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Sample records for level statistics properties

  1. Shnirelman peak in the level spacing statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirikov, B.V.; Shepelyanskij, D.L.

    1994-01-01

    The first results on the statistical properties of the quantum quasidegeneracy are presented. A physical interpretation of the Shnirelman theorem predicted the bulk quasidegeneracy is given. The conditions for the strong impact of the degeneracy on the quantum level statistics are formulated which allows to extend the application of the Shnirelman theorem into a broad class of quantum systems. 14 refs., 3 figs

  2. Statistical properties of reactor antineutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Rusov, V D; Tarasov, V O; Shaaban, Y

    2002-01-01

    Based on the properties of the cascade statistics of reactor antineutrinos, the efficient method of searching for neutrino oscillations is offered. The determination of physical parameters of this statistics, i.e. the average number of fissions and the overage number of antineutrinos per fission, requires no a priori knowledge of the geometry and characteristics of the detector, the reactor power, and composition of nuclear fuel.

  3. Statistical properties of earthquakes clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vecchio

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Often in nature the temporal distribution of inhomogeneous stochastic point processes can be modeled as a realization of renewal Poisson processes with a variable rate. Here we investigate one of the classical examples, namely, the temporal distribution of earthquakes. We show that this process strongly departs from a Poisson statistics for both catalogue and sequence data sets. This indicate the presence of correlations in the system probably related to the stressing perturbation characterizing the seismicity in the area under analysis. As shown by this analysis, the catalogues, at variance with sequences, show common statistical properties.

  4. Statistical Properties of Online Auctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namazi, Alireza; Schadschneider, Andreas

    We characterize the statistical properties of a large number of online auctions run on eBay. Both stationary and dynamic properties, like distributions of prices, number of bids etc., as well as relations between these quantities are studied. The analysis of the data reveals surprisingly simple distributions and relations, typically of power-law form. Based on these findings we introduce a simple method to identify suspicious auctions that could be influenced by a form of fraud known as shill bidding. Furthermore the influence of bidding strategies is discussed. The results indicate that the observed behavior is related to a mixture of agents using a variety of strategies.

  5. Statistical properties of barium stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakkila, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    Barium stars are G- and K-giant stars with atmospheric excesses of s-process elements, and a broadband spectral depression in the blue portion of the spectrum. The strength of the λ4554 Ball line is used as a classification parameter known as the Barium Intensity. They have a mean absolute magnitude of 1.0 and a dispersion of 1.2 magnitudes (assuming a Gaussian distribution in absolute magnitude) as measured from secular and statistical parallaxes. These stars apparently belong to a young-disk population from analyses of both the solar reflex motion and their residual velocity distribution, which implies that they have an upper mass limit of around three solar masses. There is no apparent correlation of barium intensity with either luminosity or kinematic properties. The barium stars appear to be preferentially distributed in the direction of the local spiral arm, but show no preference to associate with or avoid the direction of the galactic center. They do not appear related to either the carbon or S-stars because of these tendencies and because of the stellar population to which each type of star belongs. The distribution in absolute magnitude combined with star count analyses implies that these stars are slightly less numerous than previously believed. Barium stars show infrared excesses that correlate with their barium intensities

  6. Statistical properties of curved polymer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    respective ground states decide the conformational statistics of the polymer. For semiflexible polymers, the relevant non-dimensional quantity is lp/L, where lp is the persistence length (which is proportional to the bending modulus k) and L is the contour length of the polymer. In the limit, lp/L ≪ 1, the polymer behaves as.

  7. Characterizing the statistical properties of protein surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Ji Hyun; Bitbol, Anne-Florence; Bialek, William

    Proteins and their interactions form the body of the signaling transduction pathway in many living systems. In order to ensure the accuracy as well as the specificity of signaling, it is crucial that proteins recognize their correct interaction partners. How difficult, then, is it for a protein to discriminate its correct interaction partner(s) from the possibly large set of other proteins it may encounter in the cell? An important ingredient of recognition is shape complementarity. The ensemble of protein shapes should be constrained by the need for maintaining functional interactions while avoiding spurious ones. To address this aspect of protein recognition, we consider the ensemble of proteins in terms of the shapes of their surfaces. We take into account the high-resolution structures of E.coli non-DNA-binding cytoplasmic proteins, retrieved from the Protein Data Bank. We aim to characterize the statistical properties of the protein surfaces at two levels: First, we study the intrinsic dimensionality at the level of the ensemble of the surface objects. Second, at the level of the individual surfaces, we determine the scale of shape variation. We further discuss how the dimensionality of the shape space is linked to the statistical properties of individual protein surfaces. Jhb and WB acknowledge support from National Science Foundation Grants PHY-1305525 and PHY-1521553. AFB acknowledges support from the Human Frontier Science Program.

  8. Intermetallics structures, properties, and statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Steurer, Walter

    2016-01-01

    The focus of this book is clearly on the statistics, topology, and geometry of crystal structures and crystal structure types. This allows one to uncover important structural relationships and to illustrate the relative simplicity of most of the general structural building principles. It also allows one to show that a large variety of actual structures can be related to a rather small number of aristotypes. It is important that this book is readable and beneficial in the one way or another for everyone interested in intermetallic phases, from graduate students to experts in solid-state chemistry/physics/materials science. For that purpose it avoids using an enigmatic abstract terminology for the classification of structures. The focus on the statistical analysis of structures and structure types should be seen as an attempt to draw the background of the big picture of intermetallics, and to point to the white spots in it, which could be worthwhile exploring. This book was not planned as a textbook; rather, it...

  9. Quasiparticle features and level statistics of odd-odd nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Nanpu; Zheng Renrong; Zhu Shunquan

    2001-01-01

    The energy levels of the odd-odd nucleus 84 Y are calculated by using the axially symmetric rotor plus quasiparticles model. The two standard statistical tests of Random-Matrix Theory such as the distribution function p(s) of the nearest-neighbor level spacings (NNS) and the spectral rigidity Δ 3 are used to explore the statistical properties of the energy levels. By analyzing the properties of p(s) and Δ 3 under various conditions, the authors find that the quasiparticle features mainly affect the statistical properties of the odd-odd nucleus 84 Y through the recoil term and the Coriolis force in this theoretical mode, and that the chaotic degree of the energy levels decreases with the decreasing of the Fermi energy and the energy-gap parameters. The effect of the recoil term is small while the Coriolis force plays a major role in the spectral structure of 84 Y

  10. Statistical properties of coastal long waves analysed through sea-level time-gradient functions: exemplary analysis of the Siracusa, Italy, tide-gauge data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bressan

    2016-01-01

    reconstructed sea level (RSL, the background slope (BS and the control function (CF. These functions are examined through a traditional spectral fast Fourier transform (FFT analysis and also through a statistical analysis, showing that they can be characterised by probability distribution functions PDFs such as the Student's t distribution (IS and RSL and the beta distribution (CF. As an example, the method has been applied to data from the tide-gauge station of Siracusa, Italy.

  11. Distributional Properties of Order Statistics and Record Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Hamid Khan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Distributional properties of the order statistics, upper and lower records have been utilized to characterize distributions of interest. Further, one sided random dilation and contraction are utilized to obtain the distribution of non-adjacent ordered statistics and also their important deductions are discussed.

  12. Quantum level statistics of pseudointegrable billiards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheon, T.; Cohen, T.D.

    1989-01-01

    We study the spectral statistics of systems of two-dimensional pseudointegrable billiards. These systems are classically nonergodic, but nonseparable. It is found that such systems possess quantum spectra which are closely simulated by the Gaussian orthogonal ensemble. We discuss the implications of these results on the conjectured relation between classical chaos and quantum level statistics. We emphasize the importance of the semiclassical nature of any such relation

  13. On the statistical properties of photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cini, M.

    1990-01-01

    The interpretation in terms of a transition from Maxwell-Boltzmann to Bose-Einstein statistics of the effect in quantum optics of degenerate light discovered by De Martini and Di Fonzo is discussed. It is shown that the results of the experiment can be explained by using only the quantum-mechanical rule that the states of an assembly of bosons should be completely symmetrical, without mentioning in any way their statistical properties. This means that photons are indeed identical particles

  14. Multivariate statistical assessment of coal properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klika, Z.; Serenčíšová, J.; Kožušníková, Alena; Kolomazník, I.; Študentová, S.; Vontorová, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 128, č. 128 (2014), s. 119-127 ISSN 0378-3820 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : coal properties * structural,chemical and petrographical properties * multivariate statistics Subject RIV: DH - Mining, incl. Coal Mining Impact factor: 3.352, year: 2014 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fuproc.2014.06.029

  15. Statistics of high-level scene context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Michelle R

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT IS CRITICAL FOR RECOGNIZING ENVIRONMENTS AND FOR SEARCHING FOR OBJECTS WITHIN THEM: contextual associations have been shown to modulate reaction time and object recognition accuracy, as well as influence the distribution of eye movements and patterns of brain activations. However, we have not yet systematically quantified the relationships between objects and their scene environments. Here I seek to fill this gap by providing descriptive statistics of object-scene relationships. A total of 48, 167 objects were hand-labeled in 3499 scenes using the LabelMe tool (Russell et al., 2008). From these data, I computed a variety of descriptive statistics at three different levels of analysis: the ensemble statistics that describe the density and spatial distribution of unnamed "things" in the scene; the bag of words level where scenes are described by the list of objects contained within them; and the structural level where the spatial distribution and relationships between the objects are measured. The utility of each level of description for scene categorization was assessed through the use of linear classifiers, and the plausibility of each level for modeling human scene categorization is discussed. Of the three levels, ensemble statistics were found to be the most informative (per feature), and also best explained human patterns of categorization errors. Although a bag of words classifier had similar performance to human observers, it had a markedly different pattern of errors. However, certain objects are more useful than others, and ceiling classification performance could be achieved using only the 64 most informative objects. As object location tends not to vary as a function of category, structural information provided little additional information. Additionally, these data provide valuable information on natural scene redundancy that can be exploited for machine vision, and can help the visual cognition community to design experiments guided by statistics

  16. Statistical properties of transport in plasma turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naulin, V.; Garcia, O.E.; Nielsen, A.H.

    2004-01-01

    The statistical properties of the particle flux in different types of plasma turbulence models are numerically investigated using probability distribution functions (PDFs). The physics included in the models range from two-dimensional drift wave turbulence to three-dimensional MHD dynamics...

  17. Statistical properties of mine tremor aftershocks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kgarume, TE

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Mine tremors and their aftershocks pose a risk to mine workers in the deep gold mines of South Africa. The statistical properties of mine-tremor aftershocks were investigated as part of an endeavour to assess the hazard and manage the risk. Data...

  18. Noise level and MPEG-2 encoder statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jungwoo

    1997-01-01

    Most software in the movie and broadcasting industries are still in analog film or tape format, which typically contains random noise that originated from film, CCD camera, and tape recording. The performance of the MPEG-2 encoder may be significantly degraded by the noise. It is also affected by the scene type that includes spatial and temporal activity. The statistical property of noise originating from camera and tape player is analyzed and the models for the two types of noise are developed. The relationship between the noise, the scene type, and encoder statistics of a number of MPEG-2 parameters such as motion vector magnitude, prediction error, and quant scale are discussed. This analysis is intended to be a tool for designing robust MPEG encoding algorithms such as preprocessing and rate control.

  19. Thermodynamic properties of particles with intermediate statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joyce, G.S.; Sarkar, S.; Spal/ek, J.; Byczuk, K.

    1996-01-01

    Analytic expressions for the distribution function of an ideal gas of particles (exclusons) which have statistics intermediate between Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein are obtained for all values of the Haldane statistics parameter α element-of[0,1]. The analytic structure of the distribution function is investigated and found to have no singularities in the physical region when the parameter α lies in the range 0 V of the D-dimensional excluson gas. The low-temperature series for the thermodynamic properties illustrate the pseudofermion nature of exclusons. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  20. Investigation of the statistical properties of light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, A.S.

    1976-09-01

    The report describes the coherence properties and the statistical properties of light from a classical and quantum mechanical point of view. The theoretical part is used to describe some more specific examples within the field of light scattering such as light scattering from a collection of independent scatters, measurement of wind velocity, and single burst detection in a Laser-Doppler velocitimeter system where the description gives a figure of merit for such a system. An experimental investigation was made of Brillouin scattering in some organic liquids. The experimental equipment is described and the results reported. (Auth.)

  1. Average Nuclear properties based on statistical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Jaick, L.J.

    1974-01-01

    The rough properties of nuclei were investigated by statistical model, in systems with the same and different number of protons and neutrons, separately, considering the Coulomb energy in the last system. Some average nuclear properties were calculated based on the energy density of nuclear matter, from Weizsscker-Beth mass semiempiric formulae, generalized for compressible nuclei. In the study of a s surface energy coefficient, the great influence exercised by Coulomb energy and nuclear compressibility was verified. For a good adjust of beta stability lines and mass excess, the surface symmetry energy were established. (M.C.K.) [pt

  2. Statistical properties of superimposed stationary spike trains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deger, Moritz; Helias, Moritz; Boucsein, Clemens; Rotter, Stefan

    2012-06-01

    The Poisson process is an often employed model for the activity of neuronal populations. It is known, though, that superpositions of realistic, non- Poisson spike trains are not in general Poisson processes, not even for large numbers of superimposed processes. Here we construct superimposed spike trains from intracellular in vivo recordings from rat neocortex neurons and compare their statistics to specific point process models. The constructed superimposed spike trains reveal strong deviations from the Poisson model. We find that superpositions of model spike trains that take the effective refractoriness of the neurons into account yield a much better description. A minimal model of this kind is the Poisson process with dead-time (PPD). For this process, and for superpositions thereof, we obtain analytical expressions for some second-order statistical quantities-like the count variability, inter-spike interval (ISI) variability and ISI correlations-and demonstrate the match with the in vivo data. We conclude that effective refractoriness is the key property that shapes the statistical properties of the superposition spike trains. We present new, efficient algorithms to generate superpositions of PPDs and of gamma processes that can be used to provide more realistic background input in simulations of networks of spiking neurons. Using these generators, we show in simulations that neurons which receive superimposed spike trains as input are highly sensitive for the statistical effects induced by neuronal refractoriness.

  3. Temporal scaling and spatial statistical analyses of groundwater level fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, H.; Yuan, L., Sr.; Zhang, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Natural dynamics such as groundwater level fluctuations can exhibit multifractionality and/or multifractality due likely to multi-scale aquifer heterogeneity and controlling factors, whose statistics requires efficient quantification methods. This study explores multifractionality and non-Gaussian properties in groundwater dynamics expressed by time series of daily level fluctuation at three wells located in the lower Mississippi valley, after removing the seasonal cycle in the temporal scaling and spatial statistical analysis. First, using the time-scale multifractional analysis, a systematic statistical method is developed to analyze groundwater level fluctuations quantified by the time-scale local Hurst exponent (TS-LHE). Results show that the TS-LHE does not remain constant, implying the fractal-scaling behavior changing with time and location. Hence, we can distinguish the potentially location-dependent scaling feature, which may characterize the hydrology dynamic system. Second, spatial statistical analysis shows that the increment of groundwater level fluctuations exhibits a heavy tailed, non-Gaussian distribution, which can be better quantified by a Lévy stable distribution. Monte Carlo simulations of the fluctuation process also show that the linear fractional stable motion model can well depict the transient dynamics (i.e., fractal non-Gaussian property) of groundwater level, while fractional Brownian motion is inadequate to describe natural processes with anomalous dynamics. Analysis of temporal scaling and spatial statistics therefore may provide useful information and quantification to understand further the nature of complex dynamics in hydrology.

  4. Advanced statistical properties of dispersing billiards

    CERN Document Server

    Chernov, N

    2005-01-01

    A new approach to statistical properties of hyperbolic dynamical systems emerged recently; it was introduced by L.-S.~Young and modified by D.~Dolgopyat. It is based on coupling method borrowed from probability theory. We apply it here to one of the most physically interesting models -- Sinai billiards. It allows us to derive a series of new results, as well as make significant improvements in the existing results. First we establish sharp bounds on correlations (including multiple correlations). Then we use our correlation bounds to obtain the central limit theorem (CLT), the almost sure invariance principle (ASIP), the law of iterated logarithms, and integral tests.

  5. Statistical interior properties of globular proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou-Ting, Jiang; Tai-Quan, Wu; Lin-Xi, Zhang; Ting-Ting, Sun

    2009-01-01

    The character of forming long-range contacts affects the three-dimensional structure of globular proteins deeply. As the different ability to form long-range contacts between 20 types of amino acids and 4 categories of globular proteins, the statistical properties are thoroughly discussed in this paper. Two parameters N C and N D are defined to confine the valid residues in detail. The relationship between hydrophobicity scales and valid residue percentage of each amino acid is given in the present work and the linear functions are shown in our statistical results. It is concluded that the hydrophobicity scale defined by chemical derivatives of the amino acids and nonpolar phase of large unilamellar vesicle membranes is the most effective technique to characterise the hydrophobic behavior of amino acid residues. Meanwhile, residue percentage P i and sequential residue length L i of a certain protein i are calculated under different conditions. The statistical results show that the average value of P i as well as L i of all-α proteins has a minimum among these 4 classes of globular proteins, indicating that all-α proteins are hardly capable of forming long-range contacts one by one along their linear amino acid sequences. All-β proteins have a higher tendency to construct long-range contacts along their primary sequences related to the secondary configurations, i.e. parallel and anti-parallel configurations of β sheets. The investigation of the interior properties of globular proteins give us the connection between the three-dimensional structure and its primary sequence data or secondary configurations, and help us to understand the structure of protein and its folding process well. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  6. Surface Properties of TNOs: Preliminary Statistical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonieta Barucci, Maria; Fornasier, S.; Alvarez-Cantal, A.; de Bergh, C.; Merlin, F.; DeMeo, F.; Dumas, C.

    2009-09-01

    An overview of the surface properties based on the last results obtained during the Large Program performed at ESO-VLT (2007-2008) will be presented. Simultaneous high quality visible and near-infrared spectroscopy and photometry have been carried out on 40 objects with various dynamical properties, using FORS1 (V), ISAAC (J) and SINFONI (H+K bands) mounted respectively at UT2, UT1 and UT4 VLT-ESO telescopes (Cerro Paranal, Chile). For spectroscopy we computed the spectral slope for each object and searched for possible rotational inhomogeneities. A few objects show features in their visible spectra such as Eris, whose spectral bands are displaced with respect to pure methane-ice. We identify new faint absorption features on 10199 Chariklo and 42355 Typhon, possibly due to the presence of aqueous altered materials. The H+K band spectroscopy was performed with the new instrument SINFONI which is a 3D integral field spectrometer. While some objects show no diagnostic spectral bands, others reveal surface deposits of ices of H2O, CH3OH, CH4, and N2. To investigate the surface properties of these bodies, a radiative transfer model has been applied to interpret the entire 0.4-2.4 micron spectral region. The diversity of the spectra suggests that these objects represent a substantial range of bulk compositions. These different surface compositions can be diagnostic of original compositional diversity, interior source and/or different evolution with different physical processes affecting the surfaces. A statistical analysis is in progress to investigate the correlation of the TNOs’ surface properties with size and dynamical properties.

  7. Level and width statistics for a decaying chaotic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizutori, S.; Zelevinsky, V.G.

    1993-01-01

    The random matrix ensemble of discretized effective non-hermitian hamiltonians is used for studying local correlations and fluctuations of energies and widths in a quantum system where intrinsic levels are coupled to the continuum via a common decay channel. With the use of analytical estimates and numerical simulations, generic properties of statistical observables are obtained for the regimes of weak and strong continuum coupling as well as for the transitional region. Typical signals of the transition (width collectivization, disappearance of level repulsion at small spacings and violation of uniformity along the energy axis) are discussed quantitatively. (orig.)

  8. The Statistical Properties of Host Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A. Dinda

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how host load changes over time is instrumental in predicting the execution time of tasks or jobs, such as in dynamic load balancing and distributed soft real‐time systems. To improve this understanding, we collected week‐long, 1 Hz resolution traces of the Digital Unix 5 second exponential load average on over 35 different machines including production and research cluster machines, compute servers, and desktop workstations. Separate sets of traces were collected at two different times of the year. The traces capture all of the dynamic load information available to user‐level programs on these machines. We present a detailed statistical analysis of these traces here, including summary statistics, distributions, and time series analysis results. Two significant new results are that load is self‐similar and that it displays epochal behavior. All of the traces exhibit a high degree of self‐similarity with Hurst parameters ranging from 0.73 to 0.99, strongly biased toward the top of that range. The traces also display epochal behavior in that the local frequency content of the load signal remains quite stable for long periods of time (150–450 s mean and changes abruptly at epoch boundaries. Despite these complex behaviors, we have found that relatively simple linear models are sufficient for short‐range host load prediction.

  9. 55Co level properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lodin, G.; Nilsson, L.; Erlandsson, B.; Lyttkens, J.

    1975-01-01

    The decay pf low-lying levels in 55 Co has been studied by means of the 54 Fe(d,nγ) 55 Co reaction. Neutron energies were determined by time-of-flight techniques using a pulsed incident beam and a large liquid scintillator. Gamma rays in coincidence with neutrons were detected by a Ge(Li)spectrometer, Three levels at 4720.8+-0.6, 4747.1+-0.6 and 5172.4+-0.6 keV were strongly populated. The 4720 and 5172 keV levels have earlier been identified as the isobaric analogues of the 55 Fe ground state and first excited state. On the basis of a comparison of the present results with previous particle-transfer reaction studies it is suggested that the ground state analogue is split into the 4720 and 4747 keV levels. A study of excitation functions of 54 Fe(d,n)transitions at incident deuteron energies between 5.0 and 6.0 MeV show that the spectroscopic strengths obtained from (d,n) experiments in this mass region at these energies depend strongly on the incident energy. (Auth.)

  10. Energy-level statistics and time relaxation in quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruver, J.L.; Cerdeira, H.A.; Aliaga, J.; Mello, P.A.; Proto, A.N.

    1997-05-01

    We study a quantum-mechanical system, prepared, at t = 0, in a model state, that subsequently decays into a sea of other states whose energy levels form a discrete spectrum with given statistical properties. An important quantity is the survival probability P(t), defined as the probability, at time t, to find the system in the original model state. Our main purpose is to analyze the influence of the discreteness and statistical properties of the spectrum on the behavior of P(t). Since P(t) itself is a statistical quantity, we restrict our attention to its ensemble average , which is calculated analytically using random-matrix techniques, within certain approximations discussed in the text. We find, for , an exponential decay, followed by a revival, governed by the two-point structure of the statistical spectrum, thus giving a nonzero asymptotic value for large t's. The analytic result compares well with a number of computer simulations, over a time range discussed in the text. (author). 17 refs, 1 fig

  11. Quantum Statistical Properties of the Codirectional Kerr Nonlinear Coupler in Terms of su (2 ) Lie Group in Interaction with a Two-level Atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, M. Sebawe; Khalil, E. M.; Obada, A. S.-F.

    2017-08-01

    The problem of the codirectional Kerr coupler has been considered several times from different point of view. In the present paper we introduce the interaction between a two-level atom and the codirectional Kerr nonlinear coupler in terms of su (2 ) Lie algebra. Under certain conditions we have adjusted the Kerr coupler and consequently we have managed to handle the problem. The wave function is obtained by using the evolution operator where the Heisnberg equation of motion is invoked to get the constants of the motion. We note that the Kerr parameter χ as well as the quantum number j plays the role of controlling the atomic inversion behavior. Also the maximum entanglement occurs after a short period of time when χ = 0. On the other hand for the entropy and the variance squeezing we observe that there is exchange between the quadrature variances. Furthermore, the variation in the quantum number j as well as in the parameter χ leads to increase or decrease in the number of fluctuations. Finally we examined the second order correlation function where classical and nonclassical phenomena are observed.

  12. Beauty in abstract paintings: Perceptual contrast and statistical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit eMallon

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we combined the behavioral and objective approach in the field of empirical aesthetics. First, we studied the perception of beauty by investigating shifts in evaluation on perceived beauty of abstract artworks (Experiment 1. Because the participants showed heterogeneous individual preferences for the paintings, we divided them into seven clusters for the test. The experiment revealed a clear pattern of perceptual contrast. The perceived beauty of abstract paintings increased after exposure to paintings that were rated as less beautiful, and it decreased after exposure to paintings that were rated as more beautiful. Next, we searched for correlations of beauty ratings and perceptual contrast with statistical properties of abstract artworks (Experiment 2. The participants showed significant preferences for certain image properties. These preferences differed between the clusters of participants. Strikingly, next to color measures like hue, saturation, value and lightness, the recently described PHOG self-similarity value seems to be a predictor for aesthetic appreciation of abstract artworks. We speculate that the shift in evaluation in Experiment 1 was, at least in part, based on low-level adaptation to some of the statistical image properties analyzed in Experiment 2. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that the perception of beauty in abstract artworks is altered after exposure to beautiful or non-beautiful images and correlates with particular image properties, especially color measures and self-similarity.

  13. Beauty in abstract paintings: perceptual contrast and statistical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallon, Birgit; Redies, Christoph; Hayn-Leichsenring, Gregor U.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we combined the behavioral and objective approach in the field of empirical aesthetics. First, we studied the perception of beauty by investigating shifts in evaluation on perceived beauty of abstract artworks (Experiment 1). Because the participants showed heterogeneous individual preferences for the paintings, we divided them into seven clusters for the test. The experiment revealed a clear pattern of perceptual contrast. The perceived beauty of abstract paintings increased after exposure to paintings that were rated as less beautiful, and it decreased after exposure to paintings that were rated as more beautiful. Next, we searched for correlations of beauty ratings and perceptual contrast with statistical properties of abstract artworks (Experiment 2). The participants showed significant preferences for particular image properties. These preferences differed between the clusters of participants. Strikingly, next to color measures like hue, saturation, value and lightness, the recently described Pyramid of Histograms of Orientation Gradients (PHOG) self-similarity value seems to be a predictor for aesthetic appreciation of abstract artworks. We speculate that the shift in evaluation in Experiment 1 was, at least in part, based on low-level adaptation to some of the statistical image properties analyzed in Experiment 2. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that the perception of beauty in abstract artworks is altered after exposure to beautiful or non-beautiful images and correlates with particular image properties, especially color measures and self-similarity. PMID:24711791

  14. Statistical properties of deep inelastic reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretto, L.G.

    1983-08-01

    The multifaceted aspects of deep-inelastic heavy-ion collisions are discussed in terms of the statistical equilibrium limit. It is shown that a conditional statistical equilibrium, where a number of degrees of freedom are thermalized while others are still relaxing, prevails in most of these reactions. The individual degrees of freedom that have been explored experimentally are considered in their statistical equilibrium limit, and the extent to which they appear to be thermalized is discussed. The interaction between degrees of freedom on their way towards equilibrium is shown to create complex feedback phenomena that may lead to self-regulation. A possible example of self-regulation is shown for the process of energy partition between fragments promoted by particle exchange. 35 references

  15. Statistical properties of several models of fractional random point processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendjaballah, C.

    2011-08-01

    Statistical properties of several models of fractional random point processes have been analyzed from the counting and time interval statistics points of view. Based on the criterion of the reduced variance, it is seen that such processes exhibit nonclassical properties. The conditions for these processes to be treated as conditional Poisson processes are examined. Numerical simulations illustrate part of the theoretical calculations.

  16. Statistical properties of the seasonal fractionally integrated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigate the properties of this new model providing stationary conditions, some explicit form of the autocovariance function and the spectral density. We also establish the asymptotic behaviour of the spectral density function near the seasonal frequencies. Keywords: Seasonality; Spatial short memory; Seasonal long ...

  17. On the Statistical Properties of Cospectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppenkothen, D.; Bachetti, M.

    2018-05-01

    In recent years, the cross-spectrum has received considerable attention as a means of characterizing the variability of astronomical sources as a function of wavelength. The cospectrum has only recently been understood as a means of mitigating instrumental effects dependent on temporal frequency in astronomical detectors, as well as a method of characterizing the coherent variability in two wavelength ranges on different timescales. In this paper, we lay out the statistical foundations of the cospectrum, starting with the simplest case of detecting a periodic signal in the presence of white noise, under the assumption that the same source is observed simultaneously in independent detectors in the same energy range. This case is especially relevant for detecting faint X-ray pulsars in detectors heavily affected by instrumental effects, including NuSTAR, Astrosat, and IXPE, which allow for even sampling and where the cospectrum can act as an effective way to mitigate dead time. We show that the statistical distributions of both single and averaged cospectra differ considerably from those for standard periodograms. While a single cospectrum follows a Laplace distribution exactly, averaged cospectra are approximated by a Gaussian distribution only for more than ∼30 averaged segments, dependent on the number of trials. We provide an instructive example of a quasi-periodic oscillation in NuSTAR and show that applying standard periodogram statistics leads to underestimated tail probabilities for period detection. We also demonstrate the application of these distributions to a NuSTAR observation of the X-ray pulsar Hercules X-1.

  18. The semi-empirical low-level background statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Manh Toan; Nguyen Trieu Tu

    1992-01-01

    A semi-empirical low-level background statistics was proposed. The one can be applied to evaluated the sensitivity of low background systems, and to analyse the statistical error, the 'Rejection' and 'Accordance' criteria for processing of low-level experimental data. (author). 5 refs, 1 figs

  19. Information Geometry, Inference Methods and Chaotic Energy Levels Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Cafaro, Carlo

    2008-01-01

    In this Letter, we propose a novel information-geometric characterization of chaotic (integrable) energy level statistics of a quantum antiferromagnetic Ising spin chain in a tilted (transverse) external magnetic field. Finally, we conjecture our results might find some potential physical applications in quantum energy level statistics.

  20. Statistical properties of random clique networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yi-Min; Meng, Jun; Fan, Jing-Fang; Ye, Fang-Fu; Chen, Xiao-Song

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, a random clique network model to mimic the large clustering coefficient and the modular structure that exist in many real complex networks, such as social networks, artificial networks, and protein interaction networks, is introduced by combining the random selection rule of the Erdös and Rényi (ER) model and the concept of cliques. We find that random clique networks having a small average degree differ from the ER network in that they have a large clustering coefficient and a power law clustering spectrum, while networks having a high average degree have similar properties as the ER model. In addition, we find that the relation between the clustering coefficient and the average degree shows a non-monotonic behavior and that the degree distributions can be fit by multiple Poisson curves; we explain the origin of such novel behaviors and degree distributions.

  1. Statistical properties of Fermi GBM GRBs' spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rácz, István I.; Balázs, Lajos G.; Horvath, Istvan; Tóth, L. Viktor; Bagoly, Zsolt

    2018-03-01

    Statistical studies of gamma-ray burst (GRB) spectra may result in important information on the physics of GRBs. The Fermi GBM catalogue contains GRB parameters (peak energy, spectral indices, and intensity) estimated fitting the gamma-ray spectral energy distribution of the total emission (fluence, flnc), and during the time of the peak flux (pflx). Using contingency tables, we studied the relationship of the models best-fitting pflx and flnc time intervals. Our analysis revealed an ordering of the spectra into a power law - Comptonized - smoothly broken power law - Band series. This result was further supported by a correspondence analysis of the pflx and flnc spectra categorical variables. We performed a linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to find a relationship between categorical (spectral) and model independent physical data. LDA resulted in highly significant physical differences among the spectral types, that is more pronounced in the case of the pflx spectra, than for the flnc spectra. We interpreted this difference as caused by the temporal variation of the spectrum during the outburst. This spectral variability is confirmed by the differences in the low-energy spectral index and peak energy, between the pflx and flnc spectra. We found that the synchrotron radiation is significant in GBM spectra. The mean low-energy spectral index is close to the canonical value of α = -2/3 during the peak flux. However, α is ˜ -0.9 for the spectra of the fluences. We interpret this difference as showing that the effect of cooling is important only for the fluence spectra.

  2. Modeling statistical properties of written text.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Angeles Serrano

    Full Text Available Written text is one of the fundamental manifestations of human language, and the study of its universal regularities can give clues about how our brains process information and how we, as a society, organize and share it. Among these regularities, only Zipf's law has been explored in depth. Other basic properties, such as the existence of bursts of rare words in specific documents, have only been studied independently of each other and mainly by descriptive models. As a consequence, there is a lack of understanding of linguistic processes as complex emergent phenomena. Beyond Zipf's law for word frequencies, here we focus on burstiness, Heaps' law describing the sublinear growth of vocabulary size with the length of a document, and the topicality of document collections, which encode correlations within and across documents absent in random null models. We introduce and validate a generative model that explains the simultaneous emergence of all these patterns from simple rules. As a result, we find a connection between the bursty nature of rare words and the topical organization of texts and identify dynamic word ranking and memory across documents as key mechanisms explaining the non trivial organization of written text. Our research can have broad implications and practical applications in computer science, cognitive science and linguistics.

  3. Parametric Level Statistics in Random Matrix Theory: Exact Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanzieper, E.

    1999-01-01

    During recent several years, the theory of non-Gaussian random matrix ensembles has experienced a sound progress motivated by new ideas in quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and mesoscopic physics. Invariant non-Gaussian random matrix models appear to describe universal features of low-energy part of the spectrum of Dirac operator in QCD, and electron level statistics in normal conducting-superconducting hybrid structures. They also serve as a basis for constructing the toy models of universal spectral statistics expected at the edge of the metal-insulator transition. While conventional spectral statistics has received a detailed study in the context of RMT, quite a bit is known about parametric level statistics in non-Gaussian random matrix models. In this communication we report about exact solution to the problem of parametric level statistics in unitary invariant, U(N), non-Gaussian ensembles of N x N Hermitian random matrices with either soft or strong level confinement. The solution is formulated within the framework of the orthogonal polynomial technique and is shown to depend on both the unfolded two-point scalar kernel and the level confinement through a double integral transformation which, in turn, provides a constructive tool for description of parametric level correlations in non-Gaussian RMT. In the case of soft level confinement, the formalism developed is potentially applicable to a study of parametric level statistics in an important class of random matrix models with finite level compressibility expected to describe a disorder-induced metal-insulator transition. In random matrix ensembles with strong level confinement, the solution presented takes a particular simple form in the thermodynamic limit: In this case, a new intriguing connection relation between the parametric level statistics and the scalar two-point kernel of an unperturbed ensemble is demonstrated to emerge. Extension of the results obtained to higher-order parametric level statistics is

  4. Statistical properties of chaotic scattering with one open channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izrajlev, F.M.; Saher, D.; Sokolov, V.V.

    1993-01-01

    The correspondence between statistical properties of decaying states and fluctuations in resonance scattering is studied in a statistical model with one open channel. The model is described by an ensemble of random nonhermitian matrices. The dependence of the correlation length on the coupling parameter both for the S-matrix and the cross-section is studied numerically. 37 refs., 7 figs

  5. Technology for enhancing statistical reasoning at the school level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biehler, R.; Ben-Zvi, D.; Bakker, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/272605778; Makar, K.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to provide an updated overview of digital technologies relevant to statistics education, and to summarize what is currently known about how these new technologies can support the development of students’ statistical reasoning at the school level. A brief literature

  6. Study of statistical properties of hybrid statistic in coherent multi-detector compact binary coalescences Search

    OpenAIRE

    Haris, K; Pai, Archana

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we revisit the problem of coherent multi-detector search of gravitational wave from compact binary coalescence with Neutron stars and Black Holes using advanced interferometers like LIGO-Virgo. Based on the loss of optimal multi-detector signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), we construct a hybrid statistic as a best of maximum-likelihood-ratio(MLR) statistic tuned for face-on and face-off binaries. The statistical properties of the hybrid statistic is studied. The performance of this ...

  7. Some Statistical Properties of Tonality, 1650-1900

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Christopher Wm.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the statistical properties present within corpora of common practice music, involving a data set of more than 8,000 works spanning from 1650 to 1900, and focusing specifically on the properties of the chord progressions contained therein. In the first chapter, methodologies concerning corpus analysis are presented…

  8. Statistical interpretation of low energy nuclear level schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egidy, T von; Schmidt, H H; Behkami, A N

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear level schemes and neutron resonance spacings yield information on level densities and level spacing distributions. A total of 75 nuclear level schemes with 1761 levels and known spins and parities was investigated. The A-dependence of level density parameters is discussed. The spacing distributions of levels near the groundstate indicate transitional character between regular and chaotic properties while chaos dominates near the neutron binding energy.

  9. Parametric Statistics of Individual Energy Levels in Random Hamiltonians

    OpenAIRE

    Smolyarenko, I. E.; Simons, B. D.

    2002-01-01

    We establish a general framework to explore parametric statistics of individual energy levels in disordered and chaotic quantum systems of unitary symmetry. The method is applied to the calculation of the universal intra-level parametric velocity correlation function and the distribution of level shifts under the influence of an arbitrary external perturbation.

  10. Significance levels for studies with correlated test statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jianxin; Levinson, Douglas F; Whittemore, Alice S

    2008-07-01

    When testing large numbers of null hypotheses, one needs to assess the evidence against the global null hypothesis that none of the hypotheses is false. Such evidence typically is based on the test statistic of the largest magnitude, whose statistical significance is evaluated by permuting the sample units to simulate its null distribution. Efron (2007) has noted that correlation among the test statistics can induce substantial interstudy variation in the shapes of their histograms, which may cause misleading tail counts. Here, we show that permutation-based estimates of the overall significance level also can be misleading when the test statistics are correlated. We propose that such estimates be conditioned on a simple measure of the spread of the observed histogram, and we provide a method for obtaining conditional significance levels. We justify this conditioning using the conditionality principle described by Cox and Hinkley (1974). Application of the method to gene expression data illustrates the circumstances when conditional significance levels are needed.

  11. Electron Energy Level Statistics in Graphene Quantum Dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Raedt, H.; Katsnellson, M. I.; Katsnelson, M.I.

    2008-01-01

    Motivated by recent experimental observations of size quantization of electron energy levels in graphene quantum dots [7] we investigate the level statistics in the simplest tight-binding model for different dot shapes by computer simulation. The results are in a reasonable agreement with the

  12. Computer modelling of statistical properties of SASE FEL radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saldin, E. L.; Schneidmiller, E. A.; Yurkov, M. V.

    1997-01-01

    The paper describes an approach to computer modelling of statistical properties of the radiation from self amplified spontaneous emission free electron laser (SASE FEL). The present approach allows one to calculate the following statistical properties of the SASE FEL radiation: time and spectral field correlation functions, distribution of the fluctuations of the instantaneous radiation power, distribution of the energy in the electron bunch, distribution of the radiation energy after monochromator installed at the FEL amplifier exit and the radiation spectrum. All numerical results presented in the paper have been calculated for the 70 nm SASE FEL at the TESLA Test Facility being under construction at DESY

  13. Haldane's statistical interactions and universal properties of anyon systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protogenov, A.

    1995-03-01

    The exclusion principle of fractional statistics proposed by Haldane is applied to systems with internal degrees of freedom. The symmetry of these systems is included in the statistical interaction matrix which contains the Cartan matrix of Lie algebras. The solutions of the equations for the statistical weights, which coincide with the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz equations are determined in the high temperature limit by the squares of q-deformed dimensions of irreducible representations. The entropy and other thermodynamic properties of anyon systems in this limit are completely characterized by the algebraic structure of symmetry in the universal form. (author). 39 refs

  14. Characteristics of level-spacing statistics in chaotic graphene billiards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liang; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Grebogi, Celso

    2011-03-01

    A fundamental result in nonrelativistic quantum nonlinear dynamics is that the spectral statistics of quantum systems that possess no geometric symmetry, but whose classical dynamics are chaotic, are described by those of the Gaussian orthogonal ensemble (GOE) or the Gaussian unitary ensemble (GUE), in the presence or absence of time-reversal symmetry, respectively. For massless spin-half particles such as neutrinos in relativistic quantum mechanics in a chaotic billiard, the seminal work of Berry and Mondragon established the GUE nature of the level-spacing statistics, due to the combination of the chirality of Dirac particles and the confinement, which breaks the time-reversal symmetry. A question is whether the GOE or the GUE statistics can be observed in experimentally accessible, relativistic quantum systems. We demonstrate, using graphene confinements in which the quasiparticle motions are governed by the Dirac equation in the low-energy regime, that the level-spacing statistics are persistently those of GOE random matrices. We present extensive numerical evidence obtained from the tight-binding approach and a physical explanation for the GOE statistics. We also find that the presence of a weak magnetic field switches the statistics to those of GUE. For a strong magnetic field, Landau levels become influential, causing the level-spacing distribution to deviate markedly from the random-matrix predictions. Issues addressed also include the effects of a number of realistic factors on level-spacing statistics such as next nearest-neighbor interactions, different lattice orientations, enhanced hopping energy for atoms on the boundary, and staggered potential due to graphene-substrate interactions.

  15. Universality of correlations of levels with discrete statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Brezin, Edouard; Kazakov, Vladimir

    1999-01-01

    We study the statistics of a system of N random levels with integer values, in the presence of a logarithmic repulsive potential of Dyson type. This probleme arises in sums over representations (Young tableaux) of GL(N) in various matrix problems and in the study of statistics of partitions for the permutation group. The model is generalized to include an external source and its correlators are found in closed form for any N. We reproduce the density of levels in the large N and double scalin...

  16. Statistical properties of laser light scattering in Brownian medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwono; Santoso, Budi; Baiquni, A.

    1983-01-01

    Relationship between statistical properties of laser light scattering in Brownian medium and photon-counting distributions are described in detail. A coherence optical detection has been constructed and by using photon-counting technique the ensemble distribution of the scattered field within space and time coherence has been measured. Good agreement between theory and experiment is shown. (author)

  17. Statistical properties of the nuclear shell-model Hamiltonian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, H.; Hussein, M.S.; Oliveira, N.A. de

    1986-01-01

    The statistical properties of realistic nuclear shell-model Hamiltonian are investigated in sd-shell nuclei. The probability distribution of the basic-vector amplitude is calculated and compared with the Porter-Thomas distribution. Relevance of the results to the calculation of the giant resonance mixing parameter is pointed out. (Author) [pt

  18. Statistical behavior of the tensile property of heated cotton fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    The temperature dependence of the tensile property of single cotton fiber was studied in the range of 160-300°C using Favimat test, and its statistical behavior was interpreted in terms of structural changes. The tenacity of control cotton fiber was well described by the single Weibull distribution,...

  19. Scalar statistics in variable property turbulent channel flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patel, A.; Boersma, B.J.; Pecnik, R.

    2017-01-01

    Direct numerical simulation of fully developed, internally heated channel flows with isothermal walls is performed using the low-Mach-number approximation of Navier-Stokes equation to investigate the influence of temperature-dependent properties on turbulent scalar statistics. Different constitutive

  20. Statistical data for the tensile properties of natural fibre composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. Torres

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article features a large statistical database on the tensile properties of natural fibre reinforced composite laminates. The data presented here corresponds to a comprehensive experimental testing program of several composite systems including: different material constituents (epoxy and vinyl ester resins; flax, jute and carbon fibres, different fibre configurations (short-fibre mats, unidirectional, and plain, twill and satin woven fabrics and different fibre orientations (0°, 90°, and [0,90] angle plies. For each material, ~50 specimens were tested under uniaxial tensile loading. Here, we provide the complete set of stress–strain curves together with the statistical distributions of their calculated elastic modulus, strength and failure strain. The data is also provided as support material for the research article: “The mechanical properties of natural fibre composite laminates: A statistical study” [1].

  1. Perceived Statistical Knowledge Level and Self-Reported Statistical Practice Among Academic Psychologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Badenes-Ribera

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Publications arguing against the null hypothesis significance testing (NHST procedure and in favor of good statistical practices have increased. The most frequently mentioned alternatives to NHST are effect size statistics (ES, confidence intervals (CIs, and meta-analyses. A recent survey conducted in Spain found that academic psychologists have poor knowledge about effect size statistics, confidence intervals, and graphic displays for meta-analyses, which might lead to a misinterpretation of the results. In addition, it also found that, although the use of ES is becoming generalized, the same thing is not true for CIs. Finally, academics with greater knowledge about ES statistics presented a profile closer to good statistical practice and research design. Our main purpose was to analyze the extension of these results to a different geographical area through a replication study.Methods: For this purpose, we elaborated an on-line survey that included the same items as the original research, and we asked academic psychologists to indicate their level of knowledge about ES, their CIs, and meta-analyses, and how they use them. The sample consisted of 159 Italian academic psychologists (54.09% women, mean age of 47.65 years. The mean number of years in the position of professor was 12.90 (SD = 10.21.Results: As in the original research, the results showed that, although the use of effect size estimates is becoming generalized, an under-reporting of CIs for ES persists. The most frequent ES statistics mentioned were Cohen's d and R2/η2, which can have outliers or show non-normality or violate statistical assumptions. In addition, academics showed poor knowledge about meta-analytic displays (e.g., forest plot and funnel plot and quality checklists for studies. Finally, academics with higher-level knowledge about ES statistics seem to have a profile closer to good statistical practices.Conclusions: Changing statistical practice is not

  2. Confidence Level Computation for Combining Searches with Small Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Junk, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    This article describes an efficient procedure for computing approximate confidence levels for searches for new particles where the expected signal and background levels are small enough to require the use of Poisson statistics. The results of many independent searches for the same particle may be combined easily, regardless of the discriminating variables which may be measured for the candidate events. The effects of systematic uncertainty in the signal and background models are incorporated ...

  3. Image Statistics and the Representation of Material Properties in the Visual Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Elisabeth; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2016-01-01

    We explored perceived material properties (roughness, texturedness, and hardness) with a novel approach that compares perception, image statistics and brain activation, as measured with fMRI. We initially asked participants to rate 84 material images with respect to the above mentioned properties, and then scanned 15 of the participants with fMRI while they viewed the material images. The images were analyzed with a set of image statistics capturing their spatial frequency and texture properties. Linear classifiers were then applied to the image statistics as well as the voxel patterns of visually responsive voxels and early visual areas to discriminate between images with high and low perceptual ratings. Roughness and texturedness could be classified above chance level based on image statistics. Roughness and texturedness could also be classified based on the brain activation patterns in visual cortex, whereas hardness could not. Importantly, the agreement in classification based on image statistics and brain activation was also above chance level. Our results show that information about visual material properties is to a large degree contained in low-level image statistics, and that these image statistics are also partially reflected in brain activity patterns induced by the perception of material images.

  4. Some properties of point processes in statistical optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picinbono, B.; Bendjaballah, C.

    2010-01-01

    The analysis of the statistical properties of the point process (PP) of photon detection times can be used to determine whether or not an optical field is classical, in the sense that its statistical description does not require the methods of quantum optics. This determination is, however, more difficult than ordinarily admitted and the first aim of this paper is to illustrate this point by using some results of the PP theory. For example, it is well known that the analysis of the photodetection of classical fields exhibits the so-called bunching effect. But this property alone cannot be used to decide the nature of a given optical field. Indeed, we have presented examples of point processes for which a bunching effect appears and yet they cannot be obtained from a classical field. These examples are illustrated by computer simulations. Similarly, it is often admitted that for fields with very low light intensity the bunching or antibunching can be described by using the statistical properties of the distance between successive events of the point process, which simplifies the experimental procedure. We have shown that, while this property is valid for classical PPs, it has no reason to be true for nonclassical PPs, and we have presented some examples of this situation also illustrated by computer simulations.

  5. A neighborhood statistics model for predicting stream pathogen indicator levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Pramod K; Pasternack, Gregory B; Majumder, Mahbubul; Soupir, Michelle L; Kaiser, Mark S

    2015-03-01

    Because elevated levels of water-borne Escherichia coli in streams are a leading cause of water quality impairments in the U.S., water-quality managers need tools for predicting aqueous E. coli levels. Presently, E. coli levels may be predicted using complex mechanistic models that have a high degree of unchecked uncertainty or simpler statistical models. To assess spatio-temporal patterns of instream E. coli levels, herein we measured E. coli, a pathogen indicator, at 16 sites (at four different times) within the Squaw Creek watershed, Iowa, and subsequently, the Markov Random Field model was exploited to develop a neighborhood statistics model for predicting instream E. coli levels. Two observed covariates, local water temperature (degrees Celsius) and mean cross-sectional depth (meters), were used as inputs to the model. Predictions of E. coli levels in the water column were compared with independent observational data collected from 16 in-stream locations. The results revealed that spatio-temporal averages of predicted and observed E. coli levels were extremely close. Approximately 66 % of individual predicted E. coli concentrations were within a factor of 2 of the observed values. In only one event, the difference between prediction and observation was beyond one order of magnitude. The mean of all predicted values at 16 locations was approximately 1 % higher than the mean of the observed values. The approach presented here will be useful while assessing instream contaminations such as pathogen/pathogen indicator levels at the watershed scale.

  6. Statistical thermodynamics understanding the properties of macroscopic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fai, Lukong Cornelius

    2012-01-01

    Basic Principles of Statistical PhysicsMicroscopic and Macroscopic Description of StatesBasic PostulatesGibbs Ergodic AssumptionGibbsian EnsemblesExperimental Basis of Statistical MechanicsDefinition of Expectation ValuesErgodic Principle and Expectation ValuesProperties of Distribution FunctionRelative Fluctuation of an Additive Macroscopic ParameterLiouville TheoremGibbs Microcanonical EnsembleMicrocanonical Distribution in Quantum MechanicsDensity MatrixDensity Matrix in Energy RepresentationEntropyThermodynamic FunctionsTemperatureAdiabatic ProcessesPressureThermodynamic IdentityLaws of Th

  7. Statistical properties of chaotic dynamical systems which exhibit strange attractors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, R.V.; Oberman, C.R.

    1981-07-01

    A path integral method is developed for the calculation of the statistical properties of turbulent dynamical systems. The method is applicable to conservative systems which exhibit a transition to stochasticity as well as dissipative systems which exhibit strange attractors. A specific dissipative mapping is considered in detail which models the dynamics of a Brownian particle in a wave field with a broad frequency spectrum. Results are presented for the low order statistical moments for three turbulent regimes which exhibit strange attractors corresponding to strong, intermediate, and weak collisional damping

  8. Thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. [thermodynamic properties of gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The basic thermodynamic properties of gases are reviewed and the relations between them are derived from the first and second laws. The elements of statistical mechanics are then formulated and the partition function is derived. The classical form of the partition function is used to obtain the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of kinetic energies in the gas phase and the equipartition of energy theorem is given in its most general form. The thermodynamic properties are all derived as functions of the partition function. Quantum statistics are reviewed briefly and the differences between the Boltzmann distribution function for classical particles and the Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein distributions for quantum particles are discussed.

  9. The statistical distribution of aerosol properties in sourthern West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslett, Sophie; Taylor, Jonathan; Flynn, Michael; Bower, Keith; Dorsey, James; Crawford, Ian; Brito, Joel; Denjean, Cyrielle; Bourrianne, Thierry; Burnet, Frederic; Batenburg, Anneke; Schulz, Christiane; Schneider, Johannes; Borrmann, Stephan; Sauer, Daniel; Duplissy, Jonathan; Lee, James; Vaughan, Adam; Coe, Hugh

    2017-04-01

    The population and economy in southern West Africa have been growing at an exceptional rate in recent years and this trend is expected to continue, with the population projected to more than double to 800 million by 2050. This will result in a dramatic increase in anthropogenic pollutants, already estimated to have tripled between 1950 and 2000 (Lamarque et al., 2010). It is known that aerosols can modify the radiative properties of clouds. As such, the entrainment of anthropogenic aerosol into the large banks of clouds forming during the onset of the West African Monsoon could have a substantial impact on the region's response to climate change. Such projections, however, are greatly limited by the scarcity of observations in this part of the world. As part of the Dynamics-Aerosol-Chemistry-Cloud Interactions in West Africa (DACCIWA) project, three research aircraft were deployed, each carrying equipment capable of measuring aerosol properties in-situ. Instrumentation included Aerosol Mass Spectrometers (AMS), Single Particle Soot Photometers (SP2), Condensation Particle Counters (CPC) and Scanning Mobility Particle Sizers (SMPS). Throughout the intensive aircraft campaign, 155 hours of scientific flights covered an area including large parts of Benin, Togo, Ghana and parts of Côte D'Ivoire. Approximately 70 hours were dedicated to the measurement of cloud-aerosol interactions, with many other flights producing data contributing towards this objective. Using datasets collected during this campaign period, it is possible to build a robust statistical understanding of aerosol properties in this region for the first time, including size distributions and optical and chemical properties. Here, we describe preliminary results from aerosol measurements on board the three aircraft. These have been used to describe aerosol properties throughout the region and time period encompassed by the DACCIWA aircraft campaign. Such statistics will be invaluable for improving future

  10. Ten Years of Cloud Properties from MODIS: Global Statistics and Use in Climate Model Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platnick, Steven E.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), launched onboard the Terra and Aqua spacecrafts, began Earth observations on February 24, 2000 and June 24,2002, respectively. Among the algorithms developed and applied to this sensor, a suite of cloud products includes cloud masking/detection, cloud-top properties (temperature, pressure), and optical properties (optical thickness, effective particle radius, water path, and thermodynamic phase). All cloud algorithms underwent numerous changes and enhancements between for the latest Collection 5 production version; this process continues with the current Collection 6 development. We will show example MODIS Collection 5 cloud climatologies derived from global spatial . and temporal aggregations provided in the archived gridded Level-3 MODIS atmosphere team product (product names MOD08 and MYD08 for MODIS Terra and Aqua, respectively). Data sets in this Level-3 product include scalar statistics as well as 1- and 2-D histograms of many cloud properties, allowing for higher order information and correlation studies. In addition to these statistics, we will show trends and statistical significance in annual and seasonal means for a variety of the MODIS cloud properties, as well as the time required for detection given assumed trends. To assist in climate model evaluation, we have developed a MODIS cloud simulator with an accompanying netCDF file containing subsetted monthly Level-3 statistical data sets that correspond to the simulator output. Correlations of cloud properties with ENSO offer the potential to evaluate model cloud sensitivity; initial results will be discussed.

  11. Statistical selection of tide gauges for Arctic sea-level reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Peter Limkilde; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we seek an appropriate selection of tide gauges for Arctic Ocean sea-level reconstruction based on a combination of empirical criteria and statistical properties (leverages). Tide gauges provide the only in situ observations of sea level prior to the altimetry era. However, tide...... the "influence" of each Arctic tide gauge on the EOF-based reconstruction through the use of statistical leverage and use this as an indication in selecting appropriate tide gauges, in order to procedurally identify poor-quality data while still including as much data as possible. To accommodate sparse...

  12. The Heuristics of Statistical Argumentation: Scaffolding at the Postsecondary Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardue, Teneal Messer

    2017-01-01

    Language plays a key role in statistics and, by extension, in statistics education. Enculturating students into the practice of statistics requires preparing them to communicate results of data analysis. Statistical argumentation is one way of providing structure to facilitate discourse in the statistics classroom. In this study, a teaching…

  13. Statistical properties of trading activity in Chinese stock market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoqian; Cheng, Xueqi; Shen, Huawei; Wang, Zhaoyang

    2010-08-01

    We investigate the statistical properties of traders' trading behavior using cumulative distribution function(CDF). We analyze exchange data of 52 stocks for one-year period which contains non-manipulated stocks and manipulated stocks published by China Securities Regulatory Commission(CSRC). By analyzing the total number of transactions and the trading volume of each trader over a year, we find the cumulative distributions have power-law tails and the distributions between non-manipulated stocks and manipulated stocks are different. These findings can help us to detect the manipulated stocks.

  14. Statistical inference of level densities from resolved resonance parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froehner, F.H.

    1983-08-01

    Level densities are most directly obtained by counting the resonances observed in the resolved resonance range. Even in the measurements, however, weak levels are invariably missed so that one has to estimate their number and add it to the raw count. The main categories of missinglevel estimators are discussed in the present review, viz. (I) ladder methods including those based on the theory of Hamiltonian matrix ensembles (Dyson-Mehta statistics), (II) methods based on comparison with artificial cross section curves (Monte Carlo simulation, Garrison's autocorrelation method), (III) methods exploiting the observed neutron width distribution by means of Bayesian or more approximate procedures such as maximum-likelihood, least-squares or moment methods, with various recipes for the treatment of detection thresholds and resolution effects. The language of mathematical statistics is employed to clarify the basis of, and the relationship between, the various techniques. Recent progress in the treatment of resolution effects, detection thresholds and p-wave admixture is described. (orig.) [de

  15. Aging Affects Adaptation to Sound-Level Statistics in Human Auditory Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Björn; Maess, Burkhard; Johnsrude, Ingrid S

    2018-02-21

    Optimal perception requires efficient and adaptive neural processing of sensory input. Neurons in nonhuman mammals adapt to the statistical properties of acoustic feature distributions such that they become sensitive to sounds that are most likely to occur in the environment. However, whether human auditory responses adapt to stimulus statistical distributions and how aging affects adaptation to stimulus statistics is unknown. We used MEG to study how exposure to different distributions of sound levels affects adaptation in auditory cortex of younger (mean: 25 years; n = 19) and older (mean: 64 years; n = 20) adults (male and female). Participants passively listened to two sound-level distributions with different modes (either 15 or 45 dB sensation level). In a control block with long interstimulus intervals, allowing neural populations to recover from adaptation, neural response magnitudes were similar between younger and older adults. Critically, both age groups demonstrated adaptation to sound-level stimulus statistics, but adaptation was altered for older compared with younger people: in the older group, neural responses continued to be sensitive to sound level under conditions in which responses were fully adapted in the younger group. The lack of full adaptation to the statistics of the sensory environment may be a physiological mechanism underlying the known difficulty that older adults have with filtering out irrelevant sensory information. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Behavior requires efficient processing of acoustic stimulation. Animal work suggests that neurons accomplish efficient processing by adjusting their response sensitivity depending on statistical properties of the acoustic environment. Little is known about the extent to which this adaptation to stimulus statistics generalizes to humans, particularly to older humans. We used MEG to investigate how aging influences adaptation to sound-level statistics. Listeners were presented with sounds drawn from

  16. Statistical properties of dynamical systems – Simulation and abstract computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galatolo, Stefano; Hoyrup, Mathieu; Rojas, Cristóbal

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A survey on results about computation and computability on the statistical properties of dynamical systems. ► Computability and non-computability results for invariant measures. ► A short proof for the computability of the convergence speed of ergodic averages. ► A kind of “constructive” version of the pointwise ergodic theorem. - Abstract: We survey an area of recent development, relating dynamics to theoretical computer science. We discuss some aspects of the theoretical simulation and computation of the long term behavior of dynamical systems. We will focus on the statistical limiting behavior and invariant measures. We present a general method allowing the algorithmic approximation at any given accuracy of invariant measures. The method can be applied in many interesting cases, as we shall explain. On the other hand, we exhibit some examples where the algorithmic approximation of invariant measures is not possible. We also explain how it is possible to compute the speed of convergence of ergodic averages (when the system is known exactly) and how this entails the computation of arbitrarily good approximations of points of the space having typical statistical behaviour (a sort of constructive version of the pointwise ergodic theorem).

  17. On the statistical properties and tail risk of violent conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirillo, Pasquale; Taleb, Nassim Nicholas

    2016-06-01

    We examine statistical pictures of violent conflicts over the last 2000 years, providing techniques for dealing with the unreliability of historical data. We make use of a novel approach to deal with fat-tailed random variables with a remote but nonetheless finite upper bound, by defining a corresponding unbounded dual distribution (given that potential war casualties are bounded by the world population). This approach can also be applied to other fields of science where power laws play a role in modeling, like geology, hydrology, statistical physics and finance. We apply methods from extreme value theory on the dual distribution and derive its tail properties. The dual method allows us to calculate the real tail mean of war casualties, which proves to be considerably larger than the corresponding sample mean for large thresholds, meaning severe underestimation of the tail risks of conflicts from naive observation. We analyze the robustness of our results to errors in historical reports. We study inter-arrival times between tail events and find that no particular trend can be asserted. All the statistical pictures obtained are at variance with the prevailing claims about ;long peace;, namely that violence has been declining over time.

  18. Atomic properties in hot plasmas from levels to superconfigurations

    CERN Document Server

    Bauche, Jacques; Peyrusse, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    This book is devoted to the calculation of hot-plasma properties which generally requires a huge number of atomic data. It is the first book that combines information on the details of the basic atomic physics and its application to atomic spectroscopy with the use of the relevant statistical approaches. Information like energy levels, radiative rates, collisional and radiative cross-sections, etc., must be included in equilibrium or non-equilibrium models in order to describe both the atomic-population kinetics and the radiative properties. From the very large number of levels and transitions involved in complex ions, some statistical (global) properties emerge. The book presents a coherent set of concepts and compact formulas suitable for tractable and accurate calculations. The topics addressed are: radiative emission and absorption, and a dozen of other collisional and radiative processes; transition arrays between level ensembles (configurations, superconfigurations); effective temperatures of configurat...

  19. Statistical properties of entropy production derived from fluctuation theorems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merhav, Neri; Kafri, Yariv

    2010-01-01

    Several implications of well-known fluctuation theorems, on the statistical properties of entropy production, are studied using various approaches. We begin by deriving a tight lower bound on the variance of the entropy production for a given mean of this random variable. It is shown that the Evans–Searles fluctuation theorem alone imposes a significant lower bound on the variance only when the mean entropy production is very small. It is then nonetheless demonstrated that upon incorporating additional information concerning the entropy production, this lower bound can be significantly improved, so as to capture extensivity properties. Another important aspect of the fluctuation properties of the entropy production is the relationship between the mean and the variance, on the one hand, and the probability of the event where the entropy production is negative, on the other hand. Accordingly, we derive upper and lower bounds on this probability in terms of the mean and the variance. These bounds are tighter than previous bounds that can be found in the literature. Moreover, they are tight in the sense that there exist probability distributions, satisfying the Evans–Searles fluctuation theorem, that achieve them with equality. Finally, we present a general method for generating a wide class of inequalities that must be satisfied by the entropy production. We use this method to derive several new inequalities that go beyond the standard derivation of the second law

  20. High-Throughput Nanoindentation for Statistical and Spatial Property Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintsala, Eric D.; Hangen, Ude; Stauffer, Douglas D.

    2018-04-01

    Standard nanoindentation tests are "high throughput" compared to nearly all other mechanical tests, such as tension or compression. However, the typical rates of tens of tests per hour can be significantly improved. These higher testing rates enable otherwise impractical studies requiring several thousands of indents, such as high-resolution property mapping and detailed statistical studies. However, care must be taken to avoid systematic errors in the measurement, including choosing of the indentation depth/spacing to avoid overlap of plastic zones, pileup, and influence of neighboring microstructural features in the material being tested. Furthermore, since fast loading rates are required, the strain rate sensitivity must also be considered. A review of these effects is given, with the emphasis placed on making complimentary standard nanoindentation measurements to address these issues. Experimental applications of the technique, including mapping of welds, microstructures, and composites with varying length scales, along with studying the effect of surface roughness on nominally homogeneous specimens, will be presented.

  1. Statistical properties of anti-symmetrized molecular dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, A.; Randrup, J.

    1993-01-01

    We study the statistical equilibrium properties of the recently developed anti-symmetrized molecular dynamics model for heavy-ion reactions. We consider A non-interacting fermions in one dimension, either bound in a common harmonic potential or moving freely within an interval, and perform a Metropolis sampling of the corresponding parameter space. Generally the average excitation and the specific heat, considered as functions of the imposed temperature, behave in a classical manner when the canonical weight is calculated in the mean-field approximation. However, it is possible to obtain results that are much closer to the quantal behavior by modifying the weight to take approximate account of the energy fluctuations within the individual wave packets. (orig.)

  2. Dynamical topology and statistical properties of spatiotemporal chaos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Quntao; Gao, Xun; Ouyang, Qi; Wang, Hongli

    2012-12-01

    For spatiotemporal chaos described by partial differential equations, there are generally locations where the dynamical variable achieves its local extremum or where the time partial derivative of the variable vanishes instantaneously. To a large extent, the location and movement of these topologically special points determine the qualitative structure of the disordered states. We analyze numerically statistical properties of the topologically special points in one-dimensional spatiotemporal chaos. The probability distribution functions for the number of point, the lifespan, and the distance covered during their lifetime are obtained from numerical simulations. Mathematically, we establish a probabilistic model to describe the dynamics of these topologically special points. In spite of the different definitions in different spatiotemporal chaos, the dynamics of these special points can be described in a uniform approach.

  3. Statistical properties of nucleotides in human chromosomes 21 and 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Linxi; Sun Tingting

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the statistical properties of nucleotides in human chromosomes 21 and 22 are investigated. The n-tuple Zipf analysis with n = 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 is used in our investigation. It is found that the most common n-tuples are those which consist only of adenine (A) and thymine (T), and the rarest n-tuples are those in which GC or CG pattern appears twice. With the n-tuples become more and more frequent, the double GC or CG pattern becomes a single GC or CG pattern. The percentage of four nucleotides in the rarest ten and the most common ten n-tuples are also considered in human chromosomes 21 and 22, and different behaviors are found in the percentage of four nucleotides. Frequency of appearance of n-tuple f(r) as a function of rank r is also examined. We find the n-tuple Zipf plot shows a power-law behavior for r n-1 and a rapid decrease for r > 4 n-1 . In order to explore the interior statistical properties of human chromosomes 21 and 22 in detail, we divide the chromosome sequence into some moving windows and we discuss the percentage of ξη (ξ, η = A, C, G, T) pair in those moving windows. In some particular regions, there are some obvious changes in the percentage of ξη pair, and there maybe exist functional differences. The normalized number of repeats N 0 (l) can be described by a power law: N 0 (l) ∼ l -μ . The distance distributions P 0 (S) between two nucleotides in human chromosomes 21 and 22 are also discussed. A two-order polynomial fit exists in those distance distributions: log P 0 (S) = a + bS + cS 2 , and it is quite different from the random sequence

  4. Predicting statistical properties of open reading frames in bacterial genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Mir

    Full Text Available An analytical model based on the statistical properties of Open Reading Frames (ORFs of eubacterial genomes such as codon composition and sequence length of all reading frames was developed. This new model predicts the average length, maximum length as well as the length distribution of the ORFs of 70 species with GC contents varying between 21% and 74%. Furthermore, the number of annotated genes is predicted with high accordance. However, the ORF length distribution in the five alternative reading frames shows interesting deviations from the predicted distribution. In particular, long ORFs appear more often than expected statistically. The unexpected depletion of stop codons in these alternative open reading frames cannot completely be explained by a biased codon usage in the +1 frame. While it is unknown if the stop codon depletion has a biological function, it could be due to a protein coding capacity of alternative ORFs exerting a selection pressure which prevents the fixation of stop codon mutations. The comparison of the analytical model with bacterial genomes, therefore, leads to a hypothesis suggesting novel gene candidates which can now be investigated in subsequent wet lab experiments.

  5. Statistical properties of the ice particle distribution in stratiform clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delanoe, J.; Tinel, C.; Testud, J.

    2003-04-01

    This paper presents an extensive analysis of several microphysical data bases CEPEX, EUCREX, CLARE and CARL to determine statistical properties of the Particle Size Distribution (PSD). The data base covers different type of stratiform clouds : tropical cirrus (CEPEX), mid-latitude cirrus (EUCREX) and mid-latitude cirrus and stratus (CARL,CLARE) The approach for analysis uses the concept of normalisation of the PSD developed by Testud et al. (2001). The normalization aims at isolating three independent characteristics of the PSD : its "intrinsic" shape, the "average size" of the spectrum and the ice water content IWC, "average size" is meant the mean mass weighted diameter. It is shown that concentration should be normalized by N_0^* proportional to IWC/D_m^4. The "intrinsic" shape is defined as F(Deq/D_m)=N(Deq)/N_0^* where Deq is the equivalent melted diameter. The "intrinsic" shape is found to be very stable in the range 001.5, more scatter is observed, but future analysis should decide if it is representative of real physical variation or statistical "error" due to counting problem. Considering an overall statistics over the full data base, a large scatter of the N_0^* against Dm plot is found. But in the case of a particular event or a particular leg of a flight, the N_0^* vs. Dm plot is much less scattered and shows a systematic trend for decaying of N_0^* when Dm increases. This trend is interpreted as the manifestation of the predominance of the aggregation process. Finally an important point for cloud remote sensing is investigated : the normalised relationships IWC/N_0^* against Z/N_0^* is much less scattered that the classical IWC against Z the radar reflectivity factor.

  6. Statistical Indicators for Religious Studies: Indicators of Level and Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herteliu, Claudiu; Isaic-Maniu, Alexandru

    2009-01-01

    Using statistic indicators as vectors of information relative to the operational status of a phenomenon, including a religious one, is unanimously accepted. By introducing a system of statistic indicators we can also analyze the interfacing areas of a phenomenon. In this context, we have elaborated a system of statistic indicators specific to the…

  7. STATISTICAL PROPERTIES OF GALACTIC δ SCUTI STARS: REVISITED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, S.-W.; Kim, D.-W.; Byun, Y.-I.; Protopapas, P.

    2013-01-01

    We present statistical characteristics of 1578 δ Scuti stars including nearby field stars and cluster member stars within the Milky Way. We obtained 46% of these stars (718 stars) from work by Rodríguez and collected the remaining 54% of stars (860 stars) from other literature. We updated the entries with the latest information of sky coordinates, color, rotational velocity, spectral type, period, amplitude, and binarity. The majority of our sample is well characterized in terms of typical period range (0.02-0.25 days), pulsation amplitudes (<0.5 mag), and spectral types (A-F type). Given this list of δ Scuti stars, we examined relations between their physical properties (i.e., periods, amplitudes, spectral types, and rotational velocities) for field stars and cluster members, and confirmed that the correlations of properties are not significantly different from those reported in Rodríguez's work. All the δ Scuti stars are cross-matched with several X-ray and UV catalogs, resulting in 27 X-ray and 41 UV-only counterparts. These counterparts are interesting targets for further study because of their uniqueness in showing δ Scuti-type variability and X-ray/UV emission at the same time. The compiled catalog can be accessed through the Web interface http://stardb.yonsei.ac.kr/DeltaScuti.

  8. Statistical properties of the personal social network in the Facebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Q.; Shao, F.; Hu, Z. L.; Liu, J. G.

    2013-10-01

    The statistical properties of the user interaction behaviors in a city have great significance for developing the network marketing strategy, promoting personalized service and so on. In this paper, we investigate the interaction property of the users from New Orleans network in the Facebook, and find that one's out-degree and in-degree are approximately the same. In addition, when the number of a user friends is less than 65, the number of their posts would linearly grow with the slope 4.2, but when one user's friends are more than 65, their posts would grow with the slope 2.1. Further, the average link weight is relatively flat when the out-degree ranges from 28 to 65, and before or after the section it is on the rise or in decline, respectively, from which we can conclude that one could not maintain stable and meaningful relationships with more than 65 people in a single city. We present a null model to reshuffle the network to guarantee that the empirical results are not obtained by accident. The result obtained after reshuffling suggests that there exists a limit that restricts people's social activities.

  9. CONFIDENCE LEVELS AND/VS. STATISTICAL HYPOTHESIS TESTING IN STATISTICAL ANALYSIS. CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ILEANA BRUDIU

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Estimated parameters with confidence intervals and testing statistical assumptions used in statistical analysis to obtain conclusions on research from a sample extracted from the population. Paper to the case study presented aims to highlight the importance of volume of sample taken in the study and how this reflects on the results obtained when using confidence intervals and testing for pregnant. If statistical testing hypotheses not only give an answer "yes" or "no" to some questions of statistical estimation using statistical confidence intervals provides more information than a test statistic, show high degree of uncertainty arising from small samples and findings build in the "marginally significant" or "almost significant (p very close to 0.05.

  10. Prediction of dimethyl disulfide levels from biosolids using statistical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Steven A; Vilalai, Sirapong; Arispe, Susanna; Kim, Hyunook; McConnell, Laura L; Torrents, Alba; Peot, Christopher; Ramirez, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Two statistical models were used to predict the concentration of dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) released from biosolids produced by an advanced wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) located in Washington, DC, USA. The plant concentrates sludge from primary sedimentation basins in gravity thickeners (GT) and sludge from secondary sedimentation basins in dissolved air flotation (DAF) thickeners. The thickened sludge is pumped into blending tanks and then fed into centrifuges for dewatering. The dewatered sludge is then conditioned with lime before trucking out from the plant. DMDS, along with other volatile sulfur and nitrogen-containing chemicals, is known to contribute to biosolids odors. These models identified oxidation/reduction potential (ORP) values of a GT and DAF, the amount of sludge dewatered by centrifuges, and the blend ratio between GT thickened sludge and DAF thickened sludge in blending tanks as control variables. The accuracy of the developed regression models was evaluated by checking the adjusted R2 of the regression as well as the signs of coefficients associated with each variable. In general, both models explained observed DMDS levels in sludge headspace samples. The adjusted R2 value of the regression models 1 and 2 were 0.79 and 0.77, respectively. Coefficients for each regression model also had the correct sign. Using the developed models, plant operators can adjust the controllable variables to proactively decrease this odorant. Therefore, these models are a useful tool in biosolids management at WWTPs.

  11. Statistical nuclear properties and synthesis of 138La

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kheswa B. V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of the neutron deficient 138La nucleus has been a puzzle for a long time. It has not been clear whether it is produced through photodisintegration processes or neutrino induced reactions due to unavailability of experimental data for nuclear level densities and γ strength functions of 138,139La nuclei. In the present work these nuclear properties have been measured and are used to investigate the synthesis of 138La. The results support the neutrino interactions as a dominant production process for 138La.

  12. Statistical properties of nonlinear one-dimensional wave fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Chalikov

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical model for long-term simulation of gravity surface waves is described. The model is designed as a component of a coupled Wave Boundary Layer/Sea Waves model, for investigation of small-scale dynamic and thermodynamic interactions between the ocean and atmosphere. Statistical properties of nonlinear wave fields are investigated on a basis of direct hydrodynamical modeling of 1-D potential periodic surface waves. The method is based on a nonstationary conformal surface-following coordinate transformation; this approach reduces the principal equations of potential waves to two simple evolutionary equations for the elevation and the velocity potential on the surface. The numerical scheme is based on a Fourier transform method. High accuracy was confirmed by validation of the nonstationary model against known solutions, and by comparison between the results obtained with different resolutions in the horizontal. The scheme allows reproduction of the propagation of steep Stokes waves for thousands of periods with very high accuracy. The method here developed is applied to simulation of the evolution of wave fields with large number of modes for many periods of dominant waves. The statistical characteristics of nonlinear wave fields for waves of different steepness were investigated: spectra, curtosis and skewness, dispersion relation, life time. The prime result is that wave field may be presented as a superposition of linear waves is valid only for small amplitudes. It is shown as well, that nonlinear wave fields are rather a superposition of Stokes waves not linear waves. Potential flow, free surface, conformal mapping, numerical modeling of waves, gravity waves, Stokes waves, breaking waves, freak waves, wind-wave interaction.

  13. Statistical properties of nonlinear one-dimensional wave fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalikov, D.

    2005-06-01

    A numerical model for long-term simulation of gravity surface waves is described. The model is designed as a component of a coupled Wave Boundary Layer/Sea Waves model, for investigation of small-scale dynamic and thermodynamic interactions between the ocean and atmosphere. Statistical properties of nonlinear wave fields are investigated on a basis of direct hydrodynamical modeling of 1-D potential periodic surface waves. The method is based on a nonstationary conformal surface-following coordinate transformation; this approach reduces the principal equations of potential waves to two simple evolutionary equations for the elevation and the velocity potential on the surface. The numerical scheme is based on a Fourier transform method. High accuracy was confirmed by validation of the nonstationary model against known solutions, and by comparison between the results obtained with different resolutions in the horizontal. The scheme allows reproduction of the propagation of steep Stokes waves for thousands of periods with very high accuracy. The method here developed is applied to simulation of the evolution of wave fields with large number of modes for many periods of dominant waves. The statistical characteristics of nonlinear wave fields for waves of different steepness were investigated: spectra, curtosis and skewness, dispersion relation, life time. The prime result is that wave field may be presented as a superposition of linear waves is valid only for small amplitudes. It is shown as well, that nonlinear wave fields are rather a superposition of Stokes waves not linear waves. Potential flow, free surface, conformal mapping, numerical modeling of waves, gravity waves, Stokes waves, breaking waves, freak waves, wind-wave interaction.

  14. Statistical properties of the normalized ice particle size distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delanoë, Julien; Protat, Alain; Testud, Jacques; Bouniol, Dominique; Heymsfield, A. J.; Bansemer, A.; Brown, P. R. A.; Forbes, R. M.

    2005-05-01

    Testud et al. (2001) have recently developed a formalism, known as the "normalized particle size distribution (PSD)", which consists in scaling the diameter and concentration axes in such a way that the normalized PSDs are independent of water content and mean volume-weighted diameter. In this paper we investigate the statistical properties of the normalized PSD for the particular case of ice clouds, which are known to play a crucial role in the Earth's radiation balance. To do so, an extensive database of airborne in situ microphysical measurements has been constructed. A remarkable stability in shape of the normalized PSD is obtained. The impact of using a single analytical shape to represent all PSDs in the database is estimated through an error analysis on the instrumental (radar reflectivity and attenuation) and cloud (ice water content, effective radius, terminal fall velocity of ice crystals, visible extinction) properties. This resulted in a roughly unbiased estimate of the instrumental and cloud parameters, with small standard deviations ranging from 5 to 12%. This error is found to be roughly independent of the temperature range. This stability in shape and its single analytical approximation implies that two parameters are now sufficient to describe any normalized PSD in ice clouds: the intercept parameter N*0 and the mean volume-weighted diameter Dm. Statistical relationships (parameterizations) between N*0 and Dm have then been evaluated in order to reduce again the number of unknowns. It has been shown that a parameterization of N*0 and Dm by temperature could not be envisaged to retrieve the cloud parameters. Nevertheless, Dm-T and mean maximum dimension diameter -T parameterizations have been derived and compared to the parameterization of Kristjánsson et al. (2000) currently used to characterize particle size in climate models. The new parameterization generally produces larger particle sizes at any temperature than the Kristjánsson et al. (2000

  15. Effects of Isospin mixing on statistical properties of 26Al and 30P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shriner, J.F. Jr.; Blackston, M.A.; Mahar, K.T.; Grossmann, C.A.; Mitchell, G.E.

    2000-01-01

    Odd-odd nuclides in the sd-shell have states of different isospin coexisting even near the ground state. Because isospin is not a perfect symmetry, this coexistence provides an opportunity to examine directly the effects of a broken symmetry on the statistical properties of a quantum system. We present results for the nuclides 26 Al and 30 P, for which the level schemes are relatively complete

  16. Critical, statistical, and thermodynamical properties of lattice models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varma, Vipin Kerala

    2013-10-15

    In this thesis we investigate zero temperature and low temperature properties - critical, statistical and thermodynamical - of lattice models in the contexts of bosonic cold atom systems, magnetic materials, and non-interacting particles on various lattice geometries. We study quantum phase transitions in the Bose-Hubbard model with higher body interactions, as relevant for optical lattice experiments of strongly interacting bosons, in one and two dimensions; the universality of the Mott insulator to superfluid transition is found to remain unchanged for even large three body interaction strengths. A systematic renormalization procedure is formulated to fully re-sum these higher (three and four) body interactions into the two body terms. In the strongly repulsive limit, we analyse the zero and low temperature physics of interacting hard-core bosons on the kagome lattice at various fillings. Evidence for a disordered phase in the Ising limit of the model is presented; in the strong coupling limit, the transition between the valence bond solid and the superfluid is argued to be first order at the tip of the solid lobe.

  17. Critical, statistical, and thermodynamical properties of lattice models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varma, Vipin Kerala

    2013-10-01

    In this thesis we investigate zero temperature and low temperature properties - critical, statistical and thermodynamical - of lattice models in the contexts of bosonic cold atom systems, magnetic materials, and non-interacting particles on various lattice geometries. We study quantum phase transitions in the Bose-Hubbard model with higher body interactions, as relevant for optical lattice experiments of strongly interacting bosons, in one and two dimensions; the universality of the Mott insulator to superfluid transition is found to remain unchanged for even large three body interaction strengths. A systematic renormalization procedure is formulated to fully re-sum these higher (three and four) body interactions into the two body terms. In the strongly repulsive limit, we analyse the zero and low temperature physics of interacting hard-core bosons on the kagome lattice at various fillings. Evidence for a disordered phase in the Ising limit of the model is presented; in the strong coupling limit, the transition between the valence bond solid and the superfluid is argued to be first order at the tip of the solid lobe.

  18. Statistical properties and fractals of nucleotide clusters in DNA sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Tingting; Zhang Linxi; Chen Jin; Jiang Zhouting

    2004-01-01

    Statistical properties of nucleotide clusters in DNA sequences and their fractals are investigated in this paper. The average size of nucleotide clusters in non-coding sequence is larger than that in coding sequence. We investigate the cluster-size distribution P(S) for human chromosomes 21 and 22, and the results are different from previous works. The cluster-size distribution P(S 1 +S 2 ) with the total size of sequential Pu-cluster and Py-cluster S 1 +S 2 is studied. We observe that P(S 1 +S 2 ) follows an exponential decay both in coding and non-coding sequences. However, we get different results for human chromosomes 21 and 22. The probability distribution P(S 1 ,S 2 ) of nucleotide clusters with the size of sequential Pu-cluster and Py-cluster S 1 and S 2 respectively, is also examined. In the meantime, some of the linear correlations are obtained in the double logarithmic plots of the fluctuation F(l) versus nucleotide cluster distance l along the DNA chain. The power spectrums of nucleotide clusters are also discussed, and it is concluded that the curves are flat and hardly changed and the 1/3 frequency is neither observed in coding sequence nor in non-coding sequence. These investigations can provide some insights into the nucleotide clusters of DNA sequences

  19. Statistical and dynamical properties of a dissipative kicked rotator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Diego F. M.; Leonel, Edson D.

    2014-11-01

    Some dynamical and statistical properties for a conservative as well as the dissipative problem of relativistic particles in a waveguide are considered. For the first time, two different types of dissipation namely: (i) due to viscosity and; (ii) due to inelastic collision (upon the kick) are considered individually and acting together. For the first case, and contrary to what is expected for the original Zaslavsky’s relativistic model, we show there is a critical parameter where a transition from local to global chaos occurs. On the other hand, after considering the introduction of dissipation also on the kick, the structure of the phase space changes in the sense that chaotic and periodic attractors appear. We study also the chaotic sea by using scaling arguments and we proposed an analytical argument to reinforce the validity of the scaling exponents obtained numerically. In principle such an approach can be extended to any two-dimensional map. Finally, based on the Lyapunov exponent, we show that the parameter space exhibits infinite families of self-similar shrimp-shape structures, corresponding to periodic attractors, embedded in a large region corresponding to chaotic attractors.

  20. Statistical properties of multi-theta polymer chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Erica; Deguchi, Tetsuo

    2018-04-01

    We study statistical properties of polymer chains with complex structures whose chemical connectivities are expressed by graphs. The multi-theta curve of m subchains with two branch points connected by them is one of the simplest graphs among those graphs having closed paths, i.e. loops. We denoted it by θm , and for m  =  2 it is given by a ring. We derive analytically the pair distribution function and the scattering function for the θm -shaped polymer chains consisting of m Gaussian random walks of n steps. Surprisingly, it is shown rigorously that the mean-square radius of gyration for the Gaussian θm -shaped polymer chain does not depend on the number m of subchains if each subchain has the same fixed number of steps. For m  =  3 we show the Kratky plot for the theta-shaped polymer chain consisting of hard cylindrical segments by the Monte-Carlo method including reflection at trivalent vertices.

  1. Topological and statistical properties of nonlinear force-free fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangalam, A.; Prasad, A.

    2018-01-01

    We use our semi-analytic solution of the nonlinear force-free field equation to construct three-dimensional magnetic fields that are applicable to the solar corona and study their statistical properties for estimating the degree of braiding exhibited by these fields. We present a new formula for calculating the winding number and compare it with the formula for the crossing number. The comparison is shown for a toy model of two helices and for realistic cases of nonlinear force-free fields; conceptually the formulae are nearly the same but the resulting distributions calculated for a given topology can be different. We also calculate linkages, which are useful topological quantities that are independent measures of the contribution of magnetic braiding to the total free energy and relative helicity of the field. Finally, we derive new analytical bounds for the free energy and relative helicity for the field configurations in terms of the linking number. These bounds will be of utility in estimating the braided energy available for nano-flares or for eruptions.

  2. Probing the statistical properties of Anderson localization with quantum emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolka, Stephan; Thyrrestrup, Henri; Sapienza, Luca; Lehmann, Tau B; Rix, Kristian R; GarcIa, Pedro D; Lodahl, Peter; Froufe-Perez, Luis S

    2011-01-01

    Wave propagation in disordered media can be strongly modified by multiple scattering and wave interference. Ultimately, the so-called Anderson-localized regime is reached when the waves become strongly confined in space. So far, Anderson localization of light has been probed in transmission experiments by measuring the intensity of an external light source after propagation through a disordered medium. However, discriminating between Anderson localization and losses in these experiments remains a major challenge. In this paper, we present an alternative approach where we use quantum emitters embedded in disordered photonic crystal waveguides as light sources. Anderson-localized modes are efficiently excited and the analysis of the photoluminescence spectra allows us to explore their statistical properties, for example the localization length and average loss length. With increasing the amount of disorder induced in the photonic crystal, we observe a pronounced increase in the localization length that is attributed to changes in the local density of states, a behavior that is in stark contrast to entirely random systems. The analysis may pave the way for accurate models and the control of Anderson localization in disordered photonic crystals.

  3. Statistical Properties of Clear and Dark Duration Lengths

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brabec, Marek; Paulescu, M.; Badescu, V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 153, 1 September (2017), s. 508-518 ISSN 0038-092X Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : sunshine duration * clouds * solar irradiance * statistical lifetime modeling * cox regression * censored data Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research OBOR OECD: Statistics and probability Impact factor: 4.018, year: 2016

  4. Statistical properties of quantum entanglement and information entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Aty, M.M.A.

    2007-03-01

    Key words: entropy, entanglement, atom-field interaction, trapped ions, cold atoms, information entropy. Objects of research: Pure state entanglement, entropy squeezing mazer. The aim of the work: Study of the new entanglement features and new measures for both pure-state and mixed state of particle-field interaction. Also, the impact of the information entropy on the quantum information theory. Method of investigation: Methods of theoretical physics and applied mathematics (statistical physics, quantum optics) are used. Results obtained and their novelty are: All the results of the dissertation are new and many new features have been discovered. Particularly: the most general case of the pure state entanglement has been introduced. Although various special aspects of the quantum entropy have been investigated previously, the general features of the dynamics, when a multi-level system and a common environment are considered, have not been treated before and our work therefore, field a gap in the literature. Specifically: 1) A new entanglement measure due to quantum mutual entropy (mixed-state entanglement) we called it DEM, has been introduced, 2) A new treatment of the atomic information entropy in higher level systems has been presented. The problem has been completely solved in the case of three-level system, 3) A new solution of the interaction between the ultra cold atoms and cavity field has been discovered, 4) Some new models of the atom-field interaction have been adopted. Practical value: The subject carries out theoretic character. Application region: Results can be used in quantum computer developments. Also, the presented results can be used for further developments of the quantum information and quantum communications. (author)

  5. Likert scales, levels of measurement and the "laws" of statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Geoff

    2010-12-01

    Reviewers of research reports frequently criticize the choice of statistical methods. While some of these criticisms are well-founded, frequently the use of various parametric methods such as analysis of variance, regression, correlation are faulted because: (a) the sample size is too small, (b) the data may not be normally distributed, or (c) The data are from Likert scales, which are ordinal, so parametric statistics cannot be used. In this paper, I dissect these arguments, and show that many studies, dating back to the 1930s consistently show that parametric statistics are robust with respect to violations of these assumptions. Hence, challenges like those above are unfounded, and parametric methods can be utilized without concern for "getting the wrong answer".

  6. Statistical cluster analysis and diagnosis of nuclear system level performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teichmann, T.; Levine, M.M.; Samanta, P.K.; Kato, W.Y.

    1985-01-01

    The complexity of individual nuclear power plants and the importance of maintaining reliable and safe operations makes it desirable to complement the deterministic analyses of these plants by corresponding statistical surveys and diagnoses. Based on such investigations, one can then explore, statistically, the anticipation, prevention, and when necessary, the control of such failures and malfunctions. This paper, and the accompanying one by Samanta et al., describe some of the initial steps in exploring the feasibility of setting up such a program on an integrated and global (industry-wide) basis. The conceptual statistical and data framework was originally outlined in BNL/NUREG-51609, NUREG/CR-3026, and the present work aims at showing how some important elements might be implemented in a practical way (albeit using hypothetical or simulated data)

  7. Subjective Ratings of Beauty and Aesthetics: Correlations With Statistical Image Properties in Western Oil Paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Thomas; Redies, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    For centuries, oil paintings have been a major segment of the visual arts. The JenAesthetics data set consists of a large number of high-quality images of oil paintings of Western provenance from different art periods. With this database, we studied the relationship between objective image measures and subjective evaluations of the images, especially evaluations on aesthetics (defined as artistic value) and beauty (defined as individual liking). The objective measures represented low-level statistical image properties that have been associated with aesthetic value in previous research. Subjective rating scores on aesthetics and beauty correlated not only with each other but also with different combinations of the objective measures. Furthermore, we found that paintings from different art periods vary with regard to the objective measures, that is, they exhibit specific patterns of statistical image properties. In addition, clusters of participants preferred different combinations of these properties. In conclusion, the results of the present study provide evidence that statistical image properties vary between art periods and subject matters and, in addition, they correlate with the subjective evaluation of paintings by the participants. PMID:28694958

  8. Evaluation of statistical and geostatistical models of digital soil properties mapping in tropical mountain regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldir de Carvalho Junior

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil properties have an enormous impact on economic and environmental aspects of agricultural production. Quantitative relationships between soil properties and the factors that influence their variability are the basis of digital soil mapping. The predictive models of soil properties evaluated in this work are statistical (multiple linear regression-MLR and geostatistical (ordinary kriging and co-kriging. The study was conducted in the municipality of Bom Jardim, RJ, using a soil database with 208 sampling points. Predictive models were evaluated for sand, silt and clay fractions, pH in water and organic carbon at six depths according to the specifications of the consortium of digital soil mapping at the global level (GlobalSoilMap. Continuous covariates and categorical predictors were used and their contributions to the model assessed. Only the environmental covariates elevation, aspect, stream power index (SPI, soil wetness index (SWI, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, and b3/b2 band ratio were significantly correlated with soil properties. The predictive models had a mean coefficient of determination of 0.21. Best results were obtained with the geostatistical predictive models, where the highest coefficient of determination 0.43 was associated with sand properties between 60 to 100 cm deep. The use of a sparse data set of soil properties for digital mapping can explain only part of the spatial variation of these properties. The results may be related to the sampling density and the quantity and quality of the environmental covariates and predictive models used.

  9. Thermal and statistical properties of nuclei and nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretto, L.G.; Wozniak, G.J.

    1989-07-01

    The term statistical decay, statistical or thermodynamic equilibrium, thermalization, temperature, etc., have been used in nuclear physics since the introduction of the compound nucleus (CN) concept, and they are still used, perhaps even more frequently, in the context of intermediate- and high-energy heavy-ion reactions. Unfortunately, the increased popularity of these terms has not made them any clearer, and more often than not one encounters sweeping statements about the alleged statisticity of a nuclear process where the ''statistical'' connotation is a more apt description of the state of the speaker's mind than of the nuclear reaction. It is our goal, in this short set of lectures, to set at least some ideas straight on this broad and beautiful subject, on the one hand by clarifying some fundamental concepts, on the other by presenting some interesting applications to actual physical cases. 74 refs., 38 figs

  10. Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Hayslett, H T

    1991-01-01

    Statistics covers the basic principles of Statistics. The book starts by tackling the importance and the two kinds of statistics; the presentation of sample data; the definition, illustration and explanation of several measures of location; and the measures of variation. The text then discusses elementary probability, the normal distribution and the normal approximation to the binomial. Testing of statistical hypotheses and tests of hypotheses about the theoretical proportion of successes in a binomial population and about the theoretical mean of a normal population are explained. The text the

  11. Statistical study of 22 K steel machanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhevanov, O.Ya.; Kolpishon, Eh.Yu.; Egorov, M.F.

    1988-01-01

    Test results of 100 specimens of 22 K steel are analyzed for determination of relation between the technology of production, structure and properties of steels. Mechanical properties (ultimate strength and yield strength, relative elongation, relative narrowing, impact strength, hardness) and structural parameters are considered. Investigation into the regressive dependence between mechanical properties and the diameter of the indentor mark when determining Brinell hardness have shown that it is advisable to replace the testing mechanical properties at static extension by the control of hardness and microstructure

  12. Some statistical properties of strange attractors: engineering view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mijangos, M; Kontorovich, V; Aguilar-Torrentera, J

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the statistical characterization of strange attractors is investigated via the so-called 'model distribution' approach. It is shown that in order to calculate the first four cumulants, which are necessary to create a model distribution of kurtosis approximation, a systematic method for the calculus of the variance needs to be considered. Correspondently, an analytical method based on the Kolmogorov-Sinai (K-S) entropy for variance approximation is herein proposed. The methodology is of interest for its application in the statistical analysis of chaotic systems that model physical phenomena found in some areas of electrical (communication) engineering

  13. Some statistical properties of gene expression clustering for array data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abreu, G C G; Pinheiro, A; Drummond, R D

    2010-01-01

    DNA array data without a corresponding statistical error measure. We propose an easy-to-implement and simple-to-use technique that uses bootstrap re-sampling to evaluate the statistical error of the nodes provided by SOM-based clustering. Comparisons between SOM and parametric clustering are presented...... for simulated as well as for two real data sets. We also implement a bootstrap-based pre-processing procedure for SOM, that improves the false discovery ratio of differentially expressed genes. Code in Matlab is freely available, as well as some supplementary material, at the following address: https...

  14. IGESS: a statistical approach to integrating individual-level genotype data and summary statistics in genome-wide association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Mingwei; Ming, Jingsi; Cai, Mingxuan; Liu, Jin; Yang, Can; Wan, Xiang; Xu, Zongben

    2017-09-15

    Results from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) suggest that a complex phenotype is often affected by many variants with small effects, known as 'polygenicity'. Tens of thousands of samples are often required to ensure statistical power of identifying these variants with small effects. However, it is often the case that a research group can only get approval for the access to individual-level genotype data with a limited sample size (e.g. a few hundreds or thousands). Meanwhile, summary statistics generated using single-variant-based analysis are becoming publicly available. The sample sizes associated with the summary statistics datasets are usually quite large. How to make the most efficient use of existing abundant data resources largely remains an open question. In this study, we propose a statistical approach, IGESS, to increasing statistical power of identifying risk variants and improving accuracy of risk prediction by i ntegrating individual level ge notype data and s ummary s tatistics. An efficient algorithm based on variational inference is developed to handle the genome-wide analysis. Through comprehensive simulation studies, we demonstrated the advantages of IGESS over the methods which take either individual-level data or summary statistics data as input. We applied IGESS to perform integrative analysis of Crohns Disease from WTCCC and summary statistics from other studies. IGESS was able to significantly increase the statistical power of identifying risk variants and improve the risk prediction accuracy from 63.2% ( ±0.4% ) to 69.4% ( ±0.1% ) using about 240 000 variants. The IGESS software is available at https://github.com/daviddaigithub/IGESS . zbxu@xjtu.edu.cn or xwan@comp.hkbu.edu.hk or eeyang@hkbu.edu.hk. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  15. Statistical models to predict flows at monthly level in Salvajina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Harold O

    1994-01-01

    It thinks about and models of lineal regression evaluate at monthly level that they allow to predict flows in Salvajina, with base in predictions variable, like the difference of pressure between Darwin and Tahiti, precipitation in Piendamo Cauca), temperature in Port Chicama (Peru) and pressure in Tahiti

  16. Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Links to sources of cancer-related statistics, including the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program, SEER-Medicare datasets, cancer survivor prevalence data, and the Cancer Trends Progress Report.

  17. Statistical modelling of monthly mean sea level at coastal tide gauge stations along the Indian subcontinent

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Srinivas, K.; Das, V.K.; DineshKumar, P.K.

    This study investigates the suitability of statistical models for their predictive potential for the monthly mean sea level at different stations along the west and east coasts of the Indian subcontinent. Statistical modelling of the monthly mean...

  18. Distribution-level electricity reliability: Temporal trends using statistical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eto, Joseph H.; LaCommare, Kristina H.; Larsen, Peter; Todd, Annika; Fisher, Emily

    2012-01-01

    This paper helps to address the lack of comprehensive, national-scale information on the reliability of the U.S. electric power system by assessing trends in U.S. electricity reliability based on the information reported by the electric utilities on power interruptions experienced by their customers. The research analyzes up to 10 years of electricity reliability information collected from 155 U.S. electric utilities, which together account for roughly 50% of total U.S. electricity sales. We find that reported annual average duration and annual average frequency of power interruptions have been increasing over time at a rate of approximately 2% annually. We find that, independent of this trend, installation or upgrade of an automated outage management system is correlated with an increase in the reported annual average duration of power interruptions. We also find that reliance on IEEE Standard 1366-2003 is correlated with higher reported reliability compared to reported reliability not using the IEEE standard. However, we caution that we cannot attribute reliance on the IEEE standard as having caused or led to higher reported reliability because we could not separate the effect of reliance on the IEEE standard from other utility-specific factors that may be correlated with reliance on the IEEE standard. - Highlights: ► We assess trends in electricity reliability based on the information reported by the electric utilities. ► We use rigorous statistical techniques to account for utility-specific differences. ► We find modest declines in reliability analyzing interruption duration and frequency experienced by utility customers. ► Installation or upgrade of an OMS is correlated to an increase in reported duration of power interruptions. ► We find reliance in IEEE Standard 1366 is correlated with higher reported reliability.

  19. Statistical Model Checking of Rich Models and Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Danny Bøgsted

    in undecidability issues for the traditional model checking approaches. Statistical model checking has proven itself a valuable supplement to model checking and this thesis is concerned with extending this software validation technique to stochastic hybrid systems. The thesis consists of two parts: the first part...... motivates why existing model checking technology should be supplemented by new techniques. It also contains a brief introduction to probability theory and concepts covered by the six papers making up the second part. The first two papers are concerned with developing online monitoring techniques...... systems. The fifth paper shows how stochastic hybrid automata are useful for modelling biological systems and the final paper is concerned with showing how statistical model checking is efficiently distributed. In parallel with developing the theory contained in the papers, a substantial part of this work...

  20. Compound speckles and their statistical and dynamical properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanson, Steen Grüner; Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Skov Hansen, Rene

    2008-01-01

    Two issues will be treated in this presentation, both focusing on gaining a deeper understanding of dynamic speckles, aiming at the use for probing dynamical properties of scattering structures. The first issue to be addressed is the dynamics of speckles arising from illuminating a solid surface...

  1. Statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    For the years 2004 and 2005 the figures shown in the tables of Energy Review are partly preliminary. The annual statistics published in Energy Review are presented in more detail in a publication called Energy Statistics that comes out yearly. Energy Statistics also includes historical time-series over a longer period of time (see e.g. Energy Statistics, Statistics Finland, Helsinki 2004.) The applied energy units and conversion coefficients are shown in the back cover of the Review. Explanatory notes to the statistical tables can be found after tables and figures. The figures presents: Changes in GDP, energy consumption and electricity consumption, Carbon dioxide emissions from fossile fuels use, Coal consumption, Consumption of natural gas, Peat consumption, Domestic oil deliveries, Import prices of oil, Consumer prices of principal oil products, Fuel prices in heat production, Fuel prices in electricity production, Price of electricity by type of consumer, Average monthly spot prices at the Nord pool power exchange, Total energy consumption by source and CO 2 -emissions, Supplies and total consumption of electricity GWh, Energy imports by country of origin in January-June 2003, Energy exports by recipient country in January-June 2003, Consumer prices of liquid fuels, Consumer prices of hard coal, natural gas and indigenous fuels, Price of natural gas by type of consumer, Price of electricity by type of consumer, Price of district heating by type of consumer, Excise taxes, value added taxes and fiscal charges and fees included in consumer prices of some energy sources and Energy taxes, precautionary stock fees and oil pollution fees

  2. West Valley high-level nuclear waste glass development: a statistically designed mixture study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chick, L.A.; Bowen, W.M.; Lokken, R.O.; Wald, J.W.; Bunnell, L.R.; Strachan, D.M.

    1984-10-01

    The first full-scale conversion of high-level commercial nuclear wastes to glass in the United States will be conducted at West Valley, New York, by West Valley Nuclear Services Company, Inc. (WVNS), for the US Department of Energy. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is supporting WVNS in the design of the glass-making process and the chemical formulation of the glass. This report describes the statistically designed study performed by PNL to develop the glass composition recommended for use at West Valley. The recommended glass contains 28 wt% waste, as limited by process requirements. The waste loading and the silica content (45 wt%) are similar to those in previously developed waste glasses; however, the new formulation contains more calcium and less boron. A series of tests verified that the increased calcium results in improved chemical durability and does not adversely affect the other modeled properties. The optimization study assessed the effects of seven oxide components on glass properties. Over 100 melts combining the seven components into a wide variety of statistically chosen compositions were tested. Viscosity, electrical conductivity, thermal expansion, crystallinity, and chemical durability were measured and empirically modeled as a function of the glass composition. The mathematical models were then used to predict the optimum formulation. This glass was tested and adjusted to arrive at the final composition recommended for use at West Valley. 56 references, 49 figures, 18 tables.

  3. Random matrix theory of the energy-level statistics of disordered systems at the Anderson transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canali, C M

    1995-09-01

    We consider a family of random matrix ensembles (RME) invariant under similarity transformations and described by the probability density P(H) exp[-TrV(H)]. Dyson`s mean field theory (MFT) of the corresponding plasma model of eigenvalues is generalized to the case of weak confining potential, V(is an element of) {approx} A/2 ln{sup 2}(is an element of). The eigenvalue statistics derived from MFT are shown to deviate substantially from the classical Wigner-Dyson statistics when A < 1. By performing systematic Monte Carlo simulations on the plasma model, we compute all the relevant statistical properties of the RME with weak confinement. For A{sub c} approx. 0.4 the distribution function of the level spacings (LSDF) coincides in a large energy window with the energy LSDF of the three dimensional Anderson model at the metal-insulator transition. For the same A = A{sub c}, the RME eigenvalue-number variance is linear and its slope is equal to 0.32 {+-} 0.02, which is consistent with the value found for the Anderson model at the critical point. (author). 51 refs, 10 figs.

  4. Statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    For the year 2000, part of the figures shown in the tables of the Energy Review are preliminary or estimated. The annual statistics of the Energy Review appear in more detail from the publication Energiatilastot - Energy Statistics issued annually, which also includes historical time series over a longer period (see e.g. Energiatilastot 1999, Statistics Finland, Helsinki 2000, ISSN 0785-3165). The inside of the Review's back cover shows the energy units and the conversion coefficients used for them. Explanatory notes to the statistical tables can be found after tables and figures. The figures presents: Changes in the volume of GNP and energy consumption, Changes in the volume of GNP and electricity, Coal consumption, Natural gas consumption, Peat consumption, Domestic oil deliveries, Import prices of oil, Consumer prices of principal oil products, Fuel prices for heat production, Fuel prices for electricity production, Carbon dioxide emissions from the use of fossil fuels, Total energy consumption by source and CO 2 -emissions, Electricity supply, Energy imports by country of origin in 2000, Energy exports by recipient country in 2000, Consumer prices of liquid fuels, Consumer prices of hard coal, natural gas and indigenous fuels, Average electricity price by type of consumer, Price of district heating by type of consumer, Excise taxes, value added taxes and fiscal charges and fees included in consumer prices of some energy sources and Energy taxes and precautionary stock fees on oil products

  5. Statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    For the year 1999 and 2000, part of the figures shown in the tables of the Energy Review are preliminary or estimated. The annual statistics of the Energy Review appear in more detail from the publication Energiatilastot - Energy Statistics issued annually, which also includes historical time series over a longer period (see e.g., Energiatilastot 1998, Statistics Finland, Helsinki 1999, ISSN 0785-3165). The inside of the Review's back cover shows the energy units and the conversion coefficients used for them. Explanatory notes to the statistical tables can be found after tables and figures. The figures presents: Changes in the volume of GNP and energy consumption, Changes in the volume of GNP and electricity, Coal consumption, Natural gas consumption, Peat consumption, Domestic oil deliveries, Import prices of oil, Consumer prices of principal oil products, Fuel prices for heat production, Fuel prices for electricity production, Carbon dioxide emissions, Total energy consumption by source and CO 2 -emissions, Electricity supply, Energy imports by country of origin in January-March 2000, Energy exports by recipient country in January-March 2000, Consumer prices of liquid fuels, Consumer prices of hard coal, natural gas and indigenous fuels, Average electricity price by type of consumer, Price of district heating by type of consumer, Excise taxes, value added taxes and fiscal charges and fees included in consumer prices of some energy sources and Energy taxes and precautionary stock fees on oil products

  6. Statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    For the year 1998 and the year 1999, part of the figures shown in the tables of the Energy Review are preliminary or estimated. The annual statistics of the Energy Review appear in more detail from the publication Energiatilastot - Energy Statistics issued annually, which also includes historical time series over a longer period (see e.g. Energiatilastot 1998, Statistics Finland, Helsinki 1999, ISSN 0785-3165). The inside of the Review's back cover shows the energy units and the conversion coefficients used for them. Explanatory notes to the statistical tables can be found after tables and figures. The figures presents: Changes in the volume of GNP and energy consumption, Changes in the volume of GNP and electricity, Coal consumption, Natural gas consumption, Peat consumption, Domestic oil deliveries, Import prices of oil, Consumer prices of principal oil products, Fuel prices for heat production, Fuel prices for electricity production, Carbon dioxide emissions, Total energy consumption by source and CO 2 -emissions, Electricity supply, Energy imports by country of origin in January-June 1999, Energy exports by recipient country in January-June 1999, Consumer prices of liquid fuels, Consumer prices of hard coal, natural gas and indigenous fuels, Average electricity price by type of consumer, Price of district heating by type of consumer, Excise taxes, value added taxes and fiscal charges and fees included in consumer prices of some energy sources and Energy taxes and precautionary stock fees on oil products

  7. Investigating the statistical properties of user-generated documents

    OpenAIRE

    Inches, Giacomo; Carman, Mark J.; Crestani, Fabio

    2011-01-01

    The importance of the Internet as a communication medium is reflected in the large amount of documents being generated every day by users of the different services that take place online. In this work we aim at analyzing the properties of these online user-generated documents for some of the established services over the Internet (Kongregate, Twitter, Myspace and Slashdot) and comparing them with a consolidated collection of standard information retrieval documents (from the Wall Street...

  8. Investigating the Statistical Properties of User-Generated Documents

    OpenAIRE

    Inches Giacomo; Carman Mark James

    2011-01-01

    The importance of the Internet as a communication medium is reflected in the large amount of documents being generated every day by users of the different services that take place online. In this work we aim at analyzing the properties of these online user generated documents for some of the established services over the Internet (Kongregate Twitter Myspace and Slashdot) and comparing them with a consolidated collection of standard information retrieval documents (from the Wall Street Journal...

  9. On the Statistical Properties of the Lower Main Sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelou, George C.; Bellinger, Earl P.; Hekker, Saskia; Basu, Sarbani

    2017-01-01

    Astronomy is in an era where all-sky surveys are mapping the Galaxy. The plethora of photometric, spectroscopic, asteroseismic, and astrometric data allows us to characterize the comprising stars in detail. Here we quantify to what extent precise stellar observations reveal information about the properties of a star, including properties that are unobserved, or even unobservable. We analyze the diagnostic potential of classical and asteroseismic observations for inferring stellar parameters such as age, mass, and radius from evolutionary tracks of solar-like oscillators on the lower main sequence. We perform rank correlation tests in order to determine the capacity of each observable quantity to probe structural components of stars and infer their evolutionary histories. We also analyze the principal components of classic and asteroseismic observables to highlight the degree of redundancy present in the measured quantities and demonstrate the extent to which information of the model parameters can be extracted. We perform multiple regression using combinations of observable quantities in a grid of evolutionary simulations and appraise the predictive utility of each combination in determining the properties of stars. We identify the combinations that are useful and provide limits to where each type of observable quantity can reveal information about a star. We investigate the accuracy with which targets in the upcoming TESS and PLATO missions can be characterized. We demonstrate that the combination of observations from GAIA and PLATO will allow us to tightly constrain stellar masses, ages, and radii with machine learning for the purposes of Galactic and planetary studies.

  10. On the Statistical Properties of the Lower Main Sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelou, George C.; Bellinger, Earl P.; Hekker, Saskia [Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany); Basu, Sarbani [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States)

    2017-04-20

    Astronomy is in an era where all-sky surveys are mapping the Galaxy. The plethora of photometric, spectroscopic, asteroseismic, and astrometric data allows us to characterize the comprising stars in detail. Here we quantify to what extent precise stellar observations reveal information about the properties of a star, including properties that are unobserved, or even unobservable. We analyze the diagnostic potential of classical and asteroseismic observations for inferring stellar parameters such as age, mass, and radius from evolutionary tracks of solar-like oscillators on the lower main sequence. We perform rank correlation tests in order to determine the capacity of each observable quantity to probe structural components of stars and infer their evolutionary histories. We also analyze the principal components of classic and asteroseismic observables to highlight the degree of redundancy present in the measured quantities and demonstrate the extent to which information of the model parameters can be extracted. We perform multiple regression using combinations of observable quantities in a grid of evolutionary simulations and appraise the predictive utility of each combination in determining the properties of stars. We identify the combinations that are useful and provide limits to where each type of observable quantity can reveal information about a star. We investigate the accuracy with which targets in the upcoming TESS and PLATO missions can be characterized. We demonstrate that the combination of observations from GAIA and PLATO will allow us to tightly constrain stellar masses, ages, and radii with machine learning for the purposes of Galactic and planetary studies.

  11. Statistical properties of derivatives: A journey in term structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautier, Delphine; Raynaud, Franck

    2011-06-01

    This article presents an empirical study of 13 derivative markets for commodities and financial assets. The study goes beyond statistical analysis by including the maturity as a variable for the daily returns of futures contracts from 1998 to 2010, and for delivery dates up to 120 months. We observe that the mean and variance of the commodities follow a scaling behavior in the maturity dimension with an exponent characteristic of the Samuelson effect. The comparison between the tails of the probability distribution according to the expiration dates shows that there is a segmentation in the fat tails exponent term structure above the Lévy stable region. Finally, we compute the average tail exponent for each maturity, and we observe two regimes of extreme events for derivative markets, reminiscent of a phase diagram with a sharp transition at the 18th delivery month.

  12. Statistical properties of Charney-Hasegawa-Mima zonal flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Johan; Botha, G. J. J.

    2015-01-01

    A theoretical interpretation of numerically generated probability density functions (PDFs) of intermittent plasma transport events in unforced zonal flows is provided within the Charney-Hasegawa-Mima (CHM) model. The governing equation is solved numerically with various prescribed density gradients that are designed to produce different configurations of parallel and anti-parallel streams. Long-lasting vortices form whose flow is governed by the zonal streams. It is found that the numerically generated PDFs can be matched with analytical predictions of PDFs based on the instanton method by removing the autocorrelations from the time series. In many instances, the statistics generated by the CHM dynamics relaxes to Gaussian distributions for both the electrostatic and vorticity perturbations, whereas in areas with strong nonlinear interactions it is found that the PDFs are exponentially distributed

  13. Statistical Properties of Geomagnetic Activity Indices and Solar Wind Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Hee Kim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As the prediction of geomagnetic storms is becoming an important and practical problem, conditions in the Earth’s magnetosphere have been studied rigorously in terms of those in the interplanetary space. Another approach to space weather forecast is to deal with it as a probabilistic geomagnetic storm forecasting problem. In this study, we carry out detailed statistical analysis of solar wind parameters and geomagnetic indices examining the dependence of the distribution on the solar cycle and annual variations. Our main findings are as follows: (1 The distribution of parameters obtained via the superimposed epoch method follows the Gaussian distribution. (2 When solar activity is at its maximum the mean value of the distribution is shifted to the direction indicating the intense environment. Furthermore, the width of the distribution becomes wider at its maximum than at its minimum so that more extreme case can be expected. (3 The distribution of some certain heliospheric parameters is less sensitive to the phase of the solar cycle and annual variations. (4 The distribution of the eastward component of the interplanetary electric field BV and the solar wind driving function BV2, however, appears to be all dependent on the solar maximum/minimum, the descending/ascending phases of the solar cycle and the equinoxes/solstices. (5 The distribution of the AE index and the Dst index shares statistical features closely with BV and BV2 compared with other heliospheric parameters. In this sense, BV and BV2 are more robust proxies of the geomagnetic storm. We conclude by pointing out that our results allow us to step forward in providing the occurrence probability of geomagnetic storms for space weather and physical modeling.

  14. Statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    For the year 2002, part of the figures shown in the tables of the Energy Review are partly preliminary. The annual statistics of the Energy Review also includes historical time-series over a longer period (see e.g. Energiatilastot 2001, Statistics Finland, Helsinki 2002). The applied energy units and conversion coefficients are shown in the inside back cover of the Review. Explanatory notes to the statistical tables can be found after tables and figures. The figures presents: Changes in GDP, energy consumption and electricity consumption, Carbon dioxide emissions from fossile fuels use, Coal consumption, Consumption of natural gas, Peat consumption, Domestic oil deliveries, Import prices of oil, Consumer prices of principal oil products, Fuel prices in heat production, Fuel prices in electricity production, Price of electricity by type of consumer, Average monthly spot prices at the Nord pool power exchange, Total energy consumption by source and CO 2 -emissions, Supply and total consumption of electricity GWh, Energy imports by country of origin in January-June 2003, Energy exports by recipient country in January-June 2003, Consumer prices of liquid fuels, Consumer prices of hard coal, natural gas and indigenous fuels, Price of natural gas by type of consumer, Price of electricity by type of consumer, Price of district heating by type of consumer, Excise taxes, value added taxes and fiscal charges and fees included in consumer prices of some energy sources and Excise taxes, precautionary stock fees on oil pollution fees on energy products

  15. Statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    For the year 2003 and 2004, the figures shown in the tables of the Energy Review are partly preliminary. The annual statistics of the Energy Review also includes historical time-series over a longer period (see e.g. Energiatilastot, Statistics Finland, Helsinki 2003, ISSN 0785-3165). The applied energy units and conversion coefficients are shown in the inside back cover of the Review. Explanatory notes to the statistical tables can be found after tables and figures. The figures presents: Changes in GDP, energy consumption and electricity consumption, Carbon dioxide emissions from fossile fuels use, Coal consumption, Consumption of natural gas, Peat consumption, Domestic oil deliveries, Import prices of oil, Consumer prices of principal oil products, Fuel prices in heat production, Fuel prices in electricity production, Price of electricity by type of consumer, Average monthly spot prices at the Nord pool power exchange, Total energy consumption by source and CO 2 -emissions, Supplies and total consumption of electricity GWh, Energy imports by country of origin in January-March 2004, Energy exports by recipient country in January-March 2004, Consumer prices of liquid fuels, Consumer prices of hard coal, natural gas and indigenous fuels, Price of natural gas by type of consumer, Price of electricity by type of consumer, Price of district heating by type of consumer, Excise taxes, value added taxes and fiscal charges and fees included in consumer prices of some energy sources and Excise taxes, precautionary stock fees on oil pollution fees

  16. Statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    For the year 1999 and 2000, part of the figures shown in the tables of the Energy Review are preliminary or estimated. The annual statistics of the Energy also includes historical time series over a longer period (see e.g., Energiatilastot 1999, Statistics Finland, Helsinki 2000, ISSN 0785-3165). The inside of the Review's back cover shows the energy units and the conversion coefficients used for them. Explanatory notes to the statistical tables can be found after tables and figures. The figures presents: Changes in the volume of GNP and energy consumption, Changes in the volume of GNP and electricity, Coal consumption, Natural gas consumption, Peat consumption, Domestic oil deliveries, Import prices of oil, Consumer prices of principal oil products, Fuel prices for heat production, Fuel prices for electricity production, Carbon dioxide emissions, Total energy consumption by source and CO 2 -emissions, Electricity supply, Energy imports by country of origin in January-June 2000, Energy exports by recipient country in January-June 2000, Consumer prices of liquid fuels, Consumer prices of hard coal, natural gas and indigenous fuels, Average electricity price by type of consumer, Price of district heating by type of consumer, Excise taxes, value added taxes and fiscal charges and fees included in consumer prices of some energy sources and Energy taxes and precautionary stock fees on oil products

  17. Statistical properties of turbulence in a toroidal magnetized ECR plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Yi; Lu Ronghua; Wang Zhijiang; Wen Yizhi; Yu Changxuan; Wan Shude; Liu, Wandong

    2008-01-01

    The statistical analyses of fluctuation data measured by electrostatic-probe arrays clearly show that the self-organized criticality (SOC) avalanches are not the dominant behaviors in a toroidal ECR plasma in the SMT (Simple Magnetic Torus) mode of KT-5D device. The f -1 index region in the auto-correlation spectra of the floating potential V f and the ion saturation current I s , which is a fingerprint of a SOC system, ranges only in a narrow frequency band. By investigating the Hurst exponents at increasingly coarse grained time series, we find that at a time scale of τ>100 μs, there exists no or a very weak long-range correlation over two decades in τ. The difference between the PDFs of I s and V f clearly shows a more global nature of the latter. The transport flux induced by the turbulence suggests that the natural intermittency of turbulent transport maybe independent of the avalanche induced by near criticality. The drift instability is dominant in a SMT plasma generated by means of ECR discharges

  18. Statistical properties of the gyro-averaged standard map

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Fonseca, Julio D.; Sokolov, Igor M.; Del-Castillo-Negrete, Diego; Caldas, Ibere L.

    2015-11-01

    A statistical study of the gyro-averaged standard map (GSM) is presented. The GSM is an area preserving map model proposed in as a simplified description of finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects on ExB chaotic transport in magnetized plasmas with zonal flows perturbed by drift waves. The GSM's effective perturbation parameter, gamma, is proportional to the zero-order Bessel function of the particle's Larmor radius. In the limit of zero Larmor radius, the GSM reduces to the standard, Chirikov-Taylor map. We consider plasmas in thermal equilibrium and assume a Larmor radius' probability density function (pdf) resulting from a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution. Since the particles have in general different Larmor radii, each orbit is computed using a different perturbation parameter, gamma. We present analytical and numerical computations of the pdf of gamma for a Maxwellian distribution. We also compute the pdf of global chaos, which gives the probability that a particle with a given Larmor radius exhibits global chaos, i.e. the probability that Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser (KAM) transport barriers do not exist.

  19. The interaction of physical properties of seawater via statistical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzah, Firdaus Mohamad; Jaafar, Othman; Sabri, Samsul Rijal Mohd; Ismail, Mohd Tahir; Jaafar, Khamisah; Arbin, Norazman

    2015-09-01

    It is of importance to determine the relationships between physical parameters in marine ecology. Model and expert opinion are needed for exploration of the form of relationship between two parameters due to the complexity of the ecosystems. These need justification with observed data over a particular periods. Novel statistical techniques such as nonparametric regression is presented to investigate the ecological relationships. These are achieved by demonstrating the features of pH, salinity and conductivity at in Straits of Johor. The monthly data measurements from 2004 until 2013 at a chosen sampling location are examined. Testing for no-effect followed by linearity testing for the relationships between salinity and pH; conductivity and pH, and conductivity and salinity are carried out, with the ecological objectives of investigating the evidence of changes in each of the above physical parameters. The findings reveal the appropriateness of smooth function to explain the variation of pH in response to the changes in salinity whilst the changes in conductivity with regards to different concentrations of salinity could be modelled parametrically. The analysis highlights the importance of both parametric and nonparametric models for assessing ecological response to environmental change in seawater.

  20. Quantitative study on the statistical properties of fibre architecture of genuine and numerical composite microstructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Zangenberg; Brøndsted, Povl

    2013-01-01

    A quantitative study is carried out regarding the statistical properties of the fibre architecture found in composite laminates and that generated numerically using Statistical Representative Volume Elements (SRVE’s). The aim is to determine the reliability and consistency of SRVE’s for represent......A quantitative study is carried out regarding the statistical properties of the fibre architecture found in composite laminates and that generated numerically using Statistical Representative Volume Elements (SRVE’s). The aim is to determine the reliability and consistency of SRVE...

  1. Statistical evaluation of the mechanical properties of high-volume class F fly ash concretes

    KAUST Repository

    Yoon, Seyoon

    2014-03-01

    High-Volume Fly Ash (HVFA) concretes are seen by many as a feasible solution for sustainable, low embodied carbon construction. At the moment, fly ash is classified as a waste by-product, primarily of thermal power stations. In this paper the authors experimentally and statistically investigated the effects of mix-design factors on the mechanical properties of high-volume class F fly ash concretes. A total of 240 and 32 samples were produced and tested in the laboratory to measure compressive strength and Young\\'s modulus respectively. Applicability of the CEB-FIP (Comite Euro-international du Béton - Fédération Internationale de la Précontrainte) and ACI (American Concrete Institute) Building Model Code (Thomas, 2010; ACI Committee 209, 1982) [1,2] to the experimentally-derived mechanical property data for HVFA concretes was established. Furthermore, using multiple linear regression analysis, Mean Squared Residuals (MSRs) were obtained to determine whether a weight- or volume-based mix proportion is better to predict the mechanical properties of HVFA concrete. The significance levels of the design factors, which indicate how significantly the factors affect the HVFA concrete\\'s mechanical properties, were determined using analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests. The results show that a weight-based mix proportion is a slightly better predictor of mechanical properties than volume-based one. The significance level of fly ash substitution rate was higher than that of w/b ratio initially but reduced over time. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Statistical properties of antisymmetrized molecular dynamics for non-nucleon-emission and nucleon-emission processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, A.; Horiuchi, H.

    1996-01-01

    Statistical properties of antisymmetrized molecular dynamics (AMD) are classical in the case of nucleon-emission processes, while they are quantum mechanical for the processes without nucleon emission. In order to understand this situation, we first clarify that there coexist mutually opposite two statistics in the AMD framework: One is the classical statistics of the motion of wave packet centroids and the other is the quantum statistics of the motion of wave packets which is described by the AMD wave function. We prove the classical statistics of wave packet centroids by using the framework of the microcanonical ensemble of the nuclear system with a realistic effective two-nucleon interaction. We show that the relation between the classical statistics of wave packet centroids and the quantum statistics of wave packets can be obtained by taking into account the effects of the wave packet spread. This relation clarifies how the quantum statistics of wave packets emerges from the classical statistics of wave packet centroids. It is emphasized that the temperature of the classical statistics of wave packet centroids is different from the temperature of the quantum statistics of wave packets. We then explain that the statistical properties of AMD for nucleon-emission processes are classical because nucleon-emission processes in AMD are described by the motion of wave packet centroids. We further show that when we improve the description of the nucleon-emission process so as to take into account the momentum fluctuation due to the wave packet spread, the AMD statistical properties for nucleon-emission processes change drastically into quantum statistics. Our study of nucleon-emission processes can be conversely regarded as giving another kind of proof of the fact that the statistics of wave packets is quantum mechanical while that of wave packet centroids is classical. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  3. Levels and properties of map perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żyszkowska Wiesława

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Map perception consists of numerous processes of information processing, taking place almost simultaneously at different levels and stages which makes it conditioned by many factors. In the article, a review of processes related to the perception of a map as well as levels and properties of perception which impact its course and the nature of information obtained from a map is presented. The most important process constituting the basis of a map perception is a visual search (eye movement. However, as stated based on the studies, the process is individual depending on the purpose of map perception and it may be guided by its image (visual search guidance or by the knowledge of users (cognitive search guidance. Perception can take place according to various schemes – “local-to-global” or “global-to-local”, or in accordance with the guided search theory. Perception is divided into three processes: perceiving, distinguishing and identifying, which constitute the basis to interpret and understand a map. They are related to various degrees of intellectual involvement of the user and to various levels of questions concerning the relations between signs and their content. Identification involves referring a sign to its explanation in the legend. Interpretation means transformation of the initial information collected from the map into derivative information in which two basic types of understanding take place: deductive and inductive. Identification of geographical space objects on the map and the interpretation of its content constitute the basis to introduce information into memory structures. In the brain a resource of information is generated called geographic knowledge or spatial representation (mental map which may have a double nature – verbal or pictorial. An important feature of mental maps is organization of spatial information into hierarchical structures, e.g. grouping towns into regions as well as deformation of spatial

  4. On the diversity and statistical properties of protostellar discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bate, Matthew R.

    2018-04-01

    We present results from the first population synthesis study of protostellar discs. We analyse the evolution and properties of a large sample of protostellar discs formed in a radiation hydrodynamical simulation of star cluster formation. Due to the chaotic nature of the star formation process, we find an enormous diversity of young protostellar discs, including misaligned discs, and discs whose orientations vary with time. Star-disc interactions truncate discs and produce multiple systems. Discs may be destroyed in dynamical encounters and/or through ram-pressure stripping, but reform by later gas accretion. We quantify the distributions of disc mass and radii for protostellar ages up to ≈105 yr. For low-mass protostars, disc masses tend to increase with both age and protostellar mass. Disc radii range from of order 10 to a few hundred au, grow in size on time-scales ≲ 104 yr, and are smaller around lower mass protostars. The radial surface density profiles of isolated protostellar discs are flatter than the minimum mass solar nebula model, typically scaling as Σ ∝ r-1. Disc to protostar mass ratios rarely exceed two, with a typical range of Md/M* = 0.1-1 to ages ≲ 104 yr and decreasing thereafter. We quantify the relative orientation angles of circumstellar discs and the orbit of bound pairs of protostars, finding a preference for alignment that strengths with decreasing separation. We also investigate how the orientations of the outer parts of discs differ from the protostellar and inner disc spins for isolated protostars and pairs.

  5. Statistical properties of visible and infrared beams retroreflected through a turbulent atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slatkine, M.; Bensimon, D.; Englander, A.; Shtrikman, S.; Treves, D.

    1980-01-01

    Statistical properties of HeNe and CO 2 laser beams retroreflected through a turbulent atmosphere are investigated experimentally for round paths of 1 km and 12 km. Both heterodyne and direct detection are used

  6. Movement and respiration detection using statistical properties of the FMCW radar signal

    KAUST Repository

    Kiuru, Tero; Metso, Mikko; Jardak, Seifallah; Pursula, Pekka; Hakli, Janne; Hirvonen, Mervi; Sepponen, Raimo

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a 24 GHz FMCW radar system for detection of movement and respiration using change in the statistical properties of the received radar signal, both amplitude and phase. We present the hardware and software segments of the radar

  7. Numerical evaluation of the statistical properties of a potential energy landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nave, E La; Sciortino, F; Tartaglia, P; Michele, C De; Mossa, S

    2003-01-01

    The techniques which allow the numerical evaluation of the statistical properties of the potential energy landscape for models of simple liquids are reviewed and critically discussed. Expressions for the liquid free energy and its vibrational and configurational components are reported. Finally, a possible model for the statistical properties of the landscape, which appears to describe correctly fragile liquids in the region where equilibrium simulations are feasible, is discussed

  8. STATISTICAL DISTRIBUTION PATTERNS IN MECHANICAL AND FATIGUE PROPERTIES OF METALLIC MATERIALS

    OpenAIRE

    Tatsuo, SAKAI; Masaki, NAKAJIMA; Keiro, TOKAJI; Norihiko, HASEGAWA; Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ritsumeikan University; Department of Mechanical Engineering, Toyota College of Technology; Department of Mechanical Engineering, Gifu University; Department of Mechanical Engineering, Gifu University

    1997-01-01

    Many papers on the statistical aspect of materials strength have been collected and reviewed by The Research Group for Statistical Aspects of Materials Strength.A book of "Statistical Aspects of Materials Strength" was written by this group, and published in 1992.Based on the experimental data compiled in this book, distribution patterns of mechanical properties are systematically surveyed paying an attention to metallic materials.Thus one can obtain the fundamental knowledge for a reliabilit...

  9. Ionization-potential depression and other dense plasma statistical property studies - Application to spectroscopic diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calisti, Annette; Ferri, Sandrine; Mossé, Caroline; Talin, Bernard

    2017-02-01

    The radiative properties of an emitter surrounded by a plasma, are modified through various mechanisms. For instance the line shapes emitted by bound-bound transitions are broadened and carry useful information for plasma diagnostics. Depending on plasma conditions the electrons occupying the upper quantum levels of radiators no longer exist as they belong to the plasma free electron population. All the charges present in the radiator environment contribute to the lowering of the energy required to free an electron in the fundamental state. This mechanism is known as ionization potential depression (IPD). The knowledge of IPD is useful as it affects both the radiative properties of the various ionic states and their populations. Its evaluation deals with highly complex n-body coupled systems, involving particles with different dynamics and attractive ion-electron forces. A classical molecular dynamics (MD) code, the BinGo-TCP code, has been recently developed to simulate neutral multi-component (various charge state ions and electrons) plasma accounting for all the charge correlations. In the present work, results on IPD and other dense plasma statistical properties obtained using the BinGo-TCP code are presented. The study focuses on aluminum plasmas for different densities and several temperatures in order to explore different plasma coupling conditions.

  10. Statistical Properties of Gamma-Ray Burst Host Galaxies Jie-Min ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Statistical Properties of Gamma-Ray Burst Host Galaxies. Jie-Min Chen1, Jin Zhang2,3, ... of GRB host galaxies and explore possible correlations between these properties. We also investigate possible cosmic ... hydrogen column density for the GRB host galaxies in our sample. 6.295. The stellar masses are mainly in the ...

  11. A study of statistics anxiety levels of graduate dental hygiene students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Paul S; Jacks, Mary E; Smiley, Lynn A; Walden, Carolyn E; Clark, William D; Nguyen, Carol A

    2015-02-01

    In light of increased emphasis on evidence-based practice in the profession of dental hygiene, it is important that today's dental hygienist comprehend statistical measures to fully understand research articles, and thereby apply scientific evidence to practice. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate statistics anxiety among graduate dental hygiene students in the U.S. A web-based self-report, anonymous survey was emailed to directors of 17 MSDH programs in the U.S. with a request to distribute to graduate students. The survey collected data on statistics anxiety, sociodemographic characteristics and evidence-based practice. Statistic anxiety was assessed using the Statistical Anxiety Rating Scale. Study significance level was α=0.05. Only 8 of the 17 invited programs participated in the study. Statistical Anxiety Rating Scale data revealed graduate dental hygiene students experience low to moderate levels of statistics anxiety. Specifically, the level of anxiety on the Interpretation Anxiety factor indicated this population could struggle with making sense of scientific research. A decisive majority (92%) of students indicated statistics is essential for evidence-based practice and should be a required course for all dental hygienists. This study served to identify statistics anxiety in a previously unexplored population. The findings should be useful in both theory building and in practical applications. Furthermore, the results can be used to direct future research. Copyright © 2015 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  12. The Effect of Project Based Learning on the Statistical Literacy Levels of Student 8th Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koparan, Timur; Güven, Bülent

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the effect of project based learning on 8th grade students' statistical literacy levels. A performance test was developed for this aim. Quasi-experimental research model was used in this article. In this context, the statistics were taught with traditional method in the control group and it was taught using project based…

  13. The intermediates take it all: asymptotics of higher criticism statistics and a powerful alternative based on equal local levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gontscharuk, Veronika; Landwehr, Sandra; Finner, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    The higher criticism (HC) statistic, which can be seen as a normalized version of the famous Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic, has a long history, dating back to the mid seventies. Originally, HC statistics were used in connection with goodness of fit (GOF) tests but they recently gained some attention in the context of testing the global null hypothesis in high dimensional data. The continuing interest for HC seems to be inspired by a series of nice asymptotic properties related to this statistic. For example, unlike Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests, GOF tests based on the HC statistic are known to be asymptotically sensitive in the moderate tails, hence it is favorably applied for detecting the presence of signals in sparse mixture models. However, some questions around the asymptotic behavior of the HC statistic are still open. We focus on two of them, namely, why a specific intermediate range is crucial for GOF tests based on the HC statistic and why the convergence of the HC distribution to the limiting one is extremely slow. Moreover, the inconsistency in the asymptotic and finite behavior of the HC statistic prompts us to provide a new HC test that has better finite properties than the original HC test while showing the same asymptotics. This test is motivated by the asymptotic behavior of the so-called local levels related to the original HC test. By means of numerical calculations and simulations we show that the new HC test is typically more powerful than the original HC test in normal mixture models. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. A social network's changing statistical properties and the quality of human innovation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uzzi, Brian [Kellogg School of Management, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL (United States)], E-mail: uzzi@northwestern.edu

    2008-06-06

    We examined the entire network of creative artists that made Broadway musicals, in the post-War period, a collaboration network of international acclaim and influence, with an eye to investigating how the network's structural features condition the relationship between individual artistic talent and the success of their musicals. Our findings show that some of the evolving topographical qualities of degree distributions, path lengths and assortativity are relatively stable with time even as collaboration patterns shift, which suggests their changes are only minimally associated with the ebb and flux of the success of new productions. In contrast, the clustering coefficient changed substantially over time and we found that it had a nonlinear association with the production of financially and artistically successful shows. When the clustering coefficient ratio is low or high, the financial and artistic success of the industry is low, while an intermediate level of clustering is associated with successful shows. We supported these findings with sociological theory on the relationship between social structure and collaboration and with tests of statistical inference. Our discussion focuses on connecting the statistical properties of social networks to their performance and the performance of the actors embedded within them.

  15. A social network's changing statistical properties and the quality of human innovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uzzi, Brian

    2008-01-01

    We examined the entire network of creative artists that made Broadway musicals, in the post-War period, a collaboration network of international acclaim and influence, with an eye to investigating how the network's structural features condition the relationship between individual artistic talent and the success of their musicals. Our findings show that some of the evolving topographical qualities of degree distributions, path lengths and assortativity are relatively stable with time even as collaboration patterns shift, which suggests their changes are only minimally associated with the ebb and flux of the success of new productions. In contrast, the clustering coefficient changed substantially over time and we found that it had a nonlinear association with the production of financially and artistically successful shows. When the clustering coefficient ratio is low or high, the financial and artistic success of the industry is low, while an intermediate level of clustering is associated with successful shows. We supported these findings with sociological theory on the relationship between social structure and collaboration and with tests of statistical inference. Our discussion focuses on connecting the statistical properties of social networks to their performance and the performance of the actors embedded within them

  16. A social network's changing statistical properties and the quality of human innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzzi, Brian

    2008-06-01

    We examined the entire network of creative artists that made Broadway musicals, in the post-War period, a collaboration network of international acclaim and influence, with an eye to investigating how the network's structural features condition the relationship between individual artistic talent and the success of their musicals. Our findings show that some of the evolving topographical qualities of degree distributions, path lengths and assortativity are relatively stable with time even as collaboration patterns shift, which suggests their changes are only minimally associated with the ebb and flux of the success of new productions. In contrast, the clustering coefficient changed substantially over time and we found that it had a nonlinear association with the production of financially and artistically successful shows. When the clustering coefficient ratio is low or high, the financial and artistic success of the industry is low, while an intermediate level of clustering is associated with successful shows. We supported these findings with sociological theory on the relationship between social structure and collaboration and with tests of statistical inference. Our discussion focuses on connecting the statistical properties of social networks to their performance and the performance of the actors embedded within them.

  17. The Profile of Creativity and Proposing Statistical Problem Quality Level Reviewed From Cognitive Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awi; Ahmar, A. S.; Rahman, A.; Minggi, I.; Mulbar, U.; Asdar; Ruslan; Upu, H.; Alimuddin; Hamda; Rosidah; Sutamrin; Tiro, M. A.; Rusli

    2018-01-01

    This research aims to reveal the profile about the level of creativity and the ability to propose statistical problem of students at Mathematics Education 2014 Batch in the State University of Makassar in terms of their cognitive style. This research uses explorative qualitative method by giving meta-cognitive scaffolding at the time of research. The hypothesis of research is that students who have field independent (FI) cognitive style in statistics problem posing from the provided information already able to propose the statistical problem that can be solved and create new data and the problem is already been included as a high quality statistical problem, while students who have dependent cognitive field (FD) commonly are still limited in statistics problem posing that can be finished and do not load new data and the problem is included as medium quality statistical problem.

  18. Statistical properties of solar flares and coronal mass ejections through the solar cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telloni, Daniele; Antonucci, Ester; Carbone, Vincenzo; Lepreti, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Waiting Time Distributions (WTDs) of solar flares are investigated all through the solar cycle. The same approach applied to Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) in a previous work is considered here for flare occurrence. Our analysis reveals that flares and CMEs share some common statistical properties, which result dependent on the level of solar activity. Both flares and CMEs seem to independently occur during minimum solar activity phases, whilst their WTDs significantly deviate from a Poisson function at solar maximum, thus suggesting that these events are correlated. The characteristics of WTDs are constrained by the physical processes generating those eruptions associated with flares and CMEs. A scenario may be drawn in which different mechanisms are actively at work during different phases of the solar cycle. Stochastic processes, most likely related to random magnetic reconnections of the field lines, seem to play a key role during solar minimum periods. On the other hand, persistent processes, like sympathetic eruptions associated to the variability of the photospheric magnetism, are suggested to dominate during periods of high solar activity. Moreover, despite the similar statistical properties shown by flares and CMEs, as it was mentioned above, their WTDs appear different in some aspects. During solar minimum periods, the flare occurrence randomness seems to be more evident than for CMEs. Those persistent mechanisms generating interdependent events during maximum periods of solar activity can be suggested to play a more important role for CMEs than for flares, thus mitigating the competitive action of the random processes, which seem instead strong enough to weaken the correlations among flare event occurrence during solar minimum periods. However, it cannot be excluded that the physical processes at the basis of the origin of the temporal correlation between solar events are different for flares and CMEs, or that, more likely, more sophisticated effects are

  19. A random matrix approach to the crossover of energy-level statistics from Wigner to Poisson

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, Nilanjana; Kunz, Herve

    2004-01-01

    We analyze a class of parametrized random matrix models, introduced by Rosenzweig and Porter, which is expected to describe the energy level statistics of quantum systems whose classical dynamics varies from regular to chaotic as a function of a parameter. We compute the generating function for the correlations of energy levels, in the limit of infinite matrix size. The crossover between Poisson and Wigner statistics is measured by a renormalized coupling constant. The model is exactly solved in the sense that, in the limit of infinite matrix size, the energy-level correlation functions and their generating function are given in terms of a finite set of integrals

  20. Statistical Comparison of the Baseline Mechanical Properties of NBG-18 and PCEA Graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark C. Carroll; David T. Rohrbaugh

    2013-08-01

    High-purity graphite is the core structural material of choice in the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR), a graphite-moderated, helium-cooled design that is capable of producing process heat for power generation and for industrial process that require temperatures higher than the outlet temperatures of present nuclear reactors. The Baseline Graphite Characterization Program is endeavoring to minimize the conservative estimates of as-manufactured mechanical and physical properties by providing comprehensive data that captures the level of variation in measured values. In addition to providing a comprehensive comparison between these values in different nuclear grades, the program is also carefully tracking individual specimen source, position, and orientation information in order to provide comparisons and variations between different lots, different billets, and different positions from within a single billet. This report is a preliminary comparison between the two grades of graphite that were initially favored in the two main VHTR designs. NBG-18, a medium-grain pitch coke graphite from SGL formed via vibration molding, was the favored structural material in the pebble-bed configuration, while PCEA, a smaller grain, petroleum coke, extruded graphite from GrafTech was favored for the prismatic configuration. An analysis of the comparison between these two grades will include not only the differences in fundamental and statistically-significant individual strength levels, but also the differences in variability in properties within each of the grades that will ultimately provide the basis for the prediction of in-service performance. The comparative performance of the different types of nuclear grade graphites will continue to evolve as thousands more specimens are fully characterized from the numerous grades of graphite being evaluated.

  1. Constructivist and Behaviorist Approaches: Development and Initial Evaluation of a Teaching Practice Scale for Introductory Statistics at the College Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossi A. Hassad

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the teaching practices of 227 college instructors of introductory statistics from the health and behavioral sciences. Using primarily multidimensional scaling (MDS techniques, a two-dimensional, 10-item teaching-practice scale, TISS (Teaching of Introductory Statistics Scale, was developed. The two dimensions (subscales are characterized as constructivist and behaviorist; they are orthogonal. Criterion validity of the TISS was established in relation to instructors’ attitude toward teaching, and acceptable levels of reliability were obtained. A significantly higher level of behaviorist practice (less reform-oriented was reported by instructors from the U.S., as well as instructors with academic degrees in mathematics and engineering, whereas those with membership in professional organizations, tended to be more reform-oriented (or constructivist. The TISS, thought to be the first of its kind, will allow the statistics education community to empirically assess and describe the pedagogical approach (teaching practice of instructors of introductory statistics in the health and behavioral sciences, at the college level, and determine what learning outcomes result from the different teaching-practice orientations. Further research is required in order to be conclusive about the structural and psychometric properties of this scale, including its stability over time.

  2. Statistical Models to Assess the Health Effects and to Forecast Ground Level Ozone

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schlink, U.; Herbath, O.; Richter, M.; Dorling, S.; Nunnari, G.; Cawley, G.; Pelikán, Emil

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 4 (2006), s. 547-558 ISSN 1364-8152 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET400300414 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : statistical models * ground level ozone * health effects * logistic model * forecasting * prediction performance * neural network * generalised additive model * integrated assessment Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 1.992, year: 2006

  3. Comparing Data Sets: Implicit Summaries of the Statistical Properties of Number Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Bradley J.; Masnick, Amy M.

    2015-01-01

    Comparing datasets, that is, sets of numbers in context, is a critical skill in higher order cognition. Although much is known about how people compare single numbers, little is known about how number sets are represented and compared. We investigated how subjects compared datasets that varied in their statistical properties, including ratio of…

  4. Statistical properties of compartmental model parameters extracted from dynamic positron emission tomography experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazoyer, B.M.; Huesman, R.H.; Budinger, T.F.; Knittel, B.L.

    1986-01-01

    Over the past years a major focus of research in physiologic studies employing tracers has been the computer implementation of mathematical methods of kinetic modeling for extracting the desired physiological parameters from tomographically derived data. A study is reported of factors that affect the statistical properties of compartmental model parameters extracted from dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) experiments

  5. Statistical evaluation of the mechanical properties of high-volume class F fly ash concretes

    KAUST Repository

    Yoon, Seyoon; Monteiro, Paulo J.M.; Macphee, Donald E.; Glasser, Fredrik P.; Imbabi, Mohammed Salah-Eldin

    2014-01-01

    the authors experimentally and statistically investigated the effects of mix-design factors on the mechanical properties of high-volume class F fly ash concretes. A total of 240 and 32 samples were produced and tested in the laboratory to measure compressive

  6. Nature and statistical properties of quasar associated absorption systems in the XQ-100 Legacy Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrotta, Serena; D'Odorico, Valentina; Prochaska, J. Xavier

    2016-01-01

    We statistically study the physical properties of a sample of narrow absorption line (NAL) systems looking for empirical evidences to distinguish between intrinsic and intervening NALs without taking into account any a priori definition or velocity cut-off. We analyze the spectra of 100 quasars...

  7. Some properties of the representation of the quasilocal observables in statistical mechanics and quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testard, D.; Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 13 - Marseille

    1977-09-01

    For a finite non zero temperature state in Statistical Mechanics it is proved that the factor obtained in the corresponding representation of the quasilocal algebra has the property of Araki. The same result also holds for the 'wedge-algebras' of a hermitian scalar Wightman field

  8. Atmospheric forcing of decadal Baltic Sea level variability in the last 200 years. A statistical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huenicke, B. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Kuestenforschung

    2008-11-06

    This study aims at the estimation of the impact of different atmospheric factors on the past sealevel variations (up to 200 years) in the Baltic Sea by statistically analysing the relationship between Baltic Sea level records and observational and proxy-based reconstructed climatic data sets. The focus lies on the identification and possible quantification of the contribution of sealevel pressure (wind), air-temperature and precipitation to the low-frequency (decadal and multi-decadal) variability of Baltic Sea level. It is known that the wind forcing is the main factor explaining average Baltic Sea level variability at inter-annual to decadal timescales, especially in wintertime. In this thesis it is statistically estimated to what extent other regional climate factors contribute to the spatially heterogeneous Baltic Sea level variations around the isostatic trend at multi-decadal timescales. Although the statistical analysis cannot be completely conclusive, as the potential climate drivers are all statistically interrelated to some degree, the results indicate that precipitation should be taken into account as an explanatory variable for sea-level variations. On the one hand it has been detected that the amplitude of the annual cycle of Baltic Sea level has increased throughout the 20th century and precipitation seems to be the only factor among those analysed (wind through SLP field, barometric effect, temperature and precipitation) that can account for this evolution. On the other hand, precipitation increases the ability to hindcast inter-annual variations of sea level in some regions and seasons, especially in the Southern Baltic in summertime. The mechanism by which precipitation exerts its influence on Baltic Sea level is not ascertained in this statistical analysis due to the lack of long salinity time series. This result, however, represents a working hypothesis that can be confirmed or disproved by long simulations of the Baltic Sea system - ocean

  9. Statistical and coherence properties of radiation from X-ray free electron lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saldin, E.L.; Schneidmiller, E.A.; Yurkov, M.V.

    2009-12-01

    We describe statistical and coherence properties of the radiation from X-ray free electron lasers (XFEL). It is shown that the X-ray FEL radiation before saturation is described with gaussian statistics. Particularly important is the case of the optimized X-ray FEL, studied in detail. Applying similarity techniques to the results of numerical simulations allowed us to find universal scaling relations for the main characteristics of an X-ray FEL operating in the saturation regime: efficiency, coherence time and degree of transverse coherence. We find that with an appropriate normalization of these quantities, they are functions of only the ratio of the geometrical emittance of the electron beam to the radiation wavelength. Statistical and coherence properties of the higher harmonics of the radiation are highlighted as well. (orig.)

  10. Statistical and coherence properties of radiation from X-ray free electron lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saldin, E L; Schneidmiller, E A; Yurkov, M V

    2009-12-15

    We describe statistical and coherence properties of the radiation from X-ray free electron lasers (XFEL). It is shown that the X-ray FEL radiation before saturation is described with gaussian statistics. Particularly important is the case of the optimized X-ray FEL, studied in detail. Applying similarity techniques to the results of numerical simulations allowed us to find universal scaling relations for the main characteristics of an X-ray FEL operating in the saturation regime: efficiency, coherence time and degree of transverse coherence. We find that with an appropriate normalization of these quantities, they are functions of only the ratio of the geometrical emittance of the electron beam to the radiation wavelength. Statistical and coherence properties of the higher harmonics of the radiation are highlighted as well. (orig.)

  11. Short-period atmospheric gravity waves - A study of their statistical properties and source mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedzelman, S. D.

    1983-01-01

    Gravity waves for the one year period beginning 19 October 1976 around Palisades, New York, are investigated to determine their statistical properties and sources. The waves have typical periods of 10 min, pressure amplitudes of 3 Pa and velocities of 30 m/s. In general, the largest, amplitude waves occur during late fall and early winter when the upper tropospheric winds directly overhead are fastest and the static stability of the lower troposphere is greatest. Mean wave amplitudes correlate highly with the product of the mean maximum wind speed and the mean low level stratification directly aloft. A distinct diurnal variation of wave amplitudes with the largest waves occurring in the pre-dawn hours is also observed as a result of the increased static stability then. The majority of waves are generated by shear instability; however, a number of waves are generated by distant sources such as nuclear detonations or large thunderstorms. The waves with distant sources can be distinguished on the basis of their generally much higher coherency across the grid and velocities that depart markedly from the wind velocity at any point in the sounding.

  12. Southeast Atlantic Cloud Properties in a Multivariate Statistical Model - How Relevant is Air Mass History for Local Cloud Properties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Julia; Cermak, Jan; Andersen, Hendrik

    2017-04-01

    This study aims at untangling the impacts of external dynamics and local conditions on cloud properties in the Southeast Atlantic (SEA) by combining satellite and reanalysis data using multivariate statistics. The understanding of clouds and their determinants at different scales is important for constraining the Earth's radiative budget, and thus prominent in climate-system research. In this study, SEA stratocumulus cloud properties are observed not only as the result of local environmental conditions but also as affected by external dynamics and spatial origins of air masses entering the study area. In order to assess to what extent cloud properties are impacted by aerosol concentration, air mass history, and meteorology, a multivariate approach is conducted using satellite observations of aerosol and cloud properties (MODIS, SEVIRI), information on aerosol species composition (MACC) and meteorological context (ERA-Interim reanalysis). To account for the often-neglected but important role of air mass origin, information on air mass history based on HYSPLIT modeling is included in the statistical model. This multivariate approach is intended to lead to a better understanding of the physical processes behind observed stratocumulus cloud properties in the SEA.

  13. The Effect of Project-Based Learning on Students' Statistical Literacy Levels for Data Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koparan, Timur; Güven, Bülent

    2015-01-01

    The point of this study is to define the effect of project-based learning approach on 8th Grade secondary-school students' statistical literacy levels for data representation. To achieve this goal, a test which consists of 12 open-ended questions in accordance with the views of experts was developed. Seventy 8th grade secondary-school students, 35…

  14. A spatial scan statistic for nonisotropic two-level risk cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Zhou; Wang, Jin-Feng; Yang, Wei-Zhong; Li, Zhong-Jie; Lai, Sheng-Jie

    2012-01-30

    Spatial scan statistic methods are commonly used for geographical disease surveillance and cluster detection. The standard spatial scan statistic does not model any variability in the underlying risks of subregions belonging to a detected cluster. For a multilevel risk cluster, the isotonic spatial scan statistic could model a centralized high-risk kernel in the cluster. Because variations in disease risks are anisotropic owing to different social, economical, or transport factors, the real high-risk kernel will not necessarily take the central place in a whole cluster area. We propose a spatial scan statistic for a nonisotropic two-level risk cluster, which could be used to detect a whole cluster and a noncentralized high-risk kernel within the cluster simultaneously. The performance of the three methods was evaluated through an intensive simulation study. Our proposed nonisotropic two-level method showed better power and geographical precision with two-level risk cluster scenarios, especially for a noncentralized high-risk kernel. Our proposed method is illustrated using the hand-foot-mouth disease data in Pingdu City, Shandong, China in May 2009, compared with two other methods. In this practical study, the nonisotropic two-level method is the only way to precisely detect a high-risk area in a detected whole cluster. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Level-statistics in Disordered Systems: A single parametric scaling and Connection to Brownian Ensembles

    OpenAIRE

    Shukla, Pragya

    2004-01-01

    We find that the statistics of levels undergoing metal-insulator transition in systems with multi-parametric Gaussian disorders and non-interacting electrons behaves in a way similar to that of the single parametric Brownian ensembles \\cite{dy}. The latter appear during a Poisson $\\to$ Wigner-Dyson transition, driven by a random perturbation. The analogy provides the analytical evidence for the single parameter scaling of the level-correlations in disordered systems as well as a tool to obtai...

  16. Alternative interpretations of statistics on health effects of low-level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, L.D.

    1983-01-01

    Four examples of the interpretation of statistics of data on low-level radiation are reviewed: (a) genetic effects of the atomic bombs at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, (b) cancer at Rocky Flats, (c) childhood leukemia and fallout in Utah, and (d) cancer among workers at the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard. Aggregation of data, adjustment for age, and other problems related to the determination of health effects of low-level radiation are discussed. Troublesome issues related to post hoc analysis are considered

  17. Statistical Image Properties in Large Subsets of Traditional Art, Bad Art, and Abstract Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redies, Christoph; Brachmann, Anselm

    2017-01-01

    Several statistical image properties have been associated with large subsets of traditional visual artworks. Here, we investigate some of these properties in three categories of art that differ in artistic claim and prestige: (1) Traditional art of different cultural origin from established museums and art collections (oil paintings and graphic art of Western provenance, Islamic book illustration and Chinese paintings), (2) Bad Art from two museums that collect contemporary artworks of lesser importance (© Museum Of Bad Art [MOBA], Somerville, and Official Bad Art Museum of Art [OBAMA], Seattle), and (3) twentieth century abstract art of Western provenance from two prestigious museums (Tate Gallery and Kunstsammlung Nordrhein-Westfalen). We measured the following four statistical image properties: the fractal dimension (a measure relating to subjective complexity); self-similarity (a measure of how much the sections of an image resemble the image as a whole), 1st-order entropy of edge orientations (a measure of how uniformly different orientations are represented in an image); and 2nd-order entropy of edge orientations (a measure of how independent edge orientations are across an image). As shown previously, traditional artworks of different styles share similar values for these measures. The values for Bad Art and twentieth century abstract art show a considerable overlap with those of traditional art, but we also identified numerous examples of Bad Art and abstract art that deviate from traditional art. By measuring statistical image properties, we quantify such differences in image composition for the first time.

  18. Statistical analysis of global surface air temperature and sea level using cointegration methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmith, Torben; Johansen, Søren; Thejll, Peter

    Global sea levels are rising which is widely understood as a consequence of thermal expansion and melting of glaciers and land-based ice caps. Due to physically-based models being unable to simulate observed sea level trends, semi-empirical models have been applied as an alternative for projecting...... of future sea levels. There is in this, however, potential pitfalls due to the trending nature of the time series. We apply a statistical method called cointegration analysis to observed global sea level and surface air temperature, capable of handling such peculiarities. We find a relationship between sea...... level and temperature and find that temperature causally depends on the sea level, which can be understood as a consequence of the large heat capacity of the ocean. We further find that the warming episode in the 1940s is exceptional in the sense that sea level and warming deviates from the expected...

  19. Sum rule approach to the study of statistical decay properties of nuclear giant resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhikari, S.K.; Hussein, M.S.

    1987-03-01

    Corrections to the well-known statistical sum rule that relates the summed transmission coefficients on the one hand and 2πΓ C.N. .ρ C.N. On the other, in the context of the statistical decay properties of nuclear giant resonances, are discussed. These corrections arise both from pre-equilibrium processes as well as from the giant resonance itself. It is shown that the compound nucleus average width is reduced as a result of these corrections. (Author) [pt

  20. Columbia River Basin Seasonal Volumes and Statistics, 1928-1989. 1990 Level Modified Streamflows Computed Seasonal Volumes 61-Year Statistics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.G. Crook Company

    1993-04-01

    This report was prepared by the A.G. Crook Company, under contract to Bonneville Power Administration, and provides statistics of seasonal volumes and streamflow for 28 selected sites in the Columbia River Basin.

  1. Computing physical properties with quantum Monte Carlo methods with statistical fluctuations independent of system size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaraf, Roland

    2014-12-01

    We show that the recently proposed correlated sampling without reweighting procedure extends the locality (asymptotic independence of the system size) of a physical property to the statistical fluctuations of its estimator. This makes the approach potentially vastly more efficient for computing space-localized properties in large systems compared with standard correlated methods. A proof is given for a large collection of noninteracting fragments. Calculations on hydrogen chains suggest that this behavior holds not only for systems displaying short-range correlations, but also for systems with long-range correlations.

  2. Statistical analysis of global surface temperature and sea level using cointegration methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Torben; Johansen, Søren; Thejll, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Global sea levels are rising which is widely understood as a consequence of thermal expansion and melting of glaciers and land-based ice caps. Due to the lack of representation of ice-sheet dynamics in present-day physically-based climate models being unable to simulate observed sea level trends......, semi-empirical models have been applied as an alternative for projecting of future sea levels. There is in this, however, potential pitfalls due to the trending nature of the time series. We apply a statistical method called cointegration analysis to observed global sea level and land-ocean surface air...... temperature, capable of handling such peculiarities. We find a relationship between sea level and temperature and find that temperature causally depends on the sea level, which can be understood as a consequence of the large heat capacity of the ocean. We further find that the warming episode in the 1940s...

  3. Movement and respiration detection using statistical properties of the FMCW radar signal

    KAUST Repository

    Kiuru, Tero

    2016-07-26

    This paper presents a 24 GHz FMCW radar system for detection of movement and respiration using change in the statistical properties of the received radar signal, both amplitude and phase. We present the hardware and software segments of the radar system as well as algorithms with measurement results for two distinct use-cases: 1. FMCW radar as a respiration monitor and 2. a dual-use of the same radar system for smart lighting and intrusion detection. By using change in statistical properties of the signal for detection, several system parameters can be relaxed, including, for example, pulse repetition rate, power consumption, computational load, processor speed, and memory space. We will also demonstrate, that the capability to switch between received signal strength and phase difference enables dual-use cases with one requiring extreme sensitivity to movement and the other robustness against small sources of interference. © 2016 IEEE.

  4. Photon statistical properties of photon-added two-mode squeezed coherent states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xue-Fen; Wang Shuai; Tang Bin

    2014-01-01

    We investigate photon statistical properties of the multiple-photon-added two-mode squeezed coherent states (PA-TMSCS). We find that the photon statistical properties are sensitive to the compound phase involved in the TMSCS. Our numerical analyses show that the photon addition can enhance the cross-correlation and anti-bunching effects of the PA-TMSCS. Compared with that of the TMSCS, the photon number distribution of the PA-TMSCS is modulated by a factor that is a monotonically increasing function of the numbers of adding photons to each mode; further, that the photon addition essentially shifts the photon number distribution. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  5. Statistical properties of turbulent transport and fluctuations in tokamak and stellarator devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hidalgo, C; Pedrosa, M A; Milligen, B Van; Sanchez, E; Balbin, R; Garcia-Cortes, I [Euratom-CIEMAT Association, Madrid (Spain); Bleuel, J; Giannone, L.; Niedermeyer, H [Euratom-IPP Association, Garching (Germany)

    1997-05-01

    The statistical properties of fluctuations and turbulent transport have been studied in the plasma boundary region of stellarator (TJ-IU, W7-AS) and tokamak (TJ-I) devices. The local flux probability distribution function shows the bursty character of the flux and presents a systematic change as a function of the radial location. There exist large amplitude transport bursts that account for a significant part of the total flux. There is a strong similarity between the statistical properties of the turbulent fluxes in different devices. The value of the radial coherence associated with fluctuations and turbulent transport is strongly intermittent. This result emphasizes the importance of measurements with time resolution in understanding the interplay between the edge and the core regions in the plasma. For measurements in the plasma edge region of the TJ-IU torsatron, the turbulent flux does not, in general, show a larger radial coherence than the one associated with the fluctuations. (author). 14 refs, 6 figs.

  6. Volatility measurement with directional change in Chinese stock market: Statistical property and investment strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junjun; Xiong, Xiong; He, Feng; Zhang, Wei

    2017-04-01

    The stock price fluctuation is studied in this paper with intrinsic time perspective. The event, directional change (DC) or overshoot, are considered as time scale of price time series. With this directional change law, its corresponding statistical properties and parameter estimation is tested in Chinese stock market. Furthermore, a directional change trading strategy is proposed for invest in the market portfolio in Chinese stock market, and both in-sample and out-of-sample performance are compared among the different method of model parameter estimation. We conclude that DC method can capture important fluctuations in Chinese stock market and gain profit due to the statistical property that average upturn overshoot size is bigger than average downturn directional change size. The optimal parameter of DC method is not fixed and we obtained 1.8% annual excess return with this DC-based trading strategy.

  7. Statistical Property and Model for the Inter-Event Time of Terrorism Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jun-Fang; Han, Xiao-Pu; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2010-06-01

    The inter-event time of terrorism attack events is investigated by empirical data and model analysis. Empirical evidence shows that it follows a scale-free property. In order to understand the dynamic mechanism of such a statistical feature, an opinion dynamic model with a memory effect is proposed on a two-dimensional lattice network. The model mainly highlights the role of individual social conformity and self-affirmation psychology. An attack event occurs when the order parameter indicating the strength of public opposition opinion is smaller than a critical value. Ultimately, the model can reproduce the same statistical property as the empirical data and gives a good understanding for the possible dynamic mechanism of terrorism attacks.

  8. Statistical Analysis of Spectral Properties and Prosodic Parameters of Emotional Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Přibil, J.; Přibilová, A.

    2009-01-01

    The paper addresses reflection of microintonation and spectral properties in male and female acted emotional speech. Microintonation component of speech melody is analyzed regarding its spectral and statistical parameters. According to psychological research of emotional speech, different emotions are accompanied by different spectral noise. We control its amount by spectral flatness according to which the high frequency noise is mixed in voiced frames during cepstral speech synthesis. Our experiments are aimed at statistical analysis of cepstral coefficient values and ranges of spectral flatness in three emotions (joy, sadness, anger), and a neutral state for comparison. Calculated histograms of spectral flatness distribution are visually compared and modelled by Gamma probability distribution. Histograms of cepstral coefficient distribution are evaluated and compared using skewness and kurtosis. Achieved statistical results show good correlation comparing male and female voices for all emotional states portrayed by several Czech and Slovak professional actors.

  9. Generation of a Kind of Displaced Thermal States in the Diffusion Process and its Statistical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang-Guo, Meng; Hong-Yi, Fan; Ji-Suo, Wang

    2018-04-01

    This paper proposes a kind of displaced thermal states (DTS) and explores how this kind of optical field emerges using the entangled state representation. The results show that the DTS can be generated by a coherent state passing through a diffusion channel with the diffusion coefficient ϰ only when there exists κ t = (e^{\\hbar ν /kBT} - 1 )^{-1}. Also, its statistical properties, such as mean photon number, Wigner function and entropy, are investigated.

  10. Evaluation of mechanical properties of steel wire ropes by statistical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boroška Ján

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The contribution deals with the evaluation of mechanical properties of steel wire ropes using statistical methods from the viewpoint of the quality of single wires as well as the internal construction of the wire ropes. The evaluation is based on the loading capacity calculated from the strength, number of folds and torsions. For the better ilustration, a box plot has been constructed.

  11. Bohm's mysterious 'quantum force' and 'active information': alternative interpretation and statistical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lan, B.L.

    2001-01-01

    An alternative interpretation to Bohm's 'quantum force' and 'active information' is proposed. Numerical evidence is presented, which suggests that the time series of Bohm's 'quantum force' evaluated at the Bohmian position for non-stationary quantum states are typically non-Gaussian stable distributed with a flat power spectrum in classically chaotic Hamiltonian systems. An important implication of these statistical properties is briefly mentioned. (orig.)

  12. A Note on Comparing the Power of Test Statistics at Low Significance Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Nathan; Elston, Robert

    2011-01-01

    It is an obvious fact that the power of a test statistic is dependent upon the significance (alpha) level at which the test is performed. It is perhaps a less obvious fact that the relative performance of two statistics in terms of power is also a function of the alpha level. Through numerous personal discussions, we have noted that even some competent statisticians have the mistaken intuition that relative power comparisons at traditional levels such as α = 0.05 will be roughly similar to relative power comparisons at very low levels, such as the level α = 5 × 10 -8 , which is commonly used in genome-wide association studies. In this brief note, we demonstrate that this notion is in fact quite wrong, especially with respect to comparing tests with differing degrees of freedom. In fact, at very low alpha levels the cost of additional degrees of freedom is often comparatively low. Thus we recommend that statisticians exercise caution when interpreting the results of power comparison studies which use alpha levels that will not be used in practice.

  13. Statistical analysis of coding for molecular properties in the olfactory bulb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin eAuffarth

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between molecular properties of odorants and neural activities is arguably one of the most important issues in olfaction and the rules governing this relationship are still not clear. In the olfactory bulb (OB, glomeruli relay olfactory information to second-order neurons which in turn project to cortical areas. We investigate relevance of odorant properties, spatial localization of glomerular coding sites, and size of coding zones in a dataset of 2-deoxyglucose images of glomeruli over the entire OB of the rat. We relate molecular properties to activation of glomeruli in the OB using a nonparametric statistical test and a support-vector machine classification study. Our method permits to systematically map the topographic representation of various classes of odorants in the OB. Our results suggest many localized coding sites for particular molecular properties and some molecular properties that could form the basis for a spatial map of olfactory information. We found that alkynes, alkanes, alkenes, and amines affect activation maps very strongly as compared to other properties and that amines, sulfur-containing compounds, and alkynes have small zones and high relevance to activation changes, while aromatics, alkanes, and carboxylics acid recruit very big zones in the dataset. Results suggest a local spatial encoding for molecular properties.

  14. Statistical properties of material strength for reliability evaluation of components of fast reactors. Austenitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaya, Shigeru; Sasaki, Naoto; Tomobe, Masato

    2015-03-01

    Many efforts have been made to implement the System Based Code concept of which objective is to optimize margins dispersed in several codes and standards. Failure probability is expected to be a promising quantitative index for optimization of margins, and statistical information for random variables is needed to evaluate failure probability. Material strength like tensile strength is an important random variable, but the statistical information has not been provided enough yet. In this report, statistical properties of material strength such as creep rupture time, steady creep strain rate, yield stress, tensile stress, flow stress, fatigue life and cyclic stress-strain curve, were estimated for SUS304 and 316FR steel, which are typical structural materials for fast reactors. Other austenitic stainless steels like SUS316 were also used for statistical estimation of some material properties such as fatigue life. These materials are registered in the JSME code of design and construction of fast reactors, so test data used for developing the code were used as much as possible in this report. (author)

  15. Vortex phase-induced changes of the statistical properties of a partially coherent radially polarized beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lina; Chen, Yahong; Liu, Xianlong; Liu, Lin; Cai, Yangjian

    2016-06-27

    Partially coherent radially polarized (PCRP) beam was introduced and generated in recent years. In this paper, we investigate the statistical properties of a PCRP beam embedded with a vortex phase (i.e., PCRP vortex beam). We derive the analytical formula for the cross-spectral density matrix of a PCRP vortex beam propagating through a paraxial ABCD optical system and analyze the statistical properties of a PCRP vortex beam focused by a thin lens. It is found that the statistical properties of a PCRP vortex beam on propagation are much different from those of a PCRP beam. The vortex phase induces not only the rotation of the beam spot, but also the changes of the beam shape, the degree of polarization and the state of polarization. We also find that the vortex phase plays a role of resisting the coherence-induced degradation of the intensity distribution and the coherence-induced depolarization. Furthermore, we report experimental generation of a PCRP vortex beam for the first time. Our results will be useful for trapping and rotating particles, free-space optical communications and detection of phase object.

  16. Fundamental properties of fracture and seismicity in a non extensive statistical physics framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallianatos, Filippos

    2010-05-01

    A fundamental challenge in many scientific disciplines concerns upscaling, that is, of determining the regularities and laws of evolution at some large scale, from those known at a lower scale. Earthquake physics is no exception, with the challenge of understanding the transition from the laboratory scale to the scale of fault networks and large earthquakes. In this context, statistical physics has a remarkably successful work record in addressing the upscaling problem in physics. It is natural then to consider that the physics of many earthquakes has to be studied with a different approach than the physics of one earthquake and in this sense we can consider the use of statistical physics not only appropriate but necessary to understand the collective properties of earthquakes [see Corral 2004, 2005a,b,c;]. A significant attempt is given in a series of works [Main 1996; Rundle et al., 1997; Main et al., 2000; Main and Al-Kindy, 2002; Rundle et al., 2003; Vallianatos and Triantis, 2008a] that uses classical statistical physics to describe seismicity. Then a natural question arises. What type of statistical physics is appropriate to commonly describe effects from fracture level to seismicity scale?? The application of non extensive statistical physics offers a consistent theoretical framework, based on a generalization of entropy, to analyze the behavior of natural systems with fractal or multi-fractal distribution of their elements. Such natural systems where long - range interactions or intermittency are important, lead to power law behavior. We note that this is consistent with a classical thermodynamic approach to natural systems that rapidly attain equilibrium, leading to exponential-law behavior. In the frame of non extensive statistical physics approach, the probability function p(X) is calculated using the maximum entropy formulation of Tsallis entropy which involves the introduction of at least two constraints (Tsallis et al., 1998). The first one is the

  17. Assessment of some physicochemical properties and levels of Pb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... properties and levels of Pb, Cu and Zn in soils of selected dumpsites in Kano Metropolis, ... International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences ... Cu and Zn in soil samples collected from particular dumpsites within Kano Metropolis ...

  18. Statistical properties of Joule heating rate, electric field and conductances at high latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Aikio

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Statistical properties of Joule heating rate, electric field and conductances in the high latitude ionosphere are studied by a unique one-month measurement made by the EISCAT incoherent scatter radar in Tromsø (66.6 cgmlat from 6 March to 6 April 2006. The data are from the same season (close to vernal equinox and from similar sunspot conditions (about 1.5 years before the sunspot minimum providing an excellent set of data to study the MLT and Kp dependence of parameters with high temporal and spatial resolution.

    All the parameters show a clear MLT variation, which is different for low and high Kp conditions. Our results indicate that the response of morning sector conductances and conductance ratios to increased magnetic activity is stronger than that of the evening sector. The co-location of Pedersen conductance maximum and electric field maximum in the morning sector produces the largest Joule heating rates 03–05 MLT for Kp≥3. In the evening sector, a smaller maximum occurs at 18 MLT. Minimum Joule heating rates in the nightside are statistically observed at 23 MLT, which is the location of the electric Harang discontinuity.

    An important outcome of the paper are the fitted functions for the Joule heating rate as a function of electric field magnitude, separately for four MLT sectors and two activity levels (Kp<3 and Kp≥3. In addition to the squared electric field, the fit includes a linear term to study the possible anticorrelation or correlation between electric field and conductance. In the midday sector, positive correlation is found as well as in the morning sector for the high activity case. In the midnight and evening sectors, anticorrelation between electric field and conductance is obtained, i.e. high electric fields are associated with low conductances. This is expected to occur in the return current regions adjacent to

  19. Statistical properties of Joule heating rate, electric field and conductances at high latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Aikio

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Statistical properties of Joule heating rate, electric field and conductances in the high latitude ionosphere are studied by a unique one-month measurement made by the EISCAT incoherent scatter radar in Tromsø (66.6 cgmlat from 6 March to 6 April 2006. The data are from the same season (close to vernal equinox and from similar sunspot conditions (about 1.5 years before the sunspot minimum providing an excellent set of data to study the MLT and Kp dependence of parameters with high temporal and spatial resolution. All the parameters show a clear MLT variation, which is different for low and high Kp conditions. Our results indicate that the response of morning sector conductances and conductance ratios to increased magnetic activity is stronger than that of the evening sector. The co-location of Pedersen conductance maximum and electric field maximum in the morning sector produces the largest Joule heating rates 03–05 MLT for Kp≥3. In the evening sector, a smaller maximum occurs at 18 MLT. Minimum Joule heating rates in the nightside are statistically observed at 23 MLT, which is the location of the electric Harang discontinuity. An important outcome of the paper are the fitted functions for the Joule heating rate as a function of electric field magnitude, separately for four MLT sectors and two activity levels (Kp<3 and Kp≥3. In addition to the squared electric field, the fit includes a linear term to study the possible anticorrelation or correlation between electric field and conductance. In the midday sector, positive correlation is found as well as in the morning sector for the high activity case. In the midnight and evening sectors, anticorrelation between electric field and conductance is obtained, i.e. high electric fields are associated with low conductances. This is expected to occur in the return current regions adjacent to auroral arcs as a result of ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling, as discussed by Aikio et al. (2004 In

  20. Enhancing the mathematical properties of new haplotype homozygosity statistics for the detection of selective sweeps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garud, Nandita R; Rosenberg, Noah A

    2015-06-01

    Soft selective sweeps represent an important form of adaptation in which multiple haplotypes bearing adaptive alleles rise to high frequency. Most statistical methods for detecting selective sweeps from genetic polymorphism data, however, have focused on identifying hard selective sweeps in which a favored allele appears on a single haplotypic background; these methods might be underpowered to detect soft sweeps. Among exceptions is the set of haplotype homozygosity statistics introduced for the detection of soft sweeps by Garud et al. (2015). These statistics, examining frequencies of multiple haplotypes in relation to each other, include H12, a statistic designed to identify both hard and soft selective sweeps, and H2/H1, a statistic that conditional on high H12 values seeks to distinguish between hard and soft sweeps. A challenge in the use of H2/H1 is that its range depends on the associated value of H12, so that equal H2/H1 values might provide different levels of support for a soft sweep model at different values of H12. Here, we enhance the H12 and H2/H1 haplotype homozygosity statistics for selective sweep detection by deriving the upper bound on H2/H1 as a function of H12, thereby generating a statistic that normalizes H2/H1 to lie between 0 and 1. Through a reanalysis of resequencing data from inbred lines of Drosophila, we show that the enhanced statistic both strengthens interpretations obtained with the unnormalized statistic and leads to empirical insights that are less readily apparent without the normalization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Learning Object Names at Different Hierarchical Levels Using Cross-Situational Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chi-Hsin; Zhang, Yayun; Yu, Chen

    2018-05-01

    Objects in the world usually have names at different hierarchical levels (e.g., beagle, dog, animal). This research investigates adults' ability to use cross-situational statistics to simultaneously learn object labels at individual and category levels. The results revealed that adults were able to use co-occurrence information to learn hierarchical labels in contexts where the labels for individual objects and labels for categories were presented in completely separated blocks, in interleaved blocks, or mixed in the same trial. Temporal presentation schedules significantly affected the learning of individual object labels, but not the learning of category labels. Learners' subsequent generalization of category labels indicated sensitivity to the structure of statistical input. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  2. Properties and characteristics of high-level waste glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, W.A.

    1977-01-01

    This paper has briefly reviewed many of the characteristics and properties of high-level waste glasses. From this review, it can be noted that glass has many desirable properties for solidification of high-level wastes. The most important of these include: (1) its low leach rate; (2) the ability to tolerate large changes in waste composition; (3) the tolerance of anticipated storage temperatures; (4) its low surface area even after thermal shock or impact

  3. Full counting statistics of level renormalization in electron transport through double quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Junyan; Shen Yu; Cen Gang; He Xiaoling; Wang Changrong; Jiao Hujun

    2011-01-01

    We examine the full counting statistics of electron transport through double quantum dots coupled in series, with particular attention being paid to the unique features originating from level renormalization. It is clearly illustrated that the energy renormalization gives rise to a dynamic charge blockade mechanism, which eventually results in super-Poissonian noise. Coupling of the double dots to an external heat bath leads to dephasing and relaxation mechanisms, which are demonstrated to suppress the noise in a unique way.

  4. The effect of project-based learning on students' statistical literacy levels for data representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koparan, Timur; Güven, Bülent

    2015-07-01

    The point of this study is to define the effect of project-based learning approach on 8th Grade secondary-school students' statistical literacy levels for data representation. To achieve this goal, a test which consists of 12 open-ended questions in accordance with the views of experts was developed. Seventy 8th grade secondary-school students, 35 in the experimental group and 35 in the control group, took this test twice, one before the application and one after the application. All the raw scores were turned into linear points by using the Winsteps 3.72 modelling program that makes the Rasch analysis and t-tests, and an ANCOVA analysis was carried out with the linear points. Depending on the findings, it was concluded that the project-based learning approach increases students' level of statistical literacy for data representation. Students' levels of statistical literacy before and after the application were shown through the obtained person-item maps.

  5. Energy Level Statistics of SO(5) Limit of Super-symmetry U(6/4) in Interacting Boson-Fermion Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Hongbo; Zhang Jinfu; Zhou Xianrong

    2005-01-01

    We study the energy level statistics of the SO(5) limit of super-symmetry U(6/4) in odd-A nucleus using the interacting boson-fermion model. The nearest neighbor spacing distribution (NSD) and the spectral rigidity (Δ 3 ) are investigated, and the factors that affect the properties of level statistics are also discussed. The results show that the boson number N is a dominant factor. If N is small, both the interaction strengths of subgroups SO B (5) and SO BF (5) and the spin play important roles in the energy level statistics, however, along with the increase of N, the statistics distribution would tend to be in Poisson form.

  6. A statistical method to get surface level air-temperature from satellite observations of precipitable water

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pankajakshan, T.; Shikauchi, A; Sugimori, Y.; Kubota, M.

    -T a and precipitable water. The rms errors of the SSMI-T a , in this case are found to be reduced to 1.0°C. 1. Introduction Satellite derived surface-level meteorological parameters are considered to be a better alternative to sparse ship... Vol. 49, pp. 551 to 558. 1993 A Statistical Method to Get Surface Level Air-Temperature from Satellite Observations of Precipitable Water PANKAJAKSHAN THADATHIL*, AKIRA SHIKAUCHI, YASUHIRO SUGIMORI and MASAHISA KUBOTA School of Marine Science...

  7. Impacts of land leveling on lowland soil physical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Maria Barbat Parfitt

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The practice of land leveling alters the soil surface to create a uniform slope to improve land conditions for the application of all agricultural practices. The aims of this study were to evaluate the impacts of land leveling through the magnitudes, variances and spatial distributions of selected soil physical properties of a lowland area in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil; the relationships between the magnitude of cuts and/or fills and soil physical properties after the leveling process; and evaluation of the effect of leveling on the spatial distribution of the top of the B horizon in relation to the soil surface. In the 0-0.20 m layer, a 100-point geo-referenced grid covering two taxonomic soil classes was used in assessment of the following soil properties: soil particle density (Pd and bulk density (Bd; total porosity (Tp, macroporosity (Macro and microporosity (Micro; available water capacity (AWC; sand, silt, clay, and dispersed clay in water (Disp clay contents; electrical conductivity (EC; and weighted average diameter of aggregates (WAD. Soil depth to the top of the B horizon was also measured before leveling. The overall effect of leveling on selected soil physical properties was evaluated by paired "t" tests. The effect on the variability of each property was evaluated through the homogeneity of variance test. The thematic maps constructed by kriging or by the inverse of the square of the distances were visually analyzed to evaluate the effect of leveling on the spatial distribution of the properties and of the top of the B horizon in relation to the soil surface. Linear regression models were fitted with the aim of evaluating the relationship between soil properties and the magnitude of cuts and fills. Leveling altered the mean value of several soil properties and the agronomic effect was negative. The mean values of Bd and Disp clay increased and Tp, Macro and Micro, WAD, AWC and EC decreased. Spatial distributions of all

  8. Multi-level scaling properties of instant-message communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guanxiong; Han, Xiaopu; Wang, Binghong

    2010-08-01

    To research the statistical properties of human's communication behaviors is one of the highlight areas of Human Dynamics. In this paper, we analyze the instant message data of QICQ from volunteers, and discover that there are many forms of non-Poisson characters, such as inter-event distributions of sending and receiving messages, communications between two friends, log-in activities, the distribution of online time, quantities of messages, and so on. These distributions not only denote the pattern of human communication activities, but also relate to the statistical property of human behaviors in using software. We find out that most of these exponents distribute between -1 and -2, which indicates that the Instant Message (IM) communication behavior of human is different from Non-IM communication behaviors; there are many fat-tail characters related to IM communication behavior.

  9. Using the Δ3 statistic to test for missed levels in mixed sequence neutron resonance data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulhall, Declan

    2009-01-01

    The Δ 3 (L) statistic is studied as a tool to detect missing levels in the neutron resonance data where two sequences are present. These systems are problematic because there is no level repulsion, and the resonances can be too close to resolve. Δ 3 (L) is a measure of the fluctuations in the number of levels in an interval of length L on the energy axis. The method used is tested on ensembles of mixed Gaussian orthogonal ensemble spectra, with a known fraction of levels (x%) randomly depleted, and can accurately return x. The accuracy of the method as a function of spectrum size is established. The method is used on neutron resonance data for 11 isotopes with either s-wave neutrons on odd-A isotopes, or p-wave neutrons on even-A isotopes. The method compares favorably with a maximum likelihood method applied to the level spacing distribution. Nuclear data ensembles were made from 20 isotopes in total, and their Δ 3 (L) statistics are discussed in the context of random matrix theory.

  10. Level set segmentation of medical images based on local region statistics and maximum a posteriori probability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Wenchao; Wang, Yi; Lei, Tao; Fan, Yangyu; Feng, Yan

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a variational level set method for simultaneous segmentation and bias field estimation of medical images with intensity inhomogeneity. In our model, the statistics of image intensities belonging to each different tissue in local regions are characterized by Gaussian distributions with different means and variances. According to maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) and Bayes' rule, we first derive a local objective function for image intensities in a neighborhood around each pixel. Then this local objective function is integrated with respect to the neighborhood center over the entire image domain to give a global criterion. In level set framework, this global criterion defines an energy in terms of the level set functions that represent a partition of the image domain and a bias field that accounts for the intensity inhomogeneity of the image. Therefore, image segmentation and bias field estimation are simultaneously achieved via a level set evolution process. Experimental results for synthetic and real images show desirable performances of our method.

  11. Can Family Planning Service Statistics Be Used to Track Population-Level Outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnani, Robert J; Ross, John; Williamson, Jessica; Weinberger, Michelle

    2018-03-21

    The need for annual family planning program tracking data under the Family Planning 2020 (FP2020) initiative has contributed to renewed interest in family planning service statistics as a potential data source for annual estimates of the modern contraceptive prevalence rate (mCPR). We sought to assess (1) how well a set of commonly recorded data elements in routine service statistics systems could, with some fairly simple adjustments, track key population-level outcome indicators, and (2) whether some data elements performed better than others. We used data from 22 countries in Africa and Asia to analyze 3 data elements collected from service statistics: (1) number of contraceptive commodities distributed to clients, (2) number of family planning service visits, and (3) number of current contraceptive users. Data quality was assessed via analysis of mean square errors, using the United Nations Population Division World Contraceptive Use annual mCPR estimates as the "gold standard." We also examined the magnitude of several components of measurement error: (1) variance, (2) level bias, and (3) slope (or trend) bias. Our results indicate modest levels of tracking error for data on commodities to clients (7%) and service visits (10%), and somewhat higher error rates for data on current users (19%). Variance and slope bias were relatively small for all data elements. Level bias was by far the largest contributor to tracking error. Paired comparisons of data elements in countries that collected at least 2 of the 3 data elements indicated a modest advantage of data on commodities to clients. None of the data elements considered was sufficiently accurate to be used to produce reliable stand-alone annual estimates of mCPR. However, the relatively low levels of variance and slope bias indicate that trends calculated from these 3 data elements can be productively used in conjunction with the Family Planning Estimation Tool (FPET) currently used to produce annual m

  12. Probability distribution and statistical properties of spherically compensated cosmic regions in ΛCDM cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimi, Jean-Michel; de Fromont, Paul

    2018-04-01

    The statistical properties of cosmic structures are well known to be strong probes for cosmology. In particular, several studies tried to use the cosmic void counting number to obtain tight constrains on dark energy. In this paper, we model the statistical properties of these regions using the CoSphere formalism (de Fromont & Alimi) in both primordial and non-linearly evolved Universe in the standard Λ cold dark matter model. This formalism applies similarly for minima (voids) and maxima (such as DM haloes), which are here considered symmetrically. We first derive the full joint Gaussian distribution of CoSphere's parameters in the Gaussian random field. We recover the results of Bardeen et al. only in the limit where the compensation radius becomes very large, i.e. when the central extremum decouples from its cosmic environment. We compute the probability distribution of the compensation size in this primordial field. We show that this distribution is redshift independent and can be used to model cosmic voids size distribution. We also derive the statistical distribution of the peak parameters introduced by Bardeen et al. and discuss their correlation with the cosmic environment. We show that small central extrema with low density are associated with narrow compensation regions with deep compensation density, while higher central extrema are preferentially located in larger but smoother over/under massive regions.

  13. A comparative analysis of the statistical properties of large mobile phone calling networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming-Xia; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Xie, Wen-Jie; Miccichè, Salvatore; Tumminello, Michele; Zhou, Wei-Xing; Mantegna, Rosario N

    2014-05-30

    Mobile phone calling is one of the most widely used communication methods in modern society. The records of calls among mobile phone users provide us a valuable proxy for the understanding of human communication patterns embedded in social networks. Mobile phone users call each other forming a directed calling network. If only reciprocal calls are considered, we obtain an undirected mutual calling network. The preferential communication behavior between two connected users can be statistically tested and it results in two Bonferroni networks with statistically validated edges. We perform a comparative analysis of the statistical properties of these four networks, which are constructed from the calling records of more than nine million individuals in Shanghai over a period of 110 days. We find that these networks share many common structural properties and also exhibit idiosyncratic features when compared with previously studied large mobile calling networks. The empirical findings provide us an intriguing picture of a representative large social network that might shed new lights on the modelling of large social networks.

  14. β-Amyloid pathogenesis: Chemical properties versus cellular levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiwari, Manish Kumar; Kepp, Kasper Planeta

    2016-01-01

    Although genetic Aβ variants cause early-onset Alzheimer's disease, literature reports on Aβ properties are heterogeneous, obscuring molecular mechanisms, as illustrated by recent failures of Aβ-level targeting trials. Thus, we combined available data on Aβ levels and ratios, aggregation propensi...

  15. Fundamental statistical features and self-similar properties of tagged networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palla, Gergely; Farkas, Illes J; Pollner, Peter; Vicsek, Tamas; Derenyi, Imre

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the fundamental statistical features of tagged (or annotated) networks having a rich variety of attributes associated with their nodes. Tags (attributes, annotations, properties, features, etc) provide essential information about the entity represented by a given node, thus, taking them into account represents a significant step towards a more complete description of the structure of large complex systems. Our main goal here is to uncover the relations between the statistical properties of the node tags and those of the graph topology. In order to better characterize the networks with tagged nodes, we introduce a number of new notions, including tag-assortativity (relating link probability to node similarity), and new quantities, such as node uniqueness (measuring how rarely the tags of a node occur in the network) and tag-assortativity exponent. We apply our approach to three large networks representing very different domains of complex systems. A number of the tag related quantities display analogous behaviour (e.g. the networks we studied are tag-assortative, indicating possible universal aspects of tags versus topology), while some other features, such as the distribution of the node uniqueness, show variability from network to network allowing for pin-pointing large scale specific features of real-world complex networks. We also find that for each network the topology and the tag distribution are scale invariant, and this self-similar property of the networks can be well characterized by the tag-assortativity exponent, which is specific to each system.

  16. In silico environmental chemical science: properties and processes from statistical and computational modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tratnyek, P. G.; Bylaska, Eric J.; Weber, Eric J.

    2017-01-01

    Quantitative structure–activity relationships (QSARs) have long been used in the environmental sciences. More recently, molecular modeling and chemoinformatic methods have become widespread. These methods have the potential to expand and accelerate advances in environmental chemistry because they complement observational and experimental data with “in silico” results and analysis. The opportunities and challenges that arise at the intersection between statistical and theoretical in silico methods are most apparent in the context of properties that determine the environmental fate and effects of chemical contaminants (degradation rate constants, partition coefficients, toxicities, etc.). The main example of this is the calibration of QSARs using descriptor variable data calculated from molecular modeling, which can make QSARs more useful for predicting property data that are unavailable, but also can make them more powerful tools for diagnosis of fate determining pathways and mechanisms. Emerging opportunities for “in silico environmental chemical science” are to move beyond the calculation of specific chemical properties using statistical models and toward more fully in silico models, prediction of transformation pathways and products, incorporation of environmental factors into model predictions, integration of databases and predictive models into more comprehensive and efficient tools for exposure assessment, and extending the applicability of all the above from chemicals to biologicals and materials.

  17. In silico environmental chemical science: properties and processes from statistical and computational modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tratnyek, Paul G; Bylaska, Eric J; Weber, Eric J

    2017-03-22

    Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) have long been used in the environmental sciences. More recently, molecular modeling and chemoinformatic methods have become widespread. These methods have the potential to expand and accelerate advances in environmental chemistry because they complement observational and experimental data with "in silico" results and analysis. The opportunities and challenges that arise at the intersection between statistical and theoretical in silico methods are most apparent in the context of properties that determine the environmental fate and effects of chemical contaminants (degradation rate constants, partition coefficients, toxicities, etc.). The main example of this is the calibration of QSARs using descriptor variable data calculated from molecular modeling, which can make QSARs more useful for predicting property data that are unavailable, but also can make them more powerful tools for diagnosis of fate determining pathways and mechanisms. Emerging opportunities for "in silico environmental chemical science" are to move beyond the calculation of specific chemical properties using statistical models and toward more fully in silico models, prediction of transformation pathways and products, incorporation of environmental factors into model predictions, integration of databases and predictive models into more comprehensive and efficient tools for exposure assessment, and extending the applicability of all the above from chemicals to biologicals and materials.

  18. Analysis of Spatiotemporal Statistical Properties of Rainfall in the Phoenix Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascaro, G.

    2016-12-01

    The analysis of the rainfall statistical properties at multiple spatiotemporal scales is a necessary preliminary step to support modeling of urban hydrology, including flood prediction and simulation of impacts of land use changes. In this contribution, the rainfall statistical properties are analyzed in the Phoenix Metropolitan area and its surroundings ( 29600 km2) in Arizona using observations from 310 gauges of the Flood Control District of the Maricopa County network. Different techniques are applied to investigate the rainfall properties at temporal scales from 1 min to years and to quantify the associated spatial variability. Results reveal the following. The rainfall regime is characterized by high interannual variability, which is partially explained by teleconnections with El Niño Southern Oscillation, and marked seasonality, with two maxima in the monsoon season from July to September and in winter from November to March. Elevation has a significant control on seasonal rainfall accumulation, strength of thermal convective activity during the monsoon, and peak occurrence of the rainfall diurnal cycle present in summer. The spatial correlation of wintertime rainfall is high even at short aggregation times (cells).

  19. Statistical analysis of the factors that influenced the mechanical properties improvement of cassava starch films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Mayra; Oliveira, Victor; Santos, Francisco; Barros Neto, Eduardo; Silva, Karyn; Silva, Rayane; Henrique, João; Chibério, Abimaelle

    2017-08-01

    In order to obtain cassava starch films with improved mechanical properties in relation to the synthetic polymer in the packaging production, a complete factorial design 23 was carried out in order to investigate which factor significantly influences the tensile strength of the biofilm. The factors to be investigated were cassava starch, glycerol and modified clay contents. Modified bentonite clay was used as a filling material of the biofilm. Glycerol was the plasticizer used to thermoplastify cassava starch. The factorial analysis suggested a regression model capable of predicting the optimal mechanical property of the cassava starch film from the maximization of the tensile strength. The reliability of the regression model was tested by the correlation established with the experimental data through the following statistical analyse: Pareto graph. The modified clay was the factor of greater statistical significance on the observed response variable, being the factor that contributed most to the improvement of the mechanical property of the starch film. The factorial experiments showed that the interaction of glycerol with both modified clay and cassava starch was significant for the reduction of biofilm ductility. Modified clay and cassava starch contributed to the maximization of biofilm ductility, while glycerol contributed to the minimization.

  20. The Impact of Subsampling on MODIS Level-3 Statistics of Cloud Optical Thickness and Effective Radius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreopoulos, Lazaros

    2004-01-01

    The MODIS Level-3 optical thickness and effective radius cloud product is a gridded l deg. x 1 deg. dataset that is derived from aggregation and subsampling at 5 km of 1 km, resolution Level-2 orbital swath data (Level-2 granules). This study examines the impact of the 5 km subsampling on the mean, standard deviation and inhomogeneity parameter statistics of optical thickness and effective radius. The methodology is simple and consists of estimating mean errors for a large collection of Terra and Aqua Level-2 granules by taking the difference of the statistics at the original and subsampled resolutions. It is shown that the Level-3 sampling does not affect the various quantities investigated to the same degree, with second order moments suffering greater subsampling errors, as expected. Mean errors drop dramatically when averages over a sufficient number of regions (e.g., monthly and/or latitudinal averages) are taken, pointing to a dominance of errors that are of random nature. When histograms built from subsampled data with the same binning rules as in the Level-3 dataset are used to reconstruct the quantities of interest, the mean errors do not deteriorate significantly. The results in this paper provide guidance to users of MODIS Level-3 optical thickness and effective radius cloud products on the range of errors due to subsampling they should expect and perhaps account for, in scientific work with this dataset. In general, subsampling errors should not be a serious concern when moderate temporal and/or spatial averaging is performed.

  1. A study of outliers in statistical distributions of mechanical properties of structural steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oefverbeck, P.; Oestberg, G.

    1977-01-01

    The safety against failure of pressure vessels can be assessed by statistical methods, so-called probabilistic fracture mechanics. The data base for such estimations is admittedly rather meagre, making it necessary to assume certain conventional statistical distributions. Since the failure rates arrived at are low, for nuclear vessels of the order of 10 - to 10 - per year, the extremes of the variables involved, among other things the mechanical properties of the steel used, are of particular interest. A question sometimes raised is whether outliers, or values exceeding the extremes in the assumed distributions, might occur. In order to explore this possibility a study has been made of strength values of three qualities of structural steels, available in samples of up to about 12,000. Statistical evaluation of these samples with respect to outliers, using standard methods for this purpose, revealed the presence of such outliers in most cases, with a frequency of occurrence of, typically, a few values per thousand, estimated by the methods described. Obviously, statistical analysis alone cannot be expected to shed any light on the causes of outliers. Thus, the interpretation of these results with respect to their implication for the probabilistic estimation of the integrety of pressure vessels must await further studies of a similar nature in which the test specimens corresponding to outliers can be recovered and examined metallographically. For the moment the results should be regarded only as a factor to be considered in discussions of the safety of pressure vessels. (author)

  2. Geometric Approach to Quantum Statistical Mechanics and Application to Casimir Energy and Friction Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichinose, Shoichi

    2010-01-01

    A geometric approach to general quantum statistical systems (including the harmonic oscillator) is presented. It is applied to Casimir energy and the dissipative system with friction. We regard the (N+1)-dimensional Euclidean coordinate system (X i ,τ) as the quantum statistical system of N quantum (statistical) variables (X τ ) and one Euclidean time variable (t). Introducing paths (lines or hypersurfaces) in this space (X τ ,t), we adopt the path-integral method to quantize the mechanical system. This is a new view of (statistical) quantization of the mechanical system. The system Hamiltonian appears as the area. We show quantization is realized by the minimal area principle in the present geometric approach. When we take a line as the path, the path-integral expressions of the free energy are shown to be the ordinary ones (such as N harmonic oscillators) or their simple variation. When we take a hyper-surface as the path, the system Hamiltonian is given by the area of the hyper-surface which is defined as a closed-string configuration in the bulk space. In this case, the system becomes a O(N) non-linear model. We show the recently-proposed 5 dimensional Casimir energy (ArXiv:0801.3064,0812.1263) is valid. We apply this approach to the visco-elastic system, and present a new method using the path-integral for the calculation of the dissipative properties.

  3. Probing the statistical properties of unknown texts: application to the Voynich Manuscript.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amancio, Diego R; Altmann, Eduardo G; Rybski, Diego; Oliveira, Osvaldo N; Costa, Luciano da F

    2013-01-01

    While the use of statistical physics methods to analyze large corpora has been useful to unveil many patterns in texts, no comprehensive investigation has been performed on the interdependence between syntactic and semantic factors. In this study we propose a framework for determining whether a text (e.g., written in an unknown alphabet) is compatible with a natural language and to which language it could belong. The approach is based on three types of statistical measurements, i.e. obtained from first-order statistics of word properties in a text, from the topology of complex networks representing texts, and from intermittency concepts where text is treated as a time series. Comparative experiments were performed with the New Testament in 15 different languages and with distinct books in English and Portuguese in order to quantify the dependency of the different measurements on the language and on the story being told in the book. The metrics found to be informative in distinguishing real texts from their shuffled versions include assortativity, degree and selectivity of words. As an illustration, we analyze an undeciphered medieval manuscript known as the Voynich Manuscript. We show that it is mostly compatible with natural languages and incompatible with random texts. We also obtain candidates for keywords of the Voynich Manuscript which could be helpful in the effort of deciphering it. Because we were able to identify statistical measurements that are more dependent on the syntax than on the semantics, the framework may also serve for text analysis in language-dependent applications.

  4. Research Update: Spatially resolved mapping of electronic structure on atomic level by multivariate statistical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belianinov, Alex; Ganesh, Panchapakesan; Lin, Wenzhi; Jesse, Stephen; Pan, Minghu; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Sales, Brian C.; Sefat, Athena S.

    2014-01-01

    Atomic level spatial variability of electronic structure in Fe-based superconductor FeTe 0.55 Se 0.45 (T c = 15 K) is explored using current-imaging tunneling-spectroscopy. Multivariate statistical analysis of the data differentiates regions of dissimilar electronic behavior that can be identified with the segregation of chalcogen atoms, as well as boundaries between terminations and near neighbor interactions. Subsequent clustering analysis allows identification of the spatial localization of these dissimilar regions. Similar statistical analysis of modeled calculated density of states of chemically inhomogeneous FeTe 1−x Se x structures further confirms that the two types of chalcogens, i.e., Te and Se, can be identified by their electronic signature and differentiated by their local chemical environment. This approach allows detailed chemical discrimination of the scanning tunneling microscopy data including separation of atomic identities, proximity, and local configuration effects and can be universally applicable to chemically and electronically inhomogeneous surfaces

  5. Misuse of statistics in the interpretation of data on low-level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, L.D.

    1982-01-01

    Four misuses of statistics in the interpretation of data of low-level radiation are reviewed: (1) post-hoc analysis and aggregation of data leading to faulty conclusions in the reanalysis of genetic effects of the atomic bomb, and premature conclusions on the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard data; (2) inappropriate adjustment for age and ignoring differences between urban and rural areas leading to potentially spurious increase in incidence of cancer at Rocky Flats; (3) hazard of summary statistics based on ill-conditioned individual rates leading to spurious association between childhood leukemia and fallout in Utah; and (4) the danger of prematurely published preliminary work with inadequate consideration of epidemiological problems - censored data - leading to inappropriate conclusions, needless alarm at the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard, and diversion of scarce research funds

  6. Misuse of statistics in the interpretation of data on low-level radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, L.D.

    1982-01-01

    Four misuses of statistics in the interpretation of data of low-level radiation are reviewed: (1) post-hoc analysis and aggregation of data leading to faulty conclusions in the reanalysis of genetic effects of the atomic bomb, and premature conclusions on the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard data; (2) inappropriate adjustment for age and ignoring differences between urban and rural areas leading to potentially spurious increase in incidence of cancer at Rocky Flats; (3) hazard of summary statistics based on ill-conditioned individual rates leading to spurious association between childhood leukemia and fallout in Utah; and (4) the danger of prematurely published preliminary work with inadequate consideration of epidemiological problems - censored data - leading to inappropriate conclusions, needless alarm at the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard, and diversion of scarce research funds.

  7. Statistical Determination of Impact of Property Attributes for Weak Measurement Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doszyń Mariusz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Many of the property attributes are measured on weak scales (nominal and ordinal scale. For example, land allocation in the development plan is measured on a nominal scale and such categories as proximity, equipment, access to means of communication, location, and soil and water conditions, are measured on an ordinal scale. The use of statistical measures appropriate for interval or quotient scales is wrong in such cases. Therefore, the article presents statistical measures that allow specifying the impact of the attributes on real estate prices, which can be used for the weaker scales, mainly for the ordinal scale. In the empirical illustration the proposed measures will be calculated by using the actual database of transaction prices.

  8. Statistical inference for classification of RRIM clone series using near IR reflectance properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Faridatul Aima; Madzhi, Nina Korlina; Hashim, Hadzli; Abdullah, Noor Ezan; Khairuzzaman, Noor Aishah; Azmi, Azrie Faris Mohd; Sampian, Ahmad Faiz Mohd; Harun, Muhammad Hafiz

    2015-08-01

    RRIM clone is a rubber breeding series produced by RRIM (Rubber Research Institute of Malaysia) through "rubber breeding program" to improve latex yield and producing clones attractive to farmers. The objective of this work is to analyse measurement of optical sensing device on latex of selected clone series. The device using transmitting NIR properties and its reflectance is converted in terms of voltage. The obtained reflectance index value via voltage was analyzed using statistical technique in order to find out the discrimination among the clones. From the statistical results using error plots and one-way ANOVA test, there is an overwhelming evidence showing discrimination of RRIM 2002, RRIM 2007 and RRIM 3001 clone series with p value = 0.000. RRIM 2008 cannot be discriminated with RRIM 2014; however both of these groups are distinct from the other clones.

  9. Statistical properties of aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Jones

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Given the complex interaction between aerosol, cloud, and atmospheric properties, it is difficult to extract their individual effects to observed rainfall amount. This research uses principle component analysis (PCA that combines Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS aerosol and cloud products, NCEP Reanalysis atmospheric products, and rainrate estimates from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM precipitation radar (PR to assess if aerosols affect warm rain processes. Data collected during September 2006 over the Amazon basin in South America during the biomass-burning season are used. The goal of this research is to combine these observations into a smaller number of variables through PCA with each new variable having a unique physical interpretation. In particular, we are concerned with PC variables whose weightings include aerosol optical thickness (AOT, as these may be an indicator of aerosol indirect effects. If they are indeed occurring, then PC values that include AOT should change as a function of rainrate.

    To emphasize the advantage of PCA, changes in aerosol, cloud, and atmospheric observations are compared to rainrate. Comparing no-rain, rain, and heavy rain only (>5 mm h−1 samples, we find that cloud thicknesses, humidity, and upward motion are all greater during rain and heavy rain conditions. However, no statistically significant difference in AOT exists between each sample, indicating that atmospheric conditions are more important to rainfall than aerosol concentrations as expected. If aerosols are affecting warm process clouds, it would be expected that stratiform precipitation would decrease as a function increasing aerosol concentration through either Twomey and/or semi-direct effects. PCA extracts the latter signal in a variable labeled PC2, which explains 15% of the total variance and is second in importance the variable (PC1 containing the broad atmospheric conditions. PC2

  10. A case study: application of statistical process control tool for determining process capability and sigma level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Vikram; Bairagi, Mukesh; Trivedi, P; Nagar, Mona

    2012-01-01

    Statistical process control is the application of statistical methods to the measurement and analysis of variation process. Various regulatory authorities such as Validation Guidance for Industry (2011), International Conference on Harmonisation ICH Q10 (2009), the Health Canada guidelines (2009), Health Science Authority, Singapore: Guidance for Product Quality Review (2008), and International Organization for Standardization ISO-9000:2005 provide regulatory support for the application of statistical process control for better process control and understanding. In this study risk assessments, normal probability distributions, control charts, and capability charts are employed for selection of critical quality attributes, determination of normal probability distribution, statistical stability, and capability of production processes, respectively. The objective of this study is to determine tablet production process quality in the form of sigma process capability. By interpreting data and graph trends, forecasting of critical quality attributes, sigma process capability, and stability of process were studied. The overall study contributes to an assessment of process at the sigma level with respect to out-of-specification attributes produced. Finally, the study will point to an area where the application of quality improvement and quality risk assessment principles for achievement of six sigma-capable processes is possible. Statistical process control is the most advantageous tool for determination of the quality of any production process. This tool is new for the pharmaceutical tablet production process. In the case of pharmaceutical tablet production processes, the quality control parameters act as quality assessment parameters. Application of risk assessment provides selection of critical quality attributes among quality control parameters. Sequential application of normality distributions, control charts, and capability analyses provides a valid statistical

  11. Application of Maximum Entropy Distribution to the Statistical Properties of Wave Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The new distributions of the statistics of wave groups based on the maximum entropy principle are presented. The maximum entropy distributions appear to be superior to conventional distributions when applied to a limited amount of information. Its applications to the wave group properties show the effectiveness of the maximum entropy distribution. FFT filtering method is employed to obtain the wave envelope fast and efficiently. Comparisons of both the maximum entropy distribution and the distribution of Longuet-Higgins (1984) with the laboratory wind-wave data show that the former gives a better fit.

  12. Effects of thickness on the statistical properties of the Barkhausen noise in amorphous films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santi, L. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Bohn, F. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Viegas, A.D.C. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Durin, G. [Istituto Elettrotecnico Nazionale Galileo Ferraris, Turin (Italy); Magni, A. [Istituto Elettrotecnico Nazionale Galileo Ferraris, Turin (Italy); Bonin, R. [Istituto Elettrotecnico Nazionale Galileo Ferraris, Turin (Italy); Zapperi, S. [Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi-CNR, Roma (Italy); Sommer, R.L. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, 22290-180, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: sommer@cbpf.br

    2006-10-01

    The statistical properties of the Barkhausen noise (BN) in thin amorphous films are studied as a function of both the nominal composition and the thickness. BN was observed in single films with nominal compositions Fe{sub 73.5}Cu{sub 1}Nb{sub 3}Si{sub 22.5-x}B{sub x} (with x=4 and 9) in the thickness range 20nm-5{mu}m. The distributions of Barkhausen jump sizes and duration times were obtained and fitted to power laws with critical exponents {tau}=1.25+/-0.05 and {alpha}=1.60+/-0.05, respectively.

  13. Statistical properties of randomly broken objects and of multivalley structures in disordered systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derrida, B.; Flyvbjerg, H.

    1987-02-01

    The statistical properties of the multivalley structure of disordered systems and of randomly broken objects have lots of features in common. For all these problems, if W s denotes the weight of the s th piece, we show that the probability distributions P 1 (W 1 ) of the largest piece W 1 , P 2 (W 2 ) of the second largest piece, and Π(Y) of Y = Σ s W s 2 have always singularities at W 1 = 1/n, W 2 = 1/n and Y = 1/n, n = 1, 2, 3,... (orig.)

  14. Interaction of a quantum well with squeezed light: Quantum-statistical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sete, Eyob A.; Eleuch, H.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the quantum statistical properties of the light emitted by a quantum well interacting with squeezed light from a degenerate subthreshold optical parametric oscillator. We obtain analytical solutions for the pertinent quantum Langevin equations in the strong-coupling and low-excitation regimes. Using these solutions we calculate the intensity spectrum, autocorrelation function, and quadrature squeezing for the fluorescent light. We show that the fluorescent light exhibits bunching and quadrature squeezing. We also show that the squeezed light leads to narrowing of the width of the spectrum of the fluorescent light.

  15. Effects of thickness on the statistical properties of the Barkhausen noise in amorphous films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santi, L.; Bohn, F.; Viegas, A.D.C.; Durin, G.; Magni, A.; Bonin, R.; Zapperi, S.; Sommer, R.L.

    2006-01-01

    The statistical properties of the Barkhausen noise (BN) in thin amorphous films are studied as a function of both the nominal composition and the thickness. BN was observed in single films with nominal compositions Fe 73.5 Cu 1 Nb 3 Si 22.5-x B x (with x=4 and 9) in the thickness range 20nm-5μm. The distributions of Barkhausen jump sizes and duration times were obtained and fitted to power laws with critical exponents τ=1.25+/-0.05 and α=1.60+/-0.05, respectively

  16. Some properties of the statistical models of the spherical Friedman world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumyantseva, E.N.

    1981-01-01

    Considered are some properties of the statistical model of the spherical Friedman world filled with quantum gas of massless particles the spin of which can be equal to 0, 1/2, 1. Obtained are approximate expressions for a number of particles of Fermi- and Bose-gas and for the radius of the world taking into account mainly the dependence on the spin. The dependence of the number of particles on the radius of the world and temperature of the gas is illustrated [ru

  17. The Sedentary Multi-Frequency Survey. I. Statistical Identification and Cosmological Properties of HBL BL Lacs

    OpenAIRE

    Giommi, P.; Menna, M. T.; Padovani, P.

    1999-01-01

    We have assembled a multi-frequency database by cross-correlating the NVSS catalog of radio sources with the RASSBSC list of soft X-ray sources, obtaining optical magnitude estimates from the Palomar and UK Schmidt surveys as provided by the APM and COSMOS on-line services. By exploiting the nearly unique broad-band properties of High-Energy Peaked (HBL) BL Lacs we have statistically identified a sample of 218 objects that is expected to include about 85% of BL Lacs and that is therefore seve...

  18. Precipitation in a boiling soup: is microphysics driving the statistical properties of intense turbulent convection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parodi, A.; von Hardenberg, J.; Provenzale, A.

    2012-04-01

    Intense precipitation events are often associated with strong convective phenomena in the atmosphere. A deeper understanding of how microphysics affects the spatial and temporal variability of convective processes is relevant for many hydro-meteorological applications, such as the estimation of rainfall using remote sensing techniques and the ability to predict severe precipitation processes. In this paper, high-resolution simulations (0.1-1 km) of an atmosphere in radiative-convective equilibrium are performed using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model by prescribing different microphysical parameterizations. The dependence of fine-scale spatio-temporal properties of convective structures on microphysical details are investigated and the simulation results are compared with the known properties of radar maps of precipitation fields. We analyze and discuss similarities and differences and, based also on previous results on the dependence of precipitation statistics on the raindrop terminal velocity, try to draw some general inferences.

  19. Statistical Study of the Properties of Magnetosheath Lion Roars using MMS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giagkiozis, S.; Wilson, L. B., III

    2017-12-01

    Intense whistler-mode waves of very short duration are frequently encountered in the magnetosheath. These emissions have been linked to mirror mode waves and the Earth's bow shock. They can efficiently transfer energy between different plasma populations. These electromagnetic waves are commonly referred to as Lion roars (LR), due to the sound generated when the signals are sonified. They are generally observed during dips of the magnetic field that are anti-correlated with increases of density. Using MMS data, we have identified more than 1750 individual LR burst intervals. Each emission was band-pass filtered and further split into >35,000 subintervals, for which the direction of propagation and the polarization were calculated. The analysis of subinterval properties provides a more accurate representation of their true nature than the more commonly used time- and frequency-averaged dynamic spectra analysis. The results of the statistical analysis of the wave properties will be presented.

  20. MULTI-LEVEL SAMPLING APPROACH FOR CONTINOUS LOSS DETECTION USING ITERATIVE WINDOW AND STATISTICAL MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Fo'ad Rohani; Mohd Aizaini Maarof; Ali Selamat; Houssain Kettani

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a Multi-Level Sampling (MLS) approach for continuous Loss of Self-Similarity (LoSS) detection using iterative window. The method defines LoSS based on Second Order Self-Similarity (SOSS) statistical model. The Optimization Method (OM) is used to estimate self-similarity parameter since it is fast and more accurate in comparison with other estimation methods known in the literature. Probability of LoSS detection is introduced to measure continuous LoSS detection performance...

  1. Non-statistically populated autoionizing levels of Li-like carbon: Hidden-crossings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deveney, E.F.; Krause, H.F.; Jones, N.L.

    1995-01-01

    The intensities of the Auger-electron lines from autoionizing (AI) states of Li-like (1s2s2l) configurations excited in ion-atom collisions vary as functions of the collision parameters such as, for example, the collision velocity. A statistical population of the three-electron levels is at best incomplete and underscores the intricate dynamical development of the electronic states. The authors compare several experimental studies to calculations using ''hidden-crossing'' techniques to explore some of the details of these Auger-electron intensity variation phenomena. The investigations show promising results suggesting that Auger-electron intensity variations can be used to probe collision dynamics

  2. The statistical interpretations of counting data from measurements of low-level radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donn, J.J.; Wolke, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    The statistical model appropriate to measurements of low-level or background-dominant radioactivity is examined and the derived relationships are applied to two practical problems involving hypothesis testing: 'Does the sample exhibit a net activity above background' and 'Is the activity of the sample below some preselected limit'. In each of these cases, the appropriate decision rule is formulated, procedures are developed for estimating the preset count which is necessary to achieve a desired probability of detection, and a specific sequence of operations is provided for the worker in the field. (author)

  3. STATCONT: A statistical continuum level determination method for line-rich sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Monge, Á.; Schilke, P.; Ginsburg, A.; Cesaroni, R.; Schmiedeke, A.

    2018-01-01

    STATCONT is a python-based tool designed to determine the continuum emission level in spectral data, in particular for sources with a line-rich spectrum. The tool inspects the intensity distribution of a given spectrum and automatically determines the continuum level by using different statistical approaches. The different methods included in STATCONT are tested against synthetic data. We conclude that the sigma-clipping algorithm provides the most accurate continuum level determination, together with information on the uncertainty in its determination. This uncertainty can be used to correct the final continuum emission level, resulting in the here called `corrected sigma-clipping method' or c-SCM. The c-SCM has been tested against more than 750 different synthetic spectra reproducing typical conditions found towards astronomical sources. The continuum level is determined with a discrepancy of less than 1% in 50% of the cases, and less than 5% in 90% of the cases, provided at least 10% of the channels are line free. The main products of STATCONT are the continuum emission level, together with a conservative value of its uncertainty, and datacubes containing only spectral line emission, i.e., continuum-subtracted datacubes. STATCONT also includes the option to estimate the spectral index, when different files covering different frequency ranges are provided.

  4. A Statistical Study of Serum Cholesterol Level by Gender and Race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharu, Bhikhari Prasad; Tsokos, Chris P

    2017-07-25

    Cholesterol level (CL) is growing concerned as health issue in human health since it is considered one of the causes in heart diseases. A study of cholesterol level can provide insight about its nature and characteristics. A cross-sectional study. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANS) II was conducted on a probability sample of approximately 28,000 persons in the USA and cholesterol level is obtained from laboratory results. Samples were selected so that certain population groups thought to be at high risk of malnutrition. Study included 11,864 persons for CL cases with 9,602 males and 2,262 females with races: whites, blacks, and others. Non-parametric statistical tests and goodness of fit test have been used to identify probability distributions. The study concludes that the cholesterol level exhibits significant racial and gender differences in terms of probability distributions. The study has concluded that white people are relatively higher at risk than black people to have risk line and high risk cholesterol. The study clearly indicates that black males normally have higher cholesterol. Females have lower variation in cholesterol than males. There exists gender and racial discrepancies in cholesterol which has been identified as lognormal and gamma probability distributions. White individuals seem to be at a higher risk of having high risk cholesterol level than blacks. Females tend to have higher variation in cholesterol level than males.

  5. A Statistics-Based Material Property Analysis to Support TPS Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Sean R.; Cozmuta, Ioana; Alonso, Juan J.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate characterization of entry capsule heat shield material properties is a critical component in modeling and simulating Thermal Protection System (TPS) response in a prescribed aerothermal environment. The thermal decomposition of the TPS material during the pyrolysis and charring processes is poorly characterized and typically results in large uncertainties in material properties as inputs for ablation models. These material property uncertainties contribute to large design margins on flight systems and cloud re- construction efforts for data collected during flight and ground testing, making revision to existing models for entry systems more challenging. The analysis presented in this work quantifies how material property uncertainties propagate through an ablation model and guides an experimental test regimen aimed at reducing these uncertainties and characterizing the dependencies between properties in the virgin and charred states for a Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) based TPS. A sensitivity analysis identifies how the high-fidelity model behaves in the expected flight environment, while a Monte Carlo based uncertainty propagation strategy is used to quantify the expected spread in the in-depth temperature response of the TPS. An examination of how perturbations to the input probability density functions affect output temperature statistics is accomplished using a Kriging response surface of the high-fidelity model. Simulations are based on capsule configuration and aerothermal environments expected during the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) entry sequence. We identify and rank primary sources of uncertainty from material properties in a flight-relevant environment, show the dependence on spatial orientation and in-depth location on those uncertainty contributors, and quantify how sensitive the expected results are.

  6. QSPR Study of the Retention/release Property of Odorant Molecules in Water Using Statistical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assia Belhassan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available An integrated approach physicochemistry and structures property relationships has been carried out to study the odorant molecules retention/release phenomenon in the water. This study aimed to identify the molecular properties (molecular descriptors that govern this phenomenon assuming that modifying the structure leads automatically to a change in the retention/release property of odorant molecules. ACD/ChemSketch, MarvinSketch, and ChemOffice programs were used to calculate several molecular descriptors of 51 odorant molecules (15 alcohols, 11 aldehydes, 9 ketones and 16 esters. A total of 37 molecules (2/3 of the data set were placed in the training set to build the QSPR models, whereas the remaining, 14 molecules (1/3 of the data set constitute the test set. The best descriptors were selected to establish the quantitative structure property relationship (QSPR of the retention/release property of odorant molecules in water using multiple linear regression (MLR, multiple non-linear regression (MNLR and an artificial neural network (ANN methods. We propose a quantitative model according to these analyses. The models were used to predict the retention/release property of the test set compounds, and agreement between the experimental and predicted values was verified. The descriptors showed by QSPR study are used for study and designing of new compounds. The statistical results indicate that the predicted values are in good agreement with the experimental results. To validate the predictive power of the resulting models, external validation multiple correlation coefficient was calculated and has both in addition to a performant prediction power, a favorable estimation of stability. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17807/orbital.v9i4.978 

  7. Sea Surface Height Variability and Eddy Statistical Properties in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Zhan, Peng

    2013-05-01

    Satellite sea surface height (SSH) data over 1992-2012 are analyzed to study the spatial and temporal variability of sea level in the Red Sea. Empirical orthogonal functions (EOF) analysis suggests the remarkable seasonality of SSH in the Red Sea, and a significant correlation is found between SSH variation and seasonal wind cycle. A winding-angle based eddy identification algorithm is employed to derive the mesoscale eddy information from SSH data. Totally more than 5500 eddies are detected, belonging to 2583 eddy tracks. Statistics suggest that eddies generate over the entire Red Sea, with two regions in the central basin of high eddy frequency. 76% of the detected eddies have a radius ranging from 40km to 100km, of which both intensity and absolute vorticity decrease with eddy radius. The average eddy lifespan is about 5 weeks, and eddies with longer lifespan tend to have larger radius but less intensity. Different deformation rate exists between anticyclonic eddies (AEs) and cyclonic eddies (CEs), those eddies with higher intensity appear to be less deformed and more circular. Inspection of the 84 long-lived eddies suggests the AEs tend to move a little more northward than CEs. AE generation during summer is obviously lower than that during other seasons, while CE generation is higher during spring and summer. Other features of AEs and CEs are similar with both vorticity and intensity reaching the summer peaks in August and winter peaks in January. Inter-annual variability reveals that the eddies in the Red Sea are isolated from the global event. The eddy property tendencies are different from the south and north basin, both of which exhibit a two-year cycle. Showing a correlation coefficient of -0.91, Brunt–Väisälä frequency is negatively correlated with eddy kinetic energy (EKE), which results from AE activities in the high eddy frequency region. Climatological vertical velocity shear variation is identical with EKE except in the autumn, suggesting the

  8. Statistical analysis of the acceleration of Baltic mean sea-level rise, 1900-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Hünicke

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We analyse annual mean sea-level records from tide-gauges located in the Baltic and parts of the North Sea with the aim of detecting an acceleration of sea-level rise over the 20textsuperscript{th} and 21textsuperscript{st} centuries. The acceleration is estimated as a (1 fit to a polynomial of order two in time, (2 a long-term linear increase in the rates computed over gliding overlapping decadal time segments, and (3 a long-term increase of the annual increments of sea level.The estimation methods (1 and (2 prove to be more powerful in detecting acceleration when tested with sea-level records produced in global climate model simulations. These methods applied to the Baltic-Sea tide-gauges are, however, not powerful enough to detect a significant acceleration in most of individual records, although most estimated accelerations are positive. This lack of detection of statistically significant acceleration at the individual tide-gauge level can be due to the high-level of local noise and not necessarily to the absence of acceleration.The estimated accelerations tend to be stronger in the north and east of the Baltic Sea. Two hypothesis to explain this spatial pattern have been explored. One is that this pattern reflects the slow-down of the Glacial Isostatic Adjustment. However, a simple estimation of this effect suggests that this slow-down cannot explain the estimated acceleration. The second hypothesis is related to the diminishing sea-ice cover over the 20textsuperscript{th} century. The melting o of less saline and colder sea-ice can lead to changes in sea-level. Also, the melting of sea-ice can reduce the number of missing values in the tide-gauge records in winter, potentially influencing the estimated trends and acceleration of seasonal mean sea-level This hypothesis cannot be ascertained either since the spatial pattern of acceleration computed for winter and summer separately are very similar. The all-station-average-record displays an

  9. Understanding nanocellulose chirality and structure–properties relationship at the single fibril level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usov, Ivan; Nyström, Gustav; Adamcik, Jozef; Handschin, Stephan; Schütz, Christina; Fall, Andreas; Bergström, Lennart; Mezzenga, Raffaele

    2015-01-01

    Nanocellulose fibrils are ubiquitous in nature and nanotechnologies but their mesoscopic structural assembly is not yet fully understood. Here we study the structural features of rod-like cellulose nanoparticles on a single particle level, by applying statistical polymer physics concepts on electron and atomic force microscopy images, and we assess their physical properties via quantitative nanomechanical mapping. We show evidence of right-handed chirality, observed on both bundles and on single fibrils. Statistical analysis of contours from microscopy images shows a non-Gaussian kink angle distribution. This is inconsistent with a structure consisting of alternating amorphous and crystalline domains along the contour and supports process-induced kink formation. The intrinsic mechanical properties of nanocellulose are extracted from nanoindentation and persistence length method for transversal and longitudinal directions, respectively. The structural analysis is pushed to the level of single cellulose polymer chains, and their smallest associated unit with a proposed 2 × 2 chain-packing arrangement. PMID:26108282

  10. Understanding nanocellulose chirality and structure-properties relationship at the single fibril level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usov, Ivan; Nyström, Gustav; Adamcik, Jozef; Handschin, Stephan; Schütz, Christina; Fall, Andreas; Bergström, Lennart; Mezzenga, Raffaele

    2015-06-01

    Nanocellulose fibrils are ubiquitous in nature and nanotechnologies but their mesoscopic structural assembly is not yet fully understood. Here we study the structural features of rod-like cellulose nanoparticles on a single particle level, by applying statistical polymer physics concepts on electron and atomic force microscopy images, and we assess their physical properties via quantitative nanomechanical mapping. We show evidence of right-handed chirality, observed on both bundles and on single fibrils. Statistical analysis of contours from microscopy images shows a non-Gaussian kink angle distribution. This is inconsistent with a structure consisting of alternating amorphous and crystalline domains along the contour and supports process-induced kink formation. The intrinsic mechanical properties of nanocellulose are extracted from nanoindentation and persistence length method for transversal and longitudinal directions, respectively. The structural analysis is pushed to the level of single cellulose polymer chains, and their smallest associated unit with a proposed 2 × 2 chain-packing arrangement.

  11. Assessing attitudes towards statistics among medical students: psychometric properties of the Serbian version of the Survey of Attitudes Towards Statistics (SATS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejana Stanisavljevic

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Medical statistics has become important and relevant for future doctors, enabling them to practice evidence based medicine. Recent studies report that students' attitudes towards statistics play an important role in their statistics achievements. The aim of the study was to test the psychometric properties of the Serbian version of the Survey of Attitudes Towards Statistics (SATS in order to acquire a valid instrument to measure attitudes inside the Serbian educational context. METHODS: The validation study was performed on a cohort of 417 medical students who were enrolled in an obligatory introductory statistics course. The SATS adaptation was based on an internationally accepted methodology for translation and cultural adaptation. Psychometric properties of the Serbian version of the SATS were analyzed through the examination of factorial structure and internal consistency. RESULTS: Most medical students held positive attitudes towards statistics. The average total SATS score was above neutral (4.3±0.8, and varied from 1.9 to 6.2. Confirmatory factor analysis validated the six-factor structure of the questionnaire (Affect, Cognitive Competence, Value, Difficulty, Interest and Effort. Values for fit indices TLI (0.940 and CFI (0.961 were above the cut-off of ≥0.90. The RMSEA value of 0.064 (0.051-0.078 was below the suggested value of ≤0.08. Cronbach's alpha of the entire scale was 0.90, indicating scale reliability. In a multivariate regression model, self-rating of ability in mathematics and current grade point average were significantly associated with the total SATS score after adjusting for age and gender. CONCLUSION: Present study provided the evidence for the appropriate metric properties of the Serbian version of SATS. Confirmatory factor analysis validated the six-factor structure of the scale. The SATS might be reliable and a valid instrument for identifying medical students' attitudes towards statistics in the

  12. Assessing attitudes towards statistics among medical students: psychometric properties of the Serbian version of the Survey of Attitudes Towards Statistics (SATS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanisavljevic, Dejana; Trajkovic, Goran; Marinkovic, Jelena; Bukumiric, Zoran; Cirkovic, Andja; Milic, Natasa

    2014-01-01

    Medical statistics has become important and relevant for future doctors, enabling them to practice evidence based medicine. Recent studies report that students' attitudes towards statistics play an important role in their statistics achievements. The aim of the study was to test the psychometric properties of the Serbian version of the Survey of Attitudes Towards Statistics (SATS) in order to acquire a valid instrument to measure attitudes inside the Serbian educational context. The validation study was performed on a cohort of 417 medical students who were enrolled in an obligatory introductory statistics course. The SATS adaptation was based on an internationally accepted methodology for translation and cultural adaptation. Psychometric properties of the Serbian version of the SATS were analyzed through the examination of factorial structure and internal consistency. Most medical students held positive attitudes towards statistics. The average total SATS score was above neutral (4.3±0.8), and varied from 1.9 to 6.2. Confirmatory factor analysis validated the six-factor structure of the questionnaire (Affect, Cognitive Competence, Value, Difficulty, Interest and Effort). Values for fit indices TLI (0.940) and CFI (0.961) were above the cut-off of ≥0.90. The RMSEA value of 0.064 (0.051-0.078) was below the suggested value of ≤0.08. Cronbach's alpha of the entire scale was 0.90, indicating scale reliability. In a multivariate regression model, self-rating of ability in mathematics and current grade point average were significantly associated with the total SATS score after adjusting for age and gender. Present study provided the evidence for the appropriate metric properties of the Serbian version of SATS. Confirmatory factor analysis validated the six-factor structure of the scale. The SATS might be reliable and a valid instrument for identifying medical students' attitudes towards statistics in the Serbian educational context.

  13. Evaluation of higher order statistics parameters for multi channel sEMG using different force levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Ganesh R; Kumar, Dinesh K

    2011-01-01

    The electromyograpy (EMG) signal provides information about the performance of muscles and nerves. The shape of the muscle signal and motor unit action potential (MUAP) varies due to the movement of the position of the electrode or due to changes in contraction level. This research deals with evaluating the non-Gaussianity in Surface Electromyogram signal (sEMG) using higher order statistics (HOS) parameters. To achieve this, experiments were conducted for four different finger and wrist actions at different levels of Maximum Voluntary Contractions (MVCs). Our experimental analysis shows that at constant force and for non-fatiguing contractions, probability density functions (PDF) of sEMG signals were non-Gaussian. For lesser MVCs (below 30% of MVC) PDF measures tends to be Gaussian process. The above measures were verified by computing the Kurtosis values for different MVCs.

  14. Statistical properties of a utility measure of observer performance compared to area under the ROC curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbey, Craig K.; Samuelson, Frank W.; Gallas, Brandon D.; Boone, John M.; Niklason, Loren T.

    2013-03-01

    The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve has become a common tool for evaluating diagnostic imaging technologies, and the primary endpoint of such evaluations is the area under the curve (AUC), which integrates sensitivity over the entire false positive range. An alternative figure of merit for ROC studies is expected utility (EU), which focuses on the relevant region of the ROC curve as defined by disease prevalence and the relative utility of the task. However if this measure is to be used, it must also have desirable statistical properties keep the burden of observer performance studies as low as possible. Here, we evaluate effect size and variability for EU and AUC. We use two observer performance studies recently submitted to the FDA to compare the EU and AUC endpoints. The studies were conducted using the multi-reader multi-case methodology in which all readers score all cases in all modalities. ROC curves from the study were used to generate both the AUC and EU values for each reader and modality. The EU measure was computed assuming an iso-utility slope of 1.03. We find mean effect sizes, the reader averaged difference between modalities, to be roughly 2.0 times as big for EU as AUC. The standard deviation across readers is roughly 1.4 times as large, suggesting better statistical properties for the EU endpoint. In a simple power analysis of paired comparison across readers, the utility measure required 36% fewer readers on average to achieve 80% statistical power compared to AUC.

  15. Bayesian Statistical Analysis of Historical and Late Holocene Rates of Sea-Level Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Niamh; Parnell, Andrew; Kemp, Andrew; Horton, Benjamin

    2014-05-01

    A fundamental concern associated with climate change is the rate at which sea levels are rising. Studies of past sea level (particularly beyond the instrumental data range) allow modern sea-level rise to be placed in a more complete context. Considering this, we perform a Bayesian statistical analysis on historical and late Holocene rates of sea-level change. The data that form the input to the statistical model are tide-gauge measurements and proxy reconstructions from cores of coastal sediment. The aims are to estimate rates of sea-level rise, to determine when modern rates of sea-level rise began and to observe how these rates have been changing over time. Many of the current methods for doing this use simple linear regression to estimate rates. This is often inappropriate as it is too rigid and it can ignore uncertainties that arise as part of the data collection exercise. This can lead to over confidence in the sea-level trends being characterized. The proposed Bayesian model places a Gaussian process prior on the rate process (i.e. the process that determines how rates of sea-level are changing over time). The likelihood of the observed data is the integral of this process. When dealing with proxy reconstructions, this is set in an errors-in-variables framework so as to take account of age uncertainty. It is also necessary, in this case, for the model to account for glacio-isostatic adjustment, which introduces a covariance between individual age and sea-level observations. This method provides a flexible fit and it allows for the direct estimation of the rate process with full consideration of all sources of uncertainty. Analysis of tide-gauge datasets and proxy reconstructions in this way means that changing rates of sea level can be estimated more comprehensively and accurately than previously possible. The model captures the continuous and dynamic evolution of sea-level change and results show that not only are modern sea levels rising but that the rates

  16. Statistical and Measurement Properties of Features Used in Essay Assessment. Research Report. ETS RR-04-21

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberman, Shelby J.

    2004-01-01

    Statistical and measurement properties are examined for features used in essay assessment to determine the generalizability of the features across populations, prompts, and individuals. Data are employed from TOEFL® and GMAT® examinations and from writing for Criterion?.

  17. Comparison between reflectivity statistics at heights of 3 and 6 km and rain rate statistics at ground level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, R. K.

    1975-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the relations between the empirical distribution functions of reflectivity at specified locations above the surface and the corresponding functions at the surface. A bistatic radar system was used to measure continuously the scattering cross section per unit volume at heights of 3 and 6 km. A frequency of 3.7 GHz was used in the tests. It was found that the distribution functions for reflectivity may significantly change with height at heights below the level of the melting layer.

  18. Random matrix theory of the energy-level statistics of disordered systems at the Anderson transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canali, C.M.

    1995-09-01

    We consider a family of random matrix ensembles (RME) invariant under similarity transformations and described by the probability density P(H) exp[-TrV(H)]. Dyson's mean field theory (MFT) of the corresponding plasma model of eigenvalues is generalized to the case of weak confining potential, V(is an element of) ∼ A/2 ln 2 (is an element of). The eigenvalue statistics derived from MFT are shown to deviate substantially from the classical Wigner-Dyson statistics when A c approx. 0.4 the distribution function of the level spacings (LSDF) coincides in a large energy window with the energy LSDF of the three dimensional Anderson model at the metal-insulator transition. For the same A = A c , the RME eigenvalue-number variance is linear and its slope is equal to 0.32 ± 0.02, which is consistent with the value found for the Anderson model at the critical point. (author). 51 refs, 10 figs

  19. Protein logic: a statistical mechanical study of signal integration at the single-molecule level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ronde, Wiet; Rein ten Wolde, Pieter; Mugler, Andrew

    2012-09-05

    Information processing and decision-making is based upon logic operations, which in cellular networks has been well characterized at the level of transcription. In recent years, however, both experimentalists and theorists have begun to appreciate that cellular decision-making can also be performed at the level of a single protein, giving rise to the notion of protein logic. Here we systematically explore protein logic using a well-known statistical mechanical model. As an example system, we focus on receptors that bind either one or two ligands, and their associated dimers. Notably, we find that a single heterodimer can realize any of the 16 possible logic gates, including the XOR gate, by variation of biochemical parameters. We then introduce what to our knowledge is a novel idea: that a set of receptors with fixed parameters can encode functionally unique logic gates simply by forming different dimeric combinations. An exhaustive search reveals that the simplest set of receptors (two single-ligand receptors and one double-ligand receptor) can realize several different groups of three unique gates, a result for which the parametric analysis of single receptors and dimers provides a clear interpretation. Both results underscore the surprising functional freedom readily available to cells at the single-protein level. Copyright © 2012 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Statistical spatial properties of speckle patterns generated by multiple laser beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Cain, A.; Sajer, J. M.; Riazuelo, G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates hot spot characteristics generated by the superposition of multiple laser beams. First, properties of speckle statistics are studied in the context of only one laser beam by computing the autocorrelation function. The case of multiple laser beams is then considered. In certain conditions, it is shown that speckles have an ellipsoidal shape. Analytical expressions of hot spot radii generated by multiple laser beams are derived and compared to numerical estimates made from the autocorrelation function. They are also compared to numerical simulations performed within the paraxial approximation. Excellent agreement is found for the speckle width as well as for the speckle length. Application to the speckle patterns generated in the Laser MegaJoule configuration in the zone where all the beams overlap is presented. Influence of polarization on the size of the speckles as well as on their abundance is studied.

  1. Statistical properties of spectra in harmonically trapped spin-orbit coupled systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    V. Marchukov, O.; G. Volosniev, A.; V. Fedorov, D.

    2014-01-01

    We compute single-particle energy spectra for a one-body Hamiltonian consisting of a two-dimensional deformed harmonic oscillator potential, the Rashba spin-orbit coupling and the Zeeman term. To investigate the statistical properties of the obtained spectra as functions of deformation, spin......-orbit and Zeeman strengths we examine the distributions of the nearest neighbor spacings. We find that the shapes of these distributions depend strongly on the three potential parameters. We show that the obtained shapes in some cases can be well approximated with the standard Poisson, Brody and Wigner...... distributions. The Brody and Wigner distributions characterize irregular motion and help identify quantum chaotic systems. We present a special choices of deformation and spin-orbit strengths without the Zeeman term which provide a fair reproduction of the fourth-power repelling Wigner distribution. By adding...

  2. Statistical properties of online avatar numbers in a massive multiplayer online role-playing game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Ren, Fei; Gu, Gao-Feng; Tan, Qun-Zhao; Zhou, Wei-Xing

    2010-02-01

    Massive multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) have been very popular in the past few years. The profit of an MMORPG company is proportional to how many users registered, and the instant number of online avatars is a key factor to assess how popular an MMORPG is. We use the online-offline logs on an MMORPG server to reconstruct the instant number of online avatars per second and investigate its statistical properties. We find that the online avatar number exhibits one-day periodic behavior and clear intraday pattern, the fluctuation distribution of the online avatar numbers has a leptokurtic non-Gaussian shape with power-law tails, and the increments of online avatar numbers after removing the intraday pattern are uncorrelated and the associated absolute values have long-term correlation. In addition, both time series exhibit multifractal nature.

  3. Statistical properties of single-mode emission in free-electron lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertolotti, M.; Luks, A.; Perina, J.; Perinova, V.; Sibilia, C.

    1984-01-01

    The authors of this paper discuss the statistical properties of radiation produced in the free electron laser, in the case of singlemode emission when the system is used as an amplifier, with very small gain. The coherent states technique and the q-c number correspondence is employed, starting from the master-equation and obtaining the generalized Fokker-Planck equation for the anti-normal quasidistribution function. Solutions of Fokker-Planck equation provide the photocounting distribution and its factorial moments. No losses are included. It is shown that, in the short-time approximation, the radiation field exhibits antibunching, and that the photocounting distributions, when some suitable conditions on the field intensities are fulfilled, in the stationary regime shows a two-peak behavior, evidencing the existence of bistable states

  4. Identification of tensile strength properties of abaca fiber by weakest-linkage approach-statistic property of fiber diameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suardi; Homma, H.; Abubakar

    2018-02-01

    Fiber reinforced plastics or metals (FRPor FRM) are usually ecological materials, because their specific strength defined as the strengthperunit mass is much larger than metal, and weight ofmachines and structuresfor transport made ofFRP can be significantly reduced so that the consumption of fossil fuel scan be saved to result in tremendous reduction of CO2emissions. However, when we consider life cycle assessment (LCA) of synthetic fibers like carbon fiber and glass fiber, we can recognize much CO2 emission in production of these fibers. Therefore, more ecological reinforcement fibers must be developed. For this end, we should utilization cellulose fibers derived from plant tissue structure as an alternative fibers for synthetic fibers, which are considered as carbon neutral materials, and natural degraded material. This study selectsabaca fiber, which is a natural fiber and is abundant in Indonesia, but its usagehas not been optimized for engineering material. The purpose of this study is to identify the mechanical strength of a single abaca fiber by statistical approach. First, weakest link theory and Weibull theory are used to discuss experimental data. 90 specimens of almost identical geometry and biological aspects are tested under tension. These data are analyzed by Weibull theory or other statistical theory. Final target is to look into optimal method to reduce scatter ratio, ratio of standard deviation to mean value, of less than 0.1, which is the level of metallic materials. If we can reduce scatter ration to such level, we can design machines and structures using abaca fiber in the same way as carbon fibers or glass fibers. Summary of Diameter Measurement the all mean value is 0.1 and standardeviasi. The t-Test showed that mean value of each part is estimated as sampling from group with the same mean value, at confidence level of 99%.

  5. Properties of incident reporting systems in relation to statistical trend and pattern analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalfsbeek, H.W.; Arsenis, S.P.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the properties deemed desirable for an incident reporting system in order to render it useful for extracting valid statistical trend and pattern information. The perspective under which a data collection system is seen in this paper is the following: data are essentially gathered on a set of variables describing an event or incident (the items featuring on a reporting format) in order to learn about (multiple) dependencies (called interactions) between these variables. Hence, the necessary features of the data source are highlighted and potential problem sources limiting the validity of the results to be obtained are identified. In this frame, important issues are the reporting completeness, related to the reporting criteria and reporting frequency, and of course the reporting contents and quality. The choice of the report items (the variables) and their categorization (code dictionary) may influence (bias) the insights gained from trend and pattern analyses, as may the presence or absence of a structure for correlating the reported issues within an incident. The issues addressed in this paper are brought in relation to some real world reporting systems on safety related events in Nuclear Power Plants, so that their possibilities and limitations with regard to statistical trend and pattern analysis become manifest

  6. Statistical Properties of Lorenz-like Flows, Recent Developments and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Vitor; Galatolo, Stefano; Pacifico, Maria José

    We comment on the mathematical results about the statistical behavior of Lorenz equations and its attractor, and more generally on the class of singular hyperbolic systems. The mathematical theory of such kind of systems turned out to be surprisingly difficult. It is remarkable that a rigorous proof of the existence of the Lorenz attractor was presented only around the year 2000 with a computer-assisted proof together with an extension of the hyperbolic theory developed to encompass attractors robustly containing equilibria. We present some of the main results on the statistical behavior of such systems. We show that for attractors of three-dimensional flows, robust chaotic behavior is equivalent to the existence of certain hyperbolic structures, known as singular-hyperbolicity. These structures, in turn, are associated with the existence of physical measures: in low dimensions, robust chaotic behavior for flows ensures the existence of a physical measure. We then give more details on recent results on the dynamics of singular-hyperbolic (Lorenz-like) attractors: (1) there exists an invariant foliation whose leaves are forward contracted by the flow (and further properties which are useful to understand the statistical properties of the dynamics); (2) there exists a positive Lyapunov exponent at every orbit; (3) there is a unique physical measure whose support is the whole attractor and which is the equilibrium state with respect to the center-unstable Jacobian; (4) this measure is exact dimensional; (5) the induced measure on a suitable family of cross-sections has exponential decay of correlations for Lipschitz observables with respect to a suitable Poincaré return time map; (6) the hitting time associated to Lorenz-like attractors satisfy a logarithm law; (7) the geometric Lorenz flow satisfies the Almost Sure Invariance Principle (ASIP) and the Central Limit Theorem (CLT); (8) the rate of decay of large deviations for the volume measure on the ergodic basin of

  7. Minimal agent based model for financial markets II. Statistical properties of the linear and multiplicative dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfi, V.; Cristelli, M.; Pietronero, L.; Zaccaria, A.

    2009-02-01

    We present a detailed study of the statistical properties of the Agent Based Model introduced in paper I [Eur. Phys. J. B, DOI: 10.1140/epjb/e2009-00028-4] and of its generalization to the multiplicative dynamics. The aim of the model is to consider the minimal elements for the understanding of the origin of the stylized facts and their self-organization. The key elements are fundamentalist agents, chartist agents, herding dynamics and price behavior. The first two elements correspond to the competition between stability and instability tendencies in the market. The herding behavior governs the possibility of the agents to change strategy and it is a crucial element of this class of models. We consider a linear approximation for the price dynamics which permits a simple interpretation of the model dynamics and, for many properties, it is possible to derive analytical results. The generalized non linear dynamics results to be extremely more sensible to the parameter space and much more difficult to analyze and control. The main results for the nature and self-organization of the stylized facts are, however, very similar in the two cases. The main peculiarity of the non linear dynamics is an enhancement of the fluctuations and a more marked evidence of the stylized facts. We will also discuss some modifications of the model to introduce more realistic elements with respect to the real markets.

  8. Fractional statistics and quantum scaling properties of the integrable Penson-Kolb-Hubbard chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitoriano, Carlindo; Coutinho-Filho, M. D.

    2010-09-01

    We investigate the ground-state and low-temperature properties of the integrable version of the Penson-Kolb-Hubbard chain. The model obeys fractional statistical properties, which give rise to fractional elementary excitations and manifest differently in the four regions of the phase diagram U/t versus n , where U is the Coulomb coupling, t is the correlated hopping amplitude, and n is the particle density. In fact, we can find local pair formation, fractionalization of the average occupation number per orbital k , or U - and n -dependent average electric charge per orbital k . We also study the scaling behavior near the U -driven quantum phase transitions and characterize their universality classes. Finally, it is shown that in the regime of parameters where local pair formation is energetically more favorable, the ground state exhibits power-law superconductivity; we also stress that above half filling the pair-hopping term stabilizes local Cooper pairs in the repulsive- U regime for U

  9. Statistical properties of cross-correlation in the Korean stock market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, G.; Eom, C.; Wang, F.; Jung, W.-S.; Stanley, H. E.; Kim, S.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the statistical properties of the cross-correlation matrix between individual stocks traded in the Korean stock market using the random matrix theory (RMT) and observe how these affect the portfolio weights in the Markowitz portfolio theory. We find that the distribution of the cross-correlation matrix is positively skewed and changes over time. We find that the eigenvalue distribution of original cross-correlation matrix deviates from the eigenvalues predicted by the RMT, and the largest eigenvalue is 52 times larger than the maximum value among the eigenvalues predicted by the RMT. The β_{473} coefficient, which reflect the largest eigenvalue property, is 0.8, while one of the eigenvalues in the RMT is approximately zero. Notably, we show that the entropy function E(σ) with the portfolio risk σ for the original and filtered cross-correlation matrices are consistent with a power-law function, E( σ) σ^{-γ}, with the exponent γ 2.92 and those for Asian currency crisis decreases significantly.

  10. Statistical properties of highly excited quantum eigenstates of a strongly chaotic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurich, R.; Steiner, F.

    1992-06-01

    Statistical properties of highly excited quantal eigenstates are studied for the free motion (geodesic flow) on a compact surface of constant negative curvature (hyperbolic octagon) which represents a strongly chaotic system (K-system). The eigenstates are expanded in a circular-wave basis, and it turns out that the expansion coefficients behave as Gaussian pseudo-random numbers. It is shown that this property leads to a Gaussian amplitude distribution P(ψ) in the semiclassical limit, i.e. the wavefunctions behave as Gaussian random functions. This behaviour, which should hold for chaotic systems in general, is nicely confirmed for eigenstates lying 10000 states above the ground state thus probing the semiclassical limit. In addition, the autocorrelation function and the path-correlation function are calculated and compared with a crude semiclassical Bessel-function approximation. Agreement with the semiclassical prediction is only found, if a local averaging is performed over roughly 1000 de Broglie wavelengths. On smaller scales, the eigenstates show much more structure than predicted by the first semiclassical approximation. (orig.)

  11. Studies in the statistical and thermal properties of hadronic matter under some extreme conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chase, K.C.; Mekjian, A.Z.; Bhattacharyya, P.

    1997-01-01

    The thermal and statistical properties of hadronic matter under some extreme conditions are investigated using an exactly solvable canonical ensemble model. A unified model describing both the fragmentation of nuclei and the thermal properties of hadronic matter is developed. Simple expressions are obtained for quantities such as the hadronic equation of state, specific heat, compressibility, entropy, and excitation energy as a function of temperature and density. These expressions encompass the fermionic aspect of nucleons, such as degeneracy pressure and Fermi energy at low temperatures and the ideal gas laws at high temperatures and low density. Expressions are developed which connect these two extremes with behavior that resembles an ideal Bose gas with its associated Bose condensation. In the thermodynamic limit, an infinite cluster exists below a certain critical condition in a manner similar to the sudden appearance of the infinite cluster in percolation theory. The importance of multiplicity fluctuations is discussed and some recent data from the EOS collaboration on critical point behavior of nuclei can be accounted for using simple expressions obtained from the model. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  12. Statistical retrieval of thin liquid cloud microphysical properties using ground-based infrared and microwave observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marke, Tobias; Ebell, Kerstin; Löhnert, Ulrich; Turner, David D.

    2016-12-01

    In this article, liquid water cloud microphysical properties are retrieved by a combination of microwave and infrared ground-based observations. Clouds containing liquid water are frequently occurring in most climate regimes and play a significant role in terms of interaction with radiation. Small perturbations in the amount of liquid water contained in the cloud can cause large variations in the radiative fluxes. This effect is enhanced for thin clouds (liquid water path, LWP cloud properties crucial. Due to large relative errors in retrieving low LWP values from observations in the microwave domain and a high sensitivity for infrared methods when the LWP is low, a synergistic retrieval based on a neural network approach is built to estimate both LWP and cloud effective radius (reff). These statistical retrievals can be applied without high computational demand but imply constraints like prior information on cloud phase and cloud layering. The neural network retrievals are able to retrieve LWP and reff for thin clouds with a mean relative error of 9% and 17%, respectively. This is demonstrated using synthetic observations of a microwave radiometer (MWR) and a spectrally highly resolved infrared interferometer. The accuracy and robustness of the synergistic retrievals is confirmed by a low bias in a radiative closure study for the downwelling shortwave flux, even for marginally invalid scenes. Also, broadband infrared radiance observations, in combination with the MWR, have the potential to retrieve LWP with a higher accuracy than a MWR-only retrieval.

  13. Exploring Factors Related to Completion of an Online Undergraduate-Level Introductory Statistics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Whitney Alicia; Johnson, Glenn

    2017-01-01

    Data were collected from 353 online undergraduate introductory statistics students at the beginning of a semester using the Goals and Outcomes Associated with Learning Statistics (GOALS) instrument and an abbreviated form of the Statistics Anxiety Rating Scale (STARS). Data included a survey of expected grade, expected time commitment, and the…

  14. Statistical analysis to assess automated level of suspicion scoring methods in breast ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galperin, Michael

    2003-05-01

    A well-defined rule-based system has been developed for scoring 0-5 the Level of Suspicion (LOS) based on qualitative lexicon describing the ultrasound appearance of breast lesion. The purposes of the research are to asses and select one of the automated LOS scoring quantitative methods developed during preliminary studies in benign biopsies reduction. The study has used Computer Aided Imaging System (CAIS) to improve the uniformity and accuracy of applying the LOS scheme by automatically detecting, analyzing and comparing breast masses. The overall goal is to reduce biopsies on the masses with lower levels of suspicion, rather that increasing the accuracy of diagnosis of cancers (will require biopsy anyway). On complex cysts and fibroadenoma cases experienced radiologists were up to 50% less certain in true negatives than CAIS. Full correlation analysis was applied to determine which of the proposed LOS quantification methods serves CAIS accuracy the best. This paper presents current results of applying statistical analysis for automated LOS scoring quantification for breast masses with known biopsy results. It was found that First Order Ranking method yielded most the accurate results. The CAIS system (Image Companion, Data Companion software) is developed by Almen Laboratories and was used to achieve the results.

  15. Statistical assessment of the 137Cs levels of the Chernihiv oblast's milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lev, T.D.; Zakhutska, O.M.

    2004-01-01

    The article deals with research directed on overcoming the consequences of the Chornobyl accident at the territory of Ukraine. Results are considered of the use of the long-normal distribution law to evaluate results of 137Cs milk contamination. Critical farms of Chernihiv oblast, where agreeing criteria for assessing the primary data on milk contamination were applied, became the object of the study. An algorithm was applied to calculate factual and forecast repetitions of gradations according to the stages of statistical processing of milk samples contaminated with 137Cs. Results of the milk contamination analysis at a later stage (1991-2001)are described by the long-normal distribution law which can be used to forecast for the subsequent years. The maximum repetability of the gradations of the contaminated milk (from 10 to 40 Bq/l) is determined for factual and forecast frequencies of the levels of contamination thereof. The results of the study are proposed to be used while taking measures directed on diminishing the levels of contamination of agricultural products with 137Cs

  16. Analysis of statistical properties of laser speckles, forming in skin and mucous of colon: potential application in laser surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubtsov, Vladimir; Kapralov, Sergey; Chalyk, Iuri; Ulianova, Onega; Ulyanov, Sergey

    2013-02-01

    Statistical properties of laser speckles, formed in skin and mucous of colon have been analyzed and compared. It has been demonstrated that first and second order statistics of "skin" speckles and "mucous" speckles are quite different. It is shown that speckles, formed in mucous, are not Gaussian one. Layered structure of colon mucous causes formation of speckled biospeckles. First- and second- order statistics of speckled speckles have been reviewed in this paper. Statistical properties of Fresnel and Fraunhofer doubly scattered and cascade speckles are described. Non-gaussian statistics of biospeckles may lead to high localization of intensity of coherent light in human tissue during the laser surgery. Way of suppression of highly localized non-gaussian speckles is suggested.

  17. Review of high-level waste form properties. [146 bibliographies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusin, J.M.

    1980-12-01

    This report is a review of waste form options for the immobilization of high-level-liquid wastes from the nuclear fuel cycle. This review covers the status of international research and development on waste forms as of May 1979. Although the emphasis in this report is on waste form properties, process parameters are discussed where they may affect final waste form properties. A summary table is provided listing properties of various nuclear waste form options. It is concluded that proposed waste forms have properties falling within a relatively narrow range. In regard to crystalline versus glass waste forms, the conclusion is that either glass of crystalline materials can be shown to have some advantage when a single property is considered; however, at this date no single waste form offers optimum properties over the entire range of characteristics investigated. A long-term effort has been applied to the development of glass and calcine waste forms. Several additional waste forms have enough promise to warrant continued research and development to bring their state of development up to that of glass and calcine. Synthetic minerals, the multibarrier approach with coated particles in a metal matrix, and high pressure-high temperature ceramics offer potential advantages and need further study. Although this report discusses waste form properties, the total waste management system should be considered in the final selection of a waste form option. Canister design, canister materials, overpacks, engineered barriers, and repository characteristics, as well as the waste form, affect the overall performance of a waste management system. These parameters were not considered in this comparison.

  18. Review of high-level waste form properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusin, J.M.

    1980-12-01

    This report is a review of waste form options for the immobilization of high-level-liquid wastes from the nuclear fuel cycle. This review covers the status of international research and development on waste forms as of May 1979. Although the emphasis in this report is on waste form properties, process parameters are discussed where they may affect final waste form properties. A summary table is provided listing properties of various nuclear waste form options. It is concluded that proposed waste forms have properties falling within a relatively narrow range. In regard to crystalline versus glass waste forms, the conclusion is that either glass of crystalline materials can be shown to have some advantage when a single property is considered; however, at this date no single waste form offers optimum properties over the entire range of characteristics investigated. A long-term effort has been applied to the development of glass and calcine waste forms. Several additional waste forms have enough promise to warrant continued research and development to bring their state of development up to that of glass and calcine. Synthetic minerals, the multibarrier approach with coated particles in a metal matrix, and high pressure-high temperature ceramics offer potential advantages and need further study. Although this report discusses waste form properties, the total waste management system should be considered in the final selection of a waste form option. Canister design, canister materials, overpacks, engineered barriers, and repository characteristics, as well as the waste form, affect the overall performance of a waste management system. These parameters were not considered in this comparison

  19. A statistical approach to evaluate flood risk at the regional level: an application to Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Mauro; Marchesini, Ivan; Salvati, Paola; Donnini, Marco; Guzzetti, Fausto; Sterlacchini, Simone; Zazzeri, Marco; Bonazzi, Alessandro; Carlesi, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Floods are frequent and widespread in Italy, causing every year multiple fatalities and extensive damages to public and private structures. A pre-requisite for the development of mitigation schemes, including financial instruments such as insurance, is the ability to quantify their costs starting from the estimation of the underlying flood hazard. However, comprehensive and coherent information on flood prone areas, and estimates on the frequency and intensity of flood events, are not often available at scales appropriate for risk pooling and diversification. In Italy, River Basins Hydrogeological Plans (PAI), prepared by basin administrations, are the basic descriptive, regulatory, technical and operational tools for environmental planning in flood prone areas. Nevertheless, such plans do not cover the entire Italian territory, having significant gaps along the minor hydrographic network and in ungauged basins. Several process-based modelling approaches have been used by different basin administrations for the flood hazard assessment, resulting in an inhomogeneous hazard zonation of the territory. As a result, flood hazard assessments expected and damage estimations across the different Italian basin administrations are not always coherent. To overcome these limitations, we propose a simplified multivariate statistical approach for the regional flood hazard zonation coupled with a flood impact model. This modelling approach has been applied in different Italian basin administrations, allowing a preliminary but coherent and comparable estimation of the flood hazard and the relative impact. Model performances are evaluated comparing the predicted flood prone areas with the corresponding PAI zonation. The proposed approach will provide standardized information (following the EU Floods Directive specifications) on flood risk at a regional level which can in turn be more readily applied to assess flood economic impacts. Furthermore, in the assumption of an appropriate

  20. Statistical evaluation of the feasibility of satellite-retrieved cloud parameters as indicators of PM2.5 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chao; Di Girolamo, Larry; Chen, Liangfu; Zhang, Xueying; Liu, Yang

    2015-01-01

    The spatial and temporal characteristics of fine particulate matter (PM2.5, particulate matter research has been conducted on the association between cloud properties and PM2.5 levels. In this study, we analyzed the relationships between ground PM2.5 concentrations and two satellite-retrieved cloud parameters using data from the Southeastern Aerosol Research and Characterization (SEARCH) Network during 2000-2010. We found that both satellite-retrieved cloud fraction (CF) and cloud optical thickness (COT) are negatively associated with PM2.5 levels. PM2.5 speciation and meteorological analysis suggested that the main reason for these negative relationships might be the decreased secondary particle generation. Stratified analyses by season, land use type, and site location showed that seasonal impacts on this relationship are significant. These associations do not vary substantially between urban and rural sites or inland and coastal sites. The statistically significant negative associations of PM2.5 mass concentrations with CF and COT suggest that satellite-retrieved cloud parameters have the potential to serve as predictors to fill the data gap left by satellite aerosol optical depth in satellite-driven PM2.5 models.

  1. Statistical characterization of global Sea Surface Salinity for SMOS level 3 and 4 products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourrion, J.; Aretxabaleta, A. L.; Ballabrera, J.; Mourre, B.

    2009-04-01

    The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission of the European Space Agency will soon provide sea surface salinity (SSS) estimates to the scientific community. Because of the numerous geophysical contamination sources and the instrument complexity, the salinity products will have a low signal to noise ratio at level 2 (individual estimates??) that is expected to increase up to mission requirements (0.1 psu) at level 3 (global maps with regular distribution) after spatio-temporal accumulation of the observations. Geostatistical methods such as Optimal Interpolation are being implemented at the level 3/4 production centers to operate this noise reduction step. The methodologies require auxiliary information about SSS statistics that, under Gaussian assumption, consist in the mean field and the covariance of the departures from it. The present study is a contribution to the definition of the best estimates for mean field and covariances to be used in the near-future SMOS level 3 and 4 products. We use complementary information from sparse in-situ observations and imperfect outputs from state-of-art model simulations. Various estimates of the mean field are compared. An alternative is the use of a SSS climatology such as the one provided by the World Ocean Atlas 2005. An historical SSS dataset from the World Ocean Database 2005 is reanalyzed and combined with the recent global observations obtained by the Array for Real-Time Geostrophic Oceanography (ARGO). Regional tendencies in the long-term temporal evolution of the near-surface ocean salinity are evident, suggesting that the use of a SSS climatology to describe the current mean field may introduce biases of magnitude similar to the precision goal. Consequently, a recent SSS dataset may be preferred to define the mean field needed for SMOS level 3 and 4 production. The in-situ observation network allows a global mapping of the low frequency component of the variability, i.e. decadal, interannual and seasonal

  2. Statistical Properties of Kawai-Kerman-McVoy T-matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbanas, Goran; Bertulani, Carlos A.; Dean, David Jarvis; Kerman, Arthur K.

    2008-01-01

    Kawai, Kerman and McVoy (KKM) derived an optical background-plus-fluctuations representation of T-matrix, T = T opt + T fluct , so that an energy average of T fluct over a single-particle resonance width is expected to be negligibly small (Ann. of Phys. 75, 156 (1973)). We investigate this property numerically in a simple model with 1,600 compound nuclear levels and 40 channels, coupled via a random interaction. We find that the energy average of the fluctuating term is much smaller than the optical background, T opt , in support of the KKM result. A self-contained derivation of KKM T-matrix is presented.

  3. On the Statistical Properties of Turbulent Energy Transfer Rate in the Inner Heliosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorriso-Valvo, Luca; Carbone, Francesco; Perri, Silvia; Greco, Antonella; Marino, Raffaele; Bruno, Roberto

    2018-01-01

    The transfer of energy from large to small scales in solar wind turbulence is an important ingredient of the long-standing question of the mechanism of the interplanetary plasma heating. Previous studies have shown that magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence is statistically compatible with the observed solar wind heating as it expands in the heliosphere. However, in order to understand which processes contribute to the plasma heating, it is necessary to have a local description of the energy flux across scales. To this aim, it is customary to use indicators such as the magnetic field partial variance of increments (PVI), which is associated with the local, relative, scale-dependent magnetic energy. A more complete evaluation of the energy transfer should also include other terms, related to velocity and cross-helicity. This is achieved here by introducing a proxy for the local, scale-dependent turbulent energy transfer rate ɛ_{Δ t}(t), based on the third-order moment scaling law for MHD turbulence. Data from Helios 2 are used to determine the statistical properties of such a proxy in comparison with the magnetic and velocity fields PVI, and the correlation with local solar wind heating is computed. PVI and ɛ_{Δ t}(t) are generally well correlated; however, ɛ_{Δ t}(t) is a very sensitive proxy that can exhibit large amplitude values, both positive and negative, even for low amplitude peaks in the PVI. Furthermore, ɛ_{Δ t}(t) is very well correlated with local increases of the temperature when large amplitude bursts of energy transfer are localized, thus suggesting an important role played by this proxy in the study of plasma energy dissipation.

  4. Commentary on the statistical properties of noise and its implication on general linear models in functional near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppert, Theodore J

    2016-01-01

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a noninvasive neuroimaging technique that uses low levels of light to measure changes in cerebral blood oxygenation levels. In the majority of NIRS functional brain studies, analysis of this data is based on a statistical comparison of hemodynamic levels between a baseline and task or between multiple task conditions by means of a linear regression model: the so-called general linear model. Although these methods are similar to their implementation in other fields, particularly for functional magnetic resonance imaging, the specific application of these methods in fNIRS research differs in several key ways related to the sources of noise and artifacts unique to fNIRS. In this brief communication, we discuss the application of linear regression models in fNIRS and the modifications needed to generalize these models in order to deal with structured (colored) noise due to systemic physiology and noise heteroscedasticity due to motion artifacts. The objective of this work is to present an overview of these noise properties in the context of the linear model as it applies to fNIRS data. This work is aimed at explaining these mathematical issues to the general fNIRS experimental researcher but is not intended to be a complete mathematical treatment of these concepts.

  5. The Canopy Graph and Level Statistics for Random Operators on Trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aizenman, Michael; Warzel, Simone

    2006-01-01

    For operators with homogeneous disorder, it is generally expected that there is a relation between the spectral characteristics of a random operator in the infinite setup and the distribution of the energy gaps in its finite volume versions, in corresponding energy ranges. Whereas pure point spectrum of the infinite operator goes along with Poisson level statistics, it is expected that purely absolutely continuous spectrum would be associated with gap distributions resembling the corresponding random matrix ensemble. We prove that on regular rooted trees, which exhibit both spectral types, the eigenstate point process has always Poissonian limit. However, we also find that this does not contradict the picture described above if that is carefully interpreted, as the relevant limit of finite trees is not the infinite homogenous tree graph but rather a single-ended 'canopy graph.' For this tree graph, the random Schroedinger operator is proven here to have only pure-point spectrum at any strength of the disorder. For more general single-ended trees it is shown that the spectrum is always singular - pure point possibly with singular continuous component which is proven to occur in some cases

  6. Estimation of background noise level on seismic station using statistical analysis for improved analysis accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, S. M.; Hahm, I.

    2015-12-01

    We evaluated the background noise level of seismic stations in order to collect the observation data of high quality and produce accurate seismic information. Determining of the background noise level was used PSD (Power Spectral Density) method by McNamara and Buland (2004) in this study. This method that used long-term data is influenced by not only innate electronic noise of sensor and a pulse wave resulting from stabilizing but also missing data and controlled by the specified frequency which is affected by the irregular signals without site characteristics. It is hard and inefficient to implement process that filters out the abnormal signal within the automated system. To solve these problems, we devised a method for extracting the data which normally distributed with 90 to 99% confidence intervals at each period. The availability of the method was verified using 62-seismic stations with broadband and short-period sensors operated by the KMA (Korea Meteorological Administration). Evaluation standards were NHNM (New High Noise Model) and NLNM (New Low Noise Model) published by the USGS (United States Geological Survey). It was designed based on the western United States. However, Korean Peninsula surrounded by the ocean on three sides has a complicated geological structure and a high population density. So, we re-designed an appropriate model in Korean peninsula by statistically combined result. The important feature is that secondary-microseism peak appeared at a higher frequency band. Acknowledgements: This research was carried out as a part of "Research for the Meteorological and Earthquake Observation Technology and Its Application" supported by the 2015 National Institute of Meteorological Research (NIMR) in the Korea Meteorological Administration.

  7. Production and properties of solidified high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodersen, K.

    1980-08-01

    Available information on production and properties of solidified high-level waste are presented. The review includes literature up to the end of 1979. The feasibility of production of various types of solidified high-level wast is investigated. The main emphasis is on borosilicate glass but other options are also mentioned. The expected long-term behaviour of the materials are discussed on the basis of available results from laboratory experiments. Examples of the use of the information in safety analysis of disposal in salt formations are given. The work has been made on behalf of the Danish utilities investigation of the possibilities of disposal of high-level waste in salt domes in Jutland. (author)

  8. Statistical properties and pre-hit dynamics of price limit hits in the Chinese stock markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yu-Lei; Xie, Wen-Jie; Gu, Gao-Feng; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Chen, Wei; Xiong, Xiong; Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Wei-Xing

    2015-01-01

    Price limit trading rules are adopted in some stock markets (especially emerging markets) trying to cool off traders' short-term trading mania on individual stocks and increase market efficiency. Under such a microstructure, stocks may hit their up-limits and down-limits from time to time. However, the behaviors of price limit hits are not well studied partially due to the fact that main stock markets such as the US markets and most European markets do not set price limits. Here, we perform detailed analyses of the high-frequency data of all A-share common stocks traded on the Shanghai Stock Exchange and the Shenzhen Stock Exchange from 2000 to 2011 to investigate the statistical properties of price limit hits and the dynamical evolution of several important financial variables before stock price hits its limits. We compare the properties of up-limit hits and down-limit hits. We also divide the whole period into three bullish periods and three bearish periods to unveil possible differences during bullish and bearish market states. To uncover the impacts of stock capitalization on price limit hits, we partition all stocks into six portfolios according to their capitalizations on different trading days. We find that the price limit trading rule has a cooling-off effect (object to the magnet effect), indicating that the rule takes effect in the Chinese stock markets. We find that price continuation is much more likely to occur than price reversal on the next trading day after a limit-hitting day, especially for down-limit hits, which has potential practical values for market practitioners.

  9. Statistical Properties and Pre-Hit Dynamics of Price Limit Hits in the Chinese Stock Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yu-Lei; Xie, Wen-Jie; Gu, Gao-Feng; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Chen, Wei; Xiong, Xiong; Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Wei-Xing

    2015-01-01

    Price limit trading rules are adopted in some stock markets (especially emerging markets) trying to cool off traders’ short-term trading mania on individual stocks and increase market efficiency. Under such a microstructure, stocks may hit their up-limits and down-limits from time to time. However, the behaviors of price limit hits are not well studied partially due to the fact that main stock markets such as the US markets and most European markets do not set price limits. Here, we perform detailed analyses of the high-frequency data of all A-share common stocks traded on the Shanghai Stock Exchange and the Shenzhen Stock Exchange from 2000 to 2011 to investigate the statistical properties of price limit hits and the dynamical evolution of several important financial variables before stock price hits its limits. We compare the properties of up-limit hits and down-limit hits. We also divide the whole period into three bullish periods and three bearish periods to unveil possible differences during bullish and bearish market states. To uncover the impacts of stock capitalization on price limit hits, we partition all stocks into six portfolios according to their capitalizations on different trading days. We find that the price limit trading rule has a cooling-off effect (object to the magnet effect), indicating that the rule takes effect in the Chinese stock markets. We find that price continuation is much more likely to occur than price reversal on the next trading day after a limit-hitting day, especially for down-limit hits, which has potential practical values for market practitioners. PMID:25874716

  10. Statistical properties of Faraday rotation measure in external galaxies - I. Intervening disc galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Aritra; Mao, S. A.; Fletcher, Andrew; Kanekar, Nissim; Shukurov, Anvar; Schnitzeler, Dominic; Vacca, Valentina; Junklewitz, Henrik

    2018-06-01

    Deriving the Faraday rotation measure (RM) of quasar absorption line systems, which are tracers of high-redshift galaxies intervening background quasars, is a powerful tool for probing magnetic fields in distant galaxies. Statistically comparing the RM distributions of two quasar samples, with and without absorption line systems, allows one to infer magnetic field properties of the intervening galaxy population. Here, we have derived the analytical form of the probability distribution function (PDF) of RM produced by a single galaxy with an axisymmetric large-scale magnetic field. We then further determine the PDF of RM for one random sight line traversing each galaxy in a population with a large-scale magnetic field prescription. We find that the resulting PDF of RM is dominated by a Lorentzian with a width that is directly related to the mean axisymmetric large-scale field strength of the galaxy population if the dispersion of B0 within the population is smaller than . Provided that RMs produced by the intervening galaxies have been successfully isolated from other RM contributions along the line of sight, our simple model suggests that in galaxies probed by quasar absorption line systems can be measured within ≈50 per cent accuracy without additional constraints on the magneto-ionic medium properties of the galaxies. Finally, we discuss quasar sample selection criteria that are crucial to reliably interpret observations, and argue that within the limitations of the current data base of absorption line systems, high-metallicity damped Lyman-α absorbers are best suited to study galactic dynamo action in distant disc galaxies.

  11. Statistical properties of Faraday rotation measure in external galaxies - I: intervening disc galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Aritra; Mao, S. A.; Fletcher, Andrew; Kanekar, Nissim; Shukurov, Anvar; Schnitzeler, Dominic; Vacca, Valentina; Junklewitz, Henrik

    2018-03-01

    Deriving the Faraday rotation measure (RM) of quasar absorption line systems, which are tracers of high-redshift galaxies intervening background quasars, is a powerful tool for probing magnetic fields in distant galaxies. Statistically comparing the RM distributions of two quasar samples, with and without absorption line systems, allows one to infer magnetic field properties of the intervening galaxy population. Here, we have derived the analytical form of the probability distribution function (PDF) of RM produced by a single galaxy with an axisymmetric large-scale magnetic field. We then further determine the PDF of RM for one random sight line traversing each galaxy in a population with a large-scale magnetic field prescription. We find that the resulting PDF of RM is dominated by a Lorentzian with a width that is directly related to the mean axisymmetric large-scale field strength ⟨B0⟩ of the galaxy population if the dispersion of B0 within the population is smaller than ⟨B0⟩. Provided that RMs produced by the intervening galaxies have been successfully isolated from other RM contributions along the line of sight, our simple model suggests that ⟨B0⟩ in galaxies probed by quasar absorption line systems can be measured within ≈50 per cent accuracy without additional constraints on the magneto-ionic medium properties of the galaxies. Finally, we discuss quasar sample selection criteria that are crucial to reliably interpret observations, and argue that within the limitations of the current database of absorption line systems, high-metallicity damped Lyman-α absorbers are best suited to study galactic dynamo action in distant disc galaxies.

  12. Frames as visual links between paintings and the museum environment: An analysis of statistical image properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph eRedies

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Frames provide a visual link between artworks and their surround. We asked how image properties change as an observer zooms out from viewing a painting alone, to viewing the painting with its frame and, finally, the framed painting in its museum environment (museum scene. To address this question, we determined three higher-order image properties that are based on histograms of oriented luminance gradients. First, complexity was measured as the sum of the strengths of all gradients in the image. Second, we determined the self-similarity of histograms of the orientated gradients at different levels of spatial analysis. Third, we analyzed how much gradient strength varied across orientations (anisotropy. Results were obtained for three art museums that exhibited paintings from three major periods of Western art. In all three museums, the mean complexity of the frames was higher than that of the paintings or the museum scenes. Frames thus provide a barrier of complexity between the paintings and their exterior. By contrast, self-similarity and anisotropy values of images of framed paintings were intermediate between the images of the paintings and the museum scenes, i.e., the frames provided a transition between the paintings and their surround. We also observed differences between the three museums that may reflect modified frame usage in different art periods. For example, frames in the museum for 20th century art tended to be smaller and less complex than in the two other two museums that exhibit paintings from earlier art periods (13th-18th century and 19th century, respectively. Finally, we found that the three properties did not depend on the type of reproduction of the paintings (photographs in museums, scans from books or images from the Google Art Project. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to investigate the relation between frames and paintings by measuring physically defined, higher-order image properties.

  13. Statistical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Guénault, Tony

    2007-01-01

    In this revised and enlarged second edition of an established text Tony Guénault provides a clear and refreshingly readable introduction to statistical physics, an essential component of any first degree in physics. The treatment itself is self-contained and concentrates on an understanding of the physical ideas, without requiring a high level of mathematical sophistication. A straightforward quantum approach to statistical averaging is adopted from the outset (easier, the author believes, than the classical approach). The initial part of the book is geared towards explaining the equilibrium properties of a simple isolated assembly of particles. Thus, several important topics, for example an ideal spin-½ solid, can be discussed at an early stage. The treatment of gases gives full coverage to Maxwell-Boltzmann, Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein statistics. Towards the end of the book the student is introduced to a wider viewpoint and new chapters are included on chemical thermodynamics, interactions in, for exam...

  14. Effects of baryons on the statistical properties of large scale structure of the Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillet, T.

    2010-01-01

    Observations of weak gravitational lensing will provide strong constraints on the cosmic expansion history and the growth rate of large scale structure, yielding clues to the properties and nature of dark energy. Their interpretation is impacted by baryonic physics, which are expected to modify the total matter distribution at small scales. My work has focused on determining and modeling the impact of baryons on the statistics of the large scale matter distribution in the Universe. Using numerical simulations, I have extracted the effect of baryons on the power spectrum, variance and skewness of the total density field as predicted by these simulations. I have shown that a model based on the halo model construction, featuring a concentrated central component to account for cool condensed baryons, is able to reproduce accurately, and down to very small scales, the measured amplifications of both the variance and skewness of the density field. Because of well-known issues with baryons in current cosmological simulations, I have extended the central component model to rely on as many observation-based ingredients as possible. As an application, I have studied the effect of baryons on the predictions of the upcoming Euclid weak lensing survey. During the course of this work, I have also worked at developing and extending the RAMSES code, in particular by developing a parallel self-gravity solver, which offers significant performance gains, in particular for the simulation of some astrophysical setups such as isolated galaxy or cluster simulations. (author) [fr

  15. A mixed-effects model approach for the statistical analysis of vocal fold viscoelastic shear properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chet C; Chan, Roger W; Sun, Han; Zhan, Xiaowei

    2017-11-01

    A mixed-effects model approach was introduced in this study for the statistical analysis of rheological data of vocal fold tissues, in order to account for the data correlation caused by multiple measurements of each tissue sample across the test frequency range. Such data correlation had often been overlooked in previous studies in the past decades. The viscoelastic shear properties of the vocal fold lamina propria of two commonly used laryngeal research animal species (i.e. rabbit, porcine) were measured by a linear, controlled-strain simple-shear rheometer. Along with published canine and human rheological data, the vocal fold viscoelastic shear moduli of these animal species were compared to those of human over a frequency range of 1-250Hz using the mixed-effects models. Our results indicated that tissues of the rabbit, canine and porcine vocal fold lamina propria were significantly stiffer and more viscous than those of human. Mixed-effects models were shown to be able to more accurately analyze rheological data generated from repeated measurements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Statistical properties of effective drought index (EDI) for Seoul, Busan, Daegu, Mokpo in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Hyeok; Kim, Ki-Beom; Chang, Heon-Young

    2014-08-01

    Time series of drought indices has been considered mostly in view of temporal and spatial distributions of a drought index so far. Here we investigate the statistical properties of a daily Effective Drought Index (EDI) itself for Seoul, Busan, Daegu, Mokpo for the period of 100 years from 1913 to 2012. We have found that both in dry and wet seasons the distribution of EDI as a function of EDI follows the Gaussian function. In dry season the shape of the Gaussian function is characteristically broader than that in wet seasons. The total number of drought days during the period we have analyzed is related both to the mean value and more importantly to the standard deviation. We have also found that according to the distribution of the number of occasions where the EDI values of several consecutive days are all less than a threshold, the distribution follows the exponential distribution. The slope of the best fit becomes steeper not only as the critical EDI value becomes more negative but also as the number of consecutive days increases. The slope of the exponential distribution becomes steeper as the number of the city in which EDI is simultaneously less than a critical EDI in a row increases. Finally, we conclude by pointing out implications of our findings.

  17. The Statistical Properties of Galaxies Containing Ultraluminous X-Ray Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptak, A.; Colbert, E.

    2004-05-01

    We present a statistical analysis of the properties of galaxies containing ultraluminous X-ray objects (ULXs). Our primary goal is to establish the fraction of galaxies containing a ULX as a function of ULX luminosity. Our sample is based on ROSAT HRI observations of galaxies. We find that ~12% of galaxies contain at least one ULX with LX>1039 ergs s-1, and ~1% of galaxies contain at least one ULX with LX>1040 ergs s-1. These ULX frequencies are lower limits, since ROSAT HRI observations would miss absorbed ULXs (i.e., with NH>~1021cm-2) and those within ~10" of the nucleus (due to the positional error circle of the ROSAT HRI). The Hubble type distribution of galaxies with a ULX differs significantly from the distribution of types for nearby Third Reference Catalog galaxies but does not differ significantly from the galaxy type distribution of galaxies observed by the HRI in general. We find no increase in the mean far-infrared (FIR) luminosity or FIR/K-band luminosity ratio for galaxies with a ULX relative to galaxies observed by the HRI in general; however, this result is also most likely biased by the soft bandpass of the HRI and the relatively low number of high star formation rate galaxies observed by the HRI with enough sensitivity to detect a ULX.

  18. INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT OF EUROPEAN STATISTICS AND OF THEIR QUALITY - CURRENT CONCERNS AT EUROPEAN LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela ŞTEFĂNESCU

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The issues referring to official statistics quality and reliability became the main topics of debates as far as statistical governance in Europe is concerned. The Council welcomed the Commission Communication to the European Parliament and to the Council « Towards robust quality management for European Statistics » (COM 211, appreciating that the approach and the objective of the strategy would confer the European Statistical System (ESS the quality management framework for the coordination of consolidated economic policies. The Council pointed out that the European Statistical System management was improved during recent years, that progress was noticed in relation with high quality statistics production and dissemination within the European Union, but has also noticed that, in the context of recent financial crisis, certain weaknesses were identified, particularly related to quality management general framework.„Greece Case” proved that progresses were not enough for guaranteeing the complete independence of national statistical institutes and entailed the need for further consolidating ESS governance. Several undertakings are now in the preparatory stage, in accordance with the Commission Communication; these actions are welcomed, but the question arise: are these sufficient for definitively solving the problem?The paper aims to go ahead in the attempt of identifying a different way, innovative (courageous! on the long run, towards an advanced institutional structure of ESS, by setting up the European System of Statistical Institutes, similar to the European System of Central Banks, that would require a change in the Treaty.

  19. Statistical improvement in detection level of gravitational microlensing events from their light curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Ichsan; Malasan, Hakim L.; Kunjaya, Chatief; Timur Jaelani, Anton; Puannandra Putri, Gerhana; Djamal, Mitra

    2018-04-01

    In astronomy, the brightness of a source is typically expressed in terms of magnitude. Conventionally, the magnitude is defined by the logarithm of received flux. This relationship is known as the Pogson formula. For received flux with a small signal to noise ratio (S/N), however, the formula gives a large magnitude error. We investigate whether the use of Inverse Hyperbolic Sine function (hereafter referred to as the Asinh magnitude) in the modified formulae could allow for an alternative calculation of magnitudes for small S/N flux, and whether the new approach is better for representing the brightness of that region. We study the possibility of increasing the detection level of gravitational microlensing using 40 selected microlensing light curves from the 2013 and 2014 seasons and by using the Asinh magnitude. Photometric data of the selected events are obtained from the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE). We found that utilization of the Asinh magnitude makes the events brighter compared to using the logarithmic magnitude, with an average of about 3.42 × 10‑2 magnitude and an average in the difference of error between the logarithmic and the Asinh magnitude of about 2.21 × 10‑2 magnitude. The microlensing events OB140847 and OB140885 are found to have the largest difference values among the selected events. Using a Gaussian fit to find the peak for OB140847 and OB140885, we conclude statistically that the Asinh magnitude gives better mean squared values of the regression and narrower residual histograms than the Pogson magnitude. Based on these results, we also attempt to propose a limit in magnitude value for which use of the Asinh magnitude is optimal with small S/N data.

  20. Statistical Analysis of the Figure of Merit of a Two-Level Thermoelectric System: A Random Matrix Approach

    KAUST Repository

    Abbout, Adel

    2016-08-05

    Using the tools of random matrix theory we develop a statistical analysis of the transport properties of thermoelectric low-dimensional systems made of two electron reservoirs set at different temperatures and chemical potentials, and connected through a low-density-of-states two-level quantum dot that acts as a conducting chaotic cavity. Our exact treatment of the chaotic behavior in such devices lies on the scattering matrix formalism and yields analytical expressions for the joint probability distribution functions of the Seebeck coefficient and the transmission profile, as well as the marginal distributions, at arbitrary Fermi energy. The scattering matrices belong to circular ensembles which we sample to numerically compute the transmission function, the Seebeck coefficient, and their relationship. The exact transport coefficients probability distributions are found to be highly non-Gaussian for small numbers of conduction modes, and the analytical and numerical results are in excellent agreement. The system performance is also studied, and we find that the optimum performance is obtained for half-transparent quantum dots; further, this optimum may be enhanced for systems with few conduction modes.

  1. Statistical Analysis of the Figure of Merit of a Two-Level Thermoelectric System: A Random Matrix Approach

    KAUST Repository

    Abbout, Adel; Ouerdane, Henni; Goupil, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Using the tools of random matrix theory we develop a statistical analysis of the transport properties of thermoelectric low-dimensional systems made of two electron reservoirs set at different temperatures and chemical potentials, and connected through a low-density-of-states two-level quantum dot that acts as a conducting chaotic cavity. Our exact treatment of the chaotic behavior in such devices lies on the scattering matrix formalism and yields analytical expressions for the joint probability distribution functions of the Seebeck coefficient and the transmission profile, as well as the marginal distributions, at arbitrary Fermi energy. The scattering matrices belong to circular ensembles which we sample to numerically compute the transmission function, the Seebeck coefficient, and their relationship. The exact transport coefficients probability distributions are found to be highly non-Gaussian for small numbers of conduction modes, and the analytical and numerical results are in excellent agreement. The system performance is also studied, and we find that the optimum performance is obtained for half-transparent quantum dots; further, this optimum may be enhanced for systems with few conduction modes.

  2. Properties of the low-lying levels of 122Sb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunsteren, W.F. van; Rabenstein, D.

    1977-01-01

    Nanosecond lifetimes of low-lying levels in the doubly odd nucleus 122 Sb have been measured. On the basis of these results and of already published experimental material, spins and parities for most of the low-lying states are proposed. A simple theoretical description of this nucleus is presented. The model used is that of a proton coupled to a number projected neutron quasiparticle wave function, assuming a Z=N=50 core. The spectrum and transition rates were calculated in a shell model space consisting of eight subshells and using a renormalized Schiffer interaction. The shell model parameters were derived from adjadent nuclei. Good agreement with the experimental level scheme is found. Also the gamma decay properties can be accounted for rather well. Spectroscopic factors for the one-neutron transfer reactions leading to 122 Sb are predicted. Their measurement with high resolution techniques would be a helpful test for the interpretations given. (orig.) [de

  3. Cluster survey of the high-altitude cusp properties: a three-year statistical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Lavraud

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The global characteristics of the high-altitude cusp and its surrounding regions are investigated using a three-year statistical survey based on data obtained by the Cluster spacecraft. The analysis involves an elaborate orbit-sampling methodology that uses a model field and takes into account the actual solar wind conditions and level of geomagnetic activity. The spatial distribution of the magnetic field and various plasma parameters in the vicinity of the low magnetic field exterior cusp are determined and it is found that: 1 The magnetic field distribution shows the presence of an intermediate region between the magnetosheath and the magnetosphere: the exterior cusp, 2 This region is characterized by the presence of dense plasma of magnetosheath origin; a comparison with the Tsyganenko (1996 magnetic field model shows that it is diamagnetic in nature, 3 The spatial distributions show that three distinct boundaries with the lobes, the dayside plasma sheet and the magnetosheath surround the exterior cusp, 4 The external boundary with the magnetosheath has a sharp bulk velocity gradient, as well as a density decrease and temperature increase as one goes from the magnetosheath to the exterior cusp, 5 While the two inner boundaries form a funnel, the external boundary shows no clear indentation, 6 The plasma and magnetic pressure distributions suggest that the exterior cusp is in equilibrium with its surroundings in a statistical sense, and 7 A preliminary analysis of the bulk flow distributions suggests that the exterior cusp is stagnant under northward IMF conditions but convective under southward IMF conditions.

  4. Statistical properties of proportional residual energy intake as a new measure of energetic efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Pouya

    2017-08-01

    Traditional ratio measures of efficiency, including feed conversion ratio (FCR), gross milk efficiency (GME), gross energy efficiency (GEE) and net energy efficiency (NEE) may have some statistical problems including high correlations with milk yield. Residual energy intake (REI) or residual feed intake (RFI) is another criterion, proposed to overcome the problems attributed to the traditional ratio criteria, but it does not account for production or intake levels. For example, the same REI value could be considerable for low producing and negligible for high producing cows. The aim of this study was to propose a new measure of efficiency to overcome the problems attributed to the previous criteria. A total of 1478 monthly records of 268 lactating Holstein cows were used for this study. In addition to FCR, GME, GEE, NEE and REI, a new criterion called proportional residual energy intake (PREI) was calculated as REI to net energy intake ratio and defined as proportion of net energy intake lost as REI. The PREI had an average of -0·02 and range of -0·36 to 0·27, meaning that the least efficient cow lost 0·27 of her net energy intake as REI, while the most efficient animal saved 0·36 of her net energy intake as less REI. Traditional ratio criteria (FCR, GME, GEE and NEE) had high correlations with milk and fat corrected milk yields (absolute values from 0·469 to 0·816), while the REI and PREI had low correlations (0·000 to 0·069) with milk production. The results showed that the traditional ratio criteria (FCR, GME, GEE and NEE) are highly influenced by production traits, while the REI and PREI are independent of production level. Moreover, the PREI adjusts the REI magnitude for intake level. It seems that the PREI could be considered as a worthwhile measure of efficiency for future studies.

  5. P, C and T: Different Properties on the Kinematical Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvoeglazov, Valeriy V.

    2018-04-01

    We study the discrete symmetries (P,C and T) on the kinematical level within the extended Poincaré Group. On the basis of the Silagadze research, we investigate the question of the definitions of the discrete symmetry operators both on the classical level, and in the secondary-quantization scheme. We study the physical contents within several bases: light-front formulation, helicity basis, angular momentum basis, and so on, on several practical examples. We analize problems in construction of the neutral particles in the the (1/2, 0) + (0, 1/2) representation, the (1, 0) + (0, 1) and the (1/2, 1/2) representations of the Lorentz Group. As well known, the photon has the quantum numbers 1‑, so the (1, 0) + (0, 1) representation of the Lorentz group is relevant to its description. We have ambiguities in the definitions of the corresponding operators P, C; T, which lead to different physical consequences. It appears that the answers are connected with the helicity basis properties, and commutations/anticommutations of the corresponding operators, P, C, T, and C 2, P 2, (CP)2 properties. This contribution is the review paper of my previous work [2, 3].

  6. Photon statistics in an N-level (N-1)-mode system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozierowski, M.; Shumovskij, A.S.

    1987-01-01

    The characteristic and photon number distribution functions, the statistical moments of photon numbers and the correlations of modes are studied. The normally ordered variances of the photon numbers and the cross-correlation functions are calculated

  7. The Use of Social Media for Communication In Official Statistics at European Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionela-Roxana GLĂVAN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Social media tools are wide spread in web communication and are gaining popularity in the communication process between public institutions and citizens. This study conducts an analysis on how social media is used by Official Statistical Institutes to interact with citizens and disseminate information. A linear regression technique is performed to examine which social media platforms (Twitter or Facebook is a more effective tool in the communication process in the official statistics area. Our study suggests that Twitter is a more powerful tool than Facebook in enhancing the relationship between official statistics and citizens, complying with several other studies. Next, we performed an analysis on Twitter network characteristics discussing “official statistics” using NodeXL that revealed the unexploited potential of this network by official statistical agencies.

  8. Statistics of optical and geometrical properties of cirrus cloud over tibetan plateau measured by lidar and radiosonde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Guangyao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cirrus clouds affect the energy budget and hydrological cycle of the earth’s atmosphere. The Tibetan Plateau (TP plays a significant role in the global and regional climate. Optical and geometrical properties of cirrus clouds in the TP were measured in July-August 2014 by lidar and radiosonde. The statistics and temperature dependences of the corresponding properties are analyzed. The cirrus cloud formations are discussed with respect to temperature deviation and dynamic processes.

  9. Random Matrix Theory of the Energy-Level Statistics of Disordered Systems at the Anderson Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Canali, C. M.

    1995-01-01

    We consider a family of random matrix ensembles (RME) invariant under similarity transformations and described by the probability density $P({\\bf H})= \\exp[-{\\rm Tr}V({\\bf H})]$. Dyson's mean field theory (MFT) of the corresponding plasma model of eigenvalues is generalized to the case of weak confining potential, $V(\\epsilon)\\sim {A\\over 2}\\ln ^2(\\epsilon)$. The eigenvalue statistics derived from MFT are shown to deviate substantially from the classical Wigner-Dyson statistics when $A

  10. The Use of Social Media for Communication In Official Statistics at European Level

    OpenAIRE

    Ionela-Roxana GLĂVAN; Andreea MIRICĂ; Bogdan Narcis FÎRȚESCU

    2016-01-01

    Social media tools are wide spread in web communication and are gaining popularity in the communication process between public institutions and citizens. This study conducts an analysis on how social media is used by Official Statistical Institutes to interact with citizens and disseminate information. A linear regression technique is performed to examine which social media platforms (Twitter or Facebook) is a more effective tool in the communication process in the official statistics area. O...

  11. On modeling of statistical properties of classical 3D spin glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gevorkyan, A.S.; Abajyan, H.G.; Ayryan, E.A.

    2011-01-01

    We study statistical properties of 3D classical spin glass layer of certain width and infinite length. The 3D spin glass is represented as an ensemble of disordered 1D spatial spin chains (SSC) where interactions are random between spin chains (nonideal ensemble of 1D SSCs). It is proved that in the limit of Birkhoff's ergodic hypothesis performance, 3D spin glasses can be generated by Hamiltonian of disordered 1D SSC with random environment. Disordered 1D SSC is defined on a regular lattice where one randomly oriented spin is put on each node of lattice. Also, it is supposed that each spin randomly interacts with six nearest-neighboring spins (two spins on lattice and four in the environment). The recurrent transcendental equations are obtained on the nodes of spin-chain lattice. These equations, combined with the Silvester conditions, allow step-by-step construction of spin chain in the ground state of energy where all spins are in the minimal energy of a classical Hamiltonian. On the basis of these equations an original high-performance parallel algorithm is developed for 3D spin glasses simulation. Distributions of different parameters of unperturbed spin glass are calculated. In particular, it is analytically proved and numerical calculations show that the distribution of spin-spin interaction constant in Heisenberg nearest-neighboring Hamiltonian model, as opposed to widely used Gauss-Edwards-Anderson distribution, satisfies the Levy alpha-stable distribution law which does not have variance. A new formula is proposed for construction of partition function in the form of a one-dimensional integral on the energy distribution of 1D SSCs

  12. Fourier power spectrum characteristics of face photographs: attractiveness perception depends on low-level image properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Claudia; Hayn-Leichsenring, Gregor U; Langner, Oliver; Wiese, Holger; Redies, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether low-level processed image properties that are shared by natural scenes and artworks - but not veridical face photographs - affect the perception of facial attractiveness and age. Specifically, we considered the slope of the radially averaged Fourier power spectrum in a log-log plot. This slope is a measure of the distribution of special frequency power in an image. Images of natural scenes and artworks possess - compared to face images - a relatively shallow slope (i.e., increased high spatial frequency power). Since aesthetic perception might be based on the efficient processing of images with natural scene statistics, we assumed that the perception of facial attractiveness might also be affected by these properties. We calculated Fourier slope and other beauty-associated measurements in face images and correlated them with ratings of attractiveness and age of the depicted persons (Study 1). We found that Fourier slope - in contrast to the other tested image properties - did not predict attractiveness ratings when we controlled for age. In Study 2A, we overlaid face images with random-phase patterns with different statistics. Patterns with a slope similar to those in natural scenes and artworks resulted in lower attractiveness and higher age ratings. In Studies 2B and 2C, we directly manipulated the Fourier slope of face images and found that images with shallower slopes were rated as more attractive. Additionally, attractiveness of unaltered faces was affected by the Fourier slope of a random-phase background (Study 3). Faces in front of backgrounds with statistics similar to natural scenes and faces were rated as more attractive. We conclude that facial attractiveness ratings are affected by specific image properties. An explanation might be the efficient coding hypothesis.

  13. Nuclear Level Densities for Modeling Nuclear Reactions: An Efficient Approach Using Statistical Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvin W. Johnson

    2005-01-01

    The general goal of the project is to develop and implement computer codes and input files to compute nuclear densities of state. Such densities are important input into calculations of statistical neutron capture, and are difficult to access experimentally. In particular, we will focus on calculating densities for nuclides in the mass range A ∼ 50-100. We use statistical spectroscopy, a moments method based upon a microscopic framework, the interacting shell model. Second year goals and milestones: Develop two or three competing interactions (based upon surface-delta, Gogny, and NN-scattering) suitable for application to nuclei up to A = 100. Begin calculations for nuclides with A = 50-70

  14. The airborne radioactivity and electrical properties of ground level air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myslek-Laurikainen, B.; Matul, M.; Mikolajewski, S.; Trzaskowska, H.; Kubicki, M.

    2001-01-01

    The data presented in this work are the result of systematic measurements of radionuclide concentrations in air and density of vertical current. The airborne 7 Be concentration changes similar to the electrical conductivity of air, collected with an ASS-500 high volume air sampler of the ground atr monitoring network supervised by the Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection. Sampling has been done since March 1991. Simultaneously, the routine complex meteorological observations were performed. In particular, the electrical properties of ground level atmospheric air were studied with measurements of electrical field intensity, positive and negative conductivity of the air,while other isotopes, anthropogenic or originating from the ground are correlated with dust and other meteorological factors like watering and wind. (author)

  15. Local and global statistical dynamical properties of chaotic Markov analytic maps and repellers: A coarse grained and spectral perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKernan, Donal; Basios, Vasileios

    2009-01-01

    The statistical properties of chaotic Markov analytic maps and equivalent repellers are investigated through matrix representations of the Frobenius-Perron operator (U). The associated basis sets are constructed using Chebyshev functions and Markov partitions which can be tailored to examine statistical dynamical properties associated with observables having support over local regions or for example, about periodic orbits. The decay properties of corresponding time correlations functions are given by a analytic expression of the spectra of U which is expected to be valid for a much larger class of systems than that studied here. An explicit and general expression is also derived for the correction factor to the dynamical zeta functions occurring when analytic function spaces are not invariant under U.

  16. Causality in Statistical Power: Isomorphic Properties of Measurement, Research Design, Effect Size, and Sample Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Eric Heidel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Statistical power is the ability to detect a significant effect, given that the effect actually exists in a population. Like most statistical concepts, statistical power tends to induce cognitive dissonance in hepatology researchers. However, planning for statistical power by an a priori sample size calculation is of paramount importance when designing a research study. There are five specific empirical components that make up an a priori sample size calculation: the scale of measurement of the outcome, the research design, the magnitude of the effect size, the variance of the effect size, and the sample size. A framework grounded in the phenomenon of isomorphism, or interdependencies amongst different constructs with similar forms, will be presented to understand the isomorphic effects of decisions made on each of the five aforementioned components of statistical power.

  17. Low-level contrast statistics of natural images can modulate the frequency of event-related potentials (ERP in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Ghodrati

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Humans are fast and accurate in categorizing complex natural images. It is, however, unclear what features of visual information are exploited by brain to perceive the images with such speed and accuracy. It has been shown that low-level contrast statistics of natural scenes can explain the variance of amplitude of event-related potentials (ERP in response to rapidly presented images. In this study, we investigated the effect of these statistics on frequency content of ERPs. We recorded ERPs from human subjects, while they viewed natural images each presented for 70 ms. Our results showed that Weibull contrast statistics, as a biologically plausible model, explained the variance of ERPs the best, compared to other image statistics that we assessed. Our time-frequency analysis revealed a significant correlation between these statistics and ERPs’ power within theta frequency band (~3-7 Hz. This is interesting, as theta band is believed to be involved in context updating and semantic encoding. This correlation became significant at ~110 ms after stimulus onset, and peaked at 138 ms. Our results show that not only the amplitude but also the frequency of neural responses can be modulated with low-level contrast statistics of natural images and highlights their potential role in scene perception.

  18. Statistical classification of log response as an indicator of facies variation during changes in sea level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inwood, Jennifer; Lofi, Johanna; Davies, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a novel application of a statistical approach is utilized for analysis of downhole logging data from Miocene-aged siliciclastic shelf sediments on the New Jersey Margin (eastern USA). A multivariate iterative nonhierarchical cluster analysis (INCA) of spectral gamma-ray logs from I...

  19. Symbol recognition via statistical integration of pixel-level constraint histograms: a new descriptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Su

    2005-02-01

    A new descriptor for symbol recognition is proposed. 1) A histogram is constructed for every pixel to figure out the distribution of the constraints among the other pixels. 2) All the histograms are statistically integrated to form a feature vector with fixed dimension. The robustness and invariance were experimentally confirmed.

  20. A statistical strategy to assess cleaning level of surfaces using fluorescence spectroscopy and Wilks’ ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoica, Iuliana-Madalina; Babamoradi, Hamid; van den Berg, Frans

    2017-01-01

    •A statistical strategy combining fluorescence spectroscopy, multivariate analysis and Wilks’ ratio is proposed.•The method was tested both off-line and on-line having riboflavin as a (controlled) contaminant.•Wilks’ ratio signals unusual recordings based on shifts in variance and covariance...... structure described in in-control data....

  1. Replicate This! Creating Individual-Level Data from Summary Statistics Using R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Brendan J.

    2013-01-01

    Incorporating realistic data and research examples into quantitative (e.g., statistics and research methods) courses has been widely recommended for enhancing student engagement and comprehension. One way to achieve these ends is to use a data generator to emulate the data in published research articles. "MorseGen" is a free data generator that…

  2. Statistical methods for determination of background levels for naturally occuring radionuclides in soil at a RCRA facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guha, S.; Taylor, J.H.

    1996-01-01

    It is critical that summary statistics on background data, or background levels, be computed based on standardized and defensible statistical methods because background levels are frequently used in subsequent analyses and comparisons performed by separate analysts over time. The final background for naturally occurring radionuclide concentrations in soil at a RCRA facility, and the associated statistical methods used to estimate these concentrations, are presented. The primary objective is to describe, via a case study, the statistical methods used to estimate 95% upper tolerance limits (UTL) on radionuclide background soil data sets. A 95% UTL on background samples can be used as a screening level concentration in the absence of definitive soil cleanup criteria for naturally occurring radionuclides. The statistical methods are based exclusively on EPA guidance. This paper includes an introduction, a discussion of the analytical results for the radionuclides and a detailed description of the statistical analyses leading to the determination of 95% UTLs. Soil concentrations reported are based on validated data. Data sets are categorized as surficial soil; samples collected at depths from zero to one-half foot; and deep soil, samples collected from 3 to 5 feet. These data sets were tested for statistical outliers and underlying distributions were determined by using the chi-squared test for goodness-of-fit. UTLs for the data sets were then computed based on the percentage of non-detects and the appropriate best-fit distribution (lognormal, normal, or non-parametric). For data sets containing greater than approximately 50% nondetects, nonparametric UTLs were computed

  3. Statistical properties of country risk ratings under oil price volatility: Evidence from selected oil-exporting countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chang; Sun, Xiaolei; Chen, Jianming; Li, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the application of panel models for identification and analysis of influence of oil price volatility on statistical properties of country risk ratings which stem from uncertainty of macroeconomic fluctuations. Firstly, two statistical properties of country risk ratings, volatility clustering and asymmetrical revision were identified in a theoretical framework based on Cruces (2006). Secondly, considering the oil price volatility, numerical experiments were conducted based on extended models to test and verify specific properties of country risk ratings in selected oil-exporting countries. Empirical results suggest that properties of country risk remain comparatively steady despite oil price volatility. It is also found that the oil price volatility can obviously exaggerate the country risk volatility, as it happened during 2007–2009. Country clustering based on the properties of country risk ratings shows that the selected countries maintain a significant clustering tendency. These features are of great importance for estimating risk exposure of international trade and investments in oil export during extreme situations. - Highlights: •Relationship between oil price volatility and country risk is the focus. •An extended model based on Cruces (2006) is proposed. •Volatility clustering and asymmetrical revision of country risk ratings is explored. •Oil price volatility can obviously exaggerate properties of country risk volatility.

  4. Lagged Associations of Metropolitan Statistical Area- and State-Level Income Inequality with Cognitive Function: The Health and Retirement Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daniel; Griffin, Beth Ann; Kabeto, Mohammed; Escarce, José; Langa, Kenneth M; Shih, Regina A

    2016-01-01

    Much variation in individual-level cognitive function in late life remains unexplained, with little exploration of area-level/contextual factors to date. Income inequality is a contextual factor that may plausibly influence cognitive function. In a nationally-representative cohort of older Americans from the Health and Retirement Study, we examined state- and metropolitan statistical area (MSA)-level income inequality as predictors of individual-level cognitive function measured by the 27-point Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS-m) scale. We modeled latency periods of 8-20 years, and controlled for state-/metropolitan statistical area (MSA)-level and individual-level factors. Higher MSA-level income inequality predicted lower cognitive function 16-18 years later. Using a 16-year lag, living in a MSA in the highest income inequality quartile predicted a 0.9-point lower TICS-m score (β = -0.86; 95% CI = -1.41, -0.31), roughly equivalent to the magnitude associated with five years of aging. We observed no associations for state-level income inequality. The findings were robust to sensitivity analyses using propensity score methods. Among older Americans, MSA-level income inequality appears to influence cognitive function nearly two decades later. Policies reducing income inequality levels within cities may help address the growing burden of declining cognitive function among older populations within the United States.

  5. Assessing the Lexico-Grammatical Characteristics of a Corpus of College-Level Statistics Textbooks: Implications for Instruction and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagler, Amy E.; Lesser, Lawrence M.; González, Ariel I.; Leal, Luis

    2015-01-01

    A corpus of current editions of statistics textbooks was assessed to compare aspects and levels of readability for the topics of "measures of center," "line of fit," "regression analysis," and "regression inference." Analysis with lexical software of these text selections revealed that the large corpus can…

  6. Statistical evaluation of waveform collapse reveals scale-free properties of neuronal avalanches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleena eShaukat

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Neural avalanches are a prominent form of brain activity characterized by network-wide bursts whose statistics follow a power-law distribution with a slope near 3/2. Recent work suggests that avalanches of different durations can be rescaled and thus collapsed together. This collapse mirrors work in statistical physics where it is proposed to form a signature of systems evolving in a critical state. However, no rigorous statistical test has been proposed to examine the degree to which neuronal avalanches collapse together. Here, we describe a statistical test based on functional data analysis, where raw avalanches are first smoothed with a Fourier basis, then rescaled using a time-warping function. Finally, an F ratio test combined with a bootstrap permutation is employed to determine if avalanches collapse together in a statistically reliable fashion. To illustrate this approach, we recorded avalanches from cortical cultures on multielectrode arrays as in previous work. Analyses show that avalanches of various durations can be collapsed together in a statistically robust fashion. However, a principal components analysis revealed that the offset of avalanches resulted in marked variance in the time-warping function, thus arguing for limitations to the strict fractal nature of avalanche dynamics. We compared these results with those obtained from cultures treated with an AMPA/NMDA receptor antagonist (APV/DNQX, which yield a power-law of avalanche durations with a slope greater than 3/2. When collapsed together, these avalanches showed marked misalignments both at onset and offset time-points. In sum, the proposed statistical evaluation suggests the presence of scale-free avalanche waveforms and constitutes an avenue for examining critical dynamics in neuronal systems.

  7. Statistics of A-weighted road traffic noise levels in shielded urban areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forssén, J.; Hornikx, M.C.J.

    2006-01-01

    In the context of community noise and its negative effects, the noise descriptors used are usually long-term equivalent levels and, sometimes, maximum levels. An improved description could be achieved by including the time variations of the noise. Here, the time variations of A-weighted road traffic

  8. Effects of statistical models and items difficulties on making trait-level inferences: A simulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Hauck Filho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Researchers dealing with the task of estimating locations of individuals on continuous latent variables may rely on several statistical models described in the literature. However, weighting costs and benefits of using one specific model over alternative models depends on empirical information that is not always clearly available. Therefore, the aim of this simulation study was to compare the performance of seven popular statistical models in providing adequate latent trait estimates in conditions of items difficulties targeted at the sample mean or at the tails of the latent trait distribution. Results suggested an overall tendency of models to provide more accurate estimates of true latent scores when using items targeted at the sample mean of the latent trait distribution. Rating Scale Model, Graded Response Model, and Weighted Least Squares Mean- and Variance-adjusted Confirmatory Factor Analysis yielded the most reliable latent trait estimates, even when applied to inadequate items for the sample distribution of the latent variable. These findings have important implications concerning some popular methodological practices in Psychology and related areas.

  9. Landau levels and magneto-transport property of monolayer phosphorene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X. Y.; Zhang, R.; Sun, J. P.; Zou, Y. L.; Zhang, D.; Lou, W. K.; Cheng, F.; Zhou, G. H.; Zhai, F.; Chang, Kai

    2015-01-01

    We investigate theoretically the Landau levels (LLs) and magneto-transport properties of phosphorene under a perpendicular magnetic field within the framework of the effective k·p Hamiltonian and tight-binding (TB) model. At low field regime, we find that the LLs linearly depend both on the LL index n and magnetic field B, which is similar with that of conventional semiconductor two-dimensional electron gas. The Landau splittings of conduction and valence band are different and the wavefunctions corresponding to the LLs are strongly anisotropic due to the different anisotropic effective masses. An analytical expression for the LLs in low energy regime is obtained via solving the decoupled Hamiltonian, which agrees well with the numerical calculations. At high magnetic regime, a self-similar Hofstadter butterfly (HB) spectrum is obtained by using the TB model. The HB spectrum is consistent with the LL fan calculated from the effective k·p theory in a wide regime of magnetic fields. We find the LLs of phosphorene nanoribbon depend strongly on the ribbon orientation due to the anisotropic hopping parameters. The Hall and the longitudinal conductances (resistances) clearly reveal the structure of LLs. PMID:26159856

  10. Statistical alignment: computational properties, homology testing and goodness-of-fit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hein, J; Wiuf, Carsten; Møller, Martin

    2000-01-01

    The model of insertions and deletions in biological sequences, first formulated by Thorne, Kishino, and Felsenstein in 1991 (the TKF91 model), provides a basis for performing alignment within a statistical framework. Here we investigate this model.Firstly, we show how to accelerate the statistical...... alignment algorithms several orders of magnitude. The main innovations are to confine likelihood calculations to a band close to the similarity based alignment, to get good initial guesses of the evolutionary parameters and to apply an efficient numerical optimisation algorithm for finding the maximum...... analysis.Secondly, we propose a new homology test based on this model, where homology means that an ancestor to a sequence pair can be found finitely far back in time. This test has statistical advantages relative to the traditional shuffle test for proteins.Finally, we describe a goodness-of-fit test...

  11. Statistical properties of the zeros of zeta functions - beyond the Riemann case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogomolny, E.; Leboeuf, P.

    1993-09-01

    The statistical distribution of the zeros of Dirichlet L-functions is investigated both analytically and numerically. Using the Hardy-Littlewood conjecture about the distribution of primes it is shown that the two-point correlation function of these zeros coincides with that for eigenvalues of the Gaussian unitary ensemble of random matrices, and that the distributions of zeros of different L-functions are statistically independent. Applications of these results to Epstein's zeta functions are shortly discussed. (authors) 30 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  12. The cybernetic-statistical approach to the search for substances with pre-set properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savitskij, E.M.; Kiseleva, N.N.; Shkatova, T.M.

    1982-01-01

    Using the cybernetic methods the forecast for a new phase Agsub(x)Mosub(6)Ssub(8), the data on which have not been used when computer learning, is given. Its Tsub(c) is evaluated and optimum contents of silver and conditions of phase obtaining with Tsub(c) somewhat higher than it is mentioned in literature for the same ratio of molybdenum and sulphur in the compound are found using statistical methods. The results obtained when solving the model task of the search for new ternary superconducting phases Asub(x)Bsub(6)Ssub(8) permitted to make a conclusion on correctness of the cybernetic-statistical approach suggested [ru

  13. The statistical properties of recreational catch rate data for some fish stocks off the northeast U.S. coast

    OpenAIRE

    Terceiro, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Recreational fisheries in the waters off the northeast U.S. target a variety of pelagic and demersal fish species, and catch and effort data sampled from recreational fisheries are a critical component of the information used in resource evaluation and management. Standardized indices of stock abundance developed from recreational fishery catch rates are routinely used in stock assessments. The statistical properties of both simulated and empirical recreational fishery catch-rate data such...

  14. Survey of statistical and sampling needs for environmental monitoring of commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberhardt, L.L.; Thomas, J.M.

    1986-07-01

    This project was designed to develop guidance for implementing 10 CFR Part 61 and to determine the overall needs for sampling and statistical work in characterizing, surveying, monitoring, and closing commercial low-level waste sites. When cost-effectiveness and statistical reliability are of prime importance, then double sampling, compositing, and stratification (with optimal allocation) are identified as key issues. If the principal concern is avoiding questionable statistical practice, then the applicability of kriging (for assessing spatial pattern), methods for routine monitoring, and use of standard textbook formulae in reporting monitoring results should be reevaluated. Other important issues identified include sampling for estimating model parameters and the use of data from left-censored (less than detectable limits) distributions

  15. A statistical investigation of the rheological properties of magnesium phosphate cement

    OpenAIRE

    Yue, Y.; Bai, Y.; Hu, W.; You, C.; Qian, J.; McCague, C.; Jin, F.; Al-Tabbaa, A.; Mo, L.; Deng, M.

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium phosphate cement (MPC) is a promising material applied for rapid patch repairing in civil engineering and waste immobilisation in nuclear industry. However, the rheological properties of this new binder material which highly affects its engineering application, is to be explored. The current work aims at investigating the rheological properties of MPC along 98 with determining the optimum conditions to obtain MPC materials with desirable rheological performances. ...

  16. Common pitfalls in statistical analysis: Understanding the properties of diagnostic tests - Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Priya; Aggarwal, Rakesh

    2018-01-01

    In this article in our series on common pitfalls in statistical analysis, we look at some of the attributes of diagnostic tests (i.e., tests which are used to determine whether an individual does or does not have disease). The next article in this series will focus on further issues related to diagnostic tests.

  17. Statistical properties of multiphoton time-dependent three-boson coupled oscillators

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abdalla, M. S.; Peřina, Jan; Křepelka, Jaromír

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 6 (2006), s. 1146-1160 ISSN 0740-3224 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC P11.003 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : quantum statistic * coupled oscillators * multiphoton Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.002, year: 2006

  18. Collective doorways and statistical doorways: The decay properties of giant multipole resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, H.; Hussein, M.S.; Adhikari, S.K.

    1985-01-01

    A theoretical framework for the description of the decay of giant multipole resonances is developed. It is shown that the statistical decay of the GMR is not necessarily described by the Hauser-Feschbach theory owing to the existence of a mixing parameter. The contribution of pre-equilibrium emission to the GMR decay is also discussed. (Author) [pt

  19. Statistical properties of wall shear stress fluctuations in turbulent channel flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keirsbulck, L.; Labraga, L.; Gad-el-Hak, M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Accurate measurements of instantaneous wall shear stress are conducted. ► LDA is used to measure near-wall streamwise velocity. ► Electrochemical probe is used to measure wall shear stress. ► Frequency response and non-uniform correction methods were used to provide an accurate, well-resolved wall-statistics database. ► Reynolds number dependency of the statistical wall quantities is investigated. - Abstract: Instantaneous velocity and wall shear stress measurements are conducted in a turbulent channel flow in the Kármán number range of Re τ = 74–400. A one-dimensional LDA system is used to measure the streamwise velocity fluctuations, and an electrochemical technique is utilized to measure the instantaneous wall shear stress. For the latter, frequency response and nonuniform correction methods are used to provide an accurate, well-resolved wall statistics database. The Reynolds number dependency of the statistical wall quantities is carefully investigated. The corrected relative wall shear stress fluctuations fit well with the best DNS data available and meet the need for clarification of the small discrepancy observed in the literature between the experimental and numerical results of such quantities. Higher-order statistics of the wall shear stress, spectra, and the turbulence kinetic energy budget at the wall are also investigated. The present paper shows that the electrochemical technique is a powerful experimental method for hydrodynamic studies involving highly unsteady flows. The study brings with it important consequences, especially in the context of the current debate regarding the appropriate scaling as well as the validation of new predictive models of near-wall turbulence.

  20. On the relation between the statistical γ-decay and the level density in 162Dy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henden, L.; Bergholt, L.; Guttormsen, M.; Rekstad, J.; Tveter, T.S.

    1994-12-01

    The level density of low-spin states (0-10ℎ) in 162 Dy has been determined from the ground state up to approximately 6 MeV of excitation energy. Levels in the excitation region up to 8 MeV were populated by means of the 163 Dy( 3 He, α) reaction, and the first-generation γ-rays in the decay of these states has been isolated. The energy distribution of the first-generation γ-rays provides a new source of information about the nuclear level density over a wide energy region. A broad peak is observed in the first-generation spectra, and the authors suggest an interpretation in terms of enhanced M1 transitions between different high-j Nilsson orbitals. 30 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs

  1. CutL: an alternative to Kulldorff's scan statistics for cluster detection with a specified cut-off level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Więckowska, Barbara; Marcinkowska, Justyna

    2017-11-06

    When searching for epidemiological clusters, an important tool can be to carry out one's own research with the incidence rate from the literature as the reference level. Values exceeding this level may indicate the presence of a cluster in that location. This paper presents a method of searching for clusters that have significantly higher incidence rates than those specified by the investigator. The proposed method uses the classic binomial exact test for one proportion and an algorithm that joins areas with potential clusters while reducing the number of multiple comparisons needed. The sensitivity and specificity are preserved by this new method, while avoiding the Monte Carlo approach and still delivering results comparable to the commonly used Kulldorff's scan statistics and other similar methods of localising clusters. A strong contributing factor afforded by the statistical software that makes this possible is that it allows analysis and presentation of the results cartographically.

  2. GOE-TYPE ENERGY-LEVEL STATISTICS AND REGULAR CLASSICAL DYNAMICS FOR ROTATIONAL NUCLEI IN THE INTERACTING BOSON MODEL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PAAR, [No Value; VORKAPIC, D; DIERPERINK, AEL

    1992-01-01

    We study the fluctuation properties of 0+ levels in rotational nuclei using the framework of SU(3) dynamical symmetry of the interacting boson model. Computations of Poincare sections for SU(3) dynamical symmetry and its breaking confirm the expected relation between dynamical symmetry and classical

  3. Statistically based evaluation of toughness properties of components in older nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurich, D.; Jaenicke, B.; Veith, H.

    1996-01-01

    The KTA code 3201.2 contains provisions for the evaluation of K Ic values measured in components, but there are no instructions on how to proceed. According to the present state of the art in science and technology, fracture toughness values K Ic (T) should be evaluated statistically in order to specify the relationship to the loading values K I (T). The 'Master Curve' concept of Wallin yields too flat a curve shape at high temperatures. The statistical evaluation of K Ic values can also be carried out with the KTA-K Ic reference temperature function assuming a normal distribution of the measuring values. The KTA-K Ic reference temperature curve approximately corresponds to a fracture probability of 5 % when the KTA-K Ic reference temperature function is used for the statistical evaluation of the test results. Conclusions for the assessment of the safe distances can be drawn from the steeper shape of the KTA-K Ic reference temperature function in comparison to the 'Master Curve'. (orig.) [de

  4. Effect of carboxymethylcellulose on the rheological and filtration properties of bentonite clay samples determined by experimental planning and statistical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. A. Brito

    Full Text Available Abstract Over the past few years, considerable research has been conducted using the techniques of mixture delineation and statistical modeling. Through this methodology, applications in various technological fields have been found/optimized, especially in clay technology, leading to greater efficiency and reliability. This work studied the influence of carboxymethylcellulose on the rheological and filtration properties of bentonite dispersions to be applied in water-based drilling fluids using experimental planning and statistical analysis for clay mixtures. The dispersions were prepared according to Petrobras standard EP-1EP-00011-A, which deals with the testing of water-based drilling fluid viscosifiers for oil prospecting. The clay mixtures were transformed into sodic compounds, and carboxymethylcellulose additives of high and low molar mass were added, in order to improve their rheology and filtrate volume. Experimental planning and statistical analysis were used to verify the effect. The regression models were calculated for the relation between the compositions and the following rheological properties: apparent viscosity, plastic viscosity, and filtrate volume. The significance and validity of the models were confirmed. The results showed that the 3D response surfaces of the compositions with high molecular weight carboxymethylcellulose added were the ones that most contributed to the rise in apparent viscosity and plastic viscosity, and that those with low molecular weight were the ones that most helped in the reduction of the filtrate volume. Another important observation is that the experimental planning and statistical analysis can be used as an important auxiliary tool to optimize the rheological properties and filtrate volume of bentonite clay dispersions for use in drilling fluids when carboxymethylcellulose is added.

  5. Statistical Evaluation of the Emissions Level Of CO, CO2 and HC Generated by Passenger Cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Ursu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to make an evaluation of differences emission level of CO, CO2 and HC generated by passenger cars in different walking regimes and times, to identify measures of reducing pollution. Was analyzed a sample of Dacia Logan passenger cars (n = 515, made during the period 2004-2007, equipped with spark ignition engines, assigned to emission standards EURO 3 (E3 and EURO4 (E4. These cars were evaluated at periodical technical inspection (ITP by two times in the two walk regimes (slow idle and accelerated idle. Using the t test for paired samples (Paired Samples T Test, the results showed that there are significant differences between emissions levels (CO, CO2, HC generated by Dacia Logan passenger cars at both assessments, and regression analysis showed that these differences are not significantly influenced by turnover differences.

  6. Statistical equilibrium in cometary C2. IV. A 10 level model including singlet-triplet transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishna Swamy, K.S.; O'dell, C.R.; Rice Univ., Houston, TX)

    1987-01-01

    Resonance fluorescence theory was used to calculate the population distribution in the energy states of the C2 molecule in comets. Ten electronic states, each with 14 vibrational states, were used in the calculations. These new calculations differ from earlier work in terms of additional electronic levels and the role of singlet-triplet transitions between the b and X levels. Since transition moments are not known, calculations are made of observable flux ratios for an array of possible values. Comparison with existing observations indicates that the a-X transition is very important, and there is marginal indication that the b-X transition is present. Swan band sequence flux ratios at large heliocentric distance are needed, as are accurate Mulliken/Swan and Phillips/Ballik-Ramsay (1963) observations. 29 references

  7. Statistical properties of the coarse-grained velocity gradient tensor in turbulence: Monte-Carlo simulations of the tetrad model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pumir, Alain; Naso, Aurore

    2010-01-01

    A proper description of the velocity gradient tensor is crucial for understanding the dynamics of turbulent flows, in particular the energy transfer from large to small scales. Insight into the statistical properties of the velocity gradient tensor and into its coarse-grained generalization can be obtained with the help of a stochastic 'tetrad model' that describes the coarse-grained velocity gradient tensor based on the evolution of four points. Although the solution of the stochastic model can be formally expressed in terms of path integrals, its numerical determination in terms of the Monte-Carlo method is very challenging, as very few configurations contribute effectively to the statistical weight. Here, we discuss a strategy that allows us to solve the tetrad model numerically. The algorithm is based on the importance sampling method, which consists here of identifying and sampling preferentially the configurations that are likely to correspond to a large statistical weight, and selectively rejecting configurations with a small statistical weight. The algorithm leads to an efficient numerical determination of the solutions of the model and allows us to determine their qualitative behavior as a function of scale. We find that the moments of order n≤4 of the solutions of the model scale with the coarse-graining scale and that the scaling exponents are very close to the predictions of the Kolmogorov theory. The model qualitatively reproduces quite well the statistics concerning the local structure of the flow. However, we find that the model generally tends to predict an excess of strain compared to vorticity. Thus, our results show that while some physical aspects are not fully captured by the model, our approach leads to a very good description of several important qualitative properties of real turbulent flows.

  8. Experimental investigation of local properties and statistics of optical vortices in random wave fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, W.; Hanson, Steen Grüner; Miyamoto, Y.

    2005-01-01

    We present the first direct experimental evidence of the local properties of optical vortices in a random laser speckle field. We have observed the Berry anisotropy ellipse describing the anisotropic squeezing of phase lines close to vortex cores and quantitatively verified the Dennis angular mom...

  9. Relative level of occurrence of the principal heuristics in Nigeria property valuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iroham C.O.,

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The neglect of the other principal heuristics namely avaialability, representative and positivity in real estate behaviourial property research as against the exclusive focus on anchoring and adjustment heuristics invariably results to a lopsided research. This work studied the four principal heuristics in property behaviourial property valutaion in a bid to discovering its relative level of occurrence. The study adopted a cross-sectional questionnaire survey approach of 159 of the 270 Head Offices of Estate Surveying and Valuation firms in Lagos Metropolis, while 29 and 30 questionnaire were distributed to the Head Offices of the entire Estate Surveying and Valuation Firms in Abuja and Port-Harcourt respectively. The data gotten was analyzed with the aid of Statistical Package for the Social Sciences first using frequency distributions/means and the data so analyzed was further analyzed using maximum and minimum values, means/standard deviations and ultimately ranking of such means. The result revealed that respondents use the various principal heuristics in this decreasing order of magnitude: availability heuristics (26.77%, anchoring and adjustment heuristics (18.62%; representative heuristics (15.63% and least of all positivity heuristics (10.41%. The authors thereby opined that emphasis be placed more on availability heuristics research particularly as usage of heuristcis (anchoring and adjustment has been seen to influence valuation inconsistency/accuracy

  10. Spatial variability in alluvium properties at a low-level nuclear waste site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Istok, J.D.; Blout, D.O.; Barker, L.; Johnejack, K.R.; Hammermeister, D.P.

    1994-01-01

    Geological and statistical models for the spatial variability of soil properties are needed to predict field-scale water flow and solute transport but only limited information is currently available on unsaturated soils below the root zone. Spatial variability of selected physical and hydrologic properties was quantified for fine- and coarse-grained alluvial deposits at a low-level nuclear waste disposal site on the Nevada Test Site. Gravimetric water content (w), bulk density (ρ b ), saturated hydraulic conductivity (K a ), and particle-size distribution were determined for vertical and horizontal core specimens and bulk samples collected from 183-m-long horizontal transects in two existing waste disposal trenches located on a single alluvial fan. The transects were approximately aligned parallel and perpendicular to the principal direction of sediment transport. Properties were modeled as either normally or lognormally distributed random variables. Sample coefficients of variation were smallest for ρ b and largest for log(K a ); a weak correlation was identified between log(K a ) and the grain-size parameter d 10 . Particle-size distributions for the fine- and coarse-grained materials were different and significant differences in the natural logarithm of saturated hydraulic conductivity, log(K a ), existed between coarse and fine layers in an excavation aligned with the principal direction of alluvium deposition but not in a perpendicular direction. 37 refs., 7 figs., 11 tabs

  11. Does mental health staffing level affect antipsychotic prescribing? Analysis of Italian national statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starace, Fabrizio; Mungai, Francesco; Barbui, Corrado

    2018-01-01

    In mental healthcare, one area of major concern identified by health information systems is variability in antipsychotic prescribing. While most studies have investigated patient- and prescriber-related factors as possible reasons for such variability, no studies have investigated facility-level characteristics. The present study ascertained whether staffing level is associated with antipsychotic prescribing in community mental healthcare. A cross-sectional analysis of data extracted from the Italian national mental health information system was carried out. For each Italian region, it collects data on the availability and use of mental health facilities. The rate of individuals exposed to antipsychotic drugs was tested for evidence of association with the rate of mental health staff availability by means of univariate and multivariate analyses. In Italy there were on average nearly 60 mental health professionals per 100,000 inhabitants, with wide regional variations (range 21 to 100). The average rate of individuals prescribed antipsychotic drugs was 2.33%, with wide regional variations (1.04% to 4.01%). Univariate analysis showed that the rate of individuals prescribed antipsychotic drugs was inversely associated with the rate of mental health professionals available in Italian regions (Kendall's tau -0.438, p = 0.006), with lower rates of antipsychotic prescriptions in regions with higher rates of mental health professionals. After adjustment for possible confounders, the total availability of mental health professionals was still inversely associated with the rate of individuals exposed to antipsychotic drugs. The evidence that staffing level was inversely associated with antipsychotic prescribing indicates that any actions aimed at decreasing variability in antipsychotic prescribing need to take into account aspects related to the organization of the mental health system.

  12. Southern hemisphere low level wind circulation statistics from the Seasat scatterometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Gad

    1994-01-01

    Analyses of remotely sensed low-level wind vector data over the Southern Ocean are performed. Five-day averages and monthly means are created and the month-to-month variability during the winter (July-September) of 1978 is investigated. The remotely sensed winds are compared to the Australian Bureau of Meteorology (ABM) and the National Meteorological Center (NMC) surface analyses. In southern latitudes the remotely sensed winds are stronger than what the weather services' analyses suggest, indicating under-estimation by ABM and NMC in these regions. The evolution of the low-level jet and the major stormtracks during the season are studied and different flow regimes are identified. The large-scale variability of the meridional flow is studied with the aid of empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis. The dominance of quasi-stationary wave numbers 3,4, and 5 in the winter flows is evident in both the EOF analysis and the mean flow. The signature of an exceptionally strong blocking situation is evident in July and the special conditions leading to it are discussed. A very large intraseasonal variability with different flow regimes at different months is documented.

  13. Longitudinal review of state-level accident statistics for carriers of interstate freight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saricks, C.; Kvitek, T.

    1994-03-01

    State-level accident rates by mode of freight transport have been developed and refined for application to the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) environmental mitigation program, which may involve large-quantity shipments of hazardous and mixed wastes from DOE facilities. These rates reflect multi-year data for interstate-registered highway earners, American Association of Railroads member carriers, and coastal and internal waterway barge traffic. Adjustments have been made to account for the share of highway combination-truck traffic actually attributable to interstate-registered carriers and for duplicate or otherwise inaccurate entries in the public-use accident data files used. State-to-state variation in rates is discussed, as is the stability of rates over time. Computed highway rates have been verified with actual carriers of high- and low-level nuclear materials, and the most recent truck accident data have been used, to ensure that the results are of the correct order of magnitude. Study conclusions suggest that DOE use the computed rates for the three modes until (1) improved estimation techniques for highway combination-truck miles by state become available; (2) continued evolution of the railroad industry significantly increases the consolidation of interstate rail traffic onto fewer high-capacity trunk lines; or (3) a large-scale off-site waste shipment campaign is imminent

  14. Statistical properties of the anomalous scaling exponent estimator based on time-averaged mean-square displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikora, Grzegorz; Teuerle, Marek; Wyłomańska, Agnieszka; Grebenkov, Denis

    2017-08-01

    The most common way of estimating the anomalous scaling exponent from single-particle trajectories consists of a linear fit of the dependence of the time-averaged mean-square displacement on the lag time at the log-log scale. We investigate the statistical properties of this estimator in the case of fractional Brownian motion (FBM). We determine the mean value, the variance, and the distribution of the estimator. Our theoretical results are confirmed by Monte Carlo simulations. In the limit of long trajectories, the estimator is shown to be asymptotically unbiased, consistent, and with vanishing variance. These properties ensure an accurate estimation of the scaling exponent even from a single (long enough) trajectory. As a consequence, we prove that the usual way to estimate the diffusion exponent of FBM is correct from the statistical point of view. Moreover, the knowledge of the estimator distribution is the first step toward new statistical tests of FBM and toward a more reliable interpretation of the experimental histograms of scaling exponents in microbiology.

  15. A statistical characterization method for damping material properties and its application to structural-acoustic system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Byung C.; Lee, Doo Ho; Youn, Byeng D.; Lee, Soo Bum

    2011-01-01

    The performance of surface damping treatments may vary once the surface is exposed to a wide range of temperatures, because the performance of viscoelastic damping material is highly dependent on operational temperature. In addition, experimental data for dynamic responses of viscoelastic material are inherently random, which makes it difficult to design a robust damping layout. In this paper a statistical modeling procedure with a statistical calibration method is suggested for the variability characterization of viscoelastic damping material in constrained-layer damping structures. First, the viscoelastic material property is decomposed into two sources: (I) a random complex modulus due to operational temperature variability, and (II) experimental/model errors in the complex modulus. Next, the variability in the damping material property is obtained using the statistical calibration method by solving an unconstrained optimization problem with a likelihood function metric. Two case studies are considered to show the influence of the material variability on the acoustic performances in the structural-acoustic systems. It is shown that the variability of the damping material is propagated to that of the acoustic performances in the systems. Finally, robust and reliable damping layout designs of the two case studies are obtained through the reliability-based design optimization (RBDO) amidst severe variability in operational temperature and the damping material

  16. Statistical properties of three-dimensional two-fluid plasma model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qaisrani, M. Hasnain [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, WuHan, Hubei 430074 (China); Xia, ZhenWei [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Zou, Dandan, E-mail: ddzou@hust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, WuHan, Hubei 430074 (China); School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Yangtze University, Jingzhou 434023 (China)

    2015-09-15

    The nonlinear dynamics of incompressible non-dissipative two-fluid plasma model is investigated through classical Gibbs ensemble methods. Liouville's theorem of phase space for each wave number is proved, and the absolute equilibrium spectra for Galerkin truncated two-fluid model are calculated. In two-fluid theory, the equilibrium is built on the conservation of three quadratic invariants: the total energy and the self-helicities for ions and electrons fluid, respectively. The implications of statistic equilibrium spectra with arbitrary ratios of conserved invariants are discussed.

  17. Spatial Statistics and Spatio-Temporal Data Covariance Functions and Directional Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Sherman, Michael

    2010-01-01

    In the spatial or space-time context, specifying the correct covariance function is important to obtain efficient predictions and to understand the underlying physical process of interest. There have been several books in recent years in the general area of spatial statistics. This book focuses on covariance and variogram functions, their role in prediction, and the proper choice of these functions in data applications. Presenting recent methods from 2004-2007 alongside more established methodology of assessing the usual assumptions on such functions such as isotropy, separability and symmetry

  18. Evaluation of image quality and radiation dose by adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction technique level for chest CT examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sun Suk; Lee, Jong-Woong; Seo, Jeong Beom; Jung, Jae-Eun; Choi, Jiwon; Kweon, Dae Cheol

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this research is to determine the adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) level that enables optimal image quality and dose reduction in the chest computed tomography (CT) protocol with ASIR. A chest phantom with 0-50 % ASIR levels was scanned and then noise power spectrum (NPS), signal and noise and the degree of distortion of peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and the root-mean-square error (RMSE) were measured. In addition, the objectivity of the experiment was measured using the American College of Radiology (ACR) phantom. Moreover, on a qualitative basis, five lesions' resolution, latitude and distortion degree of chest phantom and their compiled statistics were evaluated. The NPS value decreased as the frequency increased. The lowest noise and deviation were at the 20 % ASIR level, mean 126.15 ± 22.21. As a result of the degree of distortion, signal-to-noise ratio and PSNR at 20 % ASIR level were at the highest value as 31.0 and 41.52. However, maximum absolute error and RMSE showed the lowest deviation value as 11.2 and 16. In the ACR phantom study, all ASIR levels were within acceptable allowance of guidelines. The 20 % ASIR level performed best in qualitative evaluation at five lesions of chest phantom as resolution score 4.3, latitude 3.47 and the degree of distortion 4.25. The 20 % ASIR level was proved to be the best in all experiments, noise, distortion evaluation using ImageJ and qualitative evaluation of five lesions of a chest phantom. Therefore, optimal images as well as reduce radiation dose would be acquired when 20 % ASIR level in thoracic CT is applied.

  19. The Usability of Noise Level from Rock Cutting for the Prediction of Physico-Mechanical Properties of Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delibalta, M. S.; Kahraman, S.; Comakli, R.

    2015-11-01

    Because the indirect tests are easier and cheaper than the direct tests, the prediction of rock properties from the indirect testing methods is important especially for the preliminary investigations. In this study, the predictability of the physico-mechanical rock properties from the noise level measured during cutting rock with diamond saw was investigated. Noise measurement test, uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) test, Brazilian tensile strength (BTS) test, point load strength (Is) test, density test, and porosity test were carried out on 54 different rock types in the laboratory. The results were statistically analyzed to derive estimation equations. Strong correlations between the noise level and the mechanical rock properties were found. The relations follow power functions. Increasing rock strength increases the noise level. Density and porosity also correlated strongly with the noise level. The relations follow linear functions. Increasing density increases the noise level while increasing porosity decreases the noise level. The developed equations are valid for the rocks with a compressive strength below 150 MPa. Concluding remark is that the physico-mechanical rock properties can reliably be estimated from the noise level measured during cutting the rock with diamond saw.

  20. On the statistical and transport properties of a non-dissipative Fermi-Ulam model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livorati, André L. P.; Dettmann, Carl P.; Caldas, Iberê L.; Leonel, Edson D.

    2015-10-01

    The transport and diffusion properties for the velocity of a Fermi-Ulam model were characterized using the decay rate of the survival probability. The system consists of an ensemble of non-interacting particles confined to move along and experience elastic collisions with two infinitely heavy walls. One is fixed, working as a returning mechanism of the colliding particles, while the other one moves periodically in time. The diffusion equation is solved, and the diffusion coefficient is numerically estimated by means of the averaged square velocity. Our results show remarkably good agreement of the theory and simulation for the chaotic sea below the first elliptic island in the phase space. From the decay rates of the survival probability, we obtained transport properties that can be extended to other nonlinear mappings, as well to billiard problems.

  1. On statistical properties of wave amplitudes in stormy sea. Effect of short-crestedness; Daihakoji no haro no tokeiteki seishitsu ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimoto, H. [Ship Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Since ocean waves encountered by ocean vessels or offshore structures in actual sea areas present extremely irregular variations, a stochastic method is necessary to estimate their statistical properties. This paper first shows a calculation method for probability density function for water level variation which strictly incorporates a secondary non-linear effect containing directional dispersibility by modeling ocean waves as short-crested irregular waves. Then, the paper specifically elucidates effects of the directional dispersibility of ocean waves on statistical amount of amplitudes by deriving the statistical amount of the amplitudes based on the probability density function of the water level variation and by using a numerical simulation. The paper finally takes up data of waves in stormy sea observed in an experiment in an actual sea area, compares the result with that of theoretical calculations, and evaluates reasonability of this method. With this estimation method, individual secondary components or components of difference and sum may be subjected to influence of the directional dispersibility, but they do not differ much from the case of long-crested irregular waves on the whole. 21 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Improved score statistics for meta-analysis in single-variant and gene-level association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jingjing; Chen, Sai; Abecasis, Gonçalo

    2018-06-01

    Meta-analysis is now an essential tool for genetic association studies, allowing them to combine large studies and greatly accelerating the pace of genetic discovery. Although the standard meta-analysis methods perform equivalently as the more cumbersome joint analysis under ideal settings, they result in substantial power loss under unbalanced settings with various case-control ratios. Here, we investigate the power loss problem by the standard meta-analysis methods for unbalanced studies, and further propose novel meta-analysis methods performing equivalently to the joint analysis under both balanced and unbalanced settings. We derive improved meta-score-statistics that can accurately approximate the joint-score-statistics with combined individual-level data, for both linear and logistic regression models, with and without covariates. In addition, we propose a novel approach to adjust for population stratification by correcting for known population structures through minor allele frequencies. In the simulated gene-level association studies under unbalanced settings, our method recovered up to 85% power loss caused by the standard methods. We further showed the power gain of our methods in gene-level tests with 26 unbalanced studies of age-related macular degeneration . In addition, we took the meta-analysis of three unbalanced studies of type 2 diabetes as an example to discuss the challenges of meta-analyzing multi-ethnic samples. In summary, our improved meta-score-statistics with corrections for population stratification can be used to construct both single-variant and gene-level association studies, providing a useful framework for ensuring well-powered, convenient, cross-study analyses. © 2018 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  3. STATISTICAL PROPERTIES OF GRB AFTERGLOW PARAMETERS AS EVIDENCE OF COSMOLOGICAL EVOLUTION OF THEIR HOST GALAXIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Beskin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The results of a study of 43 peaked R-band light curves of optical counterparts of gamma-ray bursts with known redshifts are presented. The parameters of optical transients were calculated in the comoving frame, and then a search for pair correlations between them was conducted. A statistical analysis showed a strong correlation between the peak luminosity and the redshift both for pure afterglows and for events with residual gamma activity, which cannot be explained as an effect of observational selection.This suggests a cosmological evolution of the parameters of the local interstellar medium around the sources of the gamma-ray burst. In the models of forward and reverse shock waves, a relation between the density of the interstellar medium and the redshift was built for gamma-ray burst afterglows, leading to a power-law dependence of the star-formation rate at regions around GRBs on redshift with a slope of about 6.

  4. Statistical properties of kinetic and total energy densities in reverberant spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Finn; Molares, Alfonso Rodriguez

    2010-01-01

    Many acoustical measurements, e.g., measurement of sound power and transmission loss, rely on determining the total sound energy in a reverberation room. The total energy is usually approximated by measuring the mean-square pressure (i.e., the potential energy density) at a number of discrete....... With the advent of a three-dimensional particle velocity transducer, it has become somewhat easier to measure total rather than only potential energy density in a sound field. This paper examines the ensemble statistics of kinetic and total sound energy densities in reverberant enclosures theoretically...... positions. The idea of measuring the total energy density instead of the potential energy density on the assumption that the former quantity varies less with position than the latter goes back to the 1930s. However, the phenomenon was not analyzed until the late 1970s and then only for the region of high...

  5. Statistical properties of bidimensional patterns generated from delayed and extended maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giacomelli, G.; Lepri, S.; Politi, A.

    1995-01-01

    The space-time chaotic patterns associated with a class of dynamical systems ranging from delayed to extended maps are investigated. All the systems are constructed in such a way that the corresponding two-dimensional (2D) representation is characterized by the same updating rule in the bulk. The main difference among them is the direction of the ''time'' axis in the plane. Despite the different causality relations among the various models, the resulting patterns are shown to be statistically equivalent. In particular, the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy density assumes always the same value. Therefore, it can be considered as an absolute indicator, measuring the amount of disorder of a 2D pattern. The Kaplan-Yorke dimension density is instead rule dependent: this indicator alone cannot be used to quantify the degrees of freedom of a given pattern; one must further specify the direction of propagation in the plane

  6. Statistical strength properties, loading and reliability of structures made of reaction bonded silicon nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, H.R.; Nink, H.; Krauth, A.

    1977-01-01

    A prediction of the reliability of structural components requires the definition of transfer data from the combination of materials data, design criteria and application conditions. The determination and transfer of strength data are one unit and therefore similar approximations are necessary. The influence of loading conditions, proof testing and analysing methods is explained with bending tests of rectangular specimens and burst tests of big tubes at room temperature. The drop in strength from 180 N/mm 2 to 50 N/mm 2 via a size factor of 10 5 is predicted and experimentally verified with the most simple statistical extension. The results have been applied to special problems of stress concentrations and give conclusions for test techniques and design fundamentals. (orig.) [de

  7. Statistical properties of the linear σ model used in dynamical simulations of DCC formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randrup, J.

    1997-01-01

    The present work develops a simple approximate framework for initializing and interpreting dynamical simulations with the linear σ model exploring the formation of disoriented chiral condensates in high-energy collisions. By enclosing the system in a rectangular box with periodic boundary conditions, it is possible to decompose uniquely the chiral field into its spatial average (the order parameter) and its fluctuations (the quasiparticles) which can be treated in the Hartree approximation. The quasiparticle modes are then described approximately by Klein-Gordon dispersion relations containing an effective mass depending on both the temperature and the magnitude of the order parameter; their fluctuations are instrumental in shaping the effective potential governing the order parameter, and the emerging statistical description is thermodynamicially consistent. The temperature dependence of the statistical distribution of the order parameter is discussed, as is the behavior of the associated effective masses; as the system is cooled, the field fluctuations subside, causing a smooth change from the high-temperature phase in which chiral symmetry is approximately restored towards the normal phase. Of practical interest is the fact that the equilibrium field configurations can be sampled in a simple manner, thus providing a convenient means for specifying the initial conditions in dynamical simulations of the nonequilibrium relaxation of the chiral field; in particular, the correlation function is much more realistic than those emerging in previous initialization methods. It is illustrated how such samples remain approximately invariant under propagation by the unapproximated equation of motion over times that are long on the scale of interest, thereby suggesting that the treatment is sufficiently accurate to be of practical utility. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  8. Cellular internalisation kinetics and cytotoxic properties of statistically designed and optimised neo-geometric copper nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, Karmani; Choonara, Yahya E; Kumar, Pradeep; du Toit, Lisa C; Pillay, Viness

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to highlight a statistic design to precisely engineer homogenous geometric copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) for enhanced intracellular drug delivery as a function of geometrical structure. CuNPs with a dual functionality comprising geometric attributes for enhanced cell uptake and exerting cytotoxic activity on proliferating cells were synthesized as a novel drug delivery system. This paper investigated the defined concentrations of two key surfactants used in the reaction to mutually control and manipulate nano-shape and optimisation of the geometric nanosystems. A statistical experimental design comprising a full factorial model served as a refining factor to achieve homogenous geometric nanoparticles using a one-pot method for the systematic optimisation of the geometric CuNPs. Shapes of the nanoparticles were investigated to determine the result of the surfactant variation as the aim of the study and zeta potential was studied to ensure the stability of the system and establish a nanosystem of low aggregation potential. After optimisation of the nano-shapes, extensive cellular internalisation studies were conducted to elucidate the effect of geometric CuNPs on uptake rates, in addition to the vital toxicity assays to further understand the cellular effect of geometric CuNPs as a drug delivery system. In addition to geometry; volume, surface area, orientation to the cell membrane and colloidal stability is also addressed. The outcomes of the study demonstrated the success of homogenous geometric NP formation, in addition to a stable surface charge. The findings of the study can be utilized for the development of a drug delivery system for promoted cellular internalisation and effective drug delivery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Statistical properties and attack tolerance of growing networks with algebraic preferential attachment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zonghua; Lai Yingcheng; Ye Nong

    2002-01-01

    We consider growing networks with algebraic preferential attachment and address two questions: (1) what is the effect of temporal fluctuations in the number of new links acquired by the network? and (2) what is the network tolerance against random failures and intentional attacks? We find that the fluctuations generally have little effect on the network properties, although they lead to a plateau behavior for small degrees in the connectivity distribution. Formulas are derived for the evolution and distribution of the network connectivity, which are tested by numerical simulations. Numerical study of the effect of failures and attacks suggests that networks constructed under algebraic preferential attachment are more robust than scale-free networks

  10. Properties of permutation-based gene tests and controlling type 1 error using a summary statistic based gene test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, David M; Blacker, Deborah; Alchawa, Taofik; Ludwig, Kerstin U; Mangold, Elisabeth; Lange, Christoph

    2013-11-07

    The advent of genome-wide association studies has led to many novel disease-SNP associations, opening the door to focused study on their biological underpinnings. Because of the importance of analyzing these associations, numerous statistical methods have been devoted to them. However, fewer methods have attempted to associate entire genes or genomic regions with outcomes, which is potentially more useful knowledge from a biological perspective and those methods currently implemented are often permutation-based. One property of some permutation-based tests is that their power varies as a function of whether significant markers are in regions of linkage disequilibrium (LD) or not, which we show from a theoretical perspective. We therefore develop two methods for quantifying the degree of association between a genomic region and outcome, both of whose power does not vary as a function of LD structure. One method uses dimension reduction to "filter" redundant information when significant LD exists in the region, while the other, called the summary-statistic test, controls for LD by scaling marker Z-statistics using knowledge of the correlation matrix of markers. An advantage of this latter test is that it does not require the original data, but only their Z-statistics from univariate regressions and an estimate of the correlation structure of markers, and we show how to modify the test to protect the type 1 error rate when the correlation structure of markers is misspecified. We apply these methods to sequence data of oral cleft and compare our results to previously proposed gene tests, in particular permutation-based ones. We evaluate the versatility of the modification of the summary-statistic test since the specification of correlation structure between markers can be inaccurate. We find a significant association in the sequence data between the 8q24 region and oral cleft using our dimension reduction approach and a borderline significant association using the

  11. Statistical properties of intensity of partially polarised semiconductor laser light backscattered by a single-mode optical fibre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, A E; Potapov, V T; Gorshkov, B G

    2015-01-01

    We report the results of studying statistical properties of the intensity of partially polarised coherent light backscattered by a single mode optical fibre. An expression is derived for the deviation of the backscattered light intensity depending on the scattering region length, the degree of the light source coherence and the degree of scattered light polarisation. It is shown that the backscattered light in a fibre scattered-light interferometer is partially polarised with the polarisation degree P = 1/3 in the case of external perturbations of the interferometer fibre. (scattering of light)

  12. Statistical properties of SASE FEL radiation: experimental results from the VUV FEL at the TESLA test facility at DESY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurkov, M.V.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of the statistical properties of the radiation from a SASE FEL. The experiments were performed at the TESLA Test Facility VUV SASE FEL at DESY operating in a high-gain linear regime with a gain of about 10 6 . It is shown that fluctuations of the output radiation energy follows a gamma-distribution. We also measured for the first time the probability distribution of SASE radiation energy after a narrow-band monochromator. The experimental results are in good agreement with theoretical predictions, the energy fluctuations after the monochromator follow a negative exponential distribution

  13. Statistical properties of correlated solar flares and coronal mass ejections in cycles 23 and 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarnio, Alicia

    2018-01-01

    Outstanding problems in understanding early stellar systems include mass loss, angular momentum evolution, and the effects of energetic events on the surrounding environs. The latter of these drives much research into our own system's space weather and the development of predictive algorithms for geomagnetic storms. So dually motivated, we have leveraged a big-data approach to combine two decades of GOES and LASCO data to identify a large sample of spatially and temporally correlated solar flares and CMEs. In this presentation, we revisit the analysis of Aarnio et al. (2011), adding 10 years of data and further exploring the relationships between correlated flare and CME properties. We compare the updated data set results to those previously obtained, and discuss the effects of selecting smaller time windows within solar cycles 23 and 24 on the empirically defined relationships between correlated flare and CME properties. Finally, we discuss a newly identified large sample of potentially interesting correlated flares and CMEs perhaps erroneously excluded from previous searches.

  14. Statistical symmetries in physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, H.S.; Adelaide Univ., SA

    1994-01-01

    Every law of physics is invariant under some group of transformations and is therefore the expression of some type of symmetry. Symmetries are classified as geometrical, dynamical or statistical. At the most fundamental level, statistical symmetries are expressed in the field theories of the elementary particles. This paper traces some of the developments from the discovery of Bose statistics, one of the two fundamental symmetries of physics. A series of generalizations of Bose statistics is described. A supersymmetric generalization accommodates fermions as well as bosons, and further generalizations, including parastatistics, modular statistics and graded statistics, accommodate particles with properties such as 'colour'. A factorization of elements of ggl(n b ,n f ) can be used to define truncated boson operators. A general construction is given for q-deformed boson operators, and explicit constructions of the same type are given for various 'deformed' algebras. A summary is given of some of the applications and potential applications. 39 refs., 2 figs

  15. Sea Surface Height Variability and Eddy Statistical Properties in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Zhan, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Satellite sea surface height (SSH) data over 1992-2012 are analyzed to study the spatial and temporal variability of sea level in the Red Sea. Empirical orthogonal functions (EOF) analysis suggests the remarkable seasonality of SSH in the Red Sea

  16. Statistical-mechanical theory of the overall magnetic properties of mesocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J P

    2004-10-01

    The mesocrystal showing both electrorheological and magnetorheological effects is called electro-magnetorheological (EMR) solids. Prediction of the overall magnetic properties of the EMR solids is a challenging task due to the coexistence of the uniaxially anisotropic behavior and structural transition as well as long-range interaction between the suspended particles. To consider the uniaxial anisotropy effect, we present an anisotropic Kirkwood-Fröhlich equation for calculating the effective permeabilities by adopting an explicit characteristic spheroid rather than a characteristic sphere used in the derivation of the usual Kirkwood-Fröhlich equation. Further, by applying an Ewald-Kornfeld formulation we are able to investigate the effective permeability by including the structural transition and long-range interaction explicitly. Our theory can reduce to the usual Kirkwood-Fröhlich equation and Onsager equation naturally. To this end, the numerical simulation shows the validity of monitoring the structure of EMR solids by detecting their effective permeabilities.

  17. Statistical properties of edge plasma turbulence in the Large Helical Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewhurst, J. M.; Hnat, B.; Ohno, N.; Dendy, R. O.; Masuzaki, S.; Morisaki, T.; Komori, A.

    2008-09-01

    Ion saturation current (Isat) measurements made by three tips of a Langmuir probe array in the Large Helical Device are analysed for two plasma discharges. Absolute moment analysis is used to quantify properties on different temporal scales of the measured signals, which are bursty and intermittent. Strong coherent modes in some datasets are found to distort this analysis and are consequently removed from the time series by applying bandstop filters. Absolute moment analysis of the filtered data reveals two regions of power-law scaling, with the temporal scale τ ≈ 40 µs separating the two regimes. A comparison is made with similar results from the Mega-Amp Spherical Tokamak. The probability density function is studied and a monotonic relationship between connection length and skewness is found. Conditional averaging is used to characterize the average temporal shape of the largest intermittent bursts.

  18. To Identify the Important Soil Properties Affecting Dinoseb Adsorption with Statistical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiqing Guan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigating the influences of soil characteristic factors on dinoseb adsorption parameter with different statistical methods would be valuable to explicitly figure out the extent of these influences. The correlation coefficients and the direct, indirect effects of soil characteristic factors on dinoseb adsorption parameter were analyzed through bivariate correlation analysis, and path analysis. With stepwise regression analysis the factors which had little influence on the adsorption parameter were excluded. Results indicate that pH and CEC had moderate relationship and lower direct effect on dinoseb adsorption parameter due to the multicollinearity with other soil factors, and organic carbon and clay contents were found to be the most significant soil factors which affect the dinoseb adsorption process. A regression is thereby set up to explore the relationship between the dinoseb adsorption parameter and the two soil factors: the soil organic carbon and clay contents. A 92% of the variation of dinoseb sorption coefficient could be attributed to the variation of the soil organic carbon and clay contents.

  19. Chapter 3 – Phenomenology of Tsunamis: Statistical Properties from Generation to Runup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Eric L.

    2015-01-01

    Observations related to tsunami generation, propagation, and runup are reviewed and described in a phenomenological framework. In the three coastal regimes considered (near-field broadside, near-field oblique, and far field), the observed maximum wave amplitude is associated with different parts of the tsunami wavefield. The maximum amplitude in the near-field broadside regime is most often associated with the direct arrival from the source, whereas in the near-field oblique regime, the maximum amplitude is most often associated with the propagation of edge waves. In the far field, the maximum amplitude is most often caused by the interaction of the tsunami coda that develops during basin-wide propagation and the nearshore response, including the excitation of edge waves, shelf modes, and resonance. Statistical distributions that describe tsunami observations are also reviewed, both in terms of spatial distributions, such as coseismic slip on the fault plane and near-field runup, and temporal distributions, such as wave amplitudes in the far field. In each case, fundamental theories of tsunami physics are heuristically used to explain the observations.

  20. Application of Statistical Thermodynamics To Predict the Adsorption Properties of Polypeptides in Reversed-Phase HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasova, Irina A; Goloborodko, Anton A; Perlova, Tatyana Y; Pridatchenko, Marina L; Gorshkov, Alexander V; Evreinov, Victor V; Ivanov, Alexander R; Gorshkov, Mikhail V

    2015-07-07

    The theory of critical chromatography for biomacromolecules (BioLCCC) describes polypeptide retention in reversed-phase HPLC using the basic principles of statistical thermodynamics. However, whether this theory correctly depicts a variety of empirical observations and laws introduced for peptide chromatography over the last decades remains to be determined. In this study, by comparing theoretical results with experimental data, we demonstrate that the BioLCCC: (1) fits the empirical dependence of the polypeptide retention on the amino acid sequence length with R(2) > 0.99 and allows in silico determination of the linear regression coefficients of the log-length correction in the additive model for arbitrary sequences and lengths and (2) predicts the distribution coefficients of polypeptides with an accuracy from 0.98 to 0.99 R(2). The latter enables direct calculation of the retention factors for given solvent compositions and modeling of the migration dynamics of polypeptides separated under isocratic or gradient conditions. The obtained results demonstrate that the suggested theory correctly relates the main aspects of polypeptide separation in reversed-phase HPLC.

  1. QSPR study of the retention/release property of odorant molecules in pectin gels using statistical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assia Belhassan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The ACD/ChemSketch, MarvinSketch, and ChemOffice programmes were used to calculate several molecular descriptors of 51 odorant molecules (15 alcohols, 11 aldehydes, 9 ketones and 16 esters. The best descriptors were selected to establish the Quantitative Structure-Property Relationship (QSPR of the retention/release property of odorant molecules in pectin gels using Principal Components Analysis (PCA, Multiple Linear Regression (MLR, Multiple Non-linear Regression (MNLR and Artificial Neural Network (ANN methods We propose a quantitative model based on these analyses. PCA has been used to select descriptors that exhibit high correlation with the retention/release property. The MLR method yielded correlation coefficients of 0.960 and 0.958 for PG-0.4 (pectin concentration: 0.4% w/w and PG-0.8 (pectin concentration: 0.8% w/w media, respectively. Internal and external validations were used to determine the statistical quality of the QSPR of the two MLR models. The MNLR method, considering the relevant descriptors obtained from the MLR, yielded correlation coefficients of 0.978 and 0.975 for PG-0.4 and PG-0.8 media, respectively. The applicability domain of MLR models was investigated using simple and leverage approaches to detect outliers and outside compounds. The effects of different descriptors on the retention/release property are described, and these descriptors were used to study and design new compounds with higher and lower values of the property than the existing ones. Keywords: Odorant Molecules, Retention/Release, Pectin Gels, Quantitative Structure Property Relationship, Multiple Linear Regression, Artificial Neural Network

  2. Statistical Study of Aircraft Icing Probabilities at the 700- and 500- Millibar Levels over Ocean Areas in the Northern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Porter J.; Lewis, William; Mulholland, Donald R.

    1957-01-01

    A statistical study is made of icing data reported from weather reconnaissance aircraft flown by Air Weather Service (USAF). The weather missions studied were flown at fixed flight levels of 500 millibars (18,000 ft) and 700 millibars (10,000 ft) over wide areas of the Pacific, Atlantic, and Arctic Oceans. This report is presented as part of a program conducted by the NACA to obtain extensive icing statistics relevant to aircraft design and operation. The thousands of in-flight observations recorded over a 2- to 4-year period provide reliable statistics on icing encounters for the specific areas, altitudes, and seasons included in the data. The relative frequencies of icing occurrence are presented, together with the estimated icing probabilities and the relation of these probabilities to the frequencies of flight in clouds and cloud temperatures. The results show that aircraft operators can expect icing probabilities to vary widely throughout the year from near zero in the cold Arctic areas in winter up to 7 percent in areas where greater cloudiness and warmer temperatures prevail. The data also reveal a general tendency of colder cloud temperatures to reduce the probability of icing in equally cloudy conditions.

  3. The statistical properties of 111,112,113Sn studied with the Oslo method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tveten, G. M.; Bello Garrote, F. L.; Campo, L. C.; Eriksen, T. K.; Giacoppo, F.; Guttormsen, M.; Görgen, A.; Hagen, T. W.; Hadynska-Klek, K.; Klintefjord, M.; Larsen, A. C.; Maharromova, S.; Nyhus, H. T.; Renstrøm, T.; Rose, S.; Sahin, E.; Siem, S.; Tornyi, T. G.

    2015-05-01

    The γ-ray strength function and level density of 111, 112, 113Sn are being studied at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory (OCL) up to the neutron binding energy by applying the Oslo method to particle-γ coincidence data. The preliminary results for the γ-ray strength function are discussed in the context of the results for the more neutron-rich Sn-isotopes previously studied at OCL.

  4. The statistical properties of 111,112,113Sn studied with the Oslo method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tveten G. M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The γ-ray strength function and level density of 111, 112, 113Sn are being studied at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory (OCL up to the neutron binding energy by applying the Oslo method to particle-γ coincidence data. The preliminary results for the γ-ray strength function are discussed in the context of the results for the more neutron-rich Sn-isotopes previously studied at OCL.

  5. Investigation of thermodynamic and mechanical properties of AlyIn1-yP alloys by statistical moment method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Vu Thi Thanh; Hung, Vu Van; Hanh, Pham Thi Minh; Tuyen, Nguyen Viet; Hai, Tran Thi; Hieu, Ho Khac

    2018-03-01

    The thermodynamic and mechanical properties of III-V zinc-blende AlP, InP semiconductors and their alloys have been studied in detail from statistical moment method taking into account the anharmonicity effects of the lattice vibrations. The nearest neighbor distance, thermal expansion coefficient, bulk moduli, specific heats at the constant volume and constant pressure of the zincblende AlP, InP and AlyIn1-yP alloys are calculated as functions of the temperature. The statistical moment method calculations are performed by using the many-body Stillinger-Weber potential. The concentration dependences of the thermodynamic quantities of zinc-blende AlyIn1-yP crystals have also been discussed and compared with those of the experimental results. Our results are reasonable agreement with earlier density functional theory calculations and can provide useful qualitative information for future experiments. The moment method then can be developed extensively for studying the atomistic structure and thermodynamic properties of nanoscale materials as well.

  6. Sensitivity properties of a biosphere model based on BATS and a statistical-dynamical climate model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, T. (Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States))

    1994-06-01

    A biosphere model based on the Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS) and the Saltzman-Vernekar (SV) statistical-dynamical climate model is developed. Some equations of BATS are adopted either intact or with modifications, some are conceptually modified, and still others are replaced with equations of the SV model. The model is designed so that it can be run independently as long as the parameters related to the physiology and physiognomy of the vegetation, the atmospheric conditions, solar radiation, and soil conditions are given. With this stand-alone biosphere model, a series of sensitivity investigations, particularly the model sensitivity to fractional area of vegetation cover, soil surface water availability, and solar radiation for different types of vegetation, were conducted as a first step. These numerical experiments indicate that the presence of a vegetation cover greatly enhances the exchanges of momentum, water vapor, and energy between the atmosphere and the surface of the earth. An interesting result is that a dense and thick vegetation cover tends to serve as an environment conditioner or, more specifically, a thermostat and a humidistat, since the soil surface temperature, foliage temperature, and temperature and vapor pressure of air within the foliage are practically insensitive to variation of soil surface water availability and even solar radiation within a wide range. An attempt is also made to simulate the gradual deterioration of environment accompanying gradual degradation of a tropical forest to grasslands. Comparison with field data shows that this model can realistically simulate the land surface processes involving biospheric variations. 46 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. A Statistical and Wavelet Analysis of Physical Property Data From the 2950 m Deep Bellevue Borehole, Bushveld Complex, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, S. J.; Ashwal, L. D.; Cooper, G. R.

    2007-12-01

    Susceptibility (n=~110,000) and density (n=~~2500) measurements on core samples have been collected in a stratigraphic context from the Bellevue (BV-1) 2950 m deep borehole in the Northern Lobe of the Bushveld Complex. This drill core starts in the granitoid roof rocks, extends through the entire Upper Zone, and ends approximately in the middle of the Main Zone. These physical property measurements now provide an extensive database useful for geophysical modeling and stratigraphic studies. In an effort to quantify the periodicity of the layering we have applied various statistical and wavelet methods to analyze the susceptibility and density data. The density data have revealed a strong periodic layering with a scale of ~~80 m that extends through the Main and Upper Zones. In the Main Zone the layering is unusual in that the density values increase upwards by as much as 10%. This is due to systematic variation in the modal abundance of mafic silicates and appears to be related to separate pulses during emplacement. The magnetic susceptibility data in the Upper Zone also show a strong cyclicity of similar scale. The discrete wavelet transform, using the real Haar wavelet, has been applied to help discretise the susceptibility data and clarifies the geological boundaries without blurring them, which is a common problem with multipoint moving averages. As expected, the histogram of the entire data set is non-Gaussian, with a long tail for high values. We can roughly fit a power law to the log histogram plot indicating a probable fractal distribution of susceptibilities. However if we window the data in the range 750-1000 m the histogram is very different. This region shows a strong peak and no power law relationship. This dramatic change in statistical properties prompted us to investigate these properties more thoroughly. To complement the wavelet analysis we have calculated various statistical measures (mean, standard deviation, skew, and

  8. On Some Statistical Properties of GRBs with Measured Redshifts Having Peaks in Optical Light Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigorii Beskin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the subset of optical light curves of gamma-ray bursts with measured redshifts and well-sampled R band data that have clearly detected peaks. Among 43 such events, 11 are promptoptical peaks (P, coincident with gamma-ray activity, 22 are purely afterglows (A, and 10 more carrythe signatures of an underlying activity (A(U. We studied pair correlations of their gamma-ray andoptical parameters, e.g. total energetics, peak optical luminosities, and durations. The main outcomeof our study is the detection of source frame correlations between both optical peak luminosity and total energy and the redshift for classes A and A(U, and the absence of such a correlation for class Pevents. This result seems to provide evidence of the cosmological evolution of a medium around the burst defining class A and A(U energetics, and the absence of cosmological evolution of the internal properties of GRB engines. We also discuss some other prominent correlations.

  9. Some numerical studies of interface advection properties of level set ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    explicit computational elements moving through an Eulerian grid. ... location. The interface is implicitly defined (captured) as the location of the discontinuity in the ... This level set function is advected with the background flow field and thus ...

  10. Some statistical and sampling needs for detecting spills or migration at commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.M.; Eberhardt, L.L.; Skalski, J.R.; Simmons, M.A.

    1984-05-01

    As part of a larger study funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission we have been investigating field sampling strategies and compositing as a means of detecting spills or migration at commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. The overall project is designed to produce information for developing guidance on implementing 10 CFR part 61. Compositing (pooling samples) for detection is discussed first, followed by our development of a statistical test to allow a decision as to whether any component of a composite exceeds a prescribed maximum acceptable level. The question of optimal field sampling designs and an Apple computer program designed to show the difficulties in constructing efficient field designs and using compositing schemes are considered. 6 references, 3 figures, 3 tables

  11. Integrating community-based verbal autopsy into civil registration and vital statistics (CRVS): system-level considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Savigny, Don; Riley, Ian; Chandramohan, Daniel; Odhiambo, Frank; Nichols, Erin; Notzon, Sam; AbouZahr, Carla; Mitra, Raj; Cobos Muñoz, Daniel; Firth, Sonja; Maire, Nicolas; Sankoh, Osman; Bronson, Gay; Setel, Philip; Byass, Peter; Jakob, Robert; Boerma, Ties; Lopez, Alan D.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Reliable and representative cause of death (COD) statistics are essential to inform public health policy, respond to emerging health needs, and document progress towards Sustainable Development Goals. However, less than one-third of deaths worldwide are assigned a cause. Civil registration and vital statistics (CRVS) systems in low- and lower-middle-income countries are failing to provide timely, complete and accurate vital statistics, and it will still be some time before they can provide physician-certified COD for every death. Proposals: Verbal autopsy (VA) is a method to ascertain the probable COD and, although imperfect, it is the best alternative in the absence of medical certification. There is extensive experience with VA in research settings but only a few examples of its use on a large scale. Data collection using electronic questionnaires on mobile devices and computer algorithms to analyse responses and estimate probable COD have increased the potential for VA to be routinely applied in CRVS systems. However, a number of CRVS and health system integration issues should be considered in planning, piloting and implementing a system-wide intervention such as VA. These include addressing the multiplicity of stakeholders and sub-systems involved, integration with existing CRVS work processes and information flows, linking VA results to civil registration records, information technology requirements and data quality assurance. Conclusions: Integrating VA within CRVS systems is not simply a technical undertaking. It will have profound system-wide effects that should be carefully considered when planning for an effective implementation. This paper identifies and discusses the major system-level issues and emerging practices, provides a planning checklist of system-level considerations and proposes an overview for how VA can be integrated into routine CRVS systems. PMID:28137194

  12. General and specific statistical properties of foreign exchange markets during a financial crash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei-Shen; Tsai, Yun-Jie; Shen, Yu-Hsien; Liaw, Sy-Sang

    2016-06-01

    We investigate minute-by-minute foreign exchange rate (FX) data of 14 currencies with different exchange-rate regimes during a financial crash, and divide these data into several stages according to their respective tendencies: depreciation stage (stage 1), fluctuating stage (stage 2), and appreciation stage (stage 3). The tail distribution of FX rate returns satisfies a power-law structure for different types of currencies. We find the absolute value of the power-law exponent is smaller in emerging markets than in developed markets, especially during the stage 1, and is greatest in pegged currencies. We also find that the correlation properties of the FX rate return series have quite disparate results among the various types of currencies. Currencies in developed markets respectively have weak persistence and anti-persistence in short and long timescales; whereas the pegged currencies and currencies in emerging markets show different degrees of anti-persistence in various timescales. Further analyses on the data in divided stages indicate that emerging markets and pegged currencies have more prominent dual fractal structures after the depreciation stage, while the developed markets do not. Hurst exponent analyses on the sign series yield similar results to that on the original return series for most currencies. The magnitude series of the returns provide some unique results during a crash. The developed market currencies have strong persistence and exhibit a weaker correlation in the depreciation and appreciation stages. In contrast, the currencies of emerging markets as well as pegged currencies fail to show such a transformation, but rather show a constant-correlation behavior in the corresponding stages of a crash. These results indicate that external shocks exert different degrees of influence during different stages of the crash in various markets.

  13. Statistical optics

    CERN Document Server

    Goodman, Joseph W

    2015-01-01

    This book discusses statistical methods that are useful for treating problems in modern optics, and the application of these methods to solving a variety of such problems This book covers a variety of statistical problems in optics, including both theory and applications.  The text covers the necessary background in statistics, statistical properties of light waves of various types, the theory of partial coherence and its applications, imaging with partially coherent light, atmospheric degradations of images, and noise limitations in the detection of light. New topics have been introduced i

  14. Statistical mapping of the effect of knee extension on thigh muscle viscoelastic properties using magnetic resonance elastography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnhill, Eric; Kennedy, Paul; Van Beek, Edwin J R; Roberts, Neil; Hammer, Steven; Brown, Colin

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal muscle viscoelastic properties reflect muscle microstructure and neuromuscular activation. Elastographic methods, including magnetic resonance elastography, have been used to characterize muscle viscoelastic properties in terms of region of interest (ROI) measurements. The present study extended this approach to create thresholded pixel-by-pixel maps of viscoelastic properties of skeletal muscle during rest and knee extension in eleven subjects. ROI measurements were taken for individual quadricep muscles and the quadriceps region as a whole, and the viscoelastic parameter map pixels were statistically tested at positive false discovery rate q ⩽ 0.25. ROI measurements showed significant (p ⩽ 0.05) increase in storage modulus (G′) and loss modulus (G″), with G″ increasing more than G′, in agreement with previous findings. The q-value maps further identified the vastus intermedius as the primary driver of this change, with greater G″/G′ increase than surrounding regions. Additionally, a cluster of significant decrease in G″/G′ was found in the region of vastus lateralis below the fulcrum point of the lift. Viscoelastic parameter mapping of contracted muscle allows new insight into the relationship between physiology, neuromuscular activation, and human performance. (paper)

  15. Statistical properties of a filtered Poisson process with additive random noise: distributions, correlations and moment estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theodorsen, A; Garcia, O E; Rypdal, M

    2017-01-01

    Filtered Poisson processes are often used as reference models for intermittent fluctuations in physical systems. Such a process is here extended by adding a noise term, either as a purely additive term to the process or as a dynamical term in a stochastic differential equation. The lowest order moments, probability density function, auto-correlation function and power spectral density are derived and used to identify and compare the effects of the two different noise terms. Monte-Carlo studies of synthetic time series are used to investigate the accuracy of model parameter estimation and to identify methods for distinguishing the noise types. It is shown that the probability density function and the three lowest order moments provide accurate estimations of the model parameters, but are unable to separate the noise types. The auto-correlation function and the power spectral density also provide methods for estimating the model parameters, as well as being capable of identifying the noise type. The number of times the signal crosses a prescribed threshold level in the positive direction also promises to be able to differentiate the noise type. (paper)

  16. Statistical evaluation of PCDD/Fs levels and profiles in milk and feedingstuffs from Campania region - Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diletti, G.; Scortichini, G.; Conte, A.; Migliorati, G.; Caporale, V. [Ist. Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell' Abruzzo e del Molise (Italy)

    2004-09-15

    PCDD/Fs levels exceeding the European Union (EU) tolerance limit were detected in milk and animal feed samples collected in Campania region in the years 2001-2003, as reported in a previous paper1. The analyses were performed on milk samples from different animal species (cow, sheep, goat and buffalo) and on animal feed samples (silage, hay, grass, cereals, premixes and mixed feeds) permitting to assess the levels and the geographical extension of the contamination. The preliminary results of this survey had given clear indications of the dioxin contamination of feedingstuffs and their contribution to the high PCDD/Fs levels recorded in milk but a more detailed analysis was needed in order to confirm the previous observations. Aim of this work is the evaluation of the correlation between the PCDD/Fs levels and patterns found in milk and animal feed samples through the statistical analysis of the congeners profiles and concentrations. Moreover, the typical congeners profiles of milk samples taken in the area under investigation were compared to those obtained from samples collected in the framework of the National Residues Surveillance Plan (NRSP) in 2003. The contamination phenomenon was also studied by means of the spatial correlation analysis.

  17. Level density and thermal properties in rare earth nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siem, S.; Schiller, A.; Guttormsen, M.; Hjorth-Jensen, M.; Melby, E.; Rekstad, J.

    2000-01-01

    The level density at low spin has been extracted for several nuclei in the rare earth region using the ( 3 He,α) reaction. Within the framework of the microcanonical ensemble, the entropy and the temperature of the nuclei are derived. The temperature curve shows bumps which are associated with the break up of Cooper pairs. The entropies of the even-even and even-odd nuclei have been compared. The nuclear heat capacity is deduced within the framework of the canonical ensemble and exhibits an S-formed shape as function of temperature. (author)

  18. Level density and thermal properties in rare earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiller, A.; Guttormsen, M.; Hjorth-Jensen, M.; Melby, E.; Rekstad, J.; Siem, S.

    2001-01-01

    A convergent method to extract the nuclear level density and the γ-ray strength function from primary γ-ray spectra has been established. Thermodynamical quantities have been obtained within the microcanonical and canonical ensemble theory. Structures in the caloric curve and in the heat capacity curve are interpreted as fingerprints of breaking of Cooper pairs and quenching of pairing correlations. The strength function can be described using models and common parametrizations for the E1, M1, and pygmy resonance strength. However, a significant decrease of pygmy resonance strength at finite temperatures has been observed [ru

  19. Level density and thermal properties in rare earth nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiller, A.; Guttormsen, M.; Hjorth-Jensen, M.; Melby, E.; Rekstad, J.; Siem, S.

    2001-01-01

    A convergent method to extract the nuclear level density and the γ-ray strength function from primary γ-ray spectra has been established. Thermodynamical quantities have been obtained within the microcanonical and canonical ensemble theory. Structures in the caloric curve and in the heat capacity curve are interpreted as fingerprints of breaking of Cooper pairs and quenching of pairing correlations. The strength function can be described using models and common parametrizations for the E1, M1, and pygmy resonance strength. However, a significant decrease of the pygmy resonance strength at finite temperatures has been observed

  20. Properties of slag concrete for low-level waste containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langton, C.A.; Wong, P.B.

    1991-01-01

    Ground granulated blast furnace slag was incorporated in the concrete mix used for construction of low-level radioactive waste disposal vaults. The vaults were constructed as six 100 x 100 x 25 ft cells with each cell sharing internal walls with the two adjacent cells. The vaults were designed to contain a low-level radioactive wasteform called saltstone and to isolate the saltstone from the environment until the landfill is closed. Closure involves backfilling with native soil, installation of clay cap, and run-off control. The design criteria for the slag-substituted concrete included compressive strength, 4000 psi after 28 days; slump, 6 inch; permeability, less than 10 -7 cm/sec; and effective nitrate, chromium and technetium diffusivities of 10 -8 , 10 -12 and 10 -12 cm 2 /sec, respectively. The reducing capacity of the slag resulted in chemically reducing Cr +6 to Cr +3 and Tc +7 to Tc +4 and subsequent precipitation of the respective hydroxides in the alkaline pore solution. Consequently, the concrete vault enhances containment of otherwise mobile waste ions and contributes to the overall protection of the groundwater at the disposal site

  1. TESTING MODELS OF MAGNETIC FIELD EVOLUTION OF NEUTRON STARS WITH THE STATISTICAL PROPERTIES OF THEIR SPIN EVOLUTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shuangnan; Xie Yi

    2012-01-01

    We test models for the evolution of neutron star (NS) magnetic fields (B). Our model for the evolution of the NS spin is taken from an analysis of pulsar timing noise presented by Hobbs et al.. We first test the standard model of a pulsar's magnetosphere in which B does not change with time and magnetic dipole radiation is assumed to dominate the pulsar's spin-down. We find that this model fails to predict both the magnitudes and signs of the second derivatives of the spin frequencies (ν-double dot). We then construct a phenomenological model of the evolution of B, which contains a long-term decay (LTD) modulated by short-term oscillations; a pulsar's spin is thus modified by its B-evolution. We find that an exponential LTD is not favored by the observed statistical properties of ν-double dot for young pulsars and fails to explain the fact that ν-double dot is negative for roughly half of the old pulsars. A simple power-law LTD can explain all the observed statistical properties of ν-double dot. Finally, we discuss some physical implications of our results to models of the B-decay of NSs and suggest reliable determination of the true ages of many young NSs is needed, in order to constrain further the physical mechanisms of their B-decay. Our model can be further tested with the measured evolutions of ν-dot and ν-double dot for an individual pulsar; the decay index, oscillation amplitude, and period can also be determined this way for the pulsar.

  2. Statistical evaluation of essential/toxic metal levels in the blood of valvular heart disease patients in comparison with controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyas, Asim; Shah, Munir H

    2017-05-12

    The present study was designed to investigate the role of selected essential and toxic metals in the onset/prognosis of valvular heart disease (VHD). Nitric acid-perchloric acid based wet digestion procedure was used for the quantification of the metals by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Comparative appraisal of the data revealed that average levels of Cd, Co, Cr, Fe, K, Li, Mn and Zn were significantly higher in blood of VHD patients, while the average concentration of Ca was found at elevated level in controls (P < 0.05). However, Cu, Mg, Na, Sr and Pb depicted almost comparable levels in the blood of both donor groups. The correlation study revealed significantly different mutual associations among the metals in the blood of VHD patients compared with the controls. Multivariate statistical methods showed substantially divergent grouping of the metals for the patients and controls. Some significant differences in the metal concentrations were also observed with gender, abode, dietary/smoking habits and occupations of both donor groups. Overall, the study demonstrated that disproportions in the concentrations of essential/toxic metals in the blood are involved in pathogenesis of the disease.

  3. Level crossing statistics for optical beam wander in a turbulent atmosphere with applications to ground-to-space laser communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yura, Harold T; Fields, Renny A

    2011-06-20

    Level crossing statistics is applied to the complex problem of atmospheric turbulence-induced beam wander for laser propagation from ground to space. A comprehensive estimate of the single-axis wander angle temporal autocorrelation function and the corresponding power spectrum is used to develop, for the first time to our knowledge, analytic expressions for the mean angular level crossing rate and the mean duration of such crossings. These results are based on an extension and generalization of a previous seminal analysis of the beam wander variance by Klyatskin and Kon. In the geometrical optics limit, we obtain an expression for the beam wander variance that is valid for both an arbitrarily shaped initial beam profile and transmitting aperture. It is shown that beam wander can disrupt bidirectional ground-to-space laser communication systems whose small apertures do not require adaptive optics to deliver uniform beams at their intended target receivers in space. The magnitude and rate of beam wander is estimated for turbulence profiles enveloping some practical laser communication deployment options and suggesting what level of beam wander effects must be mitigated to demonstrate effective bidirectional laser communication systems.

  4. Contrasting effects of feature-based statistics on the categorisation and basic-level identification of visual objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Kirsten I; Devereux, Barry J; Acres, Kadia; Randall, Billi; Tyler, Lorraine K

    2012-03-01

    Conceptual representations are at the heart of our mental lives, involved in every aspect of cognitive functioning. Despite their centrality, a long-standing debate persists as to how the meanings of concepts are represented and processed. Many accounts agree that the meanings of concrete concepts are represented by their individual features, but disagree about the importance of different feature-based variables: some views stress the importance of the information carried by distinctive features in conceptual processing, others the features which are shared over many concepts, and still others the extent to which features co-occur. We suggest that previously disparate theoretical positions and experimental findings can be unified by an account which claims that task demands determine how concepts are processed in addition to the effects of feature distinctiveness and co-occurrence. We tested these predictions in a basic-level naming task which relies on distinctive feature information (Experiment 1) and a domain decision task which relies on shared feature information (Experiment 2). Both used large-scale regression designs with the same visual objects, and mixed-effects models incorporating participant, session, stimulus-related and feature statistic variables to model the performance. We found that concepts with relatively more distinctive and more highly correlated distinctive relative to shared features facilitated basic-level naming latencies, while concepts with relatively more shared and more highly correlated shared relative to distinctive features speeded domain decisions. These findings demonstrate that the feature statistics of distinctiveness (shared vs. distinctive) and correlational strength, as well as the task demands, determine how concept meaning is processed in the conceptual system. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Cluster-level statistical inference in fMRI datasets: The unexpected behavior of random fields in high dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Ravi; Peterson, Bradley S

    2018-06-01

    FWERs. Those rejected clusters were outlying values in the distribution of cluster size but cannot be distinguished from true positive findings without further analyses, including assessing whether fMRI signal in those regions correlates with other clinical, behavioral, or cognitive measures. Rejecting the large clusters, however, significantly reduced the statistical power of nonparametric methods in detecting true findings compared with parametric methods, which would have detected most true findings that are essential for making valid biological inferences in MRI data. Parametric analyses, in contrast, detected most true findings while generating relatively few false positives: on average, less than one of those very large clusters would be deemed a true finding in each brain-wide analysis. We therefore recommend the continued use of parametric methods that model nonstationary smoothness for cluster-level, familywise control of false positives, particularly when using a Cluster Defining Threshold of 2.5 or higher, and subsequently assessing rigorously the biological plausibility of the findings, even for large clusters. Finally, because nonparametric methods yielded a large reduction in statistical power to detect true positive findings, we conclude that the modest reduction in false positive findings that nonparametric analyses afford does not warrant a re-analysis of previously published fMRI studies using nonparametric techniques. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Statistical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Sadovskii, Michael V

    2012-01-01

    This volume provides a compact presentation of modern statistical physics at an advanced level. Beginning with questions on the foundations of statistical mechanics all important aspects of statistical physics are included, such as applications to ideal gases, the theory of quantum liquids and superconductivity and the modern theory of critical phenomena. Beyond that attention is given to new approaches, such as quantum field theory methods and non-equilibrium problems.

  7. Properties of 112Cd from the (n,n'γ) reaction: Levels and level densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, P. E.; Lehmann, H.; Jolie, J.; McGrath, C. A.; Yeh, Minfang; Younes, W.; Yates, S. W.

    2001-01-01

    Levels in 112 Cd have been studied through the (n,n'γ) reaction with monoenergetic neutrons. An extended set of experiments that included excitation functions, γ-ray angular distributions, and γγ coincidence measurements was performed. A total of 375 γ rays were placed in a level scheme comprising 200 levels (of which 238 γ-ray assignments and 58 levels are newly established) up to 4 MeV in excitation. No evidence to support the existence of 47 levels as suggested in previous studies was found, and these have been removed from the level scheme. From the results, a comparison of the level density is made with the constant temperature and back-shifted Fermi gas models. The back-shifted Fermi gas model with the Gilbert-Cameron spin cutoff parameter provided the best overall fit. Without using the neutron resonance information and only fitting the cumulative number of low-lying levels, the level density parameters extracted are a sensitive function of the maximum energy used in the fit

  8. Statistical Comparison of Cloud and Aerosol Vertical Properties between Two Eastern China Regions Based on CloudSat/CALIPSO Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujun Qiu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between cloud and aerosol properties was investigated over two 4° × 4° adjacent regions in the south (R1 and in the north (R2 in eastern China. The CloudSat/CALIPSO data were used to extract the cloud and aerosol profiles properties. The mean value of cloud occurrence probability (COP was the highest in the mixed cloud layer (−40°C~0°C and the lowest in the warm cloud layer (>0°C. The atmospheric humidity was more statistically relevant to COP in the warm cloud layer than aerosol condition. The differences in COP between the two regions in the mixed cloud layer and ice cloud layer (<−40°C had good correlations with those in the aerosol extinction coefficient. A radar reflectivity factor greater than −10 dBZ occurred mainly in warm cloud layers and mixed cloud layers. A high-COP zone appeared in the above-0°C layer with cloud thicknesses of 2-3 km in both regions and in all the four seasons, but the distribution of the zonal layer in R2 was more continuous than that in R1, which was consistent with the higher aerosol optical thickness in R2 than in R1 in the above-0°C layer, indicating a positive correlation between aerosol and cloud probability.

  9. Development of free statistical software enabling researchers to calculate confidence levels, clinical significance curves and risk-benefit contours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakespeare, T.P.; Mukherjee, R.K.; Gebski, V.J.

    2003-01-01

    Confidence levels, clinical significance curves, and risk-benefit contours are tools improving analysis of clinical studies and minimizing misinterpretation of published results, however no software has been available for their calculation. The objective was to develop software to help clinicians utilize these tools. Excel 2000 spreadsheets were designed using only built-in functions, without macros. The workbook was protected and encrypted so that users can modify only input cells. The workbook has 4 spreadsheets for use in studies comparing two patient groups. Sheet 1 comprises instructions and graphic examples for use. Sheet 2 allows the user to input the main study results (e.g. survival rates) into a 2-by-2 table. Confidence intervals (95%), p-value and the confidence level for Treatment A being better than Treatment B are automatically generated. An additional input cell allows the user to determine the confidence associated with a specified level of benefit. For example if the user wishes to know the confidence that Treatment A is at least 10% better than B, 10% is entered. Sheet 2 automatically displays clinical significance curves, graphically illustrating confidence levels for all possible benefits of one treatment over the other. Sheet 3 allows input of toxicity data, and calculates the confidence that one treatment is more toxic than the other. It also determines the confidence that the relative toxicity of the most effective arm does not exceed user-defined tolerability. Sheet 4 automatically calculates risk-benefit contours, displaying the confidence associated with a specified scenario of minimum benefit and maximum risk of one treatment arm over the other. The spreadsheet is freely downloadable at www.ontumor.com/professional/statistics.htm A simple, self-explanatory, freely available spreadsheet calculator was developed using Excel 2000. The incorporated decision-making tools can be used for data analysis and improve the reporting of results of any

  10. RHAPSODY. I. STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES AND FORMATION HISTORY FROM A STATISTICAL SAMPLE OF RE-SIMULATED CLUSTER-SIZE HALOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Hao-Yi; Hahn, Oliver; Wechsler, Risa H.; Mao, Yao-Yuan; Behroozi, Peter S.

    2013-01-01

    We present the first results from the RHAPSODY cluster re-simulation project: a sample of 96 'zoom-in' simulations of dark matter halos of 10 14.8±0.05 h –1 M ☉ , selected from a 1 h –3 Gpc 3 volume. This simulation suite is the first to resolve this many halos with ∼5 × 10 6 particles per halo in the cluster mass regime, allowing us to statistically characterize the distribution of and correlation between halo properties at fixed mass. We focus on the properties of the main halos and how they are affected by formation history, which we track back to z = 12, over five decades in mass. We give particular attention to the impact of the formation history on the density profiles of the halos. We find that the deviations from the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) model and the Einasto model depend on formation time. Late-forming halos tend to have considerable deviations from both models, partly due to the presence of massive subhalos, while early-forming halos deviate less but still significantly from the NFW model and are better described by the Einasto model. We find that the halo shapes depend only moderately on formation time. Departure from spherical symmetry impacts the density profiles through the anisotropic distribution of massive subhalos. Further evidence of the impact of subhalos is provided by analyzing the phase-space structure. A detailed analysis of the properties of the subhalo population in RHAPSODY is presented in a companion paper.

  11. Estimating survival probabilities by exposure levels: utilizing vital statistics and complex survey data with mortality follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsman, V; Lou, W Y W; Graubard, B I

    2015-05-20

    We present a two-step approach for estimating hazard rates and, consequently, survival probabilities, by levels of general categorical exposure. The resulting estimator utilizes three sources of data: vital statistics data and census data are used at the first step to estimate the overall hazard rate for a given combination of gender and age group, and cohort data constructed from a nationally representative complex survey with linked mortality records, are used at the second step to divide the overall hazard rate by exposure levels. We present an explicit expression for the resulting estimator and consider two methods for variance estimation that account for complex multistage sample design: (1) the leaving-one-out jackknife method, and (2) the Taylor linearization method, which provides an analytic formula for the variance estimator. The methods are illustrated with smoking and all-cause mortality data from the US National Health Interview Survey Linked Mortality Files, and the proposed estimator is compared with a previously studied crude hazard rate estimator that uses survey data only. The advantages of a two-step approach and possible extensions of the proposed estimator are discussed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Direct integration of intensity-level data from Affymetrix and Illumina microarrays improves statistical power for robust reanalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turnbull Arran K

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Affymetrix GeneChips and Illumina BeadArrays are the most widely used commercial single channel gene expression microarrays. Public data repositories are an extremely valuable resource, providing array-derived gene expression measurements from many thousands of experiments. Unfortunately many of these studies are underpowered and it is desirable to improve power by combining data from more than one study; we sought to determine whether platform-specific bias precludes direct integration of probe intensity signals for combined reanalysis. Results Using Affymetrix and Illumina data from the microarray quality control project, from our own clinical samples, and from additional publicly available datasets we evaluated several approaches to directly integrate intensity level expression data from the two platforms. After mapping probe sequences to Ensembl genes we demonstrate that, ComBat and cross platform normalisation (XPN, significantly outperform mean-centering and distance-weighted discrimination (DWD in terms of minimising inter-platform variance. In particular we observed that DWD, a popular method used in a number of previous studies, removed systematic bias at the expense of genuine biological variability, potentially reducing legitimate biological differences from integrated datasets. Conclusion Normalised and batch-corrected intensity-level data from Affymetrix and Illumina microarrays can be directly combined to generate biologically meaningful results with improved statistical power for robust, integrated reanalysis.

  13. Harmonic statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliazar, Iddo, E-mail: eliazar@post.tau.ac.il

    2017-05-15

    The exponential, the normal, and the Poisson statistical laws are of major importance due to their universality. Harmonic statistics are as universal as the three aforementioned laws, but yet they fall short in their ‘public relations’ for the following reason: the full scope of harmonic statistics cannot be described in terms of a statistical law. In this paper we describe harmonic statistics, in their full scope, via an object termed harmonic Poisson process: a Poisson process, over the positive half-line, with a harmonic intensity. The paper reviews the harmonic Poisson process, investigates its properties, and presents the connections of this object to an assortment of topics: uniform statistics, scale invariance, random multiplicative perturbations, Pareto and inverse-Pareto statistics, exponential growth and exponential decay, power-law renormalization, convergence and domains of attraction, the Langevin equation, diffusions, Benford’s law, and 1/f noise. - Highlights: • Harmonic statistics are described and reviewed in detail. • Connections to various statistical laws are established. • Connections to perturbation, renormalization and dynamics are established.

  14. Harmonic statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2017-01-01

    The exponential, the normal, and the Poisson statistical laws are of major importance due to their universality. Harmonic statistics are as universal as the three aforementioned laws, but yet they fall short in their ‘public relations’ for the following reason: the full scope of harmonic statistics cannot be described in terms of a statistical law. In this paper we describe harmonic statistics, in their full scope, via an object termed harmonic Poisson process: a Poisson process, over the positive half-line, with a harmonic intensity. The paper reviews the harmonic Poisson process, investigates its properties, and presents the connections of this object to an assortment of topics: uniform statistics, scale invariance, random multiplicative perturbations, Pareto and inverse-Pareto statistics, exponential growth and exponential decay, power-law renormalization, convergence and domains of attraction, the Langevin equation, diffusions, Benford’s law, and 1/f noise. - Highlights: • Harmonic statistics are described and reviewed in detail. • Connections to various statistical laws are established. • Connections to perturbation, renormalization and dynamics are established.

  15. Spatial, spectral and statistical properties of the electrostatic fluctuations and measurements of the scattering of the beam in a strongly turbulent plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Michael Duane

    The purpose of this investigation is to measure the spatial, spectral and statistical properties of the high (/omega/ ~/ ω pe) and low (/omega/ ~/ ωpi) frequency electrostatic fluctuations in an unmagnetized, statistically stable, beam-driven, strongly turbulent plasma and compare the results to theoretical predictions. In addition the scattering of the electron beam in both angle and energy is measured and compared to theory. This study is motivated by the recent advances in statistical theories of strong Langmuir turbulence and the glaring lack of confirmatory experimental data. With the advent of modern computers and electronics, enormous data sets are now routinely digitize and subjected to sophisticated statistical and spectral analysis. These methods, along with traditional procedures and an innovative technique known as a 'conditional trigger', are used to extract ensemble averages from the turbulent system for comparison with the theoretical models. It is found that the high-frequency fluctuations consist of low-level wave activity /langle W/rangle/ ~/ 10-2 - 103 punctuated by semi-periodic, intense, spiky field events /langle W/rangle/ ~/ 1, where /langle W/rangle is the normalized intensity. The low- level wave activity has a spectral spread Δ k/k/ ~/ /Delta/omega//omega/ ~ 30%, dispersion relation v beam/ ~/ /omega/k, and correlation length lc/ /approx/ 3λES, where λES is the electrostatic wavelength, and shows evidence of low-intensity parametric decay products. The intense field events, on the other hand, show little correlation for l/ >/ λES, have a full-width-at-half-maximum of 1 f/ /n2/ /propto/ β where β ~/ 1.3 for the experiment and is predicted to be β ~/ 1.98 by the model. The scattering of the electron beam in angle for a typical wave intensity level /langle W/rangle/ ~/ 0.04 is Θ ~/ 3o, and in energy is Δ U/ ~/ 25 eV for a 400 eV beam. The scattering of the beam in both angle and energy is found to agree well with theory.

  16. Statistical aspects of nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parikh, J.C.

    1977-01-01

    The statistical properties of energy levels and a statistical approach to transition strengths are discussed in relation to nuclear structure studies at high excitation energies. It is shown that the calculations can be extended to the ground state domain also. The discussion is based on the study of random matrix theory of level density and level spacings, using the Gaussian Orthogonal Ensemble (GOE) concept. The short range and long range correlations are also studied statistically. The polynomial expansion method is used to obtain excitation strengths. (A.K.)

  17. The spread of scientific information: insights from the web usage statistics in PLoS article-level metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Koon-Kiu; Gerstein, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The presence of web-based communities is a distinctive signature of Web 2.0. The web-based feature means that information propagation within each community is highly facilitated, promoting complex collective dynamics in view of information exchange. In this work, we focus on a community of scientists and study, in particular, how the awareness of a scientific paper is spread. Our work is based on the web usage statistics obtained from the PLoS Article Level Metrics dataset compiled by PLoS. The cumulative number of HTML views was found to follow a long tail distribution which is reasonably well-fitted by a lognormal one. We modeled the diffusion of information by a random multiplicative process, and thus extracted the rates of information spread at different stages after the publication of a paper. We found that the spread of information displays two distinct decay regimes: a rapid downfall in the first month after publication, and a gradual power law decay afterwards. We identified these two regimes with two distinct driving processes: a short-term behavior driven by the fame of a paper, and a long-term behavior consistent with citation statistics. The patterns of information spread were found to be remarkably similar in data from different journals, but there are intrinsic differences for different types of web usage (HTML views and PDF downloads versus XML). These similarities and differences shed light on the theoretical understanding of different complex systems, as well as a better design of the corresponding web applications that is of high potential marketing impact.

  18. The spread of scientific information: insights from the web usage statistics in PLoS article-level metrics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koon-Kiu Yan

    Full Text Available The presence of web-based communities is a distinctive signature of Web 2.0. The web-based feature means that information propagation within each community is highly facilitated, promoting complex collective dynamics in view of information exchange. In this work, we focus on a community of scientists and study, in particular, how the awareness of a scientific paper is spread. Our work is based on the web usage statistics obtained from the PLoS Article Level Metrics dataset compiled by PLoS. The cumulative number of HTML views was found to follow a long tail distribution which is reasonably well-fitted by a lognormal one. We modeled the diffusion of information by a random multiplicative process, and thus extracted the rates of information spread at different stages after the publication of a paper. We found that the spread of information displays two distinct decay regimes: a rapid downfall in the first month after publication, and a gradual power law decay afterwards. We identified these two regimes with two distinct driving processes: a short-term behavior driven by the fame of a paper, and a long-term behavior consistent with citation statistics. The patterns of information spread were found to be remarkably similar in data from different journals, but there are intrinsic differences for different types of web usage (HTML views and PDF downloads versus XML. These similarities and differences shed light on the theoretical understanding of different complex systems, as well as a better design of the corresponding web applications that is of high potential marketing impact.

  19. Student learning of upper-level thermal and statistical physics: The derivation and use of the Boltzmann factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, John

    2015-04-01

    As the Physical Review Focused Collection demonstrates, recent frontiers in physics education research include systematic investigations at the upper division. As part of a collaborative project, we have examined student understanding of several topics in upper-division thermal and statistical physics. A fruitful context for research is the Boltzmann factor in statistical mechanics: the standard derivation involves several physically justified mathematical steps as well as the invocation of a Taylor series expansion. We have investigated student understanding of the physical significance of the Boltzmann factor as well as its utility in various circumstances, and identified various lines of student reasoning related to the use of the Boltzmann factor. Results from written data as well as teaching interviews suggest that many students do not use the Boltzmann factor when answering questions related to probability in applicable physical situations, even after lecture instruction. We designed an inquiry-based tutorial activity to guide students through a derivation of the Boltzmann factor and to encourage deep connections between the physical quantities involved and the mathematics. Observations of students working through the tutorial suggest that many students at this level can recognize and interpret Taylor series expansions, but they often lack fluency in creating and using Taylor series appropriately, despite previous exposure in both calculus and physics courses. Our findings also suggest that tutorial participation not only increases the prevalence of relevant invocation of the Boltzmann factor, but also helps students gain an appreciation of the physical implications and meaning of the mathematical formalism behind the formula. Supported in part by NSF Grants DUE-0817282, DUE-0837214, and DUE-1323426.

  20. Statistical correlations for thermophysical properties of Supercritical Argon (SCAR) used in cooling of futuristic High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) cables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalsia, Mohit [School of Mechanical Engineering, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, 144 401 (India); Dondapati, Raja Sekhar, E-mail: drsekhar@ieee.org [School of Mechanical Engineering, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, 144 401 (India); Usurumarti, Preeti Rao [Department of Mechanical Engineering, PVK Institute of Technology, Anantpur, 515 001 (India)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • The developed correlations can be integrated into thermohydraulic analysis of HTS cables. • This work also explains the phenomenon of flow with less pumping power and maximum heat transfer in HTS cables. • Pumping power required to circulate the SCAR for cooling of HTS cables would be significantly lower. • For Hg-based high temperature superconductors (T{sub c} > 134 K), SCAR found to be a suitable coolant. - Abstract: High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) cables are emerging as an alternative to conventional cables in efficient power transmission. However, these HTS cables require cooling below the critical temperature of superconductors used to transmit larger currents. With the invention of high temperature superconductors whose critical temperatures are up to 134 K (Hg based), it is a great challenge to identify a suitable coolant which can carry away the heating load on the superconductors. In order to accomplish such challenge, an attempt has been made in the present work to propose supercritical Argon (SCAR) as the alternative to cool the HTS cables. Further, a statistical correlation has been developed for the thermophysical properties such as density, viscosity, specific heat and thermal conductivity of SCAR. In addition, the accuracy of developed correlations is established with the help of few statistical parameters and validated with standard database available in the literature. These temperature dependent accurate correlations are useful in predicting the pressure drop and heat transfer behaviour in HTS cables using numerical or computational techniques. In recent times, with the sophistication of computer technology, solving of various complex transport equations along with the turbulence models became popular and hence the developed correlations would benefit the technological community. It is observed that, a decrease in pressure, density and viscosity are found to be decreasing whereas the thermal conductivity and specific

  1. Statistical correlations for thermophysical properties of Supercritical Argon (SCAR) used in cooling of futuristic High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalsia, Mohit; Dondapati, Raja Sekhar; Usurumarti, Preeti Rao

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The developed correlations can be integrated into thermohydraulic analysis of HTS cables. • This work also explains the phenomenon of flow with less pumping power and maximum heat transfer in HTS cables. • Pumping power required to circulate the SCAR for cooling of HTS cables would be significantly lower. • For Hg-based high temperature superconductors (T_c > 134 K), SCAR found to be a suitable coolant. - Abstract: High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) cables are emerging as an alternative to conventional cables in efficient power transmission. However, these HTS cables require cooling below the critical temperature of superconductors used to transmit larger currents. With the invention of high temperature superconductors whose critical temperatures are up to 134 K (Hg based), it is a great challenge to identify a suitable coolant which can carry away the heating load on the superconductors. In order to accomplish such challenge, an attempt has been made in the present work to propose supercritical Argon (SCAR) as the alternative to cool the HTS cables. Further, a statistical correlation has been developed for the thermophysical properties such as density, viscosity, specific heat and thermal conductivity of SCAR. In addition, the accuracy of developed correlations is established with the help of few statistical parameters and validated with standard database available in the literature. These temperature dependent accurate correlations are useful in predicting the pressure drop and heat transfer behaviour in HTS cables using numerical or computational techniques. In recent times, with the sophistication of computer technology, solving of various complex transport equations along with the turbulence models became popular and hence the developed correlations would benefit the technological community. It is observed that, a decrease in pressure, density and viscosity are found to be decreasing whereas the thermal conductivity and specific heat

  2. A statistical method for predicting sound absorbing property of porous metal materials by using quartet structure generation set

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan, Dong; Wu, Jiu Hui; Jing, Li

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A random internal morphology and structure generation-growth method, termed as the quartet structure generation set (QSGS), has been utilized based on the stochastic cluster growth theory for numerical generating the various microstructures of porous metal materials. • Effects of different parameters such as thickness and porosity on sound absorption performance of the generated structures are studied by the present method, and the obtained results are validated by an empirical model as well. • This method could be utilized to guide the design and fabrication of the sound-absorption porous metal materials. - Abstract: In this paper, a statistical method for predicting sound absorption properties of porous metal materials is presented. To reflect the stochastic distribution characteristics of the porous metal materials, a random internal morphology and structure generation-growth method, termed as the quartet structure generation set (QSGS), has been utilized based on the stochastic cluster growth theory for numerical generating the various microstructures of porous metal materials. Then by using the transfer-function approach along with the QSGS tool, we investigate the sound absorbing performance of porous metal materials with complex stochastic geometries. The statistical method has been validated by the good agreement among the numerical results for metal rubber from this method and a previous empirical model and the corresponding experimental data. Furthermore, the effects of different parameters such as thickness and porosity on sound absorption performance of the generated structures are studied by the present method, and the obtained results are validated by an empirical model as well. Therefore, the present method is a reliable and robust method for predicting the sound absorption performance of porous metal materials, and could be utilized to guide the design and fabrication of the sound-absorption porous metal materials

  3. Relative level of occurrence of the principal heuristics in Nigeria property valuation

    OpenAIRE

    Iroham C.O.,; Ogunba, O.A.; Oloyede, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    The neglect of the other principal heuristics namely avaialability, representative and positivity in real estate behaviourial property research as against the exclusive focus on anchoring and adjustment heuristics invariably results to a lopsided research. This work studied the four principal heuristics in property behaviourial property valutaion in a bid to discovering its relative level of occurrence. The study adopted a cross-sectional questionnaire survey approach of 159 of the 270 Head O...

  4. MQSA National Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Standards Act and Program MQSA Insights MQSA National Statistics Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... but should level off with time. Archived Scorecard Statistics 2018 Scorecard Statistics 2017 Scorecard Statistics 2016 Scorecard ...

  5. Dynamic and statistical thermodynamic properties of electrons in a thin quantum well in a parallel magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horing, Norman J Morgenstern; Glasser, M Lawrence; Dong Bing

    2006-01-01

    We carry out a theoretical analysis of quantum well electron dynamics in a parallel magnetic field of arbitrary strength, for a narrow quantum well. An explicit analytical closed-form solution is obtained for the retarded Green's function for Landau-quantized electrons in skipping states of motion between the narrow well walls, effectively involving in-plane translational motion, and hybridized with the zero-field lowest subband energy eigenstate. The dispersion relation for electron eigenstates is examined, and we find a plethora of such discrete Landau-quantized modes coupled to the subband state. In the weak field limit, we determine low magnetic field corrections to the lowest subband state energy associated with close-packing (phase averaging) of the Landau levels in the skipping states. At higher fields the discrete energy levels of the well lie between adjacent Landau levels, but they are not equally spaced, albeit undamped. Furthermore, we also examine the associated thermodynamic Green's function for Landau-quantized electrons in a thin quantum well in a parallel magnetic field and construct the (grand) thermodynamic potential (logarithm of the grand partition function) determining the statistical thermodynamics of the system

  6. Glass Property Data and Models for Estimating High-Level Waste Glass Volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vienna, John D.; Fluegel, Alexander; Kim, Dong-Sang; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2009-10-05

    This report describes recent efforts to develop glass property models that can be used to help estimate the volume of high-level waste (HLW) glass that will result from vitrification of Hanford tank waste. The compositions of acceptable and processable HLW glasses need to be optimized to minimize the waste-form volume and, hence, to save cost. A database of properties and associated compositions for simulated waste glasses was collected for developing property-composition models. This database, although not comprehensive, represents a large fraction of data on waste-glass compositions and properties that were available at the time of this report. Glass property-composition models were fit to subsets of the database for several key glass properties. These models apply to a significantly broader composition space than those previously publised. These models should be considered for interim use in calculating properties of Hanford waste glasses.

  7. Glass Property Data and Models for Estimating High-Level Waste Glass Volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vienna, John D.; Fluegel, Alexander; Kim, Dong-Sang; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes recent efforts to develop glass property models that can be used to help estimate the volume of high-level waste (HLW) glass that will result from vitrification of Hanford tank waste. The compositions of acceptable and processable HLW glasses need to be optimized to minimize the waste-form volume and, hence, to save cost. A database of properties and associated compositions for simulated waste glasses was collected for developing property-composition models. This database, although not comprehensive, represents a large fraction of data on waste-glass compositions and properties that were available at the time of this report. Glass property-composition models were fit to subsets of the database for several key glass properties. These models apply to a significantly broader composition space than those previously publised. These models should be considered for interim use in calculating properties of Hanford waste glasses.

  8. The Potential Effect of Sea Level Rise on Coastal Property Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, J.

    2015-12-01

    It is well established that one consequence of increasing global sea level is that the frequency of flooding at low-lying coastal sites will increase. We review recent evidence that the effects coastal geometry will create substantial spatial variations in the changes in flooding frequency with scales of order 100km. Using a simple model of the evolution of coastal property values we demonstrate that a consequence of sea level rise is that the appreciation of coastal properties will peak, and then decline relative to higher properties. The time when the value reach a maximum is shown to depend upon the demand for the coastal property, and the local rate of change of flooding frequency due to sea level rise. The simple model is then extended to include, in an elementary manner, the effects on the value of adjacent but higher properties. We show that the effect of increased flooding frequency of the lower properties leads to an accelerated appreciation of the value of upland properties and an accelerated decline in the value of the coastal properties. We then provide some example calculations for selected sites. We conclude with a discussion of comparisons of the prediction of the analyses to recent data, and then comments on the impact of sea level rise on tax base of coastal communities.

  9. The effect of soilagrochemical properties on level of available phosphate in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yumei

    1985-01-01

    Superphosphate labelled with 32 P and 15 typies of soil were used to study the effect of various soil-agrochemical properties on the availability of phosphate. The level was figured with A value. The relations of A to soybean yield and soil-agro-chemical properties were analysed through Multiple regression

  10. Fluctuation properties of nuclear energy levels and widths: comparison of theory with experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohigas, O.; Haq, R.U.; Pandey, A.

    1982-09-01

    We analyze the fluctuation properties of nuclear energy levels and widths with new spectrally averaged measures. A remarkably close agreement between the predictions of random-matrix theories and experiment is found

  11. Robust nuclei segmentation in cyto-histopathological images using statistical level set approach with topology preserving constraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, Shaghayegh; Fevens, Thomas; Bui, Tien D.

    2017-02-01

    Computerized assessments for diagnosis or malignancy grading of cyto-histopathological specimens have drawn increased attention in the field of digital pathology. Automatic segmentation of cell nuclei is a fundamental step in such automated systems. Despite considerable research, nuclei segmentation is still a challenging task due noise, nonuniform illumination, and most importantly, in 2D projection images, overlapping and touching nuclei. In most published approaches, nuclei refinement is a post-processing step after segmentation, which usually refers to the task of detaching the aggregated nuclei or merging the over-segmented nuclei. In this work, we present a novel segmentation technique which effectively addresses the problem of individually segmenting touching or overlapping cell nuclei during the segmentation process. The proposed framework is a region-based segmentation method, which consists of three major modules: i) the image is passed through a color deconvolution step to extract the desired stains; ii) then the generalized fast radial symmetry transform is applied to the image followed by non-maxima suppression to specify the initial seed points for nuclei, and their corresponding GFRS ellipses which are interpreted as the initial nuclei borders for segmentation; iii) finally, these nuclei border initial curves are evolved through the use of a statistical level-set approach along with topology preserving criteria for segmentation and separation of nuclei at the same time. The proposed method is evaluated using Hematoxylin and Eosin, and fluorescent stained images, performing qualitative and quantitative analysis, showing that the method outperforms thresholding and watershed segmentation approaches.

  12. Acoustic properties of perforates under high level multi-tone excitation

    OpenAIRE

    Bodén, Hans

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the effect of high level multi-tone acoustic excitation on the acoustic properties of perforates. It is based on a large experimental study of the nonlinear properties of these types of samples without mean grazing or bias flow. Compared to previously published results the present investigation concentrates on the effect of multiple harmonics. It is known from previous studies that high level acoustic excitation at one frequency will change the acoustic impedance of perfo...

  13. Thermodynamic properties of nonstoichiometric H-Nb2 Osub(5-x) derived from a statistical model of its defect structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilling, O.F.

    1986-01-01

    A statistical method for the treatment of the defect structure of oxides is applied to H-Nb 2 Osub(5-x) and its thermodynamic properties are derived as a function of x and temperature. The results based on a model of Nb O 3 vacancy clusters located at the tetrahedral columns of the structure presented very good agreement with experimental data in the literature [2]. Further, the predicted arrangement of the clusters of vacancies along the columns at the limiting composition of the H-Nb 2 O 5 phase indicates, according to recent electron microscopy experiments [18, 19], that the initial step of the transformation is the collapse of the structure around rows of defective sites along the columns, involving Andersson and Wadsley's [20] cooperative migration of atoms. The limiting compositions of the H-Nb 2 O 5 and Nb 53 O 132 phases are also correctly predicted on the basis of electrostatic interactions among defect units only. Thus elastic interactions among planar defects appear to affect only the arrangement of such defects, and not the compositions of the initial and final compounds. (author)

  14. Low-frequency variability of the atmospheric circulation: a comparison of statistical properties in both hemispheres and extreme seasons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzzi, A.; Tosi, E.

    1988-01-01

    A statistical investigation is presented of the main variables characterizing the tropospheric general circulation in both hemispheres and extreme season, Winter and Summer. This gives up the opportunity of comparing four distinct realizations of the planetary circulation, as function of different orographic and thermal forcing conditions. Our approach is made possible by the availability of 6 years of global daily analyses prepared by ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecast). The variables taken into account are the zonal geostrophic wind, the zonal thermal wind and various large-scala wave components, averaged over the tropospheric depth between 1000 and 200 hPa. The mean properties of the analysed quantities in each hemisphere and season are compared and their principal characteristics are discussed. The probability density estimates for the same variables, filtered in order to eliminate the seasonal cycle and the high frequency 'noise', are then presented. The distributions are examined, in particular, with respect of their unimodal or multimodal nature and with reference to the recent discussion in the literature on the bimodality which has been found for some indicators of planetary wave activity in the Nothern Hemisphere Winter. Our results indicate the presence of nonunimodally distributed wave and zonal flow components in both hemispheres and extreme season. The most frequent occurrence of nonunimodal behaviour is found for those wave components which exhibit an almost vanishing zonal phase speed and a larger 'response' to orographic forcing

  15. A Statistical Test for Identifying the Number of Creep Regimes When Using the Wilshire Equations for Creep Property Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Mark

    2016-12-01

    A new parametric approach, termed the Wilshire equations, offers the realistic potential of being able to accurately lift materials operating at in-service conditions from accelerated test results lasting no more than 5000 hours. The success of this approach can be attributed to a well-defined linear relationship that appears to exist between various creep properties and a log transformation of the normalized stress. However, these linear trends are subject to discontinuities, the number of which appears to differ from material to material. These discontinuities have until now been (1) treated as abrupt in nature and (2) identified by eye from an inspection of simple graphical plots of the data. This article puts forward a statistical test for determining the correct number of discontinuities present within a creep data set and a method for allowing these discontinuities to occur more gradually, so that the methodology is more in line with the accepted view as to how creep mechanisms evolve with changing test conditions. These two developments are fully illustrated using creep data sets on two steel alloys. When these new procedures are applied to these steel alloys, not only do they produce more accurate and realistic looking long-term predictions of the minimum creep rate, but they also lead to different conclusions about the mechanisms determining the rates of creep from those originally put forward by Wilshire.

  16. The Development and Evolution of an Introductory Statistics Course for In-Service Middle-Level Mathematics Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmind, Kendra K.; Blankenship, Erin E.; Kerby. April T.; Green, Jennifer L.; Smith, Wendy M.

    2014-01-01

    The statistical preparation of in-service teachers, particularly middle school teachers, has been an area of concern for several years. This paper discusses the creation and delivery of an introductory statistics course as part of a master's degree program for in-service mathematics teachers. The initial course development took place before the…

  17. Development and Validation of a Teaching Practice Scale (TISS) for Instructors of Introductory Statistics at the College Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassad, Rossi A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the teaching practices of 227 college instructors of introductory statistics (from the health and behavioral sciences). Using primarily multidimensional scaling (MDS) techniques, a two-dimensional, 10-item teaching practice scale, TISS (Teaching of Introductory Statistics Scale), was developed and validated. The two dimensions…

  18. Statistical analysis and mapping of water levels in the Biscayne aquifer, water conservation areas, and Everglades National Park, Miami-Dade County, Florida, 2000–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinos, Scott T.; Dixon, Joann F.

    2016-02-25

    Statistical analyses and maps representing mean, high, and low water-level conditions in the surface water and groundwater of Miami-Dade County were made by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Miami-Dade County Department of Regulatory and Economic Resources, to help inform decisions necessary for urban planning and development. Sixteen maps were created that show contours of (1) the mean of daily water levels at each site during October and May for the 2000–2009 water years; (2) the 25th, 50th, and 75th percentiles of the daily water levels at each site during October and May and for all months during 2000–2009; and (3) the differences between mean October and May water levels, as well as the differences in the percentiles of water levels for all months, between 1990–1999 and 2000–2009. The 80th, 90th, and 96th percentiles of the annual maximums of daily groundwater levels during 1974–2009 (a 35-year period) were computed to provide an indication of unusually high groundwater-level conditions. These maps and statistics provide a generalized understanding of the variations of water levels in the aquifer, rather than a survey of concurrent water levels. Water-level measurements from 473 sites in Miami-Dade County and surrounding counties were analyzed to generate statistical analyses. The monitored water levels included surface-water levels in canals and wetland areas and groundwater levels in the Biscayne aquifer.

  19. Evaluation of the 2039 keV level property in {sup 124}Te

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katakura, J. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    One of the purposes of the mass chain evaluation is to provide reliable level properties of isobars based on available experimental data. In the work of A=124 mass chain evaluation, we have faced some confusing data relating to confirming the level properties of the 2039 keV level in {sup 124}Te: (1) inconsistent intensity ratios of emitted gamma rays between reaction gamma ray and decay gamma ray data, (2) placement of 2039 keV gamma ray transition and (3) gamma ray angular correlation data relating to the level. In the evaluation work, we have to reconcile the confusing data and to provide the adopted ones derived from the available data. In this report, the problems relating to the level properties are described and the reanalyses of the measured data are presented for providing the adopted data. (author)

  20. Understanding Statistics - Cancer Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annual reports of U.S. cancer statistics including new cases, deaths, trends, survival, prevalence, lifetime risk, and progress toward Healthy People targets, plus statistical summaries for a number of common cancer types.

  1. TECHNICAL EFFICIENCY AND TECHNICAL LEVEL INDICATORS APPLICATION FOR CIVIL AIRCRAFT FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim V. Efimov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional properties characterize the purpose of the aircraft and are described by its flight performance characteristics such as range and cruising speed, payload, runway characteristics, etc. Functional properties also characterize the aircraft efficiency that determines the objective need for their analysis by both aircraft designers and operators in conditions of permanent and systematic efficiency increase necessity. When choosing the aircraft, it is important for the operator to make sure that a selected aircraft type has a high level of functional properties, which will allow it to provide high operational efficiency without obsolescence in the long term. However, when choosing from several aircraft types the operator has to face the fact that some characteristics of considered aircraft variants are better and the others are worse that does not allow to definitely determine what aircraft type has a higher level of functional properties.The possibility of applying technical efficiency indicators and a generalized technical level indicator for analyzing the functional properties of civil aviation aircraft is explored in this article. Fuel, weight and target efficiency values as well as the previously improved technical level indicator value were calculated for the different generations and modifications of Boeing 737 and Airbus A320 families of medium-range airplanes, which was followed by the results interpretation within one airplane generation and when moving historically from one airplane generation to another. According to analysis results it is concluded that it is impossible to define the change of the aircraft functional properties level by the change in the values of separate technical efficiency indicators. Thus, it is proposed to use a generalized technical level indicator that determines the level of aircraft technical perfection for purpose and to use efficiency indicators to analyze the cost of providing this level of

  2. Statistical Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Mandl, Franz

    1988-01-01

    The Manchester Physics Series General Editors: D. J. Sandiford; F. Mandl; A. C. Phillips Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester Properties of Matter B. H. Flowers and E. Mendoza Optics Second Edition F. G. Smith and J. H. Thomson Statistical Physics Second Edition E. Mandl Electromagnetism Second Edition I. S. Grant and W. R. Phillips Statistics R. J. Barlow Solid State Physics Second Edition J. R. Hook and H. E. Hall Quantum Mechanics F. Mandl Particle Physics Second Edition B. R. Martin and G. Shaw The Physics of Stars Second Edition A. C. Phillips Computing for Scient

  3. Nuclear Level Densities for Modeling Nuclear Reactions: An Efficient Approach Using Statistical Spectroscopy: Annual Scientific Report July 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvin W. Johnson

    2004-01-01

    The general goal of the project is to develop and implement computer codes and input files to compute nuclear densities of state. Such densities are important input into calculations of statistical neutron capture, and are difficult to access experimentally. In particular, we will focus on calculating densities for nuclides in the mass range A ?????? 50 - 100. We use statistical spectroscopy, a moments method based upon a microscopic framework, the interacting shell model. In this report we present our progress for the past year

  4. Physics-Based Image Segmentation Using First Order Statistical Properties and Genetic Algorithm for Inductive Thermography Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Bin; Li, Xiaoqing; Woo, Wai Lok; Tian, Gui Yun

    2018-05-01

    Thermographic inspection has been widely applied to non-destructive testing and evaluation with the capabilities of rapid, contactless, and large surface area detection. Image segmentation is considered essential for identifying and sizing defects. To attain a high-level performance, specific physics-based models that describe defects generation and enable the precise extraction of target region are of crucial importance. In this paper, an effective genetic first-order statistical image segmentation algorithm is proposed for quantitative crack detection. The proposed method automatically extracts valuable spatial-temporal patterns from unsupervised feature extraction algorithm and avoids a range of issues associated with human intervention in laborious manual selection of specific thermal video frames for processing. An internal genetic functionality is built into the proposed algorithm to automatically control the segmentation threshold to render enhanced accuracy in sizing the cracks. Eddy current pulsed thermography will be implemented as a platform to demonstrate surface crack detection. Experimental tests and comparisons have been conducted to verify the efficacy of the proposed method. In addition, a global quantitative assessment index F-score has been adopted to objectively evaluate the performance of different segmentation algorithms.

  5. Tissue-Level Mechanical Properties of Bone Contributing to Fracture Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, Jeffry S; Granke, Mathilde; Singleton, Robert C; Pharr, George M

    2016-08-01

    Tissue-level mechanical properties characterize mechanical behavior independently of microscopic porosity. Specifically, quasi-static nanoindentation provides measurements of modulus (stiffness) and hardness (resistance to yielding) of tissue at the length scale of the lamella, while dynamic nanoindentation assesses time-dependent behavior in the form of storage modulus (stiffness), loss modulus (dampening), and loss factor (ratio of the two). While these properties are useful in establishing how a gene, signaling pathway, or disease of interest affects bone tissue, they generally do not vary with aging after skeletal maturation or with osteoporosis. Heterogeneity in tissue-level mechanical properties or in compositional properties may contribute to fracture risk, but a consensus on whether the contribution is negative or positive has not emerged. In vivo indentation of bone tissue is now possible, and the mechanical resistance to microindentation has the potential for improving fracture risk assessment, though determinants are currently unknown.

  6. Principal Components of Superhigh-Dimensional Statistical Features and Support Vector Machine for Improving Identification Accuracies of Different Gear Crack Levels under Different Working Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gears are widely used in gearbox to transmit power from one shaft to another. Gear crack is one of the most frequent gear fault modes found in industry. Identification of different gear crack levels is beneficial in preventing any unexpected machine breakdown and reducing economic loss because gear crack leads to gear tooth breakage. In this paper, an intelligent fault diagnosis method for identification of different gear crack levels under different working conditions is proposed. First, superhigh-dimensional statistical features are extracted from continuous wavelet transform at different scales. The number of the statistical features extracted by using the proposed method is 920 so that the extracted statistical features are superhigh dimensional. To reduce the dimensionality of the extracted statistical features and generate new significant low-dimensional statistical features, a simple and effective method called principal component analysis is used. To further improve identification accuracies of different gear crack levels under different working conditions, support vector machine is employed. Three experiments are investigated to show the superiority of the proposed method. Comparisons with other existing gear crack level identification methods are conducted. The results show that the proposed method has the highest identification accuracies among all existing methods.

  7. Physicomechanical properties of single- and two-phase polycrystalline materials on micro- and macroscopic levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuksa, L.V.; Arzamaskova, L.M.

    2000-01-01

    The results of studies on elastic and plastic properties of the single- and two-phase polycrystalline materials in dependence on the choice of the consideration scale level are presented. The experimental and theoretical methods, making it possible to study the role of the scale factor by consideration on the micro- and macrolevel and the peculiarities of forming the physicomechanical properties of the material as a whole, are developed. The dependences, characterizing the change of the physicomechanical properties by different scales of consideration, are obtained [ru

  8. Effect of cultivar on phenolic levels, anthocyanin composition, and antioxidant properties in purple basil (Ocimum basilicum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanigan, Patrick M; Niemeyer, Emily D

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we determined the effect of cultivar on total and individual anthocyanin concentrations and phenolic acid levels in eight purple basil varieties and examined the relationship between anthocyanin content, phenolic acid composition, and antioxidant properties. Cultivar had a significant influence on total anthocyanin concentrations as well as individual anthocyanin composition. The four major basil anthocyanins (labelled A-D) were quantified and cultivar had a statistically significant effect on anthocyanins B (p<0.01), C (p<0.01), and D (p<0.01), but not on anthocyanin A (p=0.94). Cultivar did not have a significant effect on total phenolic levels, although it did influence the concentration of some individual phenolic acids, including caftaric (p=0.03) and chicoric (p=0.04) acids. Although total phenolic and anthocyanin levels correlated with measured FRAP antioxidant capacities, for some cultivars the individual phenolic acid and anthocyanin composition was also an important factor affecting the antioxidant properties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Statistical optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, J. W.

    This book is based on the thesis that some training in the area of statistical optics should be included as a standard part of any advanced optics curriculum. Random variables are discussed, taking into account definitions of probability and random variables, distribution functions and density functions, an extension to two or more random variables, statistical averages, transformations of random variables, sums of real random variables, Gaussian random variables, complex-valued random variables, and random phasor sums. Other subjects examined are related to random processes, some first-order properties of light waves, the coherence of optical waves, some problems involving high-order coherence, effects of partial coherence on imaging systems, imaging in the presence of randomly inhomogeneous media, and fundamental limits in photoelectric detection of light. Attention is given to deterministic versus statistical phenomena and models, the Fourier transform, and the fourth-order moment of the spectrum of a detected speckle image.

  10. Statistical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Jana, Madhusudan

    2015-01-01

    Statistical mechanics is self sufficient, written in a lucid manner, keeping in mind the exam system of the universities. Need of study this subject and its relation to Thermodynamics is discussed in detail. Starting from Liouville theorem gradually, the Statistical Mechanics is developed thoroughly. All three types of Statistical distribution functions are derived separately with their periphery of applications and limitations. Non-interacting ideal Bose gas and Fermi gas are discussed thoroughly. Properties of Liquid He-II and the corresponding models have been depicted. White dwarfs and condensed matter physics, transport phenomenon - thermal and electrical conductivity, Hall effect, Magneto resistance, viscosity, diffusion, etc. are discussed. Basic understanding of Ising model is given to explain the phase transition. The book ends with a detailed coverage to the method of ensembles (namely Microcanonical, canonical and grand canonical) and their applications. Various numerical and conceptual problems ar...

  11. Expansions of GMM statistics that indicate their properties under weak and/or many instruments and the bootstrap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleibergen, F.R.

    2003-01-01

    We show that the sensitivity of the limit distribution of commonly used GMM statistics to weak and many instruments results from superfluous elements in the higher order expansion of these statistics. When the instruments are strong and their number is small, these elements are of higher order and

  12. Columnar Aerosol Properties from Sun-and-star Photometry: Statistical Comparisons and Day-to-night Dynamic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Daniel Perez; Lyamani, H.; Olmo, F. J.; Whiteman, D. N.; Alados-Arboledas, L.

    2012-01-01

    This work presents the first analysis of longterm correlative day-to-night columnar aerosol optical properties. The aim is to better understand columnar aerosol dynamic from ground-based observations, which are poorly studied until now. To this end we have used a combination of sun-and-star photometry measurements acquired in the city of Granada (37.16 N, 3.60 W, 680 ma.s.l.; South-East of Spain) from 2007 to 2010. For the whole study period, mean aerosol optical depth (AOD) around 440 nm (+/-standard deviation) is 0.18 +/- 0.10 and 0.19 +/- 0.11 for daytime and nighttime, respectively, while the mean Angstr¨om exponent (alpha ) is 1.0 +/- 0.4 and 0.9 +/- 0.4 for daytime and nighttime. The ANOVA statistical tests reveal that there are no significant differences between AOD and obtained at daytime and those at nighttime. Additionally, the mean daytime values of AOD and obtained during this study period are coherent with the values obtained in the surrounding AERONET stations. On the other hand, AOD around 440 nm present evident seasonal patterns characterised by large values in summer (mean value of 0.20 +/- 0.10 both at daytime and nighttime) and low values in winter (mean value of 0.15 +/- 0.09 at daytime and 0.17 +/- 0.10 at nighttime). The Angstr¨om exponents also present seasonal patterns, but with low values in summer (mean values of 0.8 +/- 0.4 and 0.9 +/- 0.4 at dayand night-time) and relatively large values in winter (mean values of 1.2 +/- 0.4 and 1.0 +/- 0.3 at daytime and nighttime). These seasonal patterns are explained by the differences in the meteorological conditions and by the differences in the strength of the aerosol sources. To take more insight about the changes in aerosol particles between day and night, the spectral differences of the Angstrom exponent as function of the Angstr¨om exponent are also studied. These analyses reveal increases of the fine mode radius and of the fine mode contribution to AOD during nighttime, being more

  13. Statistical properties of interval mapping methods on quantitative trait loci location: impact on QTL/eQTL analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xiaoqiang

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative trait loci (QTL detection on a huge amount of phenotypes, like eQTL detection on transcriptomic data, can be dramatically impaired by the statistical properties of interval mapping methods. One of these major outcomes is the high number of QTL detected at marker locations. The present study aims at identifying and specifying the sources of this bias, in particular in the case of analysis of data issued from outbred populations. Analytical developments were carried out in a backcross situation in order to specify the bias and to propose an algorithm to control it. The outbred population context was studied through simulated data sets in a wide range of situations. The likelihood ratio test was firstly analyzed under the "one QTL" hypothesis in a backcross population. Designs of sib families were then simulated and analyzed using the QTL Map software. On the basis of the theoretical results in backcross, parameters such as the population size, the density of the genetic map, the QTL effect and the true location of the QTL, were taken into account under the "no QTL" and the "one QTL" hypotheses. A combination of two non parametric tests - the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and the Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon test - was used in order to identify the parameters that affected the bias and to specify how much they influenced the estimation of QTL location. Results A theoretical expression of the bias of the estimated QTL location was obtained for a backcross type population. We demonstrated a common source of bias under the "no QTL" and the "one QTL" hypotheses and qualified the possible influence of several parameters. Simulation studies confirmed that the bias exists in outbred populations under both the hypotheses of "no QTL" and "one QTL" on a linkage group. The QTL location was systematically closer to marker locations than expected, particularly in the case of low QTL effect, small population size or low density of markers, i

  14. Spatial Statistical and Modeling Strategy for Inventorying and Monitoring Ecosystem Resources at Multiple Scales and Resolution Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin M. Reich; C. Aguirre-Bravo; M.S. Williams

    2006-01-01

    A statistical strategy for spatial estimation and modeling of natural and environmental resource variables and indicators is presented. This strategy is part of an inventory and monitoring pilot study that is being carried out in the Mexican states of Jalisco and Colima. Fine spatial resolution estimates of key variables and indicators are outputs that will allow the...

  15. Statistical analysis of natural radiation levels inside the UNICAMP campus through the use of Geiger-Muller counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontolan, Juliana A.; Biral, Antonio Renato P.

    2013-01-01

    It is known that the distribution at time intervals of random and unrelated events leads to the Poisson distribution . This work aims to study the distribution in time intervals of events resulting from radioactive decay of atoms present in the UNICAMP where activities involving the use of ionizing radiation are performed environments . The proposal is that the distribution surveys at intervals of these events in different locations of the university are carried out through the use of a Geiger-Mueller tube . In a next step , the evaluation of distributions obtained by using non- parametric statistics (Chi- square and Kolmogorov Smirnoff) will be taken . For analyzes involving correlations we intend to use the ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) statistical tool . Measured in six different places within the Campinas , with the use of Geiger- Muller its count mode and a time window of 20 seconds was performed . Through statistical tools chi- square and Kolmogorov Smirnoff tests, using the EXCEL program , it was observed that the distributions actually refer to a Poisson distribution. Finally, the next step is to perform analyzes involving correlations using the statistical tool ANOVA

  16. Effect of low level doping of boron and phosphorus on the properties of amorphous silicon films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, N.T.; Epstein, K.A.; Grimmer, D.P.; Vernstrom, G.D.

    1987-01-01

    Effect of the low level doping of boron and phosphorus on the properties of amorphous silicon films (a-Si:H) were studied. Doping level of both boron and phosphorus was in the range of 10/sup 17/ atoms/cm/sup 3/. Apparent improvement in the stability of dark and photoconductivity of a-Si: films upon low level doping does not result from the elimination of light-induced defects. The stability of the dark and photoconductivity upon doping is an indication of pinning of the Fermi level

  17. Determining firm characteristics and the level of voluntary corporate governance disclosures among Malaysian listed property companies

    OpenAIRE

    Talpur Shabana; Lizam Mohd; Keerio Nazia

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the level of voluntary corporate governance disclosures and the influence of firm characteristics (i.e., firm size, firm age, and firm market listing) on the level of these disclosures among Malaysian property listed companies. The check-list to measure the voluntary corporate governance disclosures was adopted from Malaysian corporate governance index 2011 by Minority Shareholder Watchdog Group (MSWG). The voluntary corporate governance disclosure practices and firm speci...

  18. Proper interpretation of chronic toxicity studies and their statistics: A critique of "Which level of evidence does the US National Toxicology Program provide? Statistical considerations using the Technical Report 578 on Ginkgo biloba as an example".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissling, Grace E; Haseman, Joseph K; Zeiger, Errol

    2015-09-02

    A recent article by Gaus (2014) demonstrates a serious misunderstanding of the NTP's statistical analysis and interpretation of rodent carcinogenicity data as reported in Technical Report 578 (Ginkgo biloba) (NTP, 2013), as well as a failure to acknowledge the abundant literature on false positive rates in rodent carcinogenicity studies. The NTP reported Ginkgo biloba extract to be carcinogenic in mice and rats. Gaus claims that, in this study, 4800 statistical comparisons were possible, and that 209 of them were statistically significant (p<0.05) compared with 240 (4800×0.05) expected by chance alone; thus, the carcinogenicity of Ginkgo biloba extract cannot be definitively established. However, his assumptions and calculations are flawed since he incorrectly assumes that the NTP uses no correction for multiple comparisons, and that significance tests for discrete data operate at exactly the nominal level. He also misrepresents the NTP's decision making process, overstates the number of statistical comparisons made, and ignores the fact that the mouse liver tumor effects were so striking (e.g., p<0.0000000000001) that it is virtually impossible that they could be false positive outcomes. Gaus' conclusion that such obvious responses merely "generate a hypothesis" rather than demonstrate a real carcinogenic effect has no scientific credibility. Moreover, his claims regarding the high frequency of false positive outcomes in carcinogenicity studies are misleading because of his methodological misconceptions and errors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  19. Statistical Strategy for Inventorying and Monitoring the Ecosystem Resources of the State of Jalisco at Multiple Scales and Resolution Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin M. Reich; Hans T. Schreuder

    2006-01-01

    The sampling strategy involving both statistical and in-place inventory information is presented for the natural resources project of the Green Belt area (Centuron Verde) in the Mexican state of Jalisco. The sampling designs used were a grid based ground sample of a 90x90 m plot and a two-stage stratified sample of 30 x 30 m plots. The data collected were used to...

  20. Estimating aquifer properties from the water level response to Earth tides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutillo, Paula A; Bredehoeft, John D

    2011-01-01

    Water level fluctuations induced by tidal strains can be analyzed to estimate the elastic properties, porosity, and transmissivity of the surrounding aquifer material. We review underutilized methods for estimating aquifer properties from the confined response to earth tides. The earth tide analyses are applied to an open well penetrating a confined carbonate aquifer. The resulting range of elastic and hydraulic aquifer properties are in general agreement with that determined by other investigators for the area of the well. The analyses indicate that passive monitoring data from wells completed in sufficiently stiff, low porosity formations can provide useful information on the properties of the surrounding formation. Journal compilation © 2010 National Ground Water Association. No claim to original US government works.

  1. Mechanical Properties of Human Patellar Tendon at the Hierarchical levels of Tendon and Fibril

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Rene Brüggebusch; Hansen, Philip; Hassenkam, Tue

    2012-01-01

    Tendons are strong hierarchical structures, but how tensile forces are transmitted between different levels remains incompletely understood. Collagen fibrils are thought to be primary determinants of whole tendon properties, and therefore we hypothesized that the whole human patellar tendon and its...... distinct collagen fibrils would display similar mechanical properties. Human patellar tendons (n=5) were mechanically tested in vivo by ultrasonography. Biopsies were obtained from each tendon and individual collagen fibrils were dissected and tested mechanically by atomic force microscopy. The Young...... that of tendon supports that fibrillar rather than interfibrillar properties govern sub-failure tendon response, making the fibrillar level a meaningful target of intervention. The lower modulus found in vitro suggests a possible adverse effect of removing the tissue from its natural environment. In addition...

  2. Statistical inference

    CERN Document Server

    Rohatgi, Vijay K

    2003-01-01

    Unified treatment of probability and statistics examines and analyzes the relationship between the two fields, exploring inferential issues. Numerous problems, examples, and diagrams--some with solutions--plus clear-cut, highlighted summaries of results. Advanced undergraduate to graduate level. Contents: 1. Introduction. 2. Probability Model. 3. Probability Distributions. 4. Introduction to Statistical Inference. 5. More on Mathematical Expectation. 6. Some Discrete Models. 7. Some Continuous Models. 8. Functions of Random Variables and Random Vectors. 9. Large-Sample Theory. 10. General Meth

  3. AP statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Levine-Wissing, Robin

    2012-01-01

    All Access for the AP® Statistics Exam Book + Web + Mobile Everything you need to prepare for the Advanced Placement® exam, in a study system built around you! There are many different ways to prepare for an Advanced Placement® exam. What's best for you depends on how much time you have to study and how comfortable you are with the subject matter. To score your highest, you need a system that can be customized to fit you: your schedule, your learning style, and your current level of knowledge. This book, and the online tools that come with it, will help you personalize your AP® Statistics prep

  4. Statistical study to determine the effect of carbon, silicon, nickel and other alloying elements on the mechanical properties of as-cast ferritic ductile irons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacaze, J.; Sertucha, J.; Larranaga, P.; Suarez, R.

    2016-01-01

    There is a great interest in fully ferritic ductile irons due to their structural homogeneity, remarkable ductility and good response when machining. On the other hand the wide variety of raw materials available in foundry plants becomes a problem when controlling the chemical composition of the manufactured alloys. The present work shows a statistical study about the effect of different C, Si, Ni contents and other minor elements on structural and mechanical properties of a group of ferritic ductile iron alloys. A set of equations are finally presented to predict room temperature mechanical properties of ferritic ductile irons by means of their chemical composition and pearlite content. (Author)

  5. Statistical study to determine the effect of carbon, silicon, nickel and other alloying elements on the mechanical properties of as-cast ferritic ductile irons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacaze, J.; Sertucha, J.; Larranaga, P.; Suarez, R.

    2016-10-01

    There is a great interest in fully ferritic ductile irons due to their structural homogeneity, remarkable ductility and good response when machining. On the other hand the wide variety of raw materials available in foundry plants becomes a problem when controlling the chemical composition of the manufactured alloys. The present work shows a statistical study about the effect of different C, Si, Ni contents and other minor elements on structural and mechanical properties of a group of ferritic ductile iron alloys. A set of equations are finally presented to predict room temperature mechanical properties of ferritic ductile irons by means of their chemical composition and pearlite content. (Author)

  6. Thermoelectric properties control due to doping level and sintering conditions for FGM thermoelectric element

    CERN Document Server

    Kajikawa, T; Shiraishi, K; Ohmori, M; Hirai, T

    1999-01-01

    Thermoelectric performance is determined with three factors, namely, Seebeck coefficient, electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity. For metal and single crystalline semiconductor, those factors have close interrelation each $9 other. However, as the sintered thermoelectric element has various levels of superstructure from macro scale and micro scale in terms of the thermoelectric mechanism, the relationship among them is more complex than that for the $9 melt- grown element, so it is suggested that the control of the temperature dependence of thermoelectric properties is possible to enhance the thermoelectric performance for wide temperature range due to FGM approach. The research $9 objective is to investigate the characteristics of the thermoelectric properties for various doping levels and hot-pressed conditions to make the thermoelectric elements for which the temperature dependence of the performance is $9 controlled due to FGM approach varying the doping levels and sintering conditions. By usage ...

  7. Statistical properties of fluctuations of time series representing appearances of words in nationwide blog data and their applications: An example of modeling fluctuation scalings of nonstationary time series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hayafumi; Sano, Yukie; Takayasu, Hideki; Takayasu, Misako

    2016-11-01

    To elucidate the nontrivial empirical statistical properties of fluctuations of a typical nonsteady time series representing the appearance of words in blogs, we investigated approximately 3×10^{9} Japanese blog articles over a period of six years and analyze some corresponding mathematical models. First, we introduce a solvable nonsteady extension of the random diffusion model, which can be deduced by modeling the behavior of heterogeneous random bloggers. Next, we deduce theoretical expressions for both the temporal and ensemble fluctuation scalings of this model, and demonstrate that these expressions can reproduce all empirical scalings over eight orders of magnitude. Furthermore, we show that the model can reproduce other statistical properties of time series representing the appearance of words in blogs, such as functional forms of the probability density and correlations in the total number of blogs. As an application, we quantify the abnormality of special nationwide events by measuring the fluctuation scalings of 1771 basic adjectives.

  8. Optimization of Biodiesel-Diesel Blended Fuel Properties and Engine Performance with Ether Additive Using Statistical Analysis and Response Surface Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obed M. Ali

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the fuel properties and engine performance of blended palm biodiesel-diesel using diethyl ether as additive have been investigated. The properties of B30 blended palm biodiesel-diesel fuel were measured and analyzed statistically with the addition of 2%, 4%, 6% and 8% (by volume diethyl ether additive. The engine tests were conducted at increasing engine speeds from 1500 rpm to 3500 rpm and under constant load. Optimization of independent variables was performed using the desirability approach of the response surface methodology (RSM with the goal of minimizing emissions and maximizing performance parameters. The experiments were designed using a statistical tool known as design of experiments (DoE based on RSM.

  9. Effects of cosmic-string framework on the thermodynamical properties of anharmonic oscillator using the ordinary statistics and the q-deformed superstatistics approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobhani, Hadi; Hassanabadi, Hassan [Shahrood University of Technology, Faculty of Physics, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Chung, Won Sang [Gyeongsang National University, Department of Physics and Research Institute of Natural Science, College of Natural Science, Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

    2018-02-15

    In this article, we determine the thermodynamical properties of the anharmonic canonical ensemble within the cosmic-string framework. We use the ordinary statistics and the q-deformed superstatistics for this study. The q-deformed superstatistics is derived by modifying the probability density in the original superstatistics. The Schroedinger equation is rewritten in the cosmic-string framework. Next, the anharmonic oscillator is investigated in detail. The wave function and the energy spectrum of the considered system are derived using the bi-confluent Heun functions. In the next step, we first determine the thermodynamical properties for the canonical ensemble of the anharmonic oscillator in the cosmic-string framework using the ordinary statistics approach. Also, these quantities have been obtained in the q-deformed superstatistics. For vanishing deformation parameter, the ordinary results are obtained. (orig.)

  10. A primer of statistical methods for correlating parameters and properties of electrospun poly(L-lactide) scaffolds for tissue engineering--PART 1: design of experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyedmahmoud, Rasoul; Rainer, Alberto; Mozetic, Pamela; Maria Giannitelli, Sara; Trombetta, Marcella; Traversa, Enrico; Licoccia, Silvia; Rinaldi, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Tissue engineering scaffolds produced by electrospinning are of enormous interest, but still lack a true understanding about the fundamental connection between the outstanding functional properties, the architecture, the mechanical properties, and the process parameters. Fragmentary results from several parametric studies only render some partial insights that are hard to compare and generally miss the role of parameters interactions. To bridge this gap, this article (Part-1 of 2) features a case study on poly-L-lactide scaffolds to demonstrate how statistical methods such as design of experiments can quantitatively identify the correlations existing between key scaffold properties and control parameters, in a systematic, consistent, and comprehensive manner disentangling main effects from interactions. The morphological properties (i.e., fiber distribution and porosity) and mechanical properties (Young's modulus) are "charted" as a function of molecular weight (MW) and other electrospinning process parameters (the Xs), considering the single effect as well as interactions between Xs. For the first time, the major role of the MW emerges clearly in controlling all scaffold properties. The correlation between mechanical and morphological properties is also addressed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. A primer of statistical methods for correlating parameters and properties of electrospun poly(l -lactide) scaffolds for tissue engineering-PART 1: Design of experiments

    KAUST Repository

    Seyedmahmoud, Rasoul

    2014-03-20

    Tissue engineering scaffolds produced by electrospinning are of enormous interest, but still lack a true understanding about the fundamental connection between the outstanding functional properties, the architecture, the mechanical properties, and the process parameters. Fragmentary results from several parametric studies only render some partial insights that are hard to compare and generally miss the role of parameters interactions. To bridge this gap, this article (Part-1 of 2) features a case study on poly-l-lactide scaffolds to demonstrate how statistical methods such as design of experiments can quantitatively identify the correlations existing between key scaffold properties and control parameters, in a systematic, consistent, and comprehensive manner disentangling main effects from interactions. The morphological properties (i.e., fiber distribution and porosity) and mechanical properties (Young\\'s modulus) are "charted" as a function of molecular weight (MW) and other electrospinning process parameters (the Xs), considering the single effect as well as interactions between Xs. For the first time, the major role of the MW emerges clearly in controlling all scaffold properties. The correlation between mechanical and morphological properties is also addressed.

  12. Statistically Optimized Inversion Algorithm for Enhanced Retrieval of Aerosol Properties from Spectral Multi-Angle Polarimetric Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubovik, O; Herman, M.; Holdak, A.; Lapyonok, T.; Taure, D.; Deuze, J. L.; Ducos, F.; Sinyuk, A.

    2011-01-01

    The proposed development is an attempt to enhance aerosol retrieval by emphasizing statistical optimization in inversion of advanced satellite observations. This optimization concept improves retrieval accuracy relying on the knowledge of measurement error distribution. Efficient application of such optimization requires pronounced data redundancy (excess of the measurements number over number of unknowns) that is not common in satellite observations. The POLDER imager on board the PARASOL microsatellite registers spectral polarimetric characteristics of the reflected atmospheric radiation at up to 16 viewing directions over each observed pixel. The completeness of such observations is notably higher than for most currently operating passive satellite aerosol sensors. This provides an opportunity for profound utilization of statistical optimization principles in satellite data inversion. The proposed retrieval scheme is designed as statistically optimized multi-variable fitting of all available angular observations obtained by the POLDER sensor in the window spectral channels where absorption by gas is minimal. The total number of such observations by PARASOL always exceeds a hundred over each pixel and the statistical optimization concept promises to be efficient even if the algorithm retrieves several tens of aerosol parameters. Based on this idea, the proposed algorithm uses a large number of unknowns and is aimed at retrieval of extended set of parameters affecting measured radiation.

  13. Spatial statistical analysis of contamination level of 241Am and 239Pu Thule, North-West Greenland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strodl Andersen, J.

    2011-10-01

    A spatial analysis of data on radioactive pollution on land at Thule, North-West Greenland is presented. The data comprises levels of 241 Am and 239,240 Pu on land. Maximum observed level of 241 Am is 2.8x10 5 Bq m -2 . Highest levels were observed near Narsaarsuk. This area was also sampled most intensively. In Groennedal the maximum observed level of 241 Am is 1.9Oe10 4 Bq m -2 . Prediction of the overall amount of 241 Am and 239,240 Pu is based on grid points within the range from the nearest measurement location. The overall amount is therefore highly dependent on the model. Under the optimal spatial model for Narsaarsuk, within the area of prediction, the predicted total amount of 241 Am is 45 GBq and the predicted total amount of 239,240 Pu is 270 GBq. (Author)

  14. Spatial statistical analysis of contamination level of 241Am and 239Pu, Thule, North-West Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strodl Andersen, J. (JSA EnviroStat (Denmark))

    2011-10-15

    A spatial analysis of data on radioactive pollution on land at Thule, North-West Greenland is presented. The data comprises levels of 241Am and 239,240Pu on land. Maximum observed level of 241Am is 2.8x105 Bq m-2. Highest levels were observed near Narsaarsuk. This area was also sampled most intensively. In Groennedal the maximum observed level of 241Am is 1.9-104 Bq m-2. Prediction of the overall amount of 241Am and 239,240Pu is based on grid points within the range from the nearest measurement location. The overall amount is therefore highly dependent on the model. Under the optimal spatial model for Narsaarsuk, within the area of prediction, the predicted total amount of 241Am is 45 GBq and the predicted total amount of 239,240Pu is 270 GBq. (Author)

  15. Comparison of different statistical methods for estimation of extreme sea levels with wave set-up contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kergadallan, Xavier; Bernardara, Pietro; Benoit, Michel; Andreewsky, Marc; Weiss, Jérôme

    2013-04-01

    Estimating the probability of occurrence of extreme sea levels is a central issue for the protection of the coast. Return periods of sea level with wave set-up contribution are estimated here in one site : Cherbourg in France in the English Channel. The methodology follows two steps : the first one is computation of joint probability of simultaneous wave height and still sea level, the second one is interpretation of that joint probabilities to assess a sea level for a given return period. Two different approaches were evaluated to compute joint probability of simultaneous wave height and still sea level : the first one is multivariate extreme values distributions of logistic type in which all components of the variables become large simultaneously, the second one is conditional approach for multivariate extreme values in which only one component of the variables have to be large. Two different methods were applied to estimate sea level with wave set-up contribution for a given return period : Monte-Carlo simulation in which estimation is more accurate but needs higher calculation time and classical ocean engineering design contours of type inverse-FORM in which the method is simpler and allows more complex estimation of wave setup part (wave propagation to the coast for example). We compare results from the two different approaches with the two different methods. To be able to use both Monte-Carlo simulation and design contours methods, wave setup is estimated with an simple empirical formula. We show advantages of the conditional approach compared to the multivariate extreme values approach when extreme sea-level occurs when either surge or wave height is large. We discuss the validity of the ocean engineering design contours method which is an alternative when computation of sea levels is too complex to use Monte-Carlo simulation method.

  16. Highly improved hydration level sensing properties of copper oxide films with sodium and potassium doping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahin, Bünyamin; Kaya, Tolga

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A series of Na- and K-doped CuO were growth via SILAR method. • The hydration level monitoring activity has been tested with CuO films. • The highest sensing efficiency was obtained with 4 M% K. - Abstract: In this study, un-doped, Na-doped, and K-doped nanostructured CuO films were successfully synthesized by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique and then characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and current–voltage (I–V) measurements. Structural properties of the CuO films were affected from doping. The XRD pattern indicates the formation of polycrystalline CuO films with no secondary phases. Furthermore, doping affected the crystal structure of the samples. The optimum conductivity values for both Na and K were obtained at 4 M% doping concentrations. The comparative hydration level sensing properties of the un-doped, Na-doped, and K-doped CuO nanoparticles were also investigated. A significant enhancement in hydration level sensing properties was observed for both 4 M% Na and K-doped CuO films for all concentration levels. Detailed discussions were reported in the study regarding atomic radii, crystalline structure, and conductivity.

  17. Highly improved hydration level sensing properties of copper oxide films with sodium and potassium doping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahin, Bünyamin, E-mail: sahin38@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Mustafa Kemal University, Hatay, 31034 (Turkey); School of Engineering and Technology, Central Michigan University, Mt. Pleasant, 48859 (United States); Kaya, Tolga [School of Engineering and Technology, Central Michigan University, Mt. Pleasant, 48859 (United States); Science of Advanced Materials Program, Central Michigan University, Mt. Pleasant, 48859 (United States)

    2016-01-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A series of Na- and K-doped CuO were growth via SILAR method. • The hydration level monitoring activity has been tested with CuO films. • The highest sensing efficiency was obtained with 4 M% K. - Abstract: In this study, un-doped, Na-doped, and K-doped nanostructured CuO films were successfully synthesized by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique and then characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and current–voltage (I–V) measurements. Structural properties of the CuO films were affected from doping. The XRD pattern indicates the formation of polycrystalline CuO films with no secondary phases. Furthermore, doping affected the crystal structure of the samples. The optimum conductivity values for both Na and K were obtained at 4 M% doping concentrations. The comparative hydration level sensing properties of the un-doped, Na-doped, and K-doped CuO nanoparticles were also investigated. A significant enhancement in hydration level sensing properties was observed for both 4 M% Na and K-doped CuO films for all concentration levels. Detailed discussions were reported in the study regarding atomic radii, crystalline structure, and conductivity.

  18. Organ and tissue level properties are more sensitive to age than osteocyte lacunar characteristics in rat cortical bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittig, Nina; Bach-Gansmo, Fiona Linnea; Birkbak, Mie Elholm

    2016-01-01

    orientation with animal age. Hence, the evolution of organ and tissue level properties with age in rat cortical bone is not accompanied by related changes in osteocyte lacunar properties. This suggests that bone microstructure and bone matrix material properties and not the geometric properties...... of bone on the organ and tissue level, whereas features on the nano- and micrometer scale are much less explored. We investigated the age-related development of organ and tissue level bone properties such as bone volume, bone mineral density, and load to fracture and correlated these with osteocyte...

  19. Statistical analysis of fluoride levels in human urine and drinking water samples of fluorinated area of punjab (pakistan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qayyum, M.; Zaman, W.U.; Rehman, R.; Ahmad, B.; Ahmad, M.; Ali, S.; Murtaza, S

    2013-01-01

    Increasing fluoride levels in drinking water of fluorinated areas of world leading to fluorosis. For bio-monitoring of fluorosis patients, fluoride levels were determined in drinking water and human urine samples of different individuals having dental fluorosis and bony deformities from fluorotic area of Punjab (Sham Ki Bhatiyan, Pakistan) and then compared with reference samples of non fluorotic area (Queens Road, Lahore, Pakistan) using ion selective electrode methodology. Fluoride levels in fluorinated area differ significantly from control group (p < 0.05). In drinking water and human urine samples, fluoride levels in fluorinated areas were: 136.192 +- 67.836 and 94.484 +- 36.572 micro molL/sup -1/ respectively, whereas in control samples, fluoride concentrations were: 19.306 +- 2.109 and 47.154 +- 22.685 micro molL/sup -1/ in water and urine samples correspondingly. Pearson's correlation data pointed out the fact that that human urine and water fluoride concentrations have a significant positive dose response relationship with the prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis in fluorotic areas having higher fluoride levels in drinking water. (author)

  20. Statistical Assessment of the Effect of Chemical Composition on Mechanical Properties of Hypereutectic AlSi17CuNiMg Silumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Szymszal

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a statistical assessment of the effect of chemical composition on mechanical properties of hypereutectic AlSi17 silumin, which is expected to act as a counterpart of alloys used by automotive industry and aviation for casting of high-duty engine parts in West European countries and USA. The studies on the choice of chemical composition of silumins were preceded by analysis of the reference literature to state what effect some selected alloying elements and manufacturing technology may have on the mechanical properties (HB, Rm and A5 of these alloys. As alloying additives, Cu, Ni and Mg in proper combinations were used. The alloy after modification with phosphorus (CuF was cast into a metal mould. Basing on the results obtained, it has been reported that the developed silumin of hypereutectic composition is characterised by properties similar to its Western counterparts.

  1. FAST COMMUNICATION: A PDE Based Two Level Model of the Masking Property of the Human Ear

    OpenAIRE

    Xin, Jack; Qi, Yingyong

    2003-01-01

    Human ear has the masking property that certain audible sound becomes inaudible in the presence of another sound. Masking is quantified by the raised threshold from the absolute hearing threshold in quiet. It is of scientific and practical importance to compute masking thresholds. Empirical models on masking have applications in low bit rate digital music compression. A first principle based two level model is developed with partial differential equation (PDE) at the periphe...

  2. Relationship between atomically related core levels and ground state properties of solids: first-principles calculations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vackář, Jiří; Šipr, Ondřej; Šimůnek, Antonín

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 4 (2008), 045112/1-045112/6 ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100100514; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA100100637 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520; CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : core levels * ab-initio calculations * electronic states * ground state properties Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 3.322, year: 2008

  3. Use Of Statistical Tools To Evaluate The Reductive Dechlorination Of High Levels Of TCE In Microcosm Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    A large, multi-laboratory microcosm study was performed to select amendments for supporting reductive dechlorination of high levels of trichloroethylene (TCE) found at an industrial site in the United Kingdom (UK) containing dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) TCE. The study ...

  4. Effect of CALIPSO Cloud Aerosol Discrimination (CAD) Confidence Levels on Observations of Aerosol Properties near Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weidong; Marshak, Alexander; Varnai, Tamas; Liu, Zhaoyan

    2012-01-01

    CALIPSO aerosol backscatter enhancement in the transition zone between clouds and clear sky areas is revisited with particular attention to effects of data selection based on the confidence level of cloud-aerosol discrimination (CAD). The results show that backscatter behavior in the transition zone strongly depends on the CAD confidence level. Higher confidence level data has a flatter backscatter far away from clouds and a much sharper increase near clouds (within 4 km), thus a smaller transition zone. For high confidence level data it is shown that the overall backscatter enhancement is more pronounced for small clear-air segments and horizontally larger clouds. The results suggest that data selection based on CAD reduces the possible effects of cloud contamination when studying aerosol properties in the vicinity of clouds.

  5. SAGE II Measurements of Stratospheric Aerosol Properties at Non-Volcanic Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomason, Larry W.; Burton, Sharon P.; Luo, Bei-Ping; Peter, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Since 2000, stratospheric aerosol levels have been relatively stable and at the lowest levels observed in the historical record. Given the challenges of making satellite measurements of aerosol properties at these levels, we have performed a study of the sensitivity of the product to the major components of the processing algorithm used in the production of SAGE II aerosol extinction measurements and the retrieval process that produces the operational surface area density (SAD) product. We find that the aerosol extinction measurements, particularly at 1020 nm, remain robust and reliable at the observed aerosol levels. On the other hand, during background periods, the SAD operational product has an uncertainty of at least a factor of 2 during due to the lack of sensitivity to particles with radii less than 100 nm.

  6. Highly improved hydration level sensing properties of copper oxide films with sodium and potassium doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Bünyamin; Kaya, Tolga

    2016-01-01

    In this study, un-doped, Na-doped, and K-doped nanostructured CuO films were successfully synthesized by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique and then characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and current-voltage (I-V) measurements. Structural properties of the CuO films were affected from doping. The XRD pattern indicates the formation of polycrystalline CuO films with no secondary phases. Furthermore, doping affected the crystal structure of the samples. The optimum conductivity values for both Na and K were obtained at 4 M% doping concentrations. The comparative hydration level sensing properties of the un-doped, Na-doped, and K-doped CuO nanoparticles were also investigated. A significant enhancement in hydration level sensing properties was observed for both 4 M% Na and K-doped CuO films for all concentration levels. Detailed discussions were reported in the study regarding atomic radii, crystalline structure, and conductivity.

  7. Incorporation of statistical distribution of particle properties in chemical reactor design and operation: the cooled tubular reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijngaarden, R.J.; Westerterp, K.R.

    1992-01-01

    Pellet heat and mass transfer coefficients inside packed beds do not have definite deterministic values, but are stochastic quantities with a certain distribution. Here, a method is presented to incorporate the stochastic distribution of pellet properties in reactor design and operation models. The

  8. CHARACTERIZATION AND STATISTICAL CORRELATION BETWEEN CHARCOAL’S PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF Eucalyptus AND Corymbia CLONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Hugo Pereira Moutinho

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to analyze the physical and mechanical properties of charcoal from eucalypt clones by principal component analysis and demonstrate the relationships between these properties, in order to assess which charcoal property should aimed in the process to obtain a higher quality product. In this way, was cut eight clones of Eucalyptus and two of Corymbia , collecting three trees per clone and five disk in different heights. The disks were transformed into test samples, totaling an average of 75 samples per clones, which were carbonized under specific conditions for analysis of apparent density, compressive strength parallel to grain and linear and volumetric degradation due to high temperature. It is noteworthy that the data were weighted by disk and per tree, to an average closer to reality. For correlations, was used multivariate analysis of principal components. Herein, it is found that the apparent density of charcoal acts as the focal point of the other properties studied, and observed that as the higher the density, higher will be the compressive strength parallel to grain, the elastic modulus and the gravimetric yield.

  9. Effect of experimental factors on magnetic properties of nickel nanoparticles produced by chemical reduction method using a statistical design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaezi, M.R.; Barzgar Vishlaghi, M.; Farzalipour Tabriz, M.; Mohammad Moradi, O.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Superparamagnetic nickel nanoparticles are synthesized by wet chemical reduction. • Effects of synthesis parameters on magnetic properties are studied. • Central composite experimental design is used for building an empirical model. • Solvents ratio was more influential than reactants mixing rate. - Abstract: Nickel nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical reduction method in the absence of any surface capping agent. The effect of reactants mixing rate and the volume ratio of methanol/ethanol as solvent on the morphology and magnetic properties of nickel nanoparticles were studied by design of experiment using central composite design. X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) were utilized to characterize the synthesized nanoparticles. Size distribution of particles was studied by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) technique and magnetic properties of produced nanoparticles were investigated by Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) apparatus. The results showed that the magnetic properties of nickel nanoparticles were more influenced by volume ratio of methanol/ethanol than the reactants mixing rate. Super-paramagnetic nickel nanoparticles with size range between 20 and 50 nm were achieved when solvent was pure methanol and the reactants mixing rate was kept at 70 ml/h. But addition of more ethanol to precursor solvent leads to the formation of larger particles with broader size distribution and weak ferromagnetic or super-paramagnetic behavior

  10. Statistical properties of the surface velocity field in the northern Gulf of Mexico sampled by GLAD drifters

    OpenAIRE

    Mariano, A.J.; Ryan, E.H.; Huntley, H.S.; Laurindo, L.C.; Coelho, E.; Ozgokmen, TM; Berta, M.; Bogucki, D; Chen, S.S.; Curcic, M.; Drouin, K.L.; Gough, M; Haus, BK; Haza, A.C.; Hogan, P

    2016-01-01

    The Grand LAgrangian Deployment (GLAD) used multiscale sampling and GPS technology to observe time series of drifter positions with initial drifter separation of O(100 m) to O(10 km), and nominal 5 min sampling, during the summer and fall of 2012 in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Histograms of the velocity field and its statistical parameters are non-Gaussian; most are multimodal. The dominant periods for the surface velocity field are 1–2 days due to inertial oscillations, tides, and the sea b...

  11. Statistical properties and time-frequency analysis of temperature, salinity and turbidity measured by the MAREL Carnot station in the coastal waters of Boulogne-sur-Mer (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kbaier Ben Ismail, Dhouha; Lazure, Pascal; Puillat, Ingrid

    2016-10-01

    In marine sciences, many fields display high variability over a large range of spatial and temporal scales, from seconds to thousands of years. The longer recorded time series, with an increasing sampling frequency, in this field are often nonlinear, nonstationary, multiscale and noisy. Their analysis faces new challenges and thus requires the implementation of adequate and specific methods. The objective of this paper is to highlight time series analysis methods already applied in econometrics, signal processing, health, etc. to the environmental marine domain, assess advantages and inconvenients and compare classical techniques with more recent ones. Temperature, turbidity and salinity are important quantities for ecosystem studies. The authors here consider the fluctuations of sea level, salinity, turbidity and temperature recorded from the MAREL Carnot system of Boulogne-sur-Mer (France), which is a moored buoy equipped with physico-chemical measuring devices, working in continuous and autonomous conditions. In order to perform adequate statistical and spectral analyses, it is necessary to know the nature of the considered time series. For this purpose, the stationarity of the series and the occurrence of unit-root are addressed with the Augmented-Dickey Fuller tests. As an example, the harmonic analysis is not relevant for temperature, turbidity and salinity due to the nonstationary condition, except for the nearly stationary sea level datasets. In order to consider the dominant frequencies associated to the dynamics, the large number of data provided by the sensors should enable the estimation of Fourier spectral analysis. Different power spectra show a complex variability and reveal an influence of environmental factors such as tides. However, the previous classical spectral analysis, namely the Blackman-Tukey method, requires not only linear and stationary data but also evenly-spaced data. Interpolating the time series introduces numerous artifacts to the

  12. Statistical thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Gyeong Hui

    2008-03-01

    This book consists of 15 chapters, which are basic conception and meaning of statistical thermodynamics, Maxwell-Boltzmann's statistics, ensemble, thermodynamics function and fluctuation, statistical dynamics with independent particle system, ideal molecular system, chemical equilibrium and chemical reaction rate in ideal gas mixture, classical statistical thermodynamics, ideal lattice model, lattice statistics and nonideal lattice model, imperfect gas theory on liquid, theory on solution, statistical thermodynamics of interface, statistical thermodynamics of a high molecule system and quantum statistics

  13. Excited-state quantum phase transitions in systems with two degrees of freedom: Level density, level dynamics, thermal properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stránský, Pavel; Macek, Michal; Cejnar, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Quantum systems with a finite number of freedom degrees f develop robust singularities in the energy spectrum of excited states as the system’s size increases to infinity. We analyze the general form of these singularities for low f, particularly f=2, clarifying the relation to classical stationary points of the corresponding potential. Signatures in the smoothed energy dependence of the quantum state density and in the flow of energy levels with an arbitrary control parameter are described along with the relevant thermodynamical consequences. The general analysis is illustrated with specific examples of excited-state singularities accompanying the first-order quantum phase transition. -- Highlights: •ESQPTs found in infinite-size limit of systems with low numbers of freedom degrees f. •ESQPTs related to non-analytical evolutions of classical phase–space properties. •ESQPT signatures analyzed for general f, particularly f=2, extending known case f=1. •ESQPT signatures identified in smoothened density and flow of energy spectrum. •ESQPTs shown to induce a new type of thermodynamic anomalies

  14. CMOS-MEMS Test-Key for Extracting Wafer-Level Mechanical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Zen Chang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops the technologies of mechanical characterization of CMOS-MEMS devices, and presents a robust algorithm for extracting mechanical properties, such as Young’s modulus, and mean stress, through the external electrical circuit behavior of the micro test-key. An approximate analytical solution for the pull-in voltage of bridge-type test-key subjected to electrostatic load and initial stress is derived based on Euler’s beam model and the minimum energy method. Then one can use the aforesaid closed form solution of the pull-in voltage to extract the Young’s modulus and mean stress of the test structures. The test cases include the test-key fabricated by a TSMC 0.18 μm standard CMOS process, and the experimental results refer to Osterberg’s work on the pull-in voltage of single crystal silicone microbridges. The extracted material properties calculated by the present algorithm are valid. Besides, this paper also analyzes the robustness of this algorithm regarding the dimension effects of test-keys. This mechanical properties extracting method is expected to be applicable to the wafer-level testing in micro-device manufacture and compatible with the wafer-level testing in IC industry since the test process is non-destructive.

  15. Properties of Ni^+ from microwave spectroscopy of n=9 Rydberg levels of Nickel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Shannon; Keele, Julie; Smith, Chris; Lundeen, Stephen

    2012-06-01

    The microwave/RESIS method was used to determine the relative positions of 15 of the n=9 Rydberg levels of Nickel with L >= 6. Because the ground state of the Ni^+ ion is a ^2D5/2 level, each Rydberg level (n,L) splits into six eigenstates whose relative positions are determined by long-range e-Ni^+ interactions present in addition to the dominant Coulomb interaction. A previous study with the optical RESIS method determined these positions with precision of +/- 30 MHz [1]. Using the microwave/RESIS method improves that precision by a factor of 300, and leads to much improved determinations of the Ni+ properties that control the long-range interactions. [4pt] [1] Julie A. Keele, Shannon L. Woods, M.E. Hanni, and S.R. Lundeen Phys. Rev. 81, 022506 (2010)

  16. Microstructure, Properties and Atomic Level Strain in Severely Deformed Rare Metal Niobium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lembit KOMMEL

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical and physical properties relationship from atomic level strain/stress causes dislocation density and electrical conductivity relationship, as well as crystallites deformation and hkl-parameter change in the severely deformed pure refractory rare metal Nb at ambient temperature and during short processing times. The above mentioned issues are discussed in this study. For ultrafine-grained and nanocrystalline microstructure forming in metal the equal-channel angular pressing and hard cyclic viscoplastic deformation were used. The flat deformation and heat treatment at different parameters were conducted as follows. The focused ion beam method was used for micrometric measures samples manufacturied under nanocrystalline microstructure study by transmission electron microscope. The microstructure features of metal were studied under different orientations by X-ray diffraction scattering method, and according to the atomic level strains, dislocation density, hkl-parameters and crystallite sizes were calculated by different computation methods. According to results the evolutions of atomic level strains/stresses, induced by processing features have great influence on the microstructure and advanced properties forming in pure Nb. Due to cumulative strain increase the tensile stress and hardness were increased significantly. In this case the dislocation density of Nb varies from 5.0E+10 cm–2 to 2.0E+11 cm–2. The samples from Nb at maximal atomic level strain in the (110 and (211 directions have the maximal values of hkl-parameters, highest tensile strength and hardness but minimal electrical conductivity. The crystallite size was minimal and relative atomic level strain maximal in (211 orientation of crystal. Next, flat deformation and heat treatment increase the atomic level parameters of severely deformed metal.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.18.4.3091

  17. A primer of statistical methods for correlating parameters and properties of electrospun poly( l -lactide) scaffolds for tissue engineering-PART 2: Regression

    KAUST Repository

    Seyedmahmoud, Rasoul

    2014-04-07

    This two-articles series presents an in-depth discussion of electrospun poly-l-lactide scaffolds for tissue engineering by means of statistical methodologies that can be used, in general, to gain a quantitative and systematic insight about effects and interactions between a handful of key scaffold properties (Ys) and a set of process parameters (Xs) in electrospinning. While Part-1 dealt with the DOE methods to unveil the interactions between Xs in determining the morphomechanical properties (ref. Y1-4), this Part-2 article continues and refocuses the discussion on the interdependence of scaffold properties investigated by standard regression methods. The discussion first explores the connection between mechanical properties (Y4) and morphological descriptors of the scaffolds (Y1-3) in 32 types of scaffolds, finding that the mean fiber diameter (Y1) plays a predominant role which is nonetheless and crucially modulated by the molecular weight (MW) of PLLA. The second part examines the biological performance (Y5) (i.e. the cell proliferation of seeded bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells) on a random subset of eight scaffolds vs. the mechanomorphological properties (Y1-4). In this case, the featured regression analysis on such an incomplete set was not conclusive, though, indirectly suggesting in quantitative terms that cell proliferation could not fully be explained as a function of considered mechanomorphological properties (Y1-4), but in the early stage seeding, and that a randomization effects occurs over time such that the differences in initial cell proliferation performance (at day 1) is smeared over time. The findings may be the cornerstone of a novel route to accrue sufficient understanding and establish design rules for scaffold biofunctional vs. architecture, mechanical properties, and process parameters.

  18. Conformational energy calculations on polypeptides and proteins: use of a statistical mechanical procedure for evaluating structure and properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheraga, H A; Paine, G H

    1986-01-01

    We are using a variety of theoretical and computational techniques to study protein structure, protein folding, and higher-order structures. Our earlier work involved treatments of liquid water and aqueous solutions of nonpolar and polar solutes, computations of the stabilities of the fundamental structures of proteins and their packing arrangements, conformations of small cyclic and open-chain peptides, structures of fibrous proteins (collagen), structures of homologous globular proteins, introduction of special procedures as constraints during energy minimization of globular proteins, and structures of enzyme-substrate complexes. Recently, we presented a new methodology for predicting polypeptide structure (described here); the method is based on the calculation of the probable and average conformation of a polypeptide chain by the application of equilibrium statistical mechanics in conjunction with an adaptive, importance sampling Monte Carlo algorithm. As a test, it was applied to Met-enkephalin.

  19. Evaluation of the properties of cemented low level radioactive wastes through an extensive characterization programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caropreso, G.; De Angelis, G.

    1990-01-01

    The immobilized radioactive wastes have to fulfill the demands for packing, interim storage, trasportation and final disposal. For this purpose the possession of various properties, more or less relevant, are required by authorized agencies. In addition to transport regulations the attention is generally focused on physico-chemical and mechanical properties, thermal, radiation and water stability, as well as confinement ability. The assessment of such requirements needs the set up of experimental procedured. With this in mind an extensive programme for the characterization of cemented low level wastes has been undertaken at ENEA Casaccia in the frame of the Third (1985-1989) Europen Communities Programme on Radioactive Waste Management (Contract No. FI1W-0101-I(A)). Three types of waste streams of general interest have been taken into account: bead ion-exchange resins, BWR evaporator concentrates (Sulphates) and filter sludges. Both labo. and full scale experiments have been carried out

  20. Photo control of transport properties in a disordered wire: Average conductance, conductance statistics, and time-reversal symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitagawa, Takuya; Oka, Takashi; Demler, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study the full conductance statistics of a disordered 1D wire under the application of light. We develop the transfer matrix method for periodically driven systems to analyze the conductance of a large system with small frequency of light, where coherent photon absorptions play an important role to determine not only the average but also the shape of conductance distributions. The average conductance under the application of light results from the competition between dynamic localization and effective dimension increase, and shows non-monotonic behavior as a function of driving amplitude. On the other hand, the shape of conductance distribution displays a crossover phenomena in the intermediate disorder strength; the application of light dramatically changes the distribution from log-normal to normal distributions. Furthermore, we propose that conductance of disordered systems can be controlled by engineering the shape, frequency and amplitude of light. Change of the shape of driving field controls the time-reversals symmetry and the disordered system shows analogous behavior as negative magneto-resistance known in static weak localization. A small change of frequency and amplitude of light leads to a large change of conductance, displaying giant opto-response. Our work advances the perspective to control the mean as well as the full conductance statistics by coherently driving disordered systems. - Highlights: ► We study conductance of disordered systems under the application of light. ► Full conductance distributions are obtained. ► A transfer matrix method is developed for driven systems. ► Conductances are dramatically modified upon the application of light. ► Time-reversal symmetry can also be controlled by light application.