WorldWideScience

Sample records for level sensing show

  1. Liquid Level Sensing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korman, Valentin (Inventor); Wiley, John T. (Inventor); Duffell, Amanda G. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A liquid level sensing system includes waveguides disposed in a liquid and distributed along a path with a gap between adjacent waveguides. A source introduces electromagnetic energy into the waveguides at a first end of the path. A portion of the electromagnetic energy exits the waveguides at a second end of the path. A detector measures the portion of the electromagnetic energy exiting the second end of the path.

  2. Model shows future cut in U.S. ozone levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    A joint U.S. auto-oil industry research program says modeling shows that changing gasoline composition can reduce ozone levels for Los Angeles in 2010 and for New York City and Dallas-Fort Worth in 2005. The air quality modeling was based on vehicle emissions research data released late last year (OGJ, Dec. 24, 1990, p. 20). The effort is sponsored by the big three auto manufacturers and 14 oil companies. Sponsors the cars and small trucks account for about one third of ozone generated in the three cities studied but by 2005-10 will account for only 5-9%

  3. Nanorods of a new metal-biomolecule coordination polymer showing novel bidirectional electrocatalytic activity and excellent performance in electrochemical sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiao; Zhou, Bo; Yao, Jie; Jiang, Xiao-Qing

    2015-05-15

    Metal organic coordination polymers (CPs), as most attractive multifunctional materials, have been studied extensively in many fields. However, metal-biomolecule CPs and CPs' electrochemical properties and applications were studied much less. We focus on this topic aiming at electrochemical biosensors with excellent performance and high biocompatibility. A new nanoscaled metal-biomolecule CP, Mn-tyr, containing manganese and tyrosine, was synthesized hydrothermally and characterized by various techniques, including XRD, TEM, EDS, EDX mapping, elemental analysis, XPS, and IR. Electrode modified with Mn-tyr showed novel bidirectional electrocatalytic ability toward both reduction and oxidation of H2O2, which might be due to Mn. With the assistance of CNTs, the sensing performance of Mn-tyr/CNTs/GCE was improved to a much higher level, with high sensitivity of 543 mA mol(-1) L cm(-2) in linear range of 1.00×10(-6)-1.02×10(-4) mol L(-1), and detection limit of 3.8×10(-7) mol L(-1). Mn-tyr/CNTs/GCE also showed fast response, high selectivity, high steadiness and reproducibility. The excellent performance implies that the metal-biomolecule CPs are promising candidates for using in enzyme-free electrochemical biosensing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Image quality enhancement in low-light-level ghost imaging using modified compressive sensing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaohui; Huang, Xianwei; Nan, Suqin; Li, Hengxing; Bai, Yanfeng; Fu, Xiquan

    2018-04-01

    Detector noise has a significantly negative impact on ghost imaging at low light levels, especially for existing recovery algorithm. Based on the characteristics of the additive detector noise, a method named modified compressive sensing ghost imaging is proposed to reduce the background imposed by the randomly distributed detector noise at signal path. Experimental results show that, with an appropriate choice of threshold value, modified compressive sensing ghost imaging algorithm can dramatically enhance the contrast-to-noise ratio of the object reconstruction significantly compared with traditional ghost imaging and compressive sensing ghost imaging methods. The relationship between the contrast-to-noise ratio of the reconstruction image and the intensity ratio (namely, the average signal intensity to average noise intensity ratio) for the three reconstruction algorithms are also discussed. This noise suppression imaging technique will have great applications in remote-sensing and security areas.

  5. Deconvolution of serum cortisol levels by using compressed sensing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose T Faghih

    Full Text Available The pulsatile release of cortisol from the adrenal glands is controlled by a hierarchical system that involves corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH from the hypothalamus, adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH from the pituitary, and cortisol from the adrenal glands. Determining the number, timing, and amplitude of the cortisol secretory events and recovering the infusion and clearance rates from serial measurements of serum cortisol levels is a challenging problem. Despite many years of work on this problem, a complete satisfactory solution has been elusive. We formulate this question as a non-convex optimization problem, and solve it using a coordinate descent algorithm that has a principled combination of (i compressed sensing for recovering the amplitude and timing of the secretory events, and (ii generalized cross validation for choosing the regularization parameter. Using only the observed serum cortisol levels, we model cortisol secretion from the adrenal glands using a second-order linear differential equation with pulsatile inputs that represent cortisol pulses released in response to pulses of ACTH. Using our algorithm and the assumption that the number of pulses is between 15 to 22 pulses over 24 hours, we successfully deconvolve both simulated datasets and actual 24-hr serum cortisol datasets sampled every 10 minutes from 10 healthy women. Assuming a one-minute resolution for the secretory events, we obtain physiologically plausible timings and amplitudes of each cortisol secretory event with R (2 above 0.92. Identification of the amplitude and timing of pulsatile hormone release allows (i quantifying of normal and abnormal secretion patterns towards the goal of understanding pathological neuroendocrine states, and (ii potentially designing optimal approaches for treating hormonal disorders.

  6. Managerial level, managerial motivation and sense of coherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MG Coetzee

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The first objective of the study was to assess whether the dimensions of Antonovsky’s Sense of Coherence (SOC scale correlated positively with those of the Managerial Motivation scale (MMQ. The second objective was to establish whether managers and supervisors differed with regard to sense of coherence and managerial motivation. The respondents were 124 employees of the Agricultural Research Council. None of the sense of coherence scales correlated with Attitude towards authority figures (MMQ. Also, Meaningfulness (SOC and Willingness to conduct administrative functions (MMQ did not correlate. However, the remainder of the correlations supported the hypothesis, indicating a strong positive relationship between managerial motivation and sense of coherence. Statistically significant differences between managers and supervisors were obtained for only two variables, namely Meaningfulness (SOC and Power motive (MMQ.

  7. THE "GREATEST SHOW ON EARTH": FOOTBALL AND ITS ABILITY TO BREAK THE LEVELS OF MASS CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Ivan Keske

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how the media, especially radio, television and web, strengthen football and give national and international visibility to this sport, within the different levels of culture proposed by Umberto Eco (2004. The text also shows how soccer provides a contextual and dialogical relationship between the different levels of culture, being able to transgress them, rearranging them into a new proposal.

  8. Remotely sensed forest cover loss shows high spatial and temporal variation across Sumatera and Kalimantan, Indonesia 2000-2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broich, Mark; Hansen, Matthew; Potapov, Peter; Margono, Belinda Arunarwati; Adusei, Bernard; Stolle, Fred

    2011-01-01

    The Indonesian islands of Sumatera and Kalimantan (the Indonesian part of the island of Borneo) are a center of significant and rapid forest cover loss in the humid tropics with implications for carbon dynamics, biodiversity conservation, and local livelihoods. The aim of our research was to analyze and interpret annual trends of forest cover loss for different sub-regions of the study area. We mapped forest cover loss for 2000-2008 using multi-resolution remote sensing data from the Landsat enhanced thematic mapper plus (ETM +) and moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors and analyzed annual trends per island, province, and official land allocation zone. The total forest cover loss for Sumatera and Kalimantan 2000-2008 was 5.39 Mha, which represents 5.3% of the land area and 9.2% of the year 2000 forest cover of these two islands. At least 6.5% of all mapped forest cover loss occurred in land allocation zones prohibiting clearing. An additional 13.6% of forest cover loss occurred where clearing is legally restricted. The overall trend of forest cover loss increased until 2006 and decreased thereafter. The trends for Sumatera and Kalimantan were distinctly different, driven primarily by the trends of Riau and Central Kalimantan provinces, respectively. This analysis shows that annual mapping of forest cover change yields a clearer picture than a one-time overall national estimate. Monitoring forest dynamics is important for national policy makers, especially given the commitment of Indonesia to reducing greenhouse gas emissions as part of the reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries initiative (REDD +). The improved spatio-temporal detail of forest change monitoring products will make it possible to target policies and projects in meeting this commitment. Accurate, annual forest cover loss maps will be integral to many REDD + objectives, including policy formulation, definition of baselines, detection

  9. Methods of training the graduate level and professional geologist in remote sensing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolm, K. E.

    1981-01-01

    Requirements for a basic course in remote sensing to accommodate the needs of the graduate level and professional geologist are described. The course should stress the general topics of basic remote sensing theory, the theory and data types relating to different remote sensing systems, an introduction to the basic concepts of computer image processing and analysis, the characteristics of different data types, the development of methods for geological interpretations, the integration of all scales and data types of remote sensing in a given study, the integration of other data bases (geophysical and geochemical) into a remote sensing study, and geological remote sensing applications. The laboratories should stress hands on experience to reinforce the concepts and procedures presented in the lecture. The geologist should then be encouraged to pursue a second course in computer image processing and analysis of remotely sensed data.

  10. Vital analysis: annotating sensed physiological signals with the stress levels of first responders in action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, P; Kaiseler, M; Queirós, C; Oliveira, M; Lopes, B; Coimbra, M

    2012-01-01

    First responders such as firefighters are exposed to extreme stress and fatigue situations during their work routines. It is thus desirable to monitor their health using wearable sensing but this is a complex and still unsolved research challenge that requires large amounts of properly annotated physiological signals data. In this paper we show that the information gathered by our Vital Analysis Framework can support the annotation of these vital signals with the stress levels perceived by the target user, confirmed by the analysis of more than 4600 hours of data collected from real firefighters in action, including 717 answers to event questionnaires from a total of 454 different events.

  11. Rats with decreased brain cholecystokinin levels show increased responsiveness to peripheral electrical stimulation-induced analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L X; Li, X L; Wang, L; Han, J S

    1997-01-16

    Using the P77PMC strain of rat, which is genetically prone to audiogenic seizures, and also has decreased levels of cholecystokinin (CCK), we examined the analgesic response to peripheral electrical stimulation, which is, in part, opiate-mediated. A number of studies have suggested that CCK may function as an antagonist to endogenous opiate effects. Therefore, we hypothesized that the P77PMC animals would show an enhanced analgesic response based on their decreased CCK levels producing a diminished endogenous opiate antagonism. We found that the analgesic effect on tail flick latency produced by 100 Hz peripheral electrical stimulation was more potent and longer lasting in P77PMC rats than in control rats. Moreover, the potency of the stimulation-produced analgesia correlated with the vulnerability to audiogenic seizures in these rats. We were able to block the peripheral electrical stimulation-induced analgesia (PSIA) using a cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8) administered parenterally. Radioimmunoassay showed that the content of CCK-8 in cerebral cortex, hippocampus and periaqueductal gray was much lower in P77PMC rat than in controls. These results suggest that low CCK-8 content in the central nervous system of the P77PMC rats may be related to the high analgesic response to peripheral electrical stimulation, and further support the notion that CCK may be endogenous opiate antagonist.

  12. Men with elevated testosterone levels show more affiliative behaviours during interactions with women

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meij, Leander; Almela, Mercedes; Buunk, Abraham P.; Fawcett, Tim W.; Salvador, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    Testosterone (T) is thought to play a key role in male–male competition and courtship in many vertebrates, but its precise effects are unclear. We explored whether courtship behaviour in humans is modulated and preceded by changes in T. Pairs of healthy male students first competed in a non-physical contest in which their T levels became elevated. Each participant then had a short, informal interaction with either an unfamiliar man or woman. The sex of the stimulus person did not affect the participants' behaviour overall. However, in interactions with women, those men who had experienced a greater T increase during the contest subsequently showed more interest in the woman, engaged in more self-presentation, smiled more and made more eye contact. No such effects were seen in interactions with other men. This is the first study to provide direct evidence that elevating T during male–male competition is followed by increased affiliative behaviour towards women. PMID:21632627

  13. Characteristics of a Sensitive Well Showing Pre-Earthquake Water-Level Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Chi-Yu

    2018-04-01

    Water-level data recorded at a sensitive well next to a fault in central Japan between 1989 and 1998 showed many coseismic water-level drops and a large (60 cm) and long (6-month) pre-earthquake drop before a rare local earthquake of magnitude 5.8 on 17 March 1997, as well as 5 smaller pre-earthquake drops during a 7-year period prior to this earthquake. The pre-earthquake changes were previously attributed to leakage through the fault-gouge zone caused by small but broad-scaled crustal-stress increments. These increments now seem to be induced by some large slow-slip events. The coseismic changes are attributed to seismic shaking-induced fissures in the adjacent aquitards, in addition to leakage through the fault. The well's high-sensitivity is attributed to its tapping a highly permeable aquifer, which is connected to the fractured side of the fault, and its near-critical condition for leakage, especially during the 7 years before the magnitude 5.8 earthquake.

  14. Subpixel level mapping of remotely sensed image using colorimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Suresh

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The problem of extracting proportion of classes present within a pixel has been a challenge for researchers for which already numerous methodologies have been developed but still saturation is far ahead, since still the methods accounting these mixed classes are not perfect and they would never be perfect until one can talk about one to one correspondence for each pixel and ground data, which is practically impossible. In this paper a step towards generation of new method for finding out mixed class proportions in a pixel on the basis of the mixing property of colors as per colorimetry. The methodology involves locating the class color of a mixed pixel on chromaticity diagram and then using contextual information mainly the location of neighboring pixels on chromaticity diagram to estimate the proportion of classes in the mixed pixel.Also the resampling method would be more accurate when accounting for sharp and exact boundaries. With the usage of contextual information can generate the resampled image containing only the colors which really exist. The process is simply accounting the fraction and then the number of pixels by multiplying the fraction by total number of pixels into which one pixel is splitted to get number of pixels of each color based on contextual information. Keywords: Subpixel classification, Remote sensing imagery, Colorimetric color space, Sampling and subpixel mapping

  15. Research on Remote Sensing Image Classification Based on Feature Level Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, L.; Zhu, G.

    2018-04-01

    Remote sensing image classification, as an important direction of remote sensing image processing and application, has been widely studied. However, in the process of existing classification algorithms, there still exists the phenomenon of misclassification and missing points, which leads to the final classification accuracy is not high. In this paper, we selected Sentinel-1A and Landsat8 OLI images as data sources, and propose a classification method based on feature level fusion. Compare three kind of feature level fusion algorithms (i.e., Gram-Schmidt spectral sharpening, Principal Component Analysis transform and Brovey transform), and then select the best fused image for the classification experimental. In the classification process, we choose four kinds of image classification algorithms (i.e. Minimum distance, Mahalanobis distance, Support Vector Machine and ISODATA) to do contrast experiment. We use overall classification precision and Kappa coefficient as the classification accuracy evaluation criteria, and the four classification results of fused image are analysed. The experimental results show that the fusion effect of Gram-Schmidt spectral sharpening is better than other methods. In four kinds of classification algorithms, the fused image has the best applicability to Support Vector Machine classification, the overall classification precision is 94.01 % and the Kappa coefficients is 0.91. The fused image with Sentinel-1A and Landsat8 OLI is not only have more spatial information and spectral texture characteristics, but also enhances the distinguishing features of the images. The proposed method is beneficial to improve the accuracy and stability of remote sensing image classification.

  16. Top-level football coaches' practical sense of talent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Krogh

    process of identification, development and selection takes place. Therefore, it is a much-desired quality in top-level coaches to be able to identify "true" talent. This study explores the ways in which talent identification is carried out among top-level football coaches, and it aims to identify specific...... structures of expert knowledge related to talent identification. The underlying basis of the study is the assumption that "talent can only be talent and recognized as such where it is values" [1], and that talent identification in top-level football is a question of the coaches' trained eye [2] and tacit...... this point of view, the study explores eight Danish National Youth Team football coaches' expert knowledge and ways of identifying talents. The data compile from biographical, in-depth interviews [5] with the coaches. The in-depth interviews are conducted and analyzed using meaning condensation and meaning...

  17. Glucocorticoid treatment earlier in childhood and adolescence show dose-response associations with diurnal cortisol levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Martin; Holm, Sara K; Uldall, Peter

    2017-01-01

    or diurnal cortisol output; however, sex-dependent group differences were observed. Specifically, female patients had a higher CAR relative to female controls, while male patients had higher daily cortisol levels compared to male controls. Notably, CAR in female patients and daily cortisol levels in male...... for males and females....

  18. »According to Common Sense«: Gender, Nationality and Class in Cooking Show Ljubezen skozi želodec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Meršak

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available »Ljubezen skozi želodec« is the first Slovenian lifestyle cooking show hosted by spouses, publishers and foodies Valentina Smej Novak and Luka Novak. The aim of the article is to determine what gender, class and national representations are reproduced by the show. The analysis of four seasons of the cooking show demonstrates that, in regard to social class and gender, »Ljubezen skozi želodec« can be compared to similar shows abroad, such as those hosted by Jamie Oliver and Nigella. Masculinity and femininity are constructed through traditional roles where the ideology of family and care for the children is vital. All this corresponds to the Slovenian socio-cultural environment characterized by Catholicism. Class identities are the reflection of Bourdieu’s taste of luxury and a contemporary omnivorous taste of an environmentally conscious consumer. As for the national angle, the Central-European and partially also the French and Italian identity are stressed rather than the Slovenian one, which puts Slovenia on the socio-cultural map of the Central Europe and at the same time negates the culinary influence of the former Yugoslav republics.

  19. Cyanobacteria perceive nitrogen status by sensing intracellular 2-oxoglutarate levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muro-Pastor, M I; Reyes, J C; Florencio, F J

    2001-10-12

    The regulatory circuits that control nitrogen metabolism are relatively well known in several bacterial model groups. However, much less is understood about how the nitrogen status of the cell is perceived in vivo. In cyanobacteria, the transcription factor NtcA is required for regulation (activation or repression) of an extensive number of genes involved in nitrogen metabolism. In contrast, how NtcA activity is regulated is largely unknown. Assimilation of ammonium by most microorganisms occurs through the sequential action of two enzymes: glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamate synthase. Interestingly, regulation of the expression of NtcA-dependent genes in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 is altered in mutants with modified levels of GS activity. Two types of mutants were analyzed: glnA null mutants that lack GS type I and gif mutants unable to inactivate GS in the presence of ammonium. Changes in the intracellular pools of 19 different amino acids and the keto acid 2-oxoglutarate were recorded in wild-type and mutant strains under different nitrogen conditions. Our data strongly indicate that the nitrogen status in cyanobacteria is perceived as changes in the intracellular 2-oxoglutarate pool.

  20. Symbolization Levels in Communicative Behaviors of Children Showing Pervasive Developmental Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlas, Jeffrey A.; Lapidus, Leah Blumberg

    1988-01-01

    A total of 48 children (aged 4-14) with severe pervasive developmental disturbance, exhibiting mutism, echolalia, or nonecholalic speech, were observed in their communicative behaviors across modalities. Levels of symbolization in gesture, play, and drawing were significantly intercorrelated and were most strongly correlated with the criterion…

  1. Background levels of methane in Mars’ atmosphere show strong seasonal variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Christopher R.; Mahaffy, Paul R.; Atreya, Sushil K.; Moores, John E.; Flesch, Gregory J.; Malespin, Charles; McKay, Christopher P.; Martinez, German; Smith, Christina L.; Martin-Torres, Javier; Gomez-Elvira, Javier; Zorzano, Maria-Paz; Wong, Michael H.; Trainer, Melissa G.; Steele, Andrew; Archer, Doug; Sutter, Brad; Coll, Patrice J.; Freissinet, Caroline; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; Gough, Raina V.; House, Christopher H.; Pavlov, Alexander; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Pearson, John C.; Keymeulen, Didier; Christensen, Lance E.; Schwenzer, Susanne P.; Navarro-Gonzalez, Rafael; Pla-García, Jorge; Rafkin, Scot C. R.; Vicente-Retortillo, Álvaro; Kahanpää, Henrik; Viudez-Moreiras, Daniel; Smith, Michael D.; Harri, Ari-Matti; Genzer, Maria; Hassler, Donald M.; Lemmon, Mark; Crisp, Joy; Sander, Stanley P.; Zurek, Richard W.; Vasavada, Ashwin R.

    2018-06-01

    Variable levels of methane in the martian atmosphere have eluded explanation partly because the measurements are not repeatable in time or location. We report in situ measurements at Gale crater made over a 5-year period by the Tunable Laser Spectrometer on the Curiosity rover. The background levels of methane have a mean value 0.41 ± 0.16 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) (95% confidence interval) and exhibit a strong, repeatable seasonal variation (0.24 to 0.65 ppbv). This variation is greater than that predicted from either ultraviolet degradation of impact-delivered organics on the surface or from the annual surface pressure cycle. The large seasonal variation in the background and occurrences of higher temporary spikes (~7 ppbv) are consistent with small localized sources of methane released from martian surface or subsurface reservoirs.

  2. Smokers Show Lower Levels of Psychological Well-Being and Mindfulness than Non-Smokers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víviam Vargas Barros

    Full Text Available Mindfulness is defined as "paying attention in a particular way, on purpose, in the present moment, and nonjudgmentally". Mindfulness is associated with positive affect, life satisfaction, self-esteem, lower negative affect and rumination. Conversely, evidence suggests a relationship between nicotine dependence and psychiatric disorders. This study aimed to compare the levels of Mindfulness and Subjective Well-Being (SWB between smokers and non-smokers. Ninety seven smokers and eighty four non-smokers participated in the study (n = 181. The Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ-BR and the Subjective Well-Being Scale (SWBS were used. In all the factors of SWBS, the total scores in the FFMQ-BR and in the facets of Observing and Non-Reactivity, the non-smokers scored higher than the smokers. This study suggests that smokers present lower levels of Mindfulness and SWB than non-smokers. Consequently, we propose that Mindfulness-Based Interventions (MBI may help smokers deal with treatment and abstinence by increasing their level of SWB.

  3. Cloned Bacillus subtilis alkaline protease (aprA) gene showing high level of keratinolytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghloul, T I

    1998-01-01

    The Bacillus subtilis alkaline protease(aprA) gene was previously cloned on a pUBHO-derivative plasmid. High levels of expression and gene stability were demonstrated when B. subtilis cells were grown on the laboratory medium 2XSG. B. subtilis cells harboring the multicopy aprA gene were grown on basal medium, supplemented with 1 % chicken feather as a source of energy, carbon, and nitrogen. Proteolytic and keratinolytic activities were monitored throughout the cultivation time. A high level of keratinolytic activity was obtained, and this indicates that alkaline protease is acting as a keratinase. Furthermore, considerable amounts of soluble proteins and free amino acids were obtained as a result of the enzymatic hydrolysis of feather. Biodegradation of feather waste using these cells represents an alternative way to improve the nutritional value of feather, since feather waste is currently utilized on a limited basis as a dietary protein supplement for animal feedstuffs. Moreover, the release of free amino acids from feather and the secreted keratinase enzyme would promote industries based on feather waste.

  4. Genes with stable DNA methylation levels show higher evolutionary conservation than genes with fluctuant DNA methylation levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruijie; Lv, Wenhua; Luan, Meiwei; Zheng, Jiajia; Shi, Miao; Zhu, Hongjie; Li, Jin; Lv, Hongchao; Zhang, Mingming; Shang, Zhenwei; Duan, Lian; Jiang, Yongshuai

    2015-11-24

    Different human genes often exhibit different degrees of stability in their DNA methylation levels between tissues, samples or cell types. This may be related to the evolution of human genome. Thus, we compared the evolutionary conservation between two types of genes: genes with stable DNA methylation levels (SM genes) and genes with fluctuant DNA methylation levels (FM genes). For long-term evolutionary characteristics between species, we compared the percentage of the orthologous genes, evolutionary rate dn/ds and protein sequence identity. We found that the SM genes had greater percentages of the orthologous genes, lower dn/ds, and higher protein sequence identities in all the 21 species. These results indicated that the SM genes were more evolutionarily conserved than the FM genes. For short-term evolutionary characteristics among human populations, we compared the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) density, and the linkage disequilibrium (LD) degree in HapMap populations and 1000 genomes project populations. We observed that the SM genes had lower SNP densities, and higher degrees of LD in all the 11 HapMap populations and 13 1000 genomes project populations. These results mean that the SM genes had more stable chromosome genetic structures, and were more conserved than the FM genes.

  5. Serotonin markers show altered transcription levels in an experimental pig model of mitral regurgitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cremer, Signe Emilie; Zois, Nora Elisabeth; Moesgaard, S. G.

    2015-01-01

    surgically induced MR or sham-operation, resulting in three MR groups: control (CON, n = 12), mild MR (mMR, n = 10) and severe MR (sMR, n = 6). The gene expression levels of 5-HT1BR, 5-HT2AR, 5-HT2BR, SERT and TPH-1 were analysed using quantitative PCR (qPCR) in the mitral valve (MV), anterior papillary......-uptake transporter (SERT) in MMVD-affected valves, increased valvular 5-HT synthesis and decreased clearance have been suggested. It remains unknown how haemodynamic changes associated with mitral regurgitation (MR) affect 5-HT markers in the mitral valve, myocardium and circulation. Twenty-eight pigs underwent...... muscle (AP) and left ventricle (LV). MV 5-HT2BR was also analysed with immunohistochemistry (IHC) in relation to histological lesions and valvular myofibroblasts. All 5-HTR mRNAs were up-regulated in MV compared to AP and LV (P SERT and TPH-1 were up-regulated in AP and LV compared...

  6. JAIF survey shows expansion of nuclear market but sees levelling-off

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Industrial Forum released the results of the fiscal 1984 survey of the nuclear industry in Japan, on December 18, 1985. The report showed that the nuclear industry maintained a strong expansionary trend as the nuclear related sales of mining and manufacturing industries were up by 26 % over the previous year to the total of 1,722.9 billion yen. However, there was a decrease in the expenditure of the electrical utility industry, which is the principal user, on nuclear power plant construction, as well as in the number of technical section workers in mining and manufacturing industries, which has reached the peak in the last couple of years. The report pointed out that the nuclear industry faces a period of adjustment after the end of the expansionary period, and that this basic pattern is likely to continue for several years, and the new order of nuclear power plants is likely to decline. This survey is the 26th of its kind by sending questionnaires to 1222 companies in 25 business sectors. 902 companies responded. The nuclear sales of mining and manufacturing industries, the investment for research facilities, nuclear-related workers, and the future market prospect are reported. (Kako, I.)

  7. Spatially monitoring oxygen level in 3D microfabricated cell culture systems using optical oxygen sensing beads

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lin; Acosta, Miguel A.; Leach, Jennie B.; Carrier, Rebecca L.

    2013-01-01

    Capability of measuring and monitoring local oxygen concentration at the single cell level (tens of microns scale) is often desirable but difficult to achieve in cell culture. In this study, biocompatible oxygen sensing beads were prepared and tested for their potential for real-time monitoring and mapping of local oxygen concentration in 3D micro-patterned cell culture systems. Each oxygen sensing bead is composed of a silica core loaded with both an oxygen sensitive Ru(Ph2phen3)Cl2 dye and ...

  8. Spatially monitoring oxygen level in 3D microfabricated cell culture systems using optical oxygen sensing beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Acosta, Miguel A; Leach, Jennie B; Carrier, Rebecca L

    2013-04-21

    Capability of measuring and monitoring local oxygen concentration at the single cell level (tens of microns scale) is often desirable but difficult to achieve in cell culture. In this study, biocompatible oxygen sensing beads were prepared and tested for their potential for real-time monitoring and mapping of local oxygen concentration in 3D micro-patterned cell culture systems. Each oxygen sensing bead is composed of a silica core loaded with both an oxygen sensitive Ru(Ph2phen3)Cl2 dye and oxygen insensitive Nile blue reference dye, and a poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) shell rendering biocompatibility. Human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells were cultivated on a series of PDMS and type I collagen based substrates patterned with micro-well arrays for 3 or 7 days, and then brought into contact with oxygen sensing beads. Using an image analysis algorithm to convert florescence intensity of beads to partial oxygen pressure in the culture system, tens of microns-size oxygen sensing beads enabled the spatial measurement of local oxygen concentration in the microfabricated system. Results generally indicated lower oxygen level inside wells than on top of wells, and local oxygen level dependence on structural features of cell culture surfaces. Interestingly, chemical composition of cell culture substrates also appeared to affect oxygen level, with type-I collagen based cell culture systems having lower oxygen concentration compared to PDMS based cell culture systems. In general, results suggest that oxygen sensing beads can be utilized to achieve real-time and local monitoring of micro-environment oxygen level in 3D microfabricated cell culture systems.

  9. Biographical learning in top-level coaching - personal styles and the power of practical sense

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Krogh

    There is a growing body of studies in sports coaching cultures, comprising research focusing on the individual learning processes and life histories of top-level coaches. Even if top-level sport has become increasingly professionalized, the role of the top-level coach and the developmental pathways...... of practical sense of talent. I base the paper on a sociological analysis of in-depth interviews with eight Danish top-level football coaches about their pathways to expertise. Results illustrate two interwoven aspects of coaching expertise: 1) the coaches’ descriptions of their development of expertise...... as a “personal journey” and a matter of unique pathways, and 2) the coaches’ use of social constructed practical sense in their daily work, particularly in identification and assessment of skillfulness and talent in young footballers. The results point to an important challenge in coach education and coach...

  10. Biographical learning in top-level coaching - personal styles and the power of practical sense

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Krogh

    : Biographical learning in top-level coaching - personal styles and the power of practical sense. There is a growing body of studies in sports coaching cultures, comprising research focusing on the individual learning processes and life histories of top-level coaches. Even if top-level sport has become...... explores the relation between these kinds of learning processes and the coaches’ development of practical sense of talent. I base the paper on a sociological analysis of in-depth interviews with eight Danish top-level football coaches about their pathways to expertise. Results illustrate two interwoven...... in young footballers. The results point to an important challenge in coach education and coach socialization: the construction and power of coaches’ personal “styles”....

  11. Combining low level features and visual attributes for VHR remote sensing image classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fumin; Sun, Hao; Liu, Shuai; Zhou, Shilin

    2015-12-01

    Semantic classification of very high resolution (VHR) remote sensing images is of great importance for land use or land cover investigation. A large number of approaches exploiting different kinds of low level feature have been proposed in the literature. Engineers are often frustrated by their conclusions and a systematic assessment of various low level features for VHR remote sensing image classification is needed. In this work, we firstly perform an extensive evaluation of eight features including HOG, dense SIFT, SSIM, GIST, Geo color, LBP, Texton and Tiny images for classification of three public available datasets. Secondly, we propose to transfer ground level scene attributes to remote sensing images. Thirdly, we combine both low-level features and mid-level visual attributes to further improve the classification performance. Experimental results demonstrate that i) Dene SIFT and HOG features are more robust than other features for VHR scene image description. ii) Visual attribute competes with a combination of low level features. iii) Multiple feature combination achieves the best performance under different settings.

  12. Highly improved hydration level sensing properties of copper oxide films with sodium and potassium doping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahin, Bünyamin; Kaya, Tolga

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A series of Na- and K-doped CuO were growth via SILAR method. • The hydration level monitoring activity has been tested with CuO films. • The highest sensing efficiency was obtained with 4 M% K. - Abstract: In this study, un-doped, Na-doped, and K-doped nanostructured CuO films were successfully synthesized by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique and then characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and current–voltage (I–V) measurements. Structural properties of the CuO films were affected from doping. The XRD pattern indicates the formation of polycrystalline CuO films with no secondary phases. Furthermore, doping affected the crystal structure of the samples. The optimum conductivity values for both Na and K were obtained at 4 M% doping concentrations. The comparative hydration level sensing properties of the un-doped, Na-doped, and K-doped CuO nanoparticles were also investigated. A significant enhancement in hydration level sensing properties was observed for both 4 M% Na and K-doped CuO films for all concentration levels. Detailed discussions were reported in the study regarding atomic radii, crystalline structure, and conductivity.

  13. Highly improved hydration level sensing properties of copper oxide films with sodium and potassium doping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahin, Bünyamin, E-mail: sahin38@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Mustafa Kemal University, Hatay, 31034 (Turkey); School of Engineering and Technology, Central Michigan University, Mt. Pleasant, 48859 (United States); Kaya, Tolga [School of Engineering and Technology, Central Michigan University, Mt. Pleasant, 48859 (United States); Science of Advanced Materials Program, Central Michigan University, Mt. Pleasant, 48859 (United States)

    2016-01-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A series of Na- and K-doped CuO were growth via SILAR method. • The hydration level monitoring activity has been tested with CuO films. • The highest sensing efficiency was obtained with 4 M% K. - Abstract: In this study, un-doped, Na-doped, and K-doped nanostructured CuO films were successfully synthesized by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique and then characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and current–voltage (I–V) measurements. Structural properties of the CuO films were affected from doping. The XRD pattern indicates the formation of polycrystalline CuO films with no secondary phases. Furthermore, doping affected the crystal structure of the samples. The optimum conductivity values for both Na and K were obtained at 4 M% doping concentrations. The comparative hydration level sensing properties of the un-doped, Na-doped, and K-doped CuO nanoparticles were also investigated. A significant enhancement in hydration level sensing properties was observed for both 4 M% Na and K-doped CuO films for all concentration levels. Detailed discussions were reported in the study regarding atomic radii, crystalline structure, and conductivity.

  14. From Remotely Sensed Vegetation Onset to Sowing Dates: Aggregating Pixel-Level Detections into Village-Level Sowing Probabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Marinho

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring the start of the crop season in Sahel provides decision makers with valuable information for an early assessment of potential production and food security threats. Presently, the most common method for the estimation of sowing dates in West African countries consists of applying given thresholds on rainfall estimations. However, the coarse spatial resolution and the possible inaccuracy of these estimations are limiting factors. In this context, the remote sensing approach, which consists of deriving green-up onset dates from satellite remote sensing data, appears as an interesting alternative. It builds upon a novel statistic model that translates vegetation onset detections derived from MODIS time series into sowing probabilities at the village level. Results for Niger show that this approach outperforms the standard method adopted in the region based on rainfall thresholds.

  15. An Eye for Talent: Talent Identification and Practical Sense of Top-level Soccer Coaches

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Mette Krogh

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore how top-level soccer coaches identify talent. I draw on Bourdieu's work to challenge a commonly held assumption that talent identification is a rational or objective process. Analysis of in-depth interviews with eight coaches of national youth soccer teams indicated these coaches identified talent in three ways. Firstly, coaches use their practical sense and their visual experience to recognize patterns of movement among the players. Secondly, the coach...

  16. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF LOCALIZED MUSCLE FATIGUE ON KNEE POSITION SENSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William S. Gear

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available There is little information available regarding how proprioceptive abilities decline as the amount of exertion increases during exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of different levels of fatigue on knee joint position sense. A repeated measures design was used to examine changes in active joint reposition sense (AJRS prior to and following three levels of fatigue. Eighteen participants performed knee extension and flexion isokinetic exercise until torque output was 90%, 70%, or 50% of the peak hamstring torque for three consecutive repetitions. Active joint reposition sense at 15, 30, or 45 degrees was tested following the isokinetic exercise session. Following testing of the first independent measure, participants were given a 20 minute rest period. Testing procedures were repeated for two more exercise sessions following the other levels of fatigue. Testing of each AJRS test angle was conducted on three separate days with 48 hours between test days. Significant main effect for fatigue was indicated (p = 0.001. Pairwise comparisons indicated a significant difference between the pre-test and following 90% of peak hamstring torque (p = 0.02 and between the pre-test and following 50% of peak hamstring torque (p = 0.02. Fatigue has long been theorized to be a contributing factor in decreased proprioceptive acuity, and therefore a contributing factor to joint injury. The findings of the present study indicate that fatigue may have an effect on proprioception following mild and maximum fatigue.

  17. Precision sensing by two opposing gradient sensors: how does Escherichia coli find its preferred pH level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bo; Tu, Yuhai

    2013-07-02

    It is essential for bacteria to find optimal conditions for their growth and survival. The optimal levels of certain environmental factors (such as pH and temperature) often correspond to some intermediate points of the respective gradients. This requires the ability of bacteria to navigate from both directions toward the optimum location and is distinct from the conventional unidirectional chemotactic strategy. Remarkably, Escherichia coli cells can perform such a precision sensing task in pH taxis by using the same chemotaxis machinery, but with opposite pH responses from two different chemoreceptors (Tar and Tsr). To understand bacterial pH sensing, we developed an Ising-type model for a mixed cluster of opposing receptors based on the push-pull mechanism. Our model can quantitatively explain experimental observations in pH taxis for various mutants and wild-type cells. We show how the preferred pH level depends on the relative abundance of the competing sensors and how the sensory activity regulates the behavioral response. Our model allows us to make quantitative predictions on signal integration of pH and chemoattractant stimuli. Our study reveals two general conditions and a robust push-pull scheme for precision sensing, which should be applicable in other adaptive sensory systems with opposing gradient sensors. Copyright © 2013 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Remote Sensing Analysis of the Sierra Blanca (Faskin Ranch) Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Site, Hudspeth County, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeMone, D. V.; Dodge, R.; Xie, H.; Langford, R. P.; Keller, G. R.

    2002-01-01

    Remote sensing images provide useful physical information, revealing such features as geological structure, vegetation, drainage patterns, and variations in consolidated and unconsolidated lithologies. That technology has been applied to the failed Sierra Blanca (Faskin Ranch) shallow burial low-level radioactive waste disposal site selected by the Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority. It has been re-examined using data from LANDSAT satellite series. The comparison of the earlier LANDSAT V (5/20/86) (30-m resolution) with the later new, higher resolution ETM imagery (10/23/99) LANDSAT VII data (15-m resolution) clearly shows the superiority of the LANDSAT VII data. The search for surficial indications of evidence of fatal flaws at the Sierra Blanca site utilizing was not successful, as it had been in the case of the earlier remote sensing analysis of the failed Fort Hancock site utilizing LANDSAT V data. The authors conclude that the tectonic activity at the Sierra Blanca site is much less recent and active than in the previously studied Fort Hancock site. The Sierra Blanca site failed primarily on the further needed documentation concerning a subsurface fault underneath the site and environmental justice issues. The presence of this fault was not revealed using the newer LANDSAT VII data. Despite this fact, it must be remembered that remote sensing provides baseline documentation for determining future physical and financial remediation responsibilities. On the basis of the two sites examined by LANDSAT remote sensing imaging, it is concluded that it is an essential, cost-effective tool that should be utilized not only in site examination but also in all nuclear-related facilities

  19. Healthy looking hospital nurses showing vitamin d deficiency: correlation of vitamin d levels with their levels of parathhyroid hormone and bone turnover markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasim, A.; Salim, B.; Niazi, S.; Fatima, N.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the correlation of low vitamin D levels with parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels and bone turn over markers among apparently healthy hospital nurses. Methods: Screening was done on 50 recruited healthy female nursing staff, aged between 18 to 35 years, for vitamin D levels. Among them 31 were found to be deficient in vitamin D. These 31 nurses were selected for further evaluation in trance. Their vitamin D levels were calculated by using the electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Blood samples were drawn to estimate serum PTH levels accordingly. Samples were also collected from these recruited subjects to evaluate their bone turn over markers, including, osteocalcin, procollagen type 1 N propeptide and Beta-Crosslaps. Results: Out of 50 subjects, 31 subjects were found to have Vitamin D levels below 50 nmol/l. Out of these 31 subjects, 13 subjects, 41.9%, showed vitamin D levels below 20 nmol/l. Among these 13 subjects, all had significantly raised PTH levels (p-value: <0.001, r-value: -0.781). In rest of all the subjects, including those having Vitamin D levels above 20nmol/l, inordinately, PTH levels were normal. No reciprocity was found between low Vitamin D and raised PTH levels with bone turnover markers, except with P1NP (r-value 0.022). Conclusion: PTH levels show a steep augmentation in serum, when vitamin D levels hit the trough below 20 nmol/l. These are the subjects who should be treated prior to the development of complications of bone resorption. Moreover we could not find any significant correlation of Vitamin D and PTH with any bone turnover marker except P1NP. (author)

  20. Investigating chlorophyll and nitrogen levels of mangroves at Al-Khor, Qatar: an integrated chemical analysis and remote sensing approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Naimi, Noora; Al-Ghouti, Mohammad A; Balakrishnan, Perumal

    2016-05-01

    Mangroves are unique ecosystems that dominate tropical and subtropical coastlines around the world. They provide shelter and nursery to wide variety of species such as fish and birds. Around 73 species of mangroves were recognized around the world. In Qatar, there is only one mangrove species Avicennia marina that is predominant along the northeastern coast. Assessing the health of these valuable ecosystems is vital for protection, management, and conservation of those resources. In this study, an integrated approach of chemical and remote sensing analysis was implemented to investigate the current status of the mangrove trees in Al-Khor, Qatar. Fifteen different A. marina trees from different locations in the mangrove forest were examined for their chlorophyll and nitrogen content levels. Soil analysis was also conducted to understand the effect of moisture on nitrogen availability. Results shows that currently, mangroves are in a good status in terms of nitrogen availability and chlorophyll levels which are related and both are key factors for photosynthesis. Remote sensing techniques were used for chlorophyll prediction. The results showed that these methods have the potential to be used for chlorophyll prediction and estimation.

  1. Highly improved hydration level sensing properties of copper oxide films with sodium and potassium doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Bünyamin; Kaya, Tolga

    2016-01-01

    In this study, un-doped, Na-doped, and K-doped nanostructured CuO films were successfully synthesized by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique and then characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and current-voltage (I-V) measurements. Structural properties of the CuO films were affected from doping. The XRD pattern indicates the formation of polycrystalline CuO films with no secondary phases. Furthermore, doping affected the crystal structure of the samples. The optimum conductivity values for both Na and K were obtained at 4 M% doping concentrations. The comparative hydration level sensing properties of the un-doped, Na-doped, and K-doped CuO nanoparticles were also investigated. A significant enhancement in hydration level sensing properties was observed for both 4 M% Na and K-doped CuO films for all concentration levels. Detailed discussions were reported in the study regarding atomic radii, crystalline structure, and conductivity.

  2. Noise exposure in movie theaters: a preliminary study of sound levels during the showing of 25 films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warszawa, Anna; Sataloff, Robert T

    2010-09-01

    The harmful effects of noise exposure during leisure-time activities are beginning to receive some scrutiny. We conducted a preliminary study to investigate the noise levels during the showings of 25 different films. During each screening, various sound measurements were made with a dosimeter. The movies were classified on the basis of both their Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA) rating and their genre, and the size of the theater and the size of the audience were taken into consideration in the final analysis. Our findings suggest that the sound levels of many movies might be harmful to hearing, although we can draw no definitive conclusions. We did not discern any relationship between noise levels and either MPAA rating or genre. Further studies are recommended.

  3. Level ofaggression and sense of control inself-harming youth receiving psychiatric treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Gmitrowicz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Acts of autoaggression are a more and more frequent reason for psychiatric hospitalisation of adolescents. Within the last years the number of patients committing acts of deliberate self‑harm without suicidal intensions almost doubled. Deliberate self‑harm (DSH is defined as an act of direct destructiveness, in which a person wants to commit self‑harm immediately, without an intention of killing her/himself. In this paper we present the results of the study on the level and direction of aggression and the sense of control among inpatients (N=187 of the Department of Adolescent Psychiatry, Central University Hospital in Łódź. The studied group consisted of patients with deliberate self‑harm (DSH group, N=88, whereas the control group comprised the patients without such behaviours (non‑DSH group, N=99. For the study we recruited patients who were admitted to the hospital due to various mental disorders – 58 boys, mean age 16.81, SD=1.25, and 129 girls, mean age 16.5, SD=1.38. The mean age of all patients was 16.59 (SD=1.35. Patients with men‑ tal retardation were excluded from the study, due to expected difficulties with understanding the questions. We used the IPSA (Inventory of Psychological Syndrome of Aggression and “Delta” (test invented by Drwal, designed for evalua‑ tion of the sense of control. In the DSH group we found a significantly higher level of aggression, directed both inwards and outwards, a greater tendency of retaliatory behaviours and by far lower sense of internal control of one’s behaviours, as compared to the non‑DSH group. Therapeutic programs for patients with DSH should aim at the reduction of aggres‑ sion and the development of internal control over one’s behaviours.

  4. A Student-Friendly Graphical User Interface to Extract Data from Remote Sensing Level-2 Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardello, R.

    2016-02-01

    Remote sensing era has provided an unprecedented amount of publicly available data. The United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA-GSFC) has achieved remarkable results in the distribution of these data to the scientific community through the OceanColor web page (http://oceancolor.gsfc.nasa.gov/). However, the access to these data, is not straightforward and needs a certain investment of time in learning the use of existing software. Satellite sensors acquire raw data that are processed through several steps towards a format usable by the scientific community. These products are distributed in Hierarchical Data Format (HDF) which often represents the first obstacle for students, teachers and scientists not used to deal with extensive matrices. We present here SATellite data PROcessing (SATPRO) a newly developed Graphical User Interface (GUI) designed in MATLAB environment to provide an easy, immediate yet reliable way to select and extract Level-2 data from NASA SeaWIFS and MODIS-Aqua databases for oceanic surface temperature and chlorophyll. Since no previous experience with MATLAB is required, SATPRO allows the user to explore the available dataset without investing any software-learning time. SATPRO is an ideal tool to introduce undergraduate students to the use of remote sensing data in oceanography and can also be useful for research projects at the graduate level.

  5. Saccharomyces cerevisiae show low levels of traversal across human endothelial barrier in vitro [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Pérez-Torrado

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background:  Saccharomyces cerevisiae is generally considered safe, and is involved in the production of many types of foods and dietary supplements. However, some isolates, which are genetically related to strains used in brewing and baking, have shown virulent traits, being able to produce infections in humans, mainly in immunodeficient patients. This can lead to systemic infections in humans. Methods: In this work, we studied S. cerevisiae isolates in an in vitro human endothelial barrier model, comparing their behaviour with that of several strains of the related pathogens Candida glabrata and Candida albicans. Results: The results showed that this food related yeast is able to cross the endothelial barrier in vitro. However, in contrast to C. glabrata and C. albicans, S. cerevisiae showed very low levels of traversal. Conclusions: We conclude that using an in vitro human endothelial barrier model with S. cerevisiae can be useful to evaluate the safety of S. cerevisiae strains isolated from foods.

  6. Metagenomics shows that low-energy anaerobic-aerobic treatment reactors reduce antibiotic resistance gene levels from domestic wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christgen, Beate; Yang, Ying; Ahammad, S Z; Li, Bing; Rodriquez, D Catalina; Zhang, Tong; Graham, David W

    2015-02-17

    Effective domestic wastewater treatment is among our primary defenses against the dissemination of infectious waterborne disease. However, reducing the amount of energy used in treatment processes has become essential for the future. One low-energy treatment option is anaerobic-aerobic sequence (AAS) bioreactors, which use an anaerobic pretreatment step (e.g., anaerobic hybrid reactors) to reduce carbon levels, followed by some form of aerobic treatment. Although AAS is common in warm climates, it is not known how its compares to other treatment options relative to disease transmission, including its influence on antibiotic resistance (AR) in treated effluents. Here, we used metagenomic approaches to contrast the fate of antibiotic-resistant genes (ARG) in anaerobic, aerobic, and AAS bioreactors treating domestic wastewater. Five reactor configurations were monitored for 6 months, and treatment performance, energy use, and ARG abundance and diversity were compared in influents and effluents. AAS and aerobic reactors were superior to anaerobic units in reducing ARG-like sequence abundances, with effluent ARG levels of 29, 34, and 74 ppm (198 ppm influent), respectively. AAS and aerobic systems especially reduced aminoglycoside, tetracycline, and β-lactam ARG levels relative to anaerobic units, although 63 persistent ARG subtypes were detected in effluents from all systems (of 234 assessed). Sulfonamide and chloramphenicol ARG levels were largely unaffected by treatment, whereas a broad shift from target-specific ARGs to ARGs associated with multi-drug resistance was seen across influents and effluents. AAS reactors show promise for future applications because they can reduce more ARGs for less energy (32% less energy here), but all three treatment options have limitations and need further study.

  7. Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Exhibit Heterogeneous CD52 Expression Levels and Show Differential Sensitivity to Alemtuzumab Mediated Cytolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Sambasiva P.; Sancho, Jose; Campos-Rivera, Juanita; Boutin, Paula M.; Severy, Peter B.; Weeden, Timothy; Shankara, Srinivas; Roberts, Bruce L.; Kaplan, Johanne M.

    2012-01-01

    Alemtuzumab is a monoclonal antibody that targets cell surface CD52 and is effective in depleting lymphocytes by cytolytic effects in vivo. Although the cytolytic effects of alemtuzumab are dependent on the density of CD52 antigen on cells, there is scant information regarding the expression levels of CD52 on different cell types. In this study, CD52 expression was assessed on phenotypically distinct subsets of lymphoid and myeloid cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from normal donors. Results demonstrate that subsets of PBMCs express differing levels of CD52. Quantitative analysis showed that memory B cells and myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) display the highest number while natural killer (NK) cells, plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) and basophils have the lowest number of CD52 molecules per cell amongst lymphoid and myeloid cell populations respectively. Results of complement dependent cytolysis (CDC) studies indicated that alemtuzumab mediated profound cytolytic effects on B and T cells with minimal effect on NK cells, basophils and pDCs, correlating with the density of CD52 on these cells. Interestingly, despite high CD52 levels, mDCs and monocytes were less susceptible to alemtuzumab-mediated CDC indicating that antigen density alone does not define susceptibility. Additional studies indicated that higher expression levels of complement inhibitory proteins (CIPs) on these cells partially contributes to their resistance to alemtuzumab mediated CDC. These results indicate that alemtuzumab is most effective in depleting cells of the adaptive immune system while leaving innate immune cells relatively intact. PMID:22761788

  8. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells exhibit heterogeneous CD52 expression levels and show differential sensitivity to alemtuzumab mediated cytolysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sambasiva P Rao

    Full Text Available Alemtuzumab is a monoclonal antibody that targets cell surface CD52 and is effective in depleting lymphocytes by cytolytic effects in vivo. Although the cytolytic effects of alemtuzumab are dependent on the density of CD52 antigen on cells, there is scant information regarding the expression levels of CD52 on different cell types. In this study, CD52 expression was assessed on phenotypically distinct subsets of lymphoid and myeloid cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs from normal donors. Results demonstrate that subsets of PBMCs express differing levels of CD52. Quantitative analysis showed that memory B cells and myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs display the highest number while natural killer (NK cells, plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs and basophils have the lowest number of CD52 molecules per cell amongst lymphoid and myeloid cell populations respectively. Results of complement dependent cytolysis (CDC studies indicated that alemtuzumab mediated profound cytolytic effects on B and T cells with minimal effect on NK cells, basophils and pDCs, correlating with the density of CD52 on these cells. Interestingly, despite high CD52 levels, mDCs and monocytes were less susceptible to alemtuzumab-mediated CDC indicating that antigen density alone does not define susceptibility. Additional studies indicated that higher expression levels of complement inhibitory proteins (CIPs on these cells partially contributes to their resistance to alemtuzumab mediated CDC. These results indicate that alemtuzumab is most effective in depleting cells of the adaptive immune system while leaving innate immune cells relatively intact.

  9. Global Monitoring for Food Security and Sustainable Land Management - Recent Advances of Remote Sensing Applications to African and Siberian Show Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komp, K. U.; Haub, C.

    2012-07-01

    After four decades of space borne remote sensing, the unmapped white patches have mostly disappeared. Those basic information give the foundations to the observation of changes and even the introduction of monitoring programmes for a various number of features in the natural and human landscape of our planet. Recent indicators for climatic change together with worrisome alterations in regional food production versus the constantly increase of human population demand the design and implementation of reliable land management tools which will serve the food security as well as the sustainable use of resources of the ecosystem in its respective regional context. The positive responses and convincing results of ESA service elements in the efforts towards food security in several African countries have been the basis for the transfer of the methods into another region, the Western Siberian corn-belt. The large extends of cropping schemes in West Siberia demand advanced remote sensing methods to be applied in order to compare the impacts of climatic change not only on the agricultural production but also on risks for the ecosystem. A multi scale approach of remote sensing methods is introduced in analogy to the African activities. An adopted monitoring concept is developed using a nearly daily product of medium resolution for wide areas, high resolution sensors for stratified sample areas and in-situ observations. Beyond methodological research, the ability of remote sensing is contributing to operational solutions that can ensure the nutritional and ecological future of our planet.

  10. A novel mutation in the calcium-sensing receptor gene in an Irish pedigree showing familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia: a case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Elamin, Wael F

    2010-01-01

    Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by asymptomatic and non-progressive hypercalcemia due to mutations of the calcium-sensing receptor gene. Disorders of calcium metabolism are very common in the elderly, and they can coexist with familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia in affected families.

  11. An Alternative Approach of Coastal Sea-Level Observation from Remote Sensing Imageries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, H. Y.; Tseng, K. H.; Chung-Yen, K.; Lin, T. H.; Liao, W. H.; Chen, C. F.

    2017-12-01

    Coastal sea level can be observed as waterline changes along a coastal digital elevation model (DEM). However, most global DEMs, such as the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) DEM with 30 m resolution, provide limited coverage over coastal area due to the impermeability of radar signal over water and the lack of low-tide coincidence. Therefore, we aim to extend to coverage of SRTM DEM for the determination of intertidal zone and to monitor sea-level changes along the entire coastline of Taiwan (>1200km). We firstly collect historical cloud-free images since the 1980s, including Landsat series, SPOT series and Sentinel-2, and then calculate the Modified Normalized Difference Water Index (MNDWI) to identify water pixels. After computing water appearance probability of each pixel, it is converted into actual elevation by introducing the DTU10 tide model for high tide and low tide boundaries. A coastal DEM of intertidal zone is reconstructed and the accuracy is at 50 cm level as compared with in situ DEM built by an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Finally, we use this product to define the up-to-date intertidal zone and estimate sea-level changes by using remote sensing snapshots.

  12. Reports in the area sensor technology: Part 2: Dynamic deviations which may appear via the sensing lines in measurement of reactor pressure and level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergdahl, Bengt-Goeran

    2002-12-01

    demand on the response time was fulfilled. The report presents how blocking of the sensing lines can be supervised. Examples are given from the Muehleberg NPP (KKM). Examples are shown with a flow measurement transmitter, which has pulsation dampers. For this presentation, results with GSE's database for sensor tests, SensBase, are used. SensBase stores new results every year. In this way, the influence of component ageing can also be detected. Because of the use of SensBase, the Swiss nuclear power inspectorate has approved less frequent calibration of the transmitters. The report also presents pressure oscillations that take place in the sensing line and not in the real measured process. The water in the sensing line together with the transmitter membrane form a dynamic system with water as mass, elasticity in the transmitter membrane as spring constant and reactor pressure fluctuations as driving force. The problem with oscillations in the measurement system is illustrated with examples from Ringhals 1 and KKM. Another example from KKM shows how the oscillation in a level transmitter of the type Barton Cell affected a large number of transmitters, which were all connected to the common sensing lines. It was possible to identify the deviating transmitter by experiments with isolation valve closures in the sensing lines during power operation. After the transmitter had been changed to one with a smaller volume and smaller displacement, the oscillations disappeared. Finally, the report also shows that mechanical vibrations in the sensing lines contribute to the signal noise around 10 Hz. This is shown by means of laboratory tests at KKM. At this plant, transmitters have also been replaced because of deviating noise in the frequency interval 2-20 Hz. After the transmitter had been replaced, the noise disappeared. The results from KKM show that it can never be excluded that ageing may increase the transmitter's sensitivity to vibrations of the sensing line

  13. Life Cycle Assessment of Connected and Automated Vehicles: Sensing and Computing Subsystem and Vehicle Level Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawron, James H; Keoleian, Gregory A; De Kleine, Robert D; Wallington, Timothy J; Kim, Hyung Chul

    2018-03-06

    Although recent studies of connected and automated vehicles (CAVs) have begun to explore the potential energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission impacts from an operational perspective, little is known about how the full life cycle of the vehicle will be impacted. We report the results of a life cycle assessment (LCA) of Level 4 CAV sensing and computing subsystems integrated into internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV) and battery electric vehicle (BEV) platforms. The results indicate that CAV subsystems could increase vehicle primary energy use and GHG emissions by 3-20% due to increases in power consumption, weight, drag, and data transmission. However, when potential operational effects of CAVs are included (e.g., eco-driving, platooning, and intersection connectivity), the net result is up to a 9% reduction in energy and GHG emissions in the base case. Overall, this study highlights opportunities where CAVs can improve net energy and environmental performance.

  14. Testosterone Responders to Continuous Androgen Deprivation Therapy Show Considerable Variations in Testosterone Levels on Followup: Implications for Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayyid, Rashid K; Sayyid, Abdallah K; Klaassen, Zachary; Fadaak, Kamel; Goldberg, Hanan; Chandrasekar, Thenappan; Ahmad, Ardalanejaz; Leao, Ricardo; Perlis, Nathan; Chadwick, Karen; Hamilton, Robert J; Kulkarni, Girish S; Finelli, Antonio; Zlotta, Alexandre R; Fleshner, Neil E

    2018-01-01

    We determined whether men on continuous androgen deprivation therapy who achieve testosterone less than 0.7 nmol/l demonstrate subsequent testosterone elevations during followup and whether such events predict worse oncologic outcomes. We evaluated a random, retrospective sample of 514 patients with prostate cancer treated with continuous androgen deprivation therapy in whom serum testosterone was less than 0.7 nmol/l at University Health Network between 2007 and 2016. Patients were followed from the date of the first testosterone measurement of less than 0.7 nmol/l to progression to castrate resistance, death or study period end. Study outcomes were the development of testosterone elevations greater than 0.7, greater than 1.1 and greater than 1.7 nmol/l, and progression to a castrate resistant state. Survival curves were constructed to determine the rate of testosterone elevations. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was done to assess whether elevations predicted progression to castrate resistance. Median patient age was 74 years and median followup was 20.3 months. Within 5 years of followup 82%, 45% and 18% of patients had subsequent testosterone levels greater than 0.7, greater than 1.1 and greater than 1.7 nmol/l, respectively. In 96% to 100% of these patients levels less than 0.7 nmol/l were subsequently reestablished within 5 years. No patient baseline characteristic was associated with elevations and elevations were not a significant predictor of progression to a castrate resistant state. Men on continuous androgen deprivation therapy in whom initial testosterone is less than 0.7 nmol/l frequently show subsequent elevations in serum testosterone. Such a development should not trigger an immediate response from physicians as these events are prognostically insignificant with regard to oncologic outcomes. Levels are eventually reestablished at less than 0.7 nmol/l. Copyright © 2018 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by

  15. Women's preferences for men's beards show no relation to their ovarian cycle phase and sex hormone levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixson, Barnaby J W; Lee, Anthony J; Blake, Khandis R; Jasienska, Grazyna; Marcinkowska, Urszula M

    2018-01-01

    According to the ovulatory shift hypothesis, women's mate preferences for male morphology indicative of competitive ability, social dominance, and/or underlying health are strongest at the peri-ovulatory phase of the menstrual cycle. However, recent meta-analyses are divided on the robustness of such effects and the validity of the often-used indirect estimates of fertility and ovulation has been called into question in methodological studies. In the current study, we test whether women's preferences for men's beardedness, a cue of male sexual maturity, androgenic development and social dominance, are stronger at the peri-ovulatory phase of the menstrual cycle compared to during the early follicular or the luteal phase. We also tested whether levels of estradiol, progesterone, and the estradiol to progesterone ratio at each phase were associated with facial hair preferences. Fifty-two heterosexual women completed a two-alternative forced choice preference test for clean-shaven and bearded male faces during the follicular, peri-ovulatory (validated by the surge in luteinizing hormone or the drop in estradiol levels) and luteal phases. Participants also provided for one entire menstrual cycle daily saliva samples for subsequent assaying of estradiol and progesterone. Results showed an overall preference for bearded over clean-shaven faces at each phase of the menstrual cycle. However, preferences for facial hair were not significantly different over the phases of menstrual cycle and were not significantly associated with levels of reproductive hormones. We conclude that women's preferences for men's beardedness may not be related to changes in their likelihood of conception. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Remote sensing data analysis for assessment of sea level change in Asia; Asia ni okeru kaisuijun hendo eikyo hyoka no tame no remote sensing gazo kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okubo, Y; Tanaka, A [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Kaku, M [Bishimetal Exploration Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    Remote sensing images include information of coastal land division, sea level change such as sedimentary environment and vegetation, and distribution of artificial structures. Past sea level changes and their causes can be regionally obtained by analyzing these data and by integrating them with information obtained from geological survey. In this study, causes and history of past sea level changes, formation mechanism of coastal topography, and past sea level change survey in Thailand have been reviewed. This paper describes an extraction method of the sea level change information in coastal districts by analyzing several actual remote sensing images. For understanding the current sea level rise, it is required to clarify the causes quantitatively among three causes of sea level changes, i.e., volumetric change of total ocean water on the earth, relative sea level change due to the crustal deformation, and change of irregularity of sea surface with ocean current. It is also required to compile maps in Asian or global scales. 13 refs., 6 figs.

  17. Two-level image authentication by two-step phase-shifting interferometry and compressive sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue; Meng, Xiangfeng; Yin, Yongkai; Yang, Xiulun; Wang, Yurong; Li, Xianye; Peng, Xiang; He, Wenqi; Dong, Guoyan; Chen, Hongyi

    2018-01-01

    A two-level image authentication method is proposed; the method is based on two-step phase-shifting interferometry, double random phase encoding, and compressive sensing (CS) theory, by which the certification image can be encoded into two interferograms. Through discrete wavelet transform (DWT), sparseness processing, Arnold transform, and data compression, two compressed signals can be generated and delivered to two different participants of the authentication system. Only the participant who possesses the first compressed signal attempts to pass the low-level authentication. The application of Orthogonal Match Pursuit CS algorithm reconstruction, inverse Arnold transform, inverse DWT, two-step phase-shifting wavefront reconstruction, and inverse Fresnel transform can result in the output of a remarkable peak in the central location of the nonlinear correlation coefficient distributions of the recovered image and the standard certification image. Then, the other participant, who possesses the second compressed signal, is authorized to carry out the high-level authentication. Therefore, both compressed signals are collected to reconstruct the original meaningful certification image with a high correlation coefficient. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulations verify the feasibility of the proposed method.

  18. Lake Storage Measurements For Water Resources Management: Combining Remotely Sensed Water Levels and Surface Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakenridge, G. R.; Birkett, C. M.

    2013-12-01

    Presently operating satellite-based radar altimeters have the ability to monitor variations in surface water height for large lakes and reservoirs, and future sensors will expand observational capabilities to many smaller water bodies. Such remote sensing provides objective, independent information where in situ data are lacking or access is restricted. A USDA/NASA (http://www.pecad.fas.usda.gov/cropexplorer/global_reservoir/) program is performing operational altimetric monitoring of the largest lakes and reservoirs around the world using data from the NASA/CNES, NRL, and ESA missions. Public lake-level products from the Global Reservoir and Lake Monitor (GRLM) are a combination of archived and near real time information. The USDA/FAS utilizes the products for assessing international irrigation potential and for crop production estimates; other end-users study climate trends, observe anthropogenic effects, and/or are are involved in other water resources management and regional water security issues. At the same time, the Dartmouth Flood Observatory (http://floodobservatory.colorado.edu/), its NASA GSFC partners (http://oas.gsfc.nasa.gov/floodmap/home.html), and associated MODIS data and automated processing algorithms are providing public access to a growing GIS record of the Earth's changing surface water extent, including changes related to floods and droughts. The Observatory's web site also provide both archival and near real time information, and is based mainly on the highest spatial resolution (250 m) MODIS bands. Therefore, it is now possible to provide on an international basis reservoir and lake storage change measurements entirely from remote sensing, on a frequently updating basis. The volume change values are based on standard numerical procedures used for many decades for analysis of coeval lake area and height data. We provide first results of this combination, including prototype displays for public access and data retrieval of water storage

  19. Elapid Snake Venom Analyses Show the Specificity of the Peptide Composition at the Level of Genera Naja and Notechis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisha Munawar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Elapid snake venom is a highly valuable, but till now mainly unexplored, source of pharmacologically important peptides. We analyzed the peptide fractions with molecular masses up to 10 kDa of two elapid snake venoms—that of the African cobra, N. m. mossambica (genus Naja, and the Peninsula tiger snake, N. scutatus, from Kangaroo Island (genus Notechis. A combination of chromatographic methods was used to isolate the peptides, which were characterized by combining complimentary mass spectrometric techniques. Comparative analysis of the peptide compositions of two venoms showed specificity at the genus level. Three-finger (3-F cytotoxins, bradykinin-potentiating peptides (BPPs and a bradykinin inhibitor were isolated from the Naja venom. 3-F neurotoxins, Kunitz/basic pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI-type inhibitors and a natriuretic peptide were identified in the N. venom. The inhibiting activity of the peptides was confirmed in vitro with a selected array of proteases. Cytotoxin 1 (P01467 from the Naja venom might be involved in the disturbance of cellular processes by inhibiting the cell 20S-proteasome. A high degree of similarity between BPPs from elapid and viperid snake venoms was observed, suggesting that these molecules play a key role in snake venoms and also indicating that these peptides were recruited into the snake venom prior to the evolutionary divergence of the snakes.

  20. Mapping Entomological Dengue Risk Levels in Martinique Using High-Resolution Remote-Sensing Environmental Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Machault

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Controlling dengue virus transmission mainly involves integrated vector management. Risk maps at appropriate scales can provide valuable information for assessing entomological risk levels. Here, results from a spatio-temporal model of dwellings potentially harboring Aedes aegypti larvae from 2009 to 2011 in Tartane (Martinique, French Antilles using high spatial resolution remote-sensing environmental data and field entomological and meteorological information are presented. This tele-epidemiology methodology allows monitoring the dynamics of diseases closely related to weather/climate and environment variability. A Geoeye-1 image was processed to extract landscape elements that could surrogate societal or biological information related to the life cycle of Aedes vectors. These elements were subsequently included into statistical models with random effect. Various environmental and meteorological conditions have indeed been identified as risk/protective factors for the presence of Aedes aegypti immature stages in dwellings at a given date. These conditions were used to produce dynamic high spatio-temporal resolution maps from the presence of most containers harboring larvae. The produced risk maps are examples of modeled entomological maps at the housing level with daily temporal resolution. This finding is an important contribution to the development of targeted operational control systems for dengue and other vector-borne diseases, such as chikungunya, which is also present in Martinique.

  1. Evaluating Heavy Metal Stress Levels in Rice Based on Remote Sensing Phenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tianjiao; Liu, Xiangnan; Liu, Meiling; Wu, Ling

    2018-03-14

    Heavy metal pollution of croplands is a major environmental problem worldwide. Methods for accurately and quickly monitoring heavy metal stress have important practical significance. Many studies have explored heavy metal stress in rice in relation to physiological function or physiological factors, but few studies have considered phenology, which can be sensitive to heavy metal stress. In this study, we used an integrated Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time-series image set to extract remote sensing phenology. A phenological indicator relatively sensitive to heavy metal stress was chosen from the obtained phenological periods and phenological parameters. The Dry Weight of Roots (WRT), which directly affected by heavy metal stress, was simulated by the World Food Study (WOFOST) model; then, a feature space based on the phenological indicator and WRT was established for monitoring heavy metal stress. The results indicated that the feature space can distinguish the heavy metal stress levels in rice, with accuracy greater than 95% for distinguishing the severe stress level. This finding provides scientific evidence for combining rice phenology and physiological characteristics in time and space, and the method is useful to monitor heavy metal stress in rice.

  2. Remote sensing based crop type mapping and evapotranspiration estimates at the farm level in arid regions of the globe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdogan, M.; Serrat-Capdevila, A.; Anderson, M. C.

    2017-12-01

    Despite increasing scarcity of freshwater resources, there is dearth of spatially explicit information on irrigation water consumption through evapotranspiration, particularly in semi-arid and arid geographies. Remote sensing, either alone or in combination with ground surveys, is increasingly being used for irrigation water management by quantifying evaporative losses at the farm level. Increased availability of observations, sophisticated algorithms, and access to cloud-based computing is also helping this effort. This presentation will focus on crop-specific evapotranspiration estimates at the farm level derived from remote sensing in a number of water-scarce regions of the world. The work is part of a larger effort to quantify irrigation water use and improve use efficiencies associated with several World Bank projects. Examples will be drawn from India, where groundwater based irrigation withdrawals are monitored with the help of crop type mapping and evapotranspiration estimates from remote sensing. Another example will be provided from a northern irrigation district in Mexico, where remote sensing is used for detailed water accounting at the farm level. These locations exemplify the success stories in irrigation water management with the help of remote sensing with the hope that spatially disaggregated information on evapotranspiration can be used as inputs for various water management decisions as well as for better water allocation strategies in many other water scarce regions.

  3. Hydrographs Showing Groundwater Level Changes for Selected Wells in the Chambers-Clover Creek Watershed and Vicinity, Pierce County, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justin, G.B.; Julich, R.; Payne, K.L.

    2009-01-01

    Selected groundwater level hydrographs for the Chambers-Clover Creek watershed (CCCW) and vicinity, Washington, are presented in an interactive web-based map to illustrate changes in groundwater levels in and near the CCCW on a monthly and seasonal basis. Hydrographs are linked to points corresponding to the well location on an interactive map of the study area. Groundwater level data and well information from Federal, State, and local agencies were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System (NWIS), Groundwater Site Inventory (GWSI) System.

  4. Microfluidic Diatomite Analytical Devices for Illicit Drug Sensing with ppb-Level Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xianming; Chong, Xinyuan; Squire, Kenny; Wang, Alan X

    2018-04-15

    The escalating research interests in porous media microfluidics, such as microfluidic paper-based analytical devices, have fostered a new spectrum of biomedical devices for point-of-care (POC) diagnosis and biosensing. In this paper, we report microfluidic diatomite analytical devices (μDADs), which consist of highly porous photonic crystal biosilica channels, as an innovative lab-on-a-chip platform to detect illicit drugs. The μDADs in this work are fabricated by spin-coating and tape-stripping diatomaceous earth on regular glass slides with cross section of 400×30µm 2 . As the most unique feature, our μDADs can simultaneously perform on-chip chromatography to separate small molecules from complex biofluidic samples and acquire the surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectra of the target chemicals with high specificity. Owing to the ultra-small dimension of the diatomite microfluidic channels and the photonic crystal effect from the fossilized diatom frustules, we demonstrate unprecedented sensitivity down to part-per-billion (ppb) level when detecting pyrene (1ppb) from mixed sample with Raman dye and cocaine (10 ppb) from human plasma. This pioneering work proves the exclusive advantage of μDADs as emerging microfluidic devices for chemical and biomedical sensing, especially for POC drug screening.

  5. Organ-level quorum sensing directs regeneration in hair stem cell populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Chiang; Wang, Lei; Plikus, Maksim V.; Jiang, Ting Xin; Murray, Philip J.; Ramos, Raul; Guerrero-Juarez, Christian F.; Hughes, Michael W; Lee, Oscar K.; Shi, Songtao; Widelitz, Randall B.; Lander, Arthur D.; Chuong, Cheng Ming

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Coordinated organ behavior is crucial for an effective response to environmental stimuli. By studying regeneration of hair follicles in response to patterned hair removal, we demonstrate that organ-level quorum sensing allows coordinated responses to skin injury. Removing hair at different densities leads to a regeneration of up to 5 times more neighboring, unplucked resting hairs, indicating activation of a collective decision-making process. Through data modeling, the range of the quorum signal was estimated to be on the order of 1 mm, greater than expected for a diffusible molecular cue. Molecular and genetic analysis uncovered a two-step mechanism, where release of CCL2 from injured hairs leads to recruitment of TNF-α secreting macrophages, which accumulate and signal to both plucked and unplucked follicles. By coupling immune response with regeneration, this mechanism allows skin to respond predictively to distress, disregarding mild injury, while meeting stronger injury with full-scale cooperative activation of stem cells. PMID:25860610

  6. Interactions to the fifth trophic level: secondary and tertiary parasitoid wasps show extraordinary efficiency in utilizing host resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harvey, J.A.; Wagenaar, R.; Bezemer, T.M.

    2009-01-01

    1. Parasitoid wasps are highly efficient organisms at utilizing and assimilating limited resources from their hosts. This study explores interactions over three trophic levels, from the third (primary parasitoid) to the fourth (secondary parasitoid) and terminating in the fifth (tertiary

  7. Hydrographs Showing Ground-Water Level Changes for Selected Wells in the Lower Skagit River Basin, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasser, E.T.; Julich, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    Hydrographs for selected wells in the Lower Skagit River basin, Washington, are presented in an interactive web-based map to illustrate monthly and seasonal changes in ground-water levels in the study area. Ground-water level data and well information were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey using standard techniques and were stored in the USGS National Water Information System (NWIS), Ground-Water Site-Inventory (GWSI) System.

  8. Hydrographs showing groundwater levels for selected wells in the Puyallup River watershed and vicinity, Pierce and King Counties, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, R.C.; Julich, R.J.; Justin, G.B.

    2013-01-01

    Hydrographs of groundwater levels for selected wells in and adjacent to the Puyallup River watershed in Pierce and King Counties, Washington, are presented using an interactive Web-based map of the study area to illustrate changes in groundwater levels on a monthly and seasonal basis. The interactive map displays well locations that link to the hydrographs, which in turn link to the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System, Groundwater Site Inventory System.

  9. CROWN-LEVEL TREE SPECIES CLASSIFICATION USING INTEGRATED AIRBORNE HYPERSPECTRAL AND LIDAR REMOTE SENSING DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Mapping tree species is essential for sustainable planning as well as to improve our understanding of the role of different trees as different ecological service. However, crown-level tree species automatic classification is a challenging task due to the spectral similarity among diversified tree species, fine-scale spatial variation, shadow, and underlying objects within a crown. Advanced remote sensing data such as airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR and hyperspectral imagery offer a great potential opportunity to derive crown spectral, structure and canopy physiological information at the individual crown scale, which can be useful for mapping tree species. In this paper, an innovative approach was developed for tree species classification at the crown level. The method utilized LiDAR data for individual tree crown delineation and morphological structure extraction, and Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI hyperspectral imagery for pure crown-scale spectral extraction. Specifically, four steps were include: 1 A weighted mean filtering method was developed to improve the accuracy of the smoothed Canopy Height Model (CHM derived from LiDAR data; 2 The marker-controlled watershed segmentation algorithm was, therefore, also employed to delineate the tree-level canopy from the CHM image in this study, and then individual tree height and tree crown were calculated according to the delineated crown; 3 Spectral features within 3 × 3 neighborhood regions centered on the treetops detected by the treetop detection algorithm were derived from the spectrally normalized CASI imagery; 4 The shape characteristics related to their crown diameters and heights were established, and different crown-level tree species were classified using the combination of spectral and shape characteristics. Analysis of results suggests that the developed classification strategy in this paper (OA = 85.12 %, Kc = 0.90 performed better than Li

  10. Crown-Level Tree Species Classification Using Integrated Airborne Hyperspectral and LIDAR Remote Sensing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z.; Wu, J.; Wang, Y.; Kong, X.; Bao, H.; Ni, Y.; Ma, L.; Jin, J.

    2018-05-01

    Mapping tree species is essential for sustainable planning as well as to improve our understanding of the role of different trees as different ecological service. However, crown-level tree species automatic classification is a challenging task due to the spectral similarity among diversified tree species, fine-scale spatial variation, shadow, and underlying objects within a crown. Advanced remote sensing data such as airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) and hyperspectral imagery offer a great potential opportunity to derive crown spectral, structure and canopy physiological information at the individual crown scale, which can be useful for mapping tree species. In this paper, an innovative approach was developed for tree species classification at the crown level. The method utilized LiDAR data for individual tree crown delineation and morphological structure extraction, and Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI) hyperspectral imagery for pure crown-scale spectral extraction. Specifically, four steps were include: 1) A weighted mean filtering method was developed to improve the accuracy of the smoothed Canopy Height Model (CHM) derived from LiDAR data; 2) The marker-controlled watershed segmentation algorithm was, therefore, also employed to delineate the tree-level canopy from the CHM image in this study, and then individual tree height and tree crown were calculated according to the delineated crown; 3) Spectral features within 3 × 3 neighborhood regions centered on the treetops detected by the treetop detection algorithm were derived from the spectrally normalized CASI imagery; 4) The shape characteristics related to their crown diameters and heights were established, and different crown-level tree species were classified using the combination of spectral and shape characteristics. Analysis of results suggests that the developed classification strategy in this paper (OA = 85.12 %, Kc = 0.90) performed better than LiDAR-metrics method (OA = 79

  11. Sense of Accomplishment Is Modulated by a Proper Level of Instruction and Represented in the Brain Reward System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Tomoya; Nakatani, Hironori; Hosoda, Chihiro; Nonaka, Yulri; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2017-01-01

    Problem-solving can be facilitated with instructions or hints, which provide information about given problems. The proper amount of instruction that should be provided for learners is controversial. Research shows that tasks with intermediate difficulty induce the largest sense of accomplishment (SA), leading to an intrinsic motivation for learning. To investigate the effect of instructions, we prepared three instruction levels (No hint, Indirect hint, and Direct hint) for the same insight-problem types. We hypothesized that indirect instructions impose intermediate difficulty for each individual, thereby inducing the greatest SA per person. Based on previous neuroimaging studies that showed involvement of the bilateral caudate in learning and motivation, we expected SA to be processed in this reward system. We recruited twenty-one participants, and investigated neural activations during problem solving by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We confirmed that the Indirect hint, which imposed intermediate difficulty, induced the largest SA among the three instruction types. Using fMRI, we showed that activations in the bilateral caudate and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) were significantly modulated by SA. In the bilateral caudate, the indirect hint induced the largest activation, while the ACC seemed to reflect the difference between correct and incorrect trials. Importantly, such activation pattern was independent of notations (number or letter). Our results indicate that SA is represented in the reward system, and that the Indirect instruction effectively induces such sensation.

  12. Reflection-mode micro-spherical fiber-optic probes for in vitro real-time and single-cell level pH sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qingbo; Wang, Hanzheng; Lan, Xinwei; Cheng, Baokai; Chen, Sisi; Shi, Honglan; Xiao, Hai; Ma, Yinfa

    2015-02-01

    pH sensing at the single-cell level without negatively affecting living cells is very important but still a remaining issue in the biomedical studies. A 70 μm reflection-mode fiber-optic micro-pH sensor was designed and fabricated by dip-coating thin layer of organically modified aerogel onto a tapered spherical probe head. A pH sensitive fluorescent dye 2', 7'-Bis (2-carbonylethyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF) was employed and covalently bonded within the aerogel networks. By tuning the alkoxide mixing ratio and adjusting hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) priming procedure, the sensor can be optimized to have high stability and pH sensing ability. The in vitro real-time sensing capability was then demonstrated in a simple spectroscopic way, and showed linear measurement responses with a pH resolution up to an average of 0.049 pH unit within a narrow, but biological meaningful pH range of 6.12-7.81. Its novel characterizations of high spatial resolution, reflection mode operation, fast response and high stability, great linear response within biological meaningful pH range and high pH resolutions, make this novel pH probe a very cost-effective tool for chemical/biological sensing, especially within the single cell level research field.

  13. VIIRSN Level-3 Standard Mapped Image, Remote Sensing Reflectance at 671 nm, 8 Day, 4km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes Remote sensing reflectance (671 nm) data from the NPP-suomi spacecraft. Measurements are gathered by the VIIRS instrument carried aboard...

  14. Are the senses enough for sense? Early high-level feedback shapes our comprehension of multisensory objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorina eNaci

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A key question in cognitive neuroscience is how the brain combines low-level features processed in remote sensory cortices to represent meaningful multisensory objects in our everyday environment. Models of visual object processing typically assume a feedforward cascade through the hierarchically organized ventral stream. We contrasted this feedforward view with an alternate hypothesis in which object processing is viewed as an interactive, feedforward and feedback process. We found that higher-order regions in anterior temporal and inferior prefrontal cortex performed audio-visual integration 100ms earlier than a sensory-driven region in the posterior occipital cortex, and were modulated by semantic variables (congruency, from as early as 50-100ms. We propose that the brain represents familiar and complex multisensory objects through early interactivity between higher-order and sensory-driven regions. This interactivity may underpin the enhanced behavioural performance reported for semantically congruent audio-visual objects.

  15. Heart transplant centers with multidisciplinary team show a higher level of chronic illness management - Findings from the International BRIGHT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cajita, Maan Isabella; Baumgartner, Eva; Berben, Lut; Denhaerynck, Kris; Helmy, Remon; Schönfeld, Sandra; Berger, Gabriele; Vetter, Christine; Dobbels, Fabienne; Russell, Cynthia L; De Geest, Sabina

    The objectives of this study were to: (1) explore the proportion of HTx centers that have a multidisciplinary team and (2) assess the relationship between multidisciplinarity and the level of chronic illness management (CIM). The International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation (ISHLT) recommends a multidisciplinary approach in heart transplant (HTx) follow-up care but little is known regarding the proportion of HTx centers that meet this recommendation and the impact on patient care. HTx centers with a multidisciplinary team may offer higher levels of CIM, a care model that has the potential to improve outcomes after HTx. We conducted a secondary analysis of the BRIGHT study, a cross-sectional study in 11 countries. Multidisciplinarity in the 36 HTx centers was assessed through HTx director reports and was defined as having a team that was composed of physician(s), nurse(s), and another healthcare professional (either a social worker, psychiatrist, psychologist, pharmacist, dietician, physical therapist, or occupational therapist). CIM was assessed with the Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care (PACIC). Multiple linear regression assessed the relationship between multidisciplinarity and the level of CIM. Twenty-nine (80.6%) of the HTx centers had a multidisciplinary team. Furthermore, multidisciplinarity was significantly associated with higher levels of CIM (β = 5.2, P = 0.042). Majority of the HTx centers follows the ISHLT recommendation for a multidisciplinary approach. Multidisciplinarity was associated with CIM and point toward a structural factor that needs to be in place for moving toward CIM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Data showing levels of interleukin-1β and nitric oxide in the plasma of uropathogenic E. coli infected UTI patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Vivek; Arora, Renu; Dhanda, Rakesh Singh; Gaind, Rajni; Yadav, Manisha

    2018-08-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are a major cause of morbidity, affecting at least four million women worldwide, 65-75% of these infections are caused by Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) (Foxman, 2010) [1]. Repertoire of virulence factors carried by UPEC provides the ability to precede urinary tract and additionally they provoke pro-inflammatory responses (Cirl et al., 2008; Verma et al., 2016) [2], [3]. In context to UPEC infected UTI patients, the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β and enzymatic antioxidant nitric oxide (NO) have not been reported worldwide till date, including India. In this data article, we report for the first time the levels of IL-1β and nitric oxide in the plasma of UPEC infected UTI patients. Data includes a profile of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β and NO in the plasma of the confirmed UPEC infected UTI patients ( N  = 30) versus healthy controls ( N  = 40) from the present pilot study. The levels of IL-1β in plasma were significantly higher ( p  UTI patients (60.29 ± 1.1 μM) as compared to healthy controls (106.3 ± 8.75 μM).

  17. Influence of training and competitive sessions on peripheral β-endorphin levels in training show jumping horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Cravana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate the effects of training sessions on circulating β-endorphin changes in sport horses before and after competition and to ascertain whether competition would affect this response. Materials and Methods: A total of 24 trained jumping horses were randomly assigned to one of two training groups: Group A (competing and Group B (not competing. To determined plasma β-endorphin concentrations, two pre- and postcompetition training weeks at aerobic workout and two competitive show jumping event days at anaerobic workout were measured before, 5 and 30 min after exercise. Exercise intensity is described using lactate concentrations and heart rate. The circuit design, intensity, and duration of training sessions were the same for both groups. Results: In Group A, one-way analysis of variance for repeated measures (RM-ANOVA showed significant effects of exercise on β-endorphin changes (F=14.41; p<0.001, only in the post-competition training sessions, while in Group B showed no significant effects. Two-way RM-ANOVA showed, after post-competition training sessions, a significant difference between Group A and Group B (F=6.235; p=0.023, with higher β-endorphin changes in Group A, compared to Group B. During the competitive show jumping sessions, one-way RM ANOVA showed significant effects of exercise on β-endorphin changes (F=51.10; p<0.001. The statistical analysis, in Group A, showed a significant difference between postcompetition training and competitive exercise (F=6.32; p=0.024 with higher β-endorphin values in competitive sessions compared to those of post-competition training. Conclusion: Lactate concentrations seem to be the main factors being correlated with the raise of β-endorphin during anaerobic exercise of competitive events. Exercise of low intensity, as well as that one of training sessions, does not appear to stimulate a significant increased release of β-endorphin and it may depend on the duration of the exercise

  18. A wearable 3D motion sensing system integrated with a Bluetooth smart phone application: A system level overview

    KAUST Repository

    Karimi, Muhammad Akram

    2018-01-02

    An era of ubiquitous motion sensing has just begun. All electronic gadgets ranging from game consoles to mobile phones have some sort of motion sensors in them. In contrast to rigid motion sensing systems, this paper presents a system level description of a wearable 3D motion sensor. The sensing mechanism is based upon well-established magnetic and inertial measurement unit (MIMU), which integrates accelerometer, gyroscope and magnetometer data. Two sensor boards have been integrated within a wearable arm sleeve to capture 3D orientation of the human arm. The sensors have been interfaced with a Bluetooth transceiver chip, which transmits data to a mobile phone app using standard Bluetooth protocol. An android mobile phone app has been developed to display the human arm motion in real time.

  19. Influence of training and competitive sessions on peripheral β-endorphin levels in training show jumping horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravana, Cristina; Medica, P; Ragonese, G; Fazio, E

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the effects of training sessions on circulating β-endorphin changes in sport horses before and after competition and to ascertain whether competition would affect this response. A total of 24 trained jumping horses were randomly assigned to one of two training groups: Group A (competing) and Group B (not competing). To determined plasma β-endorphin concentrations, two pre- and post-competition training weeks at aerobic workout and two competitive show jumping event days at anaerobic workout were measured before, 5 and 30 min after exercise. Exercise intensity is described using lactate concentrations and heart rate. The circuit design, intensity, and duration of training sessions were the same for both groups. In Group A, one-way analysis of variance for repeated measures (RM-ANOVA) showed significant effects of exercise on β-endorphin changes (F=14.41; prelease of β-endorphin and it may depend on the duration of the exercise program. Moreover, the responses during exercise in the course of post-competition training sessions seem to be significantly different from those the pre-competition training. These data show that the preliminary competitive stress induced additional significant changes of β-endorphin pattern. It would reflect the need of a long-lasting modulation of fatigue and pain perception related to the effect of an additional physical and mental effort for the consecutive competitive and training sessions.

  20. Application of remote sensing technique to site selection for low and intermediate level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhangru; Jin Yuanxin; Liu Yuemiao; Hou Dewen

    2001-01-01

    Based on the relative criteria of selection of disposal site for low and intermediate level radioactive waste, the social-economic conditions, landform, morphologic properties, regional geological stability, hydrogeological and engineering geological characters of adjacent area of Anhui, Zhejiang and Jiangsu provinces were investigated. The geological interpretation of thematic mapper images, field reconnaissance and data analysis were conducted during the research work. The results show that three areas in the west part of Zhejiang Province were recommended as potential site for disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive waste. They are Bajiaotang area, Tiebanchong area and Changxing-Guangde-Anji nabes

  1. Systems level analysis of systemic sclerosis shows a network of immune and profibrotic pathways connected with genetic polymorphisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Matthew Mahoney

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic sclerosis (SSc is a rare systemic autoimmune disease characterized by skin and organ fibrosis. The pathogenesis of SSc and its progression are poorly understood. The SSc intrinsic gene expression subsets (inflammatory, fibroproliferative, normal-like, and limited are observed in multiple clinical cohorts of patients with SSc. Analysis of longitudinal skin biopsies suggests that a patient's subset assignment is stable over 6-12 months. Genetically, SSc is multi-factorial with many genetic risk loci for SSc generally and for specific clinical manifestations. Here we identify the genes consistently associated with the intrinsic subsets across three independent cohorts, show the relationship between these genes using a gene-gene interaction network, and place the genetic risk loci in the context of the intrinsic subsets. To identify gene expression modules common to three independent datasets from three different clinical centers, we developed a consensus clustering procedure based on mutual information of partitions, an information theory concept, and performed a meta-analysis of these genome-wide gene expression datasets. We created a gene-gene interaction network of the conserved molecular features across the intrinsic subsets and analyzed their connections with SSc-associated genetic polymorphisms. The network is composed of distinct, but interconnected, components related to interferon activation, M2 macrophages, adaptive immunity, extracellular matrix remodeling, and cell proliferation. The network shows extensive connections between the inflammatory- and fibroproliferative-specific genes. The network also shows connections between these subset-specific genes and 30 SSc-associated polymorphic genes including STAT4, BLK, IRF7, NOTCH4, PLAUR, CSK, IRAK1, and several human leukocyte antigen (HLA genes. Our analyses suggest that the gene expression changes underlying the SSc subsets may be long-lived, but mechanistically interconnected

  2. High Performance Microaccelerometer with Wafer-level Hermetic Packaged Sensing Element and Continuous-time BiCMOS Interface Circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Hyoungho; Park, Sangjun; Paik, Seung-Joon; Choi, Byoung-doo; Park, Yonghwa; Lee, Sangmin; Kim, Sungwook; Lee, Sang Chul; Lee, Ahra; Yoo, Kwangho; Lim, Jaesang; Cho, Dong-il

    2006-01-01

    A microaccelerometer with highly reliable, wafer-level packaged MEMS sensing element and fully differential, continuous time, low noise, BiCMOS interface circuit is fabricated. The MEMS sensing element is fabricated on a (111)-oriented SOI wafer by using the SBM (Sacrificial/Bulk Micromachining) process. To protect the silicon structure of the sensing element and enhance the reliability, a wafer level hermetic packaging process is performed by using a silicon-glass anodic bonding process. The interface circuit is fabricated using 0.8 μm BiCMOS process. The capacitance change of the MEMS sensing element is amplified by the continuous-time, fully-differential transconductance input amplifier. A chopper-stabilization architecture is adopted to reduce low-frequency noise including 1/f noise. The fabricated microaccelerometer has the total noise equivalent acceleration of 0.89 μg/√Hz, the bias instability of 490 μg, the input range of ±10 g, and the output nonlinearity of ±0.5 %FSO

  3. Quantitative assessment of developmental levels in overarm throwing using wearable inertial sensing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimpampi, Eleni; Masci, Ilaria; Pesce, Caterina; Vannozzi, Giuseppe

    2016-09-01

    Motor proficiency in childhood has been recently recognised as a public health determinant, having a potential impact on the physical activity level and possible sedentary behaviour of the child later in life. Among fundamental motor skills, ballistic skills assessment based on in-field quantitative observations is progressively needed in the motor development community. The aim of this study was to propose an in-field quantitative approach to identify different developmental levels in overarm throwing. Fifty-eight children aged 5-10 years performed an overarm throwing task while wearing three inertial sensors located at the wrist, trunk and pelvis level and were then categorised using a developmental sequence of overarm throwing. A set of biomechanical parameters were defined and analysed using multivariate statistics to evaluate whether they can be used as developmental indicators. Trunk and pelvis angular velocities and time durations before the ball release showed increasing/decreasing trends with increasing developmental level. Significant differences between developmental level pairs were observed for selected biomechanical parameters. The results support the suitability and feasibility of objective developmental measures in ecological learning contexts, suggesting their potential supportiveness to motor learning experiences in educational and youth sports training settings.

  4. Young Scientists Explore the Five Senses. Book 4--Intermediate Level. A Good Apple Activity Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBruin, Jerry

    Designed to develop creativity in young learners, this book contains interdisciplinary activities which focus on the theme of the five senses. Activity pages are provided that can serve as front and back covers of a student booklet and the suggested activities can be duplicated for insertion between the covers resulting in a booklet for each…

  5. Not So Giants: Mice Lacking Both Somatostatin and Cortistatin Have High GH Levels but Show No Changes in Growth Rate or IGF-1 Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedraza-Arévalo, S; Córdoba-Chacón, J; Pozo-Salas, A I; L-López, F; de Lecea, L; Gahete, M D; Castaño, J P; Luque, R M

    2015-06-01

    Somatostatin (SST) and cortistatin (CORT) are two highly related neuropeptides involved in the regulation of various endocrine secretions. In particular, SST and CORT are two primary negative regulators of GH secretion. Consequently, single SST or CORT knockout mice exhibit elevated GH levels; however, this does not lead to increased IGF-1 levels or somatic growth. This apparent lack of correspondence has been suggested to result from compensatory mechanisms between both peptides. To test this hypothesis, in this study we explored, for the first time, the consequences of simultaneously deleting endogenous SST and CORT by generating a double SST/CORT knockout mouse model and exploring its endocrine and metabolic phenotype. Our results demonstrate that simultaneous deletion of SST and CORT induced a drastic elevation of endogenous GH levels, which, surprisingly, did not lead to changes in growth rate or IGF-1 levels, suggesting the existence of additional factors/systems that, in the absence of endogenous SST and CORT, could counteract GH actions. Notably, elevation in circulating GH levels were not accompanied by changes in pituitary GH expression or by alterations in the expression of its main regulators (GHRH and ghrelin) or their receptors (GHRH receptor, GHS receptor, or SST/CORT receptors) at the hypothalamic or pituitary level. However, although double-SST/CORT knockout male mice exhibited normal glucose and insulin levels, they had improved insulin sensitivity compared with the control mice. Therefore, these results suggest the existence of an intricate interplay among the known (SST/CORT), and likely unknown, inhibitory components of the GH/IGF-1 axis to regulate somatic growth and glucose/insulin homeostasis.

  6. Water level monitoring using radar remote sensing data: Application to Lake Kivu, central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munyaneza, Omar; Wali, Umaru G.; Uhlenbrook, Stefan; Maskey, Shreedhar; Mlotha, McArd J.

    Satellite radar altimetry measures the time required for a pulse to travel from the satellite antenna to the earth’s surface and back to the satellite receiver. Altimetry on inland lakes generally shows some deviation from in situ level measurements. The deviation is attributed to the geographically varying corrections applied to account for atmospheric effects on radar waves. This study was focused on verification of altimetry data for Lake Kivu (2400 km 2), a large inland lake between Rwanda and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and estimating the lake water levels using bathymetric data combined with satellite images. Altimetry data obtained from ENVISAT and ERS-2 satellite missions were compared with water level data from gauging stations for Lake Kivu. Gauge data for Lake Kivu were collected from the stations ELECTROGAZ and Rusizi. ENVISAT and ERS-2 data sets for Lake Kivu are in good agreement with gauge data having R2 of 0.86 and 0.77, respectively. A combination of the two data sets improved the coefficient of determination to 95% due to the improved temporal resolution of the data sets. The calculated standard deviation for Lake Kivu water levels was 0.642 m and 0.701 m, for ENVISAT and ERS-2 measurements, respectively. The elevation-surface area characteristics derived from bathymetric data in combination with satellite images were used to estimate the lake level gauge. Consequently, the water level of Lake Kivu could be estimated with an RMSE of 0.294 m and an accuracy of ±0.58 m. In situations where gauges become malfunctioning or inaccessible due to damage or extreme meteorological events, the method can be used to ensure data continuity.

  7. Estimation of urban surface water at subpixel level from neighborhood pixels using multispectral remote sensing image (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Huan; Luo, Xin; Xu, Xiong; Wang, Chen; Pan, Haiyan; Tong, Xiaohua; Liu, Shijie

    2016-10-01

    Water body is a fundamental element in urban ecosystems and water mapping is critical for urban and landscape planning and management. As remote sensing has increasingly been used for water mapping in rural areas, this spatially explicit approach applied in urban area is also a challenging work due to the water bodies mainly distributed in a small size and the spectral confusion widely exists between water and complex features in the urban environment. Water index is the most common method for water extraction at pixel level, and spectral mixture analysis (SMA) has been widely employed in analyzing urban environment at subpixel level recently. In this paper, we introduce an automatic subpixel water mapping method in urban areas using multispectral remote sensing data. The objectives of this research consist of: (1) developing an automatic land-water mixed pixels extraction technique by water index; (2) deriving the most representative endmembers of water and land by utilizing neighboring water pixels and adaptive iterative optimal neighboring land pixel for respectively; (3) applying a linear unmixing model for subpixel water fraction estimation. Specifically, to automatically extract land-water pixels, the locally weighted scatter plot smoothing is firstly used to the original histogram curve of WI image . And then the Ostu threshold is derived as the start point to select land-water pixels based on histogram of the WI image with the land threshold and water threshold determination through the slopes of histogram curve . Based on the previous process at pixel level, the image is divided into three parts: water pixels, land pixels, and mixed land-water pixels. Then the spectral mixture analysis (SMA) is applied to land-water mixed pixels for water fraction estimation at subpixel level. With the assumption that the endmember signature of a target pixel should be more similar to adjacent pixels due to spatial dependence, the endmember of water and land are determined

  8. Nationwide individual record linkage study showed poor agreement of causes of death and hospital diagnoses at individual level but reasonable agreement at population level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijs, Bart; Nusselder, Wilma J.; Mackenbach, Johan P.

    Objectives: To investigate to what extent underlying and multiple causes of death represent end-of-life morbidity in individuals and at population level. Study Design and Setting: Cause of death and national hospital data were individually linked for all deaths at the age of 50-84 years, in 2005 in

  9. Liquid level and temperature sensing by using dual-wavelength fiber laser based on multimode interferometer and FBG in parallel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chunran; Dong, Yue; Wang, Muguang; Jian, Shuisheng

    2018-03-01

    The detection of liquid level and temperature based on a fiber ring cavity laser sensing configuration is presented and demonstrated experimentally. The sensing head contains a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) and a single-mode-cladding-less-single-mode multimode interferometer, which also functions as wavelength-selective components of the fiber laser. When the liquid level or temperature is applied on the sensing head, the pass-band peaks of both multimode interference (MMI) filter and FBG filter vary and the two output wavelengths of the laser shift correspondingly. In the experiment, the corresponding sensitivities of the liquid level with four different refractive indices (RI) in the deep range from 0 mm to 40 mm are obtained and the sensitivity enhances with the RI of the liquid being measured. The maximum sensitivity of interferometer is 106.3 pm/mm with the RI of 1.391. For the temperature measurement, a sensitivity of 10.3 pm/°C and 13.8 pm/°C are achieved with the temperature ranging from 0 °C to 90 °C corresponding to the two lasing wavelengths selective by the MMI filter and FBG, respectively. In addition, the average RI sensitivity of 155.77 pm/mm/RIU is also obtained in the RI range of 1.333-1.391.

  10. Soft Sensing of Non-Newtonian Fluid Flow in Open Venturi Channel Using an Array of Ultrasonic Level Sensors—AI Models and Their Validations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viumdal, Håkon; Mylvaganam, Saba

    2017-01-01

    In oil and gas and geothermal installations, open channels followed by sieves for removal of drill cuttings, are used to monitor the quality and quantity of the drilling fluids. Drilling fluid flow rate is difficult to measure due to the varying flow conditions (e.g., wavy, turbulent and irregular) and the presence of drilling cuttings and gas bubbles. Inclusion of a Venturi section in the open channel and an array of ultrasonic level sensors above it at locations in the vicinity of and above the Venturi constriction gives the varying levels of the drilling fluid in the channel. The time series of the levels from this array of ultrasonic level sensors are used to estimate the drilling fluid flow rate, which is compared with Coriolis meter measurements. Fuzzy logic, neural networks and support vector regression algorithms applied to the data from temporal and spatial ultrasonic level measurements of the drilling fluid in the open channel give estimates of its flow rate with sufficient reliability, repeatability and uncertainty, providing a novel soft sensing of an important process variable. Simulations, cross-validations and experimental results show that feedforward neural networks with the Bayesian regularization learning algorithm provide the best flow rate estimates. Finally, the benefits of using this soft sensing technique combined with Venturi constriction in open channels are discussed. PMID:29072595

  11. Making sense of climate change risks and responses at the community level: A cultural-political lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainka A. Granderson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available How to better assess, communicate and respond to risks from climate change at the community level have emerged as key questions within climate risk management. Recent research to address these questions centres largely on psychological factors, exploring how cognition and emotion lead to biases in risk assessment. Yet, making sense of climate change and its responses at the community level demands attention to the cultural and political processes that shape how risk is conceived, prioritized and managed. I review the emergent literature on risk perceptions and responses to climate change using a cultural-political lens. This lens highlights how knowledge, meaning and power are produced and negotiated across multiple stakeholders at the community level. It draws attention to the different ways of constructing climate change risks and suggests an array of responses at the community level. It further illustrates how different constructions of risk intersect with agency and power to shape the capacity for response and collective action. What matters are whose constructions of risk, and whose responses, count in decision-making. I argue for greater engagement with the interpretive social sciences in research, practice and policy. The interpretive social sciences offer theories and tools for capturing and problematising the ways of knowing, sense-making and mobilising around risks from climate change. I also highlight the importance of participatory approaches in incorporating the multiplicity of interests at the community level into climate risk management in fair, transparent and culturally appropriate ways.

  12. Enhanced quantum sensing with multi-level structures of trapped ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aharon, N.; Drewsen, Michael; Retzker, A.

    2017-01-01

    , robustness to both external and controller noise is achieved. We consider trapped-ion based implementation via the dipole transitions, which is relevant for several types of ions, such as the $^{40}{\\rm{Ca}}^{+}$, $^{88}{\\rm{Sr}}^{+}$, and the $^{138}{\\rm{Ba}}^{+}$ ions. Taking experimental errors...... of magnitude of the sensitivity. In addition, we present a microwave based sensing scheme that is suitable for ions with a hyperfine structure, such as the $^{9}{\\rm{Be}}^{+}$,$^{25}{\\rm{Mg}}^{+}$,$^{43}{\\rm{Ca}}^{+}$,$^{87}{\\rm{Sr}}^{+}$,$^{137}{\\rm{Ba}}^{+}$,$^{111}{\\rm{Cd}}^{+}$,$^{171}{\\rm...

  13. An Evaluation of Teachers' Attitudes and Beliefs Levels on Classroom Control in Terms of Teachers' Sense of Efficacy (The Sample of Biology Teachers in Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Hakan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate biology teachers' attitudes and belief levels on classroom control in terms of teachers' sense of efficacy. The screening model was used in the study. The study group was comprised of 135 biology teachers. In this study, Teachers' Sense of Efficacy Scale (TSES) and The Attitudes and Beliefs on Classroom Control…

  14. Relationships among sense of coherence, oral health status, nutritional status and care need level of older adults according to path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewake, Nanae; Hamasaki, Tomoko; Sakai, Rie; Yamada, Shima; Nima, Yuko; Tomoe, Miki; Kakuta, Satoko; Iwasaki, Masanori; Soh, Inho; Shimazaki, Yoshihiro; Ansai, Toshihiro

    2017-11-01

    Sense of coherence (SOC) is a measurement of ability of an individual to cope with psychological stress and remain in good health. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationships among SOC score, oral health status, nutritional status and care need level of older adults using path analysis. We enrolled 53 older adults (17 men and 36 women) who were attending a day care service (mean age 80.4 ± 6.5 years). SOC was assessed using a 13-item, seven-scale instrument. Oral health status (number of present teeth, denture use) and nutritional status (assessed with Mini-Nutritional Assessment Short-Form) were also evaluated. Path analysis was used to examine the relationship of SOC with other related factors, including care need level. The mean SOC score was 57.0 ± 13.9. Mini-Nutritional Assessment Short-Form results showed that one participant (1.8%) was malnourished, 26 (49.1%) were at risk of malnutrition and 26 (49.1%) had normal nutritional status. Participants with high SOC scores showed a strong positive attitude, had a relatively large number of teeth, were in good nutritional condition and showed low care need levels. The present results showed that maintaining a high SOC level and good oral health help to reduce care need levels in older adults, and also prevent a worsening of their nutritional condition. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 2083-2088. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  15. Sensing the upper and lower levels of the atmosphere during the 2009 equinoxes using GPS measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayan Suparta

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This short-term work characterized the upper and lower levels of the atmosphere through Global Positioning System (GPS measurements. The observations were conducted during the 2009 equinoxes from two pairs of conjugate polar observing stations: Husafell, Iceland (HUSA and Resolute in Nunavut, Canada (RESO and their conjugate pairs at Scott Base (SBA and Syowa (SYOG in Antarctica, respectively. The total electron content (TEC, an indicator of the upper atmosphere, and the precipitable water vapor (PWV, which served as the lower atmospheric response, were retrieved and analyzed. The results reveal a good relationship between TEC and PWV at each station during the onset day of the equinoxes, whereas an asymmetrical response was observed in the beginning of and after the equinoxes. In addition, the conjugate pairs were only consistent during the autumnal equinox. Thus, the high correlation was observed following the seasonal pattern for the onset day, while strong and moderate correlations were found only for the vernal equinox in Antarctica and the Arctic, respectively. This relationship reflects the fact that the intensity of solar activity during the solar minimum incident on the lower atmosphere through the conjugate points is associated with the variation of the Sun’s seasonal cycle, whereas the TEC and PWV showed an opposite relationship.

  16. Cryogenic Liquid Level-Sensing using Fiber-Optic Strain Sensor (FOSS) Technology Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Armstrong innovators have developed a highly accurate method for measuring liquid levels using optical fibers. Unlike liquid level gauges that rely on discrete...

  17. Aspects of Remote Sensing in the GEOid and Sea level Of the North Atlantic Region (GEOSONAR) Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilger, Klaus Baggesen; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Knudsen, Per

    1999-01-01

    The general objectives of the GEOid and Sea level Of the North Atlantic Region (GEOSONAR) project are presented. These include analyses of the dynamics of the ocean and its characteristics. The analyses are mainly based on remote sensing. As an example a data set obtained by the multi-channel Sea-viewing...... Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFs) is analysed. The presentation results include the computed principal components (PC) and the maximum autocorrelation factors (MAF). Both methods are expected to be incorporated into future analyses of the state of the ocean....

  18. Upper Limb Asymmetry in the Sense of Effort Is Dependent on Force Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane E. Adamo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that asymmetries in upper limb sensorimotor function are dependent on the source of sensory and motor information, hand preference and differences in hand strength. Further, the utilization of sensory and motor information and the mode of control of force may differ between the right hand/left hemisphere and left hand/right hemisphere systems. To more clearly understand the unique contribution of hand strength and intrinsic differences to the control of grasp force, we investigated hand/hemisphere differences when the source of force information was encoded at two different force levels corresponding to a 20 and 70% maximum voluntary contraction or the right and left hand of each participant. Eleven, adult males who demonstrated a stronger right than left maximum grasp force were requested to match a right or left hand 20 or 70% maximal voluntary contraction reference force with the opposite hand. During the matching task, visual feedback corresponding to the production of the reference force was available and then removed when the contralateral hand performed the match. The matching relative force error was significantly different between hands for the 70% MVC reference force but not for the 20% MVC reference force. Directional asymmetries, quantified as the matching force constant error, showed right hand overshoots and left undershoots were force dependent and primarily due to greater undershoots when matching with the left hand the right hand reference force. Findings further suggest that the interaction between internal sources of information, such as efferent copy and proprioception, as well as hand strength differences appear to be hand/hemisphere system dependent. Investigations of force matching tasks under conditions whereby force level is varied and visual feedback of the reference force is available provides critical baseline information for building effective interventions for asymmetric (stroke

  19. Sense of community in Hong Kong: relations with community-level characteristics and residents' well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Winnie W S; Cheung, Rebecca Y M; Law, Lawrence S C

    2009-09-01

    Sense of community (SOC) has been one of the most studied topics in community psychology. However, no empirical study to date has investigated SOC in Hong Kong and its relations with community characteristics and residents' psychological well-being. A representative sample of 941 Hong Kong Chinese based on a randomized household survey was conducted in all 18 districts in Hong Kong. Results of hierarchical linear modeling indicated that SOC was not associated with sociodemographic indicators on both the individual-level (i.e., gender, age, family income, education level, type of residence, and area-to-capita ratio of residence) and the community-level (i.e., proportion of individuals with tertiary education, median family income, ownership of residence, population density, and resident stability). SOC was negatively related to daily hassles and positively with social support and quality of life. Conceptualization of SOC in Hong Kong was discussed.

  20. Neuroactive steroid levels are modified in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma of post-finasteride patients showing persistent sexual side effects and anxious/depressive symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcangi, Roberto Cosimo; Caruso, Donatella; Abbiati, Federico; Giatti, Silvia; Calabrese, Donato; Piazza, Fabrizio; Cavaletti, Guido

    2013-10-01

    Observations performed in a subset of subjects treated with finasteride (an inhibitor of the enzyme 5α-reductase) for male pattern hair loss seem to indicate that sexual dysfunction as well as anxious/depressive symptomatology may occur at the end of the treatment and continue after discontinuation. A possible hypothesis to explain depression symptoms after finasteride treatment might be impairment in the levels of neuroactive steroids. Therefore, neuroactive steroid levels were evaluated in paired plasma and cerebrospinal fluid samples obtained from male patients who received finasteride for the treatment of androgenic alopecia and who, after drug discontinuation, still show long-term sexual side effects as well as anxious/depressive symptomatology. The levels of neuroactive steroids were evaluated by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in three postfinasteride patients and compared to those of five healthy controls. Neuroactive steroid levels in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of postfinasteride patients and healthy controls. At the examination, the three postfinasteride patients reported muscular stiffness, cramps, tremors, and chronic fatigue in the absence of clinical evidence of any muscular disorder or strength reduction. Severity and frequency of the anxious/depressive symptoms were quite variable; overall, all the subjects had a fairly complex and constant neuropsychiatric pattern. Assessment of neuroactive steroid levels in patients showed some interindividual differences. However, the most important finding was the comparison of their neuroactive steroid levels with those of healthy controls. Indeed, decreased levels of tetrahydroprogesterone, isopregnanolone and dihydrotestosterone and increased levels of testosterone and 17β-estradiol were reported in cerebrospinal fluid of postfinasteride patients. Moreover, decreased levels of dihydroprogesterone and increased levels of 5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol and 17β-estradiol were observed in

  1. The potential of Internet of m-health Things "m-IoT" for non-invasive glucose level sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istepanian, R S H; Hu, S; Philip, N Y; Sungoor, A

    2011-01-01

    An amalgamated concept of Internet of m-health Things (m-IoT) has been introduced recently and defined as a new concept that matches the functionalities of m-health and IoT for a new and innovative future (4G health) applications. It is well know that diabetes is a major chronic disease problem worldwide with major economic and social impact. To-date there have not been any studies that address the potential of m-IoT for non-invasive glucose level sensing with advanced opto-physiological assessment technique and diabetes management. In this paper we address the potential benefits of using m-IoT in non-invasive glucose level sensing and the potential m-IoT based architecture for diabetes management. We expect to achieve intelligent identification and management in a heterogeneous connectivity environment from the mobile healthcare perspective. Furthermore this technology will enable new communication connectivity routes between mobile patients and care services through innovative IP based networking architectures.

  2. Semantic risk estimation of suspected minefields based on spatial relationships analysis of minefield indicators from multi-level remote sensing imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jonathan Cheung-Wai; Sahli, Hichem; Wang, Yuhang

    2005-06-01

    This paper presents semantic risk estimation of suspected minefields using spatial relationships of minefield indicators extracted from multi-level remote sensing. Both satellite image and pyramidal airborne acquisitions from 900m to 30m flying heights with resolutions from 1m to 2cm resolutions are used for identification of minefield indicators. R-Histogram [1] is a quantitative representation of spatial relationship between two objects in an image. Eight spatial relationships can be generated: 1) LEFT OF, 2) RIGHT OF, 3) ABOVE, 4) BELOW, 5) NEAR, 6) FAR, 7) INSIDE, 8) OUTSIDE. R-Histogram semantics are first generated from selected indicators and metrics such as topological proximity and directional relationships are trained for soft classification of risk index (normalized as 0-1). We presented a framework of how semantic metadata generated from remote sensing images are used in risk estimation. The resultant risk index identified seven out of twelve mine accidents occurred at high risk region. More importantly, comparison with ground truth obtained after mine clearance show that three out of the four identified pattern minefields falls into the area estimated at very high risk. A parcel-based per-field risk estimation can also be easily generated to show the usefulness of the risk index.

  3. Remote Sensing of Wildland Fire-Induced Risk Assessment at the Community Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, M Razu; Rahaman, Khan Rubayet; Hassan, Quazi K

    2018-05-15

    Wildland fires are some of the critical natural hazards that pose a significant threat to the communities located in the vicinity of forested/vegetated areas. In this paper, our overall objective was to study the structural damages due to the 2016 Horse River Fire (HRF) that happened in Fort McMurray (Alberta, Canada) by employing primarily very high spatial resolution optical satellite data, i.e., WorldView-2. Thus, our activities included the: (i) estimation of the structural damages; and (ii) delineation of the wildland-urban interface (WUI) and its associated buffers at certain intervals, and their utilization in assessing potential risks. Our proposed method of remote sensing-based estimates of the number of structural damages was compared with the ground-based information available from the Planning and Development Recovery Committee Task Force of Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo (RMWB); and found a strong linear relationship (i.e., r² value of 0.97 with a slope of 0.97). Upon delineating the WUI and its associated buffer zones at 10 m, 30 m, 50 m, 70 m and 100 m distances; we found existence of vegetation within the 30 m buffers from the WUI for all of the damaged structures. In addition, we noticed that the relevant authorities had removed vegetation in some areas between 30 m and 70 m buffers from the WUI, which was proven to be effective in order to protect the structures in the adjacent communities. Furthermore, we mapped the wildland fire-induced vulnerable areas upon considering the WUI and its associated buffers. Our analysis revealed that approximately 30% of the areas within the buffer zones of 10 m and 30 m were vulnerable due to the presence of vegetation; in which, approximately 7% were burned during the 2016 HRF event that led the structural damages. Consequently, we suggest to remove the existing vegetation within these critical zones and also monitor the region at a regular interval in order to reduce the wildland fire-induced risk.

  4. Laser Remote Sensing from ISS: CATS Cloud and Aerosol Level 2 Data Products (Heritage Edition)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodier, Sharon; Palm, Steve; Vaughan, Mark; Yorks, John; McGill, Matt; Jensen, Mike; Murray, Tim; Trepte, Chip

    2016-01-01

    With the recent launch of the Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) we have the opportunity to acquire a continuous record of space based lidar measurements spanning from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) era to the start of the EarthCARE mission. Utilizing existing well-validated science algorithms from the CALIPSO mission, we will ingest the CATS data stream and deliver high-quality lidar data sets to the user community at the earliest possible opportunity. In this paper we present an overview of procedures necessary to generate CALIPSO-like lidar level 2 data products from the CATS level 1 data products.

  5. Dispositions of Elite-Level Australian Rugby Coaches towards Game Sense: Characteristics of Their Coaching Habitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Richard L.; Evans, John Robert

    2013-01-01

    Bourdieu's analytic concept of "habitus" has provided a valuable means of theorising coach development but is yet to be operationalised in empirical research. This article redresses this oversight by drawing on a larger study that inquired into how the "coaching 'habitus'" of elite-level Australian and New Zealand rugby coaches…

  6. Iron-dependent regulation of hepcidin in Hjv-/- mice: evidence that hemojuvelin is dispensable for sensing body iron levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Gkouvatsos

    Full Text Available Hemojuvelin (Hjv is a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP co-receptor involved in the control of systemic iron homeostasis. Functional inactivation of Hjv leads to severe iron overload in humans and mice due to marked suppression of the iron-regulatory hormone hepcidin. To investigate the role of Hjv in body iron sensing, Hjv-/- mice and isogenic wild type controls were placed on a moderately low, a standard or a high iron diet for four weeks. Hjv-/- mice developed systemic iron overload under all regimens. Transferrin (Tf was highly saturated regardless of the dietary iron content, while liver iron deposition was proportional to it. Hepcidin mRNA expression responded to fluctuations in dietary iron intake, despite the absence of Hjv. Nevertheless, iron-dependent upregulation of hepcidin was more than an order of magnitude lower compared to that seen in wild type controls. Likewise, iron signaling via the BMP/Smad pathway was preserved but substantially attenuated. These findings suggest that Hjv is not required for sensing of body iron levels and merely functions as an enhancer for iron signaling to hepcidin.

  7. Type 2 Diabetic Rats on Diet Supplemented With Chromium Malate Show Improved Glycometabolism, Glycometabolism-Related Enzyme Levels and Lipid Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Weiwei; Zhao, Ting; Mao, Guanghua; Wang, Wei; Feng, Yun; Li, Fang; Zheng, Daheng; Wu, Huiyu; Jin, Dun; Yang, Liuqing; Wu, Xiangyang

    2015-01-01

    Our previous study showed that chromium malate improved the regulation of blood glucose in mice with alloxan-induced diabetes. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of chromium malate on glycometabolism, glycometabolism-related enzymes and lipid metabolism in type 2 diabetic rats. Our results showed that fasting blood glucose, serum insulin level, insulin resistance index and C-peptide level in the high dose group had a significant downward trend when compared with the model group, chromium picolinate group and chromium trichloride group. The hepatic glycogen, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucokinase, Glut4, phosphor-AMPKβ1 and Akt levels in the high dose group were significantly higher than those of the model, chromium picolinate and chromium trichloride groups. Chromium malate in a high dose group can significantly increase high density lipoprotein cholesterol level while decreasing the total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels when compared with chromium picolinate and chromium trichloride. The serum chromium content in chromium malate and chromium picolinate group is significantly higher than that of the chromium trichloride group. The results indicated that the curative effects of chromium malate on glycometabolism, glycometabolism-related enzymes and lipid metabolism changes are better than those of chromium picolinate and chromium trichloride. Chromium malate contributes to glucose uptake and transport in order to improved glycometabolism and glycometabolism-related enzymes. PMID:25942313

  8. Remote Sensing by Satellite for Environmental Education: A Survey and a Proposal for Teaching at Upper Secondary and University Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosler, Ulrich

    Knowledge of the environment has grown to such an extent that information technology (IT) is essential to make sense of the available data. An example of this is remote sensing by satellite. In recent years this field has grown in importance and remote sensing is used for a range of uses including the automatic survey of wheat yields in North…

  9. Assessment of a Smart Sensing Shoe for Gait Phase Detection in Level Walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Carbonaro

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Gait analysis and more specifically ambulatory monitoring of temporal and spatial gait parameters may open relevant fields of applications in activity tracking, sports and also in the assessment and treatment of specific diseases. Wearable technology can boost this scenario by spreading the adoption of monitoring systems to a wide set of healthy users or patients. In this context, we assessed a recently developed commercial smart shoe—the FootMoov—for automatic gait phase detection in level walking. FootMoov has built-in force sensors and a triaxial accelerometer and is able to transmit the sensor data to the smartphone through a wireless connection. We developed a dedicated gait phase detection algorithm relying both on force and inertial information. We tested the smart shoe on ten healthy subjects in free level walking conditions and in a laboratory setting in comparison with an optical motion capture system. Results confirmed a reliable detection of the gait phases. The maximum error committed, on the order of 44.7 ms, is comparable with previous studies. Our results confirmed the possibility to exploit consumer wearable devices to extract relevant parameters to improve the subject health or to better manage his/her progressions.

  10. Alternatives to High-Level Waste Vitrification: The Need for Common Sense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, Jimmy T.

    2000-01-01

    The competition for government funding for remediation of defense wastes (and for other legitimate government functions) is intensifying as the United States moves toward a balanced national budget. Determining waste remediation priorities for the use of available tax dollars will likely depend on established international agreements and on the real risks posed to human health.Remediation of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) high-level radioactive tank wastes has been described as the most important priority in the DOE system. The proposed tank waste remediation at three DOE sites will include retrieval of the wastes from the aging storage tanks, immobilization of the wastes, and safe disposal of the processed waste. Vitrification, the current immobilization technology chosen by DOE, is very costly. The U.S. Congress and the American people may not be aware that the present cost of preparing just 1 m 3 of processed waste product at the Savannah River Site is ∼$2 million! In a smaller waste remediation project at the West Valley Site, similar waste treatment is costing >$2 million/m 3 of waste product. Privatization efforts at the Hanford Site are now estimated to cost >$4 million/m 3 of waste product. Even at the lowest current cost of $2 million/m 3 of HLW glass product, the total estimated costs for remediating the tank wastes at the three DOE sites of Savannah River, Hanford, and Idaho Falls is $75 billion.Whether our nation can afford treatment costs of this magnitude and whether Congress will be willing to appropriate these huge sums for waste vitrification when alternative technologies can provide safe disposal at considerably lower cost are questions that need to be addressed. The hazard levels posed by the DOE tank wastes do not warrant high priority in comparison to the hazards of other defense wastes. Unless DOE selects a lower-cost technology for tank waste remediation, such efforts are likely to continue in a holding pattern, with little actually

  11. Alternatives to high-level waste vitrification: The need for common sense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, J.T.

    2000-01-01

    The competition for government funding for remediation of defense wastes (and for other legitimate government functions) is intensifying as the United states moves toward a balanced national budget. Determining waste remediation priorities for the use of available tax dollars will likely depend on established international agreements and on the real risks posed to human health. Remediation of the US Department of Energy (DOE) high-level radioactive tank wastes has been described as the most important priority in the DOE system. The proposed tank waste remediation at three DOE sites will include retrieval of the wastes from the aging storage tanks, immobilization of the wastes, and safe disposal of the processed waste. Vitrification, the current immobilization technology chosen by DOE, is very costly. The US Congress and the American people may not be aware that the present cost of preparing just 1 m 3 of processed waste product at the Savannah River Site is approximately$2 million. In a smaller waste remediation project at the West Valley Site, similar waste treatment is costing $2 million/m 3 of waste product. Privatization efforts at the Hanford Site are now estimated to cost $4 million/m 3 of waste product. Even at the lowest current cost of $2 million/m 3 of HLW glass product, the total estimated costs for remediating the tank wastes at the three DOE sites of Savannah River, Hanford, and Idaho Falls is $75 billion. Whether the nation can afford treatment costs of this magnitude and whether Congress will be willing to appropriate these huge sums for waste vitrification when alternative technologies can provide safe disposal at considerably lower cost are questions that need to be addressed. The hazard levels posed by the DOE tank wastes do not warrant high priority in comparison to the hazards of other defense wastes. Unless DOE selects a lower-cost technology for tank waste remediation, such efforts are likely to continue in a holding pattern, with little

  12. Co-design in synthetic biology: a system-level analysis of the development of an environmental sensing device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, David A; Lux, Matthew W; Graef, Russell R; Peterson, Matthew W; Valenti, Jane D; Dileo, John; Peccoud, Jean

    2010-01-01

    The concept of co-design is common in engineering, where it is necessary, for example, to determine the optimal partitioning between hardware and software of the implementation of a system features. Here we propose to adapt co-design methodologies for synthetic biology. As a test case, we have designed an environmental sensing device that detects the presence of three chemicals, and returns an output only if at least two of the three chemicals are present. We show that the logical operations can be implemented in three different design domains: (1) the transcriptional domain using synthetically designed hybrid promoters, (2) the protein domain using bi-molecular fluorescence complementation, and (3) the fluorescence domain using spectral unmixing and relying on electronic processing. We discuss how these heterogeneous design strategies could be formalized to develop co-design algorithms capable of identifying optimal designs meeting user specifications.

  13. Plot - level stem volume estimation and tree species discrimination with CASI remote sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmgren, Johan; Wallerman, J.; Olsson, Haakan

    1999-10-01

    Spectral data from the Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI), with four bands (460-495 nm, 550-580 nm, 660-682 nm, 740-762 nm) acquired from a forest test area (Lat. 60 deg 00` N, Long. 17 deg 18` E), the Kaettboele estate near Uppsala, was analysed together with forest data from a number of field plots. Data from two flight lines, one towards and the other perpendicular to the sun was used. Information about stem volume and species composition from plots with 10-m radius, 138 in the first and 120 in the second flight line, was available. There was a positive correlation (R{sup 2} 0.51-0.53) between stem volume and the inverted radiance for all four bands on plot level. The strong correlation between stem volume and a shadow density measure indicates that shadows explain much of the correlation. For the flight line perpendicular to the sun, the correlation was stronger for the side towards the sun compared to the side away from the sun. In the first flight line, plots with a stem volume > 120 m{sup 3}ha{sup -1} were classified according to the tree species composition (pine, spruce, deciduous trees). Groups were formed based on the classification, and the hypothesis that there was no difference in spectral radiance between these groups was tested. It was possible to separate pine dominated plots from spruce dominated plots. It was also possible to separate spruce dominated plots from spruce dominated plots with a minor portion of pine, but not pine dominated plots from pine dominated plots with a minor portion of spruce. The near-infrared band was the best band for discrimination of tree species 16 refs, 2 figs, 8 tabs

  14. INFLUENCE OF THE LEVEL OF EDUCATION ON EMOTIONS PERTAINING TO THE SENSE OF GUILT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya S. Kozlova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: this paper describes purpose, hypothesis, subject, object, and sampling criteria on the basis of which the research was carried out. Materials and Methods: we used the survey method based on a diagnostic tool – a self-designed questionnaire. Testing took place in three stages: peer-reviewing by four Kandidat nauk degree holders (Ph.D., with sibsequent amendments; the pilot study was carried out at Ivanovo State University. Number of students surveyed (n = 103. On the basis of results we added answer options to a number of open questions and reformulated some of them; the study was repeated for a larger sampling (n = 96 persons, aged 18 to 80 years old. As a result we excluded questions (or answers having zero dispersion. We used the analysis of the questionnaire focused on the duration, degree of guilt and physiological support for this feeling, to identify the persons to whom the person tends to feel guilty, as well as to the options to overcome this emotional state. In addition, the set of questions helps clarify the readiness to forgive and ask for forgiveness. Also, the profile part can reveal relations between the concepts of guilt and forgiveness. In processing the data, we used the correlation analysis based on automated package of the statistical data software “SPSS 13”. Results: presented are the main results of the empirical research allowing to define the orientation influence of education on different aspects of the person’s perception as to the emergence of guilt, and the resulting necessity to exit this state, with emphasis on the category of “forgiveness”. A diagram presents the specificity of guilt emotions in people with high levels of education. Discussion and Conclusions: we draw conclusions in the final part of the paper. These results provide a new insight into the process of overcoming of guilt as well as content issues. In addition, the results of the study can be used in the educational process

  15. Thiourea-treated graphene aerogel as a highly selective gas sensor for sensing of trace level of ammonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alizadeh, Taher, E-mail: talizadeh@ut.ac.ir [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University College of Science, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 14155-6455, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ahmadian, Farzaneh [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Daneshgah Street, P.B179, 56199-11367 Ardabil (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    As a result of this study, a new and simple method was proposed for the fabrication of an ultra sensitive, robust and reversible ammonia gas sensor. The sensing mechanism was based upon the change in electrical resistance of a graphene aerogel as a result of sensor exposing to ammonia. Three-dimensional graphene hydrogel was first synthesized via hydrothermal method in the absence or presence of various amounts of thiourea. The obtained material was heated to obtain aerogel and then it was used as ammonia gas sensor. The materials obtained were characterized using different techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The thiourea-treated graphene aerogel was more porous (389 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}) and thermally unstable and exhibited higher sensitivity, shorter response time and better selectivity toward ammonia gas, compared to the aerogel produced in the absence of thiourea. Thiourea amount, involved in the hydrogel synthesis step, was found to be highly effective factor in the sensing properties of finally obtained aerogel. The sensor response time to ammonia was short (100 s) and completely reversible (recovery time of about 500 s) in ambient temperature. The sensor response to ammonia was linear between 0.02 and 85 ppm and its detection limit was found to be 10 ppb (3S/N). - Highlights: • An ammonia gas sensor with ppb level determination capability was proposed. • A new procedure has been introduced for gas sensor fabrication by graphene hydrogel. • Thiourea-treated graphene aerogel was used as excellent ammonia gas sensor.

  16. Beta-endorphin in the plasma: Radioimmunological determination and findings in patients showing disorders at the level of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoerl, A.

    1985-01-01

    Beta-endorphin and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) were determined simultaneously in the plasma using a radioimmunological procedure. It was found that in patients showing imbalances within the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal system (Addison's disease, Cushing's Syndrome, Nelson's Syndrome) as well as elevated levels of beta-endorphin the values of ACHT invariably were also increased. The behaviour of the plasma levels of beta-endorphin and ACTH before, during and subsequent to hypophyseal surgery gives evidence to prove the close link between the two hormones. Tests performed to examine the function of the corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) both in healthy volunteers and patients suffering from endocrinological disorders likewise pointed to a parallel behaviour pattern of the two hormones in their responding or failure to respond to stimulation. The fact that a significant correlation was established between all measured values of beta-endorphin and ACTH is further evidence in confirmation of a parallel release of these two hormones in man. (TRV) [de

  17. Rats socially-reared and full fed learned an autoshaping task, showing less levels of fear-like behaviour than fasted or singly-reared rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Hernández, Miguel; Téllez-Alcántara, N Patricia

    2004-07-01

    During the learning of instrumental tasks, rats are usually fasted to increase reinforced learning. However, fasting produces several undesirable side effects. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that control rats, i.e. full-fed and group-reared rats, will learn an autoshaping task to the same level as fasted or singly-reared rats. The interaction between fasting and single-rearing of rats was also tested. Results showed that control rats and fasted rats acquired the autoshaping task similarly, independently of rearing condition or gender. However, fasted or singly-reared rats produced fear-like behaviour, since male rats group-reared and fasted (85% body/wt, P autoshaping task to the same level as fasted or singly-reared rats. However, fasting or single-rearing produced fear-like behaviour. Thus, the training of control rats in autoshaping tasks may be an option that improves animal welfare.

  18. A functional ABCA1 gene variant is associated with low HDL-cholesterol levels and shows evidence of positive selection in Native Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuña-Alonzo, Víctor; Flores-Dorantes, Teresa; Kruit, Janine K.; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Arellano-Campos, Olimpia; Hünemeier, Tábita; Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Ortiz-López, Ma Guadalupe; Villamil-Ramírez, Hugo; León-Mimila, Paola; Villalobos-Comparan, Marisela; Jacobo-Albavera, Leonor; Ramírez-Jiménez, Salvador; Sikora, Martin; Zhang, Lin-Hua; Pape, Terry D.; de Ángeles Granados-Silvestre, Ma; Montufar-Robles, Isela; Tito-Alvarez, Ana M.; Zurita-Salinas, Camilo; Bustos-Arriaga, José; Cedillo-Barrón, Leticia; Gómez-Trejo, Celta; Barquera-Lozano, Rodrigo; Vieira-Filho, Joao P.; Granados, Julio; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; Huertas-Vázquez, Adriana; González-Martín, Antonio; Gorostiza, Amaya; Bonatto, Sandro L.; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Wang, Li; Tusié-Luna, Teresa; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A.; Lisker, Ruben; Moises, Regina S.; Menjivar, Marta; Salzano, Francisco M.; Knowler, William C.; Bortolini, M. Cátira; Hayden, Michael R.; Baier, Leslie J.; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that the higher susceptibility of Hispanics to metabolic disease is related to their Native American heritage. A frequent cholesterol transporter ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette transporter A1) gene variant (R230C, rs9282541) apparently exclusive to Native American individuals was associated with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, obesity and type 2 diabetes in Mexican Mestizos. We performed a more extensive analysis of this variant in 4405 Native Americans and 863 individuals from other ethnic groups to investigate genetic evidence of positive selection, to assess its functional effect in vitro and to explore associations with HDL-C levels and other metabolic traits. The C230 allele was found in 29 of 36 Native American groups, but not in European, Asian or African individuals. C230 was observed on a single haplotype, and C230-bearing chromosomes showed longer relative haplotype extension compared with other haplotypes in the Americas. Additionally, single-nucleotide polymorphism data from the Human Genome Diversity Panel Native American populations were enriched in significant integrated haplotype score values in the region upstream of the ABCA1 gene. Cells expressing the C230 allele showed a 27% cholesterol efflux reduction (P< 0.001), confirming this variant has a functional effect in vitro. Moreover, the C230 allele was associated with lower HDL-C levels (P = 1.77 × 10−11) and with higher body mass index (P = 0.0001) in the combined analysis of Native American populations. This is the first report of a common functional variant exclusive to Native American and descent populations, which is a major determinant of HDL-C levels and may have contributed to the adaptive evolution of Native American populations. PMID:20418488

  19. Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome and encephalomyelitis disseminata/multiple sclerosis show remarkable levels of similarity in phenomenology and neuroimmune characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background ‘Encephalomyelitis disseminata’ (multiple sclerosis) and myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) are both classified as diseases of the central nervous system by the World Health Organization. This review aims to compare the phenomenological and neuroimmune characteristics of MS with those of ME/CFS. Discussion There are remarkable phenomenological and neuroimmune overlaps between both disorders. Patients with ME/CFS and MS both experience severe levels of disabling fatigue and a worsening of symptoms following exercise and resort to energy conservation strategies in an attempt to meet the energy demands of day-to-day living. Debilitating autonomic symptoms, diminished cardiac responses to exercise, orthostatic intolerance and postural hypotension are experienced by patients with both illnesses. Both disorders show a relapsing-remitting or progressive course, while infections and psychosocial stress play a large part in worsening of fatigue symptoms. Activated immunoinflammatory, oxidative and nitrosative (O+NS) pathways and autoimmunity occur in both illnesses. The consequences of O+NS damage to self-epitopes is evidenced by the almost bewildering and almost identical array of autoantibodies formed against damaged epitopes seen in both illnesses. Mitochondrial dysfunctions, including lowered levels of ATP, decreased phosphocreatine synthesis and impaired oxidative phosphorylation, are heavily involved in the pathophysiology of both MS and ME/CFS. The findings produced by neuroimaging techniques are quite similar in both illnesses and show decreased cerebral blood flow, atrophy, gray matter reduction, white matter hyperintensities, increased cerebral lactate and choline signaling and lowered acetyl-aspartate levels. Summary This review shows that there are neuroimmune similarities between MS and ME/CFS. This further substantiates the view that ME/CFS is a neuroimmune illness and that patients with MS are immunologically primed to

  20. Short-chain fatty acid level and field cancerization show opposing associations with enteroendocrine cell number and neuropilin expression in patients with colorectal adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staton Carolyn A

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous reports have suggested that the VEGF receptor neuropilin-1 (NRP-1 is expressed in a singly dispersed subpopulation of cells in the normal colonic epithelium, but that expression becomes dysregulated during colorectal carcinogenesis, with higher levels in tumour suggestive of a poor prognosis. We noted that the spatial distribution and morphology if NRP-1 expressing cells resembles that of enteroendocrine cells (EEC which are altered in response to disease state including cancer and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. We have shown that NRP-1 is down-regulated by butyrate in colon cancer cell lines in vitro and we hypothesized that butyrate produced in the lumen would have an analogous effect on the colon mucosa in vivo. Therefore we sought to investigate whether NRP-1 is expressed in EEC and how NRP-1 and EEC respond to butyrate and other short-chain fatty acids (SCFA - principally acetate and propionate. Additionally we sought to assess whether there is a field effect around adenomas. Methodology Biopsies were collected at the mid-sigmoid, at the adenoma and at the contralateral wall (field of 28 subjects during endoscopy. Samples were fixed for IHC and stained for either NRP-1 or for chromogranin A (CgA, a marker of EEC. Stool sampling was undertaken to assess individuals' butyrate, acetate and propionate levels. Result NRP-1 expression was inversely related to SCFA concentration at the colon landmark (mid-sigmoid, but expression was lower and not related to SCFA concentration at the field. Likewise CgA+ cell number was also inversely related to SCFA at the landmark, but was lower and unresponsive at the field. Crypt cellularity was unaltered by field effect. A colocalisation analysis showed only a small subset of NRP-1 localised with CgA. Adenomas showed extensive, weaker staining for NRP-1 which contrastingly correlated positively with butyrate level. Field effects cause this relationship to be lost. Adenoma tissue

  1. The fading affect bias shows positive outcomes at the general but not the individual level of analysis in the context of social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Jeffrey A; Horowitz, Kyle A; Dunlap, Spencer M

    2017-08-01

    Unpleasant affect fades faster than pleasant affect (e.g., Walker, Vogl, & Thompson, 1997); this effect is referred to as the Fading Affect Bias (FAB; Walker, Skowronski, Gibbons, Vogl, & Thompson, 2003a). Research shows that the FAB is consistently related to positive/healthy outcomes at a general but not at a specific level of analysis based on event types and individual differences (e.g., Gibbons et al., 2013). Based on the positive outcomes for FAB and negative outcomes for social media (Bolton et al., 2013; Huang, 2010), the current study examined FAB in the context of social media events along with related individual differences. General positive outcomes were shown in the form of robust FAB effects across social media and non-social media events, a larger FAB for non-social media events than for social media events, negative correlations of FAB with depression, anxiety, and stress as well as a positive correlation of FAB with self-esteem. However, the lack of a negative correlation between FAB and anxiety for social media events in a 3-way interaction did not show positive outcomes at a specific level of analysis. Rehearsal ratings mediated the 3-way interaction. Implications are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. White-crowned sparrow males show immediate flexibility in song amplitude but not in song minimum frequency in response to changes in noise levels in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derryberry, Elizabeth P; Gentry, Katherine; Derryberry, Graham E; Phillips, Jennifer N; Danner, Raymond M; Danner, Julie E; Luther, David A

    2017-07-01

    The soundscape acts as a selective agent on organisms that use acoustic signals to communicate. A number of studies document variation in structure, amplitude, or timing of signal production in correspondence with environmental noise levels thus supporting the hypothesis that organisms are changing their signaling behaviors to avoid masking. The time scale at which organisms respond is of particular interest. Signal structure may evolve across generations through processes such as cultural or genetic transmission. Individuals may also change their behavior during development (ontogenetic change) or in real time (i.e., immediate flexibility). These are not mutually exclusive mechanisms, and all must be investigated to understand how organisms respond to selection pressures from the soundscape. Previous work on white-crowned sparrows ( Zonotrichia leucophrys ) found that males holding territories in louder areas tend to sing higher frequency songs and that both noise levels and song frequency have increased over time (30 years) in urban areas. These previous findings suggest that songs are changing across generations; however, it is not known if this species also exhibits immediate flexibility. Here, we conducted an exploratory, observational study to ask whether males change the minimum frequency of their song in response to immediate changes in noise levels. We also ask whether males sing louder, as increased minimum frequency may be physiologically linked to producing sound at higher amplitudes, in response to immediate changes in environmental noise. We found that territorial males adjust song amplitude but not minimum frequency in response to changes in environmental noise levels. Our results suggest that males do not show immediate flexibility in song minimum frequency, although experimental manipulations are needed to test this hypothesis further. Our work highlights the need to investigate multiple mechanisms of adaptive response to soundscapes.

  3. Ship Detection in Optical Remote Sensing Images Based on Wavelet Transform and Multi-Level False Alarm Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Xu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ship detection by Unmanned Airborne Vehicles (UAVs and satellites plays an important role in a spectrum of related military and civil applications. To improve the detection efficiency, accuracy, and speed, a novel ship detection method from coarse to fine is presented. Ship targets are viewed as uncommon regions in the sea background caused by the differences in colors, textures, shapes, or other factors. Inspired by this fact, a global saliency model is constructed based on high-frequency coefficients of the multi-scale and multi-direction wavelet decomposition, which can characterize different feature information from edge to texture of the input image. To further reduce the false alarms, a new and effective multi-level discrimination method is designed based on the improved entropy and pixel distribution, which is robust against the interferences introduced by islands, coastlines, clouds, and shadows. The experimental results on optical remote sensing images validate that the presented saliency model outperforms the comparative models in terms of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curves core and the accuracy in the images with different sizes. After the target identification, the locations and the number of the ships in various sizes and colors can be detected accurately and fast with high robustness.

  4. Sensing Properties of Pd-Loaded Co3O4 Film for a ppb-Level NO Gas Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takafumi Akamatsu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We prepared 0.1 wt%–30 wt% Pd-loaded Co3O4 by a colloidal mixing method and investigated the sensing properties of a Pd-loaded Co3O4 sensor element, such as the sensor response, 90% response time, 90% recovery time, and signal-to-noise (S/N ratio, toward low nitric oxide (NO gas levels in the range from 50 to 200 parts per billion. The structural properties of the Pd-loaded Co3O4 powder were investigated using X-ray diffraction analysis and transmission electron microscopy. Pd in the powder existed as PdO. The sensor elements with 0.1 wt%–10 wt% Pd content have higher sensor properties than those without any Pd content. The response of the sensor element with a 30 wt% Pd content decreased markedly because of the aggregation and poor dispersibility of the PdO particles. High sensor response and S/N ratio toward the NO gas were achieved when a sensor element with 10 wt% Pd content was used.

  5. Pseudomonas putida growing at low temperature shows increased levels of CrcZ and CrcY sRNAs, leading to reduced Crc-dependent catabolite repression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Pilar; Moreno, Renata; Rojo, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    The Crc protein of Pseudomonas inhibits the expression of genes involved in the transport and assimilation of a number of non-preferred carbon sources when preferred substrates are available, thus coordinating carbon metabolism. Crc acts by binding to target mRNAs, inhibiting their translation. In Pseudomonas putida, the amount of free Crc available is controlled by two sRNAs, CrcY and CrcZ, which bind to and sequester Crc. The levels of these sRNAs vary according to metabolic conditions. Pseudomonas putida grows optimally at 30°C, but can also thrive at 10°C. The present work shows that when cells grow exponentially at 10°C, the repressive effect of Crc on many genes is significantly reduced compared with that seen at 30°C. Total Crc levels were similar at both temperatures, but those of CrcZ and CrcY were significantly higher at 10°C. Therefore, Crc-mediated repression may, at least in part, be reduced at 10°C because the fraction of Crc protein sequestered by CrcZ and CrcY is larger, reducing the amount of free Crc available to bind its targets. This may help P. putida to face cold stress. The results reported might help understanding the behaviour of this bacterium in bioremediation or rhizoremediation strategies at low temperatures. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. A Transition Zone Showing Highly Discontinuous or Alternating Levels of Stem Cell and Proliferation Markers Characterizes the Development of PTEN-Haploinsufficient Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvai, Kevin J; Hsu, Ya-Hsuan; Lee, Lobin A; Jones, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Stepwise acquisition of oncogene mutations and deletion/inactivation of tumor suppressor genes characterize the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). These genetic events interact with discrete morphologic transitions from hyperplastic mucosa to adenomatous areas, followed by in situ malignant transformation and finally invasive carcinoma. The goal of this study was to identify tissue markers of the adenoma-carcinoma morphogenetic transitions in CRC. We analyzed the patterns of expression of growth regulatory and stem cell markers across these distinct morphologic transition zones in 735 primary CRC tumors. In 202 cases with preserved adenoma-adenocarcinoma transition, we identified, in 37.1% of cases, a zone of adenomatous epithelium, located immediately adjacent to the invasive component, that showed rapidly alternating intraglandular stretches of PTEN+ and PTEN- epithelium. This zone exactly overlapped with similar alternating expression of Ki-67 and inversely with the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) growth regulator SMAD4. These zones also show parallel alternating levels and/or subcellular localization of multiple cancer stem/progenitor cell (CSC) markers, including β-catenin/CTNNB1, ALDH1, and CD44. PTEN was always re-expressed in the invasive tumor in these cases, unlike those with complete loss of PTEN expression. Genomic microarray analysis of CRC with prominent CSC-like expansions demonstrated a high frequency of PTEN genomic deletion/haploinsufficiency in tumors with CSC-like transition zones (62.5%) but not in tumors with downregulated but non-alternating PTEN expression (14.3%). There were no significant differences in the levels of KRAS mutation or CTNNB1 mutation in CSC-like tumors as compared to unselected CRC cases. In conclusion, we have identified a distinctive CSC-like pre-invasive transition zone in PTEN-haploinsufficient CRC that shows convergent on-off regulation of the PTEN/AKT, TGF-β/SMAD and Wnt/β-catenin pathways. This

  7. A Transition Zone Showing Highly Discontinuous or Alternating Levels of Stem Cell and Proliferation Markers Characterizes the Development of PTEN-Haploinsufficient Colorectal Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin J Arvai

    Full Text Available Stepwise acquisition of oncogene mutations and deletion/inactivation of tumor suppressor genes characterize the development of colorectal cancer (CRC. These genetic events interact with discrete morphologic transitions from hyperplastic mucosa to adenomatous areas, followed by in situ malignant transformation and finally invasive carcinoma. The goal of this study was to identify tissue markers of the adenoma-carcinoma morphogenetic transitions in CRC.We analyzed the patterns of expression of growth regulatory and stem cell markers across these distinct morphologic transition zones in 735 primary CRC tumors. In 202 cases with preserved adenoma-adenocarcinoma transition, we identified, in 37.1% of cases, a zone of adenomatous epithelium, located immediately adjacent to the invasive component, that showed rapidly alternating intraglandular stretches of PTEN+ and PTEN- epithelium. This zone exactly overlapped with similar alternating expression of Ki-67 and inversely with the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β growth regulator SMAD4. These zones also show parallel alternating levels and/or subcellular localization of multiple cancer stem/progenitor cell (CSC markers, including β-catenin/CTNNB1, ALDH1, and CD44. PTEN was always re-expressed in the invasive tumor in these cases, unlike those with complete loss of PTEN expression. Genomic microarray analysis of CRC with prominent CSC-like expansions demonstrated a high frequency of PTEN genomic deletion/haploinsufficiency in tumors with CSC-like transition zones (62.5% but not in tumors with downregulated but non-alternating PTEN expression (14.3%. There were no significant differences in the levels of KRAS mutation or CTNNB1 mutation in CSC-like tumors as compared to unselected CRC cases.In conclusion, we have identified a distinctive CSC-like pre-invasive transition zone in PTEN-haploinsufficient CRC that shows convergent on-off regulation of the PTEN/AKT, TGF-β/SMAD and Wnt

  8. Real-Time and Seamless Monitoring of Ground-Level PM2.5 Using Satellite Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tongwen; Zhang, Chengyue; Shen, Huanfeng; Yuan, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Liangpei

    2018-04-01

    Satellite remote sensing has been reported to be a promising approach for the monitoring of atmospheric PM2.5. However, the satellite-based monitoring of ground-level PM2.5 is still challenging. First, the previously used polar-orbiting satellite observations, which can be usually acquired only once per day, are hard to monitor PM2.5 in real time. Second, many data gaps exist in satellitederived PM2.5 due to the cloud contamination. In this paper, the hourly geostationary satellite (i.e., Harawari-8) observations were adopted for the real-time monitoring of PM2.5 in a deep learning architecture. On this basis, the satellite-derived PM2.5 in conjunction with ground PM2.5 measurements are incorporated into a spatio-temporal fusion model to fill the data gaps. Using Wuhan Urban Agglomeration as an example, we have successfully derived the real-time and seamless PM2.5 distributions. The results demonstrate that Harawari-8 satellite-based deep learning model achieves a satisfactory performance (out-of-sample cross-validation R2 = 0.80, RMSE = 17.49 μg/m3) for the estimation of PM2.5. The missing data in satellite-derive PM2.5 are accurately recovered, with R2 between recoveries and ground measurements of 0.75. Overall, this study has inherently provided an effective strategy for the realtime and seamless monitoring of ground-level PM2.5.

  9. A wearable 3D motion sensing system integrated with a Bluetooth smart phone application: A system level overview

    KAUST Repository

    Karimi, Muhammad Akram; Shamim, Atif

    2018-01-01

    description of a wearable 3D motion sensor. The sensing mechanism is based upon well-established magnetic and inertial measurement unit (MIMU), which integrates accelerometer, gyroscope and magnetometer data. Two sensor boards have been integrated within a

  10. Stable isotope probing of acetate fed anaerobic batch incubations shows a partial resistance of acetoclastic methanogenesis catalyzed by Methanosarcina to sudden increase of ammonia level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Liping; Lü, Fan; Mazéas, Laurent; Desmond-Le Quéméner, Elie; Madigou, Céline; Guenne, Angéline; Shao, Liming; Bouchez, Théodore; He, Pinjing

    2015-02-01

    Ammonia inhibition represents a major operational issue for anaerobic digestion. In order to refine our understanding of the terminal catabolic steps in thermophilic anaerobic digestion under ammonia stress, we studied batch thermophilic acetate fed experiments at low (0.26 g L(-1)) and high (7.00 g L(-1)) Total Ammonia Nitrogen concentrations (TAN). Although methane production started immediately for all incubations and resulted in methane yields close to stoichiometric expectations, a 62-72% decrease of methanogenic rate was observed throughout the incubation at 7.00 g L(-1) of TAN compared to 0.26 g L(-1). Stable Isotope Probing analysis of active microbial communities in (13)C-acetate fed experiments coupled to automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis and 16S rDNA pyrotag sequencing confirmed that microbial communities were similar for both TAN conditions. At both TAN levels, the (13)C-labeled bacterial community was mainly affiliated to Clostridia-relatives, with OPB54 bacteria being the most abundant sequence in the heavy DNA 16S rDNA pyrotag library. Sequences closely related to Methanosarcina thermophila were also abundantly retrieved in the heavy DNA fractions, showing that this methanogen was still actively assimilating labeled carbon from acetate at free ammonia nitrogen concentrations up to 916 mg L(-1). Stable isotopic signature analysis of biogas, measured in unlabeled acetate fed experiments that were conducted in parallel, confirmed that acetoclastic methanogenic pathway was dominant at both ammonia concentrations. Our work demonstrates that, besides the syntrophic acetate oxidation pathway, acetoclastic methanogenesis catalyzed by Methanosarcina can also play a major role in methane production at high ammonia levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Motor units in vastus lateralis and in different vastus medialis regions show different firing properties during low-level, isometric knee extension contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Leonardo Mendes Leal; Cabral, Hélio Veiga; de Oliveira, Liliam Fernandes; Vieira, Taian Martins

    2018-04-01

    Architectural differences along vastus medialis (VM) and between VM and vastus lateralis (VL) are considered functionally important for the patellar tracking, knee joint stability and knee joint extension. Whether these functional differences are associated with a differential activity of motor units between VM and VL is however unknown. In the present study, we, therefore, investigate neuroanatomical differences in the activity of motor units detected proximo-distally from VM and from the VL muscle. Nine healthy volunteers performed low-level isometric knee extension contractions (20% of their maximum voluntary contraction) following a trapezoidal trajectory. Surface electromyograms (EMGs) were recorded from VM proximal and distal regions and from VL using three linear adhesive arrays of eight electrodes. The firing rate and recruitment threshold of motor units decomposed from EMGs were then compared among muscle regions. Results show that VL motor units reached lower mean firing rates in comparison with VM motor units, regardless of their position within VM (P motor units (P = .997). Furthermore, no significant differences in the recruitment threshold were observed for all motor units analysed (P = .108). Our findings possibly suggest the greater potential of VL to generate force, due to its fibres arrangement, may account for the lower discharge rate observed for VL then either proximally or distally detected motor units in VM. Additionally, the present study opens new perspectives on the importance of considering muscle architecture in investigations of the neural aspects of motor behaviour. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Countries with Higher Levels of Gender Equality Show Larger National Sex Differences in Mathematics Anxiety and Relatively Lower Parental Mathematics Valuation for Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoet, Gijsbert; Bailey, Drew H; Moore, Alex M; Geary, David C

    2016-01-01

    Despite international advancements in gender equality across a variety of societal domains, the underrepresentation of girls and women in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) related fields persists. In this study, we explored the possibility that the sex difference in mathematics anxiety contributes to this disparity. More specifically, we tested a number of predictions from the prominent gender stratification model, which is the leading psychological theory of cross-national patterns of sex differences in mathematics anxiety and performance. To this end, we analyzed data from 761,655 15-year old students across 68 nations who participated in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). Most importantly and contra predictions, we showed that economically developed and more gender equal countries have a lower overall level of mathematics anxiety, and yet a larger national sex difference in mathematics anxiety relative to less developed countries. Further, although relatively more mothers work in STEM fields in more developed countries, these parents valued, on average, mathematical competence more in their sons than their daughters. The proportion of mothers working in STEM was unrelated to sex differences in mathematics anxiety or performance. We propose that the gender stratification model fails to account for these national patterns and that an alternative model is needed. In the discussion, we suggest how an interaction between socio-cultural values and sex-specific psychological traits can better explain these patterns. We also discuss implications for policies aiming to increase girls' STEM participation.

  13. Countries with Higher Levels of Gender Equality Show Larger National Sex Differences in Mathematics Anxiety and Relatively Lower Parental Mathematics Valuation for Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Despite international advancements in gender equality across a variety of societal domains, the underrepresentation of girls and women in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) related fields persists. In this study, we explored the possibility that the sex difference in mathematics anxiety contributes to this disparity. More specifically, we tested a number of predictions from the prominent gender stratification model, which is the leading psychological theory of cross-national patterns of sex differences in mathematics anxiety and performance. To this end, we analyzed data from 761,655 15-year old students across 68 nations who participated in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). Most importantly and contra predictions, we showed that economically developed and more gender equal countries have a lower overall level of mathematics anxiety, and yet a larger national sex difference in mathematics anxiety relative to less developed countries. Further, although relatively more mothers work in STEM fields in more developed countries, these parents valued, on average, mathematical competence more in their sons than their daughters. The proportion of mothers working in STEM was unrelated to sex differences in mathematics anxiety or performance. We propose that the gender stratification model fails to account for these national patterns and that an alternative model is needed. In the discussion, we suggest how an interaction between socio-cultural values and sex-specific psychological traits can better explain these patterns. We also discuss implications for policies aiming to increase girls’ STEM participation. PMID:27100631

  14. Modeling Flood Hazard Zones at the Sub-District Level with the Rational Model Integrated with GIS and Remote Sensing Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Asare-Kyei

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Robust risk assessment requires accurate flood intensity area mapping to allow for the identification of populations and elements at risk. However, available flood maps in West Africa lack spatial variability while global datasets have resolutions too coarse to be relevant for local scale risk assessment. Consequently, local disaster managers are forced to use traditional methods such as watermarks on buildings and media reports to identify flood hazard areas. In this study, remote sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS techniques were combined with hydrological and statistical models to delineate the spatial limits of flood hazard zones in selected communities in Ghana, Burkina Faso and Benin. The approach involves estimating peak runoff concentrations at different elevations and then applying statistical methods to develop a Flood Hazard Index (FHI. Results show that about half of the study areas fall into high intensity flood zones. Empirical validation using statistical confusion matrix and the principles of Participatory GIS show that flood hazard areas could be mapped at an accuracy ranging from 77% to 81%. This was supported with local expert knowledge which accurately classified 79% of communities deemed to be highly susceptible to flood hazard. The results will assist disaster managers to reduce the risk to flood disasters at the community level where risk outcomes are first materialized.

  15. Characteristics of the Remote Sensing Data Used in the Proposed Unfccc REDD+ Forest Reference Emission Levels (frels)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B. A.; Scheyvens, H.; Samejima, H.; Onoda, M.

    2016-06-01

    Developing countries must submit forest reference emission levels (FRELs) to the UNFCCC to receive incentives for REDD+ activities (e.g. reducing emissions from deforestation/forest degradation, sustainable management of forests, forest carbon stock conservation/enhancement). These FRELs are generated based on historical CO2 emissions in the land use, land use change, and forestry sector, and are derived using remote sensing (RS) data and in-situ forest carbon measurements. Since the quality of the historical emissions estimates is affected by the quality and quantity of the RS data used, in this study we calculated five metrics (i-v below) to assess the quality and quantity of the data that has been used thus far. Countries could focus on improving on one or more of these metrics for the submission of future FRELs. Some of our main findings were: (i) the median percentage of each country mapped was 100%, (ii) the median historical timeframe for which RS data was used was 11.5 years, (iii) the median interval of forest map updates was 4.5 years, (iv) the median spatial resolution of the RS data was 30m, and (v) the median number of REDD+ activities that RS data was used for operational monitoring of was 1 (typically deforestation). Many new sources of RS data have become available in recent years, so complementary or alternative RS data sets for generating future FRELs can potentially be identified based on our findings; e.g. alternative RS data sets could be considered if they have similar or higher quality/quantity than the currently-used data sets.

  16. Energy-efficient sensing in wireless sensor networks using compressed sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzaque, Mohammad Abdur; Dobson, Simon

    2014-02-12

    Sensing of the application environment is the main purpose of a wireless sensor network. Most existing energy management strategies and compression techniques assume that the sensing operation consumes significantly less energy than radio transmission and reception. This assumption does not hold in a number of practical applications. Sensing energy consumption in these applications may be comparable to, or even greater than, that of the radio. In this work, we support this claim by a quantitative analysis of the main operational energy costs of popular sensors, radios and sensor motes. In light of the importance of sensing level energy costs, especially for power hungry sensors, we consider compressed sensing and distributed compressed sensing as potential approaches to provide energy efficient sensing in wireless sensor networks. Numerical experiments investigating the effectiveness of compressed sensing and distributed compressed sensing using real datasets show their potential for efficient utilization of sensing and overall energy costs in wireless sensor networks. It is shown that, for some applications, compressed sensing and distributed compressed sensing can provide greater energy efficiency than transform coding and model-based adaptive sensing in wireless sensor networks.

  17. Gas exchange at whole plant level shows that a less conservative water use is linked to a higher performance in three ecologically distinct pine species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Tortosa, D.; Castro, J.; Rubio de Casas, R.; Viñegla, B.; Sánchez-Cañete, E. P.; Villar-Salvador, P.

    2018-04-01

    Increasing temperatures and decreasing precipitation in large areas of the planet as a consequence of global warming will affect plant growth and survival. However, the impact of climatic conditions will differ across species depending on their stomatal response to increasing aridity, as this will ultimately affect the balance between carbon assimilation and water loss. In this study, we monitored gas exchange, growth and survival in saplings of three widely distributed European pine species (Pinus halepensis, P. nigra and P. sylvestris) with contrasting distribution and ecological requirements in order to ascertain the relationship between stomatal control and plant performance. The experiment was conducted in a common garden environment resembling rainfall and temperature conditions that two of the three species are expected to encounter in the near future. In addition, gas exchange was monitored both at the leaf and at the whole-plant level using a transient-state closed chamber, which allowed us to model the response of the whole plant to increased air evaporative demand (AED). P. sylvestris was the species with lowest survival and performance. By contrast, P. halepensis showed no mortality, much higher growth (two orders of magnitude), carbon assimilation (ca. 14 fold higher) and stomatal conductance and water transpiration (ca. 4 fold higher) than the other two species. As a consequence, P. halepensis exhibited higher values of water-use efficiency than the rest of the species even at the highest values of AED. Overall, the results strongly support that the weaker stomatal control of P. halepensis, which is linked to lower stem water potential, enabled this species to maximize carbon uptake under drought stress and ultimately outperform the more water conservative P. nigra and P. sylvestris. These results suggest that under a hotter drought scenario P. nigra and P. sylvestris would very likely suffer increased mortality, whereas P. halepensis could maintain

  18. Sensing parts per million levels of gaseous NO2 by a optical fiber transducer based on calix[4]arenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohira, Shin-Ichi; Wanigasekara, Eranda; Rudkevich, Dmitry M; Dasgupta, Purnendu K

    2009-03-15

    Calixarenes are interesting building blocks in supramolecular receptor design. They can be easily functionalized to give the desired guest binding and sequestration properties. We demonstrate here the use of simple alkylated calixarenes as novel NO(2) sensors. Upon reacting with gaseous NO(2), alkylated calixarenes form stable calixarene-NO(+) (nitrosonium) complexes that have a deep purple color. This specific and selective formation of the colored complex was used to develop a fiber optic based colorimetric NO(2) sensor. Several alkylated calixarenes are used and tested as sensing materials. The calixarene compound was immobilized on a fine mesh silica-gel coated thin layer chromatography plate. The sensing plate was coupled with a fiber optic based photodetector. Gas samples were sampled in a manner where they impinged on the surface of sensing plate. The light transmission through the plate was continuously monitored. For a 5 min sample, the limit of detection was 0.54 ppmv with 1,3-alternate O-hexyl calix[4]arene (1a). There were no significant response differences between different conformations of calixarenes such as 1,3-alternate or cone. This chemistry can form the basis of a colorimetric sensor that relies on extant filter tape technology. With calixarenes however, such a reaction is potentially reversible - color formed upon reaction with NO(2) can be reversed by flushing the sensing plate by purified air. While we found that the removal of the developed color can be accelerated by simultaneous heating and suction, permitting the reuse of the same sensing area multiple times, we also observed that the sensitivity gradually decreased. The nitrosonium calixarene derivative tends to transform to the nitrated form; this process is catalyzed by light. Several methylated calixarenes were synthesized and tested but a fully satisfactory solution has proven elusive.

  19. Carbon dioxide sensing in the social context: Leaf-cutting ants prefer elevated CO2 levels to tend their brood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Römer, Daniela; Bollazzi, Martin; Roces, Flavio

    2018-05-18

    Social insects show temperature and humidity preferences inside their nests to successfully rear brood. In underground nests, ants also encounter rising CO 2 concentrations with increasing depth. It is an open question whether they use CO 2 as a cue to decide where to place and tend the brood. Leaf-cutting ants do show CO 2 preferences for the culturing of their symbiotic fungus. We evaluated their CO 2 choices for brood placement in laboratory experiments. Workers of Acromyrmex lundii in the process of relocating brood were offered a binary choice consisting of two interconnected chambers with different CO 2 concentrations. Values ranged from atmospheric to high concentrations of 4% CO 2 . The CO 2 preferences shown by workers for themselves and for brood placement were assessed by quantifying the number of workers and relocated brood in each chamber. Ants showed clear CO 2 preferences for brood placement. They avoided atmospheric levels, 1% and 4% CO 2 , and showed a preference for levels of 3%. This is the first report of CO 2 preferences for the maintenance of brood in social insects. The observed preferences for brood location were independent of the workers' own CO 2 preferences, since they showed no clear-cut pattern. Workers' CO 2 preferences for brood maintenance were slightly higher than those reported for fungus culturing, although brood is reared in the same chambers as the fungus in leaf-cutting ant nests. Workers' choices for brood placement in natural nests are likely the result of competing preferences for other environmental factors more crucial for brood survival, aside from those for CO 2 . Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Women show a closer association between educational level and hypertension or diabetes mellitus than males: a secondary analysis from the Austrian HIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kautzky-Willer Alexandra

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lifestyle diseases and cardiovascular complications are dramatically increasing, but little is known about the impact of educational level and health behaviour in men and women in different populations. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the association between educational level (EL and self-reported chronic diseases and health behaviour in both sexes. Methods Data were derived from the Austrian Health Interview Surveys 2006/2007, which includes 13 558 persons (50.9% females. The associations between EL and the risk of obesity, hypertension, diabetes, myocardial infarction, stroke and anxiety disorders or depression, nutrition, exercise, and smoking were evaluated. University education served as the reference category (EL4, the lowest educational level was required schooling only (EL0. Results Only among women did the risk for diabetes mellitus and hypertension increase with decreasing educational level with the highest rates for EL0 OR [95% CI] adjusted for age, income, family status and lifestyle: 3.7 [1.7-8.0], and 2.5 [1.8-3.5], respectively. Only among the men, however, did the risk for stroke increase with decreasing educational level adjusted OR for EL0: 8.5 [1.7-42.7]. For anthropometric measures and lifestyle factors in both sexes the risk increased with decreasing EL. Conclusion EL affects lifestyle, overweight and obesity in both sexes. The apparent sex-specific differences in the association between the prevalence of some chronic disease with EL call for further investigation.

  1. Directly measured free 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels show no evidence of vitamin D deficiency in young Swedish women with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Martin; Brudin, Lars; Wanby, Pär

    2018-04-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is an eating disorder characterized by low fat mass complicated by osteoporosis. The role of circulating vitamin D in the development of bone loss in AN is unclear. Fat mass is known to be inversely associated with vitamin D levels measured as serum levels of total, protein-bound 25-hydroxyvitamin D, but the importance of directly measured, free levels of 25(OH)D has not been determined in AN. The aim of this study was to investigate vitamin D status, as assessed by serum concentrations of total and free serum 25(OH)D in patients with AN and healthy controls. In female AN patients (n = 20), and healthy female controls (n = 78), total 25(OH)D was measured by LC-MS/MS, and free 25(OH)D with ELISA. In patients with AN bone mineral density (BMD) was determined with DEXA. There were no differences between patients and controls in total or free S-25(OH)D levels (80 ± 31 vs 72 ± 18 nmol/L, and 6.5 ± 2.5 vs 5.6 ± 1.8 pg/ml, respectively), and no association to BMD was found. In the entire group of patients and controls, both vitamin D parameters correlated with BMI, leptin, and PTH. The current study did not demonstrate a vitamin D deficiency in patients with AN and our data does not support vitamin D deficiency as a contributing factor to bone loss in AN. Instead, we observed a trend toward higher vitamin D levels in AN subjects compared to controls. Measurement of free vitamin D levels did not contribute to additional information.

  2. Prostate cancer volume associates with preoperative plasma levels of testosterone that independently predicts high grade tumours which show low densities (quotient testosterone/tumour volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio B. Porcaro

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The investigation shows that TT relates to volume and grade of PCa; moreover, the density of TT relative to TV inversely associates with rate of increase of cancer that depends on the grade of the tumour.

  3. "Teaching Is a Lot More than Just Showing up to Class and Grading Assignments": Preparing Middle-Level Teachers for Longevity in the Profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Overschelde, James P.; Saunders, Jane M.; Ash, Gwynne Ellen

    2017-01-01

    The university's teacher preparation program has implemented and continually refined a professional development school program, with extended university-school relationships in its middle-level certification program. This program offers dialogue, targeted learning activities, and intensive field-based experiences to help ease preservice teachers…

  4. The Duffy binding protein (PkDBPαII) of Plasmodium knowlesi from Peninsular Malaysia and Malaysian Borneo show different binding activity level to human erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Khai Lone; Amir, Amirah; Lau, Yee Ling; Fong, Mun Yik

    2017-08-11

    The zoonotic Plasmodium knowlesi is a major cause of human malaria in Malaysia. This parasite uses the Duffy binding protein (PkDBPαII) to interact with the Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC) receptor on human and macaque erythrocytes to initiate invasion. Previous studies on P. knowlesi have reported distinct Peninsular Malaysia and Malaysian Borneo PkDBPαII haplotypes. In the present study, the differential binding activity of these haplotypes with human and macaque (Macaca fascicularis) erythrocytes was investigated. The PkDBPαII of Peninsular Malaysia and Malaysian Borneo were expressed on the surface of COS-7 cells and tested with human and monkey erythrocytes, with and without anti-Fy6 (anti-Duffy) monoclonal antibody treatment. Binding activity level was determined by counting the number of rosettes formed between the transfected COS-7 cells and the erythrocytes. Anti-Fy6 treatment was shown to completely block the binding of human erythrocytes with the transfected COS-7 cells, thus verifying the specific binding of human DARC with PkDBPαII. Interestingly, the PkDBPαII of Peninsular Malaysia displayed a higher binding activity with human erythrocytes when compared with the Malaysian Borneo PkDBPαII haplotype (mean number of rosettes formed = 156.89 ± 6.62 and 46.00 ± 3.57, respectively; P < 0.0001). However, no difference in binding activity level was seen in the binding assay using M. fascicularis erythrocytes. This study is the first report of phenotypic difference between PkDBPαII haplotypes. The biological implication of this finding is yet to be determined. Therefore, further studies need to be carried out to determine whether this differential binding level can be associated with severity of knowlesi malaria in human.

  5. Human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells show increased resistance to hyperthermic stress after differentiation, associated with elevated levels of Hsp72.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lesley; Smith, Danielle J; Anderson, Robin L; Nagley, Phillip

    2011-01-01

    Terminally differentiated neurones in the central nervous system need to be protected from stress. We ask here whether differentiation of progenitor cells to neurones is accompanied by up-regulation of Hsp72, with acquisition of enhanced thermotolerance. Human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells were propagated in an undifferentiated form and subsequently differentiated into neurone-like cells. Thermotolerance tests were carried out by exposure of cells to various temperatures, monitoring nuclear morphology as index of cell death. Abundance of Hsp72 was measured in cell lysates by western immunoblotting. The differentiation of SH-SY5Y cells was accompanied by increased expression of Hsp72. Further, in both cell states, exposure to mild hyperthermic stress (43°C for 30 min) increased Hsp72 expression. After differentiation, SH-SY5Y cells were more resistant to hyperthermic stress compared to their undifferentiated state, correlating with levels of Hsp72. Stable exogenous expression of Hsp72 in SH-SY5Y cells (transfected line 5YHSP72.1, containing mildly elevated levels of Hsp72), led to enhanced resistance to hyperthermic stress. Hsp72 was found to be inducible in undifferentiated 5YHSP72.1 cells; such heat-treated cells displayed enhanced thermotolerance. Treatment of cells with KNK437, a suppressor of Hsp72 induction, resulted in acute thermosensitisation of all cell types tested here. Hsp72 has a major role in the enhanced hyperthermic resistance acquired during neuronal differentiation of SH-SY5Y cells. These findings model the requirement in intact organisms for highly differentiated neurones to be specially protected against thermal stress.

  6. ASD Is Not DLI: Individuals With Autism and Individuals With Syntactic DLI Show Similar Performance Level in Syntactic Tasks, but Different Error Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nufar Sukenik

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Do individuals with autism have a developmental syntactic impairment, DLI (formerly known as SLI? In this study we directly compared the performance of 18 individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD aged 9;0–18;0 years with that of 93 individuals with Syntactic-Developmental Language Impairment (SyDLI aged 8;8–14;6 (and with 166 typically-developing children aged 5;2–18;1. We tested them using three syntactic tests assessing the comprehension and production of syntactic structures that are known to be sensitive to syntactic impairment: elicitation of subject and object relative clauses, reading and paraphrasing of object relatives, and repetition of complex syntactic structures including Wh questions, relative clauses, topicalized sentences, sentences with verb movement, sentences with A-movement, and embedded sentences. The results were consistent across the three tasks: the overall rate of correct performance on the syntactic tasks is similar for the children with ASD and those with SyDLI. However, once we look closer, they are very different. The types of errors of the ASD group differ from those of the SyDLI group—the children with ASD provide various types of pragmatically infelicitous responses that are not evinced in the SyDLI or in the age equivalent typically-developing groups. The two groups (ASD and SyDLI also differ in the pattern of performance—the children with SyDLI show a syntactically-principled pattern of impairment, with selective difficulty in specific sentence types (such as sentences derived by movement of the object across the subject, and normal performance on other structures (such as simple sentences. In contrast, the ASD participants showed generalized low performance on the various sentence structures. Syntactic performance was far from consistent within the ASD group. Whereas all ASD participants had errors that can originate in pragmatic/discourse difficulties, seven of them had completely normal syntax

  7. ASD Is Not DLI: Individuals With Autism and Individuals With Syntactic DLI Show Similar Performance Level in Syntactic Tasks, but Different Error Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukenik, Nufar; Friedmann, Naama

    2018-01-01

    Do individuals with autism have a developmental syntactic impairment, DLI (formerly known as SLI)? In this study we directly compared the performance of 18 individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) aged 9;0-18;0 years with that of 93 individuals with Syntactic-Developmental Language Impairment (SyDLI) aged 8;8-14;6 (and with 166 typically-developing children aged 5;2-18;1). We tested them using three syntactic tests assessing the comprehension and production of syntactic structures that are known to be sensitive to syntactic impairment: elicitation of subject and object relative clauses, reading and paraphrasing of object relatives, and repetition of complex syntactic structures including Wh questions, relative clauses, topicalized sentences, sentences with verb movement, sentences with A-movement, and embedded sentences. The results were consistent across the three tasks: the overall rate of correct performance on the syntactic tasks is similar for the children with ASD and those with SyDLI. However, once we look closer, they are very different. The types of errors of the ASD group differ from those of the SyDLI group-the children with ASD provide various types of pragmatically infelicitous responses that are not evinced in the SyDLI or in the age equivalent typically-developing groups. The two groups (ASD and SyDLI) also differ in the pattern of performance-the children with SyDLI show a syntactically-principled pattern of impairment, with selective difficulty in specific sentence types (such as sentences derived by movement of the object across the subject), and normal performance on other structures (such as simple sentences). In contrast, the ASD participants showed generalized low performance on the various sentence structures. Syntactic performance was far from consistent within the ASD group. Whereas all ASD participants had errors that can originate in pragmatic/discourse difficulties, seven of them had completely normal syntax in the structures we

  8. High Density Sphere Culture of Adult Cardiac Cells Increases the Levels of Cardiac and Progenitor Markers and Shows Signs of Vasculogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Vukusic

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available 3D environment and high cell density play an important role in restoring and supporting the phenotypes of cells represented in cardiac tissues. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the suitability of high density sphere (HDS cultures for studies of cardiomyocyte-, endothelial-, and stem-cell biology. Primary adult cardiac cells from nine human biopsies were cultured using different media for up to 9 weeks. The possibilities to favor a certain cell phenotype and induce production of extra cellular matrix (ECM were studied by histology, immunohistochemistry, and quantitative real-time PCR. Defined media gave significant increase in both cardiac- and progenitor-specific markers and also an intraluminal position of endothelial cells over time. Cardiac media showed indication of differentiation and maturity of HDS considering the ECM production and activities within NOTCH regulation but no additional cardiac differentiation. Endothelial media gave no positive effects on endothelial phenotype but increased proliferation without fibroblast overgrowth. In addition, indications for early vasculogenesis were found. It was also possible to affect the Wnt signaling in HDS by addition of a glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3 inhibitor. In conclusion, these findings show the suitability of HDS as in vitro model for studies of cardiomyocyte-, endothelial-, and stem-cell biology.

  9. A simple method for analyzing exome sequencing data shows distinct levels of nonsynonymous variation for human immune and nervous system genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Freudenberg

    Full Text Available To measure the strength of natural selection that acts upon single nucleotide variants (SNVs in a set of human genes, we calculate the ratio between nonsynonymous SNVs (nsSNVs per nonsynonymous site and synonymous SNVs (sSNVs per synonymous site. We transform this ratio with a respective factor f that corrects for the bias of synonymous sites towards transitions in the genetic code and different mutation rates for transitions and transversions. This method approximates the relative density of nsSNVs (rdnsv in comparison with the neutral expectation as inferred from the density of sSNVs. Using SNVs from a diploid genome and 200 exomes, we apply our method to immune system genes (ISGs, nervous system genes (NSGs, randomly sampled genes (RSGs, and gene ontology annotated genes. The estimate of rdnsv in an individual exome is around 20% for NSGs and 30-40% for ISGs and RSGs. This smaller rdnsv of NSGs indicates overall stronger purifying selection. To quantify the relative shift of nsSNVs towards rare variants, we next fit a linear regression model to the estimates of rdnsv over different SNV allele frequency bins. The obtained regression models show a negative slope for NSGs, ISGs and RSGs, supporting an influence of purifying selection on the frequency spectrum of segregating nsSNVs. The y-intercept of the model predicts rdnsv for an allele frequency close to 0. This parameter can be interpreted as the proportion of nonsynonymous sites where mutations are tolerated to segregate with an allele frequency notably greater than 0 in the population, given the performed normalization of the observed nsSNV to sSNV ratio. A smaller y-intercept is displayed by NSGs, indicating more nonsynonymous sites under strong negative selection. This predicts more monogenically inherited or de-novo mutation diseases that affect the nervous system.

  10. A chemical biology approach to interrogate quorum-sensing regulated behaviors at the molecular and cellular level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, Colin A; Matamouros, Susana; Niessen, Sherry; Zhu, Jie; Scolnick, Jonathan; Lively, Jenny M; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Miller, Samuel I; Kaufmann, Gunnar F; Janda, Kim D

    2013-07-25

    Small molecule probes have been used extensively to explore biologic systems and elucidate cellular signaling pathways. In this study, we use an inhibitor of bacterial communication to monitor changes in the proteome of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium with the aim of discovering unrecognized processes regulated by AI-2-based quorum-sensing (QS), a mechanism of bacterial intercellular communication that allows for the coordination of gene expression in a cell density-dependent manner. In S. typhimurium, this system regulates the uptake and catabolism of intercellular signals and has been implicated in pathogenesis, including the invasion of host epithelial cells. We demonstrate that our QS antagonist is capable of selectively inhibiting the expression of known QS-regulated proteins in S. typhimurium, thus attesting that QS inhibitors may be used to confirm proposed and elucidate previously unidentified QS pathways without relying on genetic manipulation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Making sense of mobile health data: an open architecture to improve individual- and population-level health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Connie; Haddad, David; Selsky, Joshua; Hoffman, Julia E; Kravitz, Richard L; Estrin, Deborah E; Sim, Ida

    2012-08-09

    Mobile phones and devices, with their constant presence, data connectivity, and multiple intrinsic sensors, can support around-the-clock chronic disease prevention and management that is integrated with daily life. These mobile health (mHealth) devices can produce tremendous amounts of location-rich, real-time, high-frequency data. Unfortunately, these data are often full of bias, noise, variability, and gaps. Robust tools and techniques have not yet been developed to make mHealth data more meaningful to patients and clinicians. To be most useful, health data should be sharable across multiple mHealth applications and connected to electronic health records. The lack of data sharing and dearth of tools and techniques for making sense of health data are critical bottlenecks limiting the impact of mHealth to improve health outcomes. We describe Open mHealth, a nonprofit organization that is building an open software architecture to address these data sharing and "sense-making" bottlenecks. Our architecture consists of open source software modules with well-defined interfaces using a minimal set of common metadata. An initial set of modules, called InfoVis, has been developed for data analysis and visualization. A second set of modules, our Personal Evidence Architecture, will support scientific inferences from mHealth data. These Personal Evidence Architecture modules will include standardized, validated clinical measures to support novel evaluation methods, such as n-of-1 studies. All of Open mHealth's modules are designed to be reusable across multiple applications, disease conditions, and user populations to maximize impact and flexibility. We are also building an open community of developers and health innovators, modeled after the open approach taken in the initial growth of the Internet, to foster meaningful cross-disciplinary collaboration around new tools and techniques. An open mHealth community and architecture will catalyze increased mHealth efficiency

  12. A fiber optic sensor with a metal organic framework as a sensing material for trace levels of water in industrial gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohira, Shin-Ichi; Miki, Yusuke; Matsuzaki, Toru; Nakamura, Nao; Sato, Yu-ki; Hirose, Yasuo; Toda, Kei

    2015-07-30

    Industrial gases such as nitrogen, oxygen, argon, and helium are easily contaminated with water during production, transfer and use, because there is a high volume fraction of water in the atmosphere (approximately 1.2% estimated with the average annual atmospheric temperature and relative humidity). Even trace water (industrial gases can cause quality problems in the process such as production of semiconductors. Therefore, it is important to monitor and to control trace water levels in industrial gases at each supplying step, and especially during their use. In the present study, a fiber optic gas sensor was investigated for monitoring trace water levels in industrial gases. The sensor consists of a film containing a metal organic framework (MOF). MOFs are made of metals coordinated to organic ligands, and have mesoscale pores that adsorb gas molecules. When the MOF, copper benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylate (Cu-BTC), was used as a sensing material, we investigated the color of Cu-BTC with water adsorption changed both in depth and tone. Cu-BTC crystals appeared deep blue in dry gases, and then changed to light blue in wet gases. An optical gas sensor with the Cu-BTC film was developed using a light emitting diode as the light source and a photodiode as the light intensity detector. The sensor showed a reversible response to trace water, did not require heating to remove the adsorbed water molecules. The sample gas flow rate did not affect the sensitivity. The obtained limit of detection was 40 parts per billion by volume (ppbv). The response time for sample gas containing 2.5 ppmvH2O was 23 s. The standard deviation obtained for daily analysis of 1.0 ppmvH2O standard gas over 20 days was 9%. Furthermore, the type of industrial gas did not affect the sensitivity. These properties mean the sensor will be applicable to trace water detection in various industrial gases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Landscape-Level Associations of Wintering Waterbird Diversity and Abundance from Remotely Sensed Wetland Characteristics of Poyang Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Dronova

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Poyang Lake, the largest freshwater wetland in China, provides critical habitat for wintering waterbirds from the East Asian Flyway; however, landscape drivers of non-uniform bird diversity and abundance are not yet well understood. Using a winter 2006 waterbird survey, we examined the relationships among metrics of bird community diversity and abundance and landscape characteristics of 51 wetland sub-lakes derived by an object-based classification of Landsat satellite data. Relative importance of predictors and their sets was assessed using information-theoretic model selection and the Akaike Information Criterion. Ordinary least squares regression models were diagnosed and corrected for spatial autocorrelation using spatial autoregressive lag and error models. The strongest and most consistent landscape predictors included Normalized Difference Vegetation Index for mudflat (negative effect and emergent grassland (positive effect, total sub-lake area (positive effect, and proportion of submerged vegetation (negative effect. Significant spatial autocorrelation in linear regression was associated with local clustering of response and predictor variables, and should be further explored for selection of wetland sampling units and management of protected areas. Overall, results corroborate the utility of remote sensing to elucidate potential indicators of waterbird diversity that complement logistically challenging ground observations and offer new hypotheses on factors underlying community distributions.

  14. Municipality Level Simulations of Dengue Fever Incidence in Puerto Rico Using Ground Based and Remotely Sensed Climate Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Morin, Cory

    2015-01-01

    Dengue fever (DF) is caused by a virus transmitted between humans and Aedes genus mosquitoes through blood feeding. In recent decades incidence of the disease has drastically increased in the tropical Americas, culminating with the Pan American outbreak in 2010 which resulted in 1.7 million reported cases. In Puerto Rico dengue is endemic, however, there is significant inter-annual, intraannual, and spatial variability in case loads. Variability in climate and the environment, herd immunity and virus genetics, and demographic characteristics may all contribute to differing patterns of transmission both spatially and temporally. Knowledge of climate influences on dengue incidence could facilitate development of early warning systems allowing public health workers to implement appropriate transmission intervention strategies. In this study, we simulate dengue incidence in several municipalities in Puerto Rico using population and meteorological data derived from ground based stations and remote sensing instruments. This data was used to drive a process based model of vector population development and virus transmission. Model parameter values for container composition, vector characteristics, and incubation period were chosen by employing a Monte Carlo approach. Multiple simulations were performed for each municipality and the results were compared with reported dengue cases. The best performing simulations were retained and their parameter values and meteorological input were compared between years and municipalities. Parameter values varied by municipality and year illustrating the complexity and sensitivity of the disease system. Local characteristics including the natural and built environment impact transmission dynamics and produce varying responses to meteorological conditions.

  15. Conversational sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preece, Alun; Gwilliams, Chris; Parizas, Christos; Pizzocaro, Diego; Bakdash, Jonathan Z.; Braines, Dave

    2014-05-01

    Recent developments in sensing technologies, mobile devices and context-aware user interfaces have made it pos- sible to represent information fusion and situational awareness for Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) activities as a conversational process among actors at or near the tactical edges of a network. Motivated by use cases in the domain of Company Intelligence Support Team (CoIST) tasks, this paper presents an approach to information collection, fusion and sense-making based on the use of natural language (NL) and controlled nat- ural language (CNL) to support richer forms of human-machine interaction. The approach uses a conversational protocol to facilitate a ow of collaborative messages from NL to CNL and back again in support of interactions such as: turning eyewitness reports from human observers into actionable information (from both soldier and civilian sources); fusing information from humans and physical sensors (with associated quality metadata); and assisting human analysts to make the best use of available sensing assets in an area of interest (governed by man- agement and security policies). CNL is used as a common formal knowledge representation for both machine and human agents to support reasoning, semantic information fusion and generation of rationale for inferences, in ways that remain transparent to human users. Examples are provided of various alternative styles for user feedback, including NL, CNL and graphical feedback. A pilot experiment with human subjects shows that a prototype conversational agent is able to gather usable CNL information from untrained human subjects.

  16. Show Me the Green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Gone are the days when green campus initiatives were a balm to the soul and a drain on the wallet. Today's environmental initiatives are all about saving lots of green--in every sense of the word. The environmental benefits of green campus projects--whether wind turbines or better insulation--are pretty clear. Unfortunately, in today's…

  17. The Comparison of Different Levels of Religious Attitude on Sense of Meaning, Loneliness and Happiness in Life of Elderly Persons Under Cover of Social Wlfare Organisation of Urmia City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Aliakbari Dehkordi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was the comparison of different levels of religious attitude on the sense of meaning, loneliness and happiness in the life of elderly persons under cover of social wlfare organisation of urmia city. Methods & Materials: The study was a descriptive analytical research and sample size of 221 persons (81 women and 140 men aged over 60 years using a random cluster sampling were selected. The Khodayari`s religious attitude questionnaire, Russell`s loneliness questionnaire, Salehi`s questionnaire for sense of meaning and oxford’s happiness questionnaire were used as instruments in this study. Results: The results of multivariate analysis of variance and scheffe method of follow-up showed that stronger levels of religious attitudes is associated with happiness and meaning of life in elderly persons (P<0.05. Also, the elderly who have strong religious attitude in comparison of the others feel less alone. Conclusion: Religious attitude is a preventive factor to reduce the problems of the elderly and on this basis the relevant authorities could strengthen religious beliefs of elderly persons by proper planning and providing their participation in religious activities.

  18. Calcium sensing in exocytosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavsson, Natalia; Wu, Bingbing; Han, Weiping

    2012-01-01

    an increase in intracellular calcium levels. Besides the triggering role, calcium signaling modulates the precise amount and kinetics of vesicle release. Thus, it is a central question to understand the molecular machineries responsible for calcium sensing in exocytosis. Here we provide an overview of our...... current understanding of calcium sensing in neurotransmitter release and hormone secretion....

  19. Bringing us back to our creative senses: Fostering creativity in graduate-level nursing education: A literary review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duhamel, Karen V

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore empirical findings of five studies related to graduate-level nurse educators' and nursing students' perceptions about the roles of creativity and creative problem-solving in traditional and innovative pedagogies, and examines conceptual differences in the value of creativity from teacher and student viewpoints. Five peer-reviewed scholarly articles; professional nursing organizations; conceptual frameworks of noted scholars specializing in creativity and creative problem-solving; business-related sources; primary and secondary sources of esteemed nurse scholars. Quantitative and qualitative studies were examined that used a variety of methodologies, including surveys, focus groups, 1:1 interviews, and convenience sampling of both nursing and non-nursing college students and faculty. Innovative teaching strategies supported student creativity and creative problem-solving development. Teacher personality traits and teaching styles receptive to students' needs led to greater student success in creative development. Adequate time allocation and perceived usefulness of creativity and creative problem-solving by graduate-level nurse educators must be reflected in classroom activities and course design. Findings indicated conservative teaching norms, evident in graduate nursing education today, should be revised to promote creativity and creative problem-solving development in graduate-level nursing students for best practice outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Room temperature, ppb-level NO2 gas sensing of multiple-networked ZnSe nanowire sensors under UV illumination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunghoon Park

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Reports of the gas sensing properties of ZnSe are few, presumably because of the decomposition and oxidation of ZnSe at high temperatures. In this study, ZnSe nanowires were synthesized by the thermal evaporation of ZnSe powders and the sensing performance of multiple-networked ZnSe nanowire sensors toward NO2 gas was examined. The results showed that ZnSe might be a promising gas sensor material if it is used at room temperature. The response of the ZnSe nanowires to 50 ppb–5 ppm NO2 at room temperature under dark and UV illumination conditions were 101–102% and 113–234%, respectively. The responses of the ZnSe nanowires to 5 ppm NO2 increased from 102 to 234% with increasing UV illumination intensity from 0 to 1.2 mW/cm2. The response of the ZnSe nanowires was stronger than or comparable to that of typical metal oxide semiconductors reported in the literature, which require higher NO2 concentrations and operate at higher temperatures. The origin of the enhanced response of the ZnSe nanowires towards NO2 under UV illumination is also discussed.

  1. Detection of wine grape nutrient levels using visible and near infrared 1nm spectral resolution remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Grant; van Aardt, Jan; Bajorski, Peter; Vanden Heuvel, Justine

    2016-05-01

    The grape industry relies on regular crop assessment to aid in the day-to-day and seasonal management of their crop. More specifically, there are six key nutrients of interest to viticulturists in the growing of wine grapes, namely nitrogen, potassium, phosphorous, magnesium, zinc and boron. Traditional methods of determining the levels of these nutrients are through collection and chemical analysis of petiole samples from the grape vines themselves. We collected ground-level observations of the spectra of the grape vines, using a hyperspectral spectrometer (0.4-2.5um), at the same time that petioles samples were harvested. We then interpolated the data into a consistent 1 nm spectral resolution before comparing it to the nutrient data collected. This nutrient data came from both the industry standard petiole analysis, as well as an additional leaf-level analysis. The data were collected for two different grape cultivars, both during bloom and veraison periods to provide variability, while also considering the impact of temporal/seasonal change. A narrow-band NDI (Normalized Difference Index) approach, as well as a simple ratio index, was used to determine the correlation of the reflectance data to the nutrient data. This analysis was limited to the silicon photodiode range to increase the utility of our approach for wavelength-specific cameras (via spectral filters) in a low cost drone platform. The NDI generated correlation coefficients were as high as 0.80 and 0.88 for bloom and veraison, respectively. The ratio index produced correlation coefficient results that are the same at two decimal places with 0.80 and 0.88. These results bode well for eventual non-destructive, accurate and precise assessment of vineyard nutrient status.

  2. How disentangled sense of agency and sense of ownership can interact with different emotional events on stress feelings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We used the virtual hand illusion paradigm to study how sense of agency and sense of (body ownership can interact with different emotional events on stress feelings. Converging evidence for at least the partial independence of agency and ownership was found. For instance, sense of agency was a better predictor of individual anxiety levels than sense of ownership and males showed stronger effects related to agency—presumably due to gender-specific attribution styles and empathy skills. Moreover, agency and ownership also interacted with emotional events and led to different anxiety levels. Taken together, our findings suggest that the disentangled sense of agency and sense of ownership can interact with different emotional events and influenced stress feelings more in threatening situations than awarding ones.

  3. A case report of motor neuron disease in a patient showing significant level of DDTs, HCHs and organophosphate metabolites in hair as well as levels of hexane and toluene in blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanavouras, Konstantinos; Tzatzarakis, Manolis N.; Mastorodemos, Vasileios; Plaitakis, Andreas; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M.

    2011-01-01

    Motor neuron disease is a devastating neurodegenerative condition, with the majority of sporadic, non-familial cases being of unknown etiology. Several epidemiological studies have suggested that occupational exposure to chemicals may be associated with disease pathogenesis. We report the case of a patient developing progressive motor neuron disease, who was chronically exposed to pesticides and organic solvents. The patient presented with leg spasticity and developed gradually clinical signs suggestive of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, which was supported by the neurophysiologic and radiological findings. Our report is an evidence based case of combined exposure to organochlorine (DDTs), organophosphate pesticides (OPs) and organic solvents as confirmed by laboratory analysis in samples of blood and hair confirming systematic exposure. The concentration of non-specific dialkylphosphates metabolites (DAPs) of OPs in hair (dimethyphopshate (DMP) 1289.4 pg/mg and diethylphosphate (DEP) 709.4 pg/mg) and of DDTs (opDDE 484.0 pg/mg, ppDDE 526.6 pg/mg, opDDD 448.4 pg/mg, ppDDD + opDDT 259.9 pg/mg and ppDDT 573.7 pg/mg) were considerably significant. Toluene and n-hexane were also detected in blood on admission at hospital and quantified (1.23 and 0.87 μg/l, respectively), while 3 months after hospitalization blood testing was found negative for toluene and n-hexane and hair analysis was provided decrease levels of HCHs, DDTs and DAPs. -- Highlights: ► Exposure to pesticides and organic solvents might be a risk factor for sporadic MND. ► We report a patient who developed progressive upper and lower motor neuron disease. ► The patient had a history of occupational exposure to pesticides and solvents. ► High DDTs’ levels and increased levels of DMP and DEP were measured in his hair. ► The patients’ exposure to chemicals might have played a role in MND development.

  4. A case report of motor neuron disease in a patient showing significant level of DDTs, HCHs and organophosphate metabolites in hair as well as levels of hexane and toluene in blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanavouras, Konstantinos [Department of Neurology, Medical School, University of Crete, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Tzatzarakis, Manolis N. [Center of Toxicology Science and Research, University of Crete, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Mastorodemos, Vasileios; Plaitakis, Andreas [Department of Neurology, Medical School, University of Crete, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Tsatsakis, Aristidis M., E-mail: aris@med.uoc.gr [Center of Toxicology Science and Research, University of Crete, Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2011-11-15

    Motor neuron disease is a devastating neurodegenerative condition, with the majority of sporadic, non-familial cases being of unknown etiology. Several epidemiological studies have suggested that occupational exposure to chemicals may be associated with disease pathogenesis. We report the case of a patient developing progressive motor neuron disease, who was chronically exposed to pesticides and organic solvents. The patient presented with leg spasticity and developed gradually clinical signs suggestive of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, which was supported by the neurophysiologic and radiological findings. Our report is an evidence based case of combined exposure to organochlorine (DDTs), organophosphate pesticides (OPs) and organic solvents as confirmed by laboratory analysis in samples of blood and hair confirming systematic exposure. The concentration of non-specific dialkylphosphates metabolites (DAPs) of OPs in hair (dimethyphopshate (DMP) 1289.4 pg/mg and diethylphosphate (DEP) 709.4 pg/mg) and of DDTs (opDDE 484.0 pg/mg, ppDDE 526.6 pg/mg, opDDD 448.4 pg/mg, ppDDD + opDDT 259.9 pg/mg and ppDDT 573.7 pg/mg) were considerably significant. Toluene and n-hexane were also detected in blood on admission at hospital and quantified (1.23 and 0.87 {mu}g/l, respectively), while 3 months after hospitalization blood testing was found negative for toluene and n-hexane and hair analysis was provided decrease levels of HCHs, DDTs and DAPs. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Exposure to pesticides and organic solvents might be a risk factor for sporadic MND. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We report a patient who developed progressive upper and lower motor neuron disease. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The patient had a history of occupational exposure to pesticides and solvents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High DDTs' levels and increased levels of DMP and DEP were measured in his hair. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The patients' exposure to chemicals might

  5. City-Level Adult Stroke Prevalence in Relation to Remote Sensing Derived PM2.5 Adjusting for Unhealthy Behaviors and Medical Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Z.

    2018-04-01

    This research explores the use of PM2.5 gird derived from remote sensing for assessing the effect of long-term exposure to PM2.5 (ambient air pollution of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm or less) on stroke, adjusting for unhealthy behaviors and medical risk factors. Health data was obtained from the newly published CDC "500 Cities Project" which provides city- and census tract-level small area estimates for chronic disease risk factors, and clinical preventive service use for the largest 500 cities in the United States. PM2.5 data was acquired from the "The Global Annual PM2.5 Grids from MODIS, MISR and SeaWiFS Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD), V1 (1998-2012)" datasets. Average PM2.5 were calculated for each city using a GIS zonal statistics function. Map data visualization and pattern comparison, univariate linear regression, and a multivariate linear regression model fitted using a generalized linear model via penalized maximum likelihood found that long-term exposure to ambient PM2.5 may increase the risk of stroke. Increasing physical activity, reducing smoking and body weight, enough sleeping, controlling diseases such as blood pressure, coronary heart disease, diabetes, and cholesterol, may mitigate the effect. PM2.5 grids derived from moderate resolution satellite remote sensing imagery may offer a unique opportunity to fill the data gap due to limited ground monitoring at broader scales. The evidence of raised stroke prevalence risk in high PM2.5 areas would support targeting of policy interventions on such areas to reduce pollution levels and protect human health.

  6. CITY-LEVEL ADULT STROKE PREVALENCE IN RELATION TO REMOTE SENSING DERIVED PM2.5 ADJUSTING FOR UNHEALTHY BEHAVIORS AND MEDICAL RISK FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Hu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This research explores the use of PM2.5 gird derived from remote sensing for assessing the effect of long-term exposure to PM2.5 (ambient air pollution of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm or less on stroke, adjusting for unhealthy behaviors and medical risk factors. Health data was obtained from the newly published CDC “500 Cities Project” which provides city- and census tract-level small area estimates for chronic disease risk factors, and clinical preventive service use for the largest 500 cities in the United States. PM2.5 data was acquired from the “The Global Annual PM2.5 Grids from MODIS, MISR and SeaWiFS Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD, V1 (1998–2012” datasets. Average PM2.5 were calculated for each city using a GIS zonal statistics function. Map data visualization and pattern comparison, univariate linear regression, and a multivariate linear regression model fitted using a generalized linear model via penalized maximum likelihood found that long-term exposure to ambient PM2.5 may increase the risk of stroke. Increasing physical activity, reducing smoking and body weight, enough sleeping, controlling diseases such as blood pressure, coronary heart disease, diabetes, and cholesterol, may mitigate the effect. PM2.5 grids derived from moderate resolution satellite remote sensing imagery may offer a unique opportunity to fill the data gap due to limited ground monitoring at broader scales. The evidence of raised stroke prevalence risk in high PM2.5 areas would support targeting of policy interventions on such areas to reduce pollution levels and protect human health.

  7. MEDEX2015: Greater Sea-Level Fitness Is Associated with Lower Sense of Effort During Himalayan Trekking Without Worse Acute Mountain Sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Gabriella M K; Macdonald, Jamie H; Smith, Matthew; Jackson, Anna R; Callender, Nigel; Newcombe, Hannah K; Storey, Heather M; Willis, Sebastian; van den Beukel, Jojanneke; Woodward, Jonathan; Pollard, James; Wood, Benjamin; Newton, Victoria; Virian, Jana; Haswell, Owen; Oliver, Samuel J

    2017-06-01

    Rossetti, Gabriella M.K., Jamie H. Macdonald, Matthew Smith, Anna R. Jackson, Nigel Callender, Hannah K. Newcombe, Heather M. Storey, Sebastian Willis, Jojanneke van den Beukel, Jonathan Woodward, James Pollard, Benjamin Wood, Victoria Newton, Jana Virian, Owen Haswell, and Samuel J. Oliver. MEDEX2015: Greater sea-level fitness is associated with lower sense of effort during Himalayan trekking without worse acute mountain sickness. High Alt Med Biol. 18:152-162, 2017.-This study examined the complex relationships of fitness and hypoxic sensitivity with submaximal exercise responses and acute mountain sickness (AMS) at altitude. Determining these relationships is necessary before fitness or hypoxic sensitivity tests can be recommended to appraise individuals' readiness for altitude. Forty-four trekkers (26 men; 18 women; 20-67 years) completed a loaded walking test and a fitness questionnaire in normoxia to measure and estimate sea-level maximal aerobic capacity (maximum oxygen consumption [[Formula: see text]O 2max ]), respectively. Participants also completed a hypoxic exercise test to determine hypoxic sensitivity (cardiac, ventilatory, and arterial oxygen saturation responses to acute hypoxia, fraction of inspired oxygen [Fio 2 ] = 0.112). One month later, all participants completed a 3-week trek to 5085 m with the same ascent profile. On ascent to 5085 m, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE ascent ), fatigue by Brunel Mood Scale, and AMS were recorded daily. At 5085 m, RPE during a fixed workload step test (RPE fixed ) and step rate during perceptually regulated exercise (STEP RPE35 ) were recorded. Greater sea-level [Formula: see text]O 2max was associated with, and predicted, lower sense of effort (RPE ascent ; r = -0.43; p sea-level fitness reported less effort during simulated and actual trekking activities, had better mood (less fatigue), and chose a higher step rate during perceptually regulated exercise, but did not suffer from worse AMS

  8. Assessment of Coastal Vulnerability to Sea Level Rise of Bolinao, Pangasinan Using Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, S. R. C.; Blanco, A. C.

    2012-07-01

    A number of studies assessing the vulnerability of Southeast Asia to climate change have classified the Philippines as one of the vulnerable countries in the region. Bolinao, Pangasinan is a municipality located in northwestern Luzon, situated in the western part of the Lingayen Gulf and is bounded on the north and west by the South China Sea (West Philippine Sea). Recent studies have verified the varying trends in sea level across the South China Sea, which is considered as one of the largest, semi-enclosed marginal seas in the northwest Pacific Ocean. Three barangays (villages) were included in the study: (1) Luciente 1.0, (2) Concordia and (3) Germinal. The Socioeconomic Vulnerability Index (SVI) was computed based on population, age, gender, employment, source of income and household size, which were gathered through a qualitative survey in the selected barangays. The Coastal Vulnerability Index (CVI) described the physical vulnerability of these coastal communities based on recorded sea level anomalies and significant wave heights of multiple satellite altimetry missions, coastal topography derived from the 25-m SRTM digital elevation model (DEM), bathymetry from WorldView-2 and additional elevation data from terrestrial laser scanning surveys. The research utilized merged satellite altimetry data downloaded from the Radar Altimetry Database System (RADS), which covered the period from 1991-2010. The SVI and CVI were calculated and evaluated in ArcGIS. The SVI and CVI were integrated to determine the Total Vulnerability Index (TVI), which characterized the vulnerability of the three barangays in five classes, from very low to very high vulnerability.

  9. ASSESSMENT OF COASTAL VULNERABILITY TO SEA LEVEL RISE OF BOLINAO, PANGASINAN USING REMOTE SENSING AND GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. C. Reyes

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A number of studies assessing the vulnerability of Southeast Asia to climate change have classified the Philippines as one of the vulnerable countries in the region. Bolinao, Pangasinan is a municipality located in northwestern Luzon, situated in the western part of the Lingayen Gulf and is bounded on the north and west by the South China Sea (West Philippine Sea. Recent studies have verified the varying trends in sea level across the South China Sea, which is considered as one of the largest, semi-enclosed marginal seas in the northwest Pacific Ocean. Three barangays (villages were included in the study: (1 Luciente 1.0, (2 Concordia and (3 Germinal. The Socioeconomic Vulnerability Index (SVI was computed based on population, age, gender, employment, source of income and household size, which were gathered through a qualitative survey in the selected barangays. The Coastal Vulnerability Index (CVI described the physical vulnerability of these coastal communities based on recorded sea level anomalies and significant wave heights of multiple satellite altimetry missions, coastal topography derived from the 25-m SRTM digital elevation model (DEM, bathymetry from WorldView-2 and additional elevation data from terrestrial laser scanning surveys. The research utilized merged satellite altimetry data downloaded from the Radar Altimetry Database System (RADS, which covered the period from 1991–2010. The SVI and CVI were calculated and evaluated in ArcGIS. The SVI and CVI were integrated to determine the Total Vulnerability Index (TVI, which characterized the vulnerability of the three barangays in five classes, from very low to very high vulnerability.

  10. Mapping Urban Land Use at Street Block Level Using OpenStreetMap, Remote Sensing Data, and Spatial Metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taïs Grippa

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Up-to-date and reliable land-use information is essential for a variety of applications such as planning or monitoring of the urban environment. This research presents a workflow for mapping urban land use at the street block level, with a focus on residential use, using very-high resolution satellite imagery and derived land-cover maps as input. We develop a processing chain for the automated creation of street block polygons from OpenStreetMap and ancillary data. Spatial metrics and other street block features are computed, followed by feature selection that reduces the initial datasets by more than 80%, providing a parsimonious, discriminative, and redundancy-free set of features. A random forest (RF classifier is used for the classification of street blocks, which results in accuracies of 84% and 79% for five and six land-use classes, respectively. We exploit the probabilistic output of RF to identify and relabel blocks that have a high degree of uncertainty. Finally, the thematic precision of the residential blocks is refined according to the proportion of the built-up area. The output data and processing chains are made freely available. The proposed framework is able to process large datasets, given that the cities in the case studies, Dakar and Ouagadougou, cover more than 1000 km2 in total, with a spatial resolution of 0.5 m.

  11. Remote Sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Khorram, Siamak; Koch, Frank H; van der Wiele, Cynthia F

    2012-01-01

    Remote Sensing provides information on how remote sensing relates to the natural resources inventory, management, and monitoring, as well as environmental concerns. It explains the role of this new technology in current global challenges. "Remote Sensing" will discuss remotely sensed data application payloads and platforms, along with the methodologies involving image processing techniques as applied to remotely sensed data. This title provides information on image classification techniques and image registration, data integration, and data fusion techniques. How this technology applies to natural resources and environmental concerns will also be discussed.

  12. Spectroscopic remote sensing of plant stress at leaf and canopy levels using the chlorophyll 680 nm absorption feature with continuum removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanches, Ieda Del´Arco; Souza Filho, Carlos Roberto de; Kokaly, Raymond F.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the use of spectral feature analysis to detect plant stress in visible/near infrared wavelengths. A time series of close range leaf and canopy reflectance data of two plant species grown in hydrocarbon-contaminated soil was acquired with a portable spectrometer. The ProSpecTIR-VS airborne imaging spectrometer was used to obtain far range hyperspectral remote sensing data over the field experiment. Parameters describing the chlorophyll 680 nm absorption feature (depth, width, and area) were derived using continuum removal applied to the spectra. A new index, the Plant Stress Detection Index (PSDI), was calculated using continuum-removed values near the chlorophyll feature centre (680 nm) and on the green-edge (560 and 575 nm). Chlorophyll feature’s depth, width and area, the PSDI and a narrow-band normalised difference vegetation index were evaluated for their ability to detect stressed plants. The objective was to analyse how the parameters/indices were affected by increasing degrees of plant stress and to examine their utility as plant stress indicators at the remote sensing level (e.g. airborne sensor). For leaf data, PSDI and the chlorophyll feature area revealed the highest percentage (67–70%) of stressed plants. The PSDI also proved to be the best constraint for detecting the stress in hydrocarbon-impacted plants with field canopy spectra and airborne imaging spectroscopy data. This was particularly true using thresholds based on the ASD canopy data and considering the combination of higher percentage of stressed plants detected (across the thresholds) and fewer false-positives.

  13. Glucose Sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Geddes, Chris D

    2006-01-01

    Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy, Glucose Sensing is the eleventh volume in the popular series Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy, edited by Drs. Chris D. Geddes and Joseph R. Lakowicz. This volume incorporates authoritative analytical fluorescence-based glucose sensing reviews specialized enough to be attractive to professional researchers, yet also appealing to the wider audience of scientists in related disciplines of fluorescence. Glucose Sensing is an essential reference for any lab working in the analytical fluorescence glucose sensing field. All academics, bench scientists, and industry professionals wishing to take advantage of the latest and greatest in the continuously emerging field of glucose sensing, and diabetes care & management, will find this volume an invaluable resource. Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy Volume 11, Glucose Sensing Chapters include: Implantable Sensors for Interstitial Fluid Smart Tattoo Glucose Sensors Optical Enzyme-based Glucose Biosensors Plasmonic Glucose Sens...

  14. Make Sense?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyrd-Jones, Richard; Törmälä, Minna

    Purpose: An important part of how we sense a brand is how we make sense of a brand. Sense-making is naturally strongly connected to how we cognize about the brand. But sense-making is concerned with multiple forms of knowledge that arise from our interpretation of the brand-related stimuli......: Declarative, episodic, procedural and sensory. Knowledge is given meaning through mental association (Keller, 1993) and / or symbolic interaction (Blumer, 1969). These meanings are centrally related to individuals’ sense of identity or “identity needs” (Wallpach & Woodside, 2009). The way individuals make...... sense of brands is related to who people think they are in their context and this shapes what they enact and how they interpret the brand (Currie & Brown, 2003; Weick, Sutcliffe, & Obstfeld, 2005; Weick, 1993). Our subject of interest in this paper is how stakeholders interpret and ascribe meaning...

  15. Show-Bix &

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The anti-reenactment 'Show-Bix &' consists of 5 dias projectors, a dial phone, quintophonic sound, and interactive elements. A responsive interface will enable the Dias projectors to show copies of original dias slides from the Show-Bix piece ”March på Stedet”, 265 images in total. The copies are...

  16. A dual-reservoir remote loading water target system for 18F and 13N production with direct in-target liquid level sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrieri, R.A.; Alexoff, D.L.; Schlyer, D.J.; Wolf, A.P.

    1991-01-01

    This report describes our universal water target loading system that serves both [ 18 F] and [ 13 N] production targets, and a radionuclide delivery system that is specific for [ 18 F] fluoride. The system was designed and fabricated around the operation of a single pneumatic syringe dispenser that accesses one of two reservoirs filled with [ 18 O] enriched water for [ 18 F] fluoride production from the 18 O(p,n) 18 F reaction and natural abundance water for [ 13 N] nitrate/nitrite production from the 16 O(p,α) 13 N reaction and loads one of two targets depending on the radionuclide desired. The system offers several novel features for reliable radionuclide production. First, there exists an in-target probe for direct liquid level sensing using the conductivity response of water. In addition, transfer of [ 18 F] fluoride to the Hot Lab is completely decoupled from the irradiated water through the actions of a resin/recovery system which is located in the cyclotron vault, thus maintaining transfer line integrity. This feature also provides a mechanism for vault-containment of long-lived contaminants generated through target activation and leaching into the water

  17. Microelectromechanical acceleration-sensing apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Robb M [Albuquerque, NM; Shul, Randy J [Albuquerque, NM; Polosky, Marc A [Albuquerque, NM; Hoke, Darren A [Albuquerque, NM; Vernon, George E [Rio Rancho, NM

    2006-12-12

    An acceleration-sensing apparatus is disclosed which includes a moveable shuttle (i.e. a suspended mass) and a latch for capturing and holding the shuttle when an acceleration event is sensed above a predetermined threshold level. The acceleration-sensing apparatus provides a switch closure upon sensing the acceleration event and remains latched in place thereafter. Examples of the acceleration-sensing apparatus are provided which are responsive to an acceleration component in a single direction (i.e. a single-sided device) or to two oppositely-directed acceleration components (i.e. a dual-sided device). A two-stage acceleration-sensing apparatus is also disclosed which can sense two acceleration events separated in time. The acceleration-sensing apparatus of the present invention has applications, for example, in an automotive airbag deployment system.

  18. Mapping Of Leptospirosis Environmental Risk Factors and Determining the Level of Leptospirosis Vulnerable Zone In Demak District Using Remote Sensing Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahayu, Siti; Sakundarno Adi, Mateus; Saraswati, Lintang Dian

    2018-02-01

    Leptospirosis, a zoonotic disease, transmitted to human trough contact with contaminated animal urine and contaminated environment. Demak District is an endemic area where cases increased in the past 2 years. The aim of the study was to map environmental risk factor of Leptospirosis and to determine Leptospirosis vulnerable zone using cross-sectional study design. There were 42 cases mapped by GPS and overlaid using remote sensing (Quickbird image) by using ArcView program then interpreted by Spatial Feature and Spatial Analyses. Leptospirosis cases were spread out and grouped in Demak Sub District area. More cases were males (61.9%), 21-50 years old age group (59.3%) and farmers (40.4%). Spatial analyses showed that all the leptospirosis cases took place in the area with low plain profile (28.6%), tidal inundation's profile (7.1%), vegetation (59.5%). Leptospirosis high-risk zone was in 37,801.8 ha (41.32%), moderate risk zone was 43,570.23 ha (48.55%), and low-risk zone was 9,090.96 ha (10.13%). Densely populated housing, bad environment condition, and the presence of rat and puddles that were contaminated by rat's urine were risk factors of Leptospirosis cases in Demak District.

  19. Vehicle Detection and Classification Using Passive Infrared Sensing

    KAUST Repository

    Odat, Enas M.

    2015-10-19

    We propose a new sensing device that can simultaneously monitor urban traffic congestion and another phenomenon of interest (flash floods on the present case). This sensing device is based on the combination of an ultrasonic rangefinder with one or multiple remote temperature sensors. We show an implementation of this device, and illustrate its performance in both traffic flow sensing. Field data shows that the sensor can detect vehicles with a 99% accuracy, in addition to estimating their speed and classifying them in function of their length. The same sensor can also monitor urban water levels with an accuracy of less than 2 cm.

  20. The Impacts of Water Quality and Food Availability on Children's Health in West Africa: A Spatial Analysis Using Remotely Sensed Data and Small-Scale Water Quality Data and Country-level Health Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, L.; Grace, K.; Lloyd, B.

    2015-12-01

    As the global climate changes and the populations of many African countries grow, ensuring clean drinking water and food has become a pressing concern. Because of their vulnerability to malnutrition and food insecurity, children face the greatest risk for adverse health outcomes related to climate change. Vulnerability, however, is highly variable, with some children in food insecure communities showing healthy growth, while some children in food secure communities show signs of malnutrition. In West Africa, Burkina Faso faces high levels of child malnutrition, loses to farmland and a large share of the population have no access to clean water. Because the overwhelming majority of children rely on locally grown, rainfed agriculture and well/surface water, the combined impact of climate change and population growth decreases water availability and farmland per person. However, there is notable community and individual variation in malnutrition levels suggesting that there are important coping strategies that vulnerable families may use to secure their children's health. No spatially relevant analysis of water and food insecurity and children's health exists for Burkina Faso. The goal of this research is to identify and quantify the combined and inter-related impact of unsafe drinking water and community-level food availability on the physical health outcomes of Burkinabe children under five years of age. To accomplish this goal we rely on a publically available highly detailed, geo-referenced data set (Demographic and Health Survey (DHS)) to provide information on measures of childhood malnutrition and details on parental characteristics related to children's health. Information on water source (covered/uncovered well, piped water, etc.) and water quality (measures of arsenic and pollution) comes from DHS along with a recently collected geo-referenced US Agency for International Development (USAID) data set. Critical information on food production, environmental

  1. Talking with TV shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Laursen, Ditte

    2014-01-01

    User interaction with radio and television programmes is not a new thing. However, with new cross-media production concepts such as X Factor and Voice, this is changing dramatically. The second-screen logic of these productions encourages viewers, along with TV’s traditional one-way communication...... mode, to communicate on interactive (dialogue-enabling) devices such as laptops, smartphones and tablets. Using the TV show Voice as our example, this article shows how the technological and situational set-up of the production invites viewers to engage in new ways of interaction and communication...

  2. Sensing at the nanoscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna; Hierold, Christofer

    2013-11-01

    properties are an important indicator for sensing. In search of a better understanding of these systems Zhang et al from Southern Illinois University inspect the role of Joule heating, exothermal reactions and heat dissipation in gas sensing using nanowires [7]. The mechanisms behind electrical chemical sensors are also further scrutinized in a kinetics study by Joan Ramon Morante from the University of Barcelona in Spain. 'In spite of the growing commercial success many basic issues remain still open and under discussion limiting the broad use of this technology,' he explains. He discusses surface chemical reaction kinetics and the experimental results for different representative gas molecules to gain an insight into the chemical to electrical transduction mechanisms taking place [8]. Perhaps one of the most persistent targets in sensing research is increasing the sensitivity. Gauging environmental health issues around the commercial use of nanomaterials places high demands on low-level detection and spurred a collaboration of researchers in the UK, Croatia and Canada to look into the use of particle-impact voltammetry for detecting nanoparticles in environmental media [9]. At the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign in the US, researchers have applied wave transform analysis techniques to the oscillations of an atomic force microscopy cantilever and tailored a time-frequency-domain filter to identify the region of highest vibrational energy [10]. The approach allows them to improve the signal to noise ratio by a factor 32 on current high-performance devices. In addition, researchers in Korea report how doping NiO nanofibres can improve the sensitivity to a number of gases, including ethanol, where the response was enhanced by as much as a factor of 217.86 [11]. Biomedicine is one of the largest industries for the application of nanotechnology in sensing. Demonstrating the state of the art, researchers in China use silicon wafers decorated with gold nanoparticles for

  3. Talk Show Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Mitzi Ruth

    1992-01-01

    Proposes having students perform skits in which they play the roles of the science concepts they are trying to understand. Provides the dialog for a skit in which hot and cold gas molecules are interviewed on a talk show to study how these properties affect wind, rain, and other weather phenomena. (MDH)

  4. Obesity in show cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbee, R J

    2014-12-01

    Obesity is an important disease with a high prevalence in cats. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain cat breeds has been suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, 268 cats of 22 different breeds investigated by determining their body condition score (BCS) on a nine-point scale by inspection and palpation, at two different cat shows. Overall, 45.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 5, and 4.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be related to the breed standards. Most overweight and obese cats were in the neutered group. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and cat show judges to come to different interpretations of the standards in order to prevent overweight conditions in certain breeds from being the standard of beauty. Neutering predisposes for obesity and requires early nutritional intervention to prevent obese conditions. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  6. The energy show

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Energy Show is a new look at the problems of world energy, where our supplies come from, now and in the future. The programme looks at how we need energy to maintain our standards of living. Energy supply is shown as the complicated set of problems it is - that Fossil Fuels are both raw materials and energy sources, that some 'alternatives' so readily suggested as practical options are in reality a long way from being effective. (author)

  7. CERN on show

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Last week I was in Ankara to discuss Turkish accession to CERN, and to take part in the opening of CERN’s main travelling exhibition at the Middle East Technical University. I was astonished at the crowds of people the exhibition drew in, and I’m told that it’s a similar story wherever it goes. Our smaller exhibition stands are also much in demand across our Member States.   You don’t have to travel to Ankara, however, to experience the same phenomenon – just go to Building 33 any time from Monday to Saturday and you’ll get the idea. But although we’ve worked hard over recent years to increase our capacity for visits to a level approaching 80,000 per year, there’s still a long waiting list. And that’s a problem. The success of the Visits Service rests on the goodwill of all the CERNois who volunteer to be guides, as well as those who graciously allow increasing numbers of visitors into their workplaces...

  8. Use of Openly Available Satellite Images for Remote Sensing Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C.-K.

    2011-09-01

    With the advent of Google Earth, Google Maps, and Microsoft Bing Maps, high resolution satellite imagery are becoming more easily accessible than ever. It have been the case that the college students may already have wealth experiences with the high resolution satellite imagery by using these software and web services prior to any formal remote sensing education. It is obvious that the remote sensing education should be adjusted to the fact that the audience are already the customers of remote sensing products (through the use of the above mentioned services). This paper reports the use of openly available satellite imagery in an introductory-level remote sensing course in the Department of Geomatics of National Cheng Kung University as a term project. From the experience learned from the fall of 2009 and 2010, it shows that this term project has effectively aroused the students' enthusiastic toward Remote Sensing.

  9. Showing Value (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available When Su Cleyle and I first decided to start Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, one of the things we agreed upon immediately was that the journal be open access. We knew that a major obstacle to librarians using the research literature was that they did not have access to the research literature. Although Su and I are both academic librarians who can access a wide variety of library and information literature from our institutions, we belong to a profession where not everyone has equal access to the research in our field. Without such access to our own body of literature, how can we ever hope for practitioners to use research evidence in their decision making? It would have been contradictory to the principles of evidence based library and information practice to do otherwise.One of the specific groups we thought could use such an open access venue for discovering research literature was school librarians. School librarians are often isolated and lacking access to the research literature that may help them prove to stakeholders the importance of their libraries and their role within schools. Certainly, school libraries have been in decline and the use of evidence to show value is needed. As Ken Haycock noted in his 2003 report, The Crisis in Canada’s School Libraries: The Case for Reform and Reinvestment, “Across the country, teacher-librarians are losing their jobs or being reassigned. Collections are becoming depleted owing to budget cuts. Some principals believe that in the age of the Internet and the classroom workstation, the school library is an artifact” (9. Within this context, school librarians are looking to our research literature for evidence of the impact that school library programs have on learning outcomes and student success. They are integrating that evidence into their practice, and reflecting upon what can be improved locally. They are focusing on students and showing the impact of school libraries and

  10. CpG island methylator phenotype-low (CIMP-low) colorectal cancer shows not only few methylated CIMP-high-specific CpG islands, but also low-level methylation at individual loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Takako; Ohnishi, Mutsuko; Nosho, Katsuhiko; Suemoto, Yuko; Kirkner, Gregory J; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A; Fuchs, Charles S; Ogino, Shuji

    2008-03-01

    The CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP or CIMP-high) with widespread promoter methylation is a distinct phenotype in colorectal cancer. However, the concept of CIMP-low with less extensive CpG island methylation is still evolving. Our aim is to examine whether density of methylation in individual CpG islands was different between CIMP-low and CIMP-high tumors. Utilizing MethyLight technology and 889 population-based colorectal cancers, we quantified DNA methylation (methylation index, percentage of methylated reference) at 14 CpG islands, including 8 CIMP-high-specific loci (CACNA1G, CDKN2A (p16), CRABP1, IGF2, MLH1, NEUROG1, RUNX3 and SOCS1). Methylation positivity in each locus was defined as methylation index>4. Low-level methylation (methylation index>0, CIMP-high-specific locus was significantly more common in 340 CIMP-low tumors (1/8-5/8 methylation-positive loci) than 133 CIMP-high tumors (> or =6/8 methylation-positive loci) and 416 CIMP-0 tumors (0/8 methylation-positive loci) (PCIMP-high, low-level methylation, was not persistently more prevalent in CIMP-low tumors. In conclusion, compared to CIMP-high and CIMP-0 tumors, CIMP-low colorectal cancers show not only few methylated CIMP-high-specific CpG islands, but also more frequent low-level methylation at individual loci. Our data may provide supporting evidence for a difference in pathogenesis of DNA methylation between CIMP-low and CIMP-high tumors.

  11. Atmospheric Corrections and Multi-Conditional Algorithm for Multi-Sensor Remote Sensing of Suspended Particulate Matter in Low-to-High Turbidity Levels Coastal Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéfani Novoa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The accurate measurement of suspended particulate matter (SPM concentrations in coastal waters is of crucial importance for ecosystem studies, sediment transport monitoring, and assessment of anthropogenic impacts in the coastal ocean. Ocean color remote sensing is an efficient tool to monitor SPM spatio-temporal variability in coastal waters. However, near-shore satellite images are complex to correct for atmospheric effects due to the proximity of land and to the high level of reflectance caused by high SPM concentrations in the visible and near-infrared spectral regions. The water reflectance signal (ρw tends to saturate at short visible wavelengths when the SPM concentration increases. Using a comprehensive dataset of high-resolution satellite imagery and in situ SPM and water reflectance data, this study presents (i an assessment of existing atmospheric correction (AC algorithms developed for turbid coastal waters; and (ii a switching method that automatically selects the most sensitive SPM vs. ρw relationship, to avoid saturation effects when computing the SPM concentration. The approach is applied to satellite data acquired by three medium-high spatial resolution sensors (Landsat-8/Operational Land Imager, National Polar-Orbiting Partnership/Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite and Aqua/Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer to map the SPM concentration in some of the most turbid areas of the European coastal ocean, namely the Gironde and Loire estuaries as well as Bourgneuf Bay on the French Atlantic coast. For all three sensors, AC methods based on the use of short-wave infrared (SWIR spectral bands were tested, and the consistency of the retrieved water reflectance was examined along transects from low- to high-turbidity waters. For OLI data, we also compared a SWIR-based AC (ACOLITE with a method based on multi-temporal analyses of atmospheric constituents (MACCS. For the selected scenes, the ACOLITE-MACCS difference was

  12. Using multi-level remote sensing and ground data to estimate forest biomass resources in remote regions: a case study in the boreal forests of interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hans-Erik Andersen; Strunk Jacob; Hailemariam Temesgen; Donald Atwood; Ken Winterberger

    2012-01-01

    The emergence of a new generation of remote sensing and geopositioning technologies, as well as increased capabilities in image processing, computing, and inferential techniques, have enabled the development and implementation of increasingly efficient and cost-effective multilevel sampling designs for forest inventory. In this paper, we (i) describe the conceptual...

  13. Educational Outreach: The Space Science Road Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, N. L. J.

    2002-01-01

    The poster presented will give an overview of a study towards a "Space Road Show". The topic of this show is space science. The target group is adolescents, aged 12 to 15, at Dutch high schools. The show and its accompanying experiments would be supported with suitable educational material. Science teachers at schools can decide for themselves if they want to use this material in advance, afterwards or not at all. The aims of this outreach effort are: to motivate students for space science and engineering, to help them understand the importance of (space) research, to give them a positive feeling about the possibilities offered by space and in the process give them useful knowledge on space basics. The show revolves around three main themes: applications, science and society. First the students will get some historical background on the importance of space/astronomy to civilization. Secondly they will learn more about novel uses of space. On the one hand they will learn of "Views on Earth" involving technologies like Remote Sensing (or Spying), Communication, Broadcasting, GPS and Telemedicine. On the other hand they will experience "Views on Space" illustrated by past, present and future space research missions, like the space exploration missions (Cassini/Huygens, Mars Express and Rosetta) and the astronomy missions (Soho and XMM). Meanwhile, the students will learn more about the technology of launchers and satellites needed to accomplish these space missions. Throughout the show and especially towards the end attention will be paid to the third theme "Why go to space"? Other reasons for people to get into space will be explored. An important question in this is the commercial (manned) exploration of space. Thus, the questions of benefit of space to society are integrated in the entire show. It raises some fundamental questions about the effects of space travel on our environment, poverty and other moral issues. The show attempts to connect scientific with

  14. Nanoplasmonic and Microfluidic Devices for Biological Sensing

    KAUST Repository

    Perozziello, G.

    2017-02-16

    In this chapter we report about recent advances on the development and application of 2D and 3D plasmonic nanostructures used for sensing of biological samples by Raman spectroscopy at unprecedented resolution of analysis. Besides, we explain how the integration of these nanodevices in a microfluidic apparatus can simplify the analysis of biological samples. In the first part we introduce and motivate the convenience of using nanoplasmonic enhancers and Raman spectroscopy for biological sensing, describing the phenomena and the current approaches to fabricate nanoplasmonic structures. In the second part, we explain how specific multi-element devices produce the optimal enhancement of the Raman scattering. We report cases where biological sensing of DNA was performed at few molecules level with nanometer spatial resolutions. Finally, we show an example of microfluidic device integrating plasmonic nanodevices to sort and drive biological samples, like living cells, towards the optical probe in order to obtain optimal conditions of analysis.

  15. Nanoplasmonic and Microfluidic Devices for Biological Sensing

    KAUST Repository

    Perozziello, G.; Giugni, Andrea; Allione, Marco; Torre, Bruno; Das, Gobind; Coluccio, M. L.; Marini, Monica; Tirinato, Luca; Moretti, Manola; Limongi, Tania; Candeloro, P.; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter we report about recent advances on the development and application of 2D and 3D plasmonic nanostructures used for sensing of biological samples by Raman spectroscopy at unprecedented resolution of analysis. Besides, we explain how the integration of these nanodevices in a microfluidic apparatus can simplify the analysis of biological samples. In the first part we introduce and motivate the convenience of using nanoplasmonic enhancers and Raman spectroscopy for biological sensing, describing the phenomena and the current approaches to fabricate nanoplasmonic structures. In the second part, we explain how specific multi-element devices produce the optimal enhancement of the Raman scattering. We report cases where biological sensing of DNA was performed at few molecules level with nanometer spatial resolutions. Finally, we show an example of microfluidic device integrating plasmonic nanodevices to sort and drive biological samples, like living cells, towards the optical probe in order to obtain optimal conditions of analysis.

  16. Pervasive sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, David J.

    2000-11-01

    The coordinated exploitation of modern communication, micro- sensor and computer technologies makes it possible to give global reach to our senses. Web-cameras for vision, web- microphones for hearing and web-'noses' for smelling, plus the abilities to sense many factors we cannot ordinarily perceive, are either available or will be soon. Applications include (1) determination of weather and environmental conditions on dense grids or over large areas, (2) monitoring of energy usage in buildings, (3) sensing the condition of hardware in electrical power distribution and information systems, (4) improving process control and other manufacturing, (5) development of intelligent terrestrial, marine, aeronautical and space transportation systems, (6) managing the continuum of routine security monitoring, diverse crises and military actions, and (7) medicine, notably the monitoring of the physiology and living conditions of individuals. Some of the emerging capabilities, such as the ability to measure remotely the conditions inside of people in real time, raise interesting social concerns centered on privacy issues. Methods for sensor data fusion and designs for human-computer interfaces are both crucial for the full realization of the potential of pervasive sensing. Computer-generated virtual reality, augmented with real-time sensor data, should be an effective means for presenting information from distributed sensors.

  17. Management of the four waters at micro level by considering the social and economic backwardness for sustainable development using remote sensing & gis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perni, Venkateswarlu

    As we enter the third millennium, we are witnessing a gale of bewildering change and transformation. Communication is well on its way to becoming instant. Knowledge based processes and an electronic network blankets the globe. And yet, there are certain things that never change, like for instance, the basic needs, of which water is most important. While in the past wars were fought over territory, markets and access to resources, future wars in the new millennium are likely to be fought over access to water for domestic, agricultural and industrial purposes. Water that most abundant of natural resources, is also very scarce in its usable form in most places on earth. The critical challenge facing arid and semi-arid areas will be to provide enough water for domestic and sustainable agricultural purposes. Already 22 countries have renewable water resources of less than one thousand cubic meters per capita, dangerously little in years of rain scarcity. With ever increasing pressure of human population, there is severe stress on water resources. This dangerous situation can still be reversed through efficient rainwater harvesting and judicious utilization by the local community. And the best socio-physical unit for such resource management is the watershed. The present study deals with the application of Remote sensing and Geographical Information systems techniques for the generation of an alternative land use/land cover practice with due consideration to the social and economic backwardness of the different ethnic groups besides protecting the long term carrying capacity of the eco-system through the integrated micro-level management of the four waters concept. The Remote sensing data used is IRS-IC-LISS-III imagery and ERDAS / IMAGINE 8.3 GIS software. Landuse/Landcover, Hydro-geomorphology, Soil map etc are generated by interpreting the satellite data and with necessary ground check. The slope map and drainage maps are generated with the help of 1:50,000 scale

  18. Introduction to remote sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, James B

    2012-01-01

    A leading text for undergraduate- and graduate-level courses, this book introduces widely used forms of remote sensing imagery and their applications in plant sciences, hydrology, earth sciences, and land use analysis. The text provides comprehensive coverage of principal topics and serves as a framework for organizing the vast amount of remote sensing information available on the Web. Including case studies and review questions, the book's four sections and 21 chapters are carefully designed as independent units that instructors can select from as needed for their courses. Illustrations in

  19. Measurement of serum isoform [-2]proPSA derivatives shows superior accuracy to magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of prostate cancer in patients with a total prostate-specific antigen level of 2-10 ng/ml.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, Kazuhiro; Kawahara, Takashi; Narahara, Masaki; Tokita, Takashi; Fukui, Sachi; Imano, Masashi; Mitome, Taku; Ito, Yusuke; Izumi, Koji; Osaka, Kimito; Yokomizo, Yumiko; Hayashi, Narihiko; Hasumi, Hisashi; Nawata, Shintaro; Kawano, Tsuyoshi; Yao, Masahiro; Uemura, Hiroji

    2017-08-01

    More accurate diagnostic procedures for prostate cancer are needed to avoid unnecessary biopsy due to the low specificity of prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Recent studies showed that the percentage of serum isoform [-2]proPSA (p2PSA) to free PSA (%p2PSA), the Prostate Health Index (PHI) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were more accurate than PSA. The aim of this study was to test the accuracy of %p2PSA, PHI and MRI in discriminating patients with and without prostate cancer. The subjects were 50 consecutive men with a PSA level of 2.0-10.0 ng/ml, who underwent prostate biopsy from October 2012 to July 2014. These patients underwent multiparametric MRI before biopsy, and their serum samples were measured for PSA, free PSA and p2PSA. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of PHI, %p2PSA and MRI were compared with PSA in the diagnosis of biopsy-confirmed prostate cancer. In a univariate analysis, %p2PSA [area under the curve (AUC): 0.811] and PHI (AUC 0.795) were more accurate than MRI (AUC: 0.583) and PSA (AUC: 0.554) for prostate cancer detection. At 60% sensitivity, the specificity of PHI (76.5%) was higher than that of MRI (52.9%). For significant cancer detection, %p2PSA (AUC: 0.745), PHI (AUC: 0.791) and MRI (AUC: 0.739) were marginally more accurate than PSA (AUC: 0.696). At 85% sensitivity, the specificity of MRI (62.1%) was higher than that of PHI (34.5%). PHI and %p2PSA can be used for screening the general population and MRI can be used for detection of significant cancer in patients suspected, from screening tests, of having prostate cancer.

  20. Leukaemia incidence in Welsh children linked with low level radiation-making sense of some erroneous results published in the media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steward, John A; White, Ceri; Reynolds, Shelagh

    2008-01-01

    A series of self-published epidemiological reports purporting to show a major excess risk of leukaemia in pre-school children living near the Irish Sea coast of Wales have been presented in the media as evidence of the harmful effects of low level radiation arising from Sellafield. The Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit (WCISU), the body responsible for population-based cancer information in Wales, can provide insights into the validity of these reports, which appear to be a consequence of various mistakes. This raises important questions about the research governance of such reports and the communication of scientific findings via the mass media. Without suitable safeguards the media are in danger of promulgating misinformation

  1. Reports in the area sensor technology: Part 2: Dynamic deviations which may appear via the sensing lines in measurement of reactor pressure and level; Rapporter inom omraadet sensorteknik, Del 2: Dynamiska avvikelser som kan uppstaa via impulsledningarna vid maetning av reaktortryck och nivaa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergdahl, Bengt-Goeran [GSE Power Systems AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2002-12-01

    needles the demand on the response time was fulfilled. The report presents how blocking of the sensing lines can be supervised. Examples are given from the Muehleberg NPP (KKM). Examples are shown with a flow measurement transmitter, which has pulsation dampers. For this presentation, results with GSE's database for sensor tests, SensBase, are used. SensBase stores new results every year. In this way, the influence of component ageing can also be detected. Because of the use of SensBase, the Swiss nuclear power inspectorate has approved less frequent calibration of the transmitters. The report also presents pressure oscillations that take place in the sensing line and not in the real measured process. The water in the sensing line together with the transmitter membrane form a dynamic system with water as mass, elasticity in the transmitter membrane as spring constant and reactor pressure fluctuations as driving force. The problem with oscillations in the measurement system is illustrated with examples from Ringhals 1 and KKM. Another example from KKM shows how the oscillation in a level transmitter of the type Barton Cell affected a large number of transmitters, which were all connected to the common sensing lines. It was possible to identify the deviating transmitter by experiments with isolation valve closures in the sensing lines during power operation. After the transmitter had been changed to one with a smaller volume and smaller displacement, the oscillations disappeared. Finally, the report also shows that mechanical vibrations in the sensing lines contribute to the signal noise around 10 Hz. This is shown by means of laboratory tests at KKM. At this plant, transmitters have also been replaced because of deviating noise in the frequency interval 2-20 Hz. After the transmitter had been replaced, the noise disappeared. The results from KKM show that it can never be excluded that ageing may increase the transmitter's sensitivity to vibrations of the sensing

  2. Gamification for Word Sense Labeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venhuizen, Noortje; Basile, Valerio; Evang, Kilian; Bos, Johan; Erk, Kartin; Koller, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Obtaining gold standard data for word sense disambiguation is important but costly. We show how it can be done using a “Game with a Purpose” (GWAP) called Wordrobe. This game consists of a large set of multiple-choice questions on word senses generated from the Groningen Meaning Bank. The players

  3. Remote RemoteRemoteRemote sensing potential for sensing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Remote RemoteRemoteRemote sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing p. A Ngie, F Ahmed, K Abutaleb ...

  4. Pico-level DNA sensing by hetero-polymetalate, Na10{Dy2W10O30(µ-S)6}·80H2O, cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Taposhree; Ganguly, Jhuma; Sarkar, Sabyasachi

    2018-04-01

    The polyoxometalate dysprosium cluster, (Dy-S-W POM) , Na10[Dy2W10O30(µ-S)6]·80H2O, shows remarkable dsDNA denaturation property. In the presence of 0.22 µmol of this Dy-S-W POM, the melting temperature (Tm) of calf-thymus (CT) dsDNA is decreased to 62.35 °C. Dy-S-W POM shows bleaching of methylene blue (MB). Addition of CT-DNA in the MB bleached solution of Dy-S-W POM apparently intercalates MB. Such trapped MB by CT-DNA responds to its re-oxidation by elemental sulfur formed in the bleaching process involving Dy-S-W POM. This reduction-oxidation property of MB with Dy-S-W POM led to the detection of pico (13.20 pmol) level of DNA even by naked eye, which will be helpful for rapid trace DNA detection in forensic science and DNA-related diagnostics, complimenting time-consuming sophisticated methodology.

  5. Crianças com dificuldades motoras apresentam baixos níveis de aptidão física? Do children with motor difficulties show low levels of physical fitness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Morais de Almeida Santos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo tem como objetivo analisar se crianças com dificuldades motoras apresentariam baixos níveis de aptidão física relacionada à saúde em relação aos seus pares sem dificuldades. Dezesseis crianças com dificuldades motoras com aproximadamente oito anos foram pareadas em gênero e idade com outras 16 sem dificuldades motoras. Os participantes completaram os testes de aptidão física (sentar e alcançar, salto em distância parado, puxada em suspensão na barra modificado, abdominal e corrida de 9 minutos e os de coordenação motora (MABC-2. Os resultados indicaram diferenças significativas no salto em distância parado, puxada em suspensão na barra modificado, abdominal, mas não para sentar e alcançar e corrida de 9-m. Os resultados são semelhantes aos publicados na literatura internacional, com exceção da corrida de 9 minutos. A ideia de que em algum grau a coordenação é necessária para executar tarefas de aptidão física e pode impactar no desempenho da aptidão física é discutida no presente trabalho.The aim of the present study was to examine whether children with motor difficulties would show levels of health-related components of physical fitness lower than children without such difficulties. Sixteen children with motor difficulties with approximately 8 years of age were age-and gender-matched with other 16 children without motor difficulties. Participants completed the test batteries for physical fitness (seat and reach, standing long jump, sit-up, modified pull-up and 9-minute run and for motor coordination (MABC-2. The results indicated significant differences in standing long jump, sit-up, modified pull-up tests, but not for the seat and reach and the 9-minute run tests. Overall, the results are similar to those published in the international literature, with the exception of cardiorespiratory fitness. The idea that at to some degree coordination is required to perform physical fitness tasks and

  6. HORIZON SENSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry G. Stolarczyk

    2003-03-18

    With the aid of a DOE grant (No. DE-FC26-01NT41050), Stolar Research Corporation (Stolar) developed the Horizon Sensor (HS) to distinguish between the different layers of a coal seam. Mounted on mining machine cutter drums, HS units can detect or sense the horizon between the coal seam and the roof and floor rock, providing the opportunity to accurately mine the section of the seam most desired. HS also enables accurate cutting of minimum height if that is the operator's objective. Often when cutting is done out-of-seam, the head-positioning function facilitates a fixed mining height to minimize dilution. With this technology, miners can still be at a remote location, yet cut only the clean coal, resulting in a much more efficient overall process. The objectives of this project were to demonstrate the feasibility of horizon sensing on mining machines and demonstrate that Horizon Sensing can allow coal to be cut cleaner and more efficiently. Stolar's primary goal was to develop the Horizon Sensor (HS) into an enabling technology for full or partial automation or ''agile mining''. This technical innovation (R&D 100 Award Winner) is quickly demonstrating improvements in productivity and miner safety at several prominent coal mines in the United States. In addition, the HS system can enable the cutting of cleaner coal. Stolar has driven the HS program on the philosophy that cutting cleaner coal means burning cleaner coal. The sensor, located inches from the cutting bits, is based upon the physics principles of a Resonant Microstrip Patch Antenna (RMPA). When it is in proximity of the rock-coal interface, the RMPA impedance varies depending on the thickness of uncut coal. The impedance is measured by the computer-controlled electronics and then sent by radio waves to the mining machine. The worker at the machine can read the data via a Graphical User Interface, displaying a color-coded image of the coal being cut, and direct the machine

  7. Proposal and Implementation of a Robust Sensing Method for DVB-T Signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chunyi; Rahman, Mohammad Azizur; Harada, Hiroshi

    This paper proposes a sensing method for TV signals of DVB-T standard to realize effective TV White Space (TVWS) Communication. In the TVWS technology trial organized by the Infocomm Development Authority (iDA) of Singapore, with regard to the sensing level and sensing time, detecting DVB-T signal at the level of -120dBm over an 8MHz channel with a sensing time below 1 second is required. To fulfill such a strict sensing requirement, we propose a smart sensing method which combines feature detection and energy detection (CFED), and is also characterized by using dynamic threshold selection (DTS) based on a threshold table to improve sensing robustness to noise uncertainty. The DTS based CFED (DTS-CFED) is evaluated by computer simulations and is also implemented into a hardware sensing prototype. The results show that the DTS-CFED achieves a detection probability above 0.9 for a target false alarm probability of 0.1 for DVB-T signals at the level of -120dBm over an 8MHz channel with the sensing time equals to 0.1 second.

  8. Development and testing of a rural credit supervision system at the level of counties and rural properties utilizing remote sensing techniqes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, G. T. (Principal Investigator); Delima, A. M.; Tardin, A. T.; Rudorff, B. F. T.; Mendonca, F. J.; Dosanjosferreirapinto, S.; Chen, S. C.; Duarte, V.

    1984-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques for supporting the rural credit supervision system were developed and tested. The test area comprised the counties of Aracatuba and Guararapes, located in the State of Sao Paulo. Aerial photography, LANDSAT images and topographic charts were used. Aerial photographs were extremely useful for the out lining of properties boundaries with financing of sugarcane plantations by the Banco do Brasil S.A.. The percentage of correctly interpreted sugarcane on LANDSAT images, considering the 85 analyzed properties, was of 63.12%. The occurrence of atypical conditions such as excessive raining, sugarcane in bloom, and wind damaged sugarcane and sugarcane not harvested due to planning failures verified during the period the images were obtained, were some of the contributing factors associated with a low interpretation performance. An alternative approach was developed using several LANDSAT overpasses and auxiliary field data, which resulted in 91.77 percent correct.

  9. A Gloss Composition and Context Clustering Based Distributed Word Sense Representation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Chen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in learning a distributed representation of word sense. Traditional context clustering based models usually require careful tuning of model parameters, and typically perform worse on infrequent word senses. This paper presents a novel approach which addresses these limitations by first initializing the word sense embeddings through learning sentence-level embeddings from WordNet glosses using a convolutional neural networks. The initialized word sense embeddings are used by a context clustering based model to generate the distributed representations of word senses. Our learned representations outperform the publicly available embeddings on half of the metrics in the word similarity task, 6 out of 13 sub tasks in the analogical reasoning task, and gives the best overall accuracy in the word sense effect classification task, which shows the effectiveness of our proposed distributed distribution learning model.

  10. The Strategies of Mathematics Teachers When Solving Number Sense Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sare Şengül

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Number sense involves efficient strategies and the ability to think flexibly with numbers and number operations and flexible thinking ability and the inclination getting for making sound mathematical judgements. The aim of this study was to investigate the strategies used by mathematics teachers while solving number sense problems. Eleven mathematics teachers from a graduate program in education were the participants. A number sense test which has a total of 12 problems is used as the data gathering tool. Teachers’ responses and strategies were analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively.First, participants’ responses were evaluated for correctness. Then the strategies teachers used were analyzed. The strategies were categorized as based on the use of number sense or rule based strategies. When the correct and incorrect responses were considered together, in the 46% of the responses number sense strategies were used and in 54% the rule-based strategies were used. The results of this study showed that even though teachers can use number sense strategies at some level, there is still room for development in teachers’ number sense.

  11. Plasmonic sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Klaus Bo

    2015-01-01

    Plasmonic sensors typically rely on detection of changes in the refractive index of the surrounding medium. Here, an alternative approach is reported based on electrical surface screening and controlled dissolution of ultrasmall silver nanoparticles (NPs; R ... in the plasmon band. This is demonstrated by using the strong nucleophiles, cyanide and cysteamine, as ligands. The “dissolution paths” in terms of peak wavelength and amplitude shifts differ significantly between different types of analytes, which are suggested as a means to obtain selectivity of the detection...... that cannot be obtained by traditional refractive index sensing, without the use of bioprobes. A simple modified Drude model is used to account for shifts in the plasmon band position due to electrical charging. Here, a screening parameter is introduced in the expression for the free electron density...

  12. Steroid hormones and peptide hormones in atopic eczema. Radioimmunological determination of diurnal plasma level variations of testosterone, cortisol, prolactin and human growth factor in healthy volunteers and patients showing atopic eczemae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bock, B.

    1986-01-01

    An analysis of hormone measurements in sera from healthy volunteers and patients that was carried out on the basis of different criteria yielded the following results: 1) The testosterone levels determined in the patients sera were significantly lower than those of the healthy individuals and the daily rhythmic variations seen here did not attain statistical significance. 2) There were no statistically relevant differences in the serum concentrations of cortisol between healthy individuals and patients, nor was the amplitude of the daily variations observed to be changed in a consistent way. 3) In the patients, as compared to the healthy individuals, the prolactin level was considerably increased, as was the amplitude of the daily rhythmic variations. 4) The values determined for the human growth hormone (HCG) varied considerably between the individuals of either group. Since this held true for both the fluctuations with time and the height of the serum concentrations, a statistical analysis of the results appeared pointless. The results confirm that central and autonomous components have an important role in ectopic eczemae. (TRV) [de

  13. Mobile Atmospheric Sensing using Vision Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Yuchun; Cui, Weihong; Rui, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Air quality monitoring, especially the atmospheric phenomenon of thick haze, has been an acute problem in most countries and a hot topic in the atmospheric sensing. Recently thick haze occurs more frequently in most cities of China due to the rapid growth of traffic, farming, wildfires, and industrial development. It forms a low-hanging shroud that impairs visibility and becomes a respiratory health threat. Traditionally the dust, smoke, and other particles in relatively dry sky are reported at fixed meteorological stations. The coverage of these sampling stations is limited and cannot accommodate with the emergent incidence of thick haze from industrial pollution. In addition, the visual effect of thick haze is not yet investigated in the current practice. Thick haze appears colorful veil (e.g., yellowish, brownish-grey, etc) in video log images and results in a loss of contrast in the subject due to the light scattering through haze particles. This paper proposes an intuitive and mobile atmospheric sensing using vision approach. Based on the video log images collected by a mobile sensing vehicle, a Haze Veil Index (HVI) is proposed to identify the type and severity level of thick haze from the color and texture perspective. HVI characterizes the overall veil effect of haze spatially. HVI first identifies the haze color from the color deviation histogram of the white-balanced hazy image. The white-balancing is conducted with the most haze-opaque pixels in the dark channel and seed growing strategy. Then pixel-wise haze severity level of atmospheric veil is inferred by approximating the upper veil limit with the dark color of each pixel in a hazy image. The proposed method is tested on a diverse set of actual hazy video log images under varying atmospheric conditions and backgrounds in Wuhan City, China. Experimental results show the proposed HVI is effective for visually atmospheric sensing. The proposed method is promising for haze monitoring and prediction in

  14. Scale issues in remote sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Weng, Qihao

    2014-01-01

    This book provides up-to-date developments, methods, and techniques in the field of GIS and remote sensing and features articles from internationally renowned authorities on three interrelated perspectives of scaling issues: scale in land surface properties, land surface patterns, and land surface processes. The book is ideal as a professional reference for practicing geographic information scientists and remote sensing engineers as well as a supplemental reading for graduate level students.

  15. An application of remote sensing data in mapping landscape-level forest biomass for monitoring the effectiveness of forest policies in northeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinchuang; Shao, Guofan; Chen, Hua; Lewis, Bernard J; Qi, Guang; Yu, Dapao; Zhou, Li; Dai, Limin

    2013-09-01

    Monitoring the dynamics of forest biomass at various spatial scales is important for better understanding the terrestrial carbon cycle as well as improving the effectiveness of forest policies and forest management activities. In this article, field data and Landsat image data acquired in 1999 and 2007 were utilized to quantify spatiotemporal changes of forest biomass for Dongsheng Forestry Farm in Changbai Mountain region of northeastern China. We found that Landsat TM band 4 and Difference Vegetation Index with a 3 × 3 window size were the best predictors associated with forest biomass estimations in the study area. The inverse regression model with Landsat TM band 4 predictor was found to be the best model. The total forest biomass in the study area decreased slightly from 2.77 × 10(6) Mg in 1999 to 2.73 × 10(6) Mg in 2007, which agreed closely with field-based model estimates. The area of forested land increased from 17.9 × 10(3) ha in 1999 to 18.1 × 10(3) ha in 2007. The stabilization of forest biomass and the slight increase of forested land occurred in the period following implementations of national forest policies in China in 1999. The pattern of changes in both forest biomass and biomass density was altered due to different management regimes adopted in light of those policies. This study reveals the usefulness of the remote sensing-based approach for detecting and monitoring quantitative changes in forest biomass at a landscape scale.

  16. Remote Sensing Image Fusion at the Segment Level Using a Spatially-Weighted Approach: Applications for Land Cover Spectral Analysis and Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Johnson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Segment-level image fusion involves segmenting a higher spatial resolution (HSR image to derive boundaries of land cover objects, and then extracting additional descriptors of image segments (polygons from a lower spatial resolution (LSR image. In past research, an unweighted segment-level fusion (USF approach, which extracts information from a resampled LSR image, resulted in more accurate land cover classification than the use of HSR imagery alone. However, simply fusing the LSR image with segment polygons may lead to significant errors due to the high level of noise in pixels along the segment boundaries (i.e., pixels containing multiple land cover types. To mitigate this, a spatially-weighted segment-level fusion (SWSF method was proposed for extracting descriptors (mean spectral values of segments from LSR images. SWSF reduces the weights of LSR pixels located on or near segment boundaries to reduce errors in the fusion process. Compared to the USF approach, SWSF extracted more accurate spectral properties of land cover objects when the ratio of the LSR image resolution to the HSR image resolution was greater than 2:1, and SWSF was also shown to increase classification accuracy. SWSF can be used to fuse any type of imagery at the segment level since it is insensitive to spectral differences between the LSR and HSR images (e.g., different spectral ranges of the images or different image acquisition dates.

  17. Naturalizing sense of agency with a hierarchical event-control approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devpriya Kumar

    Full Text Available Unraveling the mechanisms underlying self and agency has been a difficult scientific problem. We argue for an event-control approach for naturalizing the sense of agency by focusing on the role of perception-action regularities present at different hierarchical levels and contributing to the sense of self as an agent. The amount of control at different levels of the control hierarchy determines the sense of agency. The current study investigates this approach in a set of two experiments using a scenario containing multiple agents sharing a common goal where one of the agents is partially controlled by the participant. The participant competed with other agents for achieving the goal and subsequently answered questions on identification (which agent was controlled by the participant, the degree to which they are confident about their identification (sense of identification and the degree to which the participant believed he/she had control over his/her actions (sense of authorship. Results indicate a hierarchical relationship between goal-level control (higher level and perceptual-motor control (lower level for sense of agency. Sense of identification ratings increased with perceptual-motor control when the goal was not completed but did not vary with perceptual-motor control when the goal was completed. Sense of authorship showed a similar interaction effect only in experiment 2 that had only one competing agent unlike the larger number of competing agents in experiment 1. The effect of hierarchical control can also be seen in the misidentification pattern and misidentification was greater with the agent affording greater control. Results from the two studies support the event-control approach in understanding sense of agency as grounded in control. The study also offers a novel paradigm for empirically studying sense of agency and self.

  18. When paranoia makes sense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Roderick M

    2002-07-01

    On September 11, 2001, in the space of a few horrific minutes, Americans realized the fragility of trust. The country's evident vulnerability to deadly terrorism rocked our faith in the systems we rely on for security. Our trust was shaken again only a few months later with the stunning collapse of Enron, forcing us to question many of the methods and assumptions underpinning the way we work. These two crises are obviously very different, yet both serve as reminders of the perils of trusting too much. The abiding belief that trust is a strength now seems dangerously naive. This new doubtfulness runs contrary to most management literature, which has traditionally touted trust as an organizational asset. It's an easy case to make. When there are high levels of trust, employees can fully commit themselves to the organization because they can be confident that their efforts will be recognized and rewarded. Trust also means that leaders don't have to worry so much about putting the right spin on things. They can act and speak forthrightly and focus on essentials. In short, trust is an organizational superglue. Nevertheless, two decades of research on trust and cooperation in organizations have convinced social psychologist Roderick Kramer that--despite its costs--distrust can be beneficial in the workplace. Kramer has observed that a moderate form of suspicion, which he calls prudent paranoia, can in many cases prove highly beneficial to the distrustful individual or organization. In this article, he describes situations in which prudent paranoia makes sense and shows how, when properly deployed, it can serve as a powerful morale booster--even a competitive weapon--for organizations.

  19. Nanomaterials in glucose sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Burugapalli, Krishna

    2013-01-01

    The smartness of nano-materials is attributed to their nanoscale and subsequently unique physicochemical properties and their use in glucose sensing has been aimed at improving performance, reducing cost and miniaturizing the sensor and its associated instrumentation. So far, portable (handheld) glucose analysers were introduced for hospital wards, emergency rooms and physicians' offices; single-use strip systems achieved nanolitre sampling for painless and accurate home glucose monitoring; advanced continuous monitoring devices having 2 to 7 days operating life are in clinical and home use; and continued research efforts are being made to develop and introduce increasingly advanced glucose monitoring systems for health as well as food, biotechnology, cell and tissue culture industries. Nanomaterials have touched every aspect of biosensor design and this chapter reviews their role in the development of advanced technologies for glucose sensing, and especially for diabetes. Research shows that overall, nanomat...

  20. Taste sensing FET (TSFET)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toko, K.; Yasuda, R.; Ezaki, S. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Fujiyoshi, T. [Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-12-20

    Taste can be quantified using a multichannel taste sensor with lipid/polymer membranes. Its sensitivity and stability are superior to those of humans. A present study is concerned with the first step of miniaturization and integration of the taste sensor with lipid/polymer membranes using FET. As a result, it was found that gate-source voltage of the taste sensing FET showed the same behaviors as the conventional taste sensor utilizing the membrane-potential change due to five kinds of taste substances. Discrimination of foodstuffs was very easy. A thin lipid membrane formed using LB technique was also tried. These results will open doors to fabrication of a miniaturized, integrated taste sensing system. 12 refs., 6 figs.

  1. A Collaborative Approach for Monitoring Nodes Behavior during Spectrum Sensing to Mitigate Multiple Attacks in Cognitive Radio Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Khasawneh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Spectrum sensing is the first step to overcome the spectrum scarcity problem in Cognitive Radio Networks (CRNs wherein all unutilized subbands in the radio environment are explored for better spectrum utilization. Adversary nodes can threaten these spectrum sensing results by launching passive and active attacks that prevent legitimate nodes from using the spectrum efficiently. Securing the spectrum sensing process has become an important issue in CRNs in order to ensure reliable and secure spectrum sensing and fair management of resources. In this paper, a novel collaborative approach during spectrum sensing process is proposed. It monitors the behavior of sensing nodes and identifies the malicious and misbehaving sensing nodes. The proposed approach measures the node’s sensing reliability using a value called belief level. All the sensing nodes are grouped into a specific number of clusters. In each cluster, a sensing node is selected as a cluster head that is responsible for collecting sensing-reputation reports from different cognitive nodes about each node in the same cluster. The cluster head analyzes information to monitor and judge the nodes’ behavior. By simulating the proposed approach, we showed its importance and its efficiency for achieving better spectrum security by mitigating multiple passive and active attacks.

  2. A common-sense probabilistic approach to assessing inadvertent human intrusion into low-level radioactive waste at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, P.; Hooten, M.; Black, K.; Moore, B.; Rawlinson, S.; Barker, L.

    1997-01-01

    Each site disposing of low-level radioactive waste is required to prepare and maintain a site-specific performance assessment (1) to determine potential risks posed by waste management systems to the public, and the environment, and (2) to compare these risks to established performance objectives. The DOE Nevada Operations Office, Waste Management Program recently completed a one-year study of site-specific scenarios for inadvertent human intrusion by drilling into buried low-level radioactive waste sites, as part of ongoing performance assessment studies. Intrusion scenarios focus on possible penetration of buried waste through drilling for sources of groundwater. The probability of drilling penetration into waste was judged to be driven primarily by two settlement scenarios: (1) scattered individual homesteaders, and (2) a community scenario consisting of a cluster of settlers that share drilling and distribution systems for groundwater. Management control factors include institutional control, site knowledge, placards and markers, surface barriers, and subsurface barriers. The Subject Matter Experts concluded that institutional control and site knowledge may be important factors for the first few centuries, but are not significant over the evaluation period of 10,000 years. Surface barriers can be designed that would deter the siting of a drill rig over the waste site to an effectiveness of 95%. Subsurface barriers and placards and markers will not as effectively prevent inadvertent human intrusion. Homestead and community scenarios were considered by the panel to render a site-specific probability of around 10% for inadvertent human intrusion. If management controls are designed and implemented effectively, then the probability of inadvertent human intrusion can be reduced to less than 1%

  3. IMPROVING THE ACCURACY OF EXTRACTING SURFACE WATER QUALITY LEVELS (SWQLs USING REMOTE SENSING AND ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK: A CASE STUDY IN THE SAINT JOHN RIVER, CANADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sharaf El Din

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Delineating accurate surface water quality levels (SWQLs always presents a great challenge to researchers. Existing methods of assessing surface water quality only provide individual concentrations of monitoring stations without providing the overall SWQLs. Therefore, the results of existing methods are usually difficult to be understood by decision-makers. Conversely, the water quality index (WQI can simplify surface water quality assessment process to be accessible to decision-makers. However, in most cases, the WQI reflects inaccurate SWQLs due to the lack of representative water samples. It is very challenging to provide representative water samples because this process is costly and time consuming. To solve this problem, we introduce a cost-effective method which combines the Landsat-8 imagery and artificial intelligence to develop models to derive representative water samples by correlating concentrations of ground truth water samples to satellite spectral information. Our method was validated and the correlation between concentrations of ground truth water samples and predicted concentrations from the developed models reached a high level of coefficient of determination (R2 > 0.80, which is trustworthy. Afterwards, the predicted concentrations over each pixel of the study area were used as an input to the WQI developed by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment to extract accurate SWQLs, for drinking purposes, in the Saint John River. The results indicated that SWQL was observed as 67 (Fair and 59 (Marginal for the lower and middle basins of the river, respectively. These findings demonstrate the potential of using our approach in surface water quality management.

  4. Improving the Accuracy of Extracting Surface Water Quality Levels (SWQLs) Using Remote Sensing and Artificial Neural Network: a Case Study in the Saint John River, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammartano, G.; Spanò, A.

    2017-09-01

    Delineating accurate surface water quality levels (SWQLs) always presents a great challenge to researchers. Existing methods of assessing surface water quality only provide individual concentrations of monitoring stations without providing the overall SWQLs. Therefore, the results of existing methods are usually difficult to be understood by decision-makers. Conversely, the water quality index (WQI) can simplify surface water quality assessment process to be accessible to decision-makers. However, in most cases, the WQI reflects inaccurate SWQLs due to the lack of representative water samples. It is very challenging to provide representative water samples because this process is costly and time consuming. To solve this problem, we introduce a cost-effective method which combines the Landsat-8 imagery and artificial intelligence to develop models to derive representative water samples by correlating concentrations of ground truth water samples to satellite spectral information. Our method was validated and the correlation between concentrations of ground truth water samples and predicted concentrations from the developed models reached a high level of coefficient of determination (R2) > 0.80, which is trustworthy. Afterwards, the predicted concentrations over each pixel of the study area were used as an input to the WQI developed by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment to extract accurate SWQLs, for drinking purposes, in the Saint John River. The results indicated that SWQL was observed as 67 (Fair) and 59 (Marginal) for the lower and middle basins of the river, respectively. These findings demonstrate the potential of using our approach in surface water quality management.

  5. Quorum sensing negatively regulates chitinase in Vibrio harveyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defoirdt, Tom; Darshanee Ruwandeepika, H A; Karunasagar, Indrani; Boon, Nico; Bossier, Peter

    2010-02-01

    Quorum sensing, bacterial cell-to-cell communication, regulates the virulence of Vibrio harveyi towards different hosts. Chitinase can be considered as a virulence factor because it helps pathogenic bacteria to attach to the host and to penetrate its tissues (e.g. in case of shrimp). Here, we show that quorum sensing negatively regulates chitinase in V. harveyi. Chitinolytic activity towards natural chitin from crab shells, the synthetic chitin derivative chitin azure, and fluorogenic chitin oligomers was significantly higher in a mutant in which the quorum-sensing system is completely inactivated when compared with a mutant in which the system is maximally active. Furthermore, the addition of signal molecule containing cell-free culture fluids decreased chitinase activity in a Harveyi Autoinducer 1 and Autoinducer 2-deficient double mutant. Finally, chitinase A mRNA levels were fivefold lower in the mutant in which the quorum-sensing system is maximally active when compared with the mutant in which the system is completely inactivated. [Correction added on 25 September 2009, after first online publication: the preceding sentence was corrected from 'Finally, chitinase A mRNA levels were fivefold lower in the mutant in which the quorum-sensing system is completely inactivated when compared with the mutant in which the system is maximally active.'] We argue that this regulation might help the vibrios to switch between host-associated and free-living life styles. © 2009 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Hepatic uptake of conjugated bile acids is mediated by both sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide and organic anion transporting polypeptides and modulated by intestinal sensing of plasma bile acid levels in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slijepcevic, Davor; Roscam Abbing, Reinout L P; Katafuchi, Takeshi; Blank, Antje; Donkers, Joanne M; van Hoppe, Stéphanie; de Waart, Dirk R; Tolenaars, Dagmar; van der Meer, Jonathan H M; Wildenberg, Manon; Beuers, Ulrich; Oude Elferink, Ronald P J; Schinkel, Alfred H; van de Graaf, Stan F J

    2017-11-01

    The Na + -taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP/SLC10A1) is believed to be pivotal for hepatic uptake of conjugated bile acids. However, plasma bile acid levels are normal in a subset of NTCP knockout mice and in mice treated with myrcludex B, a specific NTCP inhibitor. Here, we elucidated which transport proteins mediate the hepatic uptake of conjugated bile acids and demonstrated intestinal sensing of elevated bile acid levels in plasma in mice. Mice or healthy volunteers were treated with myrcludex B. Hepatic bile acid uptake kinetics were determined in wild-type (WT), organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) knockout mice (lacking Slco1a/1b isoforms), and human OATP1B1-transgenic mice. Effects of fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) on hepatic transporter mRNA levels were assessed in rat hepatoma cells and in mice by peptide injection or adeno-associated virus-mediated overexpression. NTCP inhibition using myrcludex B had only moderate effects on bile acid kinetics in WT mice, but completely inhibited active transport of conjugated bile acid species in OATP knockout mice. Cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase Cyp7a1 expression was strongly down-regulated upon prolonged inhibition of hepatic uptake of conjugated bile acids. Fgf15 (mouse counterpart of FGF19) expression was induced in hypercholanemic OATP and NTCP knockout mice, as well as in myrcludex B-treated cholestatic mice, whereas plasma FGF19 was not induced in humans treated with myrcludex B. Fgf15/FGF19 expression was induced in polarized human enterocyte-models and mouse organoids by basolateral incubation with a high concentration (1 mM) of conjugated bile acids. NTCP and OATPs contribute to hepatic uptake of conjugated bile acids in mice, whereas the predominant uptake in humans is NTCP mediated. Enterocytes sense highly elevated levels of (conjugated) bile acids in the systemic circulation to induce FGF15/19, which modulates hepatic bile acid synthesis and uptake. (Hepatology 2017;66:1631-1643).

  7. Mitral cells of the olfactory bulb perform metabolic sensing and are disrupted by obesity at the level of the Kv1.3 ion channel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra Ann Fadool

    chronic levels of the hormone insulin (diabetes or increased body weight (obesity.

  8. Optimal census by quorum sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taillefumier, Thibaud

    Bacteria regulate their gene expression in response to changes in local cell density in a process called quorum sensing. To synchronize their gene-expression programs, these bacteria need to glean as much information as possible about local density. Our study is the first to physically model the flow of information in a quorum-sensing microbial community, wherein the internal regulator of the individual's response tracks the external cell density via an endogenously generated shared signal. Combining information theory and Lagrangian optimization, we find that quorum-sensing systems can improve their information capabilities by tuning circuit feedbacks. At the population level, external feedback adjusts the dynamic range of the shared input to individuals' detection channels. At the individual level, internal feedback adjusts the regulator's response time to dynamically balance output noise reduction and signal tracking ability. Our analysis suggests that achieving information benefit via feedback requires dedicated systems to control gene expression noise, such as sRNA-based regulation.

  9. Validating firn compaction model with remote sensing data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, S. B.; Stenseng, Lars; Sørensen, Louise Sandberg

    A comprehensive understanding of firn processes is of outmost importance, when estimating present and future changes of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Especially, when remote sensing altimetry is used to assess the state of ice sheets and their contribution to global sea level rise, firn compaction...... models have been shown to be a key component. Now, remote sensing data can also be used to validate the firn models. Radar penetrating the upper part of the firn column in the interior part of Greenland shows a clear layering. The observed layers from the radar data can be used as an in-situ validation...... correction relative to the changes in the elevation of the surface observed with remote sensing altimetry? What model time resolution is necessary to resolved the observed layering? What model refinements are necessary to give better estimates of the surface mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet from...

  10. Photogrammetry - Remote Sensing and Geoinformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazaridou, M. A.; Patmio, E. N.

    2012-07-01

    Earth and its environment are studied by different scientific disciplines as geosciences, science of engineering, social sciences, geography, etc. The study of the above, beyond pure scientific interest, is useful for the practical needs of man. Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (defined by Statute II of ISPRS) is the art, science, and technology of obtaining reliable information from non-contact imaging and other sensor systems about the Earth and its environment, and other physical objects and of processes through recording, measuring, analyzing and representation. Therefore, according to this definition, photogrammetry and remote sensing can support studies of the above disciplines for acquisition of geoinformation. This paper concerns basic concepts of geosciences (geomorphology, geology, hydrology etc), and the fundamentals of photogrammetry-remote sensing, in order to aid the understanding of the relationship between photogrammetry-remote sensing and geoinformation and also structure curriculum in a brief, concise and coherent way. This curriculum can represent an appropriate research and educational outline and help to disseminate knowledge in various directions and levels. It resulted from our research and educational experience in graduate and post-graduate level (post-graduate studies relative to the protection of environment and protection of monuments and historical centers) in the Lab. of Photogrammetry - Remote Sensing in Civil Engineering Faculty of Aristotle University of Thessaloniki.

  11. Risk Aversion in Game Shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten I.

    2008-01-01

    We review the use of behavior from television game shows to infer risk attitudes. These shows provide evidence when contestants are making decisions over very large stakes, and in a replicated, structured way. Inferences are generally confounded by the subjective assessment of skill in some games......, and the dynamic nature of the task in most games. We consider the game shows Card Sharks, Jeopardy!, Lingo, and finally Deal Or No Deal. We provide a detailed case study of the analyses of Deal Or No Deal, since it is suitable for inference about risk attitudes and has attracted considerable attention....

  12. Measuring performance at trade shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kåre

    2004-01-01

    Trade shows is an increasingly important marketing activity to many companies, but current measures of trade show performance do not adequately capture dimensions important to exhibitors. Based on the marketing literature's outcome and behavior-based control system taxonomy, a model is built...... that captures a outcome-based sales dimension and four behavior-based dimensions (i.e. information-gathering, relationship building, image building, and motivation activities). A 16-item instrument is developed for assessing exhibitors perceptions of their trade show performance. The paper presents evidence...

  13. Effects of simultaneously elevated temperature and CO2 levels on Nicotiana benthamiana and its infection by different positive-sense RNA viruses are cumulative and virus type-specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Toro, Francisco J; Rakhshandehroo, Farshad; Larruy, Beatriz; Aguilar, Emmanuel; Tenllado, Francisco; Canto, Tomás

    2017-11-01

    We have studied how simultaneously elevated temperature and CO 2 levels [climate change-related conditions (CCC) of 30°C, 970 parts-per-million (ppm) of CO 2 vs. standard conditions (SC) of 25°C, ~ 405ppm CO 2 ] affect physiochemical properties of Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, and also its infection by several positive-sense RNA viruses. In previous works we had studied effects of elevated temperature, CO 2 levels separately. Under CCC, leaves of healthy plants almost doubled their area relative to SC but contained less protein/unit-of-area, similarly to what we had found under conditions of elevated CO 2 alone. CCC also affected the sizes/numbers of different foliar cell types differently. Under CCC, infection outcomes in titers and symptoms were virus type-specific, broadly similar to those observed under elevated temperature alone. Under either condition, infections did not significantly alter the protein content of leaf discs. Therefore, effects of elevated temperature and CO 2 combined on properties of the pathosystems studied were overall cumulative. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Ultracold gas shows 'lopsided' properties

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "Duke University researchers have created an ultracold gas that has the startling property of bursting outward in a preferred direction when released. According to the researchers, studying the properties of the "lopsided" gas will yield fundamental insights into how matter holds itself together at the subatomic level" (1 page).

  15. Mobile Sensing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias, Elsa; Suarez, Alvaro; Lloret, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    Rich-sensor smart phones have made possible the recent birth of the mobile sensing research area as part of ubiquitous sensing which integrates other areas such as wireless sensor networks and web sensing. There are several types of mobile sensing: individual, participatory, opportunistic, crowd, social, etc. The object of sensing can be people-centered or environment-centered. The sensing domain can be home, urban, vehicular… Currently there are barriers that limit the social acceptance of mobile sensing systems. Examples of social barriers are privacy concerns, restrictive laws in some countries and the absence of economic incentives that might encourage people to participate in a sensing campaign. Several technical barriers are phone energy savings and the variety of sensors and software for their management. Some existing surveys partially tackle the topic of mobile sensing systems. Published papers theoretically or partially solve the above barriers. We complete the above surveys with new works, review the barriers of mobile sensing systems and propose some ideas for efficiently implementing sensing, fusion, learning, security, privacy and energy saving for any type of mobile sensing system, and propose several realistic research challenges. The main objective is to reduce the learning curve in mobile sensing systems where the complexity is very high. PMID:24351637

  16. Mobile sensing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias, Elsa; Suarez, Alvaro; Lloret, Jaime

    2013-12-16

    Rich-sensor smart phones have made possible the recent birth of the mobile sensing research area as part of ubiquitous sensing which integrates other areas such as wireless sensor networks and web sensing. There are several types of mobile sensing: individual, participatory, opportunistic, crowd, social, etc. The object of sensing can be people-centered or environment-centered. The sensing domain can be home, urban, vehicular… Currently there are barriers that limit the social acceptance of mobile sensing systems. Examples of social barriers are privacy concerns, restrictive laws in some countries and the absence of economic incentives that might encourage people to participate in a sensing campaign. Several technical barriers are phone energy savings and the variety of sensors and software for their management. Some existing surveys partially tackle the topic of mobile sensing systems. Published papers theoretically or partially solve the above barriers. We complete the above surveys with new works, review the barriers of mobile sensing systems and propose some ideas for efficiently implementing sensing, fusion, learning, security, privacy and energy saving for any type of mobile sensing system, and propose several realistic research challenges. The main objective is to reduce the learning curve in mobile sensing systems where the complexity is very high.

  17. Mobile Sensing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Macias

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Rich-sensor smart phones have made possible the recent birth of the mobile sensing research area as part of ubiquitous sensing which integrates other areas such as wireless sensor networks and web sensing. There are several types of mobile sensing: individual, participatory, opportunistic, crowd, social, etc. The object of sensing can be people-centered or environment-centered. The sensing domain can be home, urban, vehicular… Currently there are barriers that limit the social acceptance of mobile sensing systems. Examples of social barriers are privacy concerns, restrictive laws in some countries and the absence of economic incentives that might encourage people to participate in a sensing campaign. Several technical barriers are phone energy savings and the variety of sensors and software for their management. Some existing surveys partially tackle the topic of mobile sensing systems. Published papers theoretically or partially solve the above barriers. We complete the above surveys with new works, review the barriers of mobile sensing systems and propose some ideas for efficiently implementing sensing, fusion, learning, security, privacy and energy saving for any type of mobile sensing system, and propose several realistic research challenges. The main objective is to reduce the learning curve in mobile sensing systems where the complexity is very high.

  18. Variation in the peacock's train shows a genetic component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, Marion; Cotgreave, Peter; Pike, Thomas W

    2009-01-01

    Female peafowl (Pavo cristatus) show a strong mating preference for males with elaborate trains. This, however, poses something of a paradox because intense directional selection should erode genetic variation in the males' trains, so that females will no longer benefit by discriminating among males on the basis of these traits. This situation is known as the 'lek paradox', and leads to the theoretical expectation of low heritability in the peacock's train. We used two independent breeding experiments, involving a total of 42 sires and 86 of their male offspring, to estimate the narrow sense heritabilities of male ornaments and other morphometric traits. Contrary to expectation, we found significant levels of heritability in a trait known to be used by females during mate choice (train length), while no significant heritabilities were evident for other, non-fitness related morphological traits (tarsus length, body weight or spur length). This study adds to the building body of evidence that high levels of additive genetic variance can exist in secondary sexual traits under directional selection, but further emphasizes the main problem of what maintains this variation.

  19. Tokyo Motor Show 2003; Tokyo Motor Show 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joly, E.

    2004-01-01

    The text which follows present the different techniques exposed during the 37. Tokyo Motor Show. The report points out the great tendencies of developments of the Japanese automobile industry. The hybrid electric-powered vehicles or those equipped with fuel cells have been highlighted by the Japanese manufacturers which allow considerable budgets in the research of less polluting vehicles. The exposed models, although being all different according to the manufacturer, use always a hybrid system: fuel cell/battery. The manufacturers have stressed too on the intelligent systems for navigation and safety as well as on the design and comfort. (O.M.)

  20. Nano-bio-sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Carrara, Sandro

    2011-01-01

    This book examines state-of-the-art applications of nano-bio-sensing. It brings together researchers from nano-electronics and bio-technology, providing multidisciplinary content from nano-structures fabrication to bio-sensing applications.

  1. Toward practical SERS sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yiping

    2012-06-01

    Since its discovery more than 30 years ago, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has been recognized as a highly sensitive detection technique for chemical and biological sensing and medical diagnostics. However, the practical application of this remarkably sensitive technique has not been widely accepted as a viable diagnostic method due to the difficulty in preparing robust and reproducible substrates that provide maximum SERS enhancement. Here, we demonstrate that the aligned silver nanorod (AgNR) array substrates engineered by the oblique angle deposition method are capable of providing extremely high SERS enhancement factors (>108). The substrates are large area, uniform, reproducible, and compatible with general microfabrication process. The enhancement factor depends strongly on the length and shape of the Ag nanorods and the underlying substrate coating. By optimizing AgNR SERS substrates, we show that SERS is able to detect trace amount of toxins, virus, bacteria, or other chemical and biological molecules, and distinguish different viruses/bacteria and virus/bacteria strains. The substrate can be tailored into a multi-well chip for high throughput screening, integrated into fiber tip for portable sensing, incorporated into fluid/microfluidic devices for in situ real-time monitoring, fabricated onto a flexible substrate for tracking and identification, or used as on-chip separation device for ultra-thin layer chromatography and diagnostics. By combining the unique SERS substrates with a handheld Raman system, it can become a practical and portable sensor system for field applications. All these developments have demonstrated that AgNR SERS substrates could play an important role in the future for practical clinical, industrial, defense, and security sensing applications.

  2. Psychophysical evidence for the number sense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burr, David C; Anobile, Giovanni; Arrighi, Roberto

    2017-02-19

    It is now clear that most animals, including humans, possess an ability to rapidly estimate number. Some have questioned whether this ability arises from dedicated numerosity mechanisms, or is derived indirectly from judgements of density or other attributes. We describe a series of psychophysical experiments, largely using adaptation techniques, which demonstrate clearly the existence of a number sense in humans. The number sense is truly general, extending over space, time and sensory modality, and is closely linked with action. We further show that when multiple cues are present, numerosity emerges as the natural dimension for discrimination. However, when element density increases past a certain level, the elements become too crowded to parse, and the scene is perceived as a texture rather than array of elements. The two different regimes are psychophysically discriminable in that they follow distinct psychophysical laws, and show different dependencies on eccentricity, luminance levels and effects of perceptual grouping. The distinction is important, as the ability to discriminate numerosity, but not texture, correlates with formal maths skills.This article is part of the discussion meeting issue 'The origins of numerical abilities'. © 2017 The Authors.

  3. Psychophysical evidence for the number sense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    It is now clear that most animals, including humans, possess an ability to rapidly estimate number. Some have questioned whether this ability arises from dedicated numerosity mechanisms, or is derived indirectly from judgements of density or other attributes. We describe a series of psychophysical experiments, largely using adaptation techniques, which demonstrate clearly the existence of a number sense in humans. The number sense is truly general, extending over space, time and sensory modality, and is closely linked with action. We further show that when multiple cues are present, numerosity emerges as the natural dimension for discrimination. However, when element density increases past a certain level, the elements become too crowded to parse, and the scene is perceived as a texture rather than array of elements. The two different regimes are psychophysically discriminable in that they follow distinct psychophysical laws, and show different dependencies on eccentricity, luminance levels and effects of perceptual grouping. The distinction is important, as the ability to discriminate numerosity, but not texture, correlates with formal maths skills. This article is part of the discussion meeting issue ‘The origins of numerical abilities’. PMID:29292350

  4. Introduction to remote sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Cracknell, Arthur P

    2007-01-01

    Addressing the need for updated information in remote sensing, Introduction to Remote Sensing, Second Edition provides a full and authoritative introduction for scientists who need to know the scope, potential, and limitations in the field. The authors discuss the physical principles of common remote sensing systems and examine the processing, interpretation, and applications of data. This new edition features updated and expanded material, including greater coverage of applications from across earth, environmental, atmospheric, and oceanographic sciences. Illustrated with remotely sensed colo

  5. Reality show: um paradoxo nietzschiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Feldman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    O fenômeno dos reality shows - e a subseqüente relação entre imagem e verdade - assenta-se sobre uma série de paradoxos. Tais paradoxos podem ser compreendidos à luz do pensamento do filósofo alemão Friedrich Nietzsche, que, através dos usos de formulações paradoxais, concebia a realidade como um mundo de pura aparência e a verdade como um acréscimo ficcional, como um efeito. A ficção é então tomada, na filosofia de Nietzsche, não em seu aspecto falsificante e desrealizador - como sempre pleiteou nossa tradição metafísica -, mas como condição necessária para que certa espécie de invenção possa operar como verdade. Sendo assim, a própria expressão reality show, através de sua formulação paradoxal, engendra explicitamente um mundo de pura aparência, em que a verdade, a parte reality da proposição, é da ordem do suplemento, daquilo que se acrescenta ficcionalmente - como um adjetivo - a show. O ornamento, nesse caso, passa a ocupar o lugar central, apontando para o efeito produzido: o efeito-de-verdade. Seguindo, então, o pensamento nietzschiano e sua atualização na contemporaneidade, investigaremos de que forma os televisivos “shows de realidade” operam paradoxalmente, em consonância com nossas paradoxais práticas culturais.

  6. Sense of moving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mark Schram; Grünbaum, Thor

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter, we assume the existence of a sense of “movement activity” that arises when a person actively moves a body part. This sense is usually supposed to be part of sense of agency (SoA). The purpose of the chapter is to determine whether the already existing experimental paradigms can...

  7. Advanced sensing techniques for cognitive radio

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Guodong; Li, Shaoqian

    2017-01-01

    This SpringerBrief investigates advanced sensing techniques to detect and estimate the primary receiver for cognitive radio systems. Along with a comprehensive overview of existing spectrum sensing techniques, this brief focuses on the design of new signal processing techniques, including the region-based sensing, jamming-based probing, and relay-based probing. The proposed sensing techniques aim to detect the nearby primary receiver and estimate the cross-channel gain between the cognitive transmitter and primary receiver. The performance of the proposed algorithms is evaluated by simulations in terms of several performance parameters, including detection probability, interference probability, and estimation error. The results show that the proposed sensing techniques can effectively sense the primary receiver and improve the cognitive transmission throughput. Researchers and postgraduate students in electrical engineering will find this an exceptional resource.

  8. Even More Sense and Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckle, John

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the author reviews "Sense & Sustainability: Educating for a Circular Economy," by Ken Webster and Craig Johnson. He reviews the core text that underpins the work of the education team at the Ellen MacArthur Foundation (http://www.ellenmacarthurfoundation.org/). He shows that while it is strong on some technical aspects of…

  9. Common Sense Biblical Hermeneutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B. Mangini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the noetics of moderate realism provide a firm foundation upon which to build a hermeneutic of common sense, in the first part of his paper the author adopts Thomas Howe’s argument that the noetical aspect of moderate realism is a necessary condition for correct, universally valid biblical interpretation, but he adds, “insofar as it gives us hope in discovering the true meaning of a given passage.” In the second part, the author relies on John Deely’s work to show how semiotics may help interpreters go beyond meaning and seek the significance of the persons, places, events, ideas, etc., of which the meaning of the text has presented as objects to be interpreted. It is in significance that the unity of Scripture is found. The chief aim is what every passage of the Bible signifies. Considered as a genus, Scripture is composed of many parts/species that are ordered to a chief aim. This is the structure of common sense hermeneutics; therefore in the third part the author restates Peter Redpath’s exposition of Aristotle and St. Thomas’s ontology of the one and the many and analogously applies it to the question of how an exegete can discern the proper significance and faithfully interpret the word of God.

  10. Ion sensing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard Harding; Martin, Glenn Brian

    2004-05-18

    The present invention allows the determination of trace levels of ionic substances in a sample solution (ions, metal ions, and other electrically charged molecules) by coupling a separation method, such as liquid chromatography, with ion selective electrodes (ISE) prepared so as to allow detection at activities below 10.sup.-6 M. The separation method distributes constituent molecules into fractions due to unique chemical and physical properties, such as charge, hydrophobicity, specific binding interactions, or movement in an electrical field. The separated fractions are detected by means of the ISE(s). These ISEs can be used singly or in an array. Accordingly, modifications in the ISEs are used to permit detection of low activities, specifically, below 10.sup.-6 M, by using low activities of the primary analyte (the molecular species which is specifically detected) in the inner filling solution of the ISE. Arrays constructed in various ways allow flow-through sensing for multiple ions.

  11. Into the Curriculum. Guidance: Sense of Self, Self-Esteem; Health: Clean Hands, Clean Books; Mathematics/Science: What's the Heaviest Thing in the Library Media Center?; Reading/Language Arts: Merry-Go-Round Mooo-ving Picture Show; Social Studies: I Came to School By !; Social Studies: Revolutionary War Facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Library Media Activities Monthly, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Provides six fully developed library media activities that are designed for use with specific curriculum units in guidance, health, mathematics, science, reading, language arts, and social studies. Library media skills, curriculum objectives, grade levels, resources, instructional roles, procedures, evaluation, and follow-up are described for each…

  12. Number-unconstrained quantum sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Morgan W.

    2017-12-01

    Quantum sensing is commonly described as a constrained optimization problem: maximize the information gained about an unknown quantity using a limited number of particles. Important sensors including gravitational wave interferometers and some atomic sensors do not appear to fit this description, because there is no external constraint on particle number. Here, we develop the theory of particle-number-unconstrained quantum sensing, and describe how optimal particle numbers emerge from the competition of particle-environment and particle-particle interactions. We apply the theory to optical probing of an atomic medium modeled as a resonant, saturable absorber, and observe the emergence of well-defined finite optima without external constraints. The results contradict some expectations from number-constrained quantum sensing and show that probing with squeezed beams can give a large sensitivity advantage over classical strategies when each is optimized for particle number.

  13. Groundwater potential zonation by Remote Sensing and GIS techniques and its relation to the Groundwater level in the Coastal part of the Arani and Koratalai River Basin, Southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Suganthi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater is being pumped extensively from the coastal part of the Arani and Koratalai River Basin, Tamil Nadu, India for irrigation and water supply to the city of Chennai. The objective of this study is to delineate the groundwater potential zones of this area using Remote Sensing (RS and Geographic Information System (GIS techniques. Weighted overlay analysis was used to demarcate the ground- water potential zones. Various thematic layers such as geology, geomorphology, soil, lineament density, drainage density, rainfall and landuse maps were prepared. The geological map was prepared using a Geological Survey of India (GSI district resource map. Indian Remote Sensing System Linear Imaging Self-scanning Sensor III (IRS-1D LISS III satellite imagery was used to prepare the geomorphology, soil, lineament density, drainage density, and landuse maps. The final groundwater potential map was prepared by assigning appropriate weightage to different thematic maps and adding them to the final groundwater potential map. The derived groundwater potential map was overlaid with the groundwater level and location of well fields for validation. The map prepared will help in systematic and proper development of groundwater resources in this area to meet the growing water requirements of the city of Chennai.  Resumen Aguas subterráneas se bombean en gran cantidad desde la parte costera en las cuencas de los ríos Arani, en Tamil Nadu, India, para el riego y el aprovisionamiento de agua a la ciudad de Chennai. El objetivo de este estudio es delinear las zonas potenciales de aguas subterráneas en esta área a través de sistemas de Teledeteción (RS y de Información Geográfica (GIS. Se hizo un análisis sobrepuesto compensado para demarcar las zonas con posibilidad de tener aguas subterráneas. Se prepararon mapas de uso de la tierra con varios elementos temáticos como geología, geomorfología, terreno, densidad de lineamiento, densi- dad de drenaje y

  14. Assessment of muscle fatigue using electromygraphm sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmi, Muhammad Hazimin Bin; Ping, Chew Sue; Ishak, Nur Elliza Binti; Saad, Mohd Alimi Bin Mohd; Mokhtar, Anis Shahida Niza Binti

    2017-08-01

    Muscle fatigue is condition of muscle decline in ability after undergoing any physical activity. Observation of the muscle condition of an athlete during training is crucial to prevent or minimize injury and able to achieve optimum performance in actual competition. The aim of this project is to develop a muscle monitoring system to detect muscle fatigue in swimming athlete. This device is capable to measure muscle stress level of the swimmer and at the same time provide indication of muscle fatigue level to trainer. Electromyography signal was recorded from the muscle movement while practicing the front crawl stroke repetitively. The time domain data was processed to frequency spectra in order to study the effect of muscle fatigue. The results show that the recorded EMG signal is able to sense muscle fatigue.

  15. Sense of Efficacy among Beginning Teachers in Sarawak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murshidi, Rahmah; Konting, Mohd Majid; Elias, Habibah; Fooi, Foo Say

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the level of teachers' sense of efficacy among beginning teachers in Sarawak, Malaysia. It also sought to investigate whether there is any difference in beginning teachers' sense of efficacy in relation to gender, race and types of teacher preparation program. The study was conducted by using the teacher sense of efficacy…

  16. Sensing charges of the Ciona intestinalis voltage-sensing phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalba-Galea, Carlos A; Frezza, Ludivine; Sandtner, Walter; Bezanilla, Francisco

    2013-11-01

    Voltage control over enzymatic activity in voltage-sensitive phosphatases (VSPs) is conferred by a voltage-sensing domain (VSD) located in the N terminus. These VSDs are constituted by four putative transmembrane segments (S1 to S4) resembling those found in voltage-gated ion channels. The putative fourth segment (S4) of the VSD contains positive residues that likely function as voltage-sensing elements. To study in detail how these residues sense the plasma membrane potential, we have focused on five arginines in the S4 segment of the Ciona intestinalis VSP (Ci-VSP). After implementing a histidine scan, here we show that four arginine-to-histidine mutants, namely R223H to R232H, mediate voltage-dependent proton translocation across the membrane, indicating that these residues transit through the hydrophobic core of Ci-VSP as a function of the membrane potential. These observations indicate that the charges carried by these residues are sensing charges. Furthermore, our results also show that the electrical field in VSPs is focused in a narrow hydrophobic region that separates the extracellular and intracellular space and constitutes the energy barrier for charge crossing.

  17. Digital methods and remote sensing in archaeology archaeology in the age of sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Campana, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    This volume debuts the new scope of Remote Sensing, which was first defined as the analysis of data collected by sensors that were not in physical contact with the objects under investigation (using cameras, scanners, and radar systems operating from spaceborne or airborne platforms). A wider characterization is now possible: Remote Sensing can be any non-destructive approach to viewing the buried and nominally invisible evidence of past activity. Spaceborne and airborne sensors, now supplemented by laser scanning, are united using ground-based geophysical instruments and undersea remote sensing, as well as other non-invasive techniques such as surface collection or field-walking survey. Now, any method that enables observation of evidence on or beneath the surface of the earth, without impact on the surviving stratigraphy, is legitimately within the realm of Remote Sensing. The new interfaces and senses engaged in Remote Sensing appear throughout the book. On a philosophical level, this is about the landscap...

  18. Optical remote sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Prasad, Saurabh; Chanussot, Jocelyn

    2011-01-01

    Optical remote sensing relies on exploiting multispectral and hyper spectral imagery possessing high spatial and spectral resolutions respectively. These modalities, although useful for most remote sensing tasks, often present challenges that must be addressed for their effective exploitation. This book presents current state-of-the-art algorithms that address the following key challenges encountered in representation and analysis of such optical remotely sensed data: challenges in pre-processing images, storing and representing high dimensional data, fusing different sensor modalities, patter

  19. REMOTE SENSING IN OCEANOGRAPHY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    remote sensing from satellites. Sensing of oceanographic variables from aircraft began with the photographing of waves and ice. Since then remote measurement of sea surface temperatures and wave heights have become routine. Sensors tested for oceanographic applications include multi-band color cameras, radar scatterometers, infrared spectrometers and scanners, passive microwave radiometers, and radar imagers. Remote sensing has found its greatest application in providing rapid coverage of large oceanographic areas for synoptic and analysis and

  20. Hyperspectral sensing of forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodenough, David G.; Dyk, Andrew; Chen, Hao; Hobart, Geordie; Niemann, K. Olaf; Richardson, Ash

    2007-11-01

    Canada contains 10% of the world's forests covering an area of 418 million hectares. The sustainable management of these forest resources has become increasingly complex. Hyperspectral remote sensing can provide a wealth of new and improved information products to resource managers to make more informed decisions. Research in this area has demonstrated that hyperspectral remote sensing can be used to create more accurate products for forest inventory, forest health, foliar biochemistry, biomass, and aboveground carbon than are currently available. This paper surveys recent methods and results in hyperspectral sensing of forests and describes space initiatives for hyperspectral sensing.

  1. LIGO sensing system performance

    CERN Document Server

    Landry, M

    2002-01-01

    The optical sensing subsystem of a LIGO interferometer is described. The system includes two complex interferometric sensing schemes to control test masses in length and alignment. The length sensing system is currently employed on all LIGO interferometers to lock coupled cavities on resonance. Auto-alignment is to be accomplished by a wavefront-sensing scheme which automatically corrects for angular fluctuations of the test masses. Improvements in lock stability and duration are noted when the wavefront auto-alignment system is employed. Preliminary results from the commissioning of the 2 km detector in Washington are shown.

  2. Intelligent environmental sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Subhas

    2015-01-01

    Developing environmental sensing and monitoring technologies become essential especially for industries that may cause severe contamination. Intelligent environmental sensing uses novel sensor techniques, intelligent signal and data processing algorithms, and wireless sensor networks to enhance environmental sensing and monitoring. It finds applications in many environmental problems such as oil and gas, water quality, and agriculture. This book addresses issues related to three main approaches to intelligent environmental sensing and discusses their latest technological developments. Key contents of the book include:   Agricultural monitoring Classification, detection, and estimation Data fusion Geological monitoring Motor monitoring Multi-sensor systems Oil reservoirs monitoring Sensor motes Water quality monitoring Wireless sensor network protocol  

  3. Advanced Remote Sensing Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slonecker, Terrence; Jones, John W.; Price, Susan D.; Hogan, Dianna

    2008-01-01

    'Remote sensing' is a generic term for monitoring techniques that collect information without being in physical contact with the object of study. Overhead imagery from aircraft and satellite sensors provides the most common form of remotely sensed data and records the interaction of electromagnetic energy (usually visible light) with matter, such as the Earth's surface. Remotely sensed data are fundamental to geographic science. The Eastern Geographic Science Center (EGSC) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is currently conducting and promoting the research and development of three different aspects of remote sensing science: spectral analysis, automated orthorectification of historical imagery, and long wave infrared (LWIR) polarimetric imagery (PI).

  4. Optical Remote Sensing Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Optical Remote Sensing Laboratory deploys rugged, cutting-edge electro-optical instrumentation for the collection of various event signatures, with expertise in...

  5. Library Informational Technology Workers: Their Sense of Belonging, Role, Job Autonomy and Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sook

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the characteristics of library information technology (IT) workers using a mail survey. The IT workers showed a moderate level of a sense of belonging, playing the broker's role, job autonomy, and job satisfaction. There were differences between librarian IT workers and non-librarian IT workers regarding most of these…

  6. Motion sensing energy controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saphir, M.E.; Reed, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    A moving object sensing processor responsive to slowly varying motions of a human being or other moving object in a zone of interest employs high frequency pulse modulated non-visible radiation generated by a radiation generating source, such as an LED, and detected by a detector sensitive to radiation of a preselected wavelength which generates electrical signals representative of the reflected radiation received from the zone of interest. The detectorsignals are processed to normalize the base level and remove variations due to background level changes, and slowly varying changes in the signals are detected by a bi-polar threshold detector. The control signals generated by the threshold detector in response to slowly varying motion are used to control the application of power to a utilization device, such as a set of fluoroescent lights in a room, the power being applied in response to detection of such motion and being automatically terminated in the absence of such motion after a predetermined time period established by a settable incrementable counter

  7. Tango, senses and sensuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de los Angeles Montes

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important contributions of the Peircean paradigm to semiotics consists in its opening the sign to development and modification. Sense, meaning, is no longer a static and fixed property. The Peircean paradigm allows us to wonder about how signs are interpreted, how they make sense in actual reception practices. The purpose of this paper is to address the problem of the relationship between appropriation practices (Montes, 2011 and significance processes from the analysis of an empirical case, observing how signs of sensuality are produced in the ballroom tango dance. Tango has earned international reputation mainly as a sensuality dance thanks to its spectacularization and subsequent mediatization. However, as I expect to demonstrate, at the moment of reception, people put those discourses in interaction with specific appropriation practices that shape very special interpretive habits. I will address the issue from an empirical investigation, especially focused on the production of interpretants (emotional, energetic, and logical, that is to say, looking back to the sign reception from the body to the mind. From a corpus of 25 focused interviews with people who got to know tango through mass media but that afterwards learnt to dance it as a social dance, it is my intention to show what sensuality means to them today, and how that current practice interacts with other external and previous discourses to produce interpretive habits. Finally, I wish to offer a theoretical reflection about the relationship between these three types of interpretants, their interaction with the discourse of the mass media and the place corporality has in the reception processes.

  8. Dealing with Daily Challenges in Dementia (Deal-id Study): An Experience Sampling Study to Assess Caregivers' Sense of Competence and Experienced Positive Affect in Daily Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Knippenberg, Rosalia J M; de Vugt, Marjolein E; Ponds, Rudolf W; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Verhey, Frans R J

    2017-08-01

    Positive emotions and feelings of competence seem to play an important role in the well-being of caregivers of people with dementia. Both are likely to fluctuate constantly throughout the caretaking process. Unlike standard retrospective methods, momentary assessments in daily life can provide insight into these moment-to-moment fluctuations. Therefore, in this study both retrospective and momentary assessments were used to examine the relationship between caregivers' sense of competence and their experienced positive affect (PA) in daily life. Thirty Dutch caregivers provided momentary data on PA and daily sense of competence ratings for 6 consecutive days using the experience sampling methodology. Additionally, they reported retrospectively on their sense of competence with a traditional questionnaire. A positive association was found between retrospective and daily measured sense of competence. Caregivers reported corresponding levels of sense of competence on both measures. Both daily and retrospective sense of competence were positively associated with the experienced levels of PA. However, daily sense of competence appeared to be the strongest predictor. Regarding the variability in PA, only daily sense of competence showed a significant association, with a higher daily sense of competence predicting a more stable PA pattern. This study provides support for redirecting caregiver support interventions toward enhancement of positive rather than negative experiences and focusing more on caregivers' momentary emotional experiences. Momentary assessments are a valuable addition to standard retrospective measures and provide a more comprehensive and dynamic view of caregiver functioning. Copyright © 2016 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. I Move, therefore I am - A Comment on "The Importance of Sensing One's Movements in the World for the Sense of Personal Identity" by Haselager, Broens, & Quilici Gonzalez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Nannini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The position taken by Haselager, Broens and Quilici Gonzalez in The Importance of Sensing One’s Movements in the World for the Sense of Personal Identity consists in three fundamental theses which can be summarized as follows: (1 The fundamental core of human self-consciousness is not language or thought but the body sense; (2 The traditional dichotomy between external and internal senses is false; (3 There is no prominence of the brain over the rest of the body with regard to the sense of identity that every human being has. This paper aims at showing that – while thesis (1 is perfectly convincing - theses (2 and (3 must be revisited in part since they are too committed to the kind of anti-representationalism proposed by Brooks. In fact, several experimental findings (see above all the vestibulo-ocular reflex show – in contrast to (2 – that the brain distinguishes even at a purely perceptual level between self and external world. Moreover, while other experiments do confirm the “importance”of the body for cognition and the steady interaction between the brain and the body including for the execution of cognitive tasks, they also show – in contrast to (3 – that the influence of bodily movement on the associative areas of the cortex is not directly due to the motor schemata that direct bodily movements but to “higher” brain representations of actions each of which can be executed by different motor schemata.

  10. Studies on Five Senses Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Sadaka; Miao, Tiejun; Oyama-Higa, Mayumi

    2011-06-01

    This study proposed a therapy from complementary and alternative medicine to treat mental disorder by through interactions of five senses between therapist and patient. In this method sounding a certain six voices play an important role in healing and recovery. First, we studied effects of speaking using scalp- EEG measurement. Chaos analysis of EEG showed a largely enhanced largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE) during the speaking. In addition, EEG power spectrum showed an increase over most frequencies. Second, we performed case studies on mental disorder using the therapy. Running power spectrum of EEG of patients indicated decreasing power at end of treatment, implying five senses therapy induced relaxed and lowered energy in central neural system. The results agreed with patient's reports that there were considerable decline in anxiety and improvements in mood.

  11. Sense and Sensibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Austen, Jane

    2005-01-01

    Two sisters of opposing temperament but who share the pangs of tragic love provide the subjects for Sense and Sensibility. Elinor, practical and conventional, the epitome of sense, desires a man who is promised to another woman. Marianne, emotional and sentimental, the epitome of sensibility, loses

  12. Mobile teleoperator remote sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, E.L.

    1986-01-01

    Sensing systems are an important element of mobile teleoperators and robots. This paper discusses certain problems and limitations of vision and other sensing systems with respect to operations in a radiological accident environment. Methods which appear promising for near-term improvements to sensor technology are described. 3 refs

  13. Deterministic Compressed Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    39 4.3 Digital Communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 4.4 Group Testing ...deterministic de - sign matrices. All bounds ignore the O() constants. . . . . . . . . . . 131 xvi List of Algorithms 1 Iterative Hard Thresholding Algorithm...sensing is information theoretically possible using any (2k, )-RIP sensing matrix . The following celebrated results of Candès, Romberg and Tao [54

  14. Hyperspectral remote sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Eismann, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Hyperspectral remote sensing is an emerging, multidisciplinary field with diverse applications that builds on the principles of material spectroscopy, radiative transfer, imaging spectrometry, and hyperspectral data processing. This book provides a holistic treatment that captures its multidisciplinary nature, emphasizing the physical principles of hyperspectral remote sensing.

  15. Mapping sense(s) of place

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovse, Astrid Ravn; Hovy, Dirk; Johannsen, Anders Trærup

    2016-01-01

    , the question of how to tap into this constitutes a methodological challenge to researchers (Latham 2003, Hall 2009). This paper presents an experimental method aimed at eliciting data on sense of place and everyday mobility in a feasible and low-tech manner through the use of mental maps and mobility maps...... for answering questions about the relationship between places, speakers and linguistic practice....

  16. Hydroball string sensing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurwitz, M.J.; Ekeroth, D.E.; Squarer, D.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a hydroball string sensing system for a nuclear reactor having a core containing a fluid at a fluid pressure. It comprises a tube connectable to the nuclear reactor so that the fluid can flow within the tube at a fluid pressure that is substantially the same as the fluid pressure of the nuclear reactor core; a hydroball string including - a string member having objects positioned therealong with a specified spacing, the object including a plurality of hydroballs, and bullet members positioned at opposing ends of the string member; first sensor means, positioned outside a first segment of the tube, for sensing one of the objects being positioned within the first segment, and for providing a sensing signal responsive to the sensing of the first sensing means

  17. Remote Sensing: Physics And Environmental Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EI Raey, M.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Basic principles of remote sensing of environment are outlined emphasizing inherent physical and target properties leading to proper identification and classification. Basic processing techniques are discussed. Applications of remote sensing techniques in various aspects of environmental monitoring and assessment is surveyed with emphasis on aspects of main concern to developing communities such as planning, sea level impacts, mine detection and earthquake prediction are all outlined and discussed

  18. Remote sensing application for property tax evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sadhana

    2008-02-01

    This paper presents a study for linking remotely sensed data with property tax related issues. First, it discusses the key attributes required for property taxation and evaluates the capabilities of remote sensing technology to measure these attributes accurately at parcel level. Next, it presents a detailed case study of six representative wards of different characteristics in Dehradun, India, that illustrates how measurements of several of these attributes supported by field survey can be combined to address the issues related to property taxation. Information derived for various factors quantifies the property taxation contributed by an average dwelling unit of the different income groups. Results show that the property tax calculated in different wards varies between 55% for the high-income group, 32% for the middle-income group, 12% for the low-income group and 1% for squatter units. The study concludes that higher spatial resolution satellite data and integrates social survey helps to assess the socio-economic status of the population for tax contribution purposes.

  19. Satellite remote sensing in epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorek-Hamer, Meytar; Just, Allan C; Kloog, Itai

    2016-04-01

    Particulate matter air pollution is a ubiquitous exposure linked with multiple adverse health outcomes for children and across the life course. The recent development of satellite-based remote-sensing models for air pollution enables the quantification of these risks and addresses many limitations of previous air pollution research strategies. We review the recent literature on the applications of satellite remote sensing in air quality research, with a focus on their use in epidemiological studies. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) is a focus of this review and a significant number of studies show that ground-level particulate matter can be estimated from columnar AOD. Satellite measurements have been found to be an important source of data for particulate matter model-based exposure estimates, and recently have been used in health studies to increase the spatial breadth and temporal resolution of these estimates. It is suggested that satellite-based models improve our understanding of the spatial characteristics of air quality. Although the adoption of satellite-based measures of air quality in health studies is in its infancy, it is rapidly growing. Nevertheless, further investigation is still needed in order to have a better understanding of the AOD contribution to these prediction models in order to use them with higher accuracy in epidemiological studies.

  20. [The sense of coherence among nurses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malagón-Aguilera, M Carmen; Fuentes-Pumarola, Concepció; Suñer-Soler, Rosa; Bonmatí-Tomàs, Anna; Fernández-Peña, Roser; Bosch-Farré, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Through the construct "The sense of coherence" (SOC), the salutogenic model explains why people subjected to stressors are able to maintain good health. The SOC was defined by Antonovsky as a global orientation that expresses the extent to which a person has a highly internalized, permanent - but at the same time dynamic - feeling of confidence; this feeling of confidence is predictable and leads to a high probability that events will turn out well. The present article reviews the literature on the SOC in the nursing profession. The results show that the SOC is a protective factor against stressors in the work environment and in the work-life balance. Low SOC levels are associated with health problems such as burnout or depression, as well as certain personality traits. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  1. Generalized eigenvalue based spectrum sensing

    KAUST Repository

    Shakir, Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    Spectrum sensing is one of the fundamental components in cognitive radio networks. In this chapter, a generalized spectrum sensing framework which is referred to as Generalized Mean Detector (GMD) has been introduced. In this context, we generalize the detectors based on the eigenvalues of the received signal covariance matrix and transform the eigenvalue based spectrum sensing detectors namely: (i) the Eigenvalue Ratio Detector (ERD) and two newly proposed detectors which are referred to as (ii) the GEometric Mean Detector (GEMD) and (iii) the ARithmetic Mean Detector (ARMD) into an unified framework of generalize spectrum sensing. The foundation of the proposed framework is based on the calculation of exact analytical moments of the random variables of the decision threshold of the respective detectors. The decision threshold has been calculated in a closed form which is based on the approximation of Cumulative Distribution Functions (CDFs) of the respective test statistics. In this context, we exchange the analytical moments of the two random variables of the respective test statistics with the moments of the Gaussian (or Gamma) distribution function. The performance of the eigenvalue based detectors is compared with the several traditional detectors including the energy detector (ED) to validate the importance of the eigenvalue based detectors and the performance of the GEMD and the ARMD particularly in realistic wireless cognitive radio network. Analytical and simulation results show that the newly proposed detectors yields considerable performance advantage in realistic spectrum sensing scenarios. Moreover, the presented results based on proposed approximation approaches are in perfect agreement with the empirical results. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  2. Electrochemical sensing carcinogens in beverages

    CERN Document Server

    Zia, Asif Iqbal

    2016-01-01

    This book describes a robust, low-cost electrochemical sensing system that is able to detect hormones and phthalates – the most ubiquitous endocrine disruptor compounds – in beverages and is sufficiently flexible to be readily coupled with any existing chemical or biochemical sensing system. A novel type of silicon substrate-based smart interdigital transducer, developed using MEMS semiconductor fabrication technology, is employed in conjunction with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to allow real-time detection and analysis. Furthermore, the presented interdigital capacitive sensor design offers a sufficient penetration depth of the fringing electric field to permit bulk sample testing. The authors address all aspects of the development of the system and fully explain its benefits. The book will be of wide interest to engineers, scientists, and researchers working in the fields of physical electrochemistry and biochemistry at the undergraduate, postgraduate, and research levels. It will also be high...

  3. Online Italian fandoms of American TV shows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Benecchi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Internet has changed media fandom in two main ways: it helps fans connect with each other despite physical distance, leading to the formation of international fan communities; and it helps fans connect with the creators of the TV show, deepening the relationship between TV producers and international fandoms. To assess whether Italian fan communities active online are indeed part of transnational online communities and whether the Internet has actually altered their relationship with the creators of the original text they are devoted to, qualitative analysis and narrative interviews of 26 Italian fans of American TV shows were conducted to explore the fan-producer relationship. Results indicated that the online Italian fans surveyed preferred to stay local, rather than using geography-leveling online tools. Further, the sampled Italian fans' relationships with the show runners were mediated or even absent.

  4. Negative voltage modulated multi-level resistive switching by using a Cr/BaTiOx/TiN structure and quantum conductance through evidence of H2O2 sensing mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Somsubhra; Ginnaram, Sreekanth; Jana, Surajit; Wu, Zong-Yi; Singh, Kanishk; Roy, Anisha; Kumar, Pankaj; Maikap, Siddheswar; Qiu, Jian-Tai; Cheng, Hsin-Ming; Tsai, Ling-Na; Chang, Ya-Ling; Mahapatra, Rajat; Yang, Jer-Ren

    2017-07-05

    Negative voltage modulated multi-level resistive switching with quantum conductance during staircase-type RESET and its transport characteristics in Cr/BaTiO x /TiN structure have been investigated for the first time. The as-deposited amorphous BaTiO x film has been confirmed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy shows different oxidation states of Ba in the switching material, which is responsible for tunable more than 10 resistance states by varying negative stop voltage owing to slow decay value of RESET slope (217.39 mV/decade). Quantum conductance phenomenon has been observed in staircase RESET cycle of the memory devices. By inspecting the oxidation states of Ba + and Ba 2+ through measuring H 2 O 2 with a low concentration of 1 nM in electrolyte/BaTiO x /SiO 2 /p-Si structure, the switching mechanism of each HRS level as well as the multi-level phenomenon has been explained by gradual dissolution of oxygen vacancy filament. Along with negative stop voltage modulated multi-level, current compliance dependent multi-level has also been demonstrated and resistance ratio up to 2000 has been achieved even for a thin (voltage switching curve has been simulated as well. Hence, multi-level resistive switching of Cr/BaTiO x /TiN structure implies the promising applications in high dense, multistate non-volatile memories in near future.

  5. The Political Sense of Urgency for Educational Leadership Preparation Programs to Show Impact Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Valerie; Asadoorian, Malcolm O., III

    2014-01-01

    Higher education today is confronted with increasing marketization and aggressive regulation of the public sector. In an attempt to address these challenging issues, public universities are undergoing unprecedented change, particularly Colleges of Education. Redesigning educational leadership preparation programs, working in partnership with local…

  6. Word Domain Disambiguation via Word Sense Disambiguation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Tratz, Stephen C.; Gregory, Michelle L.

    2006-06-04

    Word subject domains have been widely used to improve the perform-ance of word sense disambiguation al-gorithms. However, comparatively little effort has been devoted so far to the disambiguation of word subject do-mains. The few existing approaches have focused on the development of al-gorithms specific to word domain dis-ambiguation. In this paper we explore an alternative approach where word domain disambiguation is achieved via word sense disambiguation. Our study shows that this approach yields very strong results, suggesting that word domain disambiguation can be ad-dressed in terms of word sense disam-biguation with no need for special purpose algorithms.

  7. Compressed Sensing with Rank Deficient Dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Lundgaard; Johansen, Daniel Højrup; Jørgensen, Peter Bjørn

    2012-01-01

    In compressed sensing it is generally assumed that the dictionary matrix constitutes a (possibly overcomplete) basis of the signal space. In this paper we consider dictionaries that do not span the signal space, i.e. rank deficient dictionaries. We show that in this case the signal-to-noise ratio...... (SNR) in the compressed samples can be increased by selecting the rows of the measurement matrix from the column space of the dictionary. As an example application of compressed sensing with a rank deficient dictionary, we present a case study of compressed sensing applied to the Coarse Acquisition (C...

  8. Testing of a single-polarity piezoresistive three-dimensional stress-sensing chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharib, H H; Moussa, W A

    2013-01-01

    A new piezoresistive stress-sensing rosette is developed to extract the components of the three-dimensional (3D) stress tensor using single-polarity (n-type) piezoresistors. This paper presents the testing of a micro-fabricated sensing chip utilizing the developed single-polarity rosette. The testing is conducted using a four-point bending of a chip-on-beam to induce five controlled stress components, which are analyzed both numerically and experimentally. Numerical analysis using finite element analysis is conducted to study the levels of the induced stress components at three rosette-sites and the levels of the stress field non-uniformities, and to simulate the extracted stress components from the sensing rosette. The experimental analysis applied tensile and compressive loads over three rosette-sites at different load increments. The experimentally extracted stress components show good linearity with the applied load and values close to the numerical model. (paper)

  9. Distributed acoustic sensing with Michelson interferometer demodulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaohui; Wang, Chen; Shang, Ying; Wang, Chang; Zhao, Wenan; Peng, Gangding; Wang, Hongzhong

    2017-09-01

    The distributed acoustic sensing (DAS) has been extensively studied and widely used. A distributed acoustic sensing system based on the unbalanced Michelson interferometer with phase generated carrier (PGC) demodulation was designed and tested. The system could directly obtain the phase, amplitude, frequency response, and location information of sound wave at the same time and measurement at all points along the sensing fiber simultaneously. Experiments showed that the system successfully measured the acoustic signals with a phase-pressure sensitivity about-148 dB (re rad/μPa) and frequency response ripple less than 1.5 dB. The further field experiment showed that the system could measure signals at all points along the sensing fiber simultaneously.

  10. Compressed sensing & sparse filtering

    CERN Document Server

    Carmi, Avishy Y; Godsill, Simon J

    2013-01-01

    This book is aimed at presenting concepts, methods and algorithms ableto cope with undersampled and limited data. One such trend that recently gained popularity and to some extent revolutionised signal processing is compressed sensing. Compressed sensing builds upon the observation that many signals in nature are nearly sparse (or compressible, as they are normally referred to) in some domain, and consequently they can be reconstructed to within high accuracy from far fewer observations than traditionally held to be necessary. Apart from compressed sensing this book contains other related app

  11. Freeware for GIS and Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Halounová

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Education in remote sensing and GIS is based on software utilization. The software needs to be installed in computer rooms with a certain number of licenses. The commercial software equipment is therefore financially demanding and not only for universities, but especially for students. Internet research brings a long list of free software of various capabilities. The paper shows a present state of GIS, image processing and remote sensing free software.

  12. Freeware for GIS and Remote Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Lena Halounová

    2007-01-01

    Education in remote sensing and GIS is based on software utilization. The software needs to be installed in computer rooms with a certain number of licenses. The commercial software equipment is therefore financially demanding and not only for universities, but especially for students. Internet research brings a long list of free software of various capabilities. The paper shows a present state of GIS, image processing and remote sensing free software.

  13. Remote sensing and water resources

    CERN Document Server

    Champollion, N; Benveniste, J; Chen, J

    2016-01-01

    This book is a collection of overview articles showing how space-based observations, combined with hydrological modeling, have considerably improved our knowledge of the continental water cycle and its sensitivity to climate change. Two main issues are highlighted: (1) the use in combination of space observations for monitoring water storage changes in river basins worldwide, and (2) the use of space data in hydrological modeling either through data assimilation or as external constraints. The water resources aspect is also addressed, as well as the impacts of direct anthropogenic forcing on land hydrology (e.g. ground water depletion, dam building on rivers, crop irrigation, changes in land use and agricultural practices, etc.). Remote sensing observations offer important new information on this important topic as well, which is highly useful for achieving water management objectives. Over the past 15 years, remote sensing techniques have increasingly demonstrated their capability to monitor components of th...

  14. ACCURACY DIMENSIONS IN REMOTE SENSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Á. Barsi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The technological developments in remote sensing (RS during the past decade has contributed to a significant increase in the size of data user community. For this reason data quality issues in remote sensing face a significant increase in importance, particularly in the era of Big Earth data. Dozens of available sensors, hundreds of sophisticated data processing techniques, countless software tools assist the processing of RS data and contributes to a major increase in applications and users. In the past decades, scientific and technological community of spatial data environment were focusing on the evaluation of data quality elements computed for point, line, area geometry of vector and raster data. Stakeholders of data production commonly use standardised parameters to characterise the quality of their datasets. Yet their efforts to estimate the quality did not reach the general end-user community running heterogeneous applications who assume that their spatial data is error-free and best fitted to the specification standards. The non-specialist, general user group has very limited knowledge how spatial data meets their needs. These parameters forming the external quality dimensions implies that the same data system can be of different quality to different users. The large collection of the observed information is uncertain in a level that can decry the reliability of the applications. Based on prior paper of the authors (in cooperation within the Remote Sensing Data Quality working group of ISPRS, which established a taxonomy on the dimensions of data quality in GIS and remote sensing domains, this paper is aiming at focusing on measures of uncertainty in remote sensing data lifecycle, focusing on land cover mapping issues. In the paper we try to introduce how quality of the various combination of data and procedures can be summarized and how services fit the users’ needs. The present paper gives the theoretic overview of the issue, besides

  15. Accuracy Dimensions in Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsi, Á.; Kugler, Zs.; László, I.; Szabó, Gy.; Abdulmutalib, H. M.

    2018-04-01

    The technological developments in remote sensing (RS) during the past decade has contributed to a significant increase in the size of data user community. For this reason data quality issues in remote sensing face a significant increase in importance, particularly in the era of Big Earth data. Dozens of available sensors, hundreds of sophisticated data processing techniques, countless software tools assist the processing of RS data and contributes to a major increase in applications and users. In the past decades, scientific and technological community of spatial data environment were focusing on the evaluation of data quality elements computed for point, line, area geometry of vector and raster data. Stakeholders of data production commonly use standardised parameters to characterise the quality of their datasets. Yet their efforts to estimate the quality did not reach the general end-user community running heterogeneous applications who assume that their spatial data is error-free and best fitted to the specification standards. The non-specialist, general user group has very limited knowledge how spatial data meets their needs. These parameters forming the external quality dimensions implies that the same data system can be of different quality to different users. The large collection of the observed information is uncertain in a level that can decry the reliability of the applications. Based on prior paper of the authors (in cooperation within the Remote Sensing Data Quality working group of ISPRS), which established a taxonomy on the dimensions of data quality in GIS and remote sensing domains, this paper is aiming at focusing on measures of uncertainty in remote sensing data lifecycle, focusing on land cover mapping issues. In the paper we try to introduce how quality of the various combination of data and procedures can be summarized and how services fit the users' needs. The present paper gives the theoretic overview of the issue, besides selected, practice

  16. Remote Sensing Information Gateway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remote Sensing Information Gateway, a tool that allows scientists, researchers and decision makers to access a variety of multi-terabyte, environmental datasets and to subset the data and obtain only needed variables, greatly improving the download time.

  17. Hyperspectral remote sensing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eismann, Michael Theodore

    2012-01-01

    ..., and hyperspectral data processing. While there are many resources that suitably cover these areas individually and focus on specific aspects of the hyperspectral remote sensing field, this book provides a holistic treatment...

  18. Comprehensive, integrated, remote sensing at DOE sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lackey, J.G.; Burson, Z.G.

    1985-01-01

    The Department of Energy has established a program called Comprehensive, Integrated Remote Sensing (CIRS). The overall objective of the program is to provide a state-of-the-art data base of remotely sensed data for all users of such information at large DOE sites. The primary types of remote sensing provided, at present, consist of the following: large format aerial photography, video from aerial platforms, multispectral scanning, and airborne nuclear radiometric surveys. Implementation of the CIRS Program by EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc. began with field operations at the Savannah River Plant in 1982 and is continuing at that DOE site at a level of effort of about $1.5 m per year. Integrated remote sensing studies were subsequently extended to the West Valley Demonstration Project in this summer and fall of 1984. It is expected that the Program will eventually be extended to cover all large DOE sites on a continuing basis

  19. Cooperative Spectrum Sensing over Non-Identical Nakagami Fading Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Rao, Anlei

    2012-09-08

    Previous works in cooperative spectrum sensing assumed that the channels for sensing and reporting are independent identical distributed (i.i.d). A more practical and appropriate assumption, however, should be that the sensing channels and reporting channels are independent but not necessarily identically distributed (i.n.i.d). In this paper, we derive the false-alarm probability and the detection probability of cooperative spectrum sensing with energy fusion over i.n.i.d Nakagami fading channels. Selected numerical results show that cooperative spectrum sensing still gives considerably better performance results even over i.n.i.d fading channels.

  20. Husserl’s theory of noematic sense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Olga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available After Husserl’s transcendental turn and the discovery of the correlation between consciousness and the world the concept of the noema becomes one of the constant leitmotifs of Husserl’s philosophy. My paper will be devoted to the clarification of this concept and its implications for Husserl’s theory of sense. The leading question will be: How can the noema play the role of both the sense and the objective correlate of the intentional act? I will start with presenting the problematic of sense in Husserl’s phenomenology from the Logical Investigations to the Ideas I. The central part of my paper will be devoted to the influential debate regarding the interpretation of the noema. Finally, I intend to point out the most important ways in which the notion of the noema becomes enriched in later Husserl’s philosophy, as well as the difference between linguisitic and non-linguistic sense, based on the Analyses Concerning Passive and Active Synthesis. I hope to show that Husserl’s phenomenological theory of sense offers a valuable alternative to the exclusively language-oriented theories of sense. [This paper is the abridged and reworked version of my Master’s Thesis "Husser’s Notion of the Noema: The Phenomenological Theory of Sense" defended at KU Leuven in January 2016.

  1. Creative Mathematical Games: The Enhancement of Number Sense of Kindergarten Children Through Fun Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirawati

    2017-02-01

    The research departed from an issue found regarding the number sense of kindergarten children and as a solution to this problem, the research proposes the use of creative mathematical games in the teaching and learning. Departing from the issue and the offered solution, the following problems are about Children’s ability of number sense before and after the implementation of creative mathematical games; the forms of creative mathematical games in improving children’s number sense; the implementation of creative mathematical games in improving children’s number sense; and the factors possibly affecting the implementation of creative mathematical games. This study use action research method. The data were collected through observation, interview, and documentation and then qualitatively analysed using thematic analysis technique. The findings show that children respond positively to the creative mathematical games. They demonstrate fairly high enthusiasm and are able to understand number as well as its meaning in various ways. Children’s number sense has also improved in terms of one-on-one correspondence and mentioning and comparing many objects. The factors possibly affecting the implementation of these creative mathematical games are the media and the stages of teaching and learning that should be in accordance with the level of kindergarten children’s number sense.

  2. Passive infrared motion sensing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doctor, A.P.

    1994-01-01

    In the last 10 years passive IR based (8--12 microns) motion sensing has matured to become the dominant method of volumetric space protection and surveillance. These systems currently cost less than $25 to produce and yet use traditionally expensive IR optics, filters, sensors and electronic circuitry. This IR application is quite interesting in that the volumes of systems produced and the costs and performance level required prove that there is potential for large scale commercial applications of IR technology. This paper will develop the basis and principles of operation of a staring motion sensor system using a technical approach. A model for the motion of the target is developed and compared to the background. The IR power difference between the target and the background as well as the optical requirements are determined from basic principles and used to determine the performance of the system. Low cost reflective and refractive IR optics and bandpass IR filters are discussed. The pyroelectric IR detector commonly used is fully discussed and characterized. Various schemes for ''false alarms'' have been developed and are also explained. This technology is also used in passive IR based motion sensors for other applications such as lighting control. These applications are also discussed. In addition the paper will discuss new developments in IR surveillance technology such as the use of linear motion sensing arrays. This presentation can be considered a ''primer'' on the art of Passive IR Motion Sensing as applied to Surveillance Technology

  3. An Energy Efficient Cognitive Radio System with Quantized Soft Sensing and Duration Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Alabbasi, Abdulrahman

    2015-03-09

    In this paper, an energy efficient cognitive radio system is proposed. The proposed design optimizes the secondary user transmission power and the sensing duration combined with soft-sensing information to minimize the energy per goodbit. Due to the non-convex nature of the problem we prove its pseudo-convexity to guarantee the optimal solution. Furthermore, a quantization scheme, that discretize the softsensing information, is proposed and analyzed to reduce the overload of the continuously adapted power. Numerical results show that our proposed system outperforms the benchmark systems. The impact of the quantization levels and other system parameters is evaluated in the numerical results.

  4. Pattern recognition of neurotransmitters using multimode sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan-van Staden, Raluca-Ioana; Moldoveanu, Iuliana; van Staden, Jacobus Frederick

    2014-05-30

    Pattern recognition is essential in chemical analysis of biological fluids. Reliable and sensitive methods for neurotransmitters analysis are needed. Therefore, we developed for pattern recognition of neurotransmitters: dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine a method based on multimode sensing. Multimode sensing was performed using microsensors based on diamond paste modified with 5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-21H,23H-porphyrine, hemin and protoporphyrin IX in stochastic and differential pulse voltammetry modes. Optimized working conditions: phosphate buffer solution of pH 3.01 and KCl 0.1mol/L (as electrolyte support), were determined using cyclic voltammetry and used in all measurements. The lowest limits of quantification were: 10(-10)mol/L for dopamine and epinephrine, and 10(-11)mol/L for norepinephrine. The multimode microsensors were selective over ascorbic and uric acids and the method facilitated reliable assay of neurotransmitters in urine samples, and therefore, the pattern recognition showed high reliability (RSDneurotransmitters on biological fluids at a lower determination level than chromatographic methods. The sampling of the biological fluids referees only to the buffering (1:1, v/v) with a phosphate buffer pH 3.01, while for chromatographic methods the sampling is laborious. Accordingly with the statistic evaluation of the results at 99.00% confidence level, both modes can be used for pattern recognition and quantification of neurotransmitters with high reliability. The best multimode microsensor was the one based on diamond paste modified with protoporphyrin IX. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Sensing the wind profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, A.

    2009-03-15

    This thesis consists of two parts. The first is a synopsis of the theoretical progress of the study that is based on a number of journal papers. The papers, which constitute the second part of the report, aim to analyze, measure, and model the wind prole in and beyond the surface layer by combining observations from cup anemometers with lidars. The lidar is necessary to extend the measurements on masts at the Horns Rev offshore wind farm and over at land at Hoevsoere, Denmark. Both sensing techniques show a high degree of agreement for wind speed measurements performed at either sites. The wind speed measurements are averaged for several stability conditions and compare well with the surface-layer wind profile. At Hoevsoere, it is sufficient to scale the wind speed with the surface friction velocity, whereas at Horns Rev a new scaling is added, due to the variant roughness length. This new scaling is coupled to wind prole models derived for flow over the sea and tested against the wind proles up to 160 m at Horns Rev. The models, which account for the boundary-layer height in stable conditions, show better agreement with the measurements than compared to the traditional theory. Mixing-length parameterizations for the neutral wind prole compare well with length-scale measurements up to 300 m at Hoevsoere and 950 m at Leipzig. The mixing-length-derived wind proles strongly deviate from the logarithmic wind prole, but agree better with the wind speed measurements. The length-scale measurements are compared to the length scale derived from a spectral analysis performed up to 160 m at Hoevsoere showing high agreement. Mixing-length parameterizations are corrected to account for stability and used to derive wind prole models. These compared better to wind speed measurements up to 300 m at Hoevsoere than the surface-layer wind prole. The boundary-layer height is derived in nearneutral and stable conditions based on turbulent momentum uxes only and in unstable conditions

  6. The Improvement of Land Cover Classification by Thermal Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liya Sun

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Land cover classification has been widely investigated in remote sensing for agricultural, ecological and hydrological applications. Landsat images with multispectral bands are commonly used to study the numerous classification methods in order to improve the classification accuracy. Thermal remote sensing provides valuable information to investigate the effectiveness of the thermal bands in extracting land cover patterns. k-NN and Random Forest algorithms were applied to both the single Landsat 8 image and the time series Landsat 4/5 images for the Attert catchment in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, trained and validated by the ground-truth reference data considering the three level classification scheme from COoRdination of INformation on the Environment (CORINE using the 10-fold cross validation method. The accuracy assessment showed that compared to the visible and near infrared (VIS/NIR bands, the time series of thermal images alone can produce comparatively reliable land cover maps with the best overall accuracy of 98.7% to 99.1% for Level 1 classification and 93.9% to 96.3% for the Level 2 classification. In addition, the combination with the thermal band improves the overall accuracy by 5% and 6% for the single Landsat 8 image in Level 2 and Level 3 category and provides the best classified results with all seven bands for the time series of Landsat TM images.

  7. Sense of coherence and burnout in the energy and chemicals industry: The moderating role of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanet van der Westhuizen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Organisations are accommodating four different social generations in the working environment. This poses a challenge for Human Resources departments to manage these diverse age cohorts in the workforce, as they are likely to have different needs, values and variables affecting their wellness. Research purpose: The objective of the present study was to assess whether various age groups differ with regard to their sense of coherence and burnout, and whether age significantly moderates the relationship between sense of coherence and burnout. Motivation for the study: Although the literature review suggests that age groups may differ with regard to their sense of coherence and burnout, the findings seem to be somewhat inconclusive in this regard. There also seems to be a paucity of research examining the interaction effect between sense of coherence, burnout and age. Research approach, design and method: A cross-sectional quantitative survey approach was used. A nonprobability convenience sample of adults (N = 246 – employed in South Africa by an international integrated energy and chemicals company – participated in the study. Correlation, analysis of variance (ANOVA and hierarchical multiple regression analyses were performed to achieve the objectives of the study. Main findings: The results showed that employees between the ages of 51 and 60 years of age experienced higher levels of comprehensibility and lower levels of reduced professional efficacy than their younger counterparts. The relationship between sense of coherence and exhaustion was also stronger for employees between 51 and 60 years old than for younger age categories. Practical/managerial implications: The results of the study can be useful when planning human resource interventions to enhance the well-being of employees from different age groups. Contribution: The results of the study add new insights to the well-being literature by showing that employees’ age is

  8. Ambiguity of Quality in Remote Sensing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynnes, Christopher; Leptoukh, Greg

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the issues in quality of remote sensing data. Data "quality" is used in several different contexts in remote sensing data, with quite different meanings. At the pixel level, quality typically refers to a quality control process exercised by the processing algorithm, not an explicit declaration of accuracy or precision. File level quality is usually a statistical summary of the pixel-level quality but is of doubtful use for scenes covering large areal extents. Quality at the dataset or product level, on the other hand, usually refers to how accurately the dataset is believed to represent the physical quantities it purports to measure. This assessment often bears but an indirect relationship at best to pixel level quality. In addition to ambiguity at different levels of granularity, ambiguity is endemic within levels. Pixel-level quality terms vary widely, as do recommendations for use of these flags. At the dataset/product level, quality for low-resolution gridded products is often extrapolated from validation campaigns using high spatial resolution swath data, a suspect practice at best. Making use of quality at all levels is complicated by the dependence on application needs. We will present examples of the various meanings of quality in remote sensing data and possible ways forward toward a more unified and usable quality framework.

  9. Show Horse Welfare: Horse Show Competitors' Understanding, Awareness, and Perceptions of Equine Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Melissa A; Hiney, Kristina; Richardson, Jennifer C; Waite, Karen; Borron, Abigail; Brady, Colleen M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of stock-type horse show competitors' understanding of welfare and level of concern for stock-type show horses' welfare. Data were collected through an online questionnaire that included questions relating to (a) interest and general understanding of horse welfare, (b) welfare concerns of the horse show industry and specifically the stock-type horse show industry, (c) decision-making influences, and (d) level of empathic characteristics. The majority of respondents indicated they agree or strongly agree that physical metrics should be a factor when assessing horse welfare, while fewer agreed that behavioral and mental metrics should be a factor. Respondent empathy levels were moderate to high and were positively correlated with the belief that mental and behavioral metrics should be a factor in assessing horse welfare. Respondents indicated the inhumane practices that most often occur at stock-type shows include excessive jerking on reins, excessive spurring, and induced excessive unnatural movement. Additionally, respondents indicated association rules, hired trainers, and hired riding instructors are the most influential regarding the decisions they make related to their horses' care and treatment.

  10. Humidity Sensing in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enjin, Anders; Zaharieva, Emanuela E; Frank, Dominic D; Mansourian, Suzan; Suh, Greg S B; Gallio, Marco; Stensmyr, Marcus C

    2016-05-23

    Environmental humidity influences the fitness and geographic distribution of all animals [1]. Insects in particular use humidity cues to navigate the environment, and previous work suggests the existence of specific sensory mechanisms to detect favorable humidity ranges [2-5]. Yet, the molecular and cellular basis of humidity sensing (hygrosensation) remains poorly understood. Here we describe genes and neurons necessary for hygrosensation in the vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster. We find that members of the Drosophila genus display species-specific humidity preferences related to conditions in their native habitats. Using a simple behavioral assay, we find that the ionotropic receptors IR40a, IR93a, and IR25a are all required for humidity preference in D. melanogaster. Yet, whereas IR40a is selectively required for hygrosensory responses, IR93a and IR25a mediate both humidity and temperature preference. Consistent with this, the expression of IR93a and IR25a includes thermosensory neurons of the arista. In contrast, IR40a is excluded from the arista but is expressed (and required) in specialized neurons innervating pore-less sensilla of the sacculus, a unique invagination of the third antennal segment. Indeed, calcium imaging showed that IR40a neurons directly respond to changes in humidity, and IR40a knockdown or IR93a mutation reduced their responses to stimuli. Taken together, our results suggest that the preference for a specific humidity range depends on specialized sacculus neurons, and that the processing of environmental humidity can happen largely in parallel to that of temperature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Health Participatory Sensing Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Clarke

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of participatory sensing in relation to the capture of health-related data is rapidly becoming a possibility due to the widespread consumer adoption of emerging mobile computing technologies and sensing platforms. This has the potential to revolutionize data collection for population health, aspects of epidemiology, and health-related e-Science applications and as we will describe, provide new public health intervention capabilities, with the classifications and capabilities of such participatory sensing platforms only just beginning to be explored. Such a development will have important benefits for access to near real-time, large-scale, up to population-scale data collection. However, there are also numerous issues to be addressed first: provision of stringent anonymity and privacy within these methodologies, user interface issues, and the related issue of how to incentivize participants and address barriers/concerns over participation. To provide a step towards describing these aspects, in this paper we present a first classification of health participatory sensing models, a novel contribution to the literature, and provide a conceptual reference architecture for health participatory sensing networks (HPSNs and user interaction example case study.

  12. Sensing in tissue bioreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolfe, P.

    2006-03-01

    Specialized sensing and measurement instruments are under development to aid the controlled culture of cells in bioreactors for the fabrication of biological tissues. Precisely defined physical and chemical conditions are needed for the correct culture of the many cell-tissue types now being studied, including chondrocytes (cartilage), vascular endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells (blood vessels), fibroblasts, hepatocytes (liver) and receptor neurones. Cell and tissue culture processes are dynamic and therefore, optimal control requires monitoring of the key process variables. Chemical and physical sensing is approached in this paper with the aim of enabling automatic optimal control, based on classical cell growth models, to be achieved. Non-invasive sensing is performed via the bioreactor wall, invasive sensing with probes placed inside the cell culture chamber and indirect monitoring using analysis within a shunt or a sampling chamber. Electroanalytical and photonics-based systems are described. Chemical sensing for gases, ions, metabolites, certain hormones and proteins, is under development. Spectroscopic analysis of the culture medium is used for measurement of glucose and for proteins that are markers of cell biosynthetic behaviour. Optical interrogation of cells and tissues is also investigated for structural analysis based on scatter.

  13. Tracking diurnal changes of photosynthesis and evapotranspiration using fluorescence, gas exchange and hyperspectral remote sensing measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S.; Zhang, L.; Guanter, L.; Huang, C.

    2017-12-01

    Photosynthesis and evapotranspiration (ET) are the two most important activities of vegetation and make a great contribution to carbon, water and energy exchanges. Remote sensing provides opportunities for monitoring these processes across time and space. This study focuses on tracking diurnal changes of photosynthesis and evapotranspiration over soybean using multiple measurement techniques. Diurnal changes of both remote sensing-based indicators, including active and passive chlorophyll fluorescence and biophysical-related parameters, including photosynthesis rate (photo) and leaf stomatal conductance (cond), were observed. Results showed that both leaf-level steady-state fluorescence (Fs) and canopy-level solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence were linearly correlated to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) during the daytime. A double-peak diurnal change curve was observed for leaf-level photo and cond but not for Fs or SIF. Photo and cond showed a strong nonlinear (second-order) correlation, indicating that photosynthesis, which might be remotely sensed by SIF, has the opportunity to track short-term changes of ET. Results presented in this report will be helpful for better understanding the relationship between remote-sensing-based indices and vegetation's biophysical processes.

  14. Remote Sensing Digital Image Analysis An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Richards, John A

    2013-01-01

    Remote Sensing Digital Image Analysis provides the non-specialist with a treatment of the quantitative analysis of satellite and aircraft derived remotely sensed data. Since the first edition of the book there have been significant developments in the algorithms used for the processing and analysis of remote sensing imagery; nevertheless many of the fundamentals have substantially remained the same.  This new edition presents material that has retained value since those early days, along with new techniques that can be incorporated into an operational framework for the analysis of remote sensing data. The book is designed as a teaching text for the senior undergraduate and postgraduate student, and as a fundamental treatment for those engaged in research using digital image processing in remote sensing.  The presentation level is for the mathematical non-specialist.  Since the very great number of operational users of remote sensing come from the earth sciences communities, the text is pitched at a leve...

  15. Sense of social support in chonic pain patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ancane G.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Statistical data show that one in five adults of the European citizen suffer from some type of chronic pain. One of the most common types of chronic pain is chronic low back and neck pain. Emotional factors are currently viewed as important determinants in pain perception and behaviour. The perceived social and emotional support have impact to the individual’s adaptation to chronic disease (Cohen, Wills, 1985. The material: 110 chronic low back pain (CLBP patients (48 male and 62 female; in age from 24 to 60 years, mean: 44.2±8, 0 and pilot study of 23 chronic neck pain (CNP patients (19 female and 4 male; in age from 35 to 60 years, mean: 48, 1 ±6. The assessment methods: structured interview; Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. SF-36 ® Health Survey: assessment of emotional and social support. Results and conclusions: CLBP patients in presence of symptoms of depression and elevated level of anxiety matched for socio-demographic features had less sense of social support and marked pain impact to daily activities, lower self rating health relating quality of life. In CLBP patients the sense of social and emotional support had relevant interaction with level of participation in daily activities both in patients with and without mental health problems. This fact has to be considered in process of rehabilitation and in managing of health care of CLBP patients. The results of CNP patients pilot study revealed interesting trend that chronic back and neck pain patients seems to be quite different according to sense of social and emotional support, therefore sense of social and emotional support in different chronic pain patients need further research to improve the process and results of rehabilitation in these patients.

  16. Electroactive polymers for sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Electromechanical coupling in electroactive polymers (EAPs) has been widely applied for actuation and is also being increasingly investigated for sensing chemical and mechanical stimuli. EAPs are a unique class of materials, with low-moduli high-strain capabilities and the ability to conform to surfaces of different shapes. These features make them attractive for applications such as wearable sensors and interfacing with soft tissues. Here, we review the major types of EAPs and their sensing mechanisms. These are divided into two classes depending on the main type of charge carrier: ionic EAPs (such as conducting polymers and ionic polymer–metal composites) and electronic EAPs (such as dielectric elastomers, liquid-crystal polymers and piezoelectric polymers). This review is intended to serve as an introduction to the mechanisms of these materials and as a first step in material selection for both researchers and designers of flexible/bendable devices, biocompatible sensors or even robotic tactile sensing units. PMID:27499846

  17. Dual-modal cancer detection based on optical pH sensing and Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soogeun; Lee, Seung Ho; Min, Sun Young; Byun, Kyung Min; Lee, Soo Yeol

    2017-10-01

    A dual-modal approach using Raman spectroscopy and optical pH sensing was investigated to discriminate between normal and cancerous tissues. Raman spectroscopy has demonstrated the potential for in vivo cancer detection. However, Raman spectroscopy has suffered from strong fluorescence background of biological samples and subtle spectral differences between normal and disease tissues. To overcome those issues, pH sensing is adopted to Raman spectroscopy as a dual-modal approach. Based on the fact that the pH level in cancerous tissues is lower than that in normal tissues due to insufficient vasculature formation, the dual-modal approach combining the chemical information of Raman spectrum and the metabolic information of pH level can improve the specificity of cancer diagnosis. From human breast tissue samples, Raman spectra and pH levels are measured using fiber-optic-based Raman and pH probes, respectively. The pH sensing is based on the dependence of pH level on optical transmission spectrum. Multivariate statistical analysis is performed to evaluate the classification capability of the dual-modal method. The analytical results show that the dual-modal method based on Raman spectroscopy and optical pH sensing can improve the performance of cancer classification. (2017) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  18. Dual-modal cancer detection based on optical pH sensing and Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soogeun; Lee, Seung Ho; Min, Sun Young; Byun, Kyung Min; Lee, Soo Yeol

    2017-10-01

    A dual-modal approach using Raman spectroscopy and optical pH sensing was investigated to discriminate between normal and cancerous tissues. Raman spectroscopy has demonstrated the potential for in vivo cancer detection. However, Raman spectroscopy has suffered from strong fluorescence background of biological samples and subtle spectral differences between normal and disease tissues. To overcome those issues, pH sensing is adopted to Raman spectroscopy as a dual-modal approach. Based on the fact that the pH level in cancerous tissues is lower than that in normal tissues due to insufficient vasculature formation, the dual-modal approach combining the chemical information of Raman spectrum and the metabolic information of pH level can improve the specificity of cancer diagnosis. From human breast tissue samples, Raman spectra and pH levels are measured using fiber-optic-based Raman and pH probes, respectively. The pH sensing is based on the dependence of pH level on optical transmission spectrum. Multivariate statistical analysis is performed to evaluate the classification capability of the dual-modal method. The analytical results show that the dual-modal method based on Raman spectroscopy and optical pH sensing can improve the performance of cancer classification.

  19. Liquid metal level measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hale, J.C.; Leyland, K.S.

    1982-01-01

    A liquid metal level indicator is described which can be used to measure, in a stainless steel tank, the level of a nuclear reactor coolant such as sodium. The instrument, which is based on the eddy current induction effect, gives readings over substantially the full depth of the tank and indicates the sense of change of level. (U.K.)

  20. Contemporary sea level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazenave, Anny; Llovel, William

    2010-01-01

    Measuring sea level change and understanding its causes has considerably improved in the recent years, essentially because new in situ and remote sensing observations have become available. Here we report on most recent results on contemporary sea level rise. We first present sea level observations from tide gauges over the twentieth century and from satellite altimetry since the early 1990s. We next discuss the most recent progress made in quantifying the processes causing sea level change on timescales ranging from years to decades, i.e., thermal expansion of the oceans, land ice mass loss, and land water-storage change. We show that for the 1993-2007 time span, the sum of climate-related contributions (2.85 +/- 0.35 mm year(-1)) is only slightly less than altimetry-based sea level rise (3.3 +/- 0.4 mm year(-1)): approximately 30% of the observed rate of rise is due to ocean thermal expansion and approximately 55% results from land ice melt. Recent acceleration in glacier melting and ice mass loss from the ice sheets increases the latter contribution up to 80% for the past five years. We also review the main causes of regional variability in sea level trends: The dominant contribution results from nonuniform changes in ocean thermal expansion.

  1. Sensing of RNA viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    2012-01-01

    pathogen-associated molecular patterns have emerged in great detail. This review presents an overview of our current knowledge regarding the receptors used to detect RNA virus invasion, the molecular structures these receptors sense, and the involved downstream signaling pathways.......Our knowledge regarding the contribution of the innate immune system in recognizing and subsequently initiating a host response to an invasion of RNA virus has been rapidly growing over the last decade. Descriptions of the receptors involved and the molecular mechanisms they employ to sense viral...

  2. Remote sensing image fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Alparone, Luciano; Baronti, Stefano; Garzelli, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    A synthesis of more than ten years of experience, Remote Sensing Image Fusion covers methods specifically designed for remote sensing imagery. The authors supply a comprehensive classification system and rigorous mathematical description of advanced and state-of-the-art methods for pansharpening of multispectral images, fusion of hyperspectral and panchromatic images, and fusion of data from heterogeneous sensors such as optical and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images and integration of thermal and visible/near-infrared images. They also explore new trends of signal/image processing, such as

  3. Radar Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    This lecture was just a taste of radar remote sensing techniques and applications. Other important areas include Stereo radar grammetry. PolInSAR for volumetric structure mapping. Agricultural monitoring, soil moisture, ice-mapping, etc. The broad range of sensor types, frequencies of observation and availability of sensors have enabled radar sensors to make significant contributions in a wide area of earth and planetary remote sensing sciences. The range of applications, both qualitative and quantitative, continue to expand with each new generation of sensors.

  4. The Need of Belonging and Sense of Belonging versus Effectiveness of Coping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilczyńska Agnieszka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to describe the dependence between the need for and sense of belonging and symptoms of depression vs. one’s capacity to cope effectively. Using path analysis of our data (N = 178, we found direct patterns, in which both depression symptoms and life satisfaction depend to a considerable degree on the sense of belonging. The belonging need influences, in a direct way, the coping focused on the search for social support. Undertaking active techniques of coping, including confrontation with a stressful situation and its negative controlling impact, depends on having a high level of the sense of belonging. In contrast, individuals who cope by means of taking psychoactive drugs show the symptoms of depression.

  5. PHOTOGRAMMETRY – REMOTE SENSING AND GEOINFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Lazaridou

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Earth and its environment are studied by different scientific disciplines as geosciences, science of engineering, social sciences, geography, etc. The study of the above, beyond pure scientific interest, is useful for the practical needs of man. Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (defined by Statute II of ISPRS is the art, science, and technology of obtaining reliable information from non-contact imaging and other sensor systems about the Earth and its environment, and other physical objects and of processes through recording, measuring, analyzing and representation. Therefore, according to this definition, photogrammetry and remote sensing can support studies of the above disciplines for acquisition of geoinformation. This paper concerns basic concepts of geosciences (geomorphology, geology, hydrology etc, and the fundamentals of photogrammetry-remote sensing, in order to aid the understanding of the relationship between photogrammetry-remote sensing and geoinformation and also structure curriculum in a brief, concise and coherent way. This curriculum can represent an appropriate research and educational outline and help to disseminate knowledge in various directions and levels. It resulted from our research and educational experience in graduate and post-graduate level (post-graduate studies relative to the protection of environment and protection of monuments and historical centers in the Lab. of Photogrammetry – Remote Sensing in Civil Engineering Faculty of Aristotle University of Thessaloniki.

  6. Optimality of Multichannel Myopic Sensing in the Presence of Sensing Error for Opportunistic Spectrum Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The optimization problem for the performance of opportunistic spectrum access is considered in this study. A user, with the limited sensing capacity, has opportunistic access to a communication system with multiple channels. The user can only choose several channels to sense and decides whether to access these channels based on the sensing information in each time slot. Meanwhile, the presence of sensing error is considered. A reward is obtained when the user accesses a channel. The objective is to maximize the expected (discounted or average reward accrued over an infinite horizon. This problem can be formulated as a partially observable Markov decision process. This study shows the optimality of the simple and robust myopic policy which focuses on maximizing the immediate reward. The results show that the myopic policy is optimal in the case of practical interest.

  7. Smart sensing surveillance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Charles; Chu, Kai-Dee; O'Looney, James; Blake, Michael; Rutar, Colleen

    2010-04-01

    An effective public safety sensor system for heavily-populated applications requires sophisticated and geographically-distributed infrastructures, centralized supervision, and deployment of large-scale security and surveillance networks. Artificial intelligence in sensor systems is a critical design to raise awareness levels, improve the performance of the system and adapt to a changing scenario and environment. In this paper, a highly-distributed, fault-tolerant, and energy-efficient Smart Sensing Surveillance System (S4) is presented to efficiently provide a 24/7 and all weather security operation in crowded environments or restricted areas. Technically, the S4 consists of a number of distributed sensor nodes integrated with specific passive sensors to rapidly collect, process, and disseminate heterogeneous sensor data from near omni-directions. These distributed sensor nodes can cooperatively work to send immediate security information when new objects appear. When the new objects are detected, the S4 will smartly select the available node with a Pan- Tilt- Zoom- (PTZ) Electro-Optics EO/IR camera to track the objects and capture associated imagery. The S4 provides applicable advanced on-board digital image processing capabilities to detect and track the specific objects. The imaging detection operations include unattended object detection, human feature and behavior detection, and configurable alert triggers, etc. Other imaging processes can be updated to meet specific requirements and operations. In the S4, all the sensor nodes are connected with a robust, reconfigurable, LPI/LPD (Low Probability of Intercept/ Low Probability of Detect) wireless mesh network using Ultra-wide band (UWB) RF technology. This UWB RF technology can provide an ad-hoc, secure mesh network and capability to relay network information, communicate and pass situational awareness and messages. The Service Oriented Architecture of S4 enables remote applications to interact with the S4

  8. A Privacy-Preserving Incentive Mechanism for Participatory Sensing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoguang Niu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The proliferation of mobile devices has facilitated the prevalence of participatory sensing applications in which participants collect and share information in their environments. The design of a participatory sensing application confronts two challenges: “privacy” and “incentive” which are two conflicting objectives and deserve deeper attention. Inspired by physical currency circulation system, this paper introduces the notion of E-cent, an exchangeable unit bearer currency. Participants can use the E-cent to take part in tasks anonymously. By employing E-cent, we propose an E-cent-based privacy-preserving incentive mechanism, called EPPI. As a dynamic balance regulatory mechanism, EPPI can not only protect the privacy of participant, but also adjust the whole system to the ideal situation, under which the rated tasks can be finished at minimal cost. To the best of our knowledge, EPPI is the first attempt to build an incentive mechanism while maintaining the desired privacy in participatory sensing systems. Extensive simulation and analysis results show that EPPI can achieve high anonymity level and remarkable incentive effects.

  9. A Sense of Place

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Black

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available People increasingly want to know where their food and wine comes from and who produces it. This is part of developing a taste of place, or what the French call terroir. The academic and industry debates surrounding the concept of terroir are explored, and the efforts of Massachusetts wine producers to define their sense of place are discussed.

  10. Remote sensing: best practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Gareth [Sgurr Energy (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents remote sensing best practice in the wind industry. Remote sensing is a technique whereby measurements are obtained from the interaction of laser or acoustic pulses with the atmosphere. There is a vast diversity of tools and techniques available and they offer wide scope for reducing project uncertainty and risk but best practice must take into account versatility and flexibility. It should focus on the outcome in terms of results and data. However, traceability of accuracy requires comparison with conventional instruments. The framework for the Boulder protocol is given. Overviews of the guidelines for IEA SODAR and IEA LIDAR are also mentioned. The important elements of IEC 61400-12-1, an international standard for wind turbines, are given. Bankability is defined based on the Boulder protocol and a pie chart is presented that illustrates the uncertainty area covered by remote sensing. In conclusion it can be said that remote sensing is changing perceptions about how wind energy assessments can be made.

  11. The sense of agency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritterband-Rosenbaum, Anina

    Imagine that you are reaching for a cup of coffee. You experience that you are moving and that you have control of the movement you are executing. This feeling of control of your own body and the movements it is performing is called the sense of agency. This thesis consists of four studies which ...

  12. Temporal compressive sensing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Bryan W.

    2017-12-12

    Methods and systems for temporal compressive sensing are disclosed, where within each of one or more sensor array data acquisition periods, one or more sensor array measurement datasets comprising distinct linear combinations of time slice data are acquired, and where mathematical reconstruction allows for calculation of accurate representations of the individual time slice datasets.

  13. Engaging All the Senses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schleicher, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    Based on an analysis of the process of making and inaugurating a Torah scroll, this article describes what is likely to trigger sensory responses in the participants in each phase of the process and the function of activating the five senses of touch, hearing, vision, smell, and taste. By disting...

  14. Section summary: Remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belinda Arunarwati Margono

    2013-01-01

    Remote sensing is an important data source for monitoring the change of forest cover, in terms of both total removal of forest cover (deforestation), and change of canopy cover, structure and forest ecosystem services that result in forest degradation. In the context of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), forest degradation monitoring requires information...

  15. Sense and Sanitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van B.J.M.; Spaargaren, G.

    2010-01-01

    Historically, sanitation infrastructures have been designed to do away with sensory experiences. As in the present phase of modernity the senses are assigned a crucial role in the perception of risks, a paradigm shift has emerged in the infrastructural provision of energy, water and waste services.

  16. Carbon for sensing devices

    CERN Document Server

    Tagliaferro, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    This book reveals why carbon is playing such an increasingly prominent role as a sensing material. The various steps that transform a raw material in a sensing device are thoroughly presented and critically discussed.  The authors deal with all aspects of carbon-based sensors, starting from the various hybridization and allotropes of carbon, with specific focus on micro and nanosized carbons (e.g., carbon nanotubes, graphene) and their growth processes. The discussion then moves to the role of functionalization and the different routes to achieve it. Finally, a number of sensing applications in various fields are presented, highlighting the connection with the basic properties of the various carbon allotropes.  Readers will benefit from this book’s bottom-up approach, which starts from the local bonding in carbon solids and ends with sensing applications, linking the local hybridization of carbon atoms and its modification by functionalization to specific device performance. This book is a must-have in th...

  17. Morphology impact on oxygen sensing ability of Ru(dpp){sub 3}Cl{sub 2} containing biocompatible polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Susan Y.; Harrison, Benjamin S., E-mail: bharriso@wakehealth.edu

    2015-08-01

    Especially for tissue engineering applications, the diffusion of oxygen is a critical factor affecting spatial distribution and migration of cells. The cellular oxygen demand also fluctuates depending on tissue type and growth phase. Sensors that determine dissolved oxygen levels under biological conditions provide critical metabolic information about the growing cells as well as the state of the tissue culture within the tissue scaffold. This work focused on the effect of the scaffold morphology on the oxygen sensing response time. It was found that electrospun scaffolds had a faster oxygen-sensing response time than their bulk film counterparts. Tris-(4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline) ruthenium (II) dichloride doped electrospun fiber mats of polycaprolactone (PCL) were found to be the most responsive to the presence of oxygen, followed by polyethylene (PEO) glycol mats. Systems containing poly vinyl alcohol were found to be the least responsive. This would suggest that, out of all the polymers tested, PCL and PEO are the most suitable biomaterials for oxygen-sensing applications. - Highlights: • Ru(DPP){sub 3}Cl{sub 2} was blended into common biocompatible polymers such as PEO, PCL, and PVA. • Oxygen sensing was more responsive when polymers were electrospun compared to bulk. • Electrospun PEO and PCL with Ru(dpp){sub 3}Cl{sub 2} showed similar oxygen sensing responses. • PVA showed a slight improvement in oxygen sensing rate when electrospun.

  18. Mathematical Sense-Making in Quantum Mechanics: An Initial Peek

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyfus, Benjamin W.; Elby, Andrew; Gupta, Ayush; Sohr, Erin Ronayne

    2017-01-01

    Mathematical sense-making--looking for coherence between the structure of the mathematical formalism and causal or functional relations in the world--is a core component of physics expertise. Some physics education research studies have explored what mathematical sense-making looks like at the introductory physics level, while some historians and…

  19. Using the senses in qualitative interview research: Practical strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guillemin, M.; Harris, A.

    2014-01-01

    In the social sciences, there has been an increasing level of interest in the five senses, especially in disciplines such as anthropology, sociology, architecture and human geography. In this case study, we focus on using the senses in qualitative research interviews. We discuss a research method

  20. Empowering Volunteer Money Sense Advisors at a Military Installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Joan; Varcoe, Karen

    Because money management is often a problem for lower-level military personnel, a resource management educational program called Money Sense was started by the University of California Cooperative Extension at Edwards Air Force Base in 1985. Volunteers for Money Sense were recruited at the base; they attended eight sessions on teaching techniques…

  1. Geoscience is Important? Show Me Why

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    "The public" is not homogenous and no single message or form of messaging will connect the entire public with the geosciences. One approach to promoting trust in, and engagement with, the geosciences is to identify specific sectors of the public and then develop interactions and communication products that are immediately relevant to that sector's interests. If the content and delivery are appropriate, this approach empowers people to connect with the geosciences on their own terms and to understand the relevance of the geosciences to their own situation. Federal policy makers are a distinct and influential subgroup of the general public. In preparation for the 2016 presidential election, the American Geosciences Institute (AGI) in collaboration with its 51 member societies prepared Geoscience for America's Critical Needs: Invitation to a National Dialogue, a document that identified major geoscience policy issues that should be addressed in a national policy platform. Following the election, AGI worked with eight other geoscience societies to develop Geoscience Policy Recommendations for the New Administration and the 115th Congress, which outlines specific policy actions to address national issues. State and local decision makers are another important subgroup of the public. AGI has developed online content, factsheets, and case studies with different levels of technical complexity so people can explore societally-relevant geoscience topics at their level of technical proficiency. A related webinar series is attracting a growing worldwide audience from many employment sectors. Partnering with government agencies and other scientific and professional societies has increased the visibility and credibility of these information products with our target audience. Surveys and other feedback show that these products are raising awareness of the geosciences and helping to build reciprocal relationships between geoscientists and decision makers. The core message of all

  2. Vehicle Detection and Classification Using Passive Infrared Sensing

    KAUST Repository

    Odat, Enas M.; Mousa, Mustafa; Claudel, Christian

    2015-01-01

    or multiple remote temperature sensors. We show an implementation of this device, and illustrate its performance in both traffic flow sensing. Field data shows that the sensor can detect vehicles with a 99% accuracy, in addition to estimating their speed

  3. Portraying Urban Functional Zones by Coupling Remote Sensing Imagery and Human Sensing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Tu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Portraying urban functional zones provides useful insights into understanding complex urban systems and establishing rational urban planning. Although several studies have confirmed the efficacy of remote sensing imagery in urban studies, coupling remote sensing and new human sensing data like mobile phone positioning data to identify urban functional zones has still not been investigated. In this study, a new framework integrating remote sensing imagery and mobile phone positioning data was developed to analyze urban functional zones with landscape and human activity metrics. Landscapes metrics were calculated based on land cover from remote sensing images. Human activities were extracted from massive mobile phone positioning data. By integrating them, urban functional zones (urban center, sub-center, suburbs, urban buffer, transit region and ecological area were identified by a hierarchical clustering. Finally, gradient analysis in three typical transects was conducted to investigate the pattern of landscapes and human activities. Taking Shenzhen, China, as an example, the conducted experiment shows that the pattern of landscapes and human activities in the urban functional zones in Shenzhen does not totally conform to the classical urban theories. It demonstrates that the fusion of remote sensing imagery and human sensing data can characterize the complex urban spatial structure in Shenzhen well. Urban functional zones have the potential to act as bridges between the urban structure, human activity and urban planning policy, providing scientific support for rational urban planning and sustainable urban development policymaking.

  4. Coding Strategies and Implementations of Compressive Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Tsung-Han

    This dissertation studies the coding strategies of computational imaging to overcome the limitation of conventional sensing techniques. The information capacity of conventional sensing is limited by the physical properties of optics, such as aperture size, detector pixels, quantum efficiency, and sampling rate. These parameters determine the spatial, depth, spectral, temporal, and polarization sensitivity of each imager. To increase sensitivity in any dimension can significantly compromise the others. This research implements various coding strategies subject to optical multidimensional imaging and acoustic sensing in order to extend their sensing abilities. The proposed coding strategies combine hardware modification and signal processing to exploiting bandwidth and sensitivity from conventional sensors. We discuss the hardware architecture, compression strategies, sensing process modeling, and reconstruction algorithm of each sensing system. Optical multidimensional imaging measures three or more dimensional information of the optical signal. Traditional multidimensional imagers acquire extra dimensional information at the cost of degrading temporal or spatial resolution. Compressive multidimensional imaging multiplexes the transverse spatial, spectral, temporal, and polarization information on a two-dimensional (2D) detector. The corresponding spectral, temporal and polarization coding strategies adapt optics, electronic devices, and designed modulation techniques for multiplex measurement. This computational imaging technique provides multispectral, temporal super-resolution, and polarization imaging abilities with minimal loss in spatial resolution and noise level while maintaining or gaining higher temporal resolution. The experimental results prove that the appropriate coding strategies may improve hundreds times more sensing capacity. Human auditory system has the astonishing ability in localizing, tracking, and filtering the selected sound sources or

  5. Novel Wearable Device for Blood Leakage Detection during Hemodialysis Using an Array Sensing Patch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yi-Chun; Lim, Bee-Yen; Ciou, Wei-Siang; Wu, Ming-Jui

    2016-06-09

    Hemodialysis (HD) is a clinical treatment that requires the puncturing of the body surface. However, needle dislodgement can cause a high risk of blood leakage and can be fatal to patients. Previous studies proposed several devices for blood leakage detection using optical or electrical techniques. Nonetheless, these methods used single-point detection and the design was not suitable for multi-bed monitoring. This study proposed a novel wearable device for blood leakage monitoring during HD using an array sensing patch. The array sensing patch combined with a mapping circuit and a wireless module could measure and transmit risk levels. The different risk levels could improve the working process of healthcare workers, and enhance their work efficiency and reduce inconvenience due to false alarms. Experimental results showed that each point of the sensing array could detect up to 0.1 mL of blood leakage and the array sensing patch supports a risk level monitoring system up to 8 h to alert healthcare personnel of pertinent danger to the patients.

  6. Novel Wearable Device for Blood Leakage Detection during Hemodialysis Using an Array Sensing Patch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chun Du

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hemodialysis (HD is a clinical treatment that requires the puncturing of the body surface. However, needle dislodgement can cause a high risk of blood leakage and can be fatal to patients. Previous studies proposed several devices for blood leakage detection using optical or electrical techniques. Nonetheless, these methods used single-point detection and the design was not suitable for multi-bed monitoring. This study proposed a novel wearable device for blood leakage monitoring during HD using an array sensing patch. The array sensing patch combined with a mapping circuit and a wireless module could measure and transmit risk levels. The different risk levels could improve the working process of healthcare workers, and enhance their work efficiency and reduce inconvenience due to false alarms. Experimental results showed that each point of the sensing array could detect up to 0.1 mL of blood leakage and the array sensing patch supports a risk level monitoring system up to 8 h to alert healthcare personnel of pertinent danger to the patients.

  7. Showing Emulsion Properties with Common Dairy Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo-Diaz, Carlos; Gonzalez-Romero, Elisa

    1996-09-01

    Foods are mixtures of different chemical compounds, and the quality we sense (taste, texture, color, etc.) are all manifestations of its chemical properties. Some of them can be visualized with the aid of simple, safe and inexpensive experiments using dairy products that can be found in any kitchen and using almost exclusively kitchen utensils. In this paper we propose some of them related with food emulsions. Food emulsions cover an extremely wide area of daily-life applications such as milk, sauces, dressings and beverages. Experimentation with some culinary recipes to prepare them and the analyisis of the observed results is close to ideal subject for the introduction of chemical principles, allowing to discuss about the nature and composition of foods, the effects of additives, etc. At the same time it allows to get insights into the scientific reasons that underlie on the recipes (something that it is not usually found in most cookbooks). For example, when making an emulsion like mayonnaise, why the egg yolks and water are the first materials in the bowl , and the oil is added to them rather than in the other way around? How you can "rescue" separate emulsions (mayonnaise)? Which parameters affect emulsion stability? Since safety, in its broad sense, is the first requisite for any food, concerns about food exist throughout the world and the more we are aware of our everyday life, the more likely we will be to deal productively with the consequences. On the other hand, understanding what foods are and how cooking works destroys no delightful mystery of the art of cuisine, instead the mystery expands.

  8. Tiltmeter Indicates Sense of Slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonborg, J. O.

    1985-01-01

    Tiltmeter indicates sense and magnitude of slope used in locations where incline not visible to operator. Use of direct rather than alternating current greatly simplifies design of instrument capable of indicating sense of slope.

  9. Remote sensing for water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giardino, Claudia

    2006-01-01

    The application of remote sensing to the study of lakes is begun in years 80 with the lunch of the satellites of second generation. Many experiences have indicated the contribution of remote sensing for the limnology [it

  10. Time-sensitive remote sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Lippitt, Christopher; Coulter, Lloyd

    2015-01-01

    This book documents the state of the art in the use of remote sensing to address time-sensitive information requirements. Specifically, it brings together a group of authors who are both researchers and practitioners, who work toward or are currently using remote sensing to address time-sensitive information requirements with the goal of advancing the effective use of remote sensing to supply time-sensitive information. The book addresses the theoretical implications of time-sensitivity on the remote sensing process, assessments or descriptions of methods for expediting the delivery and improving the quality of information derived from remote sensing, and describes and analyzes time-sensitive remote sensing applications, with an emphasis on lessons learned. This book is intended for remote sensing scientists, practitioners (e.g., emergency responders or administrators of emergency response agencies), and students, but will also be of use to those seeking to understand the potential of remote sensing to addres...

  11. Smart Sensing Using Wavelets Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Further refinements to the FOSS technologies are focusing on “smart” sensing techniques that adjust sensing parameters as needed in real time so that...

  12. Validation plays the role of a "bridge" in connecting remote sensing research and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Deng, Ying; Fan, Yida

    2018-07-01

    Remote sensing products contribute to improving earth observations over space and time. Uncertainties exist in products of different levels; thus, validation of these products before and during their applications is critical. This study discusses the meaning of validation in depth and proposes a new definition of reliability for use with such products. In this context, validation should include three aspects: a description of the relevant uncertainties, quantitative measurement results and a qualitative judgment that considers the needs of users. A literature overview is then presented evidencing improvements in the concepts associated with validation. It shows that the root mean squared error (RMSE) is widely used to express accuracy; increasing numbers of remote sensing products have been validated; research institutes contribute most validation efforts; and sufficient validation studies encourage the application of remote sensing products. Validation plays a connecting role in the distribution and application of remote sensing products. Validation connects simple remote sensing subjects with other disciplines, and it connects primary research with practical applications. Based on the above findings, it is suggested that validation efforts that include wider cooperation among research institutes and full consideration of the needs of users should be promoted.

  13. Mapping migratory bird prevalence using remote sensing data fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swatantran, Anu; Dubayah, Ralph; Goetz, Scott; Hofton, Michelle; Betts, Matthew G; Sun, Mindy; Simard, Marc; Holmes, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Improved maps of species distributions are important for effective management of wildlife under increasing anthropogenic pressures. Recent advances in lidar and radar remote sensing have shown considerable potential for mapping forest structure and habitat characteristics across landscapes. However, their relative efficacies and integrated use in habitat mapping remain largely unexplored. We evaluated the use of lidar, radar and multispectral remote sensing data in predicting multi-year bird detections or prevalence for 8 migratory songbird species in the unfragmented temperate deciduous forests of New Hampshire, USA. A set of 104 predictor variables describing vegetation vertical structure and variability from lidar, phenology from multispectral data and backscatter properties from radar data were derived. We tested the accuracies of these variables in predicting prevalence using Random Forests regression models. All data sets showed more than 30% predictive power with radar models having the lowest and multi-sensor synergy ("fusion") models having highest accuracies. Fusion explained between 54% and 75% variance in prevalence for all the birds considered. Stem density from discrete return lidar and phenology from multispectral data were among the best predictors. Further analysis revealed different relationships between the remote sensing metrics and bird prevalence. Spatial maps of prevalence were consistent with known habitat preferences for the bird species. Our results highlight the potential of integrating multiple remote sensing data sets using machine-learning methods to improve habitat mapping. Multi-dimensional habitat structure maps such as those generated from this study can significantly advance forest management and ecological research by facilitating fine-scale studies at both stand and landscape level.

  14. Neuronal regulation of homeostasis by nutrient sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Tony K T

    2010-04-01

    In type 2 diabetes and obesity, the homeostatic control of glucose and energy balance is impaired, leading to hyperglycemia and hyperphagia. Recent studies indicate that nutrient-sensing mechanisms in the body activate negative-feedback systems to regulate energy and glucose homeostasis through a neuronal network. Direct metabolic signaling within the intestine activates gut-brain and gut-brain-liver axes to regulate energy and glucose homeostasis, respectively. In parallel, direct metabolism of nutrients within the hypothalamus regulates food intake and blood glucose levels. These findings highlight the importance of the central nervous system in mediating the ability of nutrient sensing to maintain homeostasis. Futhermore, they provide a physiological and neuronal framework by which enhancing or restoring nutrient sensing in the intestine and the brain could normalize energy and glucose homeostasis in diabetes and obesity.

  15. Fabrication, characterization and gas sensing studies of PPy/MWCNT/SLS nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, D. C., E-mail: dctiwari2001@yahoo.com; Atri, Priyanka, E-mail: dctiwari2001@yahoo.com [SOS Electronics, Jiwaji University, Gwalior (M.P.)-474011 (India); Sharma, R. [CSIR-CEERI, Pilani (Rajasthan)-333031 (India)

    2014-04-24

    Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) coated with polypyrrole nanocomposite was prepared by in-situ chemical oxidative polymerization method in the presence of surfactant (SLS). The scanning electron microscope (SEM) pictures indicate the core shell structure of PPy/MWCNT/SLS nanocomposite. Nature of the prepared material was investigated by X-ray diffraction spectroscopy. This nanocomposite shows the excellent gas sensing behaviour for ammonia gas at 150 ppm and 300 ppm levels.

  16. Quorum Sensing Disruption in Vibrio harveyi Bacteria by Clay Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Sajo P; Scholin, Jonathon; Ching, San; Chi, Fang; Herpfer, Marc

    2018-01-10

    This work describes the use of clay minerals as catalysts for the degradation of quorum sensing molecule N-(3-oxooctanoyl)-dl-homoserine lactone. Certain clay minerals as a result of their surface properties and porosity can catalytically degrade the quorum sensing molecule into smaller fragments. The disruption of quorum sensing by clay in a growing Gram-negative Vibrio harveyi bacteria culture was also studied by monitoring luminescence and population density of the bacteria, wherein quenching of bacterial quorum sensing activity was observed by means of luminescence reduction. The results of this study show that food-grade clays can be used as biocatalysts in disrupting bacterial activity in various media.

  17. Attenuation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence by quorum sensing inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hentzer, Morten; Wu, H.; Andersen, Jens Bo

    2003-01-01

    Traditional treatment of infectious diseases is based on compounds that kill or inhibit growth of bacteria. A major concern with this approach is the frequent development of resistance to antibiotics. The discovery of communication systems (quorum sensing systems) regulating bacterial virulence has...... of natural furanone compounds can act as a potent antagonist of bacterial quorum sensing. We employed GeneChip((R)) microarray technology to identify furanone target genes and to map the quorum sensing regulon. The transcriptome analysis showed that the furanone drug specifically targeted quorum sensing...

  18. Making Sense of Natural Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passmore, Cynthia; Coleman, Elizabeth; Horton, Jennifer; Parker, Heather

    2013-01-01

    At its core, science is about making sense of the world around us. Therefore, science education should engage students in that sense-making process. Helping students make sense of disciplinary core ideas and crosscutting concepts by engaging in scientific practices is the key innovation of the "Next Generation Science Standards"…

  19. Sensing with Ion Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Martinac, Boris

    2008-01-01

    All living cells are able to detect and translate environmental stimuli into biologically meaningful signals. Sensations of touch, hearing, sight, taste, smell or pain are essential to the survival of all living organisms. The importance of sensory input for the existence of life thus justifies the effort made to understand its molecular origins. Sensing with Ion Channels focuses on ion channels as key molecules enabling biological systems to sense and process the physical and chemical stimuli that act upon cells in their living environment. Its aim is to serve as a reference to ion channel specialists and as a source of new information to non specialists who want to learn about the structural and functional diversity of ion channels and their role in sensory physiology.

  20. The sense of beauty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagman, George

    2002-06-01

    This paper proposes an integrative psychoanalytic model of the sense of beauty. The following definition is used: beauty is an aspect of the experience of idealisation in which an object(s), sound(s) or concept(s) is believed to possess qualities of formal perfection. The psychoanalytic literature regarding beauty is explored in depth and fundamental similarities are stressed. The author goes on to discuss the following topics: (1) beauty as sublimation: beauty reconciles the polarisation of self and world; (2) idealisation and beauty: the love of beauty is an indication of the importance of idealisation during development; (3) beauty as an interactive process: the sense of beauty is interactive and intersubjective; (4) the aesthetic and non-aesthetic emotions: specific aesthetic emotions are experienced in response to the formal design of the beautiful object; (5) surrendering to beauty: beauty provides us with an occasion for transcendence and self-renewal; (6) beauty's restorative function: the preservation or restoration of the relationship to the good object is of utmost importance; (7) the self-integrative function of beauty: the sense of beauty can also reconcile and integrate self-states of fragmentation and depletion; (8) beauty as a defence: in psychopathology, beauty can function defensively for the expression of unconscious impulses and fantasies, or as protection against self-crisis; (9) beauty and mortality: the sense of beauty can alleviate anxiety regarding death and feelings of vulnerability. In closing the paper, the author offers a new understanding of Freud'semphasis on love of beauty as a defining trait of civilisation. For a people not to value beauty would mean that they cannot hope and cannot assert life over the inevitable and ubiquitous forces of entropy and death.

  1. Making Sense of Austerity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard; Riisbjerg Thomsen, Rune

    2016-01-01

    such as ‘scroungers’ and ‘corporate criminals’ are identified, as are scenes such as the decline of the welfare state and the rise of technocracy. We link the storysets, story-lines, and plots together to understand how Brits and Danes are making sense of austerity. Their explanations and frustrations improve our...... understanding of who acts in everyday politics, and how everyday narratives are formed and maintained....

  2. Sensing interrail mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Trandberg

    methodologies, this doctoral thesis explores the analytical prospects of non-representational theories in tourism research. The dissertation points toward a richer understanding of the ‘social’ which encompasses under-researched topics such as the implications of affective atmospheres, the sensuous and vibrant...... of Culture and Global Studies, Aalborg University, Campus Copenhagen. ’Sensing interrail mobility: Towards multimodal methodologies’ is his Ph.d. dissertation....

  3. Remote earth sensing experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trifonov, Yu V

    1981-01-01

    Description of data devices for deriving multi-spectral measuring television measurement data of middle and high resolution through use of second generation Meteor-type satellites. Options for developing a permanent and active remote sensing system in USSR are discussed. It is noted that the present experiment is an important step in that direction. Design and structural data for this particular device and its application in the experiment are covered.

  4. Embodiment and sense-making in autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jaegher, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I sketch an enactive account of autism. For the enactive approach to cognition, embodiment, experience, and social interaction are fundamental to understanding mind and subjectivity. Enaction defines cognition as sense-making: the way cognitive agents meaningfully connect with their world, based on their needs and goals as self-organizing, self-maintaining, embodied agents. In the social realm, the interactive coordination of embodied sense-making activities with others lets us participate in each other's sense-making (social understanding = participatory sense-making). The enactive approach provides new concepts to overcome the problems of traditional functionalist accounts of autism, which can only give a piecemeal and disintegrated view because they consider cognition, communication, and perception separately, do not take embodied into account, and are methodologically individualistic. Applying the concepts of enaction to autism, I show: How embodiment and sense-making connect, i.e., how autistic particularities of moving, perceiving, and emoting relate to how people with autism make sense of their world. For instance, restricted interests or preference for detail will have certain sensorimotor correlates, as well as specific meaning for autistic people.That reduced flexibility in interactional coordination correlates with difficulties in participatory sense-making. At the same time, seemingly irrelevant “autistic behaviors” can be quite attuned to the interactive context. I illustrate this complexity in the case of echolalia. An enactive account of autism starts from the embodiment, experience, and social interactions of autistic people. Enaction brings together the sensorimotor, cognitive, social, experiential, and affective aspects of autism in a coherent framework based on a complex non-linear multi-causality. This foundation allows to build new bridges between autistic people and their often non-autistic context, and to improve quality

  5. Embodiment and sense-making in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jaegher, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I sketch an enactive account of autism. For the enactive approach to cognition, embodiment, experience, and social interaction are fundamental to understanding mind and subjectivity. Enaction defines cognition as sense-making: the way cognitive agents meaningfully connect with their world, based on their needs and goals as self-organizing, self-maintaining, embodied agents. In the social realm, the interactive coordination of embodied sense-making activities with others lets us participate in each other's sense-making (social understanding = participatory sense-making). The enactive approach provides new concepts to overcome the problems of traditional functionalist accounts of autism, which can only give a piecemeal and disintegrated view because they consider cognition, communication, and perception separately, do not take embodied into account, and are methodologically individualistic. Applying the concepts of enaction to autism, I show: How embodiment and sense-making connect, i.e., how autistic particularities of moving, perceiving, and emoting relate to how people with autism make sense of their world. For instance, restricted interests or preference for detail will have certain sensorimotor correlates, as well as specific meaning for autistic people.That reduced flexibility in interactional coordination correlates with difficulties in participatory sense-making. At the same time, seemingly irrelevant "autistic behaviors" can be quite attuned to the interactive context. I illustrate this complexity in the case of echolalia. An enactive account of autism starts from the embodiment, experience, and social interactions of autistic people. Enaction brings together the sensorimotor, cognitive, social, experiential, and affective aspects of autism in a coherent framework based on a complex non-linear multi-causality. This foundation allows to build new bridges between autistic people and their often non-autistic context, and to improve quality of

  6. Motion sensing using WLAN signal fluctuations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kavitha Muthukrishnan, K.; Lijding, M.E.M.; Meratnia, Nirvana; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2006-01-01

    The ability to infer the motion of the user has previously been possible only with the usage of additional hardware. In this paper we show how motion sensing can be obtained just by observing the WLAN radio’s signal strength and its fluctuations. For the first time, we have analyzed the signal

  7. Humidity sensing characteristics of hydrotungstite thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The electrical conductivity of the films is observed to vary with humidity and selectively show high sensitivity to moisture at room temperature. In order to understand the mechanism of sensing, the films were examined by X-ray diffraction at elevated temperatures and in controlled atmospheres. Based on these observations ...

  8. Head and neck position sense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Bridget; McNair, Peter; Taylor, Denise

    2008-01-01

    fails to be appropriately integrated in the CNS, errors in head position may occur, resulting in an inaccurate reference for HNPS, and conversely if neck proprioceptive information is inaccurate, then control of head position may be affected. The cerebellum and cortex also play a role in control of head position, providing feed-forward and modulatory influences depending on the task requirements. Position-matching tasks have been the most popular means of testing position sense in the cervical spine. These allow the appreciation of absolute, constant and variable errors in positioning and have been shown to be reliable. The results of such tests indicate that errors are relatively low (2-5 degrees). It is apparent that error is not consistently affected by age, a finding similar to studies undertaken in peripheral joints. Furthermore, the range of motion in which subjects are tested does not consistently affect accuracy in a predictable manner. However, it is evident that impairments in position sense are observed in individuals who have experienced whiplash-type injuries and individuals with chronic head and neck pain of non-traumatic origin (e.g. cervical spondylosis). While researchers advocate comprehensive retraining protocols, which include eye and neck motion targeting tasks and coordination exercises, as well as co-contraction exercises to reduce such impairments, some studies show that more general exercises and manipulation may be of benefit. Overall, there is limited information concerning the efficacy of treatment programmes.

  9. Sense of Community and Academic Engagement in the Seminary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukwuorji, JohnBosco Chika; Ifeagwazi, Chuka Mike; Nwonyi, Sampson Kelechi; Ujoatuonu, Ikechukwu V. N.

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the associations of sense of community (SOC) and academic engagement in a seminary. The seminarians (N = 300) completed the Classroom Sense of Community Inventory (CSCI)-School Form, and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale-Student Version. Results showed that a perception that the seminary provided a positive learning community for…

  10. Deriving harmonised forest information in Europe using remote sensing methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seebach, Lucia Maria

    the need for harmonised forest information can be satisfied using remote sensing methods. In conclusion, the study showed that it is possible to derive harmonised forest information of high spatial detail in Europe with remote sensing. The study also highlighted the imperative provision of accuracy...

  11. Evidence of impaired sense of smell in hereditary angioedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perricone, C; Agmon-Levin, N; Shoenfeld, N; de Carolis, C; Guarino, M D; Gigliucci, G; Milana, I; Novelli, L; Valesini, G; Perricone, R; Shoenfeld, Y

    2011-01-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is an autosomal-dominant disorder resulting from C1-inhibitor (C1INH) deficiency. Smell impairments were found in patients affected with systemic lupus erythematosus, that, similarly to HAE, is characterized by the activation of the classical complement pathway with C4 consumption. In this study, we aimed at evaluating the sense of smell in patients with HAE. Thirty patients with HAE and 30 healthy age- and sex-matched controls were evaluated for olfactory functions using the 3-stages Sniffin'-Sticks kit (threshold, discrimination, and identification [TDI]). TDI scores were analyzed according to complement levels (C1INH, C3, C4 and CH50), Beck depression inventory (BDI-II) and danazol treatment. A significant decrease in olfactory function was observed in patients affected with HAE compared with controls in total TDI score (P < 0.001), and in the discrimination (P < 0.001) and identification scores (P = 0.012). Anosmia was present only in patients with HAE (3.3%) who also exhibited more frequently hyposmia (53.3%vs 3.3%, P < 0.0001). Complement levels were reduced in patients with HAE. C4 serum levels showed positive correlation with total TDI score (P < 0.001), and with discrimination (P = 0.002) and identification (P = 0.011) scores. CH50 complement levels showed positive correlation with total TDI score (P < 0.001), and with threshold (P = 0.002) and discrimination (P = 0.011) scores. Sex, age, danazol treatment, BDI-II scores were not different between the patients and controls and did not influence TDI scores significantly. Evidence for an impaired sense of smell was found in patients with HAE. The reduction in olfactory function in these cases seems to correlate with complement C4 and CH50 levels. Immune and genetic mechanisms might play a role in this defect. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. Sensing Mine, Yours, Theirs and Ours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, Robb

    2015-01-01

    To effectively leverage human sensorimotor abilities, this paper urges going beyond the traditional five senses. When users share physical space or location with other people, a crucial neglected modality is argued to be a sense of ownership. If, how, and what someone can see, touch, hear, feel....... Drawing upon urbanism theory helps show how different variations of territorial blending can articulate tactics for increasing sociality through interactive garments. These insights are offered to aid understanding of the design space for developers directly concerned with influencing co...

  13. Phenomenology in Its Original Sense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Manen, Max

    2017-05-01

    In this article, I try to think through the question, "What distinguishes phenomenology in its original sense?" My intent is to focus on the project and methodology of phenomenology in a manner that is not overly technical and that may help others to further elaborate on or question the singular features that make phenomenology into a unique qualitative form of inquiry. I pay special attention to the notion of "lived" in the phenomenological term "lived experience" to demonstrate its critical role and significance for understanding phenomenological reflection, meaning, analysis, and insights. I also attend to the kind of experiential material that is needed to focus on a genuine phenomenological question that should guide any specific research project. Heidegger, van den Berg, and Marion provide some poignant exemplars of the use of narrative "examples" in phenomenological explorations of the phenomena of "boredom," "conversation," and "the meaningful look in eye-contact." Only what is given or what gives itself in lived experience (or conscious awareness) are proper phenomenological "data" or "givens," but these givens are not to be confused with data material that can be coded, sorted, abstracted, and accordingly analyzed in some "systematic" manner. The latter approach to experiential research may be appropriate and worthwhile for various types of qualitative inquiry but not for phenomenology in its original sense. Finally, I use the mythical figure of Kairos to show that the famous phenomenological couplet of the epoché-reduction aims for phenomenological insights that require experiential analysis and attentive (but serendipitous) methodical inquiry practices.

  14. Correlations of sense of family coherence in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minić Jelena Lj.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical basis of the paper is a salutogenetic model of Aron Antonovski's model and belief that apart from the sense of coherence and sense of family coherence , as central sources of health, generalized and specific health sources are also important. The mentioned health sources Antonovski determines as different characteristics of an individual, group or environment which help mastering tension, which is caused by different stressors or serve for avoiding or suppress different stressors. The paper examines correlation of the sense of family coherence in adolescents with some variables which are included in the research as health sources (resistance sources. The aim of research was to examine the sense of family coherence in adolescents with: satisfaction with family (generally and globally, self-respect, family financial situation, educational level of their parents, success in education so far, number of family members and birth order. The sample consisted of adolescents of both sexes, aged 15 to 24 (N=360. Questionnaire of basic data, Scale for estimation of family coherence, Scale of family adaptation and Scale of self-respect are used for the research purposes. The data was processed by correlative analysis. Results obtained showed that there is a positive correlation of sense of family coherence in adolescents (both as a whole and as components with general and global satisfaction with family and self-respect, as well as correlation of components with family financial situation and school/academic success. Results obtained point to the conclusion that stronger feeling of family coherence is found in adolescents who are more satisfied with their families (generally and globally, those who posess higher self-respect, have better family financial situation and adolescents who have been more successful in their education. Total attitude of the adolescents towards their families is not in connection with the level of their parents education

  15. The Relationship between Ethnic Classroom Composition and Turkish-Origin and German Students' Reading Performance and Sense of Belonging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Sog Yee; Martiny, Sarah E; Gleibs, Ilka H; Keller, Melanie M; Froehlich, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Past research on ethnic composition effects on migrant and ethnic majority students' performance has reported inconclusive results: Some studies have found no relationship between the proportion of migrant students in school and students' performance, some revealed positive effects, whereas others showed negative effects of the proportion of migrant students. Most of the studies did not consider whether an increase in the proportion of migrant students in the classroom has different effects on migrant and ethnic majority students' performance. For this reason, the present study (N = 9215) extends previous research by investigating the cross-level interaction effect of the proportion of Turkish-origin students in classrooms on Turkish-origin and German students' reading performance with data based on the German National Assessment Study 2008/2009 in the school subject German. In addition, we examined the cross-level interaction effect of Turkish-origin students' proportion on sense of belonging to school for Turkish-origin and German students, as sense of belonging has been shown to be an important predictor of well-being and integration. No cross-level interaction effect on performance emerged. Only a small negative main effect of the Turkish-origin students' proportion on all students' performance was found. As predicted, we showed a cross-level interaction on sense of belonging. Only Turkish-origin students' sense of belonging was positively related to the proportion of Turkish-origin students: The more Turkish-origin students there were in a classroom, the higher Turkish-origin students' sense of belonging. German students' sense of belonging was not related to the ethnic classroom composition. Implications of the results in the educational context are discussed.

  16. Making sense of employer collectivism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Christian Lyhne

    2016-01-01

    This conceptual article argues that preferences of employers for collective action cannot be reduced to rational actors making decisions based on market structures or institutional logics. Both markets and institutions are inherently ambiguous and employers therefore have to settle for plausible...... – rather than accurate – rational strategies among many alternatives through so-called sensemaking. Sensemaking refers to the process by which employers continuously make sense of their competitive environment by building causal stories of competitive advantages. The article therefore tries to provide......, unlike countries in similar situations, for example Finland and Sweden, Danish employers retained a coordinated industry-level bargaining system, which makes it an interesting paradox to study from the vantage point of sensemaking....

  17. Ultraviolet sensing properties of polyvinyl alcohol-coated aluminium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Electrochemical; aluminium-doped zinc oxide; PVA-coated; UV sensing. 1. Introduction ... Metal oxides having good optical and structural proper- ties also require good .... close to the calculated defect level due to zinc interstitial. PL spectra of ...

  18. Object specific reconstruction using compressively sensed data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahalanobis, Abhijit

    2008-01-01

    Compressed sensing holds the promise for radically novel sensors that can perfectly reconstruct images using considerably less samples of data than required by the otherwise general Shannon sampling theorem. In surveillance systems however, it is also desirable to cue regions of the image where objects of interest may exist. Thus in this paper, we are interested in imaging interesting objects in a scene, without necessarily seeking perfect reconstruction of the whole image. We show that our goals are achieved by minimizing a modified L2-norm criterion with good results when the reconstruction of only specific objects is of interest. The method yields a simple closed form analytical solution that does not require iterative processing. Objects can be meaningfully sensed in considerable detail while heavily compressing the scene elsewhere. Essentially, this embeds the object detection and clutter discrimination function in the sensing and imaging process.

  19. Effects of palladium on the optical and hydrogen sensing characteristics of Pd-doped ZnO nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anh-Thu Thi Do

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of palladium doping of zinc oxide nanoparticles on the photoluminescence (PL properties and hydrogen sensing characteristics of gas sensors is investigated. The PL intensity shows that the carrier dynamics coincides with the buildup of the Pd-related green emission. The comparison between the deep level emission and the gas sensing response characteristics allows us to suggest that the dissociation of hydrogen takes place at PdZn-vacancies ([Pd 2+(4d9]. The design of this sensor allows for a continuous monitoring in the range of 0–100% LEL H2 concentration with high sensitivity and selectivity.

  20. Application of distributed optical fiber sensing technologies to the monitoring of leakage and abnormal disturbance of oil pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaojun; Zhu, Xiaofei; Deng, Chi; Li, Junyi; Liu, Cheng; Yu, Wenpeng; Luo, Hui

    2017-10-01

    To improve the level of management and monitoring of leakage and abnormal disturbance of long distance oil pipeline, the distributed optical fiber temperature and vibration sensing system is employed to test the feasibility for the healthy monitoring of a domestic oil pipeline. The simulating leakage and abnormal disturbance affairs of oil pipeline are performed in the experiment. It is demonstrated that the leakage and abnormal disturbance affairs of oil pipeline can be monitored and located accurately with the distributed optical fiber sensing system, which exhibits good performance in the sensitivity, reliability, operation and maintenance etc., and shows good market application prospect.

  1. Are glacials "dry" - and in what sense?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheff, J.; Seager, R.; Coats, S.; Liu, H.

    2016-12-01

    Glacial maxima during the Pleistocene are generally thought to be arid on land, with a few regional exceptions. Recent work on future climate change, however, has found that different wetness-related variables have opposite-signed responses over large portions of the continents, belying simple ideas of local "drying" or "wetting" with global temperature change in models. Here, we show that this behavior extends to simulations of the Last Glacial Maximum as well: the continents are modeled to have generally wetter topsoils and higher values of standard climate-wetness metrics in the LGM than in the preindustrial, as well as generally lower precipitation and ubiquitously lower photosynthesis (likely driven by the low CO2), with the streamflow response falling in between. Is this model-derived view of the LGM an accurate one? Using a large community pollen and plant-fossil compilation, we confirm that LGM grasslands and open woodlands grew at many sites of present potential forest, seasonal or dry forests at many sites of present potential rain- or seasonal forests, and so forth, while changes in the opposite sense were extremely few and spatially confined. We show that this strongly resembles the simulated photosynthesis changes, but not the simulated streamflow or soil moisture changes. Meanwhile, published LGM lake-level estimates resemble the simulated streamflow changes, but not the photosynthesis changes. Thus, the last glacial does not appear to be systematically "dry" outside the high latitudes, but merely carbon-starved. Similarly, local findings of reduced or more open vegetation at the LGM (e.g. from pollen, carbon isotopes, or dustiness) do not indicate local "aridity" unless corroborating hydrological proxies are also found. Finally, this work suggests that glacial-era evidence of open vegetation with high lake levels (as in the eastern Mediterranean) is not odd or paradoxical, but entirely consistent with climate model output.

  2. Sense of agency and mentalizing: dissociation of subdomains of social cognition in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimansky, Jenny; David, Nicole; Rössler, Wulf; Haker, Helene

    2010-06-30

    The sense of agency, i.e., the sense that "I am the one who is causing an action", and mentalizing, the ability to understand the mental states of other individuals, are key domains of social cognition. It has been hypothesized that an intact sense of agency is an important precondition for higher-level mentalizing abilities. A substantial body of evidence shows that both processes rely on similar brain areas and are severely impaired in schizophrenia, suggesting a close link between agency and mentalizing. Yet this relationship has not been explicitly tested. We investigated 40 individuals with schizophrenia and 40 healthy controls on an agency and mentalizing task. On the agency task, participants carried out simple mouse movements and judged the partially manipulated visual feedback as either self- or other-generated. On the mentalizing task, participants inferred mental states from pictures that depicted others' eyes ("Reading the mind in the eyes test"). Neuropsychological, psychopathological and social functioning levels were also evaluated. Both sense of agency and mentalizing were impaired in schizophrenia patients compared to healthy controls. However, testing for a relationship revealed no significant correlations between the two processes, either in the schizophrenia or the control group. The present findings demonstrate a dissociation of agency and mentalizing deficits in schizophrenia, suggesting that the multifaceted construct of social cognition consists of independent subdomains in healthy and psychiatrically ill individuals.

  3. Building Extraction in Very High Resolution Remote Sensing Imagery Using Deep Learning and Guided Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongyang Xu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Very high resolution (VHR remote sensing imagery has been used for land cover classification, and it tends to a transition from land-use classification to pixel-level semantic segmentation. Inspired by the recent success of deep learning and the filter method in computer vision, this work provides a segmentation model, which designs an image segmentation neural network based on the deep residual networks and uses a guided filter to extract buildings in remote sensing imagery. Our method includes the following steps: first, the VHR remote sensing imagery is preprocessed and some hand-crafted features are calculated. Second, a designed deep network architecture is trained with the urban district remote sensing image to extract buildings at the pixel level. Third, a guided filter is employed to optimize the classification map produced by deep learning; at the same time, some salt-and-pepper noise is removed. Experimental results based on the Vaihingen and Potsdam datasets demonstrate that our method, which benefits from neural networks and guided filtering, achieves a higher overall accuracy when compared with other machine learning and deep learning methods. The method proposed shows outstanding performance in terms of the building extraction from diversified objects in the urban district.

  4. A NDVI assisted remote sensing image adaptive scale segmentation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Shen, Jinxiang; Ma, Yanmei

    2018-03-01

    Multiscale segmentation of images can effectively form boundaries of different objects with different scales. However, for the remote sensing image which widely coverage with complicated ground objects, the number of suitable segmentation scales, and each of the scale size is still difficult to be accurately determined, which severely restricts the rapid information extraction of the remote sensing image. A great deal of experiments showed that the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) can effectively express the spectral characteristics of a variety of ground objects in remote sensing images. This paper presents a method using NDVI assisted adaptive segmentation of remote sensing images, which segment the local area by using NDVI similarity threshold to iteratively select segmentation scales. According to the different regions which consist of different targets, different segmentation scale boundaries could be created. The experimental results showed that the adaptive segmentation method based on NDVI can effectively create the objects boundaries for different ground objects of remote sensing images.

  5. Logical Normativity and Common Sense Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Agazzi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Logic, considered as a technical discipline inaugurated by Aristotle and typically represented by the variety of the modern logical calculi, constitutes a clarification and refinement of a conviction and practice present in common sense, that is, the fact that humans believe that truth can be acquired not only by immediate evidence, but also by means of arguments. As a first step logic can be seen as a “descriptive” record of the main forms of the arguments present in common sense, but the fact that some of these patterns can actually allow for the derivation of false consequences from true premises imposes the task of making explicit what patterns correspond to a “correct reasoning” and what not. At this point logic (that contains the presentation of such patterns appears endowed with a “normative” characteristic. This amounts to saying that logical calculi are intended to adequately mirror the intuitive notion of “logical consequence” and in this sense they cannot be totally arbitrary or conventional, but must satisfy certain basic requirements such as the conditions of soundness and (as far as possible of semantic completeness. In such a way they are “judged” according to the fundamental requirements present at the level of common sense and appear as “idealizations” of the kinds of reasoning practiced in common sense. For this reason also several kinds of logical calculi are fully justified since they make explicit in an idealized form the concrete ways of reasoning that are imposed by the particular domain of reference of the discipline in which they are used and which are basically recognized in common sense.

  6. High temperature humidity sensing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, P.P.; Tanase, S.; Greenblatt, M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on new proton conducting materials prepared and characterized for potential applications in humidity sensing at temperatures higher than 100 degrees C by complex impedance or galvanic cell type techniques. Calcium metaphosphate, β-Ca(PO 3 ) 2 as a galvanic cell type sensor material yields reproducible signals in the range from 5 to 200 mm Hg water vapor pressure at 578 degrees C, with short response time (∼ 30 sec). Polycrystalline samples of α-Zr(HPO 4 ) 2 and KMo 3 P 5.8 Si 2 O 25 , and the gel converted ceramic, 0.10Li 2 O-0.25P 2 O 5 -0.65SiO 2 as impedance sensor materials show decreases in impedance with increasing humidity in the range from 9 mm Hg to 1 atm water vapor pressure at 179 degrees C

  7. Sound & The Senses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, Holger

    2012-01-01

    How are those sounds you hear right now technically generated and post-produced, how are they aesthetically conceptualized and how culturally dependant are they really? How is your ability to hear intertwined with all the other senses and their cultural, biographical and technological constructio...... over time? And how is listening and sounding a deeply social activity – constructing our way of living together in cities as well as in apartment houses? A radio feature with Jonathan Sterne, AGF a.k.a Antye Greie, Jens Gerrit Papenburg & Holger Schulze....

  8. Semantics in mobile sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Zhixian

    2014-01-01

    The dramatic progress of smartphone technologies has ushered in a new era of mobile sensing, where traditional wearable on-body sensors are being rapidly superseded by various embedded sensors in our smartphones. For example, a typical smartphone today, has at the very least a GPS, WiFi, Bluetooth, triaxial accelerometer, and gyroscope. Alongside, new accessories are emerging such as proximity, magnetometer, barometer, temperature, and pressure sensors. Even the default microphone can act as an acoustic sensor to track noise exposure for example. These sensors act as a ""lens"" to understand t

  9. A sense of agency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laerkner, Eva; Egerod, Ingrid; Olesen, Finn

    2017-01-01

    familiar in the unfamiliar situation" and "Awareness of surrounding activities". Patients had the ability to interact from the first days of critical illness and a sense of agency was expressed through initiating, directing and participating in communication and other activities. Patients appreciated...... competent and compassionate nurses who were attentive and involved them as individual persons. Initiatives to enhance familiar aspects such as relatives, personal items and care, continuity and closeness of nurses contributed to the patients' experience of feeling safe and secure in the unfamiliar setting...

  10. Democracy and Sense

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent Erik

    Democracy and sense questions practically all that happens in society today. Its aim is to raise a debate on the most urgent problems of economy, democracy, sustainable conduct and the framework for industry and business. A number of untraditional solutions are suggested, but without support...... to either rightwing or leftwing politics. In fact, one of the key points is that political parties have reduced democracy to one day of voting followed by four years of oligarchy. To regain a functioning democracy we must strengthen direct democracy and make the distance between population and government...

  11. Fourier Domain Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldkhun, Daniel (Inventor); Wagner, Kelvin H. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Methods and systems are disclosed of sensing an object. A first radiation is spatially modulated to generate a structured second radiation. The object is illuminated with the structured second radiation such that the object produces a third radiation in response. Apart from any spatially dependent delay, a time variation of the third radiation is spatially independent. With a single-element detector, a portion of the third radiation is detected from locations on the object simultaneously. At least one characteristic of a sinusoidal spatial Fourier-transform component of the object is estimated from a time-varying signal from the detected portion of the third radiation.

  12. Remote Sensing Tertiary Education Meets High Intensity Interval Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, K. E.; White, B.

    2015-04-01

    Enduring a traditional lecture is the tertiary education equivalent of a long, slow, jog. There are certainly some educational benefits if the student is able to maintain concentration, but they are just as likely to get caught napping and fall off the back end of the treadmill. Alternatively, a pre-choreographed interactive workshop style class requires students to continually engage with the materials. Appropriately timed breaks or intervals allow students to recover briefly before being increasingly challenged throughout the class. Using an introductory remote sensing class at Charles Darwin University, this case study presents a transition from the traditional stand and deliver style lecture to an active student-led learning experience. The class is taught at undergraduate and postgraduate levels, with both on-campus as well as online distance learning students. Based on the concept that active engagement in learning materials promotes 'stickiness' of subject matter, the remote sensing class was re-designed to encourage an active style of learning. Critically, class content was reviewed to identify the key learning outcomes for the students. This resulted in a necessary sacrifice of topic range for depth of understanding. Graduates of the class reported high levels of enthusiasm for the materials, and the style in which the class was taught. This paper details a number of techniques that were used to engage students in active and problem based learning throughout the semester. It suggests a number of freely available tools that academics in remote sensing and related fields can readily incorporate into their teaching portfolios. Moreover, it shows how simple it can be to provide a far more enjoyable and effective learning experience for students than the one dimensional lecture.

  13. Role of spatial averaging in multicellular gradient sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tyler; Fancher, Sean; Levchenko, Andre; Nemenman, Ilya; Mugler, Andrew

    2016-05-20

    Gradient sensing underlies important biological processes including morphogenesis, polarization, and cell migration. The precision of gradient sensing increases with the length of a detector (a cell or group of cells) in the gradient direction, since a longer detector spans a larger range of concentration values. Intuition from studies of concentration sensing suggests that precision should also increase with detector length in the direction transverse to the gradient, since then spatial averaging should reduce the noise. However, here we show that, unlike for concentration sensing, the precision of gradient sensing decreases with transverse length for the simplest gradient sensing model, local excitation-global inhibition. The reason is that gradient sensing ultimately relies on a subtraction of measured concentration values. While spatial averaging indeed reduces the noise in these measurements, which increases precision, it also reduces the covariance between the measurements, which results in the net decrease in precision. We demonstrate how a recently introduced gradient sensing mechanism, regional excitation-global inhibition (REGI), overcomes this effect and recovers the benefit of transverse averaging. Using a REGI-based model, we compute the optimal two- and three-dimensional detector shapes, and argue that they are consistent with the shapes of naturally occurring gradient-sensing cell populations.

  14. Sense of community, organizational commitment and quality of services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampinen, Mai-Stiina; Suutala, ElinaAnnikki; Konu, Anne Irmeli

    2017-10-02

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine how factors associated with a sense of community in the workplace are connected with organizational commitment and the quality of services among frontline managers and middle managers in social and health care services in Finland. Design/methodology/approach A questionnaire designed specifically for this research was sent to 241 lower-level and middle-level managers in social and health care services in central Finland. A total of 136 managers completed the questionnaire (response rate 56 per cent). The results were analyzed using descriptive statistics, exploratory factor analysis, Spearman's rank-order correlation coefficient and multiple linear regression analyses. Findings The study showed that feeling a sense of belonging, mutual trust and appreciation, and open interaction among colleagues were connected to organizational commitment for frontline managers and middle managers in social and health care services in Finland. Correspondingly, an open flow of information in the organization, job meaningfulness and appreciation received from managers' superiors were connected to the quality of services. Originality/value This study provides information on the factors that influence social and health care managers' organizational commitment and on items connected to their experience of the quality of services.

  15. In-situ Blockage Monitoring of Sensing Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aijaz Ahmed Mangi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A reactor vessel level monitoring system measures the water level in a reactor during normal operation and abnormal conditions. A drop in the water level can expose nuclear fuel, which may lead to fuel meltdown and radiation spread in accident conditions. A level monitoring system mainly consists of a sensing line and pressure transmitter. Over a period of time boron sediments or other impurities can clog the line which may degrade the accuracy of the monitoring system. The aim of this study is to determine blockage in a sensing line using the energy of the composite signal. An equivalent Pi circuit model is used to simulate blockages in the sensing line and the system's response is examined under different blockage levels. Composite signals obtained from the model and plant's unblocked and blocked channels are decomposed into six levels of details and approximations using a wavelet filter bank. The percentage of energy is calculated at each level for approximations. It is observed that the percentage of energy reduces as the blockage level in the sensing line increases. The results of the model and operational data are well correlated. Thus, in our opinion variation in the energy levels of approximations can be used as an index to determine the presence and degree of blockage in a sensing line.

  16. Remote sensing entropy to assess the sustainability of rainfall in tropical catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, M. R.; Reba, M. N. M.; Wei, J. S.; Razak, N. H. Abdul

    2018-02-01

    This study demonstrated the utility of entropy computation using the satellite precipitation remote sensing data to assess the sustainability of rainfall in tropical catchments. There were two major issues need to be anticipated in monitoring the tropical catchments; first is the frequent monitoring of the rainfall and second is the appropriate indicator that sensitive to rainfall pattern changes or disorder. For the first issue, the use of satellite remote sensing precipitation data is suggested. Meanwhile for the second issue, the utilization of entropy concept in interpreting the disorder of temporal rainfall can be used to assess the sustain ability had been successfully adopted in some studies. Therefore, we hypothesized that the use of satellite precipitation as main data to compute entropy can be a novel tool in anticipating the above-mentioned conflict earlier. The remote sensing entropy results and in-situ river level showed good agreement indicating its reliability. 72% of the catchment has moderate to good rainfall supply during normal or non-drought condition. However, our result showed that the catchments were highly sensitive to drought especially in the west coast and southern part of the Peninsular Malaysia. High resiliency was identified in the east coast. We summarized that the proposed entropy-quantity scheme was a useful tool for cost-effective, quick, and operational sustainability assessment This study demonstrated the utility of entropy computation using the satellite precipitation remote sensing data to assess the sustainability of rainfall in tropical catchments.

  17. Differentially Private Distributed Sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, Glenn A.

    2016-12-11

    The growth of the Internet of Things (IoT) creates the possibility of decentralized systems of sensing and actuation, potentially on a global scale. IoT devices connected to cloud networks can offer Sensing and Actuation as a Service (SAaaS) enabling networks of sensors to grow to a global scale. But extremely large sensor networks can violate privacy, especially in the case where IoT devices are mobile and connected directly to the behaviors of people. The thesis of this paper is that by adapting differential privacy (adding statistically appropriate noise to query results) to groups of geographically distributed sensors privacy could be maintained without ever sending all values up to a central curator and without compromising the overall accuracy of the data collected. This paper outlines such a scheme and performs an analysis of differential privacy techniques adapted to edge computing in a simulated sensor network where ground truth is known. The positive and negative outcomes of employing differential privacy in distributed networks of devices are discussed and a brief research agenda is presented.

  18. Compressed sensing electron tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leary, Rowan; Saghi, Zineb; Midgley, Paul A.; Holland, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    The recent mathematical concept of compressed sensing (CS) asserts that a small number of well-chosen measurements can suffice to reconstruct signals that are amenable to sparse or compressible representation. In addition to powerful theoretical results, the principles of CS are being exploited increasingly across a range of experiments to yield substantial performance gains relative to conventional approaches. In this work we describe the application of CS to electron tomography (ET) reconstruction and demonstrate the efficacy of CS–ET with several example studies. Artefacts present in conventional ET reconstructions such as streaking, blurring of object boundaries and elongation are markedly reduced, and robust reconstruction is shown to be possible from far fewer projections than are normally used. The CS–ET approach enables more reliable quantitative analysis of the reconstructions as well as novel 3D studies from extremely limited data. - Highlights: • Compressed sensing (CS) theory and its application to electron tomography (ET) is described. • The practical implementation of CS–ET is outlined and its efficacy demonstrated with examples. • High fidelity tomographic reconstruction is possible from a small number of images. • The CS–ET reconstructions can be more reliably segmented and analysed quantitatively. • CS–ET is applicable to different image content by choice of an appropriate sparsifying transform

  19. Geological remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Charlotte; Rivard, Benoit; de Souza Filho, Carlos; van der Meer, Freek

    2018-02-01

    Geology is defined as the 'study of the planet Earth - the materials of which it is made, the processes that act on these materials, the products formed, and the history of the planet and its life forms since its origin' (Bates and Jackson, 1976). Remote sensing has seen a number of variable definitions such as those by Sabins and Lillesand and Kiefer in their respective textbooks (Sabins, 1996; Lillesand and Kiefer, 2000). Floyd Sabins (Sabins, 1996) defined it as 'the science of acquiring, processing and interpreting images that record the interaction between electromagnetic energy and matter' while Lillesand and Kiefer (Lillesand and Kiefer, 2000) defined it as 'the science and art of obtaining information about an object, area, or phenomenon through the analysis of data acquired by a device that is not in contact with the object, area, or phenomenon under investigation'. Thus Geological Remote Sensing can be considered the study of, not just Earth given the breadth of work undertaken in planetary science, geological features and surfaces and their interaction with the electromagnetic spectrum using technology that is not in direct contact with the features of interest.

  20. Statistical mechanics of sensing and communications: Insights and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murayama, T; Davis, P

    2008-01-01

    In this article we review a basic model for analysis of large sensor networks from the point of view of collective estimation under bandwidth constraints. We compare different sensing aggregation levels as alternative 'strategies' for collective estimation: moderate aggregation from a moderate number of sensors for which communication bandwidth is enough that data encoding can be reversible, and large scale aggregation from very many sensors - in which case communication bandwidth constraints require the use of nonreversible encoding. We show the non-trivial trade-off between sensing quality, which can be increased by increasing the number of sensors, and communication quality under bandwidth constraints, which decreases if the number of sensors is too large. From a practical standpoint, we verify that such a trade-off exists in constructively defined communications schemes. We introduce a probabilistic encoding scheme and define rate distortion models that are suitable for analysis of the large network limit. Our description shows that the methods and ideas from statistical physics can play an important role in formulating effective models for such schemes

  1. Organic electrochemical transistors for cell-based impedance sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivnay, Jonathan; Ramuz, Marc; Hama, Adel; Huerta, Miriam; Owens, Roisin M.; Leleux, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Electrical impedance sensing of biological systems, especially cultured epithelial cell layers, is now a common technique to monitor cell motion, morphology, and cell layer/tissue integrity for high throughput toxicology screening. Existing methods to measure electrical impedance most often rely on a two electrode configuration, where low frequency signals are challenging to obtain for small devices and for tissues with high resistance, due to low current. Organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) are conducting polymer-based devices, which have been shown to efficiently transduce and amplify low-level ionic fluxes in biological systems into electronic output signals. In this work, we combine OECT-based drain current measurements with simultaneous measurement of more traditional impedance sensing using the gate current to produce complex impedance traces, which show low error at both low and high frequencies. We apply this technique in vitro to a model epithelial tissue layer and show that the data can be fit to an equivalent circuit model yielding trans-epithelial resistance and cell layer capacitance values in agreement with literature. Importantly, the combined measurement allows for low biases across the cell layer, while still maintaining good broadband signal

  2. Multi- and hyperspectral remote sensing of tropical marine benthic habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Deepak R.

    consistently more accurate (84%) including finer definition of geomorphological features than the satellite sensors. IKONOS (81%) and QuickBird (81%) sensors showed similar accuracy to AISA, however, such similarity was only reached at the coarse classification levels of 5 and 6 habitats. These results confirm the potential of an effective combination of high spectral and spatial resolution sensor, for accurate benthic habitat mapping.

  3. Remote Sensing for Wind Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peña, Alfredo; Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Lange, Julia

    The Remote Sensing in Wind Energy report provides a description of several topics and it is our hope that students and others interested will learn from it. The idea behind it began in year 2008 at DTU Wind Energy (formerly Risø) during the first PhD Summer School: Remote Sensing in Wind Energy...... state-of-the-art ‘guideline’ available for people involved in Remote Sensing in Wind Energy....

  4. Remote Sensing for Wind Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The Remote Sensing in Wind Energy Compendium provides a description of several topics and it is our hope that students and others interested will learn from it. The idea behind this compendium began in year 2008 at Risø DTU during the first PhD Summer School: Remote Sensing in Wind Energy. Thus......-of-the-art compendium available for people involved in Remote Sensing in Wind Energy....

  5. Remote Sensing and Imaging Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    Program Manager AFOSR/RSE Air Force Research Laboratory Remote Sensing and Imaging Physics 7 March 2012 Report Documentation Page Form...00-00-2012 to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Remote Sensing And Imaging Physics 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...Imaging of Space Objects •Information without Imaging •Predicting the Location of Space Objects • Remote Sensing in Extreme Conditions •Propagation

  6. Structural mapping based on potential field and remote sensing data ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Swarnapriya Chowdari

    2017-08-31

    Aug 31, 2017 ... to comprehend the tectonic development of the ... software for the analysis and interpretation of G– .... The application of remote sensing for mapping ..... Pf1 and Pf2 show profile locations adopted for joint G–M modelling.

  7. Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia and calcium sensing receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mrgan, Monija; Nielsen, Sanne; Brixen, Kim

    2014-01-01

    Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH) is a lifelong, benign autosomal dominant disease characterized by hypercalcemia, normal to increased parathyroid hormone level, and a relatively low renal calcium excretion. Inactivation of the calcium-sensing receptor in heterozygous patients results...... in FHH, while in homozygous patients as well as in compound heterozygous or dominant negative heterozygous patients, it may result in neonatal severe hyperparathyroidism (NSHPT). Parathyroid surgery is not indicated in FHH and does not lower plasma calcium unless total parathyroidectomy is performed...

  8. UV Photography Shows Hidden Sun Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mcat1=de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c UV photography shows hidden sun damage A UV photograph gives ... developing skin cancer and prematurely aged skin. Normal photography UV photography 18 months of age: This boy's ...

  9. Quorum sensing: a quantum perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Sarangam; Pal, Sukla

    2016-09-01

    Quorum sensing is the efficient mode of communication in the bacterial world. After a lot of advancements in the classical theory of quorum sensing few basic questions of quorum sensing still remain unanswered. The sufficient progresses in quantum biology demands to explain these questions from the quantum perspective as non trivial quantum effects already have manifested in various biological processes like photosynthesis, magneto-reception etc. Therefore, it's the time to review the bacterial communications from the quantum view point. In this article we carefully accumulate the latest results and arguments to strengthen quantum biology through the addition of quorum sensing mechanism in the light of quantum mechanics.

  10. Compressive sensing for urban radar

    CERN Document Server

    Amin, Moeness

    2014-01-01

    With the emergence of compressive sensing and sparse signal reconstruction, approaches to urban radar have shifted toward relaxed constraints on signal sampling schemes in time and space, and to effectively address logistic difficulties in data acquisition. Traditionally, these challenges have hindered high resolution imaging by restricting both bandwidth and aperture, and by imposing uniformity and bounds on sampling rates.Compressive Sensing for Urban Radar is the first book to focus on a hybrid of two key areas: compressive sensing and urban sensing. It explains how reliable imaging, tracki

  11. Site-Directed Mutagenesis Study of an Antibiotic-Sensing Noncoding RNA Integrated into a One-Semester Project-Based Biochemistry Lab Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerczei, Timea

    2017-01-01

    A laboratory sequence is described that is suitable for upper-level biochemistry or molecular biology laboratories that combines project-based and traditional laboratory experiments. In the project-based sequence, the individual laboratory experiments are thematically linked and aim to show how a bacterial antibiotic sensing noncoding RNA (the…

  12. Lunar remote sensing and measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, H.J.; Boyce, J.M.; Schaber, G.G.; Scott, D.H.

    1980-01-01

    Remote sensing and measurements of the Moon from Apollo orbiting spacecraft and Earth form a basis for extrapolation of Apollo surface data to regions of the Moon where manned and unmanned spacecraft have not been and may be used to discover target regions for future lunar exploration which will produce the highest scientific yields. Orbital remote sensing and measurements discussed include (1) relative ages and inferred absolute ages, (2) gravity, (3) magnetism, (4) chemical composition, and (5) reflection of radar waves (bistatic). Earth-based remote sensing and measurements discussed include (1) reflection of sunlight, (2) reflection and scattering of radar waves, and (3) infrared eclipse temperatures. Photographs from the Apollo missions, Lunar Orbiters, and other sources provide a fundamental source of data on the geology and topography of the Moon and a basis for comparing, correlating, and testing the remote sensing and measurements. Relative ages obtained from crater statistics and then empirically correlated with absolute ages indicate that significant lunar volcanism continued to 2.5 b.y. (billion years) ago-some 600 m.y. (million years) after the youngest volcanic rocks sampled by Apollo-and that intensive bombardment of the Moon occurred in the interval of 3.84 to 3.9 b.y. ago. Estimated fluxes of crater-producing objects during the last 50 m.y. agree fairly well with fluxes measured by the Apollo passive seismic stations. Gravity measurements obtained by observing orbiting spacecraft reveal that mare basins have mass concentrations and that the volume of material ejected from the Orientale basin is near 2 to 5 million km 3 depending on whether there has or has not been isostatic compensation, little or none of which has occurred since 3.84 b.y. ago. Isostatic compensation may have occurred in some of the old large lunar basins, but more data are needed to prove it. Steady fields of remanent magnetism were detected by the Apollo 15 and 16 subsatellites

  13. Computer-aided identification of recognized drugs as Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum-sensing inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Liang; Rybtke, Morten Theil; Jakobsen, Tim Holm

    2009-01-01

    R, and a quorum-sensing receptor agonist. Six top-ranking compounds, all recognized drugs, were identified and tested for quorum-sensing-inhibitory activity. Three compounds, salicylic acid, nifuroxazide, and chlorzoxazone, showed significant inhibition of quorum-sensing-regulated gene expression and related...

  14. Inventory - Dollars and sense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samson, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear utilities are becoming more aware of the importance of having an inventory investment that supports two opposing philosophies. The business philosophy wants a minimal inventory investment to support a better return on invested dollars. This increase in return comes from having the dollars available to invest versus having the money tied up in inventory sitting on the shelf. The opposing viewpoint is taken by maintenance/operations organizations, which desire the maximum inventory available on-site to repair any component at any time to keep the units on-line at all times. Financial managers also want to maintain cash flow throughout operations so that plants run without interruptions. Inventory management is therefore a mixture of financial logistics with an operation perspective in mind. A small amount of common sense and accurate perception also help. The challenge to the materials/inventory manager is to optimize effectiveness of the inventory by having high material availability at the lowest possible cost

  15. Making Sense for Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heide, J. J.; Grus, M. M.; Nouwens, J. C. A. J.

    2017-09-01

    The Netherlands is a densely populated country. Cities in the metropolitan area (Randstad) will be growing at a fast pace in the coming decades1. Cities like Amsterdam and Rotterdam are being overrun by tourists. Climate change effects are noticed in cities (heavy rains for instance). Call for circular economy rises. Traffic increases. People are more self-reliant. Public space is shared by many functions. These challenges call for smart answers, more specific and directly than ever before. Sensor data is a cornerstone of these answers. In this paper we'll discuss the approaches of Dutch initiatives using sensor data as the new language to live a happy life in our cities. Those initiatives have been bundled in a knowledge platform called "Making sense for society" 1 https://www.cbs.nl/nl-nl/nieuws/2016/37/pbl-cbs-prognose-groei-steden-zet-door (in dutch)

  16. Environmental radiation sensing technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishizawa, Hiroshi; Inomata, Kenji; Tamuro, Masaru; Fujita, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    After the Fukushima nuclear accident, environmental radiation monitoring and radioactivity measurement of contamination of wastes, soils, food and drinking water were needed in accurate and reliable way. Based on radiation sensing technologies and radiation and light coupled analysis method, new environmental radiation measurement system for simple monitoring post without exclusive house and also portable monitoring post for temporary use were developed with low cost. Measurement accuracy was improved by real-time processing of detected pulses and corrected non-linearity of low-energy range by analysis. Environmental performance was upgraded to assure detector gain with compensated against temperature change and aging. Inspection and maintenance were also simplified using touch panel display with standardized application menu and data format. (T. Tanaka)

  17. Blind compressed sensing image reconstruction based on alternating direction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qinan; Guo, Shuxu

    2018-04-01

    In order to solve the problem of how to reconstruct the original image under the condition of unknown sparse basis, this paper proposes an image reconstruction method based on blind compressed sensing model. In this model, the image signal is regarded as the product of a sparse coefficient matrix and a dictionary matrix. Based on the existing blind compressed sensing theory, the optimal solution is solved by the alternative minimization method. The proposed method solves the problem that the sparse basis in compressed sensing is difficult to represent, which restrains the noise and improves the quality of reconstructed image. This method ensures that the blind compressed sensing theory has a unique solution and can recover the reconstructed original image signal from a complex environment with a stronger self-adaptability. The experimental results show that the image reconstruction algorithm based on blind compressed sensing proposed in this paper can recover high quality image signals under the condition of under-sampling.

  18. 2008 LHC Open Days Physics: the show

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    A host of events and activities await visitors to the LHC Open Days on 5 and 6 April. A highlight will be the physics shows funded by the European Physical Society (EPS), which are set to surprise and challenge children and adults alike! School children use their experience of riding a bicycle to understand how planets move around the sun (Copyright : Circus Naturally) Participating in the Circus Naturally show could leave a strange taste in your mouth! (Copyright : Circus Naturally) The Rino Foundation’s experiments with liquid nitrogen can be pretty exciting! (Copyright: The Rino Foundation)What does a bicycle have in common with the solar system? Have you ever tried to weigh air or visualise sound? Ever heard of a vacuum bazooka? If you want to discover the answers to these questions and more then come to the Physics Shows taking place at the CERN O...

  19. Sense of Coherence and Gambling: Exploring the Relationship Between Sense of Coherence, Gambling Behaviour and Gambling-Related Harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langham, Erika; Russell, Alex M T; Hing, Nerilee; Gainsbury, Sally M

    2017-06-01

    Understanding why some people experience problems with gambling whilst others are able to restrict gambling to recreational levels is still largely unexplained. One potential explanation is through salutogenesis, which is a health promotion approach of understanding factors which move people towards health rather than disease. An important aspect of salutogenesis is sense of coherence. Individuals with stronger sense of coherence perceive their environment as comprehensible, manageable and meaningful. The present study examined the relationship of individuals' sense of coherence on their gambling behaviour and experience of gambling related harm. This exploratory study utilised an archival dataset (n = 1236) from an online, cross sectional survey of people who had experienced negative consequences from gambling. In general, a stronger sense of coherence was related to lower problem gambling severity. When gambling behaviour was controlled for, sense of coherence was significantly related to the experience of individual gambling harms. A strong sense of coherence can be seen as a protective factor against problematic gambling behaviour, and subsequent gambling related harms. These findings support the value of both primary and tertiary prevention strategies that strengthen sense of coherence as a harm minimisation strategy. The present study demonstrates the potential value of, and provides clear direction for, considering sense of coherence in order to understand gambling-related issues.

  20. Feeling depleted and powerless: the construal-level mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junha; Lee, Sujin; Rua, Tuvana

    2015-04-01

    Individuals exercise self-control daily to achieve desired goals; at the same time, people engage in social interaction daily and influence (feel powerful) or are influenced (feel powerless) by others. Does controlling the self have an unforeseen consequence for people's perception of their capacity to control others? Five studies-one correlational and four experimental-demonstrate that ego depletion from prior self-control determines one's personal sense of power; low-level, concrete mental construals account for this relationship. Our results showed that people with higher trait self-control reported a greater sense of power (Study 1). People who had depleted their self-control-related regulatory resources (vs. those who had not) experienced a lower sense of power (Study 2). The relationship between ego depletion and low sense of power was mediated by construal level (Study 3) and observed only when low-level, concrete construals were present, but not under high-level, abstract construals (Studies 4 and 5). © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  1. Nanocontainer-based corrosion sensing coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maia, F; Tedim, J; Bastos, A C; Ferreira, M G S; Zheludkevich, M L

    2013-01-01

    The present paper reports on the development of new sensing active coating on the basis of nanocontainers containing pH-indicating agent. The coating is able to detect active corrosion processes on different metallic substrates. The corrosion detection functionality based on the local colour change in active cathodic zones results from the interaction of hydroxide ions with phenolphthalein encapsulated in mesoporous nanocontainers which function as sensing nanoreactors. The mesoporous silica nanocontainers are synthesized and loaded with pH indicator phenolphthalein in a one-stage process. The resulting system is mesoporous, which together with bulkiness of the indicator molecules limits their leaching. At the same time, penetration of water molecules and ions inside the container is still possible, allowing encapsulated phenolphthalein to be sensitive to the pH in the surrounding environment and outperforming systems when an indicator is directly dispersed in the coating layer. The performed tests demonstrate the pH sensitivity of the developed nanocontainers being dispersed in aqueous solutions. The corrosion sensing functionality of the protective coatings with nanocontainers are proven for aluminium- and magnesium-based metallic substrates. As a result, the developed nanocontainers show high potential to be used in a new generation of active protective coatings with corrosion-sensing coatings. (paper)

  2. Ionization current sensing; Jonstroem-maetning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aengeby, Jakob; Goeras, Anders; Nytomt, Jan [Hoerbiger Control Systems AB, Aamaal, (Sweden)

    2012-05-15

    Ion current measurements give information on the combustion in the cylinders of an internal combustion engine in run time, cycle by cycle. Ion sense has been used in gasoline engines for many years for detection of knock and misfire, combustion stability and for air to fuel ratio estimation. However, the use of ion sense in industrial gas engines has been limited, despite the potential of ion sense. The objective with the project is to investigate which combustion process information that can be retrieved using ion sense applied to industrial lean burn engines using pre-chambers for the ignition in which case the spark plug is encapsulated in the pre-chamber. Experiments show that ion current measured in the pre-chamber can successfully be used to retrieve information from the in-cylinder combustion process. It is possible to detect misfire and to some extent knock. It is also possible to optimize the ignition and hence minimize emissions and optimize the performance by using the ion current measured in the pre- chamber. A statistical signal processing approach to use more than one ion current feature in the estimation of combustion parameters was evaluated on a heavy duty gas engine. By using more than one feature the performance of in cylinder air to fuel ratio estimation was improved.

  3. Decoupled Multicamera Sensing for Flexible View Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek K. Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Any sensing paradigm has three important components, namely, the actor, the sensor, and the environment. Traditionally, the sensors have been attached to either the actor or the environment. This restricts the kind of sensing that can be undertaken. We study a newer decoupled sensing paradigm, which separates the sensors from both the actor and the environment and tremendously increases the flexibility with which the scenes can be viewed. For example, instead of showing just one view, “how the environment sees the actor” or “how the actor sees the environment,” a viewer can choose to see either one or both of these views and even choose to see the scene from any desired position in any desired direction. We describe a methodology using mobile autonomous sensors to undertake such decoupled sensing and study the feasible number as well as the placement of such sensors. Also, we describe how the sensors can coordinate their movements around a moving actor so as to continue capturing the required views with minimum overall cost. The practical results obtained demonstrate the viability of the proposed approach.

  4. Duchenne muscular dystrophy models show their age

    OpenAIRE

    Chamberlain, Jeffrey S.

    2010-01-01

    The lack of appropriate animal models has hampered efforts to develop therapies for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). A new mouse model lacking both dystrophin and telomerase (Sacco et al., 2010) closely mimics the pathological progression of human DMD and shows that muscle stem cell activity is a key determinant of disease severity.

  5. Show Them You Really Want the Job

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlmutter, David D.

    2012-01-01

    Showing that one really "wants" the job entails more than just really wanting the job. An interview is part Broadway casting call, part intellectual dating game, part personality test, and part, well, job interview. When there are 300 applicants for a position, many of them will "fit" the required (and even the preferred) skills listed in the job…

  6. A Talk Show from the Past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Arlene F.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a two-day activity in which elementary students examine voting rights, the right to assemble, and women's suffrage. Explains the game, "Assemble, Reassemble," and a student-produced talk show with five students playing the roles of leaders of the women's suffrage movement. Profiles Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott, Susan…

  7. Laser entertainment and light shows in education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaratnam, Andrew T.; Symons, Charles

    2002-05-01

    Laser shows and beam effects have been a source of entertainment since its first public performance May 9, 1969, at Mills College in Oakland, California. Since 1997, the Photonics Center, NgeeAnn Polytechnic, Singapore, has been using laser shows as a teaching tool. Students are able to exhibit their creative skills and learn at the same time how lasers are used in the entertainment industry. Students will acquire a number of skills including handling three- phase power supply, operation of cooling system, and laser alignment. Students also acquire an appreciation of the arts, learning about shapes and contours as they develop graphics for the shows. After holography, laser show animation provides a combination of the arts and technology. This paper aims to briefly describe how a krypton-argon laser, galvanometer scanners, a polychromatic acousto-optic modulator and related electronics are put together to develop a laser projector. The paper also describes how students are trained to make their own laser animation and beam effects with music, and at the same time have an appreciation of the operation of a Class IV laser and the handling of optical components.

  8. The Last Great American Picture Show

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, Thomas; King, Noel; Horwath, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    The Last Great American Picture Show brings together essays by scholars and writers who chart the changing evaluations of the American cinema of the 1970s, sometimes referred to as the decade of the lost generation, but now more and more recognized as the first New Hollywood, without which the

  9. Number sense in infancy predicts mathematical abilities in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Ariel; Libertus, Melissa E; Brannon, Elizabeth M

    2013-11-05

    Human infants in the first year of life possess an intuitive sense of number. This preverbal number sense may serve as a developmental building block for the uniquely human capacity for mathematics. In support of this idea, several studies have demonstrated that nonverbal number sense is correlated with mathematical abilities in children and adults. However, there has been no direct evidence that infant numerical abilities are related to mathematical abilities later in childhood. Here, we provide evidence that preverbal number sense in infancy predicts mathematical abilities in preschool-aged children. Numerical preference scores at 6 months of age correlated with both standardized math test scores and nonsymbolic number comparison scores at 3.5 years of age, suggesting that preverbal number sense facilitates the acquisition of numerical symbols and mathematical abilities. This relationship held even after controlling for general intelligence, indicating that preverbal number sense imparts a unique contribution to mathematical ability. These results validate the many prior studies purporting to show number sense in infancy and support the hypothesis that mathematics is built upon an intuitive sense of number that predates language.

  10. A new type of intelligent wireless sensing network for health monitoring of large-size structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Ying; Liu, Ch.; Wu, D. T.; Tang, Y. L.; Wang, J. X.; Wu, L. J.; Jiang, X. D.

    2009-07-01

    In recent years, some innovative wireless sensing systems have been proposed. However, more exploration and research on wireless sensing systems are required before wireless systems can substitute for the traditional wire-based systems. In this paper, a new type of intelligent wireless sensing network is proposed for the heath monitoring of large-size structures. Hardware design of the new wireless sensing units is first studied. The wireless sensing unit mainly consists of functional modules of: sensing interface, signal conditioning, signal digitization, computational core, wireless communication and battery management. Then, software architecture of the unit is introduced. The sensing network has a two-level cluster-tree architecture with Zigbee communication protocol. Important issues such as power saving and fault tolerance are considered in the designs of the new wireless sensing units and sensing network. Each cluster head in the network is characterized by its computational capabilities that can be used to implement the computational methodologies of structural health monitoring; making the wireless sensing units and sensing network have "intelligent" characteristics. Primary tests on the measurement data collected by the wireless system are performed. The distributed computational capacity of the intelligent sensing network is also demonstrated. It is shown that the new type of intelligent wireless sensing network provides an efficient tool for structural health monitoring of large-size structures.

  11. Quorum Sensing of Periodontal Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darije Plančak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The term ‘quorum sensing’ describes intercellular bacterial communication which regulates bacterial gene expression according to population cell density. Bacteria produce and secrete small molecules, named autoinducers, into the intercellular space. The concentration of these molecules increases as a function of population cell density. Once the concentration of the stimulatory threshold is reached, alteration in gene expression occurs. Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria possess different types of quorum sensing systems. Canonical LuxI/R-type/acyl homoserine lactone mediated quorum sensing system is the best studied quorum sensing circuit and is described in Gram-negative bacteria which employ it for inter-species communication mostly. Grampositive bacteria possess a peptide-mediated quorum sensing system. Bacteria can communicate within their own species (intra-species but also between species (inter-species, for which they employ an autoinducer-2 quorum sensing system which is called the universal language of the bacteria. Periodontal pathogenic bacteria possess AI-2 quorum sensing systems. It is known that they use it for regulation of biofilm formation, iron uptake, stress response and virulence factor expression. A better understanding of bacterial communication mechanisms will allow the targeting of quorum sensing with quorum sensing inhibitors to prevent and control disease.

  12. Remote Sensing and the Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosius, Craig A.; And Others

    This document is designed to help senior high school students study remote sensing technology and techniques in relation to the environmental sciences. It discusses the acquisition, analysis, and use of ecological remote data. Material is divided into three sections and an appendix. Section One is an overview of the basics of remote sensing.…

  13. Teaching Game Sense in Soccer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pill, Shane

    2012-01-01

    "Game sense" is a sport-specific iteration of the teaching games for understanding model, designed to balance physical development of motor skill and fitness with the development of game understanding. Game sense can foster a shared vision for sport learning that bridges school physical education and community sport. This article explains how to…

  14. Quality as Sense-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Sense-making is a process of engaging with complex and dynamic environments that provides organisations and their leaders with a flexible and agile model of the world. The seven key properties of sense-making describe a process that is social and that respects the range of different stakeholders in an organisation. It also addresses the need to…

  15. Science & the Senses: Perceptions & Deceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfield, William D.

    2012-01-01

    Science requires the acquisition and analysis of empirical (sense-derived) data. Given the same physical objects or phenomena, the sense organs of all people do not respond equally to these stimuli, nor do their minds interpret sensory signals identically. Therefore, teachers should develop lectures on human sensory systems that include some…

  16. Extended Near-Infrared Optoacoustic Spectrometry for Sensing Physiological Concentrations of Glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ara Ghazaryan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Glucose sensing is pursued extensively in biomedical research and clinical practice for assessment of the carbohydrate and fat metabolism as well as in the context of an array of disorders, including diabetes, morbid obesity, and cancer. Currently used methods for real-time glucose measurements are invasive and require access to body fluids, with novel tools and methods for non-invasive sensing of the glucose levels highly desired. In this study, we introduce a near-infrared (NIR optoacoustic spectrometer for sensing physiological concentrations of glucose within aqueous media and describe the glucose spectra within 850–1,900 nm and various concentration ranges. We apply the ratiometric and dictionary learning methods with a training set of data and validate their utility for glucose concentration measurements with optoacoustics in the probe dataset. We demonstrate the superior signal-to-noise ratio (factor of ~3.9 achieved with dictionary learning over the ratiometric approach across the wide glucose concentration range. Our data show a linear relationship between the optoacoustic signal intensity and physiological glucose concentration, in line with the results of optical spectroscopy. Thus, the feasibility of detecting physiological glucose concentrations using NIR optoacoustic spectroscopy is demonstrated, enabling the sensing glucose with ±10 mg/dl precision.

  17. Training Small Networks for Scene Classification of Remote Sensing Images via Knowledge Distillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanzhou Chen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Scene classification, aiming to identify the land-cover categories of remotely sensed image patches, is now a fundamental task in the remote sensing image analysis field. Deep-learning-model-based algorithms are widely applied in scene classification and achieve remarkable performance, but these high-level methods are computationally expensive and time-consuming. Consequently in this paper, we introduce a knowledge distillation framework, currently a mainstream model compression method, into remote sensing scene classification to improve the performance of smaller and shallower network models. Our knowledge distillation training method makes the high-temperature softmax output of a small and shallow student model match the large and deep teacher model. In our experiments, we evaluate knowledge distillation training method for remote sensing scene classification on four public datasets: AID dataset, UCMerced dataset, NWPU-RESISC dataset, and EuroSAT dataset. Results show that our proposed training method was effective and increased overall accuracy (3% in AID experiments, 5% in UCMerced experiments, 1% in NWPU-RESISC and EuroSAT experiments for small and shallow models. We further explored the performance of the student model on small and unbalanced datasets. Our findings indicate that knowledge distillation can improve the performance of small network models on datasets with lower spatial resolution images, numerous categories, as well as fewer training samples.

  18. High-Resolution Remote Sensing Image Building Extraction Based on Markov Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, W.; Yan, L.; Chang, Y.; Gong, L.

    2018-04-01

    With the increase of resolution, remote sensing images have the characteristics of increased information load, increased noise, more complex feature geometry and texture information, which makes the extraction of building information more difficult. To solve this problem, this paper designs a high resolution remote sensing image building extraction method based on Markov model. This method introduces Contourlet domain map clustering and Markov model, captures and enhances the contour and texture information of high-resolution remote sensing image features in multiple directions, and further designs the spectral feature index that can characterize "pseudo-buildings" in the building area. Through the multi-scale segmentation and extraction of image features, the fine extraction from the building area to the building is realized. Experiments show that this method can restrain the noise of high-resolution remote sensing images, reduce the interference of non-target ground texture information, and remove the shadow, vegetation and other pseudo-building information, compared with the traditional pixel-level image information extraction, better performance in building extraction precision, accuracy and completeness.

  19. DAST in Flight Showing Diverging Wingtip Oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    normal stiffness. This was done because stiffness requires structural weight but ensures freedom from flutter-an uncontrolled, divergent oscillation of the structure, driven by aerodynamic forces and resulting in structural failure. The program used refined theoretical tools to predict at what speed flutter would occur. It then designed a high-response control system to counteract the motion and permit a much lighter wing structure. The wing had, in effect, 'electronic stiffness.' Flight research with this concept was extremely hazardous because an error in either the flutter prediction or control system implementation would result in wing structural failure and the loss of the vehicle. Because of this, flight demonstration of a sub-scale vehicle made sense from the standpoint of both safety and cost. The program anticipated structural failure during the course of the flight research. The Firebee II was a supersonic drone selected as the DAST testbed because its wing could be easily replaced, it used only tail-mounted control surfaces, and it was available as surplus from the U. S. Air Force. It was capable of 5-g turns (that is, turns producing acceleration equal to 5 times that of gravity). Langley outfitted a drone with an aeroelastic, supercritical research wing suitable for a Mach 0.98 cruise transport with a predicted flutter speed of Mach 0.95 at an altitude of 25,000 feet. Dryden and Langley, in conjunction with Boeing, designed and fabricated a digital flutter suppression system (FSS). Dryden developed an RPRV (remotely piloted research vehicle) flight control system; integrated the wing, FSS, and vehicle systems; and conducted the flight program. In addition to a digital flight control system and aeroelastic wings, each DAST drone had research equipment mounted in its nose and a mid-air retrieval system in its tail. The drones were originally launched from the NASA B-52 bomber and later from a DC-130. The DAST vehicle's flight was monitored from the sky by an F

  20. Compressive sensing in medical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Christian G; Sidky, Emil Y

    2015-03-10

    The promise of compressive sensing, exploitation of compressibility to achieve high quality image reconstructions with less data, has attracted a great deal of attention in the medical imaging community. At the Compressed Sensing Incubator meeting held in April 2014 at OSA Headquarters in Washington, DC, presentations were given summarizing some of the research efforts ongoing in compressive sensing for x-ray computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging systems. This article provides an expanded version of these presentations. Sparsity-exploiting reconstruction algorithms that have gained popularity in the medical imaging community are studied, and examples of clinical applications that could benefit from compressive sensing ideas are provided. The current and potential future impact of compressive sensing on the medical imaging field is discussed.

  1. Reality, ficción o show

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Ruíz Moreno

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Para tener un punto de vista claro y objetivo frente a la polémica establecida en torno al programa “Protagonistas de novela” y la tendiente proliferación de los reality show en las parrillas de programación de la televisión colombiana, se realizó un análisis de texto y contenido de dicho programa, intentando definirlo desde sus posibilidades de realidad, ficción y show. Las unidades de análisis y el estudio de su tratamiento arrojaron un alto contenido que gira en torno a las emociones del ser humano relacionadas con la convivencia, tratadas a manera de show y con algunos aportes textuales de ficción, pero sin su elemento mediador básico, el actor, quitándole toda la posibilidad de tener un tratamiento con la profundidad, distancia y ética que requieren los temas de esta índole. El resultado es un formato que sólo busca altos índices de sintonía y que pertenece más a la denominada televisión “trash”, que a una búsqueda de realidad del hombre y mucho menos de sociedad.

  2. Remote Sensing using Signals of Opportunity

    OpenAIRE

    Yertay, Alibek; Garrison, James L

    2013-01-01

    Today, there are more than eight thousand satellites in space. Therefore, Radio Frequency (RF) signals broadcast from satellites can be accessed from almost every point on the earth. There will be number of satellites available at most points on earth with different frequency bands. These satellite signals can be used for remote sensing, therefore software that visualizes footprints of satellites and shows characteristics of every satellite available at any point would be useful in determinin...

  3. Crowdsensing in Smart Cities: Overview, Platforms, and Environment Sensing Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Alvear

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Evidence shows that Smart Cities are starting to materialise in our lives through the gradual introduction of the Internet of Things (IoT paradigm. In this scope, crowdsensing emerges as a powerful solution to address environmental monitoring, allowing to control air pollution levels in crowded urban areas in a distributed, collaborative, inexpensive and accurate manner. However, even though technology is already available, such environmental sensing devices have not yet reached consumers. In this paper, we present an analysis of candidate technologies for crowdsensing architectures, along with the requirements for empowering users with air monitoring capabilities. Specifically, we start by providing an overview of the most relevant IoT architectures and protocols. Then, we present the general design of an off-the-shelf mobile environmental sensor able to cope with air quality monitoring requirements; we explore different hardware options to develop the desired sensing unit using readily available devices, discussing the main technical issues associated with each option, thereby opening new opportunities in terms of environmental monitoring programs.

  4. Crowdsensing in Smart Cities: Overview, Platforms, and Environment Sensing Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvear, Oscar; Calafate, Carlos T; Cano, Juan-Carlos; Manzoni, Pietro

    2018-02-04

    Evidence shows that Smart Cities are starting to materialise in our lives through the gradual introduction of the Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm. In this scope, crowdsensing emerges as a powerful solution to address environmental monitoring, allowing to control air pollution levels in crowded urban areas in a distributed, collaborative, inexpensive and accurate manner. However, even though technology is already available, such environmental sensing devices have not yet reached consumers. In this paper, we present an analysis of candidate technologies for crowdsensing architectures, along with the requirements for empowering users with air monitoring capabilities. Specifically, we start by providing an overview of the most relevant IoT architectures and protocols. Then, we present the general design of an off-the-shelf mobile environmental sensor able to cope with air quality monitoring requirements; we explore different hardware options to develop the desired sensing unit using readily available devices, discussing the main technical issues associated with each option, thereby opening new opportunities in terms of environmental monitoring programs.

  5. Dysregulation of Nutrient Sensing and CLEARance in Presenilin Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavya Reddy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Attenuated auto-lysosomal system has been associated with Alzheimer disease (AD, yet all underlying molecular mechanisms leading to this impairment are unknown. We show that the amino acid sensing of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1 is dysregulated in cells deficient in presenilin, a protein associated with AD. In these cells, mTORC1 is constitutively tethered to lysosomal membranes, unresponsive to starvation, and inhibitory to TFEB-mediated clearance due to a reduction in Sestrin2 expression. Normalization of Sestrin2 levels through overexpression or elevation of nuclear calcium rescued mTORC1 tethering and initiated clearance. While CLEAR network attenuation in vivo results in buildup of amyloid, phospho-Tau, and neurodegeneration, presenilin-knockout fibroblasts and iPSC-derived AD human neurons fail to effectively initiate autophagy. These results propose an altered mechanism for nutrient sensing in presenilin deficiency and underline an importance of clearance pathways in the onset of AD.

  6. Gold/diamond nanohybrids for quantum sensing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Pei-Chang; Chen, Oliver Y.; Tzeng, Yan-Kai; Hui, Yuen Yung; Chang, Ming-Shien [Academia Sinica, Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Taipei (China); Guo, Jiun You; Wu, Chih-Che [National Chi Nan University, Department of Applied Chemistry, Puli, Nantou (China); Chang, Huan-Cheng [Academia Sinica, Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Taipei (China); National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, Taipei (China)

    2015-12-15

    Recent advances in quantum technology have demonstrated the potential use of negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy (NV{sup -}) centers in diamond for temperature and magnetic sensing at sub-cellular levels. Fluorescent nanodiamonds (FNDs) containing high-density ensembles of NV{sup -} centers are appealing for such applications because they are inherently biocompatible and non-toxic. Here, we show that FNDs conjugated with gold nanorods (GNRs) are useful as a combined nanoheater and nanothermometer for highly localized hyperthermia treatment using near-infrared (NIR) lasers as the heating source. A temperature rise of ∝10 K can be readily achieved at a NIR laser power of 0.4 mW in cells. The technique is compatible with the presence of static magnetic fields and allows for simultaneous temperature and magnetic sensing with nanometric spatial resolution. To elucidate the nanoscale heating process, numerical simulations are conducted with finite element analysis, providing an important guideline for the use of this new tool for active and high-precision control of temperature under diverse environmental conditions. (orig.)

  7. Gold/diamond nanohybrids for quantum sensing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Pei-Chang; Chen, Oliver Y.; Tzeng, Yan-Kai; Hui, Yuen Yung; Chang, Ming-Shien; Guo, Jiun You; Wu, Chih-Che; Chang, Huan-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in quantum technology have demonstrated the potential use of negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy (NV - ) centers in diamond for temperature and magnetic sensing at sub-cellular levels. Fluorescent nanodiamonds (FNDs) containing high-density ensembles of NV - centers are appealing for such applications because they are inherently biocompatible and non-toxic. Here, we show that FNDs conjugated with gold nanorods (GNRs) are useful as a combined nanoheater and nanothermometer for highly localized hyperthermia treatment using near-infrared (NIR) lasers as the heating source. A temperature rise of ∝10 K can be readily achieved at a NIR laser power of 0.4 mW in cells. The technique is compatible with the presence of static magnetic fields and allows for simultaneous temperature and magnetic sensing with nanometric spatial resolution. To elucidate the nanoscale heating process, numerical simulations are conducted with finite element analysis, providing an important guideline for the use of this new tool for active and high-precision control of temperature under diverse environmental conditions. (orig.)

  8. Assessing diversity of prairie plants using remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamon, J. A.; Wang, R.

    2017-12-01

    Biodiversity loss endangers ecosystem services and is considered as a global change that may generate unacceptable environmental consequences for the Earth system. Global biodiversity observations are needed to provide a better understanding of biodiversity - ecosystem services relationships and to provide a stronger foundation for conserving the Earth's biodiversity. While remote sensing metrics have been applied to estimate α biodiversity directly through optical diversity, a better understanding of the mechanisms behind the optical diversity-biodiversity relationship is needed. We designed a series of experiments at Cedar Creek Ecosystem Science Reserve, MN, to investigate the scale dependence of optical diversity and explore how species richness, evenness, and composition affect optical diversity. We collected hyperspectral reflectance of 16 prairie species using both a full-range field spectrometer fitted with a leaf clip, and an imaging spectrometer carried by a tram system to simulate plot-level images with different species richness, evenness, and composition. Two indicators of spectral diversity were explored: the coefficient of variation (CV) of spectral reflectance in space, and spectral classification using a Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA). Our results showed that sampling methods (leaf clip-derived data vs. image-derived data) affected the optical diversity estimation. Both optical diversity indices were affected by species richness and evenness (Pguide regional studies of biodiversity estimation using high spatial and spectral resolution remote sensing.

  9. Prediction by promoter logic in bacterial quorum sensing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navneet Rai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Quorum-sensing systems mediate chemical communication between bacterial cells, coordinating cell-density-dependent processes like biofilm formation and virulence-factor expression. In the proteobacterial LuxI/LuxR quorum sensing paradigm, a signaling molecule generated by an enzyme (LuxI diffuses between cells and allosterically stimulates a transcriptional regulator (LuxR to activate its cognate promoter (pR. By expressing either LuxI or LuxR in positive feedback from pR, these versatile systems can generate smooth (monostable or abrupt (bistable density-dependent responses to suit the ecological context. Here we combine theory and experiment to demonstrate that the promoter logic of pR - its measured activity as a function of LuxI and LuxR levels - contains all the biochemical information required to quantitatively predict the responses of such feedback loops. The interplay of promoter logic with feedback topology underlies the versatility of the LuxI/LuxR paradigm: LuxR and LuxI positive-feedback systems show dramatically different responses, while a dual positive/negative-feedback system displays synchronized oscillations. These results highlight the dual utility of promoter logic: to probe microscopic parameters and predict macroscopic phenotype.

  10. Content-Based High-Resolution Remote Sensing Image Retrieval via Unsupervised Feature Learning and Collaborative Affinity Metric Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yansheng Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available With the urgent demand for automatic management of large numbers of high-resolution remote sensing images, content-based high-resolution remote sensing image retrieval (CB-HRRS-IR has attracted much research interest. Accordingly, this paper proposes a novel high-resolution remote sensing image retrieval approach via multiple feature representation and collaborative affinity metric fusion (IRMFRCAMF. In IRMFRCAMF, we design four unsupervised convolutional neural networks with different layers to generate four types of unsupervised features from the fine level to the coarse level. In addition to these four types of unsupervised features, we also implement four traditional feature descriptors, including local binary pattern (LBP, gray level co-occurrence (GLCM, maximal response 8 (MR8, and scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT. In order to fully incorporate the complementary information among multiple features of one image and the mutual information across auxiliary images in the image dataset, this paper advocates collaborative affinity metric fusion to measure the similarity between images. The performance evaluation of high-resolution remote sensing image retrieval is implemented on two public datasets, the UC Merced (UCM dataset and the Wuhan University (WH dataset. Large numbers of experiments show that our proposed IRMFRCAMF can significantly outperform the state-of-the-art approaches.

  11. Gas sensing with gold-decorated vertically aligned carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudimela, Prasantha R; Scardamaglia, Mattia; González-León, Oriol; Reckinger, Nicolas; Snyders, Rony; Llobet, Eduard; Bittencourt, Carla; Colomer, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes of different lengths (150, 300, 500 µm) synthesized by thermal chemical vapor deposition and decorated with gold nanoparticles were investigated as gas sensitive materials for detecting nitrogen dioxide (NO2) at room temperature. Gold nanoparticles of about 6 nm in diameter were sputtered on the top surface of the carbon nanotube forests to enhance the sensitivity to the pollutant gas. We showed that the sensing response to nitrogen dioxide depends on the nanotube length. The optimum was found to be 300 µm for getting the higher response. When the background humidity level was changed from dry to 50% relative humidity, an increase in the response to NO2 was observed for all the sensors, regardless of the nanotube length.

  12. Gas sensing with gold-decorated vertically aligned carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasantha R. Mudimela

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes of different lengths (150, 300, 500 µm synthesized by thermal chemical vapor deposition and decorated with gold nanoparticles were investigated as gas sensitive materials for detecting nitrogen dioxide (NO2 at room temperature. Gold nanoparticles of about 6 nm in diameter were sputtered on the top surface of the carbon nanotube forests to enhance the sensitivity to the pollutant gas. We showed that the sensing response to nitrogen dioxide depends on the nanotube length. The optimum was found to be 300 µm for getting the higher response. When the background humidity level was changed from dry to 50% relative humidity, an increase in the response to NO2 was observed for all the sensors, regardless of the nanotube length.

  13. Towards Memory-Aware Services and Browsing through Lifelogging Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Cetina

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Every day we receive lots of information through our senses that is lost forever, because it lacked the strength or the repetition needed to generate a lasting memory. Combining the emerging Internet of Things and lifelogging sensors, we believe it is possible to build up a Digital Memory (Dig-Mem in order to complement the fallible memory of people. This work shows how to realize the Dig-Mem in terms of interactions, affinities, activities, goals and protocols. We also complement this Dig-Mem with memory-aware services and a Dig-Mem browser. Furthermore, we propose a RFID Tag-Sharing technique to speed up the adoption of Dig-Mem. Experimentation reveals an improvement of the user understanding of Dig-Mem as time passes, compared to natural memories where the level of detail decreases over time.

  14. A universal protocol to generate consensus level genome sequences for foot-and-mouth disease virus and other positive-sense polyadenylated RNA viruses using the Illumina MiSeq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Grace; Freimanis, Graham L; King, David J; Valdazo-González, Begoña; Bachanek-Bankowska, Katarzyna; Sanderson, Nicholas D; Knowles, Nick J; King, Donald P; Cottam, Eleanor M

    2014-09-30

    Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) is revolutionizing molecular epidemiology by providing new approaches to undertake whole genome sequencing (WGS) in diagnostic settings for a variety of human and veterinary pathogens. Previous sequencing protocols have been subject to biases such as those encountered during PCR amplification and cell culture, or are restricted by the need for large quantities of starting material. We describe here a simple and robust methodology for the generation of whole genome sequences on the Illumina MiSeq. This protocol is specific for foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) or other polyadenylated RNA viruses and circumvents both the use of PCR and the requirement for large amounts of initial template. The protocol was successfully validated using five FMDV positive clinical samples from the 2001 epidemic in the United Kingdom, as well as a panel of representative viruses from all seven serotypes. In addition, this protocol was successfully used to recover 94% of an FMDV genome that had previously been identified as cell culture negative. Genome sequences from three other non-FMDV polyadenylated RNA viruses (EMCV, ERAV, VESV) were also obtained with minor protocol amendments. We calculated that a minimum coverage depth of 22 reads was required to produce an accurate consensus sequence for FMDV O. This was achieved in 5 FMDV/O/UKG isolates and the type O FMDV from the serotype panel with the exception of the 5' genomic termini and area immediately flanking the poly(C) region. We have developed a universal WGS method for FMDV and other polyadenylated RNA viruses. This method works successfully from a limited quantity of starting material and eliminates the requirement for genome-specific PCR amplification. This protocol has the potential to generate consensus-level sequences within a routine high-throughput diagnostic environment.

  15. Myopes show increased susceptibility to nearwork aftereffects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciuffreda, K J; Wallis, D M

    1998-09-01

    Some aspects of accommodation may be slightly abnormal (or different) in myopes, compared with accommodation in emmetropes and hyperopes. For example, the initial magnitude of accommodative adaptation in the dark after nearwork is greatest in myopes. However, the critical test is to assess this initial accommodative aftereffect and its subsequent decay in the light under more natural viewing conditions with blur-related visual feedback present, if a possible link between this phenomenon and clinical myopia is to be considered. Subjects consisted of adult late- (n = 11) and early-onset (n = 13) myopes, emmetropes (n = 11), and hyperopes (n = 9). The distance-refractive state was assessed objectively using an autorefractor immediately before and after a 10-minute binocular near task at 20 cm (5 diopters [D]). Group results showed that myopes were most susceptible to the nearwork aftereffect. It averaged 0.35 D in initial magnitude, with considerably faster posttask decay to baseline in the early-onset (35 seconds) versus late-onset (63 seconds) myopes. There was no myopic aftereffect in the remaining two refractive groups. The myopes showed particularly striking accommodatively related nearwork aftereffect susceptibility. As has been speculated and found by many others, transient pseudomyopia may cause or be a precursor to permanent myopia or myopic progression. Time-integrated increased retinal defocus causing axial elongation is proposed as a possible mechanism.

  16. Spectroelectrochemical sensing: planar waveguides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Susan E.; Shi Yining; Seliskar, Carl J.; Heineman, William R

    2003-09-30

    The spectroelectrochemical sensor combines in a single device electrochemistry, spectroscopy, and selective partitioning into a film, giving improved selectivity for applications that involve complex samples. Sensing is based on the change in optical signal that accompanies electrochemical modulation of analyte that has partitioned into the film. Two classes of optical quality chemically-selective films based on two different host materials, namely, sol-gel processed silica and cross-linked poly(vinyl alcohol) have been developed. Films are typically 400-700 nm thick. Three types of sensor platforms are discussed: a multiple internal reflection (MIR) optic consisting of a bilayer of an indium tin oxide (ITO) optically transparent electrode deposited on a 1-mm thick glass substrate, a planar waveguide in which a potassium ion-exchanged BK7 glass waveguide (5-9 {mu}m thick) was over-coated with a thin film of ITO, and a planar waveguide in which a potassium ion-exchanged BK7 glass waveguide channel was formed and a pair of electrodes deposited along side the channel. These sensors were evaluated with ferrocyanide and a selective film of PDMDAAC-SiO{sub 2}, where PDMDAAC=poly(dimethyl diallylammonium chloride)

  17. Subsurface remote sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweitzer, Jeffrey S.; Groves, Joel L.

    2002-01-01

    Subsurface remote sensing measurements are widely used for oil and gas exploration, for oil and gas production monitoring, and for basic studies in the earth sciences. Radiation sensors, often including small accelerator sources, are used to obtain bulk properties of the surrounding strata as well as to provide detailed elemental analyses of the rocks and fluids in rock pores. Typically, instrument packages are lowered into a borehole at the end of a long cable, that may be as long as 10 km, and two-way data and instruction telemetry allows a single radiation instrument to operate in different modes and to send the data to a surface computer. Because these boreholes are often in remote locations throughout the world, the data are frequently transmitted by satellite to various locations around the world for almost real-time analysis and incorporation with other data. The complete system approach that permits rapid and reliable data acquisition, remote analysis and transmission to those making decisions is described

  18. Spectroelectrochemical sensing: planar waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, Susan E.; Shi Yining; Seliskar, Carl J.; Heineman, William R.

    2003-01-01

    The spectroelectrochemical sensor combines in a single device electrochemistry, spectroscopy, and selective partitioning into a film, giving improved selectivity for applications that involve complex samples. Sensing is based on the change in optical signal that accompanies electrochemical modulation of analyte that has partitioned into the film. Two classes of optical quality chemically-selective films based on two different host materials, namely, sol-gel processed silica and cross-linked poly(vinyl alcohol) have been developed. Films are typically 400-700 nm thick. Three types of sensor platforms are discussed: a multiple internal reflection (MIR) optic consisting of a bilayer of an indium tin oxide (ITO) optically transparent electrode deposited on a 1-mm thick glass substrate, a planar waveguide in which a potassium ion-exchanged BK7 glass waveguide (5-9 μm thick) was over-coated with a thin film of ITO, and a planar waveguide in which a potassium ion-exchanged BK7 glass waveguide channel was formed and a pair of electrodes deposited along side the channel. These sensors were evaluated with ferrocyanide and a selective film of PDMDAAC-SiO 2 , where PDMDAAC=poly(dimethyl diallylammonium chloride)

  19. Common sense codified

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    At CERN, people of more than a hundred different nationalities and hundreds of different professions work together towards a common goal. The new Code of Conduct is a tool that has been designed to help us keep our workplace pleasant and productive through common standards of behaviour. Its basic principle is mutual respect and common sense. This is only natural, but not trivial…  The Director-General announced it in his speech at the beginning of the year, and the Bulletin wrote about it immediately afterwards. "It" is the new Code of Conduct, the document that lists our Organization's values and describes the basic standards of behaviour that we should both adopt and expect from others. "The Code of Conduct is not going to establish new rights or new obligations," explains Anne-Sylvie Catherin, Head of the Human Resources Department (HR). But what it will do is provide a framework for our existing rights and obligations." The aim of a co...

  20. The influence of performance on action-effect integration in sense of agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Wen; Yamashita, Atsushi; Asama, Hajime

    2017-08-01

    Sense of agency refers to the subjective feeling of being able to control an outcome through one's own actions or will. Prior studies have shown that both sensory processing (e.g., comparisons between sensory feedbacks and predictions basing on one's motor intentions) and high-level cognitive/constructive processes (e.g., inferences based on one's performance or the consequences of one's actions) contribute to judgments of sense of agency. However, it remains unclear how these two types of processes interact, which is important for clarifying the mechanisms underlying sense of agency. Thus, we examined whether performance-based inferences influence action-effect integration in sense of agency using a delay detection paradigm in two experiments. In both experiments, participants pressed left and right arrow keys to control the direction in which a moving dot was travelling. The dot's response delay was manipulated randomly on 7 levels (0-480ms) between the trials; for each trial, participants were asked to judge whether the dot response was delayed and to rate their level of agency over the dot. In Experiment 1, participants tried to direct the dot to reach a destination on the screen as quickly as possible. Furthermore, the computer assisted participants by ignoring erroneous commands for half of the trials (assisted condition), while in the other half, all of the participants' commands were executed (self-control condition). In Experiment 2, participants directed the dot as they pleased (without a specific goal), but, in half of the trials, the computer randomly ignored 32% of their commands (disturbed condition) rather than assisted them. The results from the two experiments showed that performance enhanced action-effect integration. Specifically, when task performance was improved through the computer's assistance in Experiment 1, delay detection was reduced in the 480-ms delay condition, despite the fact that 32% of participants' commands were ignored

  1. [Sense of guilt in sexually abused children : Mediating role of avoidance coping on anxiety and self-esteem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier-Duchesne, Amélie; Hébert, Martine; Daspe, Marie-Ève

    2017-01-01

    Prior studies have suggested self-blame and sense of guilt as important elements associated with the effects of childhood sexual abuse on adult survivors (Cantón-Cortés, Cantón, Justicia & Cortés, 2011). However, few studies have explored the potential impact of the sense of guilt on outcomes in child victims. This study examines the mediating role of avoidance coping on the relationship between sense of guilt and outcomes (anxiety and self-esteem) in sexually abused children. The sample consisted of 447 sexually abused children (319 girls and 128 boys) aged 6 to 12. Path analysis indicated that children with higher feelings of guilt about the abuse showed more anxiety and lower levels of self-esteem. Indirect effects also indicated that sense of guilt predicted avoidance coping, which in turn contributed to higher anxiety and lower self-esteem. This model, which fits the data well for both girls and boys, explains 24.4 % of the variance in anxiety and 11.2 % of the variance in self-esteem. Results suggest that sense of guilt is an important target for clinical intervention with sexually abused children.

  2. Intraperitoneal Glucose Sensing is Sometimes Surprisingly Rapid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Lyngvi Fougner

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid, accurate and robust glucose measurements are needed to make a safe artificial pancreas for the treatment of diabetes mellitus type 1 and 2. The present gold standard of continuous glucose sensing, subcutaneous (SC glucose sensing, has been claimed to have slow response and poor robustness towards local tissue changes such as mechanical pressure, temperature changes, etc. The present study aimed at quantifying glucose dynamics from central circulation to intraperitoneal (IP sensor sites, as an alternative to the SC location. Intraarterial (IA and IP sensors were tested in three anaesthetized non-diabetic pigs during experiments with intravenous infusion of glucose boluses, enforcing rapid glucose level excursions in the range 70--360 mg/dL (approximately 3.8--20 mmol/L. Optical interferometric sensors were used for IA and IP measurements. A first-order dynamic model with time delay was fitted to the data after compensating for sensor dynamics. Additionally, off-the-shelf Medtronic Enlite sensors were used for illustration of SC glucose sensing. The time delay in glucose excursions from central circulation (IA to IP sensor location was found to be in the range 0--26 s (median: 8.5 s, mean: 9.7 s, SD 9.5 s, and the time constant was found to be 0.5--10.2 min (median: 4.8 min, mean: 4.7 min, SD 2.9 min. IP glucose sensing sites have a substantially faster and more distinctive response than SC sites when sensor dynamics is ignored, and the peritoneal fluid reacts even faster to changes in intravascular glucose levels than reported in previous animal studies. This study may provide a benchmark for future, rapid IP glucose sensors.

  3. Ancient bacteria show evidence of DNA repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Sarah Stewart; Hebsgaard, Martin B; Christensen, Torben R

    2007-01-01

    -term survival of bacteria sealed in frozen conditions for up to one million years. Our results show evidence of bacterial survival in samples up to half a million years in age, making this the oldest independently authenticated DNA to date obtained from viable cells. Additionally, we find strong evidence...... geological timescales. There has been no direct evidence in ancient microbes for the most likely mechanism, active DNA repair, or for the metabolic activity necessary to sustain it. In this paper, we couple PCR and enzymatic treatment of DNA with direct respiration measurements to investigate long...... that this long-term survival is closely tied to cellular metabolic activity and DNA repair that over time proves to be superior to dormancy as a mechanism in sustaining bacteria viability....

  4. Microbiological and environmental issues in show caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2012-07-01

    Cultural tourism expanded in the last half of the twentieth century, and the interest of visitors has come to include caves containing archaeological remains. Some show caves attracted mass tourism, and economical interests prevailed over conservation, which led to a deterioration of the subterranean environment and the rock art. The presence and the role of microorganisms in caves is a topic that is often ignored in cave management. Knowledge of the colonisation patterns, the dispersion mechanisms, and the effect on human health and, when present, over rock art paintings of these microorganisms is of the utmost importance. In this review the most recent advances in the study of microorganisms in caves are presented, together with the environmental implications of the findings.

  5. Active Sensing System with In Situ Adjustable Sensor Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurzaman, Surya G.; Culha, Utku; Brodbeck, Luzius; Wang, Liyu; Iida, Fumiya

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the widespread use of sensors in engineering systems like robots and automation systems, the common paradigm is to have fixed sensor morphology tailored to fulfill a specific application. On the other hand, robotic systems are expected to operate in ever more uncertain environments. In order to cope with the challenge, it is worthy of note that biological systems show the importance of suitable sensor morphology and active sensing capability to handle different kinds of sensing tasks with particular requirements. Methodology This paper presents a robotics active sensing system which is able to adjust its sensor morphology in situ in order to sense different physical quantities with desirable sensing characteristics. The approach taken is to use thermoplastic adhesive material, i.e. Hot Melt Adhesive (HMA). It will be shown that the thermoplastic and thermoadhesive nature of HMA enables the system to repeatedly fabricate, attach and detach mechanical structures with a variety of shape and size to the robot end effector for sensing purposes. Via active sensing capability, the robotic system utilizes the structure to physically probe an unknown target object with suitable motion and transduce the arising physical stimuli into information usable by a camera as its only built-in sensor. Conclusions/Significance The efficacy of the proposed system is verified based on two results. Firstly, it is confirmed that suitable sensor morphology and active sensing capability enables the system to sense different physical quantities, i.e. softness and temperature, with desirable sensing characteristics. Secondly, given tasks of discriminating two visually indistinguishable objects with respect to softness and temperature, it is confirmed that the proposed robotic system is able to autonomously accomplish them. The way the results motivate new research directions which focus on in situ adjustment of sensor morphology will also be discussed. PMID:24416094

  6. Active sensing system with in situ adjustable sensor morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurzaman, Surya G; Culha, Utku; Brodbeck, Luzius; Wang, Liyu; Iida, Fumiya

    2013-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of sensors in engineering systems like robots and automation systems, the common paradigm is to have fixed sensor morphology tailored to fulfill a specific application. On the other hand, robotic systems are expected to operate in ever more uncertain environments. In order to cope with the challenge, it is worthy of note that biological systems show the importance of suitable sensor morphology and active sensing capability to handle different kinds of sensing tasks with particular requirements. This paper presents a robotics active sensing system which is able to adjust its sensor morphology in situ in order to sense different physical quantities with desirable sensing characteristics. The approach taken is to use thermoplastic adhesive material, i.e. Hot Melt Adhesive (HMA). It will be shown that the thermoplastic and thermoadhesive nature of HMA enables the system to repeatedly fabricate, attach and detach mechanical structures with a variety of shape and size to the robot end effector for sensing purposes. Via active sensing capability, the robotic system utilizes the structure to physically probe an unknown target object with suitable motion and transduce the arising physical stimuli into information usable by a camera as its only built-in sensor. The efficacy of the proposed system is verified based on two results. Firstly, it is confirmed that suitable sensor morphology and active sensing capability enables the system to sense different physical quantities, i.e. softness and temperature, with desirable sensing characteristics. Secondly, given tasks of discriminating two visually indistinguishable objects with respect to softness and temperature, it is confirmed that the proposed robotic system is able to autonomously accomplish them. The way the results motivate new research directions which focus on in situ adjustment of sensor morphology will also be discussed.

  7. Closed-loop controlled noninvasive ultrasonic glucose sensing and insulin delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Joo; Werner, Jacob; Jaiswal, Devina; Smith, Nadine Barrie

    2010-03-01

    To prevent complications in diabetes, the proper management of blood glucose levels is essential. Previously, ultrasonic transdermal methods using a light-weight cymbal transducer array has been studied for noninvasive methods of insulin delivery for Type-1 diabetes and glucose level monitoring. In this study, the ultrasound systems of insulin delivery and glucose sensing have been combined by a feedback controller. This study was designed to show the feasibility of the feedback controlled ultrasound system for the noninvasive glucose control. For perspective human application, in vivo experiments were performed on large animals that have a similar size to humans. Four in vivo experiments were performed using about 200 lbs pigs. The cymbal array of 3×3 pattern has been used for insulin delivery at 30 kHz with the spatial-peak temporal-peak intensity (Isptp) of 100 mW/cm2. For glucose sensing, a 2×2 array was operated at 20 kHz with Isptp = 100 mW/cm2. Based on the glucose level determined by biosensors after the ultrasound exposure, the ultrasound system for the insulin delivery was automatically operated. The glucose level of 115 mg/dl was set as a reference value for operating the insulin delivery system. For comparison, the glucose levels of blood samples collected from the ear vein were measured by a commercial glucose meter. Using the ultrasound system operated by the close-loop, feed-back controller, the glucose levels of four pigs were determined every 20 minutes and continuously controlled for 120 minutes. In comparison to the commercial glucose meter, the glucose levels determined by the biosensor were slightly higher. The results of in vivo experiments indicate the feasibility of the feedback controlled ultrasound system using the cymbal array for noninvasive glucose sensing and insulin delivery. Further studies on the extension of the glucose control will be continued for the effective method of glucose control.

  8. Impact of High Mathematics Education on the Number Sense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castronovo, Julie; Göbel, Silke M.

    2012-01-01

    In adult number processing two mechanisms are commonly used: approximate estimation of quantity and exact calculation. While the former relies on the approximate number sense (ANS) which we share with animals and preverbal infants, the latter has been proposed to rely on an exact number system (ENS) which develops later in life following the acquisition of symbolic number knowledge. The current study investigated the influence of high level math education on the ANS and the ENS. Our results showed that the precision of non-symbolic quantity representation was not significantly altered by high level math education. However, performance in a symbolic number comparison task as well as the ability to map accurately between symbolic and non-symbolic quantities was significantly better the higher mathematics achievement. Our findings suggest that high level math education in adults shows little influence on their ANS, but it seems to be associated with a better anchored ENS and better mapping abilities between ENS and ANS. PMID:22558077

  9. Remote Sensing for Wind Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peña, Alfredo; Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Badger, Merete

    The Remote Sensing in Wind Energy report provides a description of several topics and it is our hope that students and others interested will learn from it. The idea behind it began in year 2008 at DTU Wind Energy (formerly Risø) during the first PhD Summer School: Remote Sensing in Wind Energy...... colleagues in the Meteorology and Test and Measurements Sections from DTU Wind Energy in the PhD Summer Schools. We hope to continue adding more topics in future editions and to update and improve as necessary, to provide a truly state-of-the-art ‘guideline’ available for people involved in Remote Sensing...

  10. Sensing voltage across lipid membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Kenton J.

    2009-01-01

    The detection of electrical potentials across lipid bilayers by specialized membrane proteins is required for many fundamental cellular processes such as the generation and propagation of nerve impulses. These membrane proteins possess modular voltage-sensing domains, a notable example being the S1-S4 domains of voltage-activated ion channels. Ground-breaking structural studies on these domains explain how voltage sensors are designed and reveal important interactions with the surrounding lipid membrane. Although further structures are needed to fully understand the conformational changes that occur during voltage sensing, the available data help to frame several key concepts that are fundamental to the mechanism of voltage sensing. PMID:19092925

  11. Predicting word sense annotation agreement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Alonso, Hector; Johannsen, Anders Trærup; Lopez de Lacalle, Oier

    2015-01-01

    High agreement is a common objective when annotating data for word senses. However, a number of factors make perfect agreement impossible, e.g. the limitations of the sense inventories, the difficulty of the examples or the interpretation preferences of the annotations. Estimating potential...... agreement is thus a relevant task to supplement the evaluation of sense annotations. In this article we propose two methods to predict agreement on word-annotation instances. We experiment with a continuous representation and a three-way discretization of observed agreement. In spite of the difficulty...

  12. NASA GIBS Use in Live Planetarium Shows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmart, C. B.

    2015-12-01

    The American Museum of Natural History's Hayden Planetarium was rebuilt in year 2000 as an immersive theater for scientific data visualization to show the universe in context to our planet. Specific astrophysical movie productions provide the main daily programming, but interactive control software, developed at AMNH allows immersive presentation within a data aggregation of astronomical catalogs called the Digital Universe 3D Atlas. Since 2006, WMS globe browsing capabilities have been built into a software development collaboration with Sweden's Linkoping University (LiU). The resulting Uniview software, now a product of the company SCISS, is operated by about fifty planetariums around that world with ability to network amongst the sites for global presentations. Public presentation of NASA GIBS has allowed authoritative narratives to be presented within the range of data available in context to other sources such as Science on a Sphere, NASA Earth Observatory and Google Earth KML resources. Specifically, the NOAA supported World Views Network conducted a series of presentations across the US that focused on local ecological issues that could then be expanded in the course of presentation to national and global scales of examination. NASA support of for GIBS resources in an easy access multi scale streaming format like WMS has tremendously enabled particularly facile presentations of global monitoring like never before. Global networking of theaters for distributed presentations broadens out the potential for impact of this medium. Archiving and refinement of these presentations has already begun to inform new types of documentary productions that examine pertinent, global interdependency topics.

  13. Fabrication and performance of pressure-sensing device consisting of electret film and organic semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodzasa, Takehito; Nobeshima, Daiki; Kuribara, Kazunori; Uemura, Sei; Yoshida, Manabu

    2017-04-01

    We propose a new concept of a pressure-sensitive device that consists of an organic electret film and an organic semiconductor. This device exhibits high sensitivity and selectivity against various types of pressure. The sensing mechanism of this device originates from a modulation of the electric conductivity of the organic semiconductor film induced by the interaction between the semiconductor film and the charged electret film placed face to face. It is expected that a complicated sensor array will be fabricated by using a roll-to-roll manufacturing system, because this device can be prepared by an all-printing and simple lamination process without high-level positional adjustment for printing processes. This also shows that this device with a simple structure is suitable for application to a highly flexible device array sheet for an Internet of Things (IoT) or wearable sensing system.

  14. Modeling ion sensing in molecular electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Caroline J.; Smeu, Manuel; Ratner, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    We examine the ability of molecules to sense ions by measuring the change in molecular conductance in the presence of such charged species. The detection of protons (H + ), alkali metal cations (M + ), calcium ions (Ca 2+ ), and hydronium ions (H 3 O + ) is considered. Density functional theory (DFT) is used within the Keldysh non-equilibrium Green's function framework (NEGF) to model electron transport properties of quinolinedithiol (QDT, C 9 H 7 NS 2 ), bridging Al electrodes. The geometry of the transport region is relaxed with DFT. The transport properties of the device are modeled with NEGF-DFT to determine if this device can distinguish among the M + + QDT species containing monovalent cations, where M + = H + , Li + , Na + , or K + . Because of the asymmetry of QDT in between the two electrodes, both positive and negative biases are considered. The electron transmission function and conductance properties are simulated for electrode biases in the range from −0.5 V to 0.5 V at increments of 0.1 V. Scattering state analysis is used to determine the molecular orbitals that are the main contributors to the peaks in the transmission function near the Fermi level of the electrodes, and current-voltage relationships are obtained. The results show that QDT can be used as a proton detector by measuring transport through it and can conceivably act as a pH sensor in solutions. In addition, QDT may be able to distinguish among different monovalent species. This work suggests an approach to design modern molecular electronic conductance sensors with high sensitivity and specificity using well-established quantum chemistry

  15. Bacteriophages show promise as antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alisky, J; Iczkowski, K; Rapoport, A; Troitsky, N

    1998-01-01

    The emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria has prompted interest in alternatives to conventional drugs. One possible option is to use bacteriophages (phage) as antimicrobial agents. We have conducted a literature review of all Medline citations from 1966-1996 that dealt with the therapeutic use of phage. There were 27 papers from Poland, the Soviet Union, Britain and the U.S.A. The Polish and Soviets administered phage orally, topically or systemically to treat a wide variety of antibiotic-resistant pathogens in both adults and children. Infections included suppurative wound infections, gastroenteritis, sepsis, osteomyelitis, dermatitis, empyemas and pneumonia; pathogens included Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Klebsiella, Escherichia, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Shigella and Salmonella spp. Overall, the Polish and Soviets reported success rates of 80-95% for phage therapy, with rare, reversible gastrointestinal or allergic side effects. However, efficacy of phage was determined almost exclusively by qualitative clinical assessment of patients, and details of dosages and clinical criteria were very sketchy. There were also six British reports describing controlled trials of phage in animal models (mice, guinea pigs and livestock), measuring survival rates and other objective criteria. All of the British studies raised phage against specific pathogens then used to create experimental infections. Demonstrable efficacy against Escherichia, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas and Staphylococcus spp. was noted in these model systems. Two U.S. papers dealt with improving the bioavailability of phage. Phage is sequestered in the spleen and removed from circulation. This can be overcome by serial passage of phage through mice to isolate mutants that resist sequestration. In conclusion, bacteriophages may show promise for treating antibiotic resistant pathogens. To facilitate further progress, directions for future research are discussed and a directory of authors from the reviewed

  16. An Investigation of Students' Perceptions about Democratic School Climate and Sense of Community in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakus, Memet

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to investigate students' perceptions about democratic school climate and sense of community in school. In line with this purpose, it aims to find answers to the following questions: How democratic do students find the school climate? What is students' sense of belonging level at school? What is the academic success level of…

  17. Throughput Maximization Using an SVM for Multi-Class Hypothesis-Based Spectrum Sensing in Cognitive Radio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana Ullah Jan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A framework of spectrum sensing with a multi-class hypothesis is proposed to maximize the achievable throughput in cognitive radio networks. The energy range of a sensing signal under the hypothesis that the primary user is absent (in a conventional two-class hypothesis is further divided into quantized regions, whereas the hypothesis that the primary user is present is conserved. The non-radio frequency energy harvesting-equiped secondary user transmits, when the primary user is absent, with transmission power based on the hypothesis result (the energy level of the sensed signal and the residual energy in the battery: the lower the energy of the received signal, the higher the transmission power, and vice versa. Conversely, the lower is the residual energy in the node, the lower is the transmission power. This technique increases the throughput of a secondary link by providing a higher number of transmission events, compared to the conventional two-class hypothesis. Furthermore, transmission with low power for higher energy levels in the sensed signal reduces the probability of interference with primary users if, for instance, detection was missed. The familiar machine learning algorithm known as a support vector machine (SVM is used in a one-versus-rest approach to classify the input signal into predefined classes. The input signal to the SVM is composed of three statistical features extracted from the sensed signal and a number ranging from 0 to 100 representing the percentage of residual energy in the node’s battery. To increase the generalization of the classifier, k-fold cross-validation is utilized in the training phase. The experimental results show that an SVM with the given features performs satisfactorily for all kernels, but an SVM with a polynomial kernel outperforms linear and radial-basis function kernels in terms of accuracy. Furthermore, the proposed multi-class hypothesis achieves higher throughput compared to the

  18. Sense of Place, Fast and Slow: The Potential Contributions of Affordance Theory to Sense of Place.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Christopher M; Kyttä, Marketta; Stedman, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Over the past 40 years, the sense of place concept has been well-established across a range of applications and settings; however, most theoretical developments have "privileged the slow." Evidence suggests that place attachments and place meanings are slow to evolve, sometimes not matching material or social reality (lag effects), and also tending to inhibit change. Here, we present some key blind spots in sense of place scholarship and then suggest how a reconsideration of sense of place as "fast" and "slow" could fill them. By this, we mean how direct and immediate perception-action processes presented in affordance theory (resulting in immediately perceived place meanings) can complement slower forms of social construction presented in sense of place scholarship. Key blind spots are that sense of place scholarship: (1) rarely accounts for sensory or immediately perceived meanings; (2) pays little attention to how place meanings are the joint product of attributes of environmental features and the attributes of the individual; and (3) assumes that the relationship between place attachment and behavior is linear and not constituted in dynamic relations among mind, culture, and environment. We show how these blind spots can begin to be addressed by reviewing key insights from affordance theory, and through the presentation of applied examples. We discuss future empirical research directions in terms of: (1) how sense of place is both perceived and socially constructed; (2) whether perceived and socially constructed dimensions of place can relate to one another when perceived meanings become unsituated; and (3) how place attachment may change over different stages of the life course based upon dynamic relationships between processes of perception-action and social construction. We conclude with insights into how processes of perception-action and social construction could be included in the design and management of urban landscapes.

  19. High-Temperature Piezoelectric Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoning Jiang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric sensing is of increasing interest for high-temperature applications in aerospace, automotive, power plants and material processing due to its low cost, compact sensor size and simple signal conditioning, in comparison with other high-temperature sensing techniques. This paper presented an overview of high-temperature piezoelectric sensing techniques. Firstly, different types of high-temperature piezoelectric single crystals, electrode materials, and their pros and cons are discussed. Secondly, recent work on high-temperature piezoelectric sensors including accelerometer, surface acoustic wave sensor, ultrasound transducer, acoustic emission sensor, gas sensor, and pressure sensor for temperatures up to 1,250 °C were reviewed. Finally, discussions of existing challenges and future work for high-temperature piezoelectric sensing are presented.

  20. Displacement sensing system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    VunKannon, Jr., Robert S

    2006-08-08

    A displacement sensing system and method addresses demanding requirements for high precision sensing of displacement of a shaft, for use typically in a linear electro-dynamic machine, having low failure rates over multi-year unattended operation in hostile environments. Applications include outer space travel by spacecraft having high-temperature, sealed environments without opportunity for servicing over many years of operation. The displacement sensing system uses a three coil sensor configuration, including a reference and sense coils, to provide a pair of ratio-metric signals, which are inputted into a synchronous comparison circuit, which is synchronously processed for a resultant displacement determination. The pair of ratio-metric signals are similarly affected by environmental conditions so that the comparison circuit is able to subtract or nullify environmental conditions that would otherwise cause changes in accuracy to occur.

  1. Remote sensing of oil slicks

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fondekar, S.P.; Rao, L.V.G.

    the drawback of expensive conventional surveying methods. An airborne remote sensing system used for monitoring and surveillance of oil comprises different sensors such as side-looking airborne radar, synthetic aperture radar, infrared/ultraviolet line scanner...

  2. Studying Sensing-Based Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun

    2013-01-01

    Recent sensing-based systems involve a multitude of users, devices, and places. These types of systems challenge existing approaches for conducting valid system evaluations. Here, the author discusses such evaluation challenges and revisits existing system evaluation methodologies....

  3. Compressed sensing for distributed systems

    CERN Document Server

    Coluccia, Giulio; Magli, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a survey of the state-of-the art in the exciting and timely topic of compressed sensing for distributed systems. It has to be noted that, while compressed sensing has been studied for some time now, its distributed applications are relatively new. Remarkably, such applications are ideally suited to exploit all the benefits that compressed sensing can provide. The objective of this book is to provide the reader with a comprehensive survey of this topic, from the basic concepts to different classes of centralized and distributed reconstruction algorithms, as well as a comparison of these techniques. This book collects different contributions on these aspects. It presents the underlying theory in a complete and unified way for the first time, presenting various signal models and their use cases. It contains a theoretical part collecting latest results in rate-distortion analysis of distributed compressed sensing, as well as practical implementations of algorithms obtaining performance close to...

  4. Time and constitution of sense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Gerardo Acosta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a reflection over our time-consciousness under the Phenomenology of Edmund Husserl. The idea is make a release the key role of the sense constitution like the fundament and development of the ongoing intentionality, a shape that make the possibility to catch sight of the sense of every life situation like conscience experience that displays itself over the time, and open the world of the Phenomenon World, constituted in the flux and flow of our live experience. The immanent time in which the things served in a lived-present inevitably displays to its own immediate-past of retentions, then of commemorations, constituting and enabling, not just the sense of ever present, but the sense of our own past like memory and our future like expectative. This reflection is based and supporter over the text “Phenomenology Lesson of the Internal Time-Consiusness” (Husserl, 2002.

  5. Remote sensing technology: symposium proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Papers were presented in four subject areas: applications of remote sensing; data analysis, digital and analog; acquisition systems; and general. Abstracts of individual items from the conference were prepared separately for the data base

  6. Classification of remotely sensed images

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudeni, N

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available For this research, the researchers examine various existing image classification algorithms with the aim of demonstrating how these algorithms can be applied to remote sensing images. These algorithms are broadly divided into supervised...

  7. Environmental sensing and combustion diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoleri, J.J.

    1991-01-01

    This book contains proceedings of Environmental Sensing and Combustion Diagnostics. Topics covered include: Incineration Systems Applications, Permitting, And Monitoring Overview; Infrared Techniques Applied to Incineration Systems; Continuous Emission Monitors; Analyzers and Sensors for Process Control And Environmental Monitoring

  8. Compressive Sensing in Communication Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fyhn, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    . The need for cheaper, smarter and more energy efficient wireless devices is greater now than ever. This thesis addresses this problem and concerns the application of the recently developed sampling theory of compressive sensing in communication systems. Compressive sensing is the merging of signal...... acquisition and compression. It allows for sampling a signal with a rate below the bound dictated by the celebrated Shannon-Nyquist sampling theorem. In some communication systems this necessary minimum sample rate, dictated by the Shannon-Nyquist sampling theorem, is so high it is at the limit of what...... with using compressive sensing in communication systems. The main contribution of this thesis is two-fold: 1) a new compressive sensing hardware structure for spread spectrum signals, which is simpler than the current state-of-the-art, and 2) a range of algorithms for parameter estimation for the class...

  9. Sensing our Environment: Remote sensing in a physics classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacson, Sivan; Schüttler, Tobias; Cohen-Zada, Aviv L.; Blumberg, Dan G.; Girwidz, Raimund; Maman, Shimrit

    2017-04-01

    Remote sensing is defined as data acquisition of an object, deprived physical contact. Fundamentally, most remote sensing applications are referred to as the use of satellite- or aircraft-based sensor technologies to detect and classify objects mainly on Earth or other planets. In the last years there have been efforts to bring the important subject of remote sensing into schools, however, most of these attempts focused on geography disciplines - restricting to the applications of remote sensing and to a less extent the technique itself and the physics behind it. Optical remote sensing is based on physical principles and technical devices, which are very meaningful from a theoretical point of view as well as for "hands-on" teaching. Some main subjects are radiation, atom and molecular physics, spectroscopy, as well as optics and the semiconductor technology used in modern digital cameras. Thus two objectives were outlined for this project: 1) to investigate the possibilities of using remote sensing techniques in physics teaching, and 2) to identify its impact on pupil's interest in the field of natural sciences. This joint project of the DLR_School_Lab, Oberpfaffenhofen of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) and the Earth and Planetary Image Facility (EPIF) at BGU, was conducted in 2016. Thirty teenagers (ages 16-18) participated in the project and were exposed to the cutting edge methods of earth observation. The pupils on both sides participated in the project voluntarily, knowing that at least some of the project's work had to be done in their leisure time. The pupil's project started with a day at EPIF and DLR respectively, where the project task was explained to the participants and an introduction to remote sensing of vegetation was given. This was realized in lectures and in experimental workshops. During the following two months both groups took several measurements with modern optical remote sensing systems in their home region with a special focus on flora

  10. Building Kindergartners' Number Sense: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Nancy C; Glutting, Joseph; Dyson, Nancy; Hassinger-Das, Brenna; Irwin, Casey

    2012-08-01

    Math achievement in elementary school is mediated by performance and growth in number sense during kindergarten. The aim of the present study was to test the effectiveness of a targeted small group number sense intervention for high-risk kindergartners from low-income communities. Children were randomly assigned to one of three groups ( n = 44 in each group): a number sense intervention group, a language intervention group, or a business as usual control group. Accounting for initial skill level in mathematical knowledge, children who received the number sense intervention performed better than controls at immediate post test, with meaningful effects on measures of number competencies and general math achievement. Many of the effects held eight weeks after the intervention was completed, suggesting that children internalized what they had learned. There were no differences between the language and control groups on any math-related measures.

  11. Building Kindergartners’ Number Sense: A Randomized Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Nancy C.; Glutting, Joseph; Dyson, Nancy; Hassinger-Das, Brenna; Irwin, Casey

    2015-01-01

    Math achievement in elementary school is mediated by performance and growth in number sense during kindergarten. The aim of the present study was to test the effectiveness of a targeted small group number sense intervention for high-risk kindergartners from low-income communities. Children were randomly assigned to one of three groups (n = 44 in each group): a number sense intervention group, a language intervention group, or a business as usual control group. Accounting for initial skill level in mathematical knowledge, children who received the number sense intervention performed better than controls at immediate post test, with meaningful effects on measures of number competencies and general math achievement. Many of the effects held eight weeks after the intervention was completed, suggesting that children internalized what they had learned. There were no differences between the language and control groups on any math-related measures. PMID:25866417

  12. Sensing Athletes: Sensory Dimensions of Recreational Endurance Sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Groth

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sport has become increasingly popular with recreational athletes over the last couple of decades. This has only gained minimal attention so far from scholars interested in the relations between recreational sports and everyday culture. With this paper, we seek to contribute to this field by scrutinising the sensory dimensions of recreational sport. Rather than probing into or highlighting isolated senses, we look at sensory dimensions understood as a combination of different, non-separable sensory experiences featured in recreational endurance sports. We are interested in how senses play a role for recreational endurance athletes in running, triathlon and cycling both in training and competition. We start by examining how cultural and social dimensions are inextricably linked to doing sports. Secondly, we show how different configurations of the senses and their communicative mediation are contingent on sport disciplines, specific settings, technology, development and change as sensory careers over time. Thirdly, we discuss the kinaesthetic dimensions of doing sports in relation to the senses and the role of atmospheres. We conclude by arguing that highlighting specific senses by athletes is a cultural practice that calls for a holistic analysis of senses in sport, and outline some methodological implications for research on the senses.

  13. A novel microbial fuel cell sensor with biocathode sensing element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yong; Liang, Peng; Liu, Panpan; Wang, Donglin; Miao, Bo; Huang, Xia

    2017-08-15

    The traditional microbial fuel cell (MFC) sensor with bioanode as sensing element delivers limited sensitivity to toxicity monitoring, restricted application to only anaerobic and organic rich water body, and increased potential fault warning to the combined shock of organic matter/toxicity. In this study, the biocathode for oxygen reduction reaction was employed for the first time as the sensing element in MFC sensor for toxicity monitoring. The results shown that the sensitivity of MFC sensor with biocathode sensing element (7.4±2.0 to 67.5±4.0mA% -1 cm -2 ) was much greater than that showed by bioanode sensing element (3.4±1.5 to 5.5±0.7mA% -1 cm -2 ). The biocathode sensing element achieved the lowest detection limit reported to date using MFC sensor for formaldehyde detection (0.0005%), while the bioanode was more applicable for higher concentration (>0.0025%). There was a quicker response of biocathode sensing element with the increase of conductivity and dissolved oxygen (DO). The biocathode sensing element made the MFC sensor directly applied to clean water body monitoring, e.g., drinking water and reclaimed water, without the amending of background organic matter, and it also decreased the warning failure when challenged by a combined shock of organic matter/toxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Integrated Sensing of Alcohols by CNT Blended HAp Nano Ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikh R. ANJUM

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The research work reports the application of carbon nanotubes (CNT blended Hydroxyapatite (HAp composites as ideal thick film substrates for the detection of hazardous and flammable methanol vapours. The main objective of this work is to improve the temperature-dependent sensitivity of the sensor for the detection of lower methanol concentration. In this study, the sensing ability of native HAp and CNT blended HAp thick films is studied for the detection of methanol vapours present in ambient air individually and in the form of a mixture of methanol, ethanol, and propanol. The sensing parameters are studied using two probe electrical method. The sensor substrate is made by means of doping of different concentrations of CNT in HAp. The sensing of methanol vapours is studied at a fixed concentration of 100 ppm. Native HAp substrate shows good sensitivity for methanol at room temperature; however, its sensing performance is inferior to the CNT blended materials. The blended composites exhibit impressive sensing ability compared with native HAp in terms of sensitivity, response/ recovery time and maximum uptake limit. The sensing mechanism for methanol detection, the role of HAp as a parent material and CNT as an additive, is explained using a suitable sensing mechanism.

  15. Philosophy vs the common sense

    OpenAIRE

    V. V. Chernyshov

    2017-01-01

    The paper deals with the antinomy of philosophy and the common sense. Philosophy emerges as a way of specifically human knowledge, which purposes analytics of the reality of subjective experience. The study reveals that in order to alienate philosophy from the common sense it was essential to revise the understanding of wisdom. The new, philosophical interpretation of wisdom – offered by Pythagoras – has laid the foundation of any future philosophy. Thus, philosophy emerges, alienating itself...

  16. Remote sensing for vineyard management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipson, W. R.; Erb, T. L.; Fernandez, D.; Mcleester, J. N.

    1980-01-01

    Cornell's Remote Sensing Program has been involved in a continuing investigation to assess the value of remote sensing for vineyard management. Program staff members have conducted a series of site and crop analysis studies. These include: (1) panchromatic aerial photography for planning artificial drainage in a new vineyard; (2) color infrared aerial photography for assessing crop vigor/health; and (3) color infrared aerial photography and aircraft multispectral scanner data for evaluating yield related factors. These studies and their findings are reviewed.

  17. Remote sensing and resource exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Baz, F.; Hassan, M.H.A.; Cappellini, V.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of the Workshop was to study in depth the application of remote sensing technology to the fields of archaeology, astronomy, geography, geology, and physics. Some emphasis was placed on utilizing remote sensing methods and techniques in the search for water, mineral and land resources. The Workshop was attended by 90 people from 35 countries. The proceedings of this meeting includes 15 papers, 12 of them have a separate abstract in the INIS Database. Refs, figs and tabs

  18. Hepatitis B virus evasion from cGAS sensing in human hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrier, Eloi R; Yim, Seung-Ae; Heydmann, Laura; El Saghire, Houssein; Bach, Charlotte; Turon-Lagot, Vincent; Mailly, Laurent; Durand, Sarah C; Lucifora, Julie; Durantel, David; Pessaux, Patrick; Manel, Nicolas; Hirsch, Ivan; Zeisel, Mirjam B; Pochet, Nathalie; Schuster, Catherine; Baumert, Thomas F

    2018-04-20

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major cause of chronic liver disease and cancer worldwide. The mechanisms of viral genome sensing and the evasion of innate immune responses by HBV infection are still poorly understood. Recently, the cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) was identified as a DNA sensor. In this study, we aimed to investigate the functional role of cGAS in sensing of HBV infection and elucidate the mechanisms of viral evasion. We performed functional studies including loss- and gain-of-function experiments combined with cGAS effector gene expression profiling in an infectious cell culture model, primary human hepatocytes and HBV-infected human liver chimeric mice. Here we show that cGAS is expressed in the human liver, primary human hepatocytes and human liver chimeric mice. While naked relaxed-circular HBV DNA is sensed in a cGAS-dependent manner in hepatoma cell lines and primary human hepatocytes, host cell recognition of viral nucleic acids is abolished during HBV infection, suggesting escape from sensing, likely during packaging of the genome into the viral capsid. While the hepatocyte cGAS pathway is functionally active, as shown by reduction of viral cccDNA levels in gain-of-function studies, HBV infection suppressed cGAS expression and function in cell culture models and humanized mice. HBV exploits multiple strategies to evade sensing and antiviral activity of cGAS and its effector pathways. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  19. SOBER-MCS: Sociability-Oriented and Battery Efficient Recruitment for Mobile Crowd-Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazel Anjomshoa

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The Internet of Things (IoT concept is aiming at being an integral part of the next generation networking services by introducing pervasiveness and ubiquitous interconnectivity of uniquely-identifiable objects. The massive availability of personalized smart devices such as smartphones and wearables enable their penetration into the IoT ecosystem with their built-in sensors, particularly in Mobile Crowd-Sensing (MCS campaigns. The MCS systems achieve the objectives of the large-scale non-dedicated sensing concept in the IoT if a sufficient number of participants are engaged to the collaborative data acquisition process. Therefore, user recruitment is a key challenge in MCS, which requires effective incentivization of cooperative, truthful and trustworthy users. A grand concern for the participants is the battery drain on the mobile devices. It is a known fact that battery drain in a smartphone is a function of the user activity, which can be modeled under various contexts. With this in mind, we propose a new social activity-aware recruitment policy, namely Sociability-Oriented and Battery-Efficient Recruitment for Mobile Crowd-Sensing (SOBER-MCS. SOBER-MCS uses sociability and the residual power of the participant smartphones as two primary criteria in the selection of participating devices. The former is an indicator of the participant willingness toward sensing campaigns, whereas the latter is used to prioritize personal use over crowd-sensing under critical battery levels. We use sociability profiles that were obtained in our previous work and use those values to simulate the sociability behavior of a large pool of participants in an MCS environment. Through simulations, we show that SOBER-MCS is able to introduce battery savings up to 18.5% while improving user and platform utilities by 12% and 20%, respectively.

  20. SOBER-MCS: Sociability-Oriented and Battery Efficient Recruitment for Mobile Crowd-Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjomshoa, Fazel; Kantarci, Burak

    2018-05-17

    The Internet of Things (IoT) concept is aiming at being an integral part of the next generation networking services by introducing pervasiveness and ubiquitous interconnectivity of uniquely-identifiable objects. The massive availability of personalized smart devices such as smartphones and wearables enable their penetration into the IoT ecosystem with their built-in sensors, particularly in Mobile Crowd-Sensing (MCS) campaigns. The MCS systems achieve the objectives of the large-scale non-dedicated sensing concept in the IoT if a sufficient number of participants are engaged to the collaborative data acquisition process. Therefore, user recruitment is a key challenge in MCS, which requires effective incentivization of cooperative, truthful and trustworthy users. A grand concern for the participants is the battery drain on the mobile devices. It is a known fact that battery drain in a smartphone is a function of the user activity, which can be modeled under various contexts. With this in mind, we propose a new social activity-aware recruitment policy, namely Sociability-Oriented and Battery-Efficient Recruitment for Mobile Crowd-Sensing (SOBER-MCS). SOBER-MCS uses sociability and the residual power of the participant smartphones as two primary criteria in the selection of participating devices. The former is an indicator of the participant willingness toward sensing campaigns, whereas the latter is used to prioritize personal use over crowd-sensing under critical battery levels. We use sociability profiles that were obtained in our previous work and use those values to simulate the sociability behavior of a large pool of participants in an MCS environment. Through simulations, we show that SOBER-MCS is able to introduce battery savings up to 18.5% while improving user and platform utilities by 12% and 20%, respectively.