for components, designed failure modes of components, success criteria in a PSA model, etc. Thus, it is not easy to manually determine component failure modes caused by a fire. In this paper, we propose the use of decision trees for the determination of component failure modes affected by a fire and the selection of internal PSA basic events. Section 2 presents the procedure for previously performed the Ulchin Unit 3 and 4 fire PSA and mapping technique. Section 3 presents the process for identification of basic events and decision trees. Section 4 presents the concluding remarks

  8. Analysis of urinary PSA glycosylation is not indicative of high-risk prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrabés, Sílvia; Llop, Esther; Ferrer-Batallé, Montserrat; Ramírez, Manel; Aleixandre, Rosa N; Perry, Antoinette S; de Llorens, Rafael; Peracaula, Rosa

    2017-07-01

    The levels of core fucosylation and α2,3-linked sialic acid in serum Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA), using the lectins Pholiota squarrosa lectin (PhoSL) and Sambucus nigra agglutinin (SNA), can discriminate between Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) and indolent prostate cancer (PCa) from aggressive PCa. In the present work we evaluated whether these glycosylation determinants could also be altered in urinary PSA obtained after digital rectal examination (DRE) and could also be useful for diagnosis determinations. For this purpose, α2,6-sialic acid and α1,6-fucose levels of urinary PSA from 53 patients, 18 biopsy-negative and 35 PCa patients of different aggressiveness degree, were analyzed by sandwich ELLA (Enzyme Linked Lectin Assay) using PhoSL and SNA. Changes in the levels of specific glycosylation determinants, that in serum PSA samples were indicative of PCa aggressiveness, were not found in PSA from DRE urine samples. Although urine is a simpler matrix for analyzing PSA glycosylation compared to serum, an immunopurification step was necessary to specifically detect the glycans on the PSA molecule. Those specific glycosylation determinants on urinary PSA were however not useful to improve PCa diagnosis. This could be probably due to the low proportion of PSA from the tumor in urine samples, which precludes the identification of aberrantly glycosylated PSA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Early diagnostic role of PSA combined miR-155 detection in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, T; Wang, X-X; Fu, H; Tang, Y-C; Meng, B-Q; Chen, C-H

    2018-03-01

    As a kind of malignant tumor in the male genitourinary system, prostate cancer exhibits significantly increased occurrence. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) expression can be seen in the prostate cancer, prostatitis, and other diseases, therefore, lack of diagnostic specificity. The miR-155 expression is abnormally increased in the tumors. Therefore, this study aims to explore the clinical significance of PSA combined miR-155 detection in the early diagnosis of prostate cancer. A total of 86 patients diagnosed with prostate cancer were enrolled in this study. PSA and miR-155 gene expression in tumor tissue were detected by using Real-time PCR. The serum levels of PSA were measured by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The correlation of PSA and miR-155 expression with age, body mass index (BMI), tumor volume, tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage, lymph node metastasis (LNM), and other clinicopathological features were analyzed, respectively. Serum PSA expression and PSA gene in tumor tissue were significantly higher compared to that in adjacent tissues (pPSA gene and protein increased significantly with the clinical stage of TNM and decreased following the increase of grade (pPSA and miR-155 expressions were positively correlated with TNM stage, tumor volume, and LNM, and negatively correlated with grade (pPSA and miR-155 were closely related to the clinicopathological features of prostate cancer. Combined detection is helpful for the early diagnosis of prostate cancer.

  10. Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Bounce After Dose-Escalated External Beam Radiation Therapy Is an Independent Predictor of PSA Recurrence, Metastasis, and Survival in Prostate Adenocarcinoma Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romesser, Paul B; Pei, Xin; Shi, Weiji; Zhang, Zhigang; Kollmeier, Marisa; McBride, Sean M; Zelefsky, Michael J

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the difference in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) recurrence-free, distant metastasis-free, overall, and cancer-specific survival between PSA bounce (PSA-B) and non-bounce patients treated with dose-escalated external beam radiation therapy (DE-EBRT). During 1990-2010, 1898 prostate adenocarcinoma patients were treated with DE-EBRT to ≥75 Gy with ≥5 years follow-up. Patients receiving neoadjuvant/concurrent androgen-deprivation therapy (n=1035) or with fewer than 4 PSA values obtained 6 months or more after post-EBRT completion (n=87) were excluded. The evaluable 776 patients were treated (median, 81.0 Gy). Prostate-specific antigen bounce was defined as a ≥0.2-ng/mL increase above the interval PSA nadir, followed by a decrease to nadir or below. Prostate-specific antigen relapse was defined as post-radiation therapy PSA nadir + 2 ng/mL. Median follow-up was 9.2 years (interquartile range, 6.9-11.3 years). One hundred twenty-three patients (15.9%) experienced PSA-B after DE-EBRT at a median of 24.6 months (interquartile range, 16.1-38.5 months). On multivariate analysis, younger age (P=.001), lower Gleason score (P=.0003), and higher radiation therapy dose (P=.0002) independently predicted PSA-B. Prostate-specific antigen bounce was independently associated with decreased risk for PSA relapse (hazard ratio [HR] 0.53; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.33-0.85; P=.008), distant metastatic disease (HR 0.34; 95% CI 0.12-0.94; P=.04), and all-cause mortality (HR 0.53; 95% CI 0.29-0.96; P=.04) on multivariate Cox analysis. Because all 50 prostate cancer-specific deaths in patients without PSA-B were in the non-bounce cohort, competing-risks analysis was not applicable. A nonparametric competing-risks test demonstrated that patients with PSA-B had superior cancer-specific survival compared with patients without PSA-B (P=.004). Patients treated with dose-escalated radiation therapy for prostate adenocarcinoma who experience posttreatment PSA-B have

  11. PSA kinetics following primary focal cryotherapy (hemiablation) in organ-confined prostate cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongnyuy, Michael; Islam, Shahidul; Mbah, Alfred K; Halpern, Daniel M; Werneburg, Glenn T; Kosinski, Kaitlin E; Chen, Connie; Habibian, David J; Schiff, Jeffrey T; Corcoran, Anthony T; Katz, Aaron E

    2018-02-01

    We aim to evaluate prostate-specific antigen (PSA) trends in post-primary focal cryotherapy (PFC) patients. This was an institutional review board-approved retrospective study of PFC patients from 2010 to 2015. Patients with at least one post-PFC PSA were included in the study. Biochemical recurrence (BCR) was determined using the Phoenix criteria. PSA bounce was also assessed. We analyzed rates of change of PSA over time of post-PFC between BCR and no BCR groups. PSA-derived variables were analyzed as potential predictors of BCR. A total of 104 PFC patients were included in our analysis. Median (range) age and follow-up time were 66 (48-82) years and 19 (6.3-38.6) months, respectively. Four (3.8%) patients experienced PSA bounce. The median percent drop in first post-PFC PSA of 80.0% was not associated with BCR (p = 0.256) and may indicate elimination of the index lesion. The rate of increase of PSA in BCR patients was significantly higher compared to patients who did not recur (median PSA velocity (PSAV): 0.15 vs 0.04 ng/ml/month, p = 0.001). Similar to PSAV (HR 9.570, 95% CI 3.725-24.592, p PSA nadir ≥ 2 ng/ml [HR (hazard ratio) 1.251, 95% CI 1.100-1.422, p = 0.001] was independently associated with BCR. A significant drop in post-PFC PSA may indicate elimination of the index lesion. Patients who are likely to recur biochemically have a significantly higher PSAV compared to those who do not recur. Nadir PSA of less than 2 ng/ml may be considered the new normal PSA in focal cryotherapy (hemiablation) follow-up.

  12. Development of the SKI Handbook for reviewing PSA after the review of the of a PSA level 2 study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindholm, Ilona; Sairanen, Risto

    2003-02-01

    A review of the Oskarshamn 2 Level 2 PSA has been conducted by VTT Processes. One objective of the review was validation and development of Tillsynshandbok PSA applying it to Oskarshamn 2 PSA Level 2 study. The review was based on the PSA Level 2 documentation: the main report, the supporting reports on containment success criteria and release calculations with the MAAP4 code, and five phenomenological reports for selected specific questions. The main result of the phenomenological analyses is that none of the phenomena considered contributes to the conditional failure probability of the Oskarshamn 2 containment in severe accidents. The project was conducted as a set of separate studies and the project quality assurance has also focused on one part at the time. As such, the quality assurance is adequate. A high level QA ensuring that all separate studies and analysis steps use same assumptions seems to be missing. Results from the phenomenology reports are not always transferred to accident analyses and vice versa. There is no specific discussion of uncertainty or sensitivity analyses. In general, the number of sensitivity analyses could be larger. Such should have been provided for sequences or phenomena that could result in early or unmitigated release. Examples are pressure vessel failure at high pressure, the effect of larger hydrogen production, and the key assumptions used for steam explosion and direct containment heating. Suggestions for additional sensitivity studies have been given in discussion of phenomenological reports. The project documentation is generally good. Missing information is usually associated with transfer of results from one study to another. It can be assumed that the information exists also in this cases but has not been documented in the reports above. Documentation of the containment event trees and the assumptions used for them could be more detailed, maybe similar to the approach used in the Appendix of this report. More effort

  13. The percentage of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) isoform [-2]proPSA and the Prostate Health Index improve the diagnostic accuracy for clinically relevant prostate cancer at initial and repeat biopsy compared with total PSA and percentage free PSA in men aged ≤65 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boegemann, Martin; Stephan, Carsten; Cammann, Henning; Vincendeau, Sébastien; Houlgatte, Alain; Jung, Klaus; Blanchet, Jean-Sebastien; Semjonow, Axel

    2016-01-01

    To prospectively test the diagnostic accuracy of the percentage of prostate specific antigen (PSA) isoform [-2]proPSA (%p2PSA) and the Prostate Health Index (PHI), and to determine their role for discrimination between significant and insignificant prostate cancer at initial and repeat prostate biopsy in men aged ≤65 years. The diagnostic performance of %p2PSA and PHI were evaluated in a multicentre study. In all, 769 men aged ≤65 years scheduled for initial or repeat prostate biopsy were recruited in four sites based on a total PSA (t-PSA) level of 1.6-8.0 ng/mL World Health Organization (WHO) calibrated (2-10 ng/mL Hybritech-calibrated). Serum samples were measured for the concentration of t-PSA, free PSA (f-PSA) and p2PSA with Beckman Coulter immunoassays on Access-2 or DxI800 instruments. PHI was calculated as (p2PSA/f-PSA × √t-PSA). Uni- and multivariable logistic regression models and an artificial neural network (ANN) were complemented by decision curve analysis (DCA). In univariate analysis %p2PSA and PHI were the best predictors of prostate cancer detection in all patients (area under the curve [AUC] 0.72 and 0.73, respectively), at initial (AUC 0.67 and 0.69) and repeat biopsy (AUC 0.74 and 0.74). t-PSA and %f-PSA performed less accurately for all patients (AUC 0.54 and 0.62). For detection of significant prostate cancer (based on Prostate Cancer Research International Active Surveillance [PRIAS] criteria) the %p2PSA and PHI equally demonstrated best performance (AUC 0.70 and 0.73) compared with t-PSA and %f-PSA (AUC 0.54 and 0.59). In multivariate analysis PHI we added to a base model of age, prostate volume, digital rectal examination, t-PSA and %f-PSA. PHI was strongest in predicting prostate cancer in all patients, at initial and repeat biopsy and for significant prostate cancer (AUC 0.73, 0.68, 0.78 and 0.72, respectively). In DCA for all patients the ANN showed the broadest threshold probability and best net benefit. PHI as single parameter

  14. [Rates of total and free PSA prescriptions in France (2012-2014)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuppin, Philippe; Leboucher, Claire; Peyre-Lanquar, Gabrielle; Lamy, Pierre-Jean; Gabach, Pierre; Rébillard, Xavier

    2017-10-01

    In 2010, the French Haute Autorité de santé (National Health Authority) confirmed the limited value of prostate cancer (PCa) screening by total prostate-specific antigen (PSA) assay. This study was designed to determine the modalities of ordering total PSA or free PSA assays (in the absence of PCa) according to various parameters and the corresponding sums reimbursed. Men aged 40 years and older covered by the national health insurance general scheme (73% of the French population) between 2012 and 2014 were selected. Data were derived from the Système national d'information inter-régimes de l'assurance maladie (Sniiram) (National health insurance information system) database. In 2014, 27% of the 11.6 million men 40 years and older underwent at least one total PSA assay and 5.6% underwent at least one free PSA assay, with marked variations according to the presence or absence of treated lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) (53% and 15% vs 24% and 5%) and from one administrative department to another. The peak total PSA assay rate was observed between the ages of 65 and 74 years: 64% of men with LUTS, 46% without LUTS. Between 2012 and 2014, men in whom at least one PSA assay had been performed underwent a mean of 1.8 total PSA assays and 1.7 free PSA assays, with means of 2.3 and 2, respectively, in the presence of LUTS. General practice specialists ordered 91% of the PSA tests reimbursed in 2014 (92% for total PSA and 87% for free PSA) and urologists ordered 4% of reimbursed tests. The total sum reimbursed was €28.5 million, comprising €8.7 million for free PSA. An average of 10 laboratory tests was performed at the same time as the PSA assay in the absence of treated LUTS. Total PSA and free PSA assays are performed in a large number of men, although the value of these tests as first-line test before biopsy remains controversial. These PSA assays are associated with many other laboratory tests looking for possible abnormalities, especially in younger

  15. Final guidance document for extended Level 2 PSA Volume 1. Summary report for external hazards implementation in extended L2 PSA, validation of SAMG strategy and complement of ASAMPSA2 L2PSA guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeffler, H.; Raimond, E.

    2016-01-01

    The present document is a summary of the deliverables produced within the ASAMPSA-E project for extended L2 PSA. These deliverables are: D30.7 vol. 2, 'Implementing external Events modelling in Level 2 PSA': D30.7 vol. 3: 'Verification and improvement of SAM strategy: D30.7 vol. 4: 'Consideration of shutdown states, spent fuel pools and recent R and D results'. Among many others, the following summary statements are provided: Analyses of external events: - No need for new methodology, - It is necessary to develop L1 PSA first and then clearly defined boundary conditions for the L2 PSA must be generated, - The remaining challenge is how to address adverse environmental conditions due to external hazards. Multi units: - No practical methodology exists to treat the problem, - A new methodology is necessary to be developed first for the L1 PSA. This should, from the beginning, take into account the specific needs of L2 PSA so that the boundary conditions for subsequent level 2 analysis can be generated adequately. SAM strategies verification and improvement: - L2 PSA methodology can usefully by applied and experience exists for internal initiating events L2 PSA, - How to address adverse environmental conditions due to external hazards - needs for new methodology or examples of experience, - How to model the decision process when there is a conflict of interest - needs for new methodology or examples of experience. For L2 PSA in shutdown states with open RPV, some new technical issues (fission product release, thermal load to structures above RPV) have to be addressed. Spent fuel pool issues have been developed, in particular: - Heat load from the melting spent fuel to structures above (e.g. to the containment roof) is a severe challenge for the plant and for the present-day, methodology is missing. Recent R and D achievements with relevance for L2 PSA: - Basic research has been continued in the radiochemistry (iodine and ruthenium chemistry) field, but the existing

  16. Level-1 $\\tau$ trigger performance in 2017 data

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    In 2017, the LHC achieved an instantaneous luminosity of 2.06x10$^{34}$cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$, and a peak average pile-up of more than 50. This document describes the performance of the CMS Level-1 calorimeter trigger for $\\tau$ leptons using 40.9 fb$^{-1}$ of 2017 data. Details of the Level-1 trigger algorithms can be found in CMS-DP-2015-009. The previous Level-1 $\\tau$ performance report can be found in CMS-DP-2017-022.

  17. Post-reconstruction full power and shut down level 2 PSA study for Unit 1 of Bohunice V1 NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, Z.

    2003-01-01

    The level 2 PSA model of the J. Bohunice V1 NPP was developed in the RISK SPECTRUM Professional code with the following objectives: to identify the ways in which radioactive releases from the plant can occur following the core damage; to calculate the magnitudes and frequency of the release; to provide insights into the plant behaviour during a severe accident; to provide a framework for understanding containment failure modes; the impact of the phenomena that could occur during and following core damage and have the potential to challenge the integrity of the confinement; to support the severe accident management and development of SAMGs. The magnitudes of release categories are calculated using: the MAAP4/VVER for reactor operation and shutdown mode with closed reactor vessel and the MELCOR code for shutdown mode with open reactor vessel. In this paper an overview of the Level 2 PSA methodology; description of the confinement; the interface between the level 1 and 2 PSA and accident progression analyses are presented. An evaluation of the confinement failure modes and construction of the confinement event trees as well as definition of release categories, source term analysis and sensitivity analyses are also discussed. The presented results indicate that: 1)for the full power operation - there is an 25% probability that the confinement will successfully maintain its integrity and prevent an uncontrolled fission product release; the most likely mode of release from the confinement is a confinement bypass after SGTM with conditional probability of 30%; the conditional probability for the confinement isolation failure probability without spray is 5%, for early confinement failure at the vessel failure is 4%, for other categories 1% or less; 2) for the shutdown operating modes - the shutdown risk is high for the open reactor vessel and open confinement; important severe accident sequences exists for release categories: RC5.1, RC5.2 and RC6.2

  18. Association between PSA kinetics and cancer-specific mortality in patients with localised prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Frederik Birkebæk; Brasso, Klaus; Berg, Kasper Drimer

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prognostic value of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) kinetics in untreated prostate cancer (PCa) patients is debatable. We investigated the association between PSA doubling time (PSAdt), PSA velocity (PSAvel) and PSAvel risk count (PSAvRC) and PCa mortality in a cohort of patients...... with localised PCa managed on watchful waiting. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with clinically localised PCa managed observationally, who were randomised to and remained on placebo for minimum 18 months in the SPCG-6 study, were included. All patients survived at least 2 years and had a minimum of three PSA...... determinations available. The prognostic value of PSA kinetics was analysed and patients were stratified according to their PSA at consent: ≤10, 10.1-25, and >25 ng/ml. Cumulative incidences of PCa-specific mortality were estimated with the Aalen-Johansen method. RESULTS: Two hundred and sixty-three patients...

  19. Guidance for Decision Making based on Extended PSA. Volume 1 - Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeffler, H.; Kumar, M.; Raimond, E.

    2016-01-01

    This report of ASAMPSA-E project is a summary report of the WP30 activities which were intended to develop guidance on decision-making process based on extended PSA results, when the PSA scope has been extended to all sources of radioactivity, all internal and relevant external events. It summarizes the ASAMPSA-E recommendations on: - the lessons of Fukushima Dai-ichi accident for PSA, - the risk metrics, - the method for identifying Initiating Events and Hazards for an Extended PSA (screening), - the link between extended PSA and the defense-in-depth concept. The report then provides some general considerations on application of extended PSA results, criteria that can be applied and also some difficulties inherent to the status of extended PSAs. (authors)

  20. Low percentage of free prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a strong predictor of later detection of prostate cancer among Japanese men with serum levels of total PSA of 4.0 ng/mL or less.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Mitsuharu; Ishidoya, Shigeto; Ito, Akihiro; Saito, Hideo; Yamada, Shigeyuki; Mitsuzuka, Koji; Kaiho, Yasuhiro; Shibuya, Daisuke; Yamaguchi, Takuhiro; Arai, Yoichi

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the effect of the percentage of free prostate-specific antigen (%fPSA) on future prostate cancer risk. We examined serum total PSA (tPSA) and %fPSA annually in a prostate cancer-screening cohort between July 2001 and June 2011. Men with tPSA >4.0 ng/mL or tPSA of 2.0-4.0 ng/mL with %fPSA ≤12% were screened as positive and were recommended to undergo a biopsy. The study population consisted of 6368 men, aged 40-79 years, who had tPSA ≤4.0 ng/mL at initial screening and who subsequently underwent 1 or more screenings. We calculated the cumulative risk and hazard ratio of prostate cancer stratified by the initial %fPSA groups as quartiles of prostate cancer patients. During a median follow-up of 36 months, 119 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer. The lowest quartile of %fPSA (22.2%). For the subset with an initial tPSA ≤1.0 ng/mL, all men diagnosed with cancer had an initial %fPSA ≤33.3% (median). For the subset with tPSA >1.0 ng/mL, men with %fPSA ≤23.0% (median) had significantly higher risk for cancer than those with %fPSA >23.0% (P men with prostate cancer in whom pathologic findings were available, 79 (69.3%) had a Gleason score ≥3 + 4 = 7. A low %fPSA is a strong predictor of a subsequent diagnosis of prostate cancer among men with tPSA levels ≤4.0 ng/mL. Measurement of %fPSA might enhance the detection of high-grade cancer that warrants aggressive treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. PSA bounce phenomenon after transperineal interstitial permanent prostate brachytherapy for localized prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Masashi; Lederer, J.L.; Fukagai, Takashi; Yoshida, Hideki; Shimada, Makoto

    2004-01-01

    We described the temporarily increase phenomenon in prostate-specific antigen level (PSA bounce) after transperineal interstitial permanent prostate brachytherapy (TIPPB) for localized prostate cancer. From December 1998 to May 2003, 500 consecutive patients with localized prostate cancer were treated with TIPPB using iodine-125 or palladium-103. We examined 200 patients who have more than 2-year PSA follow-up. Median follow-up length was 1,069 days (range, 712-1,411 days). No patient received neoadjuvant or adjuvant hormone therapy. PSA determinations were performed every 3 months for the first 2 years after procedure, and every 6 months hereafter. PSA bounce was defined as an increase of 0.1 ng/ml or greater above the preceding PSA level after implant followed by a subsequent decrease below that level. The American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO) consensus panel criteria 1996 were used to define biochemical failure. PSA bounce was observed in 40% (80/200) of the cases receiving TIPPB. The median time to PSA bounce was 13 months from the day of implant. The median magnitude of the PSA bounce was 0.3 ng/ml from the pre-bounce level. Twelve cases demonstrated biochemical failure according to the ASTRO consensus guidelines of three consecutive rises in PSA. Ten of these subsequently showed a drop in PSA, consistent with biologic control of their disease. Two cases remain classified as apparent biochemical failures. A transient rise in the PSA following TIPPB, the so-called ''bounce'' is a common occurrence. The apparent PSA control of ten of twelve cases failing by the ASTRO criteria raises some concern. Further observation will be necessary to determine ways to discriminate these from true disease progression. (author)

  2. What do PSA changes after radiotherapy with or without prior androgen deprivation mean?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denham, J.W.; Woodhead, D.; Lamb, D.S.; Duchesne, G.

    2003-01-01

    The TROG 96.01 randomised patients with Stage B2 and C prostate cancer to radiotherapy alone to 66 Gy (RT), 3 months maximal androgen deprivation (MAD) with goserelin and flutamide prior to and during RT, and 6 months MAD prior to and during RT. Minimum follow up time is now 3 years. Prior to preliminary analysis of one of the trial's main endpoints biochemical relapse free survival (bRFS), the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) time course for every patient was evaluated to assess the performance of the ASTRO definition of biochemical failure (BF). Following MAD and RT PSA levels immediately rise in the majority of cases (PSA 'rebound'). In over 50% of cases, PSA levels then plateau at <1 ng/ml for 2 - 3 years prior to clear evidence of failure. Premature diagnosis of BF is possible in some of these cases. Fluctuations in PSA level ('bouncing') are more frequent after MAD and RT. As a result there can be difficulty in interpreting the ASTRO definition of BF in cases where overall PSA trend is upwards shortly after completion of therapy. In patients experiencing BF, the rate of PSA rise often corresponds to the site of failure. PSA doubling times (DT) under 7 months are usually associated with development of bony metastases, while DTs greater than that are usually associated with local failure. Decline in PSA levels following RT alone is frequently not mono-exponential and patients with those patterns experience lower PSA nadir levels and are subject to lower risks of all forms of relapse. These patients also survive longer. In cases where PSA descent patterns are discernable after MAD and RT, opposite trends are seen. Caution is necessary in diagnosing BF after MAD plus RT. Variations in the natural history of prostate cancer are reflected by variations in the rate of PSA changes following therapy. The importance of monitoring this marker and evaluating its time course is emphasised. Prospective studies are needed

  3. PSA bounce after 125I-brachytherapy for prostate cancer as a favorable prognosticator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engeler, Daniel S.; Schwab, Christoph; Schmid, Hans-Peter; Thoeni, Armin F.; Hochreiter, Werner; Prikler, Ladislav; Suter, Stefan; Stucki, Patrick; Schiefer, Johann; Plasswilm, Ludwig; Putora, Paul Martin

    2015-01-01

    Permanent low-dose-rate brachytherapy (BT) with iodine 125 is an established curative treatment for localized prostate cancer. After treatment, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) kinetics may show a transient rise (PSA bounce). Our aim was to investigate the association of PSA bounce with biochemical control. Patients treated with BT in Switzerland were registered in a prospective database. Only patients with a follow-up of at least 2 years were included in our analysis. Clinical follow-up and PSA measurements were assessed after 1.5, 3, 6, and 12 months, and annually thereafter. If PSA increased, additional follow-up visits were scheduled. Cases of PSA bounce were defined as a rise of at least 0.2 ng/ml above the initial PSA nadir with a subsequent decline to or below the initial nadir without treatment. Biochemical failure was defined as a rise to nadir + 2 ng/ml. Between March 2001 and November 2010, 713 patients with prostate cancer undergoing BT with at least 2 years of follow-up were registered. Median follow-up time was 41 months. Biochemical failure occurred in 28 patients (3.9 %). PSA bounce occurred in 173 (24.3 %) patients; only three (1.7 %) patients with PSA bounce developed biochemical failure, in contrast to 25 (4.6 %) patients without previous bounce (p < 0.05). The median time to bounce was 12 months, the median time to biochemical failure was 30 months. The median bounce increase was 0.78 ng/ml. Twenty-eight patients with bounce (16.5 %) had a transient PSA rise of + 2 ng/ml above the nadir. In most cases, an early increase in PSA after BT indicates PSA bounce and is associated with a lower risk of biochemical failure. (orig.) [de

  4. Prebiopsy biparametric MRI: differences of PI-RADS version 2 in patients with different PSA levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, M H; Lee, Y J; Jung, S E; Rha, S E; Byun, J Y

    2018-06-09

    To validate the diagnostic accuracy of Prostate Imaging-Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) version 2 in detecting clinically significant prostate cancer (csPCa, Gleason score ≥7) on prebiopsy biparametric MRI (bpMRI) in patients with different prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels. This retrospective study included 184 patients who underwent prebiopsy bpMRI followed by transrectal ultrasonography-guided biopsy between June 2015 and February 2017. Reader 1 performed a combination of systematic and targeted biopsy with cognitive fusion after reviewing bpMRI and reader 2 reviewed the bpMRIs retrospectively. PI-RADS categories 4 and 5 were considered positive, and the results of the biopsy were considered the reference standard. Diagnostic performance of PI-RADS of bpMRI was evaluated in two PSA groups with a PSA cut-off level of 10 ng/ml and compared to PSA and the PSA density using receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis. csPCa was diagnosed in 24 of 123 patients (19.5%) and 26 of 61 patients (42.6%) in the low and high PSA groups, respectively. A PI-RADS v2 category by either readers 1 or 2 had a significantly better performance to detect csPCa than PSA in both PSA groups. In the high PSA group, only one csPCa was missed by reader 2, but none by reader 1. In the low PSA group, readers 1 and 2 were unable to detect seven and five of the 24 csPCas, respectively. Prebiopsy bpMRI has good performance for detecting csPCa in the high PSA group but may miss small-volume csPCa in the low PSA group. Copyright © 2018 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Development of an immunoradiometric method for the measurement of total PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatesh, M.; Korde, A.; Bapat, K.; Shukla, A.; Pillai, M.R.A.

    1999-01-01

    Development of an IRMA for total-PSA was taken up in our laboratories (Isotope Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India) and efforts were made to obtain monoclonals for PSA at our laboratory. Following the guidelines laid at the first meeting of this CRP we have used the reagents supplied by the Agency as well as our inhouse reagents, and attempted to develop assay procedures for measuring total-PSA in human sera

  6. The Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document for Level 1A Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jester, Peggy L.; Hancock, David W., III

    2012-01-01

    The first process of the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) Science Algorithm Software converts the Level 0 data into the Level 1A Data Products. The Level 1A Data Products are the time ordered instrument data converted from counts to engineering units. This document defines the equations that convert the raw instrument data into engineering units. Required scale factors, bias values, and coefficients are defined in this document. Additionally, required quality assurance and browse products are defined in this document.

  7. The ATLAS Level-1 Topological Trigger performance in Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00120419; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Level-1 trigger is the first event rate reducing step in the ATLAS detector trigger system, with an output rate of up to 100 kHz and decision latency smaller than 2.5 μs. During the LHC shutdown after Run 1, the Level-1 trigger system was upgraded at hardware, firmware and software levels. In particular, a new electronics sub-system was introduced in the real-time data processing path: the Level-1 Topological trigger system. It consists of a single electronics shelf equipped with two Level-1 Topological processor blades. They receive real-time information from the Level-1 calorimeter and muon triggers, which is processed to measure angles between trigger objects, invariant masses or other kinematic variables. Complementary to other requirements, these measurements are taken into account in the final Level-1 trigger decision. The system was installed and commissioning started in 2015 and continued during 2016. As part of the commissioning, the decisions from individual algorithms were simulated and compar...

  8. Development of a Base Model for the New Fire PSA Training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kilyoo; Kang, Daeil; Kim, Wee Kyong; Do, Kyu Sik

    2013-01-01

    US NRC/EPRI issued a new fire PSA method represented by NUREG/CR 6850, and have been training many operators and inspectors to widely spread the new method. However, there is a limitation in time and efficiency for many foreigners, who generally have communication problem, to participate in the EPRI/NRC training to learn the new method. Since it is about time to introduce the new fire PSA method as a regulatory requirement for the fire protection in Korea, a simple and easy-understandable base model for the fire PSA training is required, and KAERI-KINS is jointly preparing the base model for the new fire PSA training. This paper describes how the base model is developed. Using an imaginary simple NPP, a base model of fire PSA following the new fire PSA method was developed in two ways from the internal PSA model. Since we have the base model and know the process of making the fire PSA model, the training for the new fire PSA method can be in detail performed in Korea

  9. Construction and Quantification of the One Top model of the Fire Events PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Dae Il; Lee, Yoon Hwan; Han, Sang Hoon

    2008-01-01

    KAERI constructed the one top model of the fire events PSA for Ulchin Unit 3 and 4 by using the 'mapping technique'. The mapping technique was developed for the construction and quantification of external events PSA models with a one top model for an internal events PSA. With 'AIMS', the mapping technique can be implemented by the construction of mapping tables. The mapping tables include fire rooms, fire ignition frequency, related initiating events, fire transfer events, and the internal PSA basic events affected by a fire. The constructed one top fire PSA model is based on previously conducted fire PSA results for Ulchin Unit 3 and 4. In this paper, we introduce the construction procedure and quantification results of the one top model of the fire events PSA by using the mapping technique. As the one top model of the fire events PSA developed in this study is based on the previous study, we also introduce the previous fire PSA approach focused on quantification

  10. Development of the IPRO-zone for fire PSA and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, D. I.; Han, S. H.

    2012-01-01

    A PSA analyst has been manually determining fire-induced component failure modes and modeling them into the PSA logics. These can be difficult and time-consuming tasks as they need much information and many events are to be modeled. KAERI has been developing the IPRO-ZONE (interface program for constructing zone effect table) to facilitate fire PSA works for identifying and modeling fire-induced component failure modes, and to construct a one top fire event PSA model. With the output of the IPRO-ZONE, the AIMS-PSA, and internal event one top PSA model, one top fire events PSA model is automatically constructed. The outputs of the IPRO-ZONE include information on fire zones/fire scenarios, fire propagation areas, equipment failure modes affected by a fire, internal PSA basic events corresponding to fire-induced equipment failure modes, and fire events to be modeled. This paper introduces the IPRO-ZONE, and its application results to fire PSA of Ulchin Unit 3 and SMART(System-integrated Modular Advanced Reactor). (authors)

  11. Development of the IPRO-zone for fire PSA and its applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, D. I.; Han, S. H. [Integrated Safety Assessment Div., Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst. KAERI, 1045 Daedeokdaero (150 Deokjin-Dong), Yuseong-Gu, Daejon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-01

    A PSA analyst has been manually determining fire-induced component failure modes and modeling them into the PSA logics. These can be difficult and time-consuming tasks as they need much information and many events are to be modeled. KAERI has been developing the IPRO-ZONE (interface program for constructing zone effect table) to facilitate fire PSA works for identifying and modeling fire-induced component failure modes, and to construct a one top fire event PSA model. With the output of the IPRO-ZONE, the AIMS-PSA, and internal event one top PSA model, one top fire events PSA model is automatically constructed. The outputs of the IPRO-ZONE include information on fire zones/fire scenarios, fire propagation areas, equipment failure modes affected by a fire, internal PSA basic events corresponding to fire-induced equipment failure modes, and fire events to be modeled. This paper introduces the IPRO-ZONE, and its application results to fire PSA of Ulchin Unit 3 and SMART(System-integrated Modular Advanced Reactor). (authors)

  12. The Planetary Science Archive (PSA): Exploration and discovery of scientific datasets from ESA's planetary missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallat, C.; Besse, S.; Barbarisi, I.; Arviset, C.; De Marchi, G.; Barthelemy, M.; Coia, D.; Costa, M.; Docasal, R.; Fraga, D.; Heather, D. J.; Lim, T.; Macfarlane, A.; Martinez, S.; Rios, C.; Vallejo, F.; Said, J.

    2017-09-01

    The Planetary Science Archive (PSA) is the European Space Agency's (ESA) repository of science data from all planetary science and exploration missions. The PSA provides access to scientific datasets through various interfaces at http://psa.esa.int. All datasets are scientifically peer-reviewed by independent scientists, and are compliant with the Planetary Data System (PDS) standards. The PSA has started to implement a number of significant improvements, mostly driven by the evolution of the PDS standards, and the growing need for better interfaces and advanced applications to support science exploitation.

  13. The inverse relationship between prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aref, Adel; Vincent, Andrew D; O'Callaghan, Michael; Martin, Sean; Sutherland, Peter; Hoy, Andrew; Butler, Lisa M; Wittert, Gary

    2018-06-25

    Obese men have lower serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) than comparably aged lean men, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of obesity on PSA and the potential contributing mechanisms. A cohort of 1195 men aged 35 years and over at recruitment, with demographic, anthropometric (body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC)) and serum hormone (serum testosterone (T), estradiol (E2)), PSA and hematology assessments obtained over two waves was assessed. Men with a history of prostate cancer or missing PSA were excluded, leaving 970 men for the final analysis. Mixed-effects regressions and mediation analyses adjusting for hormonal and volumetric factors explore the potential mechanisms relating obesity to PSA. After adjusting for age, PSA levels were lower in men with greater WC (p=0.001). In a multivariable model including WC, age, E2/T and PlasV as predictors, no statistically significant associations were observed between with PSA and either WC (p=0.36) or PlasV (p=0.49), while strong associations were observed with both E2/T (pPSA (p=0.31), while when E2/T is a mediator; the ACME explained roughly 0.5 of the effect (pPSA levels in obese men, as compared to normal weight men, can be explained both by hormonal changes (elevated E2/T ratio) and haemodilution. Hormonal factors therefore represent a substantial but underappreciated mediating pathway.

  14. Procedure for Application of Software Reliability Growth Models to NPP PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Han Seong; Kang, Hyun Gook; Chang, Seung Cheol

    2009-01-01

    As the use of software increases at nuclear power plants (NPPs), the necessity for including software reliability and/or safety into the NPP Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) rises. This work proposes an application procedure of software reliability growth models (RGMs), which are most widely used to quantify software reliability, to NPP PSA. Through the proposed procedure, it can be determined if a software reliability growth model can be applied to the NPP PSA before its real application. The procedure proposed in this work is expected to be very helpful for incorporating software into NPP PSA

  15. Analytic expressions for the construction of a fire event PSA model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Dae Il; Kim, Kil Yoo; Kim, Dong San; Hwang, Mee Jeong; Yang, Joon Eon

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the changing process of an internal event PSA model to a fire event PSA model is analytically presented and discussed. Many fire PSA models have fire induced initiating event fault trees not shown in an internal event PSA model. Fire-induced initiating fault tree models are developed for addressing multiple initiating event issues. A single fire event within a fire compartment or fire scenario can cause multiple initiating events. As an example, a fire in a turbine building area can cause a loss of the main feed-water and loss of off-site power initiating events. Up to now, there has been no analytic study on the construction of a fire event PSA model using an internal event PSA model with fault trees of initiating events. In this paper, the changing process of an internal event PSA model to a fire event PSA model was analytically presented and discussed. This study results show that additional cutsets can be obtained if the fault trees of initiating events for a fire event PSA model are not exactly developed.

  16. Analytic expressions for the construction of a fire event PSA model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Dae Il; Kim, Kil Yoo; Kim, Dong San; Hwang, Mee Jeong; Yang, Joon Eon [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In this study, the changing process of an internal event PSA model to a fire event PSA model is analytically presented and discussed. Many fire PSA models have fire induced initiating event fault trees not shown in an internal event PSA model. Fire-induced initiating fault tree models are developed for addressing multiple initiating event issues. A single fire event within a fire compartment or fire scenario can cause multiple initiating events. As an example, a fire in a turbine building area can cause a loss of the main feed-water and loss of off-site power initiating events. Up to now, there has been no analytic study on the construction of a fire event PSA model using an internal event PSA model with fault trees of initiating events. In this paper, the changing process of an internal event PSA model to a fire event PSA model was analytically presented and discussed. This study results show that additional cutsets can be obtained if the fault trees of initiating events for a fire event PSA model are not exactly developed.

  17. Serum complexed and free prostate-specific antigen (PSA) for the diagnosis of the polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamandis, Eleftherios P; Stanczyk, Frank Z; Wheeler, Sarah; Mathew, Anu; Stengelin, Martin; Nikolenko, Galina; Glezer, Eli N; Brown, Marshall D; Zheng, Yingye; Chen, Yen-Hao; Wu, Hsiao-Li; Azziz, Ricardo

    2017-10-26

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a common cause of reproductive and metabolic dysfunction. We hypothesized that serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) may constitute a new biomarker for hyperandrogenism in PCOS. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 45 women with PCOS and 40 controls. Serum from these women was analyzed for androgenic steroids and for complexed PSA (cPSA) and free PSA (fPSA) with a novel fifth- generation assay with a sensitivity of ~10 fg/mL for cPSA and 140 fg/mL for fPSA. cPSA and fPSA levels were about three times higher in PCOS compared to controls. However, in PCOS, cPSA and fPSA did not differ according to waist-to-hip ratio, Ferriman-Gallwey score, or degree of hyperandrogenemia or oligo-ovulation. In PCOS and control women, serum cPSA and fPSA levels were highly correlated with each other, and with free and total testosterone levels, but not with other hormones. Adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI) and race, cPSA was significantly associated with PCOS, with an odds ratio (OR) of 5.67 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.86, 22.0). The OR of PCOS for fPSA was 7.04 (95% CI: 1.65, 40.4). A multivariate model that included age, BMI, race and cPSA yielded an area-under-the-receiver-operating-characteristic curve of 0.89. Serum cPSA and fPSA are novel biomarkers for hyperandrogenism in PCOS and may have value for disease diagnosis.

  18. Immunohistochemical staining of precursor forms of prostate-specific antigen (proPSA) in metastatic prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parwani, Anil V; Marlow, Cameron; Demarzo, Angelo M; Mikolajczyk, Stephen D; Rittenhouse, Harry G; Veltri, Robert W; Chan, Theresa Y

    2006-10-01

    Precursors of prostate-specific antigen (proPSA) have been previously shown to be more concentrated in prostate cancer tissue. This study characterizes the immunohistochemical staining (IHS) of proPSA forms in metastatic prostate cancer compared with prostate specific antigen (PSA) and prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP). A tissue microarray, consisting of 74 cases of metastatic prostate carcinoma and control tissues, was used. IHS, using monoclonal antibodies against proPSA with a truncated proleader peptide containing 2 amino acids ([-2]pPSA), native ([-5/-7]pPSA), PSA, and PAP, was analyzed. The monoclonal antibodies were specific for both benign and malignant prostatic glandular tissue. IHS with [-5/-7]pPSA showed the least number of cases with negative staining (3%), and the most number of cases with moderate or strong staining (76%). In the 60 cases where all 4 stains could be evaluated, none of them were negative for proPSA and positive for PSA or PAP, and all 7 cases that were negative for both PSA and PAP showed IHS to proPSA. [-5/-7]pPSA (native proPSA) may be a better marker than PSA and PAP in characterizing metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma, with most of the cases showing positivity for the marker. Even cases that were negative for PSA and PAP, were reactive for proPSA. Such enhanced detection is particularly important in poorly differentiated carcinomas involving metastatic sites where prostate carcinoma is a consideration. A panel of markers, including proPSA, should be performed when metastatic prostate carcinoma is in the differential diagnosis.

  19. Extreme conservation of the psaA/psaB intercistronic spacer reveals a translational motif coincident with the evolution of land plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peredo, Elena L; Les, Donald H; King, Ursula M; Benoit, Lori K

    2012-12-01

    Although chloroplast transcriptional and translational mechanisms were derived originally from prokaryote endosymbionts, chloroplasts retain comparatively few genes as a consequence of the overall transfer to the nucleus of functions associated formerly with prokaryotic genomes. Various modifications reflect other evolutionary shifts toward eukaryotic regulation such as posttranscriptional transcript cleavage with individually processed cistrons in operons and gene expression regulated by nuclear-encoded sigma factors. We report a notable exception for the psaA-psaB-rps14 operon of land plant (embryophyte) chloroplasts, where the first two cistrons are separated by a spacer region to which no significant role had been attributed. We infer an important function of this region, as indicated by the conservation of identical, structurally significant sequences across embryophytes and their ancestral protist lineages, which diverged some 0.5 billion years ago. The psaA/psaB spacers of embryophytes and their progenitors exhibit few sequence and length variants, with most modeled transcripts resolving the same secondary structure: a loop with projecting Shine-Dalgarno site and well-defined stem that interacts with adjacent coding regions to sequester the psaB start codon. Although many functions of the original endosymbiont have been usurped by nuclear genes or interactions, conserved functional elements of embryophyte psaA/psaB spacers provide compelling evidence that translation of psaB is regulated here by a cis-acting mechanism comparable to those common in prokaryotes. Modeled transcripts also indicate that spacer variants in some plants (e.g., aquatic genus Najas) potentially reflect ecological adaptations to facilitate temperature-regulated translation of psaB.

  20. Updating the Psoriatic Arthritis (PsA) Core Domain Set: A Report from the PsA Workshop at OMERACT 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbai, Ana-Maria; de Wit, Maarten; Mease, Philip J; Callis Duffin, Kristina; Elmamoun, Musaab; Tillett, William; Campbell, Willemina; FitzGerald, Oliver; Gladman, Dafna D; Goel, Niti; Gossec, Laure; Hoejgaard, Pil; Leung, Ying Ying; Lindsay, Chris; Strand, Vibeke; van der Heijde, Désirée M; Shea, Bev; Christensen, Robin; Coates, Laura; Eder, Lihi; McHugh, Neil; Kalyoncu, Umut; Steinkoenig, Ingrid; Ogdie, Alexis

    2017-10-01

    To include the patient perspective in accordance with the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Filter 2.0 in the updated Psoriatic Arthritis (PsA) Core Domain Set for randomized controlled trials (RCT) and longitudinal observational studies (LOS). At OMERACT 2016, research conducted to update the PsA Core Domain Set was presented and discussed in breakout groups. The updated PsA Core Domain Set was voted on and endorsed by OMERACT participants. We conducted a systematic literature review of domains measured in PsA RCT and LOS, and identified 24 domains. We conducted 24 focus groups with 130 patients from 7 countries representing 5 continents to identify patient domains. We achieved consensus through 2 rounds of separate surveys with 50 patients and 75 physicians, and a nominal group technique meeting with 12 patients and 12 physicians. We conducted a workshop and breakout groups at OMERACT 2016 in which findings were presented and discussed. The updated PsA Core Domain Set endorsed with 90% agreement by OMERACT 2016 participants included musculoskeletal disease activity, skin disease activity, fatigue, pain, patient's global assessment, physical function, health-related quality of life, and systemic inflammation, which were recommended for all RCT and LOS. These were important, but not required in all RCT and LOS: economic cost, emotional well-being, participation, and structural damage. Independence, sleep, stiffness, and treatment burden were on the research agenda. The updated PsA Core Domain Set was endorsed at OMERACT 2016. Next steps for the PsA working group include evaluation of PsA outcome measures and development of a PsA Core Outcome Measurement Set.

  1. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    Overview In autumn the main focus was to process and handle CRAFT data and to perform the Summer08 MC production. The operational aspects were well covered by regular Computing Shifts, experts on duty and Computing Run Coordination. At the Computing Resource Board (CRB) in October a model to account for service work at Tier 2s was approved. The computing resources for 2009 were reviewed for presentation at the C-RRB. The quarterly resource monitoring is continuing. Facilities/Infrastructure operations Operations during CRAFT data taking ran fine. This proved to be a very valuable experience for T0 workflows and operations. The transfers of custodial data to most T1s went smoothly. A first round of reprocessing started at the Tier-1 centers end of November; it will take about two weeks. The Computing Shifts procedure was tested full scale during this period and proved to be very efficient: 30 Computing Shifts Persons (CSP) and 10 Computing Resources Coordinators (CRC). The shift program for the shut down w...

  2. Pulse shaping amplifier (PSA) for nuclear spectroscopy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombigit, L.; Maslina Mohd Ibrahim; Nolida Yusup; Nur Aira Abdul Rahman; Yong, C.F.

    2014-01-01

    Pulse Shaping Amplifier (PSA) is an essential components in nuclear spectroscopy system. This networks have two functions; to shape the output pulse and performs noise filtering. In this paper, we describes procedure for design and development of a pulse shaping amplifier which can be used for nuclear spectroscopy system. This prototype was developed using high performance electronics devices and assembled on a FR4 type printed circuit board. Performance of this prototype was tested by comparing it with an equivalent commercial spectroscopy amplifier (Model SILENA 7611). The test results show that the performance of this prototype is comparable to the commercial spectroscopic amplifier. (author)

  3. Losing the Dark: A Planetarium PSA about Light Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Carolyn Collins; Walker, Constance

    2015-03-01

    Losing the Dark is a six-minute PSA video created for fulldome theaters by Loch Ness Productions, the International Dark Sky Association Education Committee headed by Dr. Constance Walker of the National Optical Astronomy Observatories, Dome3, Adler Planetarium, and Babak Tafreshi (The World at Night). It explains light pollution, its effects, and ways to implement ``wise lighting`` practices to mitigate light pollution. The show is also made in flat-screen HD format for classical planetariums, non-dome theaters, and for presentatons by IDA speakers.

  4. A survey on the quantitative incorporation organizational factors into PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S. Z.; Jea, M. S.; Ahn, N. S.

    2002-01-01

    The effects of organizational factors on the human performance and safety in nuclear power plants have been known through the results of research for several years. The organizational factor, which belongs to 11 elements of PSR (Periodic Safety Review), has been an important research area. In this study the state-of-the-art of qualitative and quantitative evaluation methodologies on organizational factors has been surveyed. The results of this study may contribute to developing a quantitative evaluation methodology on organizational factors as well as the basic research for conducting the PSR research, and for incorporating the quality of organization factors into PSA

  5. Plant operational states analysis in low power and shutdown PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jiandong; Qiu Yongping; Zhang Qinfang; An Hongzhen; Li Maolin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of Plant Operational States (POS) analysis is to disperse the continuous and dynamic process of low power and shutdown operation, which is the basis of developing event tree models for accident sequence analysis. According to the design of a 300 MW Nuclear Power Plant Project, operating experience and procedures of the reference plant, a detailed POS analysis is carried out based on relative criteria. Then, several kinds of POS are obtained, and the duration of each POS is calculated according to the operation records of the reference plant. The POS analysis is an important element in low power and shutdown PSA. The methodology and contents provide reference for POS analysis. (authors)

  6. Colorectal Cancer - What You Need to Know PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-07-05

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement (PSA) is based on the July, 2011 CDC Vital Signs report. Colorectal cancer kills about 50,000 men and women every year. Screening can save lives! Screening can find abnormal growths so they can be removed before turning into cancer, and can find the cancer early, when it's easiest to treat. If you're over 50, talk to your doctor about getting screened for colorectal cancer.  Created: 7/5/2011 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 7/5/2011.

  7. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2011-01-01

    Introduction CMS distributed computing system performed well during the 2011 start-up. The events in 2011 have more pile-up and are more complex than last year; this results in longer reconstruction times and harder events to simulate. Significant increases in computing capacity were delivered in April for all computing tiers, and the utilisation and load is close to the planning predictions. All computing centre tiers performed their expected functionalities. Heavy-Ion Programme The CMS Heavy-Ion Programme had a very strong showing at the Quark Matter conference. A large number of analyses were shown. The dedicated heavy-ion reconstruction facility at the Vanderbilt Tier-2 is still involved in some commissioning activities, but is available for processing and analysis. Facilities and Infrastructure Operations Facility and Infrastructure operations have been active with operations and several important deployment tasks. Facilities participated in the testing and deployment of WMAgent and WorkQueue+Request...

  8. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    P. McBride

    The Computing Project is preparing for a busy year where the primary emphasis of the project moves towards steady operations. Following the very successful completion of Computing Software and Analysis challenge, CSA06, last fall, we have reorganized and established four groups in computing area: Commissioning, User Support, Facility/Infrastructure Operations and Data Operations. These groups work closely together with groups from the Offline Project in planning for data processing and operations. Monte Carlo production has continued since CSA06, with about 30M events produced each month to be used for HLT studies and physics validation. Monte Carlo production will continue throughout the year in the preparation of large samples for physics and detector studies ramping to 50 M events/month for CSA07. Commissioning of the full CMS computing system is a major goal for 2007. Site monitoring is an important commissioning component and work is ongoing to devise CMS specific tests to be included in Service Availa...

  9. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    Overview During the past three months activities were focused on data operations, testing and re-enforcing shift and operational procedures for data production and transfer, MC production and on user support. Planning of the computing resources in view of the new LHC calendar in ongoing. Two new task forces were created for supporting the integration work: Site Commissioning, which develops tools helping distributed sites to monitor job and data workflows, and Analysis Support, collecting the user experience and feedback during analysis activities and developing tools to increase efficiency. The development plan for DMWM for 2009/2011 was developed at the beginning of the year, based on the requirements from the Physics, Computing and Offline groups (see Offline section). The Computing management meeting at FermiLab on February 19th and 20th was an excellent opportunity discussing the impact and for addressing issues and solutions to the main challenges facing CMS computing. The lack of manpower is particul...

  10. Beam Test of the ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger System

    CERN Document Server

    Garvey, J; Mahout, G; Moye, T H; Staley, R J; Thomas, J P; Typaldos, D; Watkins, P M; Watson, A; Achenbach, R; Föhlisch, F; Geweniger, C; Hanke, P; Kluge, E E; Mahboubi, K; Meier, K; Meshkov, P; Rühr, F; Schmitt, K; Schultz-Coulon, H C; Ay, C; Bauss, B; Belkin, A; Rieke, S; Schäfer, U; Tapprogge, T; Trefzger, T; Weber, GA; Eisenhandler, E F; Landon, M; Apostologlou, P; Barnett, B M; Brawn, I P; Davis, A O; Edwards, J; Gee, C N P; Gillman, A R; Mirea, A; Perera, V J O; Qian, W; Sankey, D P C; Bohm, C; Hellman, S; Hidvegi, A; Silverstein, S

    2005-01-01

    The Level-1 Calorimter Trigger consists of a Preprocessor (PP), a Cluster Processor (CP), and a Jet/Energy-sum Processor (JEP). The CP and JEP receive digitised trigger-tower data from the Preprocessor and produce Region-of-Interest (RoIs) and trigger multiplicities. The latter are sent in real time to the Central Trigger Processor (CTP) where the Level-1 decision is made. On receipt of a Level-1 Accept, Readout Driver Modules (RODs), provide intermediate results to the data acquisition (DAQ) system for monitoring and diagnostic purpose. RoI information is sent to the RoI builder (RoIB) to help reduce the amount of data required for the Level-2 Trigger The Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger System at the test beam consisted of 1 Preprocessor module, 1 Cluster Processor Module, 1 Jet/Energy Module and 2 Common Merger Modules. Calorimeter energies were sucessfully handled thourghout the chain and trigger object sent to the CTP. Level-1 Accepts were sucessfully produced and used to drive the readout path. Online diagno...

  11. Interconnection test framework for the CMS level-1 trigger system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, J.; Magrans de Abril, M.; Wulz, C.E.

    2012-01-01

    The Level-1 Trigger Control and Monitoring System is a software package designed to configure, monitor and test the Level-1 Trigger System of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at CERN's Large Hadron Collider. It is a large and distributed system that runs over 50 PCs and controls about 200 hardware units. The objective of this paper is to describe and evaluate the architecture of a distributed testing framework - the Interconnection Test Framework (ITF). This generic and highly flexible framework for creating and executing hardware tests within the Level-1 Trigger environment is meant to automate testing of the 13 major subsystems interconnected with more than 1000 links. Features include a web interface to create and execute tests, modeling using finite state machines, dependency management, automatic configuration, and loops. Furthermore, the ITF will replace the existing heterogeneous testing procedures and help reducing both maintenance and complexity of operation tasks. (authors)

  12. Evaluation of PSA-age volume score in predicting prostate cancer in Chinese populationArticle Subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yi-Shuo; Wu, Xiao-Bo; Zhang, Ning; Jiang, Guang-Liang; Yu, Yang; Tong, Shi-Jun; Jiang, Hao-Wen; Mao, Shan-Hua; Na, Rong; Ding, Qiang

    2018-02-06

    This study was performed to evaluate prostate-specific antigen-age volume (PSA-AV) scores in predicting prostate cancer (PCa) in a Chinese biopsy population. A total of 2355 men who underwent initial prostate biopsy from January 2006 to November 2015 in Huashan Hospital were recruited in the current study. The PSA-AV scores were calculated and assessed together with PSA and PSA density (PSAD) retrospectively. Among 2133 patients included in the analysis, 947 (44.4%) were diagnosed with PCa. The mean age, PSA, and positive rates of digital rectal examination result and transrectal ultrasound result were statistically higher in men diagnosed with PCa (all P PSA-AV were 0.864 and 0.851, respectively, in predicting PCa in the entire population, both performed better than PSA (AUC = 0.805; P PSA-AV was more obvious in subgroup with PSA ranging from 2.0 ng ml-1 to 20.0 ng ml-1. A PSA-AV score of 400 had a sensitivity and specificity of 93.7% and 40.0%, respectively. In conclusion, the PSA-AV score performed equally with PSAD and was better than PSA in predicting PCa. This indicated that PSA-AV score could be a useful tool for predicting PCa in Chinese population.

  13. PSA based vulnerability and protectability analysis for NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopika, V.; Sanyasi Rao, V.V.S.; Ghosh, A.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The paper describes the generation of location sets and protection sets. ► Vulnerability and protectability used to rank location sets and protection sets. ► Ranking helps in adequacy of protection measures employed in various locations. ► The procedure for PSA based vital area identification is demonstrated. ► This method has found practical applicability for Indian NPP. -- Abstract: Identification of vital areas in a facility involves assessing the facility and the locations, whose sabotage can result in undesirable (radiological) consequences. Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) technique can find the component failures leading to core damage (a surrogate for radiological consequence) in a systematic manner, which can be extended to identification of vital areas. This paper describes the procedure for the generation of location sets (set of locations whose sabotage can lead to possible core damage) and protection sets (set of locations that must be protected to prevent possible core damage). In addition, measures such as vulnerability and protectability have been introduced, which can be used to rank location sets and protection sets.

  14. PSA based plant modifications and back-fits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The mandate of Principal Working Group No. 5 - Risk Assessment states that 'The group should deal with the technology and methods for identifying contributors to risk and assessing their importance, and appropriate exchanges of information on current research'. Since being formulated in 1982, along with this mandate, the group has also endeavored to develop a common understanding of the different approaches taken in risk assessment. The focus of this report is to provide knowledge to experts on the role Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) has had in safety decision making. PSA is a powerful tool for improving Nuclear Power Plant safety by identifying weaknesses in design or operation and setting priorities for plant modifications and back-fits. While the use is well recognised, it is also true that any safety decision is generally based on several elements, both probabilistic and deterministic. This document provides a general overview of insights gained from the representative set of examples collected from Member countries (Finland, France, Germany, Japan, Korea, Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States). The report starts with basic types of plant modifications which were carried out (e.g. hardware or software, important or minor, etc.) and the characteristics of the PSAs used in the examples (e.g. level and scope, specific or generic, on-going or terminated, etc.). The insights gained from this small collection are then reviewed. The appendix gives a full text version of the Member country contributions

  15. PSA results for Hanford high level waste Tank 101-SY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacFarlane, D.R.; Bott, T.F.; Brown, L.F.; Stack, D.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Kindinger, J.; Deremer, R.K.; Medhekar, S.R.; Mikschl, T.J. [PLG, Inc., Newport Beach, CA (United States)

    1993-10-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has performed a comprehensive probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) that includes consideration of external events for the weapons-production wastes stored in tank number 241-SY-101, commonly known as Tank 101-SY, as configured in December 1992. This tank, which periodically releases (``burps``) a gaseous mixture of hydrogen, nitrous oxide, ammonia, and nitrogen, was analyzed because of public safety concerns associated with the potential for release of radioactive tank contents should this gas mixture be ignited during one of the burps. In an effort to mitigate the burping phenomenon, an experiment is underway in which a large pump has been inserted into the tank to determine if pump-induced circulation of the tank contents will promote a slow, controlled release of the gases. This PSA for Tank 101-SY, which did not consider the pump experiment or future tank-remediation activities, involved three distinct tasks. First, the accident sequence analysis identified and quantified those potential accidents whose consequences result in tank material release. Second, characteristics and release paths for the airborne and liquid radioactive source terms were determined. Finally, the consequences, primarily onsite and offsite potential health effects resulting from radionuclide release, were estimated, and overall risk curves were constructed. An overview of each of these tasks and a summary of the overall results of the analysis are presented in the following sections.

  16. PSA results for Hanford high level waste Tank 101-SY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacFarlane, D.R.; Bott, T.F.; Brown, L.F.; Stack, D.W.; Kindinger, J.; Deremer, R.K.; Medhekar, S.R.; Mikschl, T.J.

    1993-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has performed a comprehensive probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) that includes consideration of external events for the weapons-production wastes stored in tank number 241-SY-101, commonly known as Tank 101-SY, as configured in December 1992. This tank, which periodically releases (''burps'') a gaseous mixture of hydrogen, nitrous oxide, ammonia, and nitrogen, was analyzed because of public safety concerns associated with the potential for release of radioactive tank contents should this gas mixture be ignited during one of the burps. In an effort to mitigate the burping phenomenon, an experiment is underway in which a large pump has been inserted into the tank to determine if pump-induced circulation of the tank contents will promote a slow, controlled release of the gases. This PSA for Tank 101-SY, which did not consider the pump experiment or future tank-remediation activities, involved three distinct tasks. First, the accident sequence analysis identified and quantified those potential accidents whose consequences result in tank material release. Second, characteristics and release paths for the airborne and liquid radioactive source terms were determined. Finally, the consequences, primarily onsite and offsite potential health effects resulting from radionuclide release, were estimated, and overall risk curves were constructed. An overview of each of these tasks and a summary of the overall results of the analysis are presented in the following sections

  17. Importance of the multi-modules study in PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez R, V. J.; Nelson E, P. F.

    2015-09-01

    The current approach that has taken the Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) consists of doing all the APS analysis including the existence of multi-units in the nuclear power plants (NPP), this new approach seeks to analyze the risk of site, evaluating all reactors together. The main reasons for this trend are: the accident occurred on March 2011 in Fukushima Daiichi in Japan, with serious consequences in more than one reactor of the NPP and the current planning and construction of new Small Modular Reactors, which host more than one module on the same NPP and are connected to a single control room. This study analyzes how to model the risk of a multi-module NPP. In 2013, the ASME/ANS standard for advanced reactors that are not light-water reactors was published, in which the requirements to realize a PSA including multi-units or modules are shown; however, does not describe the methodology to do that. This article presents a methodology to calculate the risk of the site in a PBMR plant with two modules. This methodology consists of two models of trees of different events, one that evaluates to a single PBMR module and another that evaluates the two modules together. Both models are responsible to show their differences and compare results to finally demonstrate the need for new methodologies for risk analysis site in multi-modules and units. (Author)

  18. A Tsunami PSA for Nuclear Power Plants in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min Kyu; Choi, In Kil; Park, Jin Hee; Seo, Kyung Suk; Seo, Jeong Moon; Yang, Joon Eon

    2010-06-01

    For the evaluation of safety of NPP caused by Tsunami event, probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) method was applied in this study. At first, an empirical tsunami hazard analysis performed for an evaluation of tsunami return period. A procedure for tsunami fragility methodology was established, and target equipment and structures for investigation of Tsunami Hazard assessment were selected. A several fragility calculations were performed for equipment in Nuclear Power Plant and finally accident scenario of tsunami event in NPP was presented. Finally, a system analysis performed in the case of tsunami event for an evaluation of a CDF of Ulchin 56 NPP site. For the evaluation of safety of NPP caused by Tsunami event, probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) method was applied. A procedure for tsunami fragility methodology was established, and target equipment and structures for investigation of Tsunami Hazard assessment were selected. A several fragility calculations were performed for equipment in Nuclear Power Plant and finally accident scenario of tsunami event in NPP was presented. As a result, in the case of tsunami event, functional failure is mostly governed total failure probability of facilities in NPP site

  19. External events analysis in PSA studies for Czech NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holy, J.; Hustak, S.; Kolar, L.; Jaros, M.; Hladky, M.; Mlady, O.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to summarize current status of natural external hazards analysis in the PSA projects maintained in Czech Republic for both Czech NPPs - Dukovany and Temelin. The focus of the presentation is put upon the basic milestones in external event analysis effort - identification of external hazards important for Czech NPPs sites, screening out of the irrelevant hazards, modeling of plant response to the initiating events, including the basic activities regarding vulnerability and fragility analysis (supported with on-site analysis), quantification of accident sequences, interpretation of results and development of measures decreasing external events risk. The following external hazards are discussed in the paper, which have been addressed during several last years in PSA projects for Czech NPPs: 1)seismicity, 2)extremely low temperature 3)extremely high temperature 4)extreme wind 5)extreme precipitation (water, snow) 6)transport of dangerous substances (as an example of man-made hazard with some differences identified in comparison with natural hazards) 7)other hazards, which are not considered as very important for Czech NPPs, were screened out in the initial phase of the analysis, but are known as potential problem areas abroad. The paper is a result of coordinated effort with participation of experts and staff from engineering support organization UJV Rez, a.s. and NPPs located in Czech Republic - Dukovany and Temelin. (authors)

  20. Interoperability In The New Planetary Science Archive (PSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, C.; Barbarisi, I.; Docasal, R.; Macfarlane, A. J.; Gonzalez, J.; Arviset, C.; Grotheer, E.; Besse, S.; Martinez, S.; Heather, D.; De Marchi, G.; Lim, T.; Fraga, D.; Barthelemy, M.

    2015-12-01

    As the world becomes increasingly interconnected, there is a greater need to provide interoperability with software and applications that are commonly being used globally. For this purpose, the development of the new Planetary Science Archive (PSA), by the European Space Astronomy Centre (ESAC) Science Data Centre (ESDC), is focused on building a modern science archive that takes into account internationally recognised standards in order to provide access to the archive through tools from third parties, for example by the NASA Planetary Data System (PDS), the VESPA project from the Virtual Observatory of Paris as well as other international institutions. The protocols and standards currently being supported by the new Planetary Science Archive at this time are the Planetary Data Access Protocol (PDAP), the EuroPlanet-Table Access Protocol (EPN-TAP) and Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards. The architecture of the PSA consists of a Geoserver (an open-source map server), the goal of which is to support use cases such as the distribution of search results, sharing and processing data through a OGC Web Feature Service (WFS) and a Web Map Service (WMS). This server also allows the retrieval of requested information in several standard output formats like Keyhole Markup Language (KML), Geography Markup Language (GML), shapefile, JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) and Comma Separated Values (CSV), among others. The provision of these various output formats enables end-users to be able to transfer retrieved data into popular applications such as Google Mars and NASA World Wind.

  1. Improvements in progress for Russia's new PSA law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugliaresi, L.; Hensel, A.C.

    1996-01-01

    Russian legislation making production sharing agreements (PSAs) fully legal under Russian law passed the upper house of the Russian Parliament (Federal Council) on December 19, 1995, was signed into law by President Boris Yeltsin on December 31, 1995, and took effect on January 11, 1996. While PSA legislation remains the central legal basis for large scale investment in the Russian petroleum sector, company views towards investment in this sector are tied to much more than the extent of legal guarantees. Investor attitudes are also shaped by expectations regarding political stability, behavior of Russian regulatory authorities, and prospects for the Russian economy. Furthermore, Western investors in the petroleum sector have some experience in dealing with the Russian government and existing frameworks for investment, particularly the joint venture (JV) deals with Russian entities and the often changing regulatory and tax treatment of these ventures. It is the view of the authors that attitudes among some Western companies in Russia on the political and economic environment may be too pessimistic and shaped more by press reports than actual conditions. News reports on violence, political instability, and a disastrous economy are not entirely borne out by the facts. Russian, of course, faces serious political and economic problems which must be carefully evaluated, but the overall outlook is much more complex, and some positive developments are underway. This paper reviews the economic, oil production and industry outlook as a result of the PSA law

  2. Guidance document on practices to model and implement Earthquake hazards in extended PSA (final version). Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decker, K.; Hirata, K.; Groudev, P.

    2016-01-01

    The current report provides guidance for the assessment of seismo-tectonic hazards in level 1 and 2 PSA. The objective is to review existing guidance, identify methodological challenges, and to propose novel guidance on key issues. Guidance for the assessment of vibratory ground motion and fault capability comprises the following: - listings of data required for the hazard assessment and methods to estimate data quality and completeness; - in-depth discussion of key input parameters required for hazard models; - discussions on commonly applied hazard assessment methodologies; - references to recent advances of science and technology. Guidance on the assessment of correlated or coincident hazards comprises of chapters on: - screening of correlated hazards; - assessment of correlated hazards (natural and man-made); - assessment of coincident hazards. (authors)

  3. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2013-01-01

    Computing activity had ramped down after the completion of the reprocessing of the 2012 data and parked data, but is increasing with new simulation samples for analysis and upgrade studies. Much of the Computing effort is currently involved in activities to improve the computing system in preparation for 2015. Operations Office Since the beginning of 2013, the Computing Operations team successfully re-processed the 2012 data in record time, not only by using opportunistic resources like the San Diego Supercomputer Center which was accessible, to re-process the primary datasets HTMHT and MultiJet in Run2012D much earlier than planned. The Heavy-Ion data-taking period was successfully concluded in February collecting almost 500 T. Figure 3: Number of events per month (data) In LS1, our emphasis is to increase efficiency and flexibility of the infrastructure and operation. Computing Operations is working on separating disk and tape at the Tier-1 sites and the full implementation of the xrootd federation ...

  4. Analysis of PSA-Specific T-Cell Responses of Prostate Cancer Patients Given a PSA-Based Vaccine on a Clinical Trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gulley, James

    2003-01-01

    .... This randomized, phase II clinical trial was designed to determine if a PSA-based vaccine could induce a specific immune response when combined with radiotherapy in patients with localized prostate cancer...

  5. PET/CT with (18)F-choline after radical prostatectomy in patients with PSA ≤2 ng/ml. Can PSA velocity and PSA doubling time help in patient selection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaravalloti, Agostino; Di Biagio, Daniele; Tavolozza, Mario; Calabria, Ferdinando; Schillaci, Orazio

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the performance of (18)F-fluorocholine ((18)F-FCH) PET/CT in relation to the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) kinetic indexes, PSA doubling time (PSAdt) and PSA velocity (PSAve), in detecting recurrent prostate cancer (PC) in a selected population of patients treated with radical prostatectomy and with PSA ≤2 ng/ml. The study group comprised 79 patients (mean age 70 ± 7 years, range 58 - 77 years) who had been treated with radical surgery 30 to 90 months previously and with biochemical failure (defined as a measurable serum PSA level) who were evaluated with (18)F-FCH PET/CT. In order to establish the optimal threshold for PSAdt and PSAve, the diagnostic performance of PSA, PSAdt and PSAve were compared by receiver operating characteristic analysis. In the population examined, PSA (mean ± SD) was 1.37 ± 0.44 ng/ml (range 0.21 - 2 ng/ml) before PET/CT examination, PSAdt was 10.04 ± 16.67 months and PSAve was 2.75 ± 3.11 ng/ml per year. (18)F-FCH PET/CT was positive in 44 patients (55 %). PSAve and PSAdt were significantly different between patients with a positive and a negative (18)F-FCH PET/CT scan. Thresholds of 6 months for PSAdt and 1 ng/ml per year for PSAve were selected. For PSAdt ≤6 months the detection rate (DR) was 65 %, and for PSAve >1 ng/ml per year the DR was 67 %. PSA values were not significantly different between patients with a positive and a negative PET/CT scan. The results of our study suggest that (18)F-FCH PET/CT could be considered for the evaluation of patients with biochemical recurrence of PC and with low PSA levels. Fast PSA kinetics could be useful in the selection of these patients.

  6. Report 6: Guidance document. Man-made hazards and Accidental Aircraft Crash hazards modelling and implementation in extended PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahia, S.; Brinkman, H.; Bareith, A.; Siklossy, T.; Vinot, T.; Mateescu, T.; Espargilliere, J.; Burgazzi, L.; Ivanov, I.; Bogdanov, D.; Groudev, P.; Ostapchuk, S.; Zhabin, O.; Stojka, T.; Alzbutas, R.; Kumar, M.; Nitoi, M.; Farcasiu, M.; Borysiewicz, M.; Kowal, K.; Potempski, S.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this report is to provide guidance on practices to model man-made hazards (mainly external fires and explosions) and accidental aircraft crash hazards and implement them in extended Level 1 PSA. This report is a joint deliverable of work package 21 (WP21) and work package 22 (WP22). The general objective of WP21 is to provide guidance on all of the individual hazards selected at the first ASAMPSA-E End Users Workshop (May 2014, Uppsala, Sweden). The objective of WP22 is to provide the solutions for purposes of different parts of man-made hazards Level 1 PSA fulfilment. This guidance is focusing on man-made hazards, namely: external fires and explosions, and accidental aircraft crash hazards. Guidance developed refers to existing guidance whenever possible. The initial part of guidance (WP21 part) reflects current practices to assess the frequencies for each type of hazards or combination of hazards (including correlated hazards) as initiating event for PSAs. The sources and quality of hazard data, the elements of hazard assessment methodologies and relevant examples are discussed. Classification and criteria to properly assess hazard combinations as well as examples and methods for assessment of these combinations are included in this guidance. In appendixes additional material is presented with the examples of practical approaches to aircraft crash and man-made hazard. The following issues are addressed: 1) Hazard assessment methodologies, including issues related to hazard combinations. 2) Modelling equipment of safety related SSC, 3) HRA, 4) Emergency response, 5) Multi-unit issues. Recommendations and also limitations, gaps identified in the existing methodologies and a list of open issues are included. At all stages of this guidance and especially from an industrial end-user perspective, one must keep in mind that the development of man-made hazards probabilistic analysis must be conditioned to the ability to ultimately obtain a representative risk

  7. utility of prostate specific antigen (psa) in the indigenous african man

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the standard PSA reference levels generated in non-African study subjects. Design: A ... the best use of PSA in the indigenous black African man but also his place in the new ... tendency as well as measures of dispersion. Inferential statistics assumed a 95% confidence interval and .... men: Results from a pilot study.

  8. Excess cases of prostate cancer and estimated overdiagnosis associated with PSA testing in East Anglia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashayan, N; Powles, J; Brown, C; Duffy, S W

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the extent of ‘overdiagnosis' of prostate cancer attributable to prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing in the Cambridge area between 1996 and 2002. Overdiagnosis was defined conceptually as detection of prostate cancer through PSA testing that otherwise would not have been diagnosed within the patient's lifetime. Records of PSA tests in Addenbrookes Hospital were linked to prostate cancer registrations by NHS number. Differences in prostate cancer registration rates between those receiving and not receiving prediagnosis PSA tests were calculated. The proportion of men aged 40 years or over with a prediagnosis PSA test increased from 1.4 to 5.2% from 1996 to 2002. The rate of diagnosis of prostate cancer was 45% higher (rate ratios (RR)=1.45, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.02–2.07) in men with a history of prediagnosis PSA testing. Assuming average lead times of 5 to 10 years, 40–64% of the PSA-detected cases were estimated to be overdiagnosed. In East Anglia, from 1996 to 2000, a 1.6% excess of cases was associated with PSA testing (around a quarter of the 5.3% excess incidence cases observed in East Anglia from 1996 to 2000). Further quantification of the overdiagnosis will result from continued surveillance and from linkage of incidence to testing in other hospitals. PMID:16832417

  9. [Clinical evaluation of TANDEM PSA in Japanese cases and comparison with other methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriyama, M; Yamamoto, N; Shinoda, I; Kawada, Y; Akimoto, S; Shimazaki, J

    1995-01-01

    Clinical evaluation of TANDEM PSA which is the most frequently used prostate specific antigen (PSA) assay method in the world and a comparison with other methods were performed in Japanese cases in a cooperative research fashion. The minimum detectable level of the method was found to be 0.50 ng of PSA in one ml of serum and 1.9 ng/ml was regarded as the upper normal value in Japanese males. The distribution of serum PSA showed a significant difference between the benign prostate hypertrophy (BPH) cases and patients with stage C or D prostate cancer. The sero-diagnosis prostate cancer at an early stage with the TANDEM PSA was difficult. The correlation to other methods of PSA detection was very high. Furthermore, the clinical use of the method in following-up the clinical course of prostate cancer patients was very useful. These findings suggested that the PSA detection using TANDEM PSA is applicable even in Japanese cases although the upper cut-off level is decreased.

  10. PSA in licensing, safety reviews and design as applied in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, H.P.; Goertz, R.; Schott, H.; Wendling, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, two topics - the application of PSA in the regulatory process and the effort to improve PSA methods and models - are addressed. From the regulators' point of view, the most important application of PSA in Germany is presently within the safety reviews of nuclear power plants in operation. The current status of regulatory guidance which shall be provided to establish a uniform procedure for a periodic safety review is described with special emphasis on the role of PSA. An important goal is to have all plant-specific PSAs comparable as far as possible. Guidance for PSA review is under development likewise. Furthermore, the application of PSA in licensing of nuclear power plants is addressed as well as its use in the design process of future pressurized water reactors. The development of models and methods to be applied in PSA has been and will be supported by a number of studies and investigations. An overview of the main issues of these investigations is provided. A specific task was the elaboration of a proposal for incorporating fire events into the PSA. The status of these efforts is outlined. (author). 7 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  11. Human actions treatment in the Juragua NPP pre-operational PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferro Fernandez, R.

    1996-01-01

    The human reliability analysis is an important part of the Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA). Because Juragua NPP PSA has been accomplished during construction stage of the plant, no specific operational procedures nor experience for human reliability analysis task taking into account the worlds current methodologies in this field and the actual situation of the plant. This papers describes the approach we followed

  12. Review of UCN 5,6 Fire PSA Model based on ANS Fire PRA Standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Joon Eon; Lee, Yoon Hwan

    2006-12-01

    Recently, under the de-regulation environment, nuclear industry has attempted various approaches to improve the economics of Nuclear Power Plants (NPP). This approach uses the fire risk and performance information to manage the resources effectively and efficiently that are used in the operation of NPP. In fire risk informed/performance-based decision/operation, fire PSA quality is one of the most important things. The nuclear industry and regulatory body of U.S.A have developed a measure to evaluate the quality of fire PSA. ANS (American Nuclear Society) has developed a guidance called 'ANS Fire PRA Methodology Standard'. However, in Korea, there have been no attempts to evaluate the quality of fire PSA model itself. Therefore, we cannot be sure about the quality of fire PSA whether or not the present fire PSA model can be used for the risk-informed applications such as mentioned above. We can say that the evaluation of fire PSA model quality is the basis for the fire risk informed/performance-based decision/operation. In this report, we have evaluated the quality of fire PSA model for Ulchin 5 and 6 units based on the ANS Fire PRA Standard. We, also, have derived what items are to be improved to upgrade the quality of fire PSA model and how it can be improved. This report can be used as the base of the fire risk informed/performance-based decision/operation work in Korea

  13. Level-1 muon trigger performance with the full 2017 dataset

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    This document describes the performance of the CMS Level-1 Muon Trigger with the full dataset of 2017. Efficiency plots are included for each track finder (TF) individually and for the system as a whole. The efficiency is measured to be greater than 90% for all track finders.

  14. A Practical Algorithm for Reconstructing Level-1 Phylogenetic Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.T. Huber; L.J.J. van Iersel (Leo); S.M. Kelk (Steven); R. Suchecki

    2010-01-01

    htmlabstractRecently much attention has been devoted to the construction of phylogenetic networks which generalize phylogenetic trees in order to accommodate complex evolutionary processes. Here we present an efficient, practical algorithm for reconstructing level-1 phylogenetic networks - a type of

  15. A practical algorithm for reconstructing level-1 phylogenetic networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huber, K.T.; Iersel, van L.J.J.; Kelk, S.M.; Suchecki, R.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, much attention has been devoted to the construction of phylogenetic networks which generalize phylogenetic trees in order to accommodate complex evolutionary processes. Here, we present an efficient, practical algorithm for reconstructing level-1 phylogenetic networks-a type of network

  16. Upgrade of the ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Wessels, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger (L1Calo) of the ATLAS experiment has been operating well since the start of LHC data taking, and played a major role in the Higgs boson discovery. To face the new challenges posed by the upcoming increases of the LHC proton beam energy and luminosity, a series of upgrades is planned for L1Calo. The initial upgrade phase in 2013-14 includes substantial improvements to the analogue and digital signal processing to allow more sophisticated digital filters for energy and timing measurement, as well as compensate for pile-up and baseline shifting effects. Two existing digital algorithm processor subsystems will receive substantial hardware and firmware upgrades to increase the real-time data path bandwidth, allowing topological information to be transmitted and processed at Level-1. An entirely new subsystem, the Level-1 Topological Processor, will receive real-time data from both the upgraded L1Calo and Level-1 Muon Trigger to perform trigger algorithms based on entire event topolo...

  17. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2010-01-01

    Introduction It has been a very active quarter in Computing with interesting progress in all areas. The activity level at the computing facilities, driven by both organised processing from data operations and user analysis, has been steadily increasing. The large-scale production of simulated events that has been progressing throughout the fall is wrapping-up and reprocessing with pile-up will continue. A large reprocessing of all the proton-proton data has just been released and another will follow shortly. The number of analysis jobs by users each day, that was already hitting the computing model expectations at the time of ICHEP, is now 33% higher. We are expecting a busy holiday break to ensure samples are ready in time for the winter conferences. Heavy Ion An activity that is still in progress is computing for the heavy-ion program. The heavy-ion events are collected without zero suppression, so the event size is much large at roughly 11 MB per event of RAW. The central collisions are more complex and...

  18. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann P. McBride Edited by M-C. Sawley with contributions from: P. Kreuzer D. Bonacorsi S. Belforte F. Wuerthwein L. Bauerdick K. Lassila-Perini M-C. Sawley

    Introduction More than seventy CMS collaborators attended the Computing and Offline Workshop in San Diego, California, April 20-24th to discuss the state of readiness of software and computing for collisions. Focus and priority were given to preparations for data taking and providing room for ample dialog between groups involved in Commissioning, Data Operations, Analysis and MC Production. Throughout the workshop,