WorldWideScience

Sample records for level phase variation

  1. Fimbrial phase variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khandige, Surabhi; Møller-Jensen, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Surface fimbriae of pathogenic Escherichia coli facilitate sensing, adhesion and even invasion of host epithelial cells. While it is known that the pathogen has the potential to express a plethora of fimbrial variants susceptible to rapid phase ON/OFF variation, it is an open question if the fimb......Surface fimbriae of pathogenic Escherichia coli facilitate sensing, adhesion and even invasion of host epithelial cells. While it is known that the pathogen has the potential to express a plethora of fimbrial variants susceptible to rapid phase ON/OFF variation, it is an open question...... if the fimbrial diversity seen at the population level is the product of random stochasticity or a concerted effort based on active communication. Here we discuss the possibility of a mechanism alternative to a stochastic fimbrial phase variation model affecting the dynamics of a heterogeneous population....

  2. Long-term variations in the geomagnetic activity level Part II: Ascending phases of sunspot cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Mussino

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available Monthly averages of the Helsinki Ak-values have been reduced to the equivalent aa-indices to extend the aa-data set back to 1844. A periodicity of about five cycles was found for the correlation coefficient (r between geomagnetic indices and sunspot numbers for the ascending phases of sunspot cycles 9 to 22, confirming previous findings based on a minor number of sunspot cycles. The result is useful to researchers in topics related to solar-terrestrial physics, particularly for the interpretation of long-term trends in geomagnetic activity during the past, and to forecast geomagnetic activity levels in the future.

  3. Commentary Variations: Level of Verbalization, Personal Reference, and Phase Relations in Instructional Films on Perceptual-Motor Tasks. Technical Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, John V.

    In an experiment to determine the most efficient design for the commentary of an instructional film, special consideration was given to three variables concerned with the construction of commentaries: the level of verbalization (the amount of talk), the personal reference of the narrator, and the phase relationship between the commentary and the…

  4. A variational approach to multi-phase motion of gas, liquid and solid based on the level set method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, Kensuke

    2009-07-01

    We propose a simple and robust numerical algorithm to deal with multi-phase motion of gas, liquid and solid based on the level set method [S. Osher, J.A. Sethian, Front propagating with curvature-dependent speed: Algorithms based on Hamilton-Jacobi formulation, J. Comput. Phys. 79 (1988) 12; M. Sussman, P. Smereka, S. Osher, A level set approach for capturing solution to incompressible two-phase flow, J. Comput. Phys. 114 (1994) 146; J.A. Sethian, Level Set Methods and Fast Marching Methods, Cambridge University Press, 1999; S. Osher, R. Fedkiw, Level Set Methods and Dynamics Implicit Surface, Applied Mathematical Sciences, vol. 153, Springer, 2003]. In Eulerian framework, to simulate interaction between a moving solid object and an interfacial flow, we need to define at least two functions (level set functions) to distinguish three materials. In such simulations, in general two functions overlap and/or disagree due to numerical errors such as numerical diffusion. In this paper, we resolved the problem using the idea of the active contour model [M. Kass, A. Witkin, D. Terzopoulos, Snakes: active contour models, International Journal of Computer Vision 1 (1988) 321; V. Caselles, R. Kimmel, G. Sapiro, Geodesic active contours, International Journal of Computer Vision 22 (1997) 61; G. Sapiro, Geometric Partial Differential Equations and Image Analysis, Cambridge University Press, 2001; R. Kimmel, Numerical Geometry of Images: Theory, Algorithms, and Applications, Springer-Verlag, 2003] introduced in the field of image processing.

  5. Sea level and climate variations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, J.

    1985-01-01

    Review paper, ESA Symposium on Application of Satellite Data to Climate Modelling. Alpbach (Austria) Sea level is an essential component of the climate system, on which many human activities in the coastal zone depend. Climate variations leading to changes in relative sea level are

  6. Seismic noise level variation in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheen, D.; Shin, J.

    2008-12-01

    The variations of seismic background noise in South Korea have been investigated by means of power spectral analysis. The Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) and the Korea Meteorological Administation (KMA) have national wide seismic networks in South Korea, and, in the end of 2007, there are 30 broadband stations which have been operating for more than a year. In this study, we have estimated the power spectral density of seismic noise for 30 broadband stations from 2005 to 2007. Since we estimate PSDs from a large dataset of continuous waveform in this study, a robust PSD estimate of McNamara and Buland (2004) is used. In the frequency range 1-5 Hz, the diurnal variations of noise are observed at most of stations, which are especially larger at coastal stations and at insular than at inland. Some stations shows daily difference of diurnal variations, which represents that cultural activities contribute to the noise level of a station. The variation of number of triggered stations, however, shows that cultural noise has little influence on the detection capability of seismic network in South Korea. Seasonal variations are observed well in the range 0.1-0.5 Hz, while much less found in the frequency range 1-5 Hz. We observed that strong peaks in the range 0.1-0.5 Hz occur at the summer when Pacific typhoons are close to the Korean Peninsula.

  7. Phase rainbow refractometry for accurate droplet variation characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yingchun; Promvongsa, Jantarat; Saengkaew, Sawitree; Wu, Xuecheng; Chen, Jia; Gréhan, Gérard

    2016-10-15

    We developed a one-dimensional phase rainbow refractometer for the accurate trans-dimensional measurements of droplet size on the micrometer scale as well as the tiny droplet diameter variations at the nanoscale. The dependence of the phase shift of the rainbow ripple structures on the droplet variations is revealed. The phase-shifting rainbow image is recorded by a telecentric one-dimensional rainbow imaging system. Experiments on the evaporating monodispersed droplet stream show that the phase rainbow refractometer can measure the tiny droplet diameter changes down to tens of nanometers. This one-dimensional phase rainbow refractometer is capable of measuring the droplet refractive index and diameter, as well as variations.

  8. Decomposing Firm-level Sales Variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Nguyen, Daniel Xuyen

    , and that for the median product it drives 31% of the sales variation. When we remove first-time exports from our sample, the median value increases to 40%, implying that firm-destination-specific effects are most important the first year. We conclude that while firm-specific productivity can account for some......We measure the contribution of firm-specific effects to overall sales variation within a destination and find it remarkably low. Our empirical decomposition is structurally motivated by a heterogeneity model of exporting involving destination-specific, firm-specific, and firm......-destination-specific latent effects with incidental truncation. We use a highly detailed dataset with exports by products and destinations for all Danish manufacturing fi…rms. We fi…nd the contribution of firm-specific heterogeneity to within-destination sales variation varies greatly across HS6 products...

  9. Variational random phase approximation for the anharmonic oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dukelsky, J.; Schuck, P.

    1990-04-01

    The recently derived Variational Random Phase Approximation is examined using the anharmonic oscillator model. Special attention is paid to the ground state RPA wave function and the convergence of the proposed truncation scheme to obtain the diagonal density matrix. Comparison with the standard Coupled Cluster method is made

  10. Comparison of Schwinger and Kohn variational phase shift calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callaway, I.

    1980-01-01

    Numerical calculations of the l = 0 phase shift for an attractive Yukawa potential are reported using Schwinger and Kohn (type) variational methods. Accurate values can be obtained from both procedures, but when the same basis set of short range functions is used, the Kohn procedure gives superior results. (orig.)

  11. Recent Arctic Sea Level Variations from Satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Piccioni, Gaia

    2016-01-01

    Sea level monitoring in the Arctic region has always been an extreme challenge for remote sensing, and in particular for satellite altimetry. Despite more than two decades of observations, altimetry is still limited in the inner Arctic Ocean. We have developed an updated version of the Danish...... Technical University's (DTU) Arctic Ocean altimetric sea level timeseries starting in 1993 and now extended up to 2015 with CryoSat-2 data. The time-series covers a total of 23 years, which allows higher accuracy in sea level trend determination. The record shows a sea level trend of 2.2 ± 1.1 mm....../y for the region between 66°N and 82°N. In particular, a local increase of 15 mm/y is found in correspondence to the Beaufort Gyre. An early estimate of the mean sea level trend budget closure in the Arctic for the period 2005–2015 was derived by using the Equivalent Water Heights obtained from GRACE Tellus...

  12. Recent Arctic sea level variations from satellites

    OpenAIRE

    Ole Baltazar Andersen; Gaia ePiccioni

    2016-01-01

    Sea level monitoring in the Arctic region has always been an extreme challenge for remote sensing, and in particular for satellite altimetry. Despite more than two decades of observations, altimetry is still limited in the inner Arctic Ocean. We have developed an updated version of the Danish Technical University's (DTU) Arctic Ocean altimetric sea level timeseries starting in 1993 and now extended up to 2015 with CryoSat-2 data. The time-series covers a total of 23 years, which allows higher...

  13. Disocclusion: a variational approach using level lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masnou, Simon

    2002-01-01

    Object recognition, robot vision, image and film restoration may require the ability to perform disocclusion. We call disocclusion the recovery of occluded areas in a digital image by interpolation from their vicinity. It is shown in this paper how disocclusion can be performed by means of the level-lines structure, which offers a reliable, complete and contrast-invariant representation of images. Level-lines based disocclusion yields a solution that may have strong discontinuities. The proposed method is compatible with Kanizsa's amodal completion theory.

  14. Gastrointestinal Motility Variation and Implications for Plasma Level Variation: Oral Drug Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talattof, Arjang; Price, Judy C; Amidon, Gordon L

    2016-02-01

    The oral route of administration is still by far the most ubiquitous method of drug delivery. Development in this area still faces many challenges due to the complexity and inhomogeneity of the gastrointestinal environment. In particular, dosing unpredictably relative to motility phase means the gastrointestinal environment is a random variable within a defined range. Here, we present a mass balance analysis that captures this variation and highlights the effects of gastrointestinal motility, exploring what impacts it ultimately has on plasma levels and the relationship to bioequivalence for high solubility products with both high and low permeability (BCS I and III). Motility-dependent compartmental absorption and transit (MDCAT) mechanistic analysis is developed to describe the underlying fasted state cyclical motility and how the contents of the gastrointestinal tract are propelled.

  15. Characterising phase variations in MALDI-TOF data and correcting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C Fitzgerald

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The use of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry as a means of analyzing the proteome has been evaluated extensively in recent years. One of the limitations of this technique that has impeded the development of robust data analysis algorithms is the variability in the location of protein ion signals along the x-axis. We studied technical variations of MALDI-TOF measurements in the context of proteomics profiling. By acquiring a benchmark data set with five replicates, we estimated 76% to 85% of the total variance is due to phase variation. We devised a lobster plot, so named because of the resemblance to a lobster claw, to help detect the phase variation in replicates. We also investigated a peak alignment algorithm to remove the phase variation. This operation is analogous to the normalization step in microarray data analysis. Only after this critical step can features of biological interest be clearly revealed. With the help of principal component analysis, we demonstrated that after peak alignment, the differences among replicates are reduced. We compared this approach to peak alignment with a model-based calibration approach in which there was known information about peaks in common among all spectra. Finally, we examined the potential value at each point in an analysis pipeline of having a set of methods available that includes parametric, semiparametric and nonparametric methods; among such methods are those that benefit from the use of prior information.

  16. Thermal Phase Variations of WASP-12b: Defying Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Nicolas B.; Machalek, Pavel; Croll, Bryce; Shekhtman, Louis M.; Burrows, Adam; Deming, Drake; Greene, Tom; Hora, Joseph L.

    2012-01-01

    We report Warm Spitzer full-orbit phase observations of WASP-12b at 3.6 and 4.5 micrometers. This extremely inflated hot Jupiter is thought to be overflowing its Roche lobe, undergoing mass loss and accretion onto its host star, and has been claimed to have a C/O ratio in excess of unity. We are able to measure the transit depths, eclipse depths, thermal and ellipsoidal phase variations at both wavelengths. The large-amplitude phase variations, combined with the planet's previously measured dayside spectral energy distribution, are indicative of non-zero Bond albedo and very poor day-night heat redistribution. The transit depths in the mid-infrared-(R(sub p)/R(sub *))(sup 2) = 0.0123(3) and 0.0111(3) at 3.6 and 4.5 micrometers, respectively-indicate that the atmospheric opacity is greater at 3.6 than at 4.5 micrometers, in disagreement with model predictions, irrespective of C/O ratio. The secondary eclipse depths are consistent with previous studies: F(sub day)/F(sub *) = 0.0038(4) and 0.0039(3) at 3.6 and 4.5 micrometers, respectively. We do not detect ellipsoidal variations at 3.6 micrometers, but our parameter uncertainties-estimated via prayer-bead Monte Carlo-keep this non-detection consistent with model predictions. At 4.5 micrometers, on the other hand, we detect ellipsoidal variations that are much stronger than predicted. If interpreted as a geometric effect due to the planet's elongated shape, these variations imply a 3:2 ratio for the planet's longest:shortest axes and a relatively bright day-night terminator. If we instead presume that the 4.5 micrometer ellipsoidal variations are due to uncorrected systematic noise and we fix the amplitude of the variations to zero, the best-fit 4.5 micrometer transit depth becomes commensurate with the 3.6 micrometer depth, within the uncertainties. The relative transit depths are then consistent with a solar composition and short scale height at the terminator. Assuming zero ellipsoidal variations also yields a much

  17. THERMAL PHASE VARIATIONS OF WASP-12b: DEFYING PREDICTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, Nicolas B.; Shekhtman, Louis M.; Machalek, Pavel; Croll, Bryce; Burrows, Adam; Deming, Drake; Greene, Tom; Hora, Joseph L.

    2012-01-01

    We report Warm Spitzer full-orbit phase observations of WASP-12b at 3.6 and 4.5 μm. This extremely inflated hot Jupiter is thought to be overflowing its Roche lobe, undergoing mass loss and accretion onto its host star, and has been claimed to have a C/O ratio in excess of unity. We are able to measure the transit depths, eclipse depths, thermal and ellipsoidal phase variations at both wavelengths. The large-amplitude phase variations, combined with the planet's previously measured dayside spectral energy distribution, are indicative of non-zero Bond albedo and very poor day-night heat redistribution. The transit depths in the mid-infrared—(R p /R * ) 2 = 0.0123(3) and 0.0111(3) at 3.6 and 4.5 μm, respectively—indicate that the atmospheric opacity is greater at 3.6 than at 4.5 μm, in disagreement with model predictions, irrespective of C/O ratio. The secondary eclipse depths are consistent with previous studies: F day /F * = 0.0038(4) and 0.0039(3) at 3.6 and 4.5 μm, respectively. We do not detect ellipsoidal variations at 3.6 μm, but our parameter uncertainties—estimated via prayer-bead Monte Carlo—keep this non-detection consistent with model predictions. At 4.5 μm, on the other hand, we detect ellipsoidal variations that are much stronger than predicted. If interpreted as a geometric effect due to the planet's elongated shape, these variations imply a 3:2 ratio for the planet's longest:shortest axes and a relatively bright day-night terminator. If we instead presume that the 4.5 μm ellipsoidal variations are due to uncorrected systematic noise and we fix the amplitude of the variations to zero, the best-fit 4.5 μm transit depth becomes commensurate with the 3.6 μm depth, within the uncertainties. The relative transit depths are then consistent with a solar composition and short scale height at the terminator. Assuming zero ellipsoidal variations also yields a much deeper 4.5 μm eclipse depth, consistent with a solar composition and modest

  18. THERMAL PHASE VARIATIONS OF WASP-12b: DEFYING PREDICTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowan, Nicolas B.; Shekhtman, Louis M. [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2131 Tech Dr, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Machalek, Pavel [SETI Institute, 189 Bernardo Ave., Suite 100, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Croll, Bryce [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 George St., Toronto, ON, M5S 3H4 (Canada); Burrows, Adam [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 05844 (United States); Deming, Drake [Planetary Systems Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Greene, Tom [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Hora, Joseph L., E-mail: n-cowan@northwestern.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2012-03-01

    We report Warm Spitzer full-orbit phase observations of WASP-12b at 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m. This extremely inflated hot Jupiter is thought to be overflowing its Roche lobe, undergoing mass loss and accretion onto its host star, and has been claimed to have a C/O ratio in excess of unity. We are able to measure the transit depths, eclipse depths, thermal and ellipsoidal phase variations at both wavelengths. The large-amplitude phase variations, combined with the planet's previously measured dayside spectral energy distribution, are indicative of non-zero Bond albedo and very poor day-night heat redistribution. The transit depths in the mid-infrared-(R{sub p} /R{sub *}){sup 2} = 0.0123(3) and 0.0111(3) at 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m, respectively-indicate that the atmospheric opacity is greater at 3.6 than at 4.5 {mu}m, in disagreement with model predictions, irrespective of C/O ratio. The secondary eclipse depths are consistent with previous studies: F{sub day}/F{sub *} = 0.0038(4) and 0.0039(3) at 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m, respectively. We do not detect ellipsoidal variations at 3.6 {mu}m, but our parameter uncertainties-estimated via prayer-bead Monte Carlo-keep this non-detection consistent with model predictions. At 4.5 {mu}m, on the other hand, we detect ellipsoidal variations that are much stronger than predicted. If interpreted as a geometric effect due to the planet's elongated shape, these variations imply a 3:2 ratio for the planet's longest:shortest axes and a relatively bright day-night terminator. If we instead presume that the 4.5 {mu}m ellipsoidal variations are due to uncorrected systematic noise and we fix the amplitude of the variations to zero, the best-fit 4.5 {mu}m transit depth becomes commensurate with the 3.6 {mu}m depth, within the uncertainties. The relative transit depths are then consistent with a solar composition and short scale height at the terminator. Assuming zero ellipsoidal variations also yields a much deeper 4.5 {mu}m eclipse depth

  19. Variation of heavy metal levels in the tissues of Periophthalmus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variation of heavy metal levels in the tissues of Periophthalmus papillio from the mangrove swamps of the Bukuma oilfield, Rivers State. ... Generally elevated metal levels in both tissues were recorded at the stations with wellheads, implicating oil-related activities as the main source of contamination. However, the levels in ...

  20. Estimating Transmitted-Signal Phase Variations for Uplink Array Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paal, Leslie; Mukai, Ryan; Vilntrotter, Victor; Cornish, Timothy; Lee, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    A method of estimating phase drifts of microwave signals distributed to, and transmitted by, antennas in an array involves the use of the signals themselves as phase references. The method was conceived as part of the solution of the problem of maintaining precise phase calibration required for proper operation of an array of Deep Space Network (DSN) antennas on Earth used for communicating with distant spacecraft at frequencies between 7 and 8 GHz. The method could also be applied to purely terrestrial phased-array radar and other radio antenna array systems. In the DSN application, the electrical lengths (effective signal-propagation path lengths) of the various branches of the system for distributing the transmitted signals to the antennas are not precisely known, and they vary with time. The variations are attributable mostly to thermal expansion and contraction of fiber-optic and electrical signal cables and to a variety of causes associated with aging of signal-handling components. The variations are large enough to introduce large phase drifts at the signal frequency. It is necessary to measure and correct for these phase drifts in order to maintain phase calibration of the antennas. A prior method of measuring phase drifts involves the use of reference-frequency signals separate from the transmitted signals. A major impediment to accurate measurement of phase drifts over time by the prior method is the fact that although DSN reference-frequency sources separate from the transmitting signal sources are stable and accurate enough for most DSN purposes, they are not stable enough for use in maintaining phase calibrations, as required, to within a few degrees over times as long as days or possibly even weeks. By eliminating reliance on the reference-frequency subsystem, the present method overcomes this impediment. In a DSN array to which the present method applies (see figure), the microwave signals to be transmitted are generated by exciters in a signal

  1. Nuclear level density variation with angular momentum induced shape transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, Mamta

    2016-01-01

    Variation of Nuclear level density (NLD) with the excitation energy and angular momentum in particular has been a topic of interest in the recent past and there have been continuous efforts in this direction on the theoretical and experimental fronts but a conclusive trend in the variation of nuclear level density parameter with angular momentum has not been achieved so far. A comprehensive investigation of N=68 isotones around the compound nucleus 119 Sb from neutron rich 112 Ru (Z=44) to neutron deficient 127 Pr (Z= 59) nuclei is presented to understand the angular momentum induced variations in inverse level density parameter and the possible influence of deformation and structural transitions on the variations on NLd

  2. Genetic mechanisms of Coxiella burnetii lipopolysaccharide phase variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beare, Paul A; Jeffrey, Brendan M; Long, Carrie M; Martens, Craig M; Heinzen, Robert A

    2018-03-01

    Coxiella burnetii is an intracellular pathogen that causes human Q fever, a disease that normally presents as a severe flu-like illness. Due to high infectivity and disease severity, the pathogen is considered a risk group 3 organism. Full-length lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is required for full virulence and disease by C. burnetii and is the only virulence factor currently defined by infection of an immunocompetent animal. Transition of virulent phase I bacteria with smooth LPS, to avirulent phase II bacteria with rough LPS, occurs during in vitro passage. Semi-rough intermediate forms are also observed. Here, the genetic basis of LPS phase conversion was investigated to obtain a more complete understanding of C. burnetii pathogenesis. Whole genome sequencing of strains producing intermediate and/or phase II LPS identified several common mutations in predicted LPS biosynthesis genes. After passage in broth culture for 30 weeks, phase I strains from different genomic groups exhibited similar phase transition kinetics and elevation of mutations in LPS biosynthesis genes. Targeted mutagenesis and genetic complementation using a new C. burnetii nutritional selection system based on lysine auxotrophy confirmed that six of the mutated genes were necessary for production of phase I LPS. Disruption of two of these genes in a C. burnetii phase I strain resulted in production of phase II LPS, suggesting inhibition of the encoded enzymes could represent a new therapeutic strategy for treatment of Q fever. Additionally, targeted mutagenesis of genes encoding LPS biosynthesis enzymes can now be used to construct new phase II strains from different genomic groups for use in pathogen-host studies at a risk group 2 level.

  3. Diurnal variations of serum erythropoietin at sea level and altitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, T; Poulsen, T D; Fogh-Andersen, N

    1996-01-01

    in 2, 3 diphosphoglycerate. After 64 h at altitude, six of the nine subjects had down-regulated their serum-EPO concentrations so that median values were three times above those at sea level. These six subjects had significant diurnal variations of serum-EPO concentration at sea level; the nadir...

  4. Sea-level Variation Along the Suez Canal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, F. M.; Sharaf El-Din, S. H.; Alam El-Din, K. A.

    1997-05-01

    The variation of sea level at 11 stations distributed along the Suez Canal was studied during the period from 1980 to 1986. The ranges of variation in daily mean sea level at Port Said and Port Tawfik are about 60 and 120 cm, respectively. The minimum range of daily variation is at Kantara (47 cm). The fluctuations of the monthly mean sea level between the two ends of the Suez Canal vary from one season to another. From July to December, the sea level at Port Said is higher than that at Port Tawfik, with the maximum difference (10·5 cm) in September. During the rest of the year, the mean sea level at Port Tawfik is higher than that at Port Said, with the maximum difference (31·5 cm) in March. The long-term variations of the annual mean sea level at both Port Said and Port Tawfik for the period from 1923 to 1986 showed a positive trend. The sea level at Port Said increased by about 27·8 cm century -1while it increased by only 9·1 cm century -1at Port Tawfik. This indicates that the difference between sea level at Port Said and Port Tawfik has decreased with time.

  5. Short-time variations of the ground water level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Lars Y.

    1977-09-01

    Investigations have demonstrated that the ground water level of aquifers in the Swedish bedrock shows shorttime variations without changing their water content. The ground water level is among other things affected by regular tidal movements occuring in the ''solid'' crust of the earth variations in the atmospheric pressure strong earthquakes occuring in different parts of the world These effects proves that the system of fissures in the bedrock are not stable and that the ground water flow is influenced by both water- and airfilled fissures

  6. Cigarette price level and variation in five Southeast Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liber, Alex C; Ross, Hana; Ratanachena, Sophapan; Dorotheo, E Ulysses; Foong, Kin

    2015-06-01

    To monitor and analyse impacts of the interaction between tobacco excise tax policy and industry price strategy, on the price level and variation of cigarettes sold in five Southeast Asian countries (Indonesia, Cambodia, Lao PDR, the Philippines and Vietnam). Prices of cigarette sold by sticks and packs were collected through an in-person survey of retailers during 2011. Mean cigarette prices and price variation were calculated in each study country for single cigarettes, whole packs and brand groups. Price variation of whole packs was greater in countries with ad-valorem excise tax structures (Cambodia, Lao PDR and Vietnam) than in countries with multitiered specific excise taxes (Indonesia and the Philippines). The price variation for single sticks appeared to be driven by local currency denomination. Cigarettes sold individually cost more per stick than cigarettes sold in whole packs in every brand group except for Indonesia's domestic brands. Tobacco industry strategy and excise tax structure drove the price level and variation of cigarettes sold in packs, while currency denominations influence the selling price of single sticks. To maximise the effectiveness of tobacco tax policies, countries should adopt specific excise tax structures to decrease cigarette price variation, which would minimise opportunities for smokers to 'trade down' to a cheaper brand to avoid a tax-driven price increase. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Variation of radon levels in US homes with various factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.L.; Gromicko, N.

    1988-01-01

    A program combining 70,000 purchased and 3500 random selection-no charge measurements with extensive questionnaires is described. Methods for reducing biases in purchased measurements have been reasonably successful. Distributions are roughly lognormal with σ/sub g/ ≅ 3.0 but with an excess of very high measurements. Winter and spring-fall measurements average about 60 percent and 40 percent, respectively, higher than summer measurements. Basements average 2.5 times higher radon levels than upper floors. Tightening of homes since 1974 has increased radon levels by less than 10 percent, but well-weatherized houses have ∼ 40 percent higher levels than poorly weatherized houses. Open windows reduce levels by a factor of about 2.5. Low-cost newer houses have much lower levels than more expensive newer houses, but among older houses this is reversed. Low income families have substantially lower radon levels than average. There is little variation with education level. Nonsmokers have higher radon levels than smokers, but this seems to apply mainly to living rooms and dining rooms. Suburban houses have higher levels than urban, and rural houses have still higher levels. Owner-occupied houses have much higher levels than rented houses. Variations of radon levels with weatherization do not seem to be due to cost factors. A strategy for locating areas with high mean radon levels is described

  8. Variation of nitric oxide levels in imported Plasmodium falciparum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-03-18

    Mar 18, 2008 ... ISSN 1684–5315 © 2008 Academic Journals. Full Length Research Paper. Variation of nitric oxide levels in imported Plasmodium falciparum malaria episodes. De Sousa, Karina*, Silva, Marcelo S. and Tavira, Luís T. Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical, Centro de Malária e outras Doenças Tropicais, ...

  9. Area-level variations in cancer care and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Nancy L; Landrum, Mary Beth; Lamont, Elizabeth B; Bozeman, Samuel R; McNeil, Barbara J

    2012-05-01

    : Substantial regional variations in health-care spending exist across the United States; yet, care and outcomes are not better in higher-spending areas. Most studies have focused on care in fee-for-service Medicare; whether spillover effects exist in settings without financial incentives for more care is unknown. : We studied care for cancer patients in fee-for-service Medicare and the Veterans Health Administration (VA) to understand whether processes and outcomes of care vary with area-level Medicare spending. : An observational study using logistic regression to assess care by area-level measures of Medicare spending. : Patients with lung, colorectal, or prostate cancers diagnosed during 2001-2004 in Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) areas or the VA. The SEER cohort included fee-for-service Medicare patients aged older than 65 years. : Recommended and preference-sensitive cancer care and mortality. : In fee-for-service Medicare, higher-spending areas had higher rates of recommended care (curative surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy for early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer and chemotherapy for stage III colon cancer) and preference-sensitive care (chemotherapy for stage IV lung and colon cancer and primary treatment of local/regional prostate cancer) and had lower lung cancer mortality. In the VA, we observed minimal variation in care by area-level Medicare spending. : Our findings suggest that intensity of care for Medicare beneficiaries is not driving variations in VA care, despite some overlap in physician networks. Although the Dartmouth Atlas work has been of unprecedented importance in demonstrating variations in Medicare spending, new measures may be needed to better understand variations in other populations.

  10. Flagellar-phase variation: isolation of the rh1 gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silverman, M.; Zieg, J.; Simon, M.

    1979-01-01

    In Salmonella, expression of flagellar antigen alternates between two serotypes (phases) encoded by two genes, H1 and H2. The mechanism which controls the alternative expression of the H1 and H2 genes was examined by cloning these genes and the genetic elements which control their activity on hybrid vehicles in Escherichia coli. H2 gene activity was shown to be controlled by a recombinational switch located adjacent to the H2 gene. Activity of the H1 gene is thought to be repressed, when the H2 gene is expressed, by the product of another gene, rhl (repressor of H1), which is controlled coordinately with the H2 gene. In this report, we describe the construction of hybrid lambda vehicles which contain, in addition to the H2 gene, a genetic activity corresponding to rhl. Variation of flagellar antigens analogous to that observed in Salmonella was observed when E. coli strains were transduced with the hybrid lambda. By using the lambda H2rhl hybrid to program protein syntheis in uv-irradiated cells, the synthesis of a polypeptide was correlated with rhl gene product activity. We conclude that the H2 region consists of two cotranscribed genes, H2 and rhl. The expression of both gene products is regulated by the same recombinational event

  11. Diurnal variations of serum erythropoietin at sea level and altitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, T; Poulsen, T D; Fogh-Andersen, N

    1996-01-01

    in 2, 3 diphosphoglycerate. After 64 h at altitude, six of the nine subjects had down-regulated their serum-EPO concentrations so that median values were three times above those at sea level. These six subjects had significant diurnal variations of serum-EPO concentration at sea level; the nadir......This study tested the hypothesis that the diurnal variations of serum-erythropoietin concentration (serum-EPO) observed in normoxia also exist in hypoxia. The study also attempted to investigate the regulation of EPO production during sustained hypoxia. Nine subjects were investigated at sea level...... and during 4 days at an altitude of 4350 m. Median sea level serum-EPO concentration was 6 (range 6-13) U.l-1. Serum-EPO concentration increased after 18 and 42 h at altitude, [58 (range 39-240) and 54 (range 36-340) U.l-1, respectively], and then decreased after 64 and 88 h at altitude [34 (range 18...

  12. Spin interferometry and phase relations in three level systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehring, M.; Stoll, M.E.; Wolff, E.K.

    1978-01-01

    The sign of the wavefunctions of deuterium, a spin-1 nucleus, under a 2π rotation (spinor character) has been studied with using a single crystal of 98% deuterated hexamethyl-benzene (HMB, C 6 (CD 3 ) 6 ). In a large magnetic fields, the three energy levels of the Zeeman hamiltonian have equal spacing, whereas unequivalent transition frequencies may occur if a suitable quadrupolar interaction is included. Three types of experiment are discussed. Simultaneous irradiation of both transitions with a field strength ω 1 in the x direction verified spin-locking, quadrature, or phase variation; consecutive irradiation at both transition with π-pulses showed coherence transfer from transition 1-2 to the forbidden transition 1-3; double quantum spinor behavior was demonstrated by applying rf field of strength ω 1 = γH 1 at the 'double quantum transition' frequency ω 0

  13. Effects of reservoirs water level variations on fish recruitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabíula T. de Lima

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The construction of hydroelectric power plants has many social and environmental impacts. Among them, the impacts on fish communities, which habitats are drastically modified by dams, with consequences across the ecosystem. This study aimed to assess the influence of water level (WL variations in the reservoirs of the Itá and Machadinho hydroelectric plants on the recruitment of fish species from the upper Uruguay River in southern Brazil. The data analyzed resulted from the WL variation produced exclusively by the hydroelectric plants generation and were collected between the years 2001 and 2012. The results showed significant correlations between the abundance of juvenile fish and the hydrological parameters only for some reproductive guilds. The species that spawn in nests showed, in general, a clear preference for the stability in the WL of the reservoirs, while the species that spawn in macrophytes or that release demersal eggs showed no significant correlation between the abundance of juvenile fish and hydrological parameters. A divergence of results between the two reservoirs was observed between the species that release semi-dense eggs; a positive correlation with a more stable WL was only observed in the Machadinho reservoir. This result can be driven by a wider range of WL variation in Machadinho reservoir.

  14. Estimation of sea level variations with GPS/GLONASS-reflectometry technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padokhin, A. M.; Kurbatov, G. A.; Andreeva, E. S.; Nesterov, I. A.; Nazarenko, M. O.; Berbeneva, N. A.; Karlysheva, A. V.

    2017-11-01

    In the present paper we study GNSS - reflectometry methods for estimation of sea level variations using a single GNSSreceiver, which are based on the multipath propagation effects caused by the reflection of navigational signals from the sea surface. Such multipath propagation results in the appearance of the interference pattern in the Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) of GNSS signals at small satellite elevation angles, which parameters are determined by the wavelength of the navigational signal and height of the antenna phase center above the reflecting sea surface. In current work we used GPS and GLONASS signals and measurements at two working frequencies of both systems to study sea level variations which almost doubles the amount of observations compared to GPS-only tide gauge. For UNAVCO sc02 station and collocated Friday Harbor NOAA tide gauge we show good agreement between GNSS-reflectometry and traditional mareograph sea level data.

  15. Periodic seasonal variation of magnets level of the STB ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Shigenobu

    2003-01-01

    The Stretcher-Booster (STB) ring, a 1.2 GeV electron synchrotron, was completed in December, 1997 at the Laboratory of Nuclear Sciences (LNS), Tohoku University. The total weight more than 400 tons were placed near the STB ring, such as concrete blocks for radiation shielding and a spectrometer magnet for nuclear physics experiments after the completion of the STB ring. Re-surveying of magnets alignment was started after 2000. Very recently a new building of an experimental hall was constructed close to the building of the STB ring for use of high energy γ-ray from the electron beam. The building will give rise the changes of magnet levels due to its seasonal distortion. The measurements of the magnet level after construction are continued as well as an expected change of the closed orbit distortion (COD) in the STB ring. The serious influence of the variation of the magnet level may be a change of the beam orbit of extracted beam in the stretcher operation. Difference of the orbit distortion reaches more than 5 mm. Correlation between the COD and the seasonal change of the magnet position is not clear at the moment. However, the machine operation and the beam diagnostics are getting better recently. Continuous surveying of the magnet level will be a useful data for a feed forward correction of the beam orbit. Future subjects and prospects are discussed on surveying. (Y. Tanaka)

  16. Genetic variation in eleven phase I drug metabolism genes in an ethnically diverse population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solus, Joseph F; Arietta, Brenda J; Harris, James R; Sexton, David P; Steward, John Q; McMunn, Chara; Ihrie, Patrick; Mehall, Janelle M; Edwards, Todd L; Dawson, Elliott P

    2004-10-01

    The extent of genetic variation found in drug metabolism genes and its contribution to interindividual variation in response to medication remains incompletely understood. To better determine the identity and frequency of variation in 11 phase I drug metabolism genes, the exons and flanking intronic regions of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzyme genes CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 were amplified from genomic DNA and sequenced. A total of 60 kb of bi-directional sequence was generated from each of 93 human DNAs, which included Caucasian, African-American and Asian samples. There were 388 different polymorphisms identified. These included 269 non-coding, 45 synonymous and 74 non-synonymous polymorphisms. Of these, 54% were novel and included 176 non-coding, 14 synonymous and 21 non-synonymous polymorphisms. Of the novel variants observed, 85 were represented by single occurrences of the minor allele in the sample set. Much of the variation observed was from low-frequency alleles. Comparatively, these genes are variation-rich. Calculations measuring genetic diversity revealed that while the values for the individual genes are widely variable, the overall nucleotide diversity of 7.7 x 10(-4) and polymorphism parameter of 11.5 x 10(-4) are higher than those previously reported for other gene sets. Several independent measurements indicate that these genes are under selective pressure, particularly for polymorphisms corresponding to non-synonymous amino acid changes. There is relatively little difference in measurements of diversity among the ethnic groups, but there are large differences among the genes and gene subfamilies themselves. Of the three CYP subfamilies involved in phase I drug metabolism (1, 2, and 3), subfamily 2 displays the highest levels of genetic diversity.

  17. Reference free phasing and representation of complex variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jacob Malte

    2017-01-01

    High throughput sequencing has revolutionized our ability to interrogate genomes and entire human genomes are sequenced daily across the world. Mapping of short reads to a reference genome has enhanced our ability to detect genetic variation and is currently the most widely used technology....... Therefore, new methods for detecting variation that reduce reference bias are needed including ways of representing genomes that account for the variability within and between populations. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region is one of the most diverse and complex regions of the human genome...... to detect and call variation in humans. However, it has become evident that mapping of short reads to a single reference genome is subject to ascertainment bias (reference bias). This bias is especially pronounced in complex regions of the genome and particularly hampers detection of structural variation...

  18. Equilibrium of phases with interfacial energy : a variational approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šilhavý, Miroslav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 105, 1-2 (2011), s. 271-303 ISSN 0374-3535 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : phase transitions * phase interface * interface polyconvexity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.110, year: 2011 http://www.springerlink.com/content/w4p16v37t032v632/

  19. Thermal behavior variations in coating thickness using pulse phase thermography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranjit, Shrestha; Chung, Yoonjae; Kim, Won Tae [Kongju National University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    This paper presents a study on the use of pulsed phase thermography in the measurement of thermal barrier coating thickness with a numerical simulation. A multilayer heat transfer model was used to analyze the surface temperature response acquired from one-sided pulsed thermal imaging. The test sample comprised four layers: the metal substrate, bond coat, thermally grown oxide and the top coat. The finite element software, ANSYS, was used to model and predict the temperature distribution in the test sample under an imposed heat flux on the exterior of the TBC. The phase image was computed with the use of the software MATLAB and Thermofit Pro using a Fourier transform. The relationship between the coating thickness and the corresponding phase angle was then established with the coating thickness being expressed as a function of the phase angle. The method is successfully applied to measure the coating thickness that varied from 0.25 mm to 1.5 mm.

  20. Quantitative measurement of phase variation amplitude of ultrasonic diffraction grating based on diffraction spectral analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Meiyan, E-mail: yphantomohive@gmail.com; Zeng, Yingzhi; Huang, Zuohua, E-mail: zuohuah@163.com [Laboratory of Quantum Engineering and Quantum Materials, School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510006 (China)

    2014-09-15

    A new method based on diffraction spectral analysis is proposed for the quantitative measurement of the phase variation amplitude of an ultrasonic diffraction grating. For a traveling wave, the phase variation amplitude of the grating depends on the intensity of the zeroth- and first-order diffraction waves. By contrast, for a standing wave, this amplitude depends on the intensity of the zeroth-, first-, and second-order diffraction waves. The proposed method is verified experimentally. The measured phase variation amplitude ranges from 0 to 2π, with a relative error of approximately 5%. A nearly linear relation exists between the phase variation amplitude and driving voltage. Our proposed method can also be applied to ordinary sinusoidal phase grating.

  1. Diversity, variation and fairness: Equivalence in national level language assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Weideman

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The post-1994 South African constitution proudly affirms the language diversity of the country, as do subsequent laws, while ministerial policies, both at further and higher education level, similarly promote the use of all 11 official languages in education. However, such recognition of diversity presents several challenges to accommodate potential variation. In language education at secondary school, which is nationally assessed, the variety being promoted immediately raises issues of fairness and equivalence. The final high-stakes examination of learners’ ability in home language at the exit level of their pre-tertiary education is currently contentious in South Africa. It is known, for example, that in certain indigenous languages, the exit level assessments barely discriminate among learners with different abilities, while in other languages they do. For that reason, the Council for Quality Assurance in General and Further Education, Umalusi, has commissioned several reports to attempt to understand the nature of the problem. This article will deal with a discussion of a fourth attempt by Umalusi to solve the problem. That attempt, undertaken by a consortium of four universities, has already delivered six interim reports to this statutory body, and the article will consider some of their content and methodology. In their reconceptualisation of the problem, the applied linguists involved first sought to identify the theoretical roots of the current curriculum in order to articulate more sharply the construct being assessed. That provides the basis for a theoretical justification of the several solutions being proposed, as well as for the preliminary designs of modifications to current, and the introduction of new assessments. The impact of equivalence of measurement as a design requirement will be specifically discussed, with reference to the empirical analyses of results of a number of pilots of equivalent tests in different languages.

  2. Variation of global DNA methylation levels with age and in autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Shui-Ying; Ahmad, Tanveer; Mat, Flora W K; Zhao, Cunyou; Xiao, Shifu; Xia, Kun; Xue, Hong

    2016-09-23

    The change in epigenetic signatures, in particular DNA methylation, has been proposed as risk markers for various age-related diseases. However, the course of variation in methylation levels with age, the difference in methylation between genders, and methylation-disease association at the whole genome level is unclear. In the present study, genome-wide methylation levels in DNA extracted from peripheral blood for 2116 healthy Chinese in the 2-97 age range and 280 autistic trios were examined using the fluorescence polarization-based genome-wide DNA methylation quantification method developed by us. Genome-wide or global DNA methylation levels proceeded through multiple phases of variation with age, consisting of a steady increase from age 2 to 25 (r = 0.382) and another rise from age 41 to 55 to reach a peak level of ~80 % (r = 0.265), followed by a sharp decrease to ~40 % in the mid-1970s (age 56 to 75; r = -0.395) and leveling off thereafter. Significant gender effect in methylation levels was observed only for the 41-55 age group in which methylation in females was significantly higher than in males (p = 0.010). In addition, global methylation level was significantly higher in autistic children than in age-matched healthy children (p < 0.001). The multiphasic nature of changes in global methylation levels with age was delineated, and investigation into the factors underlying this profile will be essential to a proper understanding of the aging process. Furthermore, this first report of global hypermethylation in autistic children also illustrates the importance of age-matched controls in characterization of disease-associated variations in DNA methylation.

  3. A Variational Model for Two-Phase Immiscible Electroosmotic Flow at Solid Surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Shao, Sihong; Qian, Tiezheng

    2012-01-01

    We develop a continuum hydrodynamic model for two-phase immiscible flows that involve electroosmotic effect in an electrolyte and moving contact line at solid surfaces. The model is derived through a variational approach based on the Onsager

  4. A positivity preserving and conservative variational scheme for phase-field modeling of two-phase flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Vaibhav; Jaiman, Rajeev K.

    2018-05-01

    We present a positivity preserving variational scheme for the phase-field modeling of incompressible two-phase flows with high density ratio. The variational finite element technique relies on the Allen-Cahn phase-field equation for capturing the phase interface on a fixed Eulerian mesh with mass conservative and energy-stable discretization. The mass conservation is achieved by enforcing a Lagrange multiplier which has both temporal and spatial dependence on the underlying solution of the phase-field equation. To make the scheme energy-stable in a variational sense, we discretize the spatial part of the Lagrange multiplier in the phase-field equation by the mid-point approximation. The proposed variational technique is designed to reduce the spurious and unphysical oscillations in the solution while maintaining the second-order accuracy of both spatial and temporal discretizations. We integrate the Allen-Cahn phase-field equation with the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations for modeling a broad range of two-phase flow and fluid-fluid interface problems. The coupling of the implicit discretizations corresponding to the phase-field and the incompressible flow equations is achieved via nonlinear partitioned iterative procedure. Comparison of results between the standard linear stabilized finite element method and the present variational formulation shows a remarkable reduction of oscillations in the solution while retaining the boundedness of the phase-indicator field. We perform a standalone test to verify the accuracy and stability of the Allen-Cahn two-phase solver. We examine the convergence and accuracy properties of the coupled phase-field solver through the standard benchmarks of the Laplace-Young law and a sloshing tank problem. Two- and three-dimensional dam break problems are simulated to assess the capability of the phase-field solver for complex air-water interfaces involving topological changes on unstructured meshes. Finally, we demonstrate the phase

  5. The geometric phase in two-level atomic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Mingzhen; Barber, Zeb W.; Fischer, Joe A.; Randall Babbitt, Wm.

    2004-01-01

    We report the observation of the geometric phase in a closed two-level atomic system using stimulated photon echoes. The two-level system studied consists of the two-electronic energy levels ( 3 H 4 and 3 H 6 ) of Tm 3+ doped in YAG crystal. When a two-level atom at an arbitrary superposition state is excited by a pair of specially designed laser pulses, the excited state component gains a relative phase with respect to the ground state component. We identified the phase shift to be of pure geometric nature. The dynamic phase associated to the driving Hamiltonian is unchanged. The experiment results of the phase change agree with the theory to the extent of the measurement limit

  6. The Effects of Predator Evolution and Genetic Variation on Predator-Prey Population-Level Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez, Michael H; Patel, Swati

    2017-07-01

    This paper explores how predator evolution and the magnitude of predator genetic variation alter the population-level dynamics of predator-prey systems. We do this by analyzing a general eco-evolutionary predator-prey model using four methods: Method 1 identifies how eco-evolutionary feedbacks alter system stability in the fast and slow evolution limits; Method 2 identifies how the amount of standing predator genetic variation alters system stability; Method 3 identifies how the phase lags in predator-prey cycles depend on the amount of genetic variation; and Method 4 determines conditions for different cycle shapes in the fast and slow evolution limits using geometric singular perturbation theory. With these four methods, we identify the conditions under which predator evolution alters system stability and shapes of predator-prey cycles, and how those effect depend on the amount of genetic variation in the predator population. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each method and the relations between the four methods. This work shows how the four methods can be used in tandem to make general predictions about eco-evolutionary dynamics and feedbacks.

  7. Variations in tritium levels during single storm events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, L.W.

    1979-06-01

    Precipitation samples have been taken over a period of one calendar year to determine the variables in environmental tritium during single storm events. Where possible, comment is made on the hydrological implications of these variations

  8. Phase diagram of a symmetric electron–hole bilayer system: a variational Monte Carlo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rajesh O.; Saini, L. K.; Prasad Bahuguna, Bhagwati

    2018-05-01

    We study the phase diagram of a symmetric electron–hole bilayer system at absolute zero temperature and in zero magnetic field within the quantum Monte Carlo approach. In particular, we conduct variational Monte Carlo simulations for various phases, i.e. the paramagnetic fluid phase, the ferromagnetic fluid phase, the anti-ferromagnetic Wigner crystal phase, the ferromagnetic Wigner crystal phase and the excitonic phase, to estimate the ground-state energy at different values of in-layer density and inter-layer spacing. Slater–Jastrow style trial wave functions, with single-particle orbitals appropriate for different phases, are used to construct the phase diagram in the (r s , d) plane by finding the relative stability of trial wave functions. At very small layer separations, we find that the fluid phases are stable, with the paramagnetic fluid phase being particularly stable at and the ferromagnetic fluid phase being particularly stable at . As the layer spacing increases, we first find that there is a phase transition from the ferromagnetic fluid phase to the ferromagnetic Wigner crystal phase when d reaches 0.4 a.u. at r s   =  20, and before there is a return to the ferromagnetic fluid phase when d approaches 1 a.u. However, for r s   Wigner crystal is stable over the considered range of r s and d. We also find that as r s increases, the critical layer separations for Wigner crystallization increase.

  9. Geographical variation and the determinants of domestic endotoxin levels in mattress dust in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, C.M.; Thiering, E.; Doekes, G.; Zock, J.P.; Bakolis, I.; Norbäck, D.; Sunyer, J.; Villani, S.; Verlato, G.; Täubel, M.; Jarvis, D.

    2012-01-01

    Endotoxin exposures have manifold effects on human health. The geographical variation and determinants of domestic endotoxin levels in Europe have not yet been extensively described. To investigate the geographical variation and determinants of domestic endotoxin concentrations in mattress dust in

  10. Surface Tension of Multi-phase Flow with Multiple Junctions Governed by the Variational Principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsutani, Shigeki; Nakano, Kota; Shinjo, Katsuhiko

    2011-01-01

    We explore a computational model of an incompressible fluid with a multi-phase field in three-dimensional Euclidean space. By investigating an incompressible fluid with a two-phase field geometrically, we reformulate the expression of the surface tension for the two-phase field found by Lafaurie et al. (J Comput Phys 113:134–147, 1994) as a variational problem related to an infinite dimensional Lie group, the volume-preserving diffeomorphism. The variational principle to the action integral with the surface energy reproduces their Euler equation of the two-phase field with the surface tension. Since the surface energy of multiple interfaces even with singularities is not difficult to be evaluated in general and the variational formulation works for every action integral, the new formulation enables us to extend their expression to that of a multi-phase (N-phase, N ≥ 2) flow and to obtain a novel Euler equation with the surface tension of the multi-phase field. The obtained Euler equation governs the equation for motion of the multi-phase field with different surface tension coefficients without any difficulties for the singularities at multiple junctions. In other words, we unify the theory of multi-phase fields which express low dimensional interface geometry and the theory of the incompressible fluid dynamics on the infinite dimensional geometry as a variational problem. We apply the equation to the contact angle problems at triple junctions. We computed the fluid dynamics for a two-phase field with a wall numerically and show the numerical computational results that for given surface tension coefficients, the contact angles are generated by the surface tension as results of balances of the kinematic energy and the surface energy.

  11. Phase variation of poly-N-acetylglucosamine expression in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie L Brooks

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA, also known as poly-N-acetyl-β-(1-6-glucosamine (PIA/PNAG is an important component of Staphylococcus aureus biofilms and also contributes to resistance to phagocytosis. The proteins IcaA, IcaD, IcaB, and IcaC are encoded within the intercellular adhesin (ica operon and synthesize PIA/PNAG. We discovered a mechanism of phase variation in PIA/PNAG expression that appears to involve slipped-strand mispairing. The process is reversible and RecA-independent, and involves the expansion and contraction of a simple tetranucleotide tandem repeat within icaC. Inactivation of IcaC results in a PIA/PNAG-negative phenotype. A PIA/PNAG-hyperproducing strain gained a fitness advantage in vitro following the icaC mutation and loss of PIA/PNAG production. The mutation was also detected in two clinical isolates, suggesting that under certain conditions, loss of PIA/PNAG production may be advantageous during infection. There was also a survival advantage for an icaC-negative strain harboring intact icaADB genes relative to an isogenic icaADBC deletion mutant. Together, these results suggest that inactivation of icaC is a mode of phase variation for PIA/PNAG expression, that high-level production of PIA/PNAG carries a fitness cost, and that icaADB may contribute to bacterial fitness, by an unknown mechanism, in the absence of an intact icaC gene and PIA/PNAG production.

  12. Levelling-out and register variation in the translations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    Explicitation, simplification, normalisation and levelling-out, the four features of translation .... limited amount of attention levelling-out has received, there is consequently an ..... The subcorpus of medical translations is divided into two divisions: ...

  13. Monthly Variations in Sea Level at the Island of Zanzibar

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The trend in sea level. (9%) appeared ... There is a strong likelihood that physical processes other .... a bell-shaped curve. To avoid erroneous conclusions, residual analysis tests were carried ..... prediction of sea level, regardless of the units ...

  14. Inherited Variation in Cytokine, Acute Phase Response, and Calcium Metabolism Genes Affects Susceptibility to Infective Endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia V. Ponasenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Infective endocarditis (IE is a septic inflammation of the endocardium. Recognition of microbial patterns, cytokine and acute phase responses, hemostasis features, and alterations in plasma lipid and calcium profile all have been reported to affect pathogenesis and clinical course of IE. Having recruited 123 patients with IE and 300 age-, sex-, and ethnicity-matched healthy blood donors, we profiled their genomic DNA for 35 functionally significant polymorphisms within the 22 selected genes involved in the abovementioned pathways, with the further genetic association analysis. We found that the G/A genotype of the rs1143634 polymorphism within the IL1B gene, the G/T genotype of the rs3212227 polymorphism within the IL12B gene, the A/G genotype of the rs1130864 polymorphism within the CRP gene, and the G allele of the rs1801197 polymorphism within the CALCR gene were associated with a decreased risk of IE whereas the T/T genotype of the rs1205 polymorphism within the CRP gene was associated with a higher risk of IE. Furthermore, heterozygous genotypes of the rs1143634 and rs3212227 polymorphisms were associated with the higher plasma levels of IL-1β and IL-12, respectively. Our results indicate that inherited variation in the cytokine, acute phase response, and calcium metabolism pathways may be linked to IE.

  15. Inherited Variation in Cytokine, Acute Phase Response, and Calcium Metabolism Genes Affects Susceptibility to Infective Endocarditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkovskaya, Natalia V.; Kondyukova, Natalia V.; Odarenko, Yuri N.; Kazachek, Yana V.; Tsepokina, Anna V.; Barbarash, Leonid S.

    2017-01-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) is a septic inflammation of the endocardium. Recognition of microbial patterns, cytokine and acute phase responses, hemostasis features, and alterations in plasma lipid and calcium profile all have been reported to affect pathogenesis and clinical course of IE. Having recruited 123 patients with IE and 300 age-, sex-, and ethnicity-matched healthy blood donors, we profiled their genomic DNA for 35 functionally significant polymorphisms within the 22 selected genes involved in the abovementioned pathways, with the further genetic association analysis. We found that the G/A genotype of the rs1143634 polymorphism within the IL1B gene, the G/T genotype of the rs3212227 polymorphism within the IL12B gene, the A/G genotype of the rs1130864 polymorphism within the CRP gene, and the G allele of the rs1801197 polymorphism within the CALCR gene were associated with a decreased risk of IE whereas the T/T genotype of the rs1205 polymorphism within the CRP gene was associated with a higher risk of IE. Furthermore, heterozygous genotypes of the rs1143634 and rs3212227 polymorphisms were associated with the higher plasma levels of IL-1β and IL-12, respectively. Our results indicate that inherited variation in the cytokine, acute phase response, and calcium metabolism pathways may be linked to IE. PMID:28659664

  16. Optimization of phase-variation measurements in low-coherence methods: implications for OCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitsev, Vladimir Y.; Matveyev, Alexandr L.; Matveev, Lev A.; Gelikonov, Grigory V.; Sovetsky, Alexander A.; Vitkin, Alex

    2016-04-01

    Phase-resolved measurements found numerous applications in low-coherence methods, in particular in OCT-based compressional elastography, where phase-variation gradients are used for estimating strains produced by the OCT probe pressed onto the tissue. Conventionally, for the reference and deformed pixelated OCT scans, one performs comparison of phases taken from pixels with the same coordinates. This is reasonable in regions of sufficiently small sub-pixel displacements, for which the so-compared pixels contain the same scatterers. Furthermore, to avoid error-prone multiple phase unwrapping for reconstructing displacements, one have to ensure even smaller sub-wavelength displacements. This limits the allowable strains to less than ~10-4-10-3, although such weak phase gradients can be strongly corrupted by measurement noises. Here, we discuss how creation of an order of magnitude greater strains can be used for increasing the signal-to noise ratio in estimating phase gradients by obviating the phase-unwrapping procedures and reducing the influence of decorrelation noise for supra-pixel displacements. This optimized phase-variation measurement makes it possible to perform strain mapping in optical coherence elastography with exceptionally high tolerance to noises due to possibility of using significantly increased strains. We also discuss the effect of "frozen-phase zones" associated with displaced strong scatterers. This effect can result in appearance of artifacts in the form of false stiff inclusions in elastograms in the vicinity of bright scatterers in OCT scans. We present analytical arguments, numerical simulations and experimental examples illustrating the above-mentioned features of the "frozen-phase" effect and advantages of using the proposed optimized phase-variation measurement with pixel-scale displacement compensation in the compared OCT scans.

  17. Geometric phase for N-level systems through unitary integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uskov, D. B.; Rau, A. R. P.

    2006-01-01

    Geometric phases are important in quantum physics and are now central to fault-tolerant quantum computation. For spin 1/2, the Bloch sphere S 2 , together with a U(1) phase, provides a complete SU(2) description. We generalize to N-level systems and SU(N) in terms of a 2(N-1)-dimensional base space and reduction to a (N-1)-level problem, paralleling closely the two-dimensional case. This iteratively solves the time evolution of an N-level system and gives (N-1) geometric phases explicitly. A complete analytical construction of an S 4 Bloch-like sphere for two qubits is given for the Spin(5) or SO(5) subgroup of SU(4)

  18. Daily variations in cortisol levels and binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitton, Sarah; Porn, Patricia M; Shaeffer, Stephanie

    2002-12-01

    Morning and afternoon levels of cortisol for 73 volunteers (67 women and 6 men) were compared in relation to their Binge Eating Disorder scores, Body Mass Indexes, and self-reports of mood and hunger. Cortisol level was not significantly correlated with binge eating or mood or hunger for either time period. However, it was inversely related to body mass, with lower cortisol levels associated with greater body mass.

  19. Levelling-out and register variation in the translations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Explicitation, simplification, normalisation and levelling-out, the four features of translation proposed by Baker (1996), have attracted considerable attention in translation studies. Although the first three have been studied extensively, levelling-out has been the subject of less empirical investigation. Furthermore, there are no ...

  20. Testosterone levels and the genetic variation of sex hormone ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Samy Naeem

    2018-03-15

    Mar 15, 2018 ... 1Physiology and Hormones Department, Animal Health Research Institute, Agricultural ... Firstly, this study aimed to determine the levels of testosterone in different-age ..... reduction in steroid-binding affinity due to impairment .... gene influence serum SHBG levels in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

  1. Wind-Driven Sea-Level Variation Influences Dynamics of Salt Marsh Vegation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Daehyun; Cairns, David; Bartholdy, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    Long-term variation of mean sea level has been considered the primary exogenous factor of vegetation dynamics in salt marshes. In this study, we address the importance of short-term, wind-induced rise of the sea surface in such biogeographic changes. There was an unusual opportunity for examining......, waterlogging of marsh soils, which has retarded ecological succession. To conclude, we stress the need for a multitemporal perspective that recognizes the significance of short-term sea-level fluctuations nested within long-term trends......) continuous sedimentation with spatial variability (2.0–4.0 mm yr-1), (3) increased frequency of over-marsh flooding events, and (4) contemporary dominance of Halimione portulacoides, indicating little progressive succession toward a later phase. Conventionally, recent eustatic sea-level rise was believed...... to drive the increased frequency of flooding and such retarded succession. Skallingen, however, has showed more or less equilibrated yearly rates between sea-level rise and surface accretion. This implies that the long-term, gradual sea-level rise alone might not be enough to explain the increased...

  2. Phase diagram of a symmetric electron-hole bilayer system: a variational Monte Carlo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rajesh O; Saini, L K; Bahuguna, Bhagwati Prasad

    2018-05-10

    We study the phase diagram of a symmetric electron-hole bilayer system at absolute zero temperature and in zero magnetic field within the quantum Monte Carlo approach. In particular, we conduct variational Monte Carlo simulations for various phases, i.e. the paramagnetic fluid phase, the ferromagnetic fluid phase, the anti-ferromagnetic Wigner crystal phase, the ferromagnetic Wigner crystal phase and the excitonic phase, to estimate the ground-state energy at different values of in-layer density and inter-layer spacing. Slater-Jastrow style trial wave functions, with single-particle orbitals appropriate for different phases, are used to construct the phase diagram in the (r s , d) plane by finding the relative stability of trial wave functions. At very small layer separations, we find that the fluid phases are stable, with the paramagnetic fluid phase being particularly stable at [Formula: see text] and the ferromagnetic fluid phase being particularly stable at [Formula: see text]. As the layer spacing increases, we first find that there is a phase transition from the ferromagnetic fluid phase to the ferromagnetic Wigner crystal phase when d reaches 0.4 a.u. at r s   =  20, and before there is a return to the ferromagnetic fluid phase when d approaches 1 a.u. However, for r s   Wigner crystal is stable over the considered range of r s and d. We also find that as r s increases, the critical layer separations for Wigner crystallization increase.

  3. Behavioral response of manatees to variations in environmental sound levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miksis-Olds, Jennifer L.; Wagner, Tyler

    2011-01-01

    Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) inhabit coastal regions because they feed on the aquatic vegetation that grows in shallow waters, which are the same areas where human activities are greatest. Noise produced from anthropogenic and natural sources has the potential to affect these animals by eliciting responses ranging from mild behavioral changes to extreme aversion. Sound levels were calculated from recordings made throughout behavioral observation periods. An information theoretic approach was used to investigate the relationship between behavior patterns and sound level. Results indicated that elevated sound levels affect manatee activity and are a function of behavioral state. The proportion of time manatees spent feeding and milling changed in response to sound level. When ambient sound levels were highest, more time was spent in the directed, goal-oriented behavior of feeding, whereas less time was spent engaged in undirected behavior such as milling. This work illustrates how shifts in activity of individual manatees may be useful parameters for identifying impacts of noise on manatees and might inform population level effects.

  4. Lake-level variations and tides in Lago Argentino, Patagonia: insights from pressure tide gauge records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Richter

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on precise pressure tide gauge observations lake-level records are derived for two sites in Lago Argentino, southern Patagonia, of 2.5 and 1 years of duration. Applying the tools of time series analysis, the principal processes affecting the lake level are identified and quantified. Lake-level changes reflecting variations in lake volume are dominated by a seasonal cycle of 1.2 m in amplitude. Lake-volume changes occur in addition with a daily period in response to melt water influx from surrounding glaciers. Sporadic lake-volume jumps are caused by bursting of the ice dam of Perito Moreno glacier. Water movements in Lago Argentino are dominated by surface seiches reaching 20 cm in amplitude. Lake tides reach a maximum amplitude of 3 mm. The comparison of the tidal signal extracted from the lake-level observations with a model composed of the contributions of body tide and ocean tidal loading indicates a phase shift of 23° which is most likely explained by an 1 hour phase lag of global ocean tide models in the region of the highly fragmented Pacific coast. The comparison of the obtained results with those of a previous study of Lago Fagnano, Tierra del Fuego, allows to relate differences in the hydrological and hydrodynamic processes between both lakes to morphological properties. This leads to a tentative prediction of the lake-level variability to be expected from other great Patagonian lakes. The presented geodetic results shall serve as a starting point for a detailed limnological investigation of these aquatic ecosystems.

  5. experimental implementation of single-phase, three-level, sinusoidal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Page 1 ... of many multilevel inverter configurations. This paper presents an experimental report of a simplified topology for single-phase, SPWM, three-level voltage source inverter wit R-L load. To keep the power circuit ... employed in many industrial applications such as variable speed drives, uninterruptible power sup-.

  6. Seasonal and diurnal variation in concentrations of gaseous and particulate phase endosulfan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingbo; Wang, Xianyu; Song, Jing; Sui, Hongqi; Huang, Lei; Li, Lu

    2012-12-01

    Successive 52-week air monitoring of α-endosulfan (α-E), β-endosulfan (β-E) and endosulfan sulfate (E.S) in the gaseous and particulate phases was conducted in Dalian city, northeast China by using an active high-volume sampler. Significant seasonal and diurnal variations in endosulfan concentrations were observed. It was found that the concentration of gaseous-phase α-E peaked in the summer and the concentration of particulate phase α-E peaked in the winter. For E.S, both gaseous and particulate phase concentrations peaked in the summer. α-E was distributed predominantly in the gas phase in the summer but was distributed mainly in the particulate phase in the winter. β-E was distributed mainly in the gas phase in the summer and in the particulate phase at other times of the year. E.S was distributed mainly in the particulate phase throughout the year. Elevated temperatures facilitated the volatilization of α-E from particle surfaces but exerted little effect on β-E and had almost no effect on E.S. Trajectory-based analysis indicates that the seasonal variation in atmospheric concentrations of endosulfan in Dalian city was influenced strongly by the land and sea air masses. In addition, differences in endosulfan concentrations in the particulate phase between day and night were likely due to the circulation of sea/land breezes. The 'cold-condensation' effect occurring during the night may result in the attachment of endosulfan to the particulate phase.

  7. Prediction of bed level variations in nonuniform sediment bed channel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B R Andharia

    2018-04-12

    Apr 12, 2018 ... A fully-coupled 1D mobile-bed model (CAR-. ICHAR) was introduced ...... for sediment trap, water level sensor, tail gate operated by lever arm at .... materials were brought back to upstream to feed the same through sediment ...

  8. Adaptive DSPI phase denoising using mutual information and 2D variational mode decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Qiyang; Li, Jian; Wu, Sijin; Li, Weixian; Yang, Lianxiang; Dong, Mingli; Zeng, Zhoumo

    2018-04-01

    In digital speckle pattern interferometry (DSPI), noise interference leads to a low peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and measurement errors in the phase map. This paper proposes an adaptive DSPI phase denoising method based on two-dimensional variational mode decomposition (2D-VMD) and mutual information. Firstly, the DSPI phase map is subjected to 2D-VMD in order to obtain a series of band-limited intrinsic mode functions (BLIMFs). Then, on the basis of characteristics of the BLIMFs and in combination with mutual information, a self-adaptive denoising method is proposed to obtain noise-free components containing the primary phase information. The noise-free components are reconstructed to obtain the denoising DSPI phase map. Simulation and experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively reduce noise interference, giving a PSNR that is higher than that of two-dimensional empirical mode decomposition methods.

  9. Resource variation in colorectal surgery: a national centre level analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, T M; Lee, M J; Senapati, A; Brown, S R

    2017-07-01

    Delivery of quality colorectal surgery requires adequate resources. We set out to assess the relationship between resources and outcomes in English colorectal units. Data were extracted from the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland resource questionnaire to profile resources. This was correlated with Hospital Episode Statistics outcome data including 90-day mortality and readmissions. Patient satisfaction measures were extracted from the Cancer Experience Patient Survey and compared at unit level. Centres were divided by workload into low, middle and top tertile. Completed questionnaires were received from 75 centres in England. Service resources were similar between low and top tertiles in access to Confidential Enquiry into Patient Outcome and Death (CEPOD) theatre, level two or three beds per 250 000 population or the likelihood of having a dedicated colorectal ward. There was no difference in staffing levels per 250 000 unit of population. Each 10% increase in the proportion of cases attempted laparoscopically was associated with reduced 90-day unplanned readmission (relative risk 0.94, 95% CI 0.91-0.97, P colorectal ward (relative risk 0.85, 95% CI 0.73-0.99, P = 0.040) was also associated with a significant reduction in unplanned readmissions. There was no association between staffing or service factors and patient satisfaction. Resource levels do not vary based on unit of population. There is benefit associated with increased use of laparoscopy and a dedicated surgical ward. Alternative measures to assess the relationship between resources and outcome, such as failure to rescue, should be explored in UK practice. Colorectal Disease © 2017 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  10. LCCT-derived three-level three-phase inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shults, Tatiana; Husev, Oleksandr; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    Solutions for a family of the novel three-level neutral-point-clamped (NPC) inductor-capacitor-capacitor-transformer (LCCT)-derived three-phase inverters are described and compared. Component design guidelines and steady state analysis, current and voltage waveforms are given. The authors......' simulation results confirm the theoretical predictions. It was found that an asymmetrical three-level NPC LCCT-derived inverter with a single diode in the impedance source network is the most promising solution. Experimental results for an asymmetrical three-level NPC LCCT-derived inverter with a single...

  11. Gradient augmented level set method for phase change simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anumolu, Lakshman; Trujillo, Mario F.

    2018-01-01

    A numerical method for the simulation of two-phase flow with phase change based on the Gradient-Augmented-Level-set (GALS) strategy is presented. Sharp capturing of the vaporization process is enabled by: i) identification of the vapor-liquid interface, Γ (t), at the subgrid level, ii) discontinuous treatment of thermal physical properties (except for μ), and iii) enforcement of mass, momentum, and energy jump conditions, where the gradients of the dependent variables are obtained at Γ (t) and are consistent with their analytical expression, i.e. no local averaging is applied. Treatment of the jump in velocity and pressure at Γ (t) is achieved using the Ghost Fluid Method. The solution of the energy equation employs the sub-grid knowledge of Γ (t) to discretize the temperature Laplacian using second-order one-sided differences, i.e. the numerical stencil completely resides within each respective phase. To carefully evaluate the benefits or disadvantages of the GALS approach, the standard level set method is implemented and compared against the GALS predictions. The results show the expected trend that interface identification and transport are predicted noticeably better with GALS over the standard level set. This benefit carries over to the prediction of the Laplacian and temperature gradients in the neighborhood of the interface, which are directly linked to the calculation of the vaporization rate. However, when combining the calculation of interface transport and reinitialization with two-phase momentum and energy, the benefits of GALS are to some extent neutralized, and the causes for this behavior are identified and analyzed. Overall the additional computational costs associated with GALS are almost the same as those using the standard level set technique.

  12. Ureaplasma antigenic variation beyond MBA phase variation: DNA inversions generating chimeric structures and switching in expression of the MBA N-terminal paralogue UU172.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Carl-Ulrich R; Rosengarten, Renate; Spergser, Joachim

    2011-02-01

    Phase variation of the major ureaplasma surface membrane protein, the multiple-banded antigen (MBA), with its counterpart, the UU376 protein, was recently discussed as a result of DNA inversion occurring at specific inverted repeats. Two similar inverted repeats to the ones within the mba locus were found in the genome of Ureaplasma parvum serovar 3; one within the MBA N-terminal paralogue UU172 and another in the adjacent intergenic spacer region. In this report, we demonstrate on both genomic and protein level that DNA inversion at these inverted repeats leads to alternating expression between UU172 and the neighbouring conserved hypothetical ORF UU171. Sequence analysis of this phase-variable 'UU172 element' from both U. parvum and U. urealyticum strains revealed that it is highly conserved among both species and that it also includes the orthologue of UU144. A third inverted repeat region in UU144 is proposed to serve as an additional potential inversion site from which chimeric genes can evolve. Our results indicate that site-specific recombination events in the genome of U. parvum serovar 3 are dynamic and frequent, leading to a broad spectrum of antigenic variation by which the organism may evade host immune responses. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Ureaplasma antigenic variation beyond MBA phase variation: DNA inversions generating chimeric structures and switching in expression of the MBA N-terminal paralogue UU172

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Carl-Ulrich R; Rosengarten, Renate; Spergser, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    Phase variation of the major ureaplasma surface membrane protein, the multiple-banded antigen (MBA), with its counterpart, the UU376 protein, was recently discussed as a result of DNA inversion occurring at specific inverted repeats. Two similar inverted repeats to the ones within the mba locus were found in the genome of Ureaplasma parvum serovar 3; one within the MBA N-terminal paralogue UU172 and another in the adjacent intergenic spacer region. In this report, we demonstrate on both genomic and protein level that DNA inversion at these inverted repeats leads to alternating expression between UU172 and the neighbouring conserved hypothetical ORF UU171. Sequence analysis of this phase-variable ‘UU172 element’ from both U. parvum and U. urealyticum strains revealed that it is highly conserved among both species and that it also includes the orthologue of UU144. A third inverted repeat region in UU144 is proposed to serve as an additional potential inversion site from which chimeric genes can evolve. Our results indicate that site-specific recombination events in the genome of U. parvum serovar 3 are dynamic and frequent, leading to a broad spectrum of antigenic variation by which the organism may evade host immune responses. PMID:21255110

  14. Air-soil exchange of PCBs: levels and temporal variations at two sites in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yolsal, Didem; Salihoglu, Güray; Tasdemir, Yücel

    2014-03-01

    Seasonal distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) at the air-soil intersection was determined for two regions: one with urban characteristics where traffic is dense (BUTAL) and the other representing the coastal zone (Mudanya). Fifty-one air and soil samples were simultaneously collected. Total PCB (Σ82 PCB) levels in the soil samples collected during a 1-year period ranged between 105 and 7,060 pg/g dry matter (dm) (BUTAL) and 110 and 2,320 pg/g dm (Mudanya). Total PCB levels in the gaseous phase were measured to be between 100 and 910 pg/m(3) (BUTAL) and 75 and 1,025 pg/m(3) (Mudanya). Variations in the concentrations were observed depending on the season. Though the PCB concentrations measured in the atmospheres of both regions in the summer months were high, they were found to be lower in winter. However, while soil PCB levels were measured to be high at BUTAL during summer months, they were found to be high during winter months in Mudanya. The direction and amount of the PCB movement were determined by calculating the gaseous phase change fluxes at air-soil intersection. While a general PCB movement from soil to air was found for BUTAL, the PCB movement from air to soil was calculated for the Mudanya region in most of the sampling events. During the warmer seasons PCB movement towards the atmosphere was observed due to evaporation from the soil. With decreases in the temperature, both decreases in the number of PCB congeners occurring in the air and a change in the direction of some congeners were observed, possibly caused by deposition from the atmosphere to the soil. 3-CB and 4-CB congeners were found to be dominant in the atmosphere, and 4-, 5-, and 6-CBs were found to dominate in the surface soils.

  15. Phase reconstruction from velocity-encoded MRI measurements – A survey of sparsity-promoting variational approaches

    KAUST Repository

    Benning, Martin

    2014-01-01

    In recent years there has been significant developments in the reconstruction of magnetic resonance velocity images from sub-sampled k-space data. While showing a strong improvement in reconstruction quality compared to classical approaches, the vast number of different methods, and the challenges in setting them up, often leaves the user with the difficult task of choosing the correct approach, or more importantly, not selecting a poor approach. In this paper, we survey variational approaches for the reconstruction of phase-encoded magnetic resonance velocity images from sub-sampled k-space data. We are particularly interested in regularisers that correctly treat both smooth and geometric features of the image. These features are common to velocity imaging, where the flow field will be smooth but interfaces between the fluid and surrounding material will be sharp, but are challenging to represent sparsely. As an example we demonstrate the variational approaches on velocity imaging of water flowing through a packed bed of solid particles. We evaluate Wavelet regularisation against Total Variation and the relatively recent second order Total Generalised Variation regularisation. We combine these regularisation schemes with a contrast enhancement approach called Bregman iteration. We verify for a variety of sampling patterns that Morozov\\'s discrepancy principle provides a good criterion for stopping the iterations. Therefore, given only the noise level, we present a robust guideline for setting up a variational reconstruction scheme for MR velocity imaging. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Variations in the microseismic noise level observed at the Bucovina Seismic Array (BURAR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghica, Daniela; Radulian, Mircea; Popa, Mihaela

    2005-01-01

    The microseismic noise level analysis for a seismic array is an essential step to accurately process the data recorded by the system. Basically, the observed background noise is a complex combination of natural and cultural sources as local geology, specific area activity (roads traffic, agricultural and industrial activities) or weather conditions.The understanding of the BURAR site noise characteristics is important for the array specific techniques (beamforming, f-k analysis), to apply the correct bandpass filtering, in order to obtain noise suppression and conservation of the 'true' seismic signal. The array monitoring potential of very small earthquakes and explosions will be enhanced, based on the best signal-to-noise ratio.The noise study at BURAR was carried out over one-year period, considering the noise power spectra in a 0.1 to 10 Hz frequency interval, for every 24 hours: 5 minutes during day and 5 minutes during night. Only short-period vertical sensors were considered. Systematic variations in the microseismic noise level at the BURAR site were observed:- diurnal: a decreasing of about 40% in night noise level at 1 Hz frequency; at 6 Hz frequency, the decreasing could reach 80-90% for 'non-winter' months (May to October); - seasonal: during the winter time, a lower noise level is observed, due to the restraining of the local specific activity (especially agriculture and farming) and of the road traffic. To summarize the level of microseismic noise observed at BURAR for one-year observations, a model curve for array noise level has been estimated, including upper and lower bounds of noise power density together with average spectrum. The BURAR noise model will be useful in the process of local site conditions estimation, by eliminating the noise contribution from the array recording. Also, the detection processing, phase identification and events location procedures will be significantly improved. (authors)

  17. Mixing phases of unstable two-level systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, V.V.; Brentano, P. von.

    1993-01-01

    An unstable two-level system decaying into an arbitrary number of channels is considered. It is shown that the mixing phases of the two overlapping resonances can be expressed in the terms of their partial widths and one additional universal mixing parameter. Some applications to a doublet of 2 + resonances in 8 Be and to the ρ-ω systems are considered. 18 refs

  18. Tides and lake-level variations in the great Patagonian lakes: Observations, modelling and geophysical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marderwald, Eric; Richter, Andreas; Horwath, Martin; Hormaechea, Jose Luis; Groh, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    In Patagonia, the glacial-isostatic adjustment (GIA) to past ice-mass changes (Ivins & James 2004; Klemann et al. 2007) is of particular interest in the context of the determination of the complex regional rheology related to plate subduction in a triple-junction constellation. To further complicate the situation, GIA is overlaid with load deformation not only due to present ice mass changes but also due to water-level changes in the lakes surrounding the icefields and the ocean surrounding Patagonia. These elastic deformations affect the determination of glacial-isostatic uplift rates from GPS observations (Dietrich et al. 2010; Lange et al. 2014). Observations of lake tides and their comparison with the theoretical tidal signal have been used previously to validate predictions of ocean tidal loading and have revealed regional deviations from conventional global elastic earth models (Richter et al. 2009). In this work we investigate the tides and lake-level variations in Lago Argentino, Lago Viedma, Lago San Martín/O'Higgins and Lago Buenos Aires/General Carrera. This allows us to test, among other things, the validity of tidal loading models. We present pressure tide-gauge records from two sites in Lago Argentino extending over 2.5 years (Richter et al. 2015). These observations are complemented by lake-level records provided by the Argentine National Hydrometeorological Network. Based on these lake-level time series the principal processes affecting the lake level are identified and quantified. Lake-level changes reflecting variations in lake volume are dominated by a seasonal cycle exceeding 1 m in amplitude. Lake-volume changes occur in addition with a daily period in response to melt water influx from surrounding glaciers. In Lago Argentino sporadic lake-volume jumps are caused by bursting of the ice dam of Perito Moreno glacier. Water movements in these lakes are dominated by surface seiches reaching 20 cm in amplitude. A harmonic tidal analysis of the lake-level

  19. Melting temperature and enthalpy variations of phase change materials (PCMs): a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoqin; Lee, Kyoung Ok; Medina, Mario A.; Chu, Youhong; Li, Chuanchang

    2018-06-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis is a standard thermal analysis technique used to determine the phase transition temperature, enthalpy, heat of fusion, specific heat and activation energy of phase change materials (PCMs). To determine the appropriate heating rate and sample mass, various DSC measurements were carried out using two kinds of PCMs, namely N-octadecane paraffin and calcium chloride hexahydrate. The variations in phase transition temperature, enthalpy, heat of fusion, specific heat and activation energy were observed within applicable heating rates and sample masses. It was found that the phase transition temperature range increased with increasing heating rate and sample mass; while the heat of fusion varied without any established pattern. The specific heat decreased with the increase of heating rate and sample mass. For accuracy purpose, it is recommended that for PCMs with high thermal conductivity (e.g. hydrated salt) the focus will be on heating rate rather than sample mass.

  20. Variation of the energy gap of the SbSI crystals at ferroelectric phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audzijonis, A.; Zaltauskas, R.; Zigas, L.; Vinokurova, I.V.; Farberovich, O.V.; Pauliukas, A.; Kvedaravicius, A.

    2006-01-01

    Variation of the forbidden gap of SbSI crystals in the phase transition region is analyzed on the pseudopotential method for antiferroelectric and ferroelectric phase. The band gap at several special points of the Brillouin zone and some characteristic parameters of the band are considered. During the phase transition, the most significant changes are observed with the valence band top at points Q, C, R, H, E and with the conduction band bottom at points H, T and E of the Brillouin zone. At the ferroelectric phase transition, the valence and conduction bands change due to displacement of Sb and S atoms with respect to I and with respect to each other as a result of order-disorder and displacement-type transition. The obtained band gap values agree quite well with the experiment. This is apparently due to application of neutral rather than ionic atomic functions and inclusion of sufficiently many plane waves in the basis set for calculation

  1. Fiber level for laying hens during the growing phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ednardo Rodrigues Freitas

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Feeding management of laying hens has been focused on the direct influence of nutrient intake on weight gain, especially at growing phase. This study evaluates nutrient digestibility, performance, development of the digestive tract, body composition, and bone quality of two strains of laying hens fed with different levels of neutral detergent fiber (NDF during the growing phase from the 7th to the 12th week of age. A total of 1,296 birds were distributed in a completely randomized design in a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement (two strains x three levels of NDF with four replicates of 54 birds per treatment. Semi-heavy (Hy Line Brown and light-strain (Lohman LSL pullets were allotted to dietary treatments consisting of 14.50, 16.50, and 18.50% NDF. An interaction between strains and NDF levels was observed only for feed/gain ratio and light-strain pullets had lower performance with 18.50% NDF. The increasing levels of NDF in the diet reduced the coefficients of digestibility of dry matter, nitrogen and gross energy, and the values of metabolizable energy. Higher levels of NDF in the diet increased the relative weight of liver and intestines and reduced gizzard weight. It was also observed differences between bone quality and composition of the femur and tibia of light and semi-heavy hens. The increase in NDF level in ration for growing phase laying hens above 14.50% decreases the nutrient digestibility and the metabolizable energy of the diet; however, it does not affect the carcass composition, bone quality, feed intake, and weight gain, although it may impair feed conversion of light-strain pullets.

  2. Relation cellular- molecular between serum IL10 levels and hyperalgesia variation in adjuvant- induced arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenab Akhtari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Regarding to the important anti-inflammatory role of IL10 during inflammation process and hyperalgesia and edema variation during CFA-induced arthritis and also the increase of Spinal mu opioid receptor (mOR expression, in this study researchers investigate the role of serum IL10 level on mOR expression and edema and hyperalgesia variation during different stages of Complete Freund`s Adjuvant (CFA - induced arthritis in male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Mono-arthritis was induced by CFA and inflammatory symptoms (hyperalgesia and edema were assessed on 0, 3, 7, 14th and 21st days of study. Anti-IL10 was administered during the 21 days of study in different experimental groups. mOR expression were detected by western blotting on 0, 3,7, 14th and 21st days of study. Data was analyzed by SPSS statistical software version 19 with using one way ANOVA (post hoc Tokey's. Results: Our results showed that anti-IL10 administration in AA group (Adjuvant Arthritis caused an increase in the paw volume and hyperalgesia until 21st of study. Our study stated that there were no significant differences in spinal mOR expression between AA and AA+anti-IL10rats. Conclusion: Our study confirmed that anti-IL10administration caused to hyperalgesia and edema during AA inflammation. Also these findings suggested that mOR expression increased in chronic phase of AA inflammation, however an increase in the level of spinal mu opioid receptor (mOR expression during AA inflammation is not mediated directly via the effect of serum IL-10.

  3. Design of a Comprehensive Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Experiment: Phase Variation Caused by Recombinational Regulation of Bacterial Gene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Xiumei; Xu, Shungao; Lu, Renyun; Isaac, Dadzie; Zhang, Xueyi; Zhang, Haifang; Wang, Huifang; Qiao, Zheng; Huang, Xinxiang

    2014-01-01

    Scientific experiments are indispensable parts of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. In this study, a comprehensive Biochemistry and Molecular Biology experiment about "Salmonella enterica" serovar Typhi Flagellar phase variation has been designed. It consisted of three parts, namely, inducement of bacterial Flagellar phase variation,…

  4. Arduino Mega 2560 Microcontroller Built 3-Phase Seven Level Inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAVANKUMAR Shriram Mehtre

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available n this paper, the implementation of 3-phase seven level cascaded H-bridge inverter is discussed with Arduino microcontroller and harmonic analysis is performed using Fourier series. The multilevel inverters (MLI give several benefits as reduced switching voltage stresses and the capability to operate in higher level voltage applications. A new and simple architecture Arduino Mega 2560 microcontroller is employed to produce the control signals for the seven level cascaded H-bridge MLI switches. The computer simulation is carried out in PSIM environment and prototype experimental model is developed with TLP 250 driver ICs and power MOSFET switches to validate the simulation results. The THDs present in different voltage level inverters are mathematically analysed using Fourier series.

  5. Linear and non-linear sea-level variations in the Adriatic Sea from tide gauge records (1872-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaia Galassi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We have analyzed tide gauge data from the Adriatic Sea in order to assess the secular sea-level trend, its acceleration and the existence of possible cyclic variation. Analyzing the sea-level stack of all Adriatic tide gauges, we have obtained a trend of (1.25±0.04 mm yr-1, in agreement with that observed for the last century in the Mediterranean Sea, and an acceleration that is negligibile compared to the average global values. By means of the Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition technique, we have evidenced an energetic oscillation with a period of ∼20 years that we relate with the recurrence of opposite phases in the Atlantic Multi–decadal Oscillation and North Atlantic Oscillation indices. We suggest that anomalously high sea-level values observed at all the Adriatic tide gauges during 2010 and 2011 can be explained by the rising phase of this 20 years cycle.

  6. Phase variation of nucleon-nucleon amplitude for proton-12C elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Yibing; Wang Shilai; Yin Gaofang

    2006-01-01

    Franco and Yin studied for α- 4 He, 3 He, 2 He, 1 He elastic-scattering by using the phase of the nucleon-nucleon elastic-scattering amplitude varies with momentum transfer in the framework of Glauber multiple scattering theory at intermediate energy. The phase variation leads to large changes in the differential cross sections, and brings the Glauber theory into agreement with experimental data. Later Lombard and Maillet is based on the suggestion by Franco and Yin studied for the p- 4 He elastic-scattering in the framework of Glauber theory, and found this phase to be actually important for the description of spin observables. Recently Wang Shilai and Deng Yibing et al studied for the p- 4 He elastic-scattering in the framework of KMT multiple scattering theory at intermediate energy, and found this phase lead to differential cross sections and polarization, which are in better agreement with experimental data. This paper is based on the suggestion by Franco and Yin that the phase of the nucleon-nucleon scattering amplitude should vary with momentum transfer. The proton elastic scattering on 12 C is studied in the KMT multiple scattering theory with microscopic momentum space first term optical potential. The Coulomb interactions are taken into account in our calculation. The theoretical calculation results show that the phase leads to differential cross section and polarization are in better agreement with experimental data. In conclusion this phase is actually important in the framework of KMT theory. (authors)

  7. Glass formulation for phase 1 high-level waste vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vienna, J.D.; Hrma, P.R.

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide potential glass formulations for prospective Phase 1 High-Level Waste (HLW) vitrification at Hanford. The results reported here will be used to aid in developing a Phase 1 HLW vitrification request for proposal (RFP) and facilitate the evaluation of ensuing proposals. The following factors were considered in the glass formulation effort: impact on total glass volume of requiring the vendor to process each of the tank compositions independently versus as a blend; effects of imposing typical values of B 2 O 3 content and waste loading in HLW borosilicate glasses as restrictions on the vendors (according to WAPS 1995, the typical values are 5--10 wt% B 2 O 3 and 20--40 wt% waste oxide loading); impacts of restricting the processing temperature to 1,150 C on eventual glass volume; and effects of caustic washing on any of the selected tank wastes relative to glass volume

  8. A Position Sensorless Control Method for SRM Based on Variation of Phase Inductance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsuzaki, Akitomo; Miki, Ichiro

    Switched reluctance motor (SRM) drives are suitable for variable speed industrial applications because of the simple structure and high-speed capability. However, it is necessary to detect the rotor position with a position sensor attached to the motor shaft. The use of the sensor increases the cost of the drive system and machine size, and furthermore the reliability of the system is reduced. Therefore, several approaches to eliminate the position sensor have already been reported. In this paper, a position sensorless control method based on the variation of the phase inductance is described. The phase inductance regularly varies with the rotor position. The SRM is controlled without the position sensor using the de-fluxing period and the phase inductance. The turn-off timing is determined by computing the difference of angle between the sampling point and the aligned point and the variation of angle during the de-fluxing period. In the magnetic saturation region, the phase inductance at the current when the effect of the saturation starts is computed and the sensorless control can be carried out using this inductance. Experimental results show that the SRM is well controlled without the position sensor using the proposed method.

  9. Two levels ARIMAX and regression models for forecasting time series data with calendar variation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhartono, Lee, Muhammad Hisyam; Prastyo, Dedy Dwi

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this research is to develop a calendar variation model for forecasting retail sales data with the Eid ul-Fitr effect. The proposed model is based on two methods, namely two levels ARIMAX and regression methods. Two levels ARIMAX and regression models are built by using ARIMAX for the first level and regression for the second level. Monthly men's jeans and women's trousers sales in a retail company for the period January 2002 to September 2009 are used as case study. In general, two levels of calendar variation model yields two models, namely the first model to reconstruct the sales pattern that already occurred, and the second model to forecast the effect of increasing sales due to Eid ul-Fitr that affected sales at the same and the previous months. The results show that the proposed two level calendar variation model based on ARIMAX and regression methods yields better forecast compared to the seasonal ARIMA model and Neural Networks.

  10. A Variational Model for Two-Phase Immiscible Electroosmotic Flow at Solid Surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Shao, Sihong

    2012-01-01

    We develop a continuum hydrodynamic model for two-phase immiscible flows that involve electroosmotic effect in an electrolyte and moving contact line at solid surfaces. The model is derived through a variational approach based on the Onsager principle of minimum energy dissipation. This approach was first presented in the derivation of a continuum hydrodynamic model for moving contact line in neutral two-phase immiscible flows (Qian, Wang, and Sheng, J. Fluid Mech. 564, 333-360 (2006)). Physically, the electroosmotic effect can be formulated by the Onsager principle as well in the linear response regime. Therefore, the same variational approach is applied here to the derivation of the continuum hydrodynamic model for charged two-phase immiscible flows where one fluid component is an electrolyte exhibiting electroosmotic effect on a charged surface. A phase field is employed to model the diffuse interface between two immiscible fluid components, one being the electrolyte and the other a nonconductive fluid, both allowed to slip at solid surfaces. Our model consists of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equation for momentum transport, the Nernst-Planck equation for ion transport, the Cahn-Hilliard phase-field equation for interface motion, and the Poisson equation for electric potential, along with all the necessary boundary conditions. In particular, all the dynamic boundary conditions at solid surfaces, including the generalized Navier boundary condition for slip, are derived together with the equations of motion in the bulk region. Numerical examples in two-dimensional space, which involve overlapped electric double layer fields, have been presented to demonstrate the validity and applicability of the model, and a few salient features of the two-phase immiscible electroosmotic flows at solid surface. The wall slip in the vicinity of moving contact line and the Smoluchowski slip in the electric double layer are both investigated. © 2012 Global-Science Press.

  11. Mass-induced [|#8#|]Sea Level Variations in the Red Sea from Satellite Altimetry and GRACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, W.; Lemoine, J.; Zhong, M.; Hsu, H.

    2011-12-01

    We have analyzed mass-induced sea level variations (SLVs) in the Red Sea from steric-corrected altimetry and GRACE between January 2003 and December 2010. The steric component of SLVs in the Red Sea calculated from climatological temperature and salinity data is relatively small and anti-phase with the mass-induced SLV. The total SLV in the Red Sea is mainly driven by the mass-induced SLV, which increases in winter when the Red Sea gains the water mass from the Gulf of Aden and vice versa in summer. Spatial and temporal patterns of mass-induced SLVs in the Red Sea from steric-corrected altimetry agree very well with GRACE observations. Both of two independent observations show high annual amplitude in the central Red Sea (>20cm). Total mass-induced SLVs in the Red Sea from two independent observations have similar annual amplitude and phase. One main purpose of our work is to see whether GRGS's ten-day GRACE results can observe intra-seasonal mass change in the Red Sea. The wavelet coherence analysis indicates that GRGS's results show the high correlation with the steric-corrected SLVs on intra-seasonal time scale. The agreement is excellent for all the time-span until 1/3 year period and is patchy between 1/3 and 1/16 year period. Furthermore, water flux estimates from current-meter arrays and moorings show mass gain in winter and mass loss in summer, which is also consistent with altimetry and GRACE.

  12. Integrative analysis of RNA, translation, and protein levels reveals distinct regulatory variation across humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenik, Can; Cenik, Elif Sarinay; Byeon, Gun W; Grubert, Fabian; Candille, Sophie I; Spacek, Damek; Alsallakh, Bilal; Tilgner, Hagen; Araya, Carlos L; Tang, Hua; Ricci, Emiliano; Snyder, Michael P

    2015-11-01

    Elucidating the consequences of genetic differences between humans is essential for understanding phenotypic diversity and personalized medicine. Although variation in RNA levels, transcription factor binding, and chromatin have been explored, little is known about global variation in translation and its genetic determinants. We used ribosome profiling, RNA sequencing, and mass spectrometry to perform an integrated analysis in lymphoblastoid cell lines from a diverse group of individuals. We find significant differences in RNA, translation, and protein levels suggesting diverse mechanisms of personalized gene expression control. Combined analysis of RNA expression and ribosome occupancy improves the identification of individual protein level differences. Finally, we identify genetic differences that specifically modulate ribosome occupancy--many of these differences lie close to start codons and upstream ORFs. Our results reveal a new level of gene expression variation among humans and indicate that genetic variants can cause changes in protein levels through effects on translation. © 2015 Cenik et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  13. The effects of globotriaosylceramide tail saturation level on bilayer phases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pezeshkian, Weria; Chaban, Vitaly V; Johannes, Ludger

    2015-01-01

    Globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) is a glycosphingolipid present in the plasma membrane that is the natural receptor of the bacterial Shiga toxin. The unsaturation level of Gb3 acyl chains has a drastic impact on lipid bilayer properties and phase behaviour, and on many Gb3-related cellular processes....... For example: the Shiga toxin B subunit forms tubular invaginations in the presence of Gb3 with an unsaturated acyl chain (U-Gb3), while in the presence of Gb3 with a saturated acyl chain (S-Gb3) such invagination does not occur. We have used all-atom molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the effects...... of sphingomyelin lipids and (3) At higher Gb3 concentrations, U-Gb3 mixes better with dioleoylphosphatidylcholine than S-Gb3. Our simulations also provide the first molecular level structural model of Gb3 in membranes....

  14. Vpma phase variation is important for survival and persistence of Mycoplasma agalactiae in the immunocompetent host.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohini Chopra-Dewasthaly

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite very small genomes, mycoplasmas retain large multigene families encoding variable antigens whose exact role in pathogenesis needs to be proven. To understand their in vivo significance, we used Mycoplasma agalactiae as a model exhibiting high-frequency variations of a family of immunodominant Vpma lipoproteins via Xer1-mediated site-specific recombinations. Phase-Locked Mutants (PLMs expressing single stable Vpma products served as first breakthrough tools in mycoplasmology to study the role of such sophisticated antigenic variation systems. Comparing the general clinical features of sheep infected with a mixture of phase-invariable PLMs (PLMU and PLMY and the wild type strain, it was earlier concluded that Vpma phase variation is not necessary for infection. Conversely, the current study demonstrates the in vivo indispensability of Vpma switching as inferred from the Vpma phenotypic and genotypic analyses of reisolates obtained during sheep infection and necropsy. PLMY and PLMU stably expressing VpmaY and VpmaU, respectively, for numerous in vitro generations, switched to new Vpma phenotypes inside the sheep. Molecular genetic analysis of selected 'switchover' clones confirmed xer1 disruption and revealed complex new rearrangements like chimeras, deletions and duplications in the vpma loci that were previously unknown in type strain PG2. Another novel finding is the differential infection potential of Vpma variants, as local infection sites demonstrated an almost complete dominance of PLMY over PLMU especially during early stages of both conjunctival and intramammary co-challenge infections, indicating a comparatively better in vivo fitness of VpmaY expressors. The data suggest that Vpma antigenic variation is imperative for survival and persistence inside the immunocompetent host, and although Xer1 is necessary for causing Vpma variation in vitro, it is not a virulence factor because alternative Xer1-independent mechanisms operate in

  15. Influenza A virus alters pneumococcal nasal colonization and middle ear infection independently of phase variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wren, John T; Blevins, Lance K; Pang, Bing; King, Lauren B; Perez, Antonia C; Murrah, Kyle A; Reimche, Jennifer L; Alexander-Miller, Martha A; Swords, W Edward

    2014-11-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is both a widespread nasal colonizer and a leading cause of otitis media, one of the most common diseases of childhood. Pneumococcal phase variation influences both colonization and disease and thus has been linked to the bacteria's transition from colonizer to otopathogen. Further contributing to this transition, coinfection with influenza A virus has been strongly associated epidemiologically with the dissemination of pneumococci from the nasopharynx to the middle ear. Using a mouse infection model, we demonstrated that coinfection with influenza virus and pneumococci enhanced both colonization and inflammatory responses within the nasopharynx and middle ear chamber. Coinfection studies were also performed using pneumococcal populations enriched for opaque or transparent phase variants. As shown previously, opaque variants were less able to colonize the nasopharynx. In vitro, this phase also demonstrated diminished biofilm viability and epithelial adherence. However, coinfection with influenza virus ameliorated this colonization defect in vivo. Further, viral coinfection ultimately induced a similar magnitude of middle ear infection by both phase variants. These data indicate that despite inherent differences in colonization, the influenza A virus exacerbation of experimental middle ear infection is independent of the pneumococcal phase. These findings provide new insights into the synergistic link between pneumococcus and influenza virus in the context of otitis media. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Vertebral artery variations at the C1-2 level diagnosed by magnetic resonance angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchino, Akira; Saito, Naoko; Watadani, Takeyuki; Okada, Yoshitaka; Kozawa, Eito; Nishi, Naoko; Mizukoshi, Waka; Inoue, Kaiji; Nakajima, Reiko; Takahashi, Masahiro [Saitama Medical University International Medical Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Hidaka, Saitama (Japan)

    2012-01-15

    The craniovertebral junction is clinically important. The vertebral artery (VA) in its several variations runs within this area. We report the prevalence of these VA variations on magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). We retrospectively reviewed MRA images, obtained using two 1.5-T imagers, of 2,739 patients, and paid special attention to the course and branching of the VA at the level of the C1-2 vertebral bodies. There were three types of VA variation at the C1-2 level: (1) persistent first intersegmental artery (FIA), (2) VA fenestration, and (3) posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) originating from the C1/2 level. The overall prevalence of these three variations was 5.0%. There was no laterality in frequency, but we found female predominance (P < 0.05). We most frequently observed the persistent FIA (3.2%), which was sometimes bilateral. We found VA fenestration (0.9%) and PICA of C1/2 origin (1.1%) with almost equal frequency. Two PICAs of C1/2 origin had no normal VA branch. We frequently observed VA variations at the C1-2 level and with female predominance. The persistent FIA was most prevalent and sometimes seen bilaterally. Preoperative identification of these variations in VA is necessary to avoid complications during surgery at the craniovertebral junction. (orig.)

  17. Physiological variations in levels of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate in horse erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, I M; McLan, J G

    1975-03-01

    The levels of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG), which affects the transport of oxygen by haemoglobin, were examined in horse blood. Resting levels of erythrocyte 2,3-DPG were established in thoroughbred horses, and levels of 2,3-DPG together with haemoglobin levels, were examined in a variety of conditions. A negative correlation was observed between erythrocyte 2,3-DPG and haemoglobin levels. Mares had higher erythrocyte 2,3-DPG levels was observed during training, and this variation may have a significant effect on haemoglobin oxygen transport. Erythrocyte 2,3-DPG levels were not affected by age or exercise.

  18. Recent Changes in Land Water Storage and Its Contribution to Sea Level Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Yoshihide; Reager, John T.; Chao, Benjamin F.; Wang, Jida; Lo, Min-Hui; Song, Chunqiao; Li, Yuwen; Gardner, Alex S.

    2016-01-01

    Sea level rise is generally attributed to increased ocean heat content and increased rates glacier and ice melt. However, human transformations of Earth's surface have impacted water exchange between land, atmosphere, and ocean, ultimately affecting global sea level variations. Impoundment of water in reservoirs and artificial lakes has reduced the outflow of water to the sea, while river runoff has increased due to groundwater mining, wetland and endorheic lake storage losses, and deforestation. In addition, climate-driven changes in land water stores can have a large impact on global sea level variations over decadal timescales. Here, we review each component of negative and positive land water contribution separately in order to highlight and understand recent changes in land water contribution to sea level variations.

  19. Intraindividual variation in levels of serum testosterone and other reproductive and adrenal hormones in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambilla, Donald J; O'Donnell, Amy B; Matsumoto, Alvin M; McKinlay, John B

    2007-12-01

    Estimates of intraindividual variation in hormone levels provide the basis for interpreting hormone measurements clinically and for developing eligibility criteria for trials of hormone replacement therapy. However, reliable systematic estimates of such variation are lacking. To estimate intraindividual variation of serum total, free and bioavailable testosterone (T), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), SHBG, LH, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS), oestrone, oestradiol and cortisol, and the contributions of biological and assay variation to the total. Paired blood samples were obtained 1-3 days apart at entry and again 3 months and 6 months later (maximum six samples per subject). Each sample consisted of a pool of equal aliquots of two blood draws 20 min apart. Men aged 30-79 years were randomly selected from the respondents to the Boston Area Community Health Survey, a study of the health of the general population of Boston, MA, USA. Analysis was based on 132 men, including 121 who completed all six visits, 8 who completed the first two visits and 3 who completed the first four visits. Day-to-day and 3-month (long-term) intraindividual standard deviations, after transforming measurements to logarithms to eliminate the contribution of hormone level to intraindividual variation. Biological variation generally accounted for more of total intraindividual variation than did assay variation. Day-to-day biological variation accounted for more of the total than did long-term biological variation. Short-term variability was greater in hormones with pulsatile secretion (e.g. LH) than those that exhibit less ultradian variation. Depending on the hormone, the intraindividual standard deviations imply that a clinician can expect to see a difference exceeding 18-28% about half the time when two measurements are made on a subject. The difference will exceed 27-54% about a quarter of the time. Given the level of intraindividual variability in hormone

  20. Comparison of the levels of intra-specific genetic variation within Giardia muris and Giardia intestinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, R H; Monis, P T; Ey, P L; Mayrhofer, G

    1998-08-01

    The extent of intra-specific genetic variation between isolates of Giardia muris was assessed by allozyme electrophoresis. Additionally, the levels of allozymic variation detected within G. muris were compared with those observed between members of the two major assemblages of the morphologically distinct species Giardia intestinalis. Four isolates of G. muris were analysed. Three (Ad-120, -150, -151) were isolated from mice in Australia, while the fourth (R-T) was isolated from a golden hamster in North America. The 11 isolates of G. intestinalis (Ad-1, -12, -2, -62, representing genetic Groups I and II of Assemblage A and BAH-12, BRIS/87/HEPU/694, Ad-19, -22, -28, -45, -52, representing genetic Groups III and IV of Assemblage B) were from humans in Australia. Intra-specific genetic variation was detected between G. muris isolates at four of the 23 enzyme loci examined. Similar levels of variation were found within the genetic groups that comprise Assemblages A and B of G. intestinalis. These levels of intra-specific variation are similar to those observed within other morphologically-distinct species of protozoan parasites. We suggest that the magnitude of the genetic differences detected within G. muris provides an indication of the range of genetic variation within other species of Giardia and that this can be used as a model to delineate morphologically similar but genetically distinct (cryptic) species within this genus.

  1. First-order system least squares and the energetic variational approach for two-phase flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, J. H.; Brannick, J.; Liu, C.; Manteuffel, T.; Zikatanov, L.

    2011-07-01

    This paper develops a first-order system least-squares (FOSLS) formulation for equations of two-phase flow. The main goal is to show that this discretization, along with numerical techniques such as nested iteration, algebraic multigrid, and adaptive local refinement, can be used to solve these types of complex fluid flow problems. In addition, from an energetic variational approach, it can be shown that an important quantity to preserve in a given simulation is the energy law. We discuss the energy law and inherent structure for two-phase flow using the Allen-Cahn interface model and indicate how it is related to other complex fluid models, such as magnetohydrodynamics. Finally, we show that, using the FOSLS framework, one can still satisfy the appropriate energy law globally while using well-known numerical techniques.

  2. Determination of the variation of mercury isotope concentration based on spectral-phase effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganeev, A.A.; Man', D.D.; Turkin, Yu.I.

    1988-01-01

    A method of isotopic atomic-absorption analysis, based on spectral-phase effects in which there is no need to use several sources of radiation with pure isotopes of the analyte element, was developed. The method made it possible to simplify the analysis and to determine the variation of the concentration of mercury isotopes from one deposit to another with an accuracy several times higher that of traditional methods of spectral isotopic analysis. The method was tested on mercury 198 and mercury 202. The isotopic analyzer is diagramed and described. The mechanism of spectral-phase effects was determined by the difference in effective photon lifetimes, corresponding to different components of the hyperfine structure of the resonance line of mercury at 254 nm

  3. Glass formulation for phase 1 high-level waste vitrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vienna, J.D.; Hrma, P.R.

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide potential glass formulations for prospective Phase 1 High-Level Waste (HLW) vitrification at Hanford. The results reported here will be used to aid in developing a Phase 1 HLW vitrification request for proposal (RFP) and facilitate the evaluation of ensuing proposals. The following factors were considered in the glass formulation effort: impact on total glass volume of requiring the vendor to process each of the tank compositions independently versus as a blend; effects of imposing typical values of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} content and waste loading in HLW borosilicate glasses as restrictions on the vendors (according to WAPS 1995, the typical values are 5--10 wt% B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 20--40 wt% waste oxide loading); impacts of restricting the processing temperature to 1,150 C on eventual glass volume; and effects of caustic washing on any of the selected tank wastes relative to glass volume.

  4. Be discs in coplanar circular binaries: Phase-locked variations of emission lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panoglou, Despina; Faes, Daniel M.; Carciofi, Alex C.; Okazaki, Atsuo T.; Baade, Dietrich; Rivinius, Thomas; Borges Fernandes, Marcelo

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we present the first results of radiative transfer calculations on decretion discs of binary Be stars. A smoothed particle hydrodynamics code computes the structure of Be discs in coplanar circular binary systems for a range of orbital and disc parameters. The resulting disc configuration consists of two spiral arms, and this can be given as input into a Monte Carlo code, which calculates the radiative transfer along the line of sight for various observational coordinates. Making use of the property of steady disc structure in coplanar circular binaries, observables are computed as functions of the orbital phase. Some orbital-phase series of line profiles are given for selected parameter sets under various viewing angles, to allow comparison with observations. Flat-topped profiles with and without superimposed multiple structures are reproduced, showing, for example, that triple-peaked profiles do not have to be necessarily associated with warped discs and misaligned binaries. It is demonstrated that binary tidal effects give rise to phase-locked variability of the violet-to-red (V/R) ratio of hydrogen emission lines. The V/R ratio exhibits two maxima per cycle; in certain cases those maxima are equal, leading to a clear new V/R cycle every half orbital period. This study opens a way to identifying binaries and to constraining the parameters of binary systems that exhibit phase-locked variations induced by tidal interaction with a companion star.

  5. The Influence of Second Harmonic Phase and Amplitude Variation in Cyclically Pitching Wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culler, Ethan; Farnsworth, John

    2017-11-01

    From wind tunnel testing of a cyber-physical wing model, it has been found that the pitch trajectory for stall flutter is described by an array of higher harmonic frequencies with decaying energy content. These frequencies distort the stall flutter motion from that of a pure sinusoidal oscillation in pitch and can have a significant effect on the resulting force production. In order to understand how these higher harmonic frequencies contribute to the overall pitching moment characteristics of a wing in stall flutter, a rigid finite span wing model, with aspect ratio four, was pitched in the wind tunnel. The prescribed motion of the pitch cycle was varied by changing the amplitude ratio and phase of the second harmonic of the oscillation frequency. The second harmonic represents the second highest energy mode in the pitching cycle spectra. Pitching moment and planar particle image velocimetry data was collected. From these pitching trajectories, a significant dependence of pitching moment on both the phase and amplitude of the prescribed waveforms was found. Specifically, for the same amplitude ratio, variations in the phase produced changes of approximately 30 percent in the phase averaged pitching moment.

  6. Thermosteric contribution of warming oceans to the global sea level variations

    OpenAIRE

    Bâki Iz H.

    2016-01-01

    Thermosteric contribution of warming oceans to the global sea level variations during the last century was evaluated at globally distributed 27 tide gauge stations with records over 80 years. The assessment was made using a recently proposed lagged model inclusive of a sea level trend, long and decadal periodicities, and lagged sea surface temperature measurements. The new model solutions revealed that almost all the long period periodic sea level changes experienced a...

  7. The coherent state variational algorithm and the QCD deconfinement phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somsky, W.R.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis describes the coherent state variational algorithm, its implementation in a recently completed set of computer programs, and its application to the study of the QCD deconfinement phase transition. The coherent state variational algorithm is a computational method for studying the large-N limit of non-abelian gauge theories by direct exploitation of the classical nature of this limit. Unlike Monte Carlo methods, this technique is applicable to both euclidean and hamiltonian formulations of lattice gauge theories and is deterministic, rather than statistical, in nature. The first part of this thesis presents the theoretical basis of the coherent state algorithm and describes the application of the algorithm, to non-abelian lattice gauge theories. The second part describes the symbolic methods involved in the computer implementation of the coherent state algorithm and gives an overview of the programs which form the full coherent state implementation. The final part of this thesis discusses the application of the coherent state algorithm to the study of the QCD deconfinement phase transition at large N. The results obtained are indicative of a second-order transition for lattices of temporal extent N ν = 1 and N τ = 2 in both three and four space-time dimensions

  8. Comparing identically designed grayscale (50 phase level) and binary (5 phase levels) splitters: actual versus modeled performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizotte, Todd E.; Ohar, Orest P.; Tuttle, Tracie

    2006-04-01

    Performance of diffractive optics is determined by high-quality design and a suitable fabrication process that can actually realize the design. Engineers who are tasked with developing or implementing a diffractive optic solution into a product need to take into consideration the risks of using grayscale versus binary fabrication processes. In many cases, grayscale design doesn't always provide the best solution or cost benefit during product development. This fabrication dilemma arises when the engineer has to select a source for design and/or fabrication. Engineers come face to face with reality in view of the fact that diffractive optic suppliers tend to provide their services on a "best effort basis". This can be very disheartening to an engineer who is trying to implement diffractive optics. This paper will compare and contrast the design and performance of a 1 to 24 beam, two dimensional; beam splitter fabricated using a fifty (50) phase level grayscale and a five (5) phase level binary fabrication methods. Optical modeling data will be presented showing both designs and the performance expected prior to fabrication. An overview of the optical testing methods used will be discussed including the specific test equipment and metrology techniques used to verify actual optical performance and fabricated dimensional stability of each optical element. Presentation of the two versions of the splitter will include data on fabrication dimensional errors, split beam-to-beam uniformity, split beam-to-beam spatial size uniformity and splitter efficiency as compared to the original intended design performance and models. This is a continuation of work from 2005, Laser Beam Shaping VI.

  9. Leukocyte changes across menstruation, ovulation, and mid-luteal phase and association with sex hormone variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Judyta; Borkowska, Barbara; Pawlowski, Boguslaw

    2016-09-10

    Total leukocyte count (white blood cells-WBC) and the count of each subpopulation vary across the menstrual cycle, but results of studies examining the time and direction of these changes are inconsistent and methodologically flawed. Besides, no previous study focused on leukocyte count on the day of ovulation. Blood samples were obtained from 37 healthy and regularly cycling women aged 19.8-36.1 years. Samples were taken three times: during menstruation (M), ovulation (O), and in the mid-luteal phase (ML). WBC, neutrophils, lymphocytes, mixed cells, progesterone (P,) and estradiol (E) were measured in each of the three target phases of the cycle. Compared to menstruation, WBC (P = 0.002) and neutrophils (P < 0.001) increased around ovulation and remained stable in the mid-luteal phase, whereas lymphocyte and mixed cell counts did not change throughout the menstrual cycle. There were some correlations of sex hormone variation with leukocyte changes between M and O (positive for E and WBC, negative for P and WBC and for P and neutrophil count; P < 0.05), but not between O and ML. Peripheral leukocyte changes taking place in the second half of the cycle are already observable on the day of ovulation and they are associated with sex hormone variation. We speculate that these changes may lead to increased immune protection against pathogens at a time when fertilization and implantation typically occur. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 28:721-728, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Eggs and hatchlings variations in desert locusts: phase related characteristics and starvation tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koutaro Ould Maeno

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Locusts are grasshopper species that express phase polyphenism: modifying their behavior, morphology, coloration, life history and physiology in response to crowding. Desert locusts, Schistocerca gregaria, epigenetically modify progeny quality and quantity in response to crowding. Gregarious (crowded females produce larger but fewer progeny than do solitarious (isolated ones. The variability of progeny quality within single egg pod and the reasons why gregarious progeny have a better survival than solitarious ones remains unclear. This study investigated 1 the effects of rearing density on the variation in egg size within single egg pods 2 the starvation tolerance of hatchlings from mothers with different phases and 3 the physiological differences in hatchling energy reserve. Isolated females produced smaller but more eggs than did crowded ones. The variation in egg size within egg pods was greater in the latter than in the former. A negative relationship between egg size and number of eggs per egg pod was observed for both groups. Under starvation conditions, gregarious hatchlings survived significantly longer than solitarious ones. Among the solitarious hatchlings, the survival time was longer as hatchling body size increased. However, small individuals survived as long as large ones among the gregarious hatchlings. The percentage of water content per fresh body weight was almost equal between the two phases, before and after starvation. In contrast, the percentage of lipid content per dry body weight was significantly higher in gregarious hatchlings than in solitarious ones before starvation, but became almost equal after starvation. These results demonstrated that female locusts not only trade-off to modify their progeny size and number, but also vary progenies’ energy reserves. We hypothesized that gregarious females enhance their fitness by producing progeny differently adapted to high environmental variability and particularly to

  11. Sea Levels Online: Sea Level Variations of the United States Derived from National Water Level Observation Network Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water level records are a combination of the fluctuations of the ocean and the vertical land motion at the location of the station. Monthly mean sea level (MSL)...

  12. Background levels of methane in Mars’ atmosphere show strong seasonal variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Christopher R.; Mahaffy, Paul R.; Atreya, Sushil K.; Moores, John E.; Flesch, Gregory J.; Malespin, Charles; McKay, Christopher P.; Martinez, German; Smith, Christina L.; Martin-Torres, Javier; Gomez-Elvira, Javier; Zorzano, Maria-Paz; Wong, Michael H.; Trainer, Melissa G.; Steele, Andrew; Archer, Doug; Sutter, Brad; Coll, Patrice J.; Freissinet, Caroline; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; Gough, Raina V.; House, Christopher H.; Pavlov, Alexander; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Pearson, John C.; Keymeulen, Didier; Christensen, Lance E.; Schwenzer, Susanne P.; Navarro-Gonzalez, Rafael; Pla-García, Jorge; Rafkin, Scot C. R.; Vicente-Retortillo, Álvaro; Kahanpää, Henrik; Viudez-Moreiras, Daniel; Smith, Michael D.; Harri, Ari-Matti; Genzer, Maria; Hassler, Donald M.; Lemmon, Mark; Crisp, Joy; Sander, Stanley P.; Zurek, Richard W.; Vasavada, Ashwin R.

    2018-06-01

    Variable levels of methane in the martian atmosphere have eluded explanation partly because the measurements are not repeatable in time or location. We report in situ measurements at Gale crater made over a 5-year period by the Tunable Laser Spectrometer on the Curiosity rover. The background levels of methane have a mean value 0.41 ± 0.16 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) (95% confidence interval) and exhibit a strong, repeatable seasonal variation (0.24 to 0.65 ppbv). This variation is greater than that predicted from either ultraviolet degradation of impact-delivered organics on the surface or from the annual surface pressure cycle. The large seasonal variation in the background and occurrences of higher temporary spikes (~7 ppbv) are consistent with small localized sources of methane released from martian surface or subsurface reservoirs.

  13. Determinants, reproducibility, and seasonal variation of ergosterol levels in house dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppänen, H K; Nevalainen, A; Vepsäläinen, A; Roponen, M; Täubel, M; Laine, O; Rantakokko, P; von Mutius, E; Pekkanen, J; Hyvärinen, A

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to clarify the determinants that affect the concentrations of ergosterol and viable fungi in house dust and to examine the seasonal variation and reproducibility of ergosterol concentrations indoors. In studying the determinants, dust samples from living room floors and vacuum cleaner dust bags were collected from 107 farming and 105 non-farming homes. Ergosterol levels were determined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry,and the dust bag dust was cultivated for enumeration of fungal genera. Lifestyle and environmental factors, for example using of the fireplace, and visible mold observations in homes, explained 20–26% of the variation of fungal concentrations. For the reproducibility study, samples were collected from five urban homes in four different seasons. The reproducibility of ergosterol determinations within a sample was excellent (ICC = 89.8) for floor dust and moderate (ICC = 63.8) for dust bag dust, but poor when sampling the same home throughout a year (ICC = 31.3 and 12.6, respectively) due to large temporal variation in ergosterol concentrations. In conclusion, environmental characteristics only partially predicted the variation of fungal concentrations. Based on these studies, we recommend repeated sampling of dust over time if one seeks to adequately describe overall fungal levels and exposure in a home. This study shows that levels of ergosterol and viable fungi in house dust are related to visible mold observations. Only 20% of the variation in fungal levels can be explained with questionnaires, and therefore, environmental samples need to be taken in addition. Reproducibility of ergosterol determination was excellent for floor dust, and thus, ergosterol measurements from floor dust samples could be suitable for assessing the fungal load in building investigations. The temporal variation needs to be taken into account when describing the ergosterol concentration of urban homes.

  14. Variations in levels of care between nursing home patients in a public health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Døhl, Øystein; Garåsen, Helge; Kalseth, Jorid; Magnussen, Jon

    2014-03-05

    Within the setting of a public health service we analyse the distribution of resources between individuals in nursing homes funded by global budgets. Three questions are pursued. Firstly, whether there are systematic variations between nursing homes in the level of care given to patients. Secondly, whether such variations can be explained by nursing home characteristics. And thirdly, how individual need-related variables are associated with differences in the level of care given. The study included 1204 residents in 35 nursing homes and extra care sheltered housing facilities. Direct time spent with patients was recorded. In average each patient received 14.8 hours direct care each week. Multilevel regression analysis is used to analyse the relationship between individual characteristics, nursing home characteristics and time spent with patients in nursing homes. The study setting is the city of Trondheim, with a population of approximately 180 000. There are large variations between nursing homes in the total amount of individual care given to patients. As much as 24 percent of the variation of individual care between patients could be explained by variation between nursing homes. Adjusting for structural nursing home characteristics did not substantially reduce the variation between nursing homes. As expected a negative association was found between individual care and case-mix, implying that at nursing home level a more resource demanding case-mix is compensated by lowering the average amount of care. At individual level ADL-disability is the strongest predictor for use of resources in nursing homes. For the average user one point increase in ADL-disability increases the use of resources with 27 percent. In a financial reimbursement model for nursing homes with no adjustment for case-mix, the amount of care patients receive does not solely depend on the patients' own needs, but also on the needs of all the other residents.

  15. Variations in levels of care within a hospital provided to acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variations in levels of care within a hospital provided to acute trauma patients. ... A scoring system was devised to classify the quality of the observations that each patient received in the different ... Observations in the intensive care unit (ICU) and operating theatre were uniformly excellent. In the ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  16. Induction of Phase Variation Events in the Life Cycle of the Marine Coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguna, Richard; Romo, Jesus; Read, Betsy A.; Wahlund, Thomas M.

    2001-01-01

    Emiliania huxleyi is a unicellular marine alga that is considered to be the world's major producer of calcite. The life cycle of this alga is complex and is distinguished by its ability to synthesize exquisitely sculptured calcium carbonate cell coverings known as coccoliths. These structures have been targeted by materials scientists for applications relating to the chemistry of biomedical materials, robust membranes for high-temperature separation technology, lightweight ceramics, and semiconductor design. To date, however, the molecular and biochemical events controlling coccolith production have not been determined. In addition, little is known about the life cycle of E. huxleyi and the environmental and physiological signals triggering phase switching between the diploid and haploid life cycle stages. We have developed laboratory methods for inducing phase variation between the haploid (S-cell) and diploid (C-cell) life cycle stages of E. huxleyi. Plating E. huxleyi C cells on solid media was shown to induce phase switching from the C-cell to the S-cell life cycle stage, the latter of which has been maintained for over 2 years under these conditions. Pure cultures of S cells were obtained for the first time. Laboratory conditions for inducing phase switching from the haploid stage to the diploid stage were also established. Regeneration of the C-cell stage from pure cultures of S cells followed a predictable pattern involving formation of large aggregations of S cells and the subsequent production of cultures consisting predominantly of diploid C cells. These results demonstrate the ability to manipulate the life cycle of E. huxleyi under controlled laboratory conditions, providing us with powerful tools for the development of genetic techniques for analysis of coccolithogenesis and for investigating the complex life cycle of this important marine alga. PMID:11525973

  17. Origins of wind-driven intraseasonal sea level variations in the North Indian Ocean coastal waveguide

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suresh, I.; Vialard, J.; Lengaigne, M.; Han, W.; Mc; Durand, F.; Muraleedharan, P.M.

    version: Geophys. Res. Lett., vol.40(21); 2013; 5740-5744 Origins of wind-driven intraseasonal sea level variations in the North Indian Ocean coastal waveguide I. Suresh1, J. Vialard2, M. Lengaigne2, W. Han3, J. McCreary4, F. Durand5, P.M. Muraleedharan1... reversing winds. These wind variations drive seasonal equatorial Kelvin and Rossby wave responses. The seasonal equatorial Kelvin waves propagate into the North Indian Ocean (hereafter NIO) as coastal Kelvin waves [McCreary et al., 1993]. As a result...

  18. Phase 2B experimental design for the INEEL glass composition variation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peeler, D.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Offices of Science and Technology (through the Tanks Focus Area [TFA]) and Waste Management are sponsoring a partnership among Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) for a collaborative glass composition variation study (CVS). The purpose of the CVS is to investigate property - composition relationships within a glass-composition region compatible with the expected range of Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) high-activity wastes (HAWs). The CVS has been conducted in phases to allow INEEL, PNNL, and SRTC researchers to adjust the glass composition region of interest as flowsheet options are refined and/or waste-stream compositions become more defined

  19. Modeling per capita state health expenditure variation: state-level characteristics matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuckler, Gigi; Sisko, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the methods underlying the econometric model developed by the Office of the Actuary in the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, to explain differences in per capita total personal health care spending by state, as described in Cuckler, et al. (2011). Additionally, we discuss many alternative model specifications to provide additional insights for valid interpretation of the model. We study per capita personal health care spending as measured by the State Health Expenditures, by State of Residence for 1991-2009, produced by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services' Office of the Actuary. State-level demographic, health status, economic, and health economy characteristics were gathered from a variety of U.S. government sources, such as the Census Bureau, Bureau of Economic Analysis, the Centers for Disease Control, the American Hospital Association, and HealthLeaders-InterStudy. State-specific factors, such as income, health care capacity, and the share of elderly residents, are important factors in explaining the level of per capita personal health care spending variation among states over time. However, the slow-moving nature of health spending per capita and close relationships among state-level factors create inefficiencies in modeling this variation, likely resulting in incorrectly estimated standard errors. In addition, we find that both pooled and fixed effects models primarily capture cross-sectional variation rather than period-specific variation.

  20. Geographic variation and effect of area-level poverty rate on colorectal cancer screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schootman Mario

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With a secular trend of increasing colorectal cancer (CRC screening, concerns about disparities in CRC screening also have been rising. It is unclear if CRC screening varies geographically, if area-level poverty rate affects CRC screening, and if individual-level characteristics mediate the area-level effects on CRC screening. Methods Using 2006 Missouri Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS data, a multilevel study was conducted to examine geographic variation and the effect of area-level poverty rate on CRC screening use among persons age 50 or older. Individuals were nested within ZIP codes (ZIP5 areas, which in turn, were nested within aggregations of ZIP codes (ZIP3 areas. Six groups of individual-level covariates were considered as potential mediators. Results An estimated 51.8% of Missourians aged 50 or older adhered to CRC screening recommendations. Nearly 15% of the total variation in CRC screening lay between ZIP5 areas. Persons residing in ZIP5 areas with ≥ 10% of poverty rate had lower odds of CRC screening use than those residing in ZIP5 areas with Conclusion Large geographic variation of CRC screening exists in Missouri. Area-level poverty rate, independent of individual-level characteristics, is a significant predictor of CRC screening, but it only explains a small portion of the geographic heterogeneity of CRC screening. Individual-level factors we examined do not mediate the effect of the area-level poverty rate on CRC screening. Future studies should identify other area- and individual-level characteristics associated with CRC screening in Missouri.

  1. VARIATIONS OF THE MUON FLUX AT SEA LEVEL ASSOCIATED WITH INTERPLANETARY ICMEs AND COROTATING INTERACTION REGIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augusto, C. R. A.; Kopenkin, V.; Navia, C. E.; Tsui, K. H.; Shigueoka, H. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, 24210-346, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Fauth, A. C.; Kemp, E.; Manganote, E. J. T. [Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wathagin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Leigui de Oliveira, M. A. [Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Humanas da Universidade Federal do ABC, Santo Andre, SP (Brazil); Miranda, P.; Ticona, R.; Velarde, A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicas, UMSA, La Paz Bolivia (United States)

    2012-11-10

    We present the results of an ongoing survey on the association between the muon flux variation at ground level (3 m above sea level) registered by the Tupi telescopes (Niteri-Brazil, 22.{sup 0}9S, 43.{sup 0}2W, 3 m) and the Earth-directed transient disturbances in the interplanetary medium propagating from the Sun (such as coronal mass ejections (CME), and corotating interaction regions (CIRs)). Their location inside the South Atlantic Anomaly region enables the muon telescopes to achieve a low rigidity of response to primary and secondary charged particles. The present study is primarily based on experimental events obtained by the Tupi telescopes in the period from 2010 August to 2011 December. This time period corresponds to the rising phase of solar cycle 24. The Tupi events are studied in correlation with data obtained by space-borne detectors (SOHO, ACE, GOES). Identification of interplanetary structures and associated solar activity was based on the nomenclature and definitions given by the satellite observations, including an incomplete list of possible interplanetary shocks observed by the CELIAS/MTOF Proton Monitor on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft. Among 29 experimental events reported in the present analysis, there are 15 possibly associated with the CMEs and sheaths, and 3 events with the CIRs (forward or reverse shocks); the origin of the remaining 11 events has not been determined by the satellite detectors. We compare the observed time (delayed or anticipated) of the muon excess (positive or negative) signal on Earth (the Tupi telescopes) with the trigger time of the interplanetary disturbances registered by the satellites located at Lagrange point L1 (SOHO and ACE). The temporal correlation of the observed ground-based events with solar transient events detected by spacecraft suggests a real physical connection between them. We found that the majority of observed events detected by the Tupi experiment were delayed in

  2. Global sea level variations from altimetry, GRACE and Argo data over 2005–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Feng

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Total sea level variations (SLVs are caused by two major components: steric variations due to thermal expansion of seawater, and mass-induced variations due to mass exchange between ocean and land. In this study, the global SLV and its steric and mass components were estimated by satellite altimetry, Argo float data and the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE data over 2005–2014. Space gravimetry observations from GRACE suggested that two-thirds of the global mean sea level rise rate observed by altimetry (i.e., 3.1 ± 0.3 mm/a from 2005 to 2014 could be explained by an increase in ocean mass. Furthermore, the global mean sea level was observed to drop significantly during the 2010/2011 La Niña event, which may be attributed to the decline of ocean mass and steric SLV. Since early 2011, the global mean sea level began to rise rapidly, which was attributed to an increase in ocean mass. The findings in this study suggested that the global mean sea-level budget was closed from 2005 to 2014 based on altimetry, GRACE, and Argo data.

  3. Monitoring Vertical Crustal Deformation and Gravity Variations during Water Level Changes at the Three Gorges Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Wei

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring vertical crustal deformation and gravity changes during water level changes at the Three Gorges reservoir is important for the safe operation of the Three Gorges Dam and for the monitoring and prevention of a regional geological disaster. In this study, we determined vertical crustal deformation and gravity changes during water level variations of the Three Gorges reservoir from direct calculations and actual measurements and a comprehensive solution. We used water areas extracted image data from the ZY-3 satellite and water level data to calculate gravity changes and vertical crustal deformation caused by every 5 m change in the water level due to storage and drainage of the Three Gorges reservoir from 145 m to 175 m. The vertical crustal deformation was up to 30 mm. The location of gravity change above 20 μ Gal(1 Gal=10-2 m/s2 was less than 2 km from the centerline of the Yangtze River. The CORS ES13 in Badong, near the reservoir, measured the vertical crustal deformation during water level changes. Because of the small number of CORS and gravity stations in the Three Gorges reservoir area, monitoring deformation and gravity related to changes in the Three Gorges reservoir water level cannot be closely followed. Using 26 CORS and some of the gravity stations in the Three Gorges area and based on loading deformation and the spherical harmonic analysis method, an integrated solution of vertical deformation and gravity variations during water level changes of the reservoir was determined, which is consistent with the actual CORS monitoring results. By comparison, we found that an integrated solution based on a CORS network can effectively enhance the capability of monitoring vertical crustal deformation and gravity changes during water level variations of the reservoir.

  4. Investigating variations in implementation fidelity of an organizational-level occupational health intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustsson, Hanna; von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica; Stenfors-Hayes, Terese; Hasson, Henna

    2015-06-01

    The workplace has been suggested as an important arena for health promotion, but little is known about how the organizational setting influences the implementation of interventions. The aims of this study are to evaluate implementation fidelity in an organizational-level occupational health intervention and to investigate possible explanations for variations in fidelity between intervention units. The intervention consisted of an integration of health promotion, occupational health and safety, and a system for continuous improvements (Kaizen) and was conducted in a quasi-experimental design at a Swedish hospital. Implementation fidelity was evaluated with the Conceptual Framework for Implementation Fidelity and implementation factors used to investigate variations in fidelity with the Framework for Evaluating Organizational-level Interventions. A multi-method approach including interviews, Kaizen notes, and questionnaires was applied. Implementation fidelity differed between units even though the intervention was introduced and supported in the same way. Important differences in all elements proposed in the model for evaluating organizational-level interventions, i.e., context, intervention, and mental models, were found to explain the differences in fidelity. Implementation strategies may need to be adapted depending on the local context. Implementation fidelity, as well as pre-intervention implementation elements, is likely to affect the implementation success and needs to be assessed in intervention research. The high variation in fidelity across the units indicates the need for adjustments to the type of designs used to assess the effects of interventions. Thus, rather than using designs that aim to control variation, it may be necessary to use those that aim at exploring and explaining variation, such as adapted study designs.

  5. Variations in daily quality assurance dosimetry from device levelling, feet position and backscatter material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceylan, Abdurrahman; Cullen, Ashley; Butson, Martin; Yu, Peter K.N.; Alnawaf, Hani

    2012-01-01

    Daily quality assurance procedures are an essential part of radiotherapy medical physics. Devices such as the Sun Nuclear, DQA3 are effective tools for analysis of daily dosimetry including flatness, symmetry, energy, field size and central axis radiation dose measurement. The DQA3 can be used on the treatment couch of the linear accelerator or on a dedicated table/bed for superficial and orthovoltage x-ray machines. This device is levelled using its dedicated feet. This work has shown that depending on the quantity of backscatter material behind the DQA3 device, the position of the levelling feet can affect the measured central axis dose by up to 1.8 % (250 kVp and 6 MV) and that the introduction of more backscatter material behind the DQA3 can lead to up to 7.2 % (6 MV) variations in measured central axis dose. In conditions where no backscatter material is present, dose measurements can vary up to 1 %. As such this work has highlighted the need to keep the material behind the DQA3 device constant as well as maintaining the accuracy of the feet position on the device to effectively measure the most accurate daily constancy achievable. Results have also shown that variations in symmetry and energy calculations of up to 1 % can occur if the device is not levelled appropriately. As such, we recommend the position of the levelling feet on the device be as close as possible to the device so that a constant distance is kept between the DQA3 and the treatment couch and thus minimal levelling variations also occur. We would also recommend having no extra backscattering material behind the DQA3 device during use to minimise any variations which might occur from these backscattering effects.

  6. RECIST response and variation of circulating tumour cells in phase 1 trials: A prospective multicentric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massard, Christophe; Borget, Isabelle; Farace, Françoise; Aspeslagh, Sandrine; Le Deley, Marie-Cécile; Le Tourneau, Christophe; Bidard, François-Clement; Pierga, Jean-Yves; Dieras, Veronique; Hofman, Paul; Spano, Jean-Philippe; Ferte, Charles; Lacroix, Ludovic; Soria, Jean-Charles

    2017-09-01

    Circulating tumour cell (CTC) counting could be a new biomarker for better evaluation of tumour response to molecules tested in phase I trials. Consenting patients with advanced metastatic cancer referred to various phase I units were enrolled prospectively in this study. CTCs from 7.5 ml of whole blood drawn at baseline and after starting experimental therapy were counted using the CellSearch system, and tumour response was assessed using RECIST 1.1 criteria at baseline and 2 months after treatment initiation. Between March 2010 and May 2013, a total of 326 patients were enrolled, among whom 214 were evaluable (49% male, median age = 56; main cancer types: lung [28], colon [53], ovarian [18], breast [28]). At baseline, we detected ≥1 CTC/7.5 ml in 113/214 patients (53%), and at day 30, we observed ≥1 CTC/7.5 ml in 103/214 patients (48%). Two months after treatment initiation, 11 (5%) of the 214 patients were classified as having a partial response, with no CTCs in 9 of them or a decrease in the CTC count after therapy. In contrast, among the 104 patients (49%) classified as having progressive disease, 38 patients had a higher CTC count. The remaining 99 patients (49%), 33 of whom (33%) had a lower CTC count, were classified as having stable disease. The sensitivity and specificity of CTC variation for predicting progressive disease were 41% (32-51%) and 80% (73-88%) respectively. An early CTC change following therapy does not correlate with RECIST response in patients with advanced cancer enrolled in phase I trials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Intraspecific trait variation and the leaf economics spectrum across resource gradients and levels of organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo, Alex; Siefert, Andrew

    2018-05-01

    Understanding patterns of functional trait variation across environmental gradients offers an opportunity to increase inference in the mechanistic causes of plant community assembly. The leaf economics spectrum (LES) predicts global tradeoffs in leaf traits and trait-environment relationships, but few studies have examined whether these predictions hold across different levels of organization, particularly within species. Here, we asked (1) whether the main assumptions of the LES (expected trait relationships and shifts in trait values across resource gradients) hold at the intraspecific level, and (2) how within-species trait correlations scale up to interspecific or among-community levels. We worked with leaf traits of saplings of woody species growing across light and soil N and P availability gradients in temperate rainforests of southern Chile. We found that ITV accounted for a large proportion of community-level variation in leaf traits (e.g., LMA and leaf P) and played an important role in driving community-level shifts in leaf traits across environmental gradients. Additionally, intraspecific leaf trait relationships were generally consistent with interspecific and community-level trait relationships and with LES predictions-e.g., a strong negative intraspecific LMA-leaf N correlation-although, most trait relationships varied significantly among species, suggesting idiosyncrasies in the LES at the intraspecific level. © 2018 by the Ecological Society of America.

  8. Study on the Variation of Groundwater Level under Time-varying Recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming-Chang; Hsieh, Ping-Cheng

    2017-04-01

    The slopes of the suburbs come to important areas by focusing on the work of soil and water conservation in recent years. The water table inside the aquifer is affected by rainfall, geology and topography, which will result in the change of groundwater discharge and water level. Currently, the way to obtain water table information is to set up the observation wells; however, owing to that the cost of equipment and the wells excavated is too expensive, we develop a mathematical model instead, which might help us to simulate the groundwater level variation. In this study, we will discuss the groundwater level change in a sloping unconfined aquifer with impermeable bottom under time-varying rainfall events. Referring to Child (1971), we employ the Boussinesq equation as the governing equation, and apply the General Integral Transforms Method (GITM) to analyzing the groundwater level after linearizing the Boussinesq equation. After comparing the solution with Verhoest & Troch (2000) and Bansal & Das (2010), we get satisfactory results. To sum up, we have presented an alternative approach to solve the linearized Boussinesq equation for the response of groundwater level in a sloping unconfined aquifer. The present analytical results combine the effect of bottom slope and the time-varying recharge pattern on the water table fluctuations. Owing to the limitation and difficulty of measuring the groundwater level directly, we develop such a mathematical model that we can predict or simulate the variation of groundwater level affected by any rainfall events in advance.

  9. Phase Variation Analysis of Coxiella burnetii during Serial Passage in Cell Culture by Use of Monoclonal Antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Akitoyo; Kawamura, Midori; To, Ho; Andoh, Masako; Yamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Fukushi, Hideto; Hirai, Katsuya

    2002-01-01

    Antigenic changes in Coxiella burnetii Nine Mile strain phase I during serial passages in cell culture were analyzed with three groups of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against lipopolysaccharide. The MAbs of group 1 did not react with organisms that were passaged over five times, and the MAbs of group 2 did not react with organisms that were passaged over eight times. The MAbs of group 3 reacted with organisms passaged up to 15 times but did not react with phase II cells. These results suggest that C. burnetii could be differentiated into four phase states during phase variation. PMID:12117996

  10. Variation of Modal Characteristics of Electrical Cabinet According to the Excitation Level in Impact Hammer Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Sung Gook; So, Gi Hwan; Kim, Doo Kie

    2010-01-01

    There are many electrical cabinets in nuclear power plants. Safety-related equipment is typically seismic qualified before installation. Seismic qualification of equipment is possible when identifying the accurate dynamic characteristics of the equipment. According to the nature of the cabinet, the dynamic characteristics of the electrical cabinet vary nonlinearly with excitation level. This study analyzed the nonlinear variation of the dynamic properties of an actual cabinet. For the purpose of this study, a seismic monitoring system cabinet was selected as a specimen. The impact hammer tests were conducted to identify a variation of the dynamic characteristics of the specimen by increasing the impulse level. Modal identification technique was used to extract the modal properties of the cabinet from the measurements

  11. Climate related sea-level variations over the past two millennia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Andrew C; Horton, Benjamin P; Donnelly, Jeffrey P; Mann, Michael E; Vermeer, Martin; Rahmstorf, Stefan

    2011-07-05

    We present new sea-level reconstructions for the past 2100 y based on salt-marsh sedimentary sequences from the US Atlantic coast. The data from North Carolina reveal four phases of persistent sea-level change after correction for glacial isostatic adjustment. Sea level was stable from at least BC 100 until AD 950. Sea level then increased for 400 y at a rate of 0.6 mm/y, followed by a further period of stable, or slightly falling, sea level that persisted until the late 19th century. Since then, sea level has risen at an average rate of 2.1 mm/y, representing the steepest century-scale increase of the past two millennia. This rate was initiated between AD 1865 and 1892. Using an extended semiempirical modeling approach, we show that these sea-level changes are consistent with global temperature for at least the past millennium.

  12. Practice variation of vaginal birth after cesarean and the influence of risk factors at patient level: a retrospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vankan, E.; Schoorel, E.N.; Kuijk, S.M. van; Mol, B.J.; Nijhuis, J.G.; Aardenburg, R.; Alink, M.; Boer, K. de; Delemarre, F.M.; Dirksen, C.D.; Dooren, I.M. van; Franssen, M.T.; Kaplan, M.; Kleiverda, G.; Kuppens, S.M.; Kwee, A.; Langenveld, J.; Lim, F.T.; Melman, S.; Sikkema, M.J.; Smits, L.J; Visser, H.; Woiski, M.D.; Scheepers, H.C.; Hermens, R.P.M.G.

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Large practice variation exists in mode of delivery after cesarean section, suggesting variation in implementation of contemporary guidelines. We aim to evaluate this practice variation and to what extent this can be explained by risk factors at patient level. MATERIAL AND METHODS:

  13. Practice variation of vaginal birth after cesarean and the influence of risk factors at patient level : A retrospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vankan, Emy; Schoorel, Ellen N. C.; van Kuijk, Sander M. J.; Mol, Ben-Willem J.; Nijhuis, Jan G.; Aardenburg, Robert; Alink, Marleen; de Boer, Karin; Delemarre, Friso M. C.; Dirksen, Carmen D.; Van Dooren, Ivo M. A.; Franssen, Maureen T. M.; Kaplan, Mesrure; Kleiverda, Gunilla; Kuppens, Simone M. I.; Kwee, Anneke; Langenveld, Josje; Lim, Frans T. H.; Melman, Sonja; Sikkema, Marko J.; Smits, Luc J.; Visser, Harry; Woiski, Mallory; Scheepers, Hubertina C.; Hermens, Rosella P. M. G.

    IntroductionLarge practice variation exists in mode of delivery after cesarean section, suggesting variation in implementation of contemporary guidelines. We aim to evaluate this practice variation and to what extent this can be explained by risk factors at patient level. Material and methodsThis

  14. Analog phase lock between two lasers at LISA power levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diekmann, Christian; Steier, Frank; Sheard, Benjamin; Heinzel, Gerhard; Danzmann, Karsten

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the implementation of an analog optical phase-locked-loop with an offset frequency of about 20MHz between two lasers, where the detected light powers were of the order of 31 pW and 200 μW. The goal of this setup was the design and characterization of a photodiode transimpedance amplifier for application in LISA. By application of a transimpedance amplifier designed to have low noise and low power consumption, the phase noise between the two lasers was a factor of two above the shot noise limit down to 60mHz. The achievable phase sensitivity depends ultimately on the available power of the highly attenuated master laser and on the input current noise of the transimpedance amplifier of the photodetector. The limiting noise source below 60mHz was the analog phase measurement system that was used in this experiment. A digital phase measurement system that is currently under development at the AEI will be used in the near future. Its application should improve the sensitivity.

  15. Analog phase lock between two lasers at LISA power levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diekmann, Christian; Steier, Frank; Sheard, Benjamin; Heinzel, Gerhard; Danzmann, Karsten, E-mail: Christian.Diekmann@aei.mpg.d [Max-Planck-Institute for Gravitational Physics, Callinstr. 38, D-30167 Hannover (Germany)

    2009-03-01

    This paper presents the implementation of an analog optical phase-locked-loop with an offset frequency of about 20MHz between two lasers, where the detected light powers were of the order of 31 pW and 200 muW. The goal of this setup was the design and characterization of a photodiode transimpedance amplifier for application in LISA. By application of a transimpedance amplifier designed to have low noise and low power consumption, the phase noise between the two lasers was a factor of two above the shot noise limit down to 60mHz. The achievable phase sensitivity depends ultimately on the available power of the highly attenuated master laser and on the input current noise of the transimpedance amplifier of the photodetector. The limiting noise source below 60mHz was the analog phase measurement system that was used in this experiment. A digital phase measurement system that is currently under development at the AEI will be used in the near future. Its application should improve the sensitivity.

  16. Spatial and temporal variations of mercury levels in Okefenokee invertebrates: Southeast Georgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, Bagie M.; Batzer, Darold

    2008-01-01

    Accumulation of mercury in wetland ecosystems has raised concerns about impacts on wetland food webs. This study measured concentrations of mercury in invertebrates of the Okefenokee Swamp in Georgia, focusing on levels in amphipods, odonates, and crayfish. We collected and analyzed total mercury levels in these invertebrates from 32 sampling stations across commonly occurring sub-habitats. Sampling was conducted in December, May, and August over a two-year period. The highest levels of mercury were detected in amphipods, with total mercury levels often in excess of 20 ppm. Bioaccumulation pathways of mercury in invertebrates of the Okefenokee are probably complex; despite being larger and higher in the food chain, levels in odonates and crayfish were much lower than in amphipods. Mercury levels in invertebrates varied temporally with the highest levels detected in May. There was a lack of spatial variation in mercury levels which is consistent with aerial deposition of mercury. - This study measured mercury levels in invertebrates and found the highest levels in amphipods

  17. Geographic variation and effect of area-level poverty rate on colorectal cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Min; Schootman, Mario; Yun, Shumei

    2008-10-16

    With a secular trend of increasing colorectal cancer (CRC) screening, concerns about disparities in CRC screening also have been rising. It is unclear if CRC screening varies geographically, if area-level poverty rate affects CRC screening, and if individual-level characteristics mediate the area-level effects on CRC screening. Using 2006 Missouri Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data, a multilevel study was conducted to examine geographic variation and the effect of area-level poverty rate on CRC screening use among persons age 50 or older. Individuals were nested within ZIP codes (ZIP5 areas), which in turn, were nested within aggregations of ZIP codes (ZIP3 areas). Six groups of individual-level covariates were considered as potential mediators. An estimated 51.8% of Missourians aged 50 or older adhered to CRC screening recommendations. Nearly 15% of the total variation in CRC screening lay between ZIP5 areas. Persons residing in ZIP5 areas with > or = 10% of poverty rate had lower odds of CRC screening use than those residing in ZIP5 areas with poverty rate (unadjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.69; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.58-0.81; adjusted OR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.67-0.98). Persons who resided in ZIP3 areas with > or = 20% poverty rate also had lower odds of following CRC screening guidelines than those residing in ZIP3 areas with poverty rate (unadjusted OR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.52-0.83; adjusted OR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.50-0.83). Obesity, history of depression/anxiety and access to care were associated with CRC screening, but did not mediate the effect of area-level poverty on CRC screening. Large geographic variation of CRC screening exists in Missouri. Area-level poverty rate, independent of individual-level characteristics, is a significant predictor of CRC screening, but it only explains a small portion of the geographic heterogeneity of CRC screening. Individual-level factors we examined do not mediate the effect of the area-level poverty rate on

  18. Variational Level Set Method for Two-Stage Image Segmentation Based on Morphological Gradients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zemin Ren

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We use variational level set method and transition region extraction techniques to achieve image segmentation task. The proposed scheme is done by two steps. We first develop a novel algorithm to extract transition region based on the morphological gradient. After this, we integrate the transition region into a variational level set framework and develop a novel geometric active contour model, which include an external energy based on transition region and fractional order edge indicator function. The external energy is used to drive the zero level set toward the desired image features, such as object boundaries. Due to this external energy, the proposed model allows for more flexible initialization. The fractional order edge indicator function is incorporated into the length regularization term to diminish the influence of noise. Moreover, internal energy is added into the proposed model to penalize the deviation of the level set function from a signed distance function. The results evolution of the level set function is the gradient flow that minimizes the overall energy functional. The proposed model has been applied to both synthetic and real images with promising results.

  19. A Variational Level Set Model Combined with FCMS for Image Clustering Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming Tang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The fuzzy C means clustering algorithm with spatial constraint (FCMS is effective for image segmentation. However, it lacks essential smoothing constraints to the cluster boundaries and enough robustness to the noise. Samson et al. proposed a variational level set model for image clustering segmentation, which can get the smooth cluster boundaries and closed cluster regions due to the use of level set scheme. However it is very sensitive to the noise since it is actually a hard C means clustering model. In this paper, based on Samson’s work, we propose a new variational level set model combined with FCMS for image clustering segmentation. Compared with FCMS clustering, the proposed model can get smooth cluster boundaries and closed cluster regions due to the use of level set scheme. In addition, a block-based energy is incorporated into the energy functional, which enables the proposed model to be more robust to the noise than FCMS clustering and Samson’s model. Some experiments on the synthetic and real images are performed to assess the performance of the proposed model. Compared with some classical image segmentation models, the proposed model has a better performance for the images contaminated by different noise levels.

  20. Mik1 levels accumulate in S phase and may mediate an intrinsic link between S phase and mitosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, P U; Bentley, N J; Martinho, R G

    2000-01-01

    is independent of the Rad3- and Cds1-dependent checkpoint controls. In response to perturbed S phase, Rad3-Cds1 checkpoint controls are required to maintain high levels of Mik1, probably indirectly by extending the S phase period, where Mik1 is stable. In addition, we find that Mik1 protein can be moderately...

  1. Lack of Day/Night variation in fibroblast growth factor 21 levels in young healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, J-P; Aronis, K N; Chamberland, J P; Mantzoros, C S

    2015-06-01

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21 is an endocrine factor with an emerging role as a metabolic regulator. We previously reported the presence of a significant day/night variation of FGF-21 in energy-replete, healthy female subjects. However the day/night patterns of secretion in male subjects remain to be fully elucidated. To elucidate day/night pattern of FGF-21 levels in male subjects in the energy-replete state, its relationship to FFA and to investigate whether a sexual dimorphism exists in FGF-21 physiology. Eight healthy lean male subjects were studied for up to 5 days while on an isocaloric diet. Blood samples were obtained for measurement of FGF-21 and free fatty acids (FFA) hourly from 0800 AM on day 4 till 0800AM on day 5. FGF-21 did not exhibit any statistically significant day/night variation pattern of circulating FGF-21 levels during the isocaloric fed state in male subjects. FGF-21 levels in male subjects are closely cross-correlated with FFA levels, similar to female subjects. A sexual dimorphism exists in FGF-21 physiology; that as opposed to female subjects, no significant day/night variation exists in FGF-21 rhythm in male subjects in the energy-replete state. Circulating pattern of FGF-21, similar to the female subjects, was highly cross-correlated to the FFA levels in the male subjects, signifying that the sexual dimorphism in FGF-21 physiology may be related to the differing lipid metabolism in both the genders.

  2. Retinal vessel diameters in relation to hematocrit variation during acclimatization of highlanders to sea level altitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Peter Kristian; Sander, Birgit; Zubieta-Calleja, Gustavo

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To examine variations in retinal vessel diameters during acclimatization of native highlanders to normobaric normoxia at sea level. METHODS: Fifteen healthy residents of the greater La Paz region in Bolivia (3600 m above sea level) were examined thrice over a 72-day period, after having...... traveled by airplane to Copenhagen, Denmark, near sea level. RESULTS: In the study subjects, hematocrit decreased from 49.6% (day 2) to 45.9% (P = 0.0066, day 23) and 41.7% (P ... diameters were indistinguishable from baseline after 72 days. No funduscopic signs of retinopathy were observed. Arterial blood pressure remained stable throughout the study. CONCLUSIONS: Although a 16% reduction in hematocrit occurred between days 2 and 72 after arrival at sea level, the only significant...

  3. Heritability and genetic basis of protein level variation in an outbred population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parts, Leopold; Liu, Yi-Chun; Tekkedil, Manu M; Steinmetz, Lars M; Caudy, Amy A; Fraser, Andrew G; Boone, Charles; Andrews, Brenda J; Rosebrock, Adam P

    2014-08-01

    The genetic basis of heritable traits has been studied for decades. Although recent mapping efforts have elucidated genetic determinants of transcript levels, mapping of protein abundance has lagged. Here, we analyze levels of 4084 GFP-tagged yeast proteins in the progeny of a cross between a laboratory and a wild strain using flow cytometry and high-content microscopy. The genotype of trans variants contributed little to protein level variation between individual cells but explained >50% of the variance in the population's average protein abundance for half of the GFP fusions tested. To map trans-acting factors responsible, we performed flow sorting and bulk segregant analysis of 25 proteins, finding a median of five protein quantitative trait loci (pQTLs) per GFP fusion. Further, we find that cis-acting variants predominate; the genotype of a gene and its surrounding region had a large effect on protein level six times more frequently than the rest of the genome combined. We present evidence for both shared and independent genetic control of transcript and protein abundance: More than half of the expression QTLs (eQTLs) contribute to changes in protein levels of regulated genes, but several pQTLs do not affect their cognate transcript levels. Allele replacements of genes known to underlie trans eQTL hotspots confirmed the correlation of effects on mRNA and protein levels. This study represents the first genome-scale measurement of genetic contribution to protein levels in single cells and populations, identifies more than a hundred trans pQTLs, and validates the propagation of effects associated with transcript variation to protein abundance. © 2014 Parts et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  4. Seasonal variation of seismic ambient noise level at King Sejong Station, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, W.; Sheen, D.; Seo, K.; Yun, S.

    2009-12-01

    The generation of the secondary- or double-frequency (DF) microseisms with dominant frequencies between 0.1 and 0.5 Hz has been explained by nonlinear second-order pressure perturbations on the ocean bottom due to the interference of two ocean waves of equal wavelengths traveling in opposite directions. Korea Polar Research Institute (KOPRI) has been operating a broadband seismic station (KSJ1) at King George Island (KGI), Antarctica, since 2001. Examining the ambient seismic noise level for the period from 2006 to 2008 at KSJ1, we found a significant seasonal variation in the frequency range 0.1-0.5 Hz. Correlation of the DF peaks with significant ocean wave height and peak wave period models indicates that the oceanic infragravity waves in the Drake Passage is a possible source to excite the DF microseisms at KGI. Location of King Sejong Station, Antarctica Seasonal variations of DF peak, significant wave height, and peak wave period

  5. PAHs levels in gas and particle-bound phase in schools at different locations in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Marija

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated seasonal variation of PAHs and their partition between gas and particulate-bounded phases in indoor and outdoor air in 4 schools in Serbia located at different locations. The sampling campaigns were conducted during one workweek at each school successively. Campaigns were conducted in schools during heating and non-heating seasons in December 2011 and June 2012. Seasonal variations of gas and particle-bounded PAHs concentrations were observed with higher levels during heating season. The highest total PAH values were associated with the gas phase in both sampling periods. The total PAHs concentration at indoor and at the outdoor sites, during heating season, ranged from 88.45 to 447.72 ng/m3 and 201.69 to 1017.15 ng/m3, respectively. During non-heating season, the total PAHs concentration ranged from 36.91 to 271.57 ng/m3 in indoor environment and 27.00 to 132.32 ng/m3 in outdoor environment. Most of the I/O ratios were less than 1, which indicated that the indoor PAHs were mostly from outdoor sources. The use of diagnostic ratio showed that traffic emission and coal combustion are the major sources of PAHs. Only the diagnostic ratios for the school, located near the industrial area, showed significant deviation compared to other schools. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR33036: Development of new meteorological mast for turbulence parameters characterization and br. III42008: Evaluation of Energy Performances and Indoor Environment Quality of Educational Buildings in Serbia with Impact to Health

  6. Intraspecific variation shapes community-level behavioral responses to urbanization in spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahirel, Maxime; Dierick, Jasper; De Cock, Maarten; Bonte, Dries

    2017-09-01

    Urban areas are an extreme example of human-changed environments, exposing organisms to multiple and strong selection pressures. Adaptive behavioral responses are thought to play a major role in animals' success or failure in such new environments. Approaches based on functional traits have proven especially valuable to understand how species communities respond to environmental gradients. Until recently, they have, however, often ignored the potential consequences of intraspecific trait variation (ITV). When ITV is prevalent, it may highly impact ecological processes and resilience against stressors. This may be especially relevant in animals, in which behavioral traits can be altered very flexibly at the individual level to track environmental changes. We investigated how species turnover and ITV influenced community-level behavioral responses in a set of 62 sites of varying levels of urbanization, using orb web spiders and their webs as models of foraging behavior. ITV alone explained around one-third of the total trait variation observed among communities. Spider web structure changed according to urbanization, in ways that increase the capture efficiency of webs in a context of smaller urban prey. These trait shifts were partly mediated by species turnover, but ITV increased their magnitude, potentially helping to buffer the effects of environmental changes on communities. The importance of ITV varied depending on traits and on the spatial scale at which urbanization was considered. Despite being neglected from community-level analyses in animals, our results highlight the importance of accounting for intraspecific trait variation to fully understand trait responses to (human-induced) environmental changes and their impact on ecosystem functioning. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  7. Seasonal variations of radon and the radiation exposure levels in Nerja cave, Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duenas, C.; Fernandez, M.C.; Canete, S.; Perez, M.; Gordo, E.

    2011-01-01

    222 Rn concentrations in the air in Nerja cave (Spain) (3 o 52'35''W 36 o 43'50''N) were measured by continuous monitoring using Alpha-Guard, Genitron instrument equipment. The 222 Rn measurements were carried out for a complete annual cycle in the different halls: Vestibule hall from July 2003 to June 2004, Ballet hall from July 2004 to June 2005 and Mirador hall from July 2005 to June 2006. Starting from the entrance of the cave we successively find the Vestibule hall, the Ballet hall and the Mirador hall. The range of 222 Rn levels were of 8-627 Bq m -3 for the Vestibule hall, 28-575 Bq m -3 for the Ballet hall and 38-578 Bq m -3 for the Mirador. The aim of this study was to detect seasonal variation patterns of 222 Rn concentrations. The seasonal variations of 222 Rn concentrations are discussed in relation to various meteorological factors measured inside and outside the cave. The radiation exposure levels for workers and tourists with different equilibrium factors have been evaluated. The radiation exposure levels for workers and tourists only represent a low percentage of the exposure guides for the general population. - Highlights: → The aim of the study was to detect seasonal variation of 222 Rn concentrations. → 222 Rn concentrations in the air-cave were measured by continuous monitoring. → The 222 Rn measurements were carried out in the different halls of the cave. → The radiation exposure levels for workers and tourists have been evaluated.

  8. Interspecific variation in egg testosterone levels: implications for the evolution of bird song.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garamszegi, L Z; Biard, C; Eens, M; Møller, A P; Saino, N

    2007-05-01

    Although interspecific variation in maternal effects via testosterone levels can be mediated by natural selection, little is known about the evolutionary consequences of egg testosterone for sexual selection. However, two nonexclusive evolutionary hypotheses predict an interspecific relationship between egg testosterone levels and the elaboration of sexual traits. First, maternal investment may be particularly enhanced in sexually selected species, which should generate a positive relationship. Secondly, high prenatal testosterone levels may constrain the development of sexual characters, which should result in a negative relationship. Here we investigated these hypotheses by exploring the relationship between yolk testosterone levels and features of song in a phylogenetic study of 36 passerine species. We found that song duration and syllable repertoire size were significantly negatively related to testosterone levels in the egg, even if potentially confounding factors were held constant. These relationships imply that high testosterone levels during early development of songs may be detrimental, thus supporting the developmental constraints hypothesis. By contrast, we found significant evidence that song-post exposure relative to the height of the vegetation is positively related to egg testosterone levels. These results support the hypothesis that high levels of maternal testosterone have evolved in species with intense sexual selection acting on the location of song-posts. We found nonsignificant effects for intersong interval and song type repertoire size, which may suggest that none of the above hypothesis apply to these traits, or they act simultaneously and have opposing effects.

  9. The circadian variations of serum melatonin and testosterone levels in starved rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostrowska, Z.; Zwirska-Korczala, K.; Marek, B.; Buntner, B.

    1995-01-01

    Circadian variations of serum melatonin and testosterone in sexually mature male Wistar rats after a one-week starvation were examined using, the radioimmunoassay RIA method at 2-h intervals under 12:12 h light-dark cycle. The population mean cosinor analysis justified the existence of a significant circadian rhythm of melatonin and testosterone in starved rats, whereas their mean 24-h concentration was lower. Both melatonin and testosterone circadian rhythms were disturbed with phase shifts from 1.58 to 16.59 h and from 18.00 to 3.49 h, respectively. A significant correlation between the melatonin and testosterone concentrations during day/night cycle was observed. (author). 38 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  10. Intraspecific Variation among Social Insect Colonies: Persistent Regional and Colony-Level Differences in Fire Ant Foraging Behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison A Bockoven

    Full Text Available Individuals vary within a species in many ecologically important ways, but the causes and consequences of such variation are often poorly understood. Foraging behavior is among the most profitable and risky activities in which organisms engage and is expected to be under strong selection. Among social insects there is evidence that within-colony variation in traits such as foraging behavior can increase colony fitness, but variation between colonies and the potential consequences of such variation are poorly documented. In this study, we tested natural populations of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, for the existence of colony and regional variation in foraging behavior and tested the persistence of this variation over time and across foraging habitats. We also reared single-lineage colonies in standardized environments to explore the contribution of colony lineage. Fire ants from natural populations exhibited significant and persistent colony and regional-level variation in foraging behaviors such as extra-nest activity, exploration, and discovery of and recruitment to resources. Moreover, colony-level variation in extra-nest activity was significantly correlated with colony growth, suggesting that this variation has fitness consequences. Lineage of the colony had a significant effect on extra-nest activity and exploratory activity and explained approximately half of the variation observed in foraging behaviors, suggesting a heritable component to colony-level variation in behavior.

  11. Progranulin gene variation affects serum progranulin levels differently in Danish bipolar individuals compared with healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttenschøn, Henriette N; Nielsen, Marit N; Thotakura, Gangadaar; Lee, Chris W; Nykjær, Anders; Mors, Ole; Glerup, Simon

    2017-06-01

    The identification of peripheral biomarkers for bipolar disorder is of great importance and has the potential to improve diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. Recent studies have reported lower plasma progranulin levels in bipolar individuals compared with controls and association with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the progranulin gene (GRN). In the present study, we investigated the effect of GRN and sortilin (SORT1) gene variation on serum progranulin levels in bipolar individuals and controls. In a Danish cohort of individuals with bipolar disorder and controls, we analysed the serum progranulin level (nbipolar=80, ncontrols=76) and five SNPs located within GRN and two SNPs near the SORT1 gene encoding sortilin, a progranulin scavenger receptor known to affect circulating progranulin levels (nbipolar=166, ncontrols=186). We observed no significant difference in the serum progranulin level between cases and controls and none of the analysed SNPs located within GRN or close to SORT1 were associated with bipolar disorder. Crude and adjusted (adjusted for case-control status, sex and age) linear regression analyses showed no effect of any SNPs on the serum progranulin level. However, we observed that the mean serum progranulin level in cases and controls is affected differently depending on the genotypes of two SNPs within GRN (rs2879096 and rs4792938). The sample size is relatively small and detailed information on medication and polarity of the disorder is not available. No correction for multiple testing was performed. Our study suggests that the potential of progranulin as a biomarker for bipolar disorder is genotype dependent.

  12. VARIATION OF CHART DATUM TOWARDS MARITIME DELIMITATION DUE TO RISING SEA LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. M. Faizuddin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Chart Datum in hydrographic surveying is inarguable because its determination is part of the process to obtain the actual depth of bathymetry. The Chart Datum has a relationship with the determination of base points because any uncertainty of the base points would definitely cause uncertainty to the determination of the maritime baseline. If there is any doubt on the baselines, it will then cause doubt on the maritime zones as well which includes the equidistant line that forms the border between the two countries. However, due to the ongoing rising sea level, there has been some variations of the Chart Datum in some areas in Malaysia. This research discusses about the variation of Mean Sea Level and Chart Datum for the tide gauge stations at Geting, Cendering, Sedili and Tioman at East Coast and Kukup, Langkawi, Lumut and Penang at the West Coast of Peninsular Malaysia. The tidal analysis was carried out by using the 23 years of data beginning at 1993 to 2015. The observed tidal data for 23 years were processed and analysed by using GeoTide software. In this research, the Harmonic Analysis technique was used in order to calculate the values of Mean Sea Level and the Chart Datum while the slope of the shoreline is modelled by using Global Mapper. The linear trend of the Mean Sea Level and the Chart Datum was analysed to determine the increase of the annual sea level in millimetres accuracy and also to determine the variation of the Chart Datum for each tidal station and its impact towards maritime baseline. The result has shown that the linear trend of sea level rise varies from 24 millimetres per year up to 168 millimetres per year at the East Coast and 24 millimetres per year up to 96 millimetres per year at the West Coast of Peninsular Malaysia. As for the maritime baseline, results has indicated that there exist shifting in the horizontal which are varies from 1.564 metres per year to 3.299 metres per year at the East Coast

  13. Variation of Chart Datum Towards Maritime Delimitation due to Rising Sea Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faizuddin, A. R. M.; Razali, M. M.

    2017-10-01

    The importance of Chart Datum in hydrographic surveying is inarguable because its determination is part of the process to obtain the actual depth of bathymetry. The Chart Datum has a relationship with the determination of base points because any uncertainty of the base points would definitely cause uncertainty to the determination of the maritime baseline. If there is any doubt on the baselines, it will then cause doubt on the maritime zones as well which includes the equidistant line that forms the border between the two countries. However, due to the ongoing rising sea level, there has been some variations of the Chart Datum in some areas in Malaysia. This research discusses about the variation of Mean Sea Level and Chart Datum for the tide gauge stations at Geting, Cendering, Sedili and Tioman at East Coast and Kukup, Langkawi, Lumut and Penang at the West Coast of Peninsular Malaysia. The tidal analysis was carried out by using the 23 years of data beginning at 1993 to 2015. The observed tidal data for 23 years were processed and analysed by using GeoTide software. In this research, the Harmonic Analysis technique was used in order to calculate the values of Mean Sea Level and the Chart Datum while the slope of the shoreline is modelled by using Global Mapper. The linear trend of the Mean Sea Level and the Chart Datum was analysed to determine the increase of the annual sea level in millimetres accuracy and also to determine the variation of the Chart Datum for each tidal station and its impact towards maritime baseline. The result has shown that the linear trend of sea level rise varies from 24 millimetres per year up to 168 millimetres per year at the East Coast and 24 millimetres per year up to 96 millimetres per year at the West Coast of Peninsular Malaysia. As for the maritime baseline, results has indicated that there exist shifting in the horizontal which are varies from 1.564 metres per year to 3.299 metres per year at the East Coast and from 1

  14. Segmentation of teeth in CT volumetric dataset by panoramic projection and variational level set

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosntalab, Mohammad; Aghaeizadeh Zoroofi, Reza; Abbaspour Tehrani-Fard, Ali; Shirani, Gholamreza

    2008-01-01

    Quantification of teeth is of clinical importance for various computer assisted procedures such as dental implant, orthodontic planning, face, jaw and cosmetic surgeries. In this regard, segmentation is a major step. In this paper, we propose a method for segmentation of teeth in volumetric computed tomography (CT) data using panoramic re-sampling of the dataset in the coronal view and variational level set. The proposed method consists of five steps as follows: first, we extract a mask in a CT images using Otsu thresholding. Second, the teeth are segmented from other bony tissues by utilizing anatomical knowledge of teeth in the jaws. Third, the proposed method is followed by estimating the arc of the upper and lower jaws and panoramic re-sampling of the dataset. Separation of upper and lower jaws and initial segmentation of teeth are performed by employing the horizontal and vertical projections of the panoramic dataset, respectively. Based the above mentioned procedures an initial mask for each tooth is obtained. Finally, we utilize the initial mask of teeth and apply a Variational level set to refine initial teeth boundaries to final contours. The proposed algorithm was evaluated in the presence of 30 multi-slice CT datasets including 3,600 images. Experimental results reveal the effectiveness of the proposed method. In the proposed algorithm, the variational level set technique was utilized to trace the contour of the teeth. In view of the fact that, this technique is based on the characteristic of the overall region of the teeth image, it is possible to extract a very smooth and accurate tooth contour using this technique. In the presence of the available datasets, the proposed technique was successful in teeth segmentation compared to previous techniques. (orig.)

  15. Segmentation of teeth in CT volumetric dataset by panoramic projection and variational level set

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosntalab, Mohammad [Islamic Azad University, Faculty of Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Tehran (Iran); Aghaeizadeh Zoroofi, Reza [University of Tehran, Control and Intelligent Processing Center of Excellence, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, College of Engineering, Tehran (Iran); Abbaspour Tehrani-Fard, Ali [Islamic Azad University, Faculty of Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Tehran (Iran); Sharif University of Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering, Tehran (Iran); Shirani, Gholamreza [Faculty of Dentistry Medical Science of Tehran University, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Department, Tehran (Iran)

    2008-09-15

    Quantification of teeth is of clinical importance for various computer assisted procedures such as dental implant, orthodontic planning, face, jaw and cosmetic surgeries. In this regard, segmentation is a major step. In this paper, we propose a method for segmentation of teeth in volumetric computed tomography (CT) data using panoramic re-sampling of the dataset in the coronal view and variational level set. The proposed method consists of five steps as follows: first, we extract a mask in a CT images using Otsu thresholding. Second, the teeth are segmented from other bony tissues by utilizing anatomical knowledge of teeth in the jaws. Third, the proposed method is followed by estimating the arc of the upper and lower jaws and panoramic re-sampling of the dataset. Separation of upper and lower jaws and initial segmentation of teeth are performed by employing the horizontal and vertical projections of the panoramic dataset, respectively. Based the above mentioned procedures an initial mask for each tooth is obtained. Finally, we utilize the initial mask of teeth and apply a Variational level set to refine initial teeth boundaries to final contours. The proposed algorithm was evaluated in the presence of 30 multi-slice CT datasets including 3,600 images. Experimental results reveal the effectiveness of the proposed method. In the proposed algorithm, the variational level set technique was utilized to trace the contour of the teeth. In view of the fact that, this technique is based on the characteristic of the overall region of the teeth image, it is possible to extract a very smooth and accurate tooth contour using this technique. In the presence of the available datasets, the proposed technique was successful in teeth segmentation compared to previous techniques. (orig.)

  16. Diurnal Variation of Plasma Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Levels in Women with Functional Hypothalamic Amenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakopoulos, Panagiotis; Casarosa, Elena; Bucci, Fiorella; Piccinino, Manuela; Wenger, Jean-Marie; Nappi, Rossella Elena; Polyzos, Nicholas; Genazzani, Andrea Riccardo; Pluchino, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is strongly related to hormonal networks and is modulated by hypothalamic activity. To evaluate plasma BDNF concentration in patients with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA), with reference to the BDNF circadian rhythm and its relation with the cortisol (F) rhythm, and to assess whether the duration of amenorrhea might influence the BDNF:F ratio in FHA. This was an observational study evaluating 36 amenorrheic and 30 eumenorrheic women. Basal values of BDNF and hormones were examined in blood samples collected from 7:00 to 9:00 h in all the women. Basal BDNF and F levels were determined in blood samples collected in 12 subjects from each group at 8:00, 12:00, 16:00, 20:00, and 24:00 h. BDNF plasma levels are significantly lower in amenorrheic women (p 0.05), sex steroids, and F in FHA. Low plasma BDNF levels in FHA are not significantly correlated with duration of amenorrhea. The 24-hour variation of BDNF in amenorrheic women is significantly lower when compared to the control group, and normal daily variations of BDNF disappeared in FHA patients. F preserved its circadian rhythm in both groups. Interactions between BDNF, the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, and sex steroids might be critical in clinical conditions of modified homeostasis/adaptation, such as FHA. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Interpretation of variations in MODIS-measured greenness levels of Amazon forests during 2000 to 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, Arindam; Myneni, Ranga B; Ganguly, Sangram; Vermote, Eric; Nemani, Ramakrishna R

    2012-01-01

    This work investigates variations in satellite-measured greenness of Amazon forests using ten years of NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) enhanced vegetation index (EVI) data. Corruption of optical remote sensing data with clouds and aerosols is prevalent in this region; filtering corrupted data causes spatial sampling constraints, as well as reducing the record length, which introduces large biases in estimates of greenness anomalies. The EVI data, analyzed in multiple ways and taking into account EVI accuracy, consistently show a pattern of negligible changes in the greenness levels of forests both in the area affected by drought in 2005 and outside it. Small random patches of anomalous greening and browning—especially prominent in 2009—appear in all ten years, irrespective of contemporaneous variations in precipitation, but with no persistence over time. The fact that over 90% of the EVI anomalies are insignificantly small—within the envelope of error (95% confidence interval) in EVI—warrants cautious interpretation of these results: there were no changes in the greenness of these forests, or if there were changes, the EVI data failed to capture these either because the constituent reflectances were saturated or the moderate resolution precluded viewing small-scale variations. This suggests a need for more accurate and spatially resolved synoptic views from satellite data and corroborating comprehensive ground sampling to understand the greenness dynamics of these forests. (letter)

  18. Interpretation of Variations in Modis-Measured Greenness Levels of Amazon Forests During 2000 to 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Arindam; Ganguly, Sangram; Vermote, Eric; Nemani, Ramakrishna R.; Myneni, Ranga B.

    2012-01-01

    This work investigates variations in satellite-measured greenness of Amazon forests using ten years of NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) enhanced vegetation index (EVI) data. Corruption of optical remote sensing data with clouds and aerosols is prevalent in this region; filtering corrupted data causes spatial sampling constraints, as well as reducing the record length, which introduces large biases in estimates of greenness anomalies. The EVI data, analyzed in multiple ways and taking into account EVI accuracy, consistently show a pattern of negligible changes in the greenness levels of forests both in the area affected by drought in 2005 and outside it. Small random patches of anomalous greening and browning-especially prominent in 2009-appear in all ten years, irrespective of contemporaneous variations in precipitation, but with no persistence over time. The fact that over 90% of the EVI anomalies are insignificantly small-within the envelope of error (95% confidence interval) in EVI-warrants cautious interpretation of these results: there were no changes in the greenness of these forests, or if there were changes, the EVI data failed to capture these either because the constituent reflectances were saturated or the moderate resolution precluded viewing small-scale variations. This suggests a need for more accurate and spatially resolved synoptic views from satellite data and corroborating comprehensive ground sampling to understand the greenness dynamics of these forests.

  19. Phase behavior and radiation effects in high level waste class

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turcotte, R.P.; Roberts, F.P.

    1977-02-01

    Results are presented that demonstrate that detailed and reproducible data can be obtained for complex waste glasses. For the major glass composition examined, thermal treatment was shown to cause formation of several crystalline phases which contribute to an increased leachability. Although not discussed in detail here, Zn 2 SiO 4 formation results in microcracking due to a thermal expansion mismatch with the glass matrix, and SrMoO 4 has a higher leachability than the glass matrix. The temperature dependence describing equilibrium concentrations of these two phases and a qualitative understanding of ingrowth kinetics have been established, hence conditions necessary to eliminate their formation during processing and early storage, are known. Radiation damage effects, when extrapolated to long times, suggest energy storage of approximately 50 cal/gram and either positive or negative density changes occur (depending on the glass composition) in the 1 percent range. No radiation damage-related changes of serious concern have been found for homogeneous glasses by 244 Cm doping experiments now approaching a simulated damage time of approximately 10 3 years (for UO 2 fuel wastes). More work is needed concerning heterogeneous damage which will occur in devitrified glasses. As a final point, the complications with respect to understanding behavior of polyphase systems with respect to either radiation damage or leaching behavior, are self evident. Homogeneous glasses with improved leach resistance, and thermal and radiation stability are clear objectives for future glass development

  20. Levels of acute phase proteins remain stable after ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paik Myunghee C

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammation and inflammatory biomarkers play an important role in atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Little information is available, however, on time course of serum markers of inflammation after stroke. Methods First ischemic stroke patients ≥40 years old had levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP, serum amyloid A (SAA, and fibrinogen measured in plasma samples drawn at 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after stroke. Levels were log-transformed as needed, and parametric and non-parametric statistical tests were used to test for evidence of a trend in levels over time. Levels of hsCRP and SAA were also compared with levels in a comparable population of stroke-free participants. Results Mean age of participants with repeated measures (n = 21 was 65.6 ± 11.6 years, and 13 (61.9% were men, and 15 (71.4% were Hispanic. Approximately 75% of patients (n = 15 had mild strokes (NIH Stroke Scale score 0–5. There was no evidence of a time trend in levels of hsCRP, SAA, or fibrinogen for any of the markers during the 28 days of follow-up. Mean log(hsCRP was 1.67 ± 1.07 mg/L (median hsCRP 6.48 mg/L among stroke participants and 1.00 ± 1.18 mg/L (median 2.82 mg/L in a group of 1176 randomly selected stroke-free participants from the same community (p = 0.0252. Conclusion Levels of hsCRP are higher in stroke patients than in stroke-free subjects. Levels of inflammatory biomarkers associated with atherosclerosis, including hsCRP, appear to be stable for at least 28 days after first ischemic stroke.

  1. ORBITAL PHASE VARIATIONS OF THE ECCENTRIC GIANT PLANET HAT-P-2b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, Nikole K.; Showman, Adam P.; Knutson, Heather A.; Désert, Jean-Michel; Kao, Melodie; Cowan, Nicolas B.; Laughlin, Gregory; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Burrows, Adam; Bakos, Gáspár Á.; Hartman, Joel D.; Deming, Drake; Crepp, Justin R.; Mighell, Kenneth J.; Agol, Eric; Charbonneau, David; Fischer, Debra A.; Hinkley, Sasha; Johnson, John Asher; Howard, Andrew W.

    2013-01-01

    We present the first secondary eclipse and phase curve observations for the highly eccentric hot Jupiter HAT-P-2b in the 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 μm bands of the Spitzer Space Telescope. The 3.6 and 4.5 μm data sets span an entire orbital period of HAT-P-2b (P = 5.6334729 d), making them the longest continuous phase curve observations obtained to date and the first full-orbit observations of a planet with an eccentricity exceeding 0.2. We present an improved non-parametric method for removing the intrapixel sensitivity variations in Spitzer data at 3.6 and 4.5 μm that robustly maps position-dependent flux variations. We find that the peak in planetary flux occurs at 4.39 ± 0.28, 5.84 ± 0.39, and 4.68 ± 0.37 hr after periapse passage with corresponding maxima in the planet/star flux ratio of 0.1138% ± 0.0089%, 0.1162% ± 0.0080%, and 0.1888% ± 0.0072% in the 3.6, 4.5, and 8.0 μm bands, respectively. Our measured secondary eclipse depths of 0.0996% ± 0.0072%, 0.1031% ± 0.0061%, 0.071% -0.013% +0.029, and 0.1392% ± 0.0095% in the 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 μm bands, respectively, indicate that the planet cools significantly from its peak temperature before we measure the dayside flux during secondary eclipse. We compare our measured secondary eclipse depths to the predictions from a one-dimensional radiative transfer model, which suggests the possible presence of a transient day side inversion in HAT-P-2b's atmosphere near periapse. We also derive improved estimates for the system parameters, including its mass, radius, and orbital ephemeris. Our simultaneous fit to the transit, secondary eclipse, and radial velocity data allows us to determine the eccentricity (e = 0.50910 ± 0.00048) and argument of periapse (ω = 188.°09 ± 0.°39) of HAT-P-2b's orbit with a greater precision than has been achieved for any other eccentric extrasolar planet. We also find evidence for a long-term linear trend in the radial velocity data. This trend suggests the presence of

  2. ORBITAL PHASE VARIATIONS OF THE ECCENTRIC GIANT PLANET HAT-P-2b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Nikole K.; Showman, Adam P. [Department of Planetary Sciences and Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Knutson, Heather A.; Desert, Jean-Michel; Kao, Melodie [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Cowan, Nicolas B. [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2131 Tech Drive, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Laughlin, Gregory; Fortney, Jonathan J. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Burrows, Adam; Bakos, Gaspar A.; Hartman, Joel D. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Deming, Drake [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Crepp, Justin R. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Mighell, Kenneth J. [National Optical Astronomy Observatories, Tucson, AZ 85726 (United States); Agol, Eric [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Charbonneau, David [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Fischer, Debra A. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Hinkley, Sasha; Johnson, John Asher [Department of Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Howard, Andrew W., E-mail: nklewis@mit.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); and others

    2013-04-01

    We present the first secondary eclipse and phase curve observations for the highly eccentric hot Jupiter HAT-P-2b in the 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 {mu}m bands of the Spitzer Space Telescope. The 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m data sets span an entire orbital period of HAT-P-2b (P = 5.6334729 d), making them the longest continuous phase curve observations obtained to date and the first full-orbit observations of a planet with an eccentricity exceeding 0.2. We present an improved non-parametric method for removing the intrapixel sensitivity variations in Spitzer data at 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m that robustly maps position-dependent flux variations. We find that the peak in planetary flux occurs at 4.39 {+-} 0.28, 5.84 {+-} 0.39, and 4.68 {+-} 0.37 hr after periapse passage with corresponding maxima in the planet/star flux ratio of 0.1138% {+-} 0.0089%, 0.1162% {+-} 0.0080%, and 0.1888% {+-} 0.0072% in the 3.6, 4.5, and 8.0 {mu}m bands, respectively. Our measured secondary eclipse depths of 0.0996% {+-} 0.0072%, 0.1031% {+-} 0.0061%, 0.071%{sub -0.013%}{sup +0.029,} and 0.1392% {+-} 0.0095% in the 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 {mu}m bands, respectively, indicate that the planet cools significantly from its peak temperature before we measure the dayside flux during secondary eclipse. We compare our measured secondary eclipse depths to the predictions from a one-dimensional radiative transfer model, which suggests the possible presence of a transient day side inversion in HAT-P-2b's atmosphere near periapse. We also derive improved estimates for the system parameters, including its mass, radius, and orbital ephemeris. Our simultaneous fit to the transit, secondary eclipse, and radial velocity data allows us to determine the eccentricity (e = 0.50910 {+-} 0.00048) and argument of periapse ({omega} = 188. Degree-Sign 09 {+-} 0. Degree-Sign 39) of HAT-P-2b's orbit with a greater precision than has been achieved for any other eccentric extrasolar planet. We also find evidence for a long

  3. Prediction of ppm level electrical failure by using physical variation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Hsin-Ming; Kung, Ji-Fu; Hsu, Y.-B.; Yamazaki, Y.; Maruyama, Kotaro; Toyoshima, Yuya; Chen, Chu-en

    2016-03-01

    their spatial correlation distance. For local variations (LV) there is no correlation, whereas for global variations (GV) the correlation distance is very large [7]-[9]. This is the first time to certificate the validation of spatial distribution from the affordable bias contour big data fundamental infrastructures. And then apply statistical techniques to dig out the variation sources. The GV come from systematic issue, which could be compensated by adaptive LT condition or OPC correction. But LV comes from random issue, which being considered as intrinsic problem such as structure, material, tool capability… etc. In this paper studying, we can find out the advanced technology node SRAM contact CD local variation (LV) dominates in total variation, about 70%. It often plays significant in-line real time catching WP-DPMO role of the product yield loss, especially for wafer edge is the worst loss within wafer distribution and causes serious reliability concern. The major root cause of variations comes from the PR material induced burr defect (LV), the second one comes from GV enhanced wafer edge short opportunity, which being attributed to three factors, first one factor is wafer edge CD deliberated enlargement for yield improvement as shown in Fig. 10. Second factor is overlaps/AA shifts due to tool capability dealing with incoming wafer's war page issue and optical periphery layout dependent working pitch issue as shown in Fig. 9 (1)., the last factor comes from wafer edge burr enhanced by wafer edge larger Photo Resistance (PR) spin centrifugal force. After implementing KPIs such as GV related AA/CD indexes as shown in Fig. 9 (1) and 10, respectively, and LV related burr index as shown in Fig. 11., we can construct the parts per million (PPM) level short probability model via multi-variables regression, canonical correlation analysis and logistic transformation. The model provides prediction of PPM level electrical failure by using in-line real time physical

  4. [Study on the dynamic variations and influencing factors of serum lipid levels during pregnancy and postpartum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, D; Liang, C; Chen, L; Wu, X D; He, J

    2018-04-25

    Objective: To study the variations and influencing factors of serum triglycerides and cholesterol levels during pregnancy and postpartum. Methods: A retrospective study was performed among 5 020 healthy singleton (95.10%, 4 774/5 020) and twin (4.90%, 246/5 020) women who had delivery in Women's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine from January 2011 to December 2016. Serum triglycerides and cholesterol levels during pregnancy and postpartum of all the cases were collected. Both singleton and twin pregnant women were divided into advanced age and appropriate age groups, and then data of serum sample were assigned to 3 groups according to the gestation weeks, which were second trimester pregnancy (24-28 gestation weeks) , third trimester pregnancy (32-41 gestation weeks) and postpartum (within 72 hours after delivery) . The serum triglycerides and cholesterol levels in each groups were compared. Results: (1) Serum triglycerides and cholesterol levels during the second trimester pregnancy, third trimester pregnancy and postpartum were higher than levels of non-pregnancy in both singleton and twin groups (all Ppregnancy group were higher than those of second trimester pregnancy group in both advanced age and appropriate aged women regardless singleton or twin pregnancy (all Ppregnancy were as follows: in appropriate aged singleton group, the triglycerides levels were 1.07-4.13 and 1.52-7.21 mmol/L, and the cholesterol levels were 2.77-12.11 and 4.44-9.36 mmol/L. In advanced aged singleton group, the triglycerides levels were 1.28-4.61 and 1.70-7.80 mmol/L, and the cholesterol levels were 4.35-8.40 and 4.46-9.35 mmol/L; in appropriate aged twin group, the triglycerides levels were 1.39-7.16 and 1.90-9.29 mmol/L, and the cholesterol levels were 4.99-12.16 and 4.52-10.07 mmol/L; in advanced aged twin group, the triglycerides levels were 1.61-5.32 and 1.94-9.29 mmol/L, and the cholesterol levels were 5.24-8.10 and 4.53-8.86 mmol/L. (3) Serum lipids levels

  5. Temporal and Spatial Variation in, and Population Exposure to, Summertime Ground-Level Ozone in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui; Zheng, Youfei; Li, Ting; Wei, Li; Guan, Qing

    2018-03-29

    Ground-level ozone pollution in Beijing has been causing concern among the public due to the risks posed to human health. This study analyzed the temporal and spatial distribution of, and investigated population exposure to, ground-level ozone. We analyzed hourly ground-level ozone data from 35 ambient air quality monitoring sites, including urban, suburban, background, and traffic monitoring sites, during the summer in Beijing from 2014 to 2017. The results showed that the four-year mean ozone concentrations for urban, suburban, background, and traffic monitoring sites were 95.1, 99.8, 95.9, and 74.2 μg/m³, respectively. A total of 44, 43, 45, and 43 days exceeded the Chinese National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) threshold for ground-level ozone in 2014, 2015, 2016, and 2017, respectively. The mean ozone concentration was higher in suburban sites than in urban sites, and the traffic monitoring sites had the lowest concentration. The diurnal variation in ground-level ozone concentration at the four types of monitoring sites displayed a single-peak curve. The peak and valley values occurred at 3:00-4:00 p.m. and 7:00 a.m., respectively. Spatially, ground-level ozone concentrations decreased in gradient from the north to the south. Population exposure levels were calculated based on ground-level ozone concentrations and population data. Approximately 50.38%, 44.85%, and 48.49% of the total population of Beijing were exposed to ground-level ozone concentrations exceeding the Chinese NAAQS threshold in 2014, 2015, and 2016, respectively.

  6. Temporal and Spatial Variation in, and Population Exposure to, Summertime Ground-Level Ozone in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Youfei; Li, Ting; Wei, Li; Guan, Qing

    2018-01-01

    Ground-level ozone pollution in Beijing has been causing concern among the public due to the risks posed to human health. This study analyzed the temporal and spatial distribution of, and investigated population exposure to, ground-level ozone. We analyzed hourly ground-level ozone data from 35 ambient air quality monitoring sites, including urban, suburban, background, and traffic monitoring sites, during the summer in Beijing from 2014 to 2017. The results showed that the four-year mean ozone concentrations for urban, suburban, background, and traffic monitoring sites were 95.1, 99.8, 95.9, and 74.2 μg/m3, respectively. A total of 44, 43, 45, and 43 days exceeded the Chinese National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) threshold for ground-level ozone in 2014, 2015, 2016, and 2017, respectively. The mean ozone concentration was higher in suburban sites than in urban sites, and the traffic monitoring sites had the lowest concentration. The diurnal variation in ground-level ozone concentration at the four types of monitoring sites displayed a single-peak curve. The peak and valley values occurred at 3:00–4:00 p.m. and 7:00 a.m., respectively. Spatially, ground-level ozone concentrations decreased in gradient from the north to the south. Population exposure levels were calculated based on ground-level ozone concentrations and population data. Approximately 50.38%, 44.85%, and 48.49% of the total population of Beijing were exposed to ground-level ozone concentrations exceeding the Chinese NAAQS threshold in 2014, 2015, and 2016, respectively. PMID:29596366

  7. Temporal and Spatial Variation in, and Population Exposure to, Summertime Ground-Level Ozone in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Ground-level ozone pollution in Beijing has been causing concern among the public due to the risks posed to human health. This study analyzed the temporal and spatial distribution of, and investigated population exposure to, ground-level ozone. We analyzed hourly ground-level ozone data from 35 ambient air quality monitoring sites, including urban, suburban, background, and traffic monitoring sites, during the summer in Beijing from 2014 to 2017. The results showed that the four-year mean ozone concentrations for urban, suburban, background, and traffic monitoring sites were 95.1, 99.8, 95.9, and 74.2 μg/m3, respectively. A total of 44, 43, 45, and 43 days exceeded the Chinese National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS threshold for ground-level ozone in 2014, 2015, 2016, and 2017, respectively. The mean ozone concentration was higher in suburban sites than in urban sites, and the traffic monitoring sites had the lowest concentration. The diurnal variation in ground-level ozone concentration at the four types of monitoring sites displayed a single-peak curve. The peak and valley values occurred at 3:00–4:00 p.m. and 7:00 a.m., respectively. Spatially, ground-level ozone concentrations decreased in gradient from the north to the south. Population exposure levels were calculated based on ground-level ozone concentrations and population data. Approximately 50.38%, 44.85%, and 48.49% of the total population of Beijing were exposed to ground-level ozone concentrations exceeding the Chinese NAAQS threshold in 2014, 2015, and 2016, respectively.

  8. Variation in the serum bilirubin levels in newborns according to gender and seasonal changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Bala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bilirubin is a substance that is produced during the process of hemolysis. Gender influences on neonatal illnesses and outcomes have remained a topic of debate and investigation. Empirical neonatological experience suggests that prevalence and degree of neonatal jaundice might be dependent on seasonal variation also. The aim of our study is to interpret the bilirubin levels in newborns according to gender and seasonal variation. Materials and Methods: The study was done from October 2012 to July of 2013 (differentiated by seasonal variation. A total of 1000 jaundiced newborn (500 of each sex diagnosed clinically and divided equally in summer and winter season were studied to assess the total, direct and indirect serum bilirubin levels using colorimetry. Results: Out of total 1676 deliveries (439 were caesarean, 13 were assisted and rest were normal during winter season and 1475 deliveries (399 were Cesarean, 14 were assisted and rest were normal during summer season, 500 male newborn and 500 female newborn were analysed, divided equally in both seasons. Serum bilirubin was higher in males in summers and mainly comprised unconjugated bilirubin while direct bilirubin was higher in females in winters. Raised indirect bilirubin was more common in males born in summer than those born in winters (P = 041. In winters raised direct bilirubin was more common in females as compared to males (P = 0.019. Among female neonates total and indirect bilirubin was significantly raised in those born in summers (P = < 0.001 and <0.001, respectively while direct was raised in those born in winters (P = 0.003. Conclusion: Physiological and pathologic phenomena associated with male gender must be integrated in the frame of understanding of both susceptibility and protection of the male newborn which has not been available for adequate investigation in the past. The higher temperature during the summer, with a greater influence of higher breastfeeding

  9. Variation of DNA damage levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated in different laboratories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godschalk, Roger W L; Ersson, Clara; Stępnik, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the levels of DNA strand breaks and formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG) sensitive sites, as assessed by the comet assay, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from healthy women from five different countries in Europe. The laboratory in each country (referred...... to as 'centre') collected and cryopreserved PBMC samples from three donors, using a standardised cell isolation protocol. The samples were analysed in 13 different laboratories for DNA damage, which is measured by the comet assay. The study aim was to assess variation in DNA damage in PBMC samples that were......%) by standardisation of the primary comet assay endpoint with calibration curve samples. The level of DNA strand breaks in the samples from two of the centres (0.56-0.61 lesions/10(6) bp) was significantly higher compared with the other three centres (0.41-0.45 lesions/10(6) bp). In contrast, there was no difference...

  10. On the Relationship between Variational Level Set-Based and SOM-Based Active Contours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelsamea, Mohammed M.; Gnecco, Giorgio; Gaber, Mohamed Medhat; Elyan, Eyad

    2015-01-01

    Most Active Contour Models (ACMs) deal with the image segmentation problem as a functional optimization problem, as they work on dividing an image into several regions by optimizing a suitable functional. Among ACMs, variational level set methods have been used to build an active contour with the aim of modeling arbitrarily complex shapes. Moreover, they can handle also topological changes of the contours. Self-Organizing Maps (SOMs) have attracted the attention of many computer vision scientists, particularly in modeling an active contour based on the idea of utilizing the prototypes (weights) of a SOM to control the evolution of the contour. SOM-based models have been proposed in general with the aim of exploiting the specific ability of SOMs to learn the edge-map information via their topology preservation property and overcoming some drawbacks of other ACMs, such as trapping into local minima of the image energy functional to be minimized in such models. In this survey, we illustrate the main concepts of variational level set-based ACMs, SOM-based ACMs, and their relationship and review in a comprehensive fashion the development of their state-of-the-art models from a machine learning perspective, with a focus on their strengths and weaknesses. PMID:25960736

  11. Measuring total health inequality: adding individual variation to group-level differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gakidou Emmanuela

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have revealed large variations in average health status across social, economic, and other groups. No study exists on the distribution of the risk of ill-health across individuals, either within groups or across all people in a society, and as such a crucial piece of total health inequality has been overlooked. Some of the reason for this neglect has been that the risk of death, which forms the basis for most measures, is impossible to observe directly and difficult to estimate. Methods We develop a measure of total health inequality – encompassing all inequalities among people in a society, including variation between and within groups – by adapting a beta-binomial regression model. We apply it to children under age two in 50 low- and middle-income countries. Our method has been adopted by the World Health Organization and is being implemented in surveys around the world; preliminary estimates have appeared in the World Health Report (2000. Results Countries with similar average child mortality differ considerably in total health inequality. Liberia and Mozambique have the largest inequalities in child survival, while Colombia, the Philippines and Kazakhstan have the lowest levels among the countries measured. Conclusions Total health inequality estimates should be routinely reported alongside average levels of health in populations and groups, as they reveal important policy-related information not otherwise knowable. This approach enables meaningful comparisons of inequality across countries and future analyses of the determinants of inequality.

  12. EBSD ANALYSIS OF PHASE COMPOSITIONS OF TRIP STEEL ON VARIOUS STRAIN LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Man

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Flat test bar made of TRIP steel was sequentially strained in tension. Eeach deformation step was made on a predefined strain level in which the phase composition was measured using EBSD; the analyses were made ex-situ exactly in the same area of 30x30µm. Retained austenite (RA was present in the form of elongated grains (plates and roughly equiaxial ones. The RA content was initially 14.5% and decreased with imposed strain down to approximately 5% in selected strain range from 0% to 10%. This is in agreement to some extent with outcomes of both in-situ and ex-situ experiments presented by other authors, the difference beeing supposed either in data clean up or in variation in micriostruct ure of particular steel. Kernel average misorientation method was confirmed as useful tool to discern bainite and grainy ferrite in lightly deformed specimen. Problem arose in distinguishing between martensite and deformed ferrite at higher deformation levels because of high dislocation density and/or lattice distortion in both components. The ferrite and retained austenite fraction were analysed with sufficient accuracy; martensite fraction was established with high degree of uncertainty.

  13. Heavy metal levels and solid phase speciation in street dusts of Delhi, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Anju D.K.

    2003-01-01

    Although the street dusts of Delhi contain considerably high levels of Cr, Ni, Cu, Cd, Zn and Pb, solid phase speciation results indicate comparatively limited environmental mobility and bioavailability of Ni and Cr. - Street dust samples were collected from three different localities (industrial, heavy traffic and rural) situated in the greater Delhi area of India. The samples analyzed for Cd, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cu, and Cr indicated remarkably high levels of Cr, Ni, and Cu in the industrial area, whilst Pb and Cd did not show any discernible variations between the three localities. A multivariate statistical approach (Principal Component Analysis) was used to define the possible origin of metals in dusts. The street dusts were sequentially extracted so that the solid pools of Cd, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cu, Cr could be partitioned into five operationally defined fractions viz. exchangeable, bound to carbonates, bound to Fe-Mn oxides, bound to organic matter and residual. Metal recoveries in sequential extractions were ±10% of the independently measured total metal concentrations. Cd was the only metal present appreciably (27.16%) in the exchangeable fraction and Cu was the only metal predominantly associated (44.26%) with organic fraction. Zn (45.64%) and Pb (28.26%) were present mainly in the Fe-Mn oxide fraction and the residual fraction was the most dominant solid phase pool of Cr (88.12%) and Ni (70.94%). Assuming that the mobility and bioavailability are related to the solubility of geochemical forms of the metals and decrease in order of extraction, the apparent mobility and potential metal bioavailability for these highly contaminated street dust samples is: Cd>Zn congruent with Pb>Ni>Cu>Cr

  14. Evaluation of two-phase flow solvers using Level Set and Volume of Fluid methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilger, C.; Aboukhedr, M.; Vogiatzaki, K.; Cant, R. S.

    2017-09-01

    Two principal methods have been used to simulate the evolution of two-phase immiscible flows of liquid and gas separated by an interface. These are the Level-Set (LS) method and the Volume of Fluid (VoF) method. Both methods attempt to represent the very sharp interface between the phases and to deal with the large jumps in physical properties associated with it. Both methods have their own strengths and weaknesses. For example, the VoF method is known to be prone to excessive numerical diffusion, while the basic LS method has some difficulty in conserving mass. Major progress has been made in remedying these deficiencies, and both methods have now reached a high level of physical accuracy. Nevertheless, there remains an issue, in that each of these methods has been developed by different research groups, using different codes and most importantly the implementations have been fine tuned to tackle different applications. Thus, it remains unclear what are the remaining advantages and drawbacks of each method relative to the other, and what might be the optimal way to unify them. In this paper, we address this gap by performing a direct comparison of two current state-of-the-art variations of these methods (LS: RCLSFoam and VoF: interPore) and implemented in the same code (OpenFoam). We subject both methods to a pair of benchmark test cases while using the same numerical meshes to examine a) the accuracy of curvature representation, b) the effect of tuning parameters, c) the ability to minimise spurious velocities and d) the ability to tackle fluids with very different densities. For each method, one of the test cases is chosen to be fairly benign while the other test case is expected to present a greater challenge. The results indicate that both methods can be made to work well on both test cases, while displaying different sensitivity to the relevant parameters.

  15. Genetic Variation in the Natriuretic Peptide System, Circulating Natriuretic Peptide Levels, and Blood Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Jørgen L; Nielsen, Søren J; Torp-Pedersen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    -h ambulatory BP measurements (ABPMs) will influence the effect of NP gene variations on BP levels.MethodsWe used rs632793 at the NPPB (NP precursor B) locus to investigate the relationship between genetically determined serum N-terminal pro-brain NP (NT-proBNP) concentrations and BP levels...... determined by both 24-h ABPMs and OBPMs in a population consisting of 1,397 generally healthy individuals taking no BP-lowering drugs.Resultsrs632793 was significantly correlated with serum Nt-proBNP levels (r = 0.10, P = 0.0003), and participants with the A:A genotype had lower serum Nt-proBNP levels than......). Office BP decreased across the genotypes from A:A to G:G, but the differences did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.12).ConclusionsThis study suggests that 24-h ABPMs is a better method than OBPMs to detect significant differences in BP levels related to genetic variance and provides further...

  16. Study of lifetimes of fluorescence levels of tetravalent uranium in the incommensurate phase of thorium tetrabromide and tetrachloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milicic, A.

    1989-01-01

    The lifetimes of radiative levels of tetravalent uranium in the incommensurate phase of thorium tetrahalides have been measured as a function of different parameters: site symmetry, temperature and concentration. The incommensurate phase of thorium tetrabromide and tetrachloride is characterized by a continuous distribution of site symmetries induced by a continuous and weak displacement of the halides around the thorium (uranium) ions. At low temperature, 4.2 K, the lifetime variation as a function of excited classes of symmetry is governed by the radiative process probability as well as the energy transfer between uranium ions in different sites. At higher temperature, a model based on a Boltzmann equilibrium between closed energy levels is able to reproduce the experimental lifetime variation as a function of the temperature, for a given class of symmetry. For the variation of lifetime as a function of uranium ion concentrations, at high dilution and in the case of U 4+ : ThBr 4 , there is a competition between the energy transfer and thermal population of excited states [fr

  17. Phase and amplitude Variation of Weddell Sea Anomaly at King Sejong Station in Antarctic between 2005 and 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, J.; Lee, C.; Jee, G.

    2011-12-01

    The Weddell Sea Anomaly (WSA) in ionosphere has been defined by higher electron density at nighttime than during the daytime on summer season near the region of the Weddell Sea.Recent studies show the WSA is an extreme case of longitudinal variation and occurrs all of season except for winter when F10.7 is high. We examine the temporal variation of the WSA using the ground-based GPS TEC measured King Sejong station (geographic latitude 62.2°S, longitude 58.5°W, corrected geomagnetic latitude 48°S) in Antarctic between 2005 and 2009 in condition of solar minimum. We analyze the characteristics of diurnal and semi-diurnal variation for all of years and examine the yearly and seasonal variation of phase and amplitude of the WSA. Our results of local time GPS TEC variation show the amplitudes of the WSA are significant in the summer and its phases appear to be changed according to the season.

  18. TAXATION AND INTERNAL MIGRATION - EVIDENCE FROM THE SWISS CENSUS USING COMMUNITY-LEVEL VARIATION IN INCOME TAX RATES

    OpenAIRE

    Liebig, Thomas; Puhani, Patrick A.; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between income tax rate variation and internal migration for the unique case of Switzerland, whose system of determining tax rates primarily at the community level results in enough variation to permit analysis of their influence on migration. Specifically, using Swiss census data, we analyze migratory responses to tax rate variations for various groups defined by age, education, and nationality/residence permit. The results suggest that young Swiss college gra...

  19. 14 CFR 91.865 - Phased compliance for operators with base level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Phased compliance for operators with base... Noise Limits § 91.865 Phased compliance for operators with base level. Except as provided in paragraph... maximum of: (1) After December 31, 1994, 75 percent of the base level held by the operator; (2) After...

  20. new topology for single-phase, three-level, spwm vsi with lc filter

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    level PWM inverter. However, this is not the case with single-phase PWM inverters. In these days, the popular single-phase inverters adopt the full-bridge type using approximate sinusoidal modulation technique. The output voltage in them has two values: zero and pos- itive supply dc voltage levels in the positive half cycle.

  1. Experimental Results on the Level Crossing Intervals of the Phase of Sine Wave Plus Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Neji; Munakata, Tsutomu; Mimaki, Tadashi

    1993-03-01

    Experimental study was made on the level crossing intervals of a phase process of a sine wave plus narrow-band Gaussian noise. Since successive level crossings of phase do not necessarily occur alternately in the upward and downward direction due to the phase jump beyond 2π, the usual definitions of the probability densities of the level crossing intervals for continuous random processes are not applicable in the case of the phase process. Therefore, the probability densities of level crossing intervals of phase process are newly defined. Measurements of these densities were performed for noise having lowpass spectra of Gaussian and 7th order Butterworth types. Results are given for various values of the signal-to-noise power ratio and of the crossing level, and compared with corresponding approximation developed under the assumption of quasi-independence. The validity of the assumption depends on the spectrum shape of the noise.

  2. Variational principles

    CERN Document Server

    Moiseiwitsch, B L

    2004-01-01

    This graduate-level text's primary objective is to demonstrate the expression of the equations of the various branches of mathematical physics in the succinct and elegant form of variational principles (and thereby illuminate their interrelationship). Its related intentions are to show how variational principles may be employed to determine the discrete eigenvalues for stationary state problems and to illustrate how to find the values of quantities (such as the phase shifts) that arise in the theory of scattering. Chapter-by-chapter treatment consists of analytical dynamics; optics, wave mecha

  3. Multiple mechanisms of phase variation of PorA in Neisseria meningitidis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ende, A.; Hopman, C. T.; Dankert, J.

    2000-01-01

    Previously, we reported that PorA expression in Neisseria meningitidis is modulated by variation in the length of the homopolymeric tract of guanidine residues between the -35 and -10 regions of the promoter or by deletion of porA. To reveal additional mechanisms of variation in PorA expression, the

  4. The difference nanocomposite hardness level using LED photoactivation based on curing period variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasiana Tatian

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Polimerizatian is the critical stage to determine the quality of composites resin, this involves isolated monomer carbon double bonds being converted to an extended network of single bonds. Physical and mechanical properties of composites are influenced by the level of conversion attained during polymerization. An adequate light intensity and light curing time are important to obtain the degree of polymerization. The objective of this study is to evaluate the difference of the hardness nanocomposites which activated by LED LCU based on the variation of curing times. This study is a true experimental research. The samples were made from nanocomposites material with cylinder form of 4 mm in depth, 6 mm in diameter. This samples divided into 3 groups of curing times. Group, I was cured for 20's curing time as a control due to manufactory recommended; Group II was cured for 30's, and Group III was cured for 40's and the hardness (Rebound hardness tester was determined using Rebound scale (RS and converted by Mohs scale (MS. There was a very significant level of hardness rate from each group using ANOVA test. The result of the study concludes that there were the differences on the nanocomposites hardness level cured under different curing times 20, 30 and 40 sec. The longer of curing times, the higher level of hardness.

  5. Allelic variation of bile salt hydrolase genes in Lactobacillus salivarius does not determine bile resistance levels.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fang, Fang

    2009-09-01

    Commensal lactobacilli frequently produce bile salt hydrolase (Bsh) enzymes whose roles in intestinal survival are unclear. Twenty-six Lactobacillus salivarius strains from different sources all harbored a bsh1 allele on their respective megaplasmids. This allele was related to the plasmid-borne bsh1 gene of the probiotic strain UCC118. A second locus (bsh2) was found in the chromosomes of two strains that had higher bile resistance levels. Four Bsh1-encoding allele groups were identified, defined by truncations or deletions involving a conserved residue. In vitro analyses showed that this allelic variation was correlated with widely varying bile deconjugation phenotypes. Despite very low activity of the UCC118 Bsh1 enzyme, a mutant lacking this protein had significantly lower bile resistance, both in vitro and during intestinal transit in mice. However, the overall bile resistance phenotype of this and other strains was independent of the bsh1 allele type. Analysis of the L. salivarius transcriptome upon exposure to bile and cholate identified a multiplicity of stress response proteins and putative efflux proteins that appear to broadly compensate for, or mask, the effects of allelic variation of bsh genes. Bsh enzymes with different bile-degrading kinetics, though apparently not the primary determinants of bile resistance in L. salivarius, may have additional biological importance because of varying effects upon bile as a signaling molecule in the host.

  6. Phase-field modelling of ductile fracture: a variational gradient-extended plasticity-damage theory and its micromorphic regularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miehe, C; Teichtmeister, S; Aldakheel, F

    2016-04-28

    This work outlines a novel variational-based theory for the phase-field modelling of ductile fracture in elastic-plastic solids undergoing large strains. The phase-field approach regularizes sharp crack surfaces within a pure continuum setting by a specific gradient damage modelling. It is linked to a formulation of gradient plasticity at finite strains. The framework includes two independent length scales which regularize both the plastic response as well as the crack discontinuities. This ensures that the damage zones of ductile fracture are inside of plastic zones, and guarantees on the computational side a mesh objectivity in post-critical ranges. © 2016 The Author(s).

  7. Lake-level variation in the Lahontan basin for the past 50,000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, L.V.; Thompson, R.S.

    1987-01-01

    Selected radiocarbon data on surficial materials from the Lahontan basin, Nevada and California, provide a chronology of lake-level variation for the past 50,000 yr. A moderate-sized lake connected three western Lahontan subbasins (the Smoke Creek-Black Rock Desert subbasin, the Pyramid Lake subbasin, and the Winnemucca Dry Lake subbasin) from about 45,000 to 16,500 yr B.P. Between 50,000 and 45,000 yr B.P., Walker Lake rose to its sill level in Adrian Valley and spilled to the Carson Desert subbasin. By 20,000 yr B.P., lake level in the western Lahontan subbasins had risen to about 1265 m above sea level, where it remained for 3500 yr. By 16,000 yr B.P., lake level in the western Lahontan subbasins had fallen to 1240 m. This recession appears synchronous with a desiccation of Walker Lake; however, whether the Walker Lake desiccation resulted from climate change or from diversion of the Walker River is not known. From about 15,000 to 13,500 yr B.P., lake level rapidly rose, so that Lake Lahontan was a single body of water by 14,000 yr B.P. The lake appears to have reached a maximum highstand altitude of 1330 m by 13,500 yr B.P., a condition that persisted until about 12,500 yr B.P., at which time lake level fell ???100 m. No data exist that indicate the level of lakes in the various subbasins between 12,000 and 10,000 yr B.P. During the Holocene, the Lahontan basin was the site of shallow lakes, with many subbasins being the site of one or more periods of desiccation. The shape of the lake-level curve for the three western subbasins indicates that past changes in the hydrologic balance (and hence climate) of the Lahontan basin were large in magnitude and took place in a rapid step-like manner. The rapid changes in lake level are hypothesized to have resulted from changes in the mean position of the jet stream, as it was forced north or south by the changing size and shape of the continental ice sheet. ?? 1987.

  8. Phase control of a Zeeman-split He-Ne gas laser by variation of the gaseous discharge voltage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, W N; Hunt, R H

    1992-07-20

    Zeeman-split lasers are useful for precise positioning or motion control. In applications that employ such a laser to control closely the position of a moving system, phase noise in the Zeeman frequency is a serious problem. Control of low-frequency phase noise can be obtained through variation of the external magnetic field by way of a solenoid wound around the laser tube. It is the finding in this work that control of the residual higher-frequency noise of a He-Ne laser can be obtained through small variations of the high voltage that is used to effect the gaseous discharge in the laser tube. The application of the present system is to the control of the path difference in a Fourier-transform interferometric spectrometer.

  9. Seasonal Changes in Atmospheric Noise Levels and the Annual Variation in Pigeon Homing Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagstrum, J. T.; McIsaac, H. P.; Drob, D. P.

    2015-12-01

    The remarkable navigational ability of homing pigeons (Columba livia) is influenced by a number of factors, an unknown one of which causes the "Wintereffekt"1 or annual variation in homing performance. Minima in homeward orientation and return speeds have been observed in winter, with maxima in summer, during repetitive pigeon releases from single sites near experimental lofts in Wilhelmshaven, Göttingen, and Munich, Germany, and near Pisa, Italy1-4. Overall the annual variation is more pronounced in northern Germany than Italy4, and both mature and juvenile cohorts respond to this seasonal factor. Older, more experienced pigeons are better at compensating for its effects than naïve ones, but are still affected after numerous releases. The narrow low-frequency band of atmospheric background noise (microbaroms; 0.1-0.3 Hz) also varies with an annual cycle that generally has higher amplitudes in winter than in summer depending on location5. In addition, homing pigeons, and possibly other birds, apparently use infrasonic signals of similar frequency as navigational cues6, and a seasonal variation in background noise levels could cause corresponding changes in signal-to-noise ratios and thus in homing performance. The annual variation in homing performance, however, was not observed during long-term pigeon releases at two sites in eastern North America. The annual and geographic variability in homing performance in the northern hemisphere can be explained to a first order by seasonal changes in infrasonic noise sources related to ocean storm activity, and to the direction and intensity of stratospheric winds. In addition, increased dispersion in departure bearings of individual birds for some North American releases were likely caused by additional infrasonic noise associated with severe weather events during tornado and Atlantic hurricane seasons. 1Kramer, G. & von Saint Paul, U., J. Ornithol. 97, 353-370 (1956); 2Wallraff, H. G., Z. Tierpsychol. 17, 82-113 (1960

  10. School and class-level variations and patterns of physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenholt, Carina Bjørnskov; Pisinger, Veronica Sofie Clara; Danquah, Ida Høgstedt

    2018-01-01

    is to describe patterns of PA and assess variations between schools and classes in PA, in a large cohort of Danish high school students. METHODS: Self-reported cross-sectional data came from The Danish National Youth Study, comprising a total of 70,674 students attending 119 different schools and 3213 classes....... Multilevel logistic regressions were applied to evaluate the association between socio-demographic variables and patterns of PA, and to assess the impact of schools and classes on PA measures. RESULTS: Students whose parents have achieved a lower level of education, older students and girls of perceived......BACKGROUND: There is limited knowledge of physical activity (PA) patterns among high school students. High schools plays an important role as context for the students, but it is uncertain to what extent schools influence student participation in PA during leisure time. The purpose of this study...

  11. Stand-level variation in evapotranspiration in non-water-limited eucalypt forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyon, Richard G.; Nolan, Rachael H.; Hawthorn, Sandra N. D.; Lane, Patrick N. J.

    2017-08-01

    To better understand water and energy cycles in forests over years to decades, measurements of spatial and long-term temporal variability in evapotranspiration (Ea) are needed. In mountainous terrain, plot-level measurements are important to achieving this. Forest inventory data including tree density and size measurements, often collected repeatedly over decades, sample the variability occurring within the geographic and topographic range of specific forest types. Using simple allometric relationships, tree stocking and size data can be used to estimate variables including sapwood area index (SAI), which may be strongly correlated with annual Ea. This study analysed plot-level variability in SAI and its relationship with overstorey and understorey transpiration, interception and evaporation over a 670 m elevation gradient, in non-water-limited, even-aged stands of Eucalyptus regnans F. Muell. to determine how well spatial variation in annual Ea from forests can be mapped using SAI. Over the 3 year study, mean sap velocity in five E. regnans stands was uncorrelated with overstorey sapwood area index (SAI) or elevation: annual transpiration was predicted well by SAI (R2 0.98). Overstorey and total annual interception were positively correlated with SAI (R2 0.90 and 0.75). Ea from the understorey was strongly correlated with vapour pressure deficit (VPD) and net radiation (Rn) measured just above the understorey, but relationships between understorey Ea and VPD and Rn differed between understorey types and understorey annual Ea was not correlated with SAI. Annual total Ea was also strongly correlated with SAI: the relationship being similar to two previous studies in the same region, despite differences in stand age and species. Thus, spatial variation in annual Ea can be reliably mapped using measurements of SAI.

  12. Long-term stability and circadian variation in circulating levels of surfactant protein D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoegh, Silje Vermedal; Sorensen, Grith Lykke; Tornoe, Ida

    2010-01-01

    Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is an oligomeric calcium-dependent lectin with important roles in innate host defence against infectious microorganisms. Several studies have shown that patients with inflammatory lung disease have elevated levels of circulating SP-D, and serum SP-D has been suggested...... to be used as a biomarker for disease e.g. in COPD. We aimed to investigate the variation of circulating SP-D in healthy individuals in and between days for 6 months. In addition, we studied the SP-D response to a standardized physical exercise programme. SP-D was measured in serum using a 5-layered ELISA...... pre-exercise level of SP-D was 746 ng/ml (95% CI: 384-2035), and immediately after cessation of physical activity the median SP-D level was 767 ng/ml (95% CI: 367-1885) (P=0.248). Our findings underscore the importance of standardized blood sampling conditions in future studies on the potential role...

  13. Transformer sound level caused by core magnetostriction and winding stress displacement variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Hung Hsu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Magnetostriction caused by the exciting variation of the magnetic core and the current conducted by the winding wired to the core has a significant result impact on a power transformer. This paper presents the sound of a factory transformer before on-site delivery for no-load tests. This paper also discusses the winding characteristics from the transformer full-load tests. The simulation and the measurement for several transformers with capacities ranging from 15 to 60 MVA and high voltage 132kV to low voltage 33 kV are performed. This study compares the sound levels for transformers by no-load test (core/magnetostriction and full-load test (winding/displacement ε. The difference between the simulated and the measured sound levels is about 3dB. The results show that the sound level depends on several parameters, including winding displacement, capacity, mass of the core and windings. Comparative results of magnetic induction of cores and the electromagnetic force of windings for no-load and full-load conditions are examined.

  14. Magnetic storms and variations in hormone levels among residents of North Polar area - Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breus, Tamara; Zenchenko, Tatiana; Boiko, Evgeni

    It was previously shown that magnetic storms lead to an increase in the level of cortisol and noradrenalin in healthy and sick people with cardiovascular diseases [Breus Rapoport. 2003]. However, in the healthy group in the cited study was only 4 people and it seemed that these results need to be checked. In the present work the 4 examinations (January, March, June, October) of large groups of healthy inhabitants of high latitudes (Svalbard, the most northerly in the world year-round inhabited settlements) on the blood levels of adrenal hormones (cortisol) and thyroid hormones (triiodothyronine (T3 ) and thyroxine T4) have been done. The aim was to study the possible sensitivity of these biochemical parameters in three independent groups of people living in this region (men working underground (364 samples), the men working on the ground (274 samples) and women (280 samples)) to variations in external natural factors of high latitudes. For the analysis we used the following parameters of space and terrestrial weather :index of intensity of solar radio emission at a wavelength 10.7sm (RF10.7), planetary geomagnetic activity index - daily Kp index ( Kp) , the daily average Ap index ( Ap) , the maximum per every 3 -hour Kp index ) as well as the daily average indicators of flow rate of galactic cosmic rays neutron component (N), atmospheric pressure ( RATM ) and its rate of change ( the difference between the Ratm today and yesterday ) according to the geophysical station Oulu (Finland , http://cosmicrays.oulu.fi/). The obtained data indicate that the most expressed dependence of the level of studied three hormones is from the level of geomagnetic activity (GMA)-Kp, Ap, Kpmax - 3h. For two of the four seasons (June and October) with increasing levels of GMA a significant (p stress reaction in reply on GMA disturbance. 1. Breus T.K. and Rapoport S.I. Magnetic storms. Medico- biological aspects (in Russian), Publ.Co Soviet Sport,.Moscow, 2003, 271p.

  15. A combined single-multiphase flow formulation of the premixing phase using the level set method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leskovar, M.; Marn, J.

    1999-01-01

    The premixing phase of a steam explosion covers the interaction of the melt jet or droplets with the water prior to any steam explosion occurring. To get a better insight of the hydrodynamic processes during the premixing phase beside hot premixing experiments, where the water evaporation is significant, also cold isothermal premixing experiments are performed. The specialty of isothermal premixing experiments is that three phases are involved: the water, the air and the spheres phase, but only the spheres phase mixes with the other two phases whereas the water and air phases do not mix and remain separated by a free surface. Our idea therefore was to treat the isothermal premixing process with a combined single-multiphase flow model. In this combined model the water and air phase are treated as a single phase with discontinuous phase properties at the water air interface, whereas the spheres are treated as usually with a multiphase flow model, where the spheres represent the dispersed phase and the common water-air phase represents the continuous phase. The common water-air phase was described with the front capturing method based on the level set formulation. In the level set formulation, the boundary of two-fluid interfaces is modeled as the zero set of a smooth signed normal distance function defined on the entire physical domain. The boundary is then updated by solving a nonlinear equation of the Hamilton-Jacobi type on the whole domain. With this single-multiphase flow model the Queos isothermal premixing Q08 has been simulated. A numerical analysis using different treatments of the water-air interface (level set, high-resolution and upwind) has been performed for the incompressible and compressible case and the results were compared to experimental measurements.(author)

  16. Multi-phase flow monitoring with electrical impedance tomography using level set based method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Dong; Khambampati, Anil Kumar; Kim, Sin; Kim, Kyung Youn

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • LSM has been used for shape reconstruction to monitor multi-phase flow using EIT. • Multi-phase level set model for conductivity is represented by two level set functions. • LSM handles topological merging and breaking naturally during evolution process. • To reduce the computational time, a narrowband technique was applied. • Use of narrowband and optimization approach results in efficient and fast method. - Abstract: In this paper, a level set-based reconstruction scheme is applied to multi-phase flow monitoring using electrical impedance tomography (EIT). The proposed scheme involves applying a narrowband level set method to solve the inverse problem of finding the interface between the regions having different conductivity values. The multi-phase level set model for the conductivity distribution inside the domain is represented by two level set functions. The key principle of the level set-based method is to implicitly represent the shape of interface as the zero level set of higher dimensional function and then solve a set of partial differential equations. The level set-based scheme handles topological merging and breaking naturally during the evolution process. It also offers several advantages compared to traditional pixel-based approach. Level set-based method for multi-phase flow is tested with numerical and experimental data. It is found that level set-based method has better reconstruction performance when compared to pixel-based method

  17. Defect-induced local variation of crystal phase transition temperature in metal-halide perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrovolsky, Alexander; Merdasa, Aboma; Unger, Eva L; Yartsev, Arkady; Scheblykin, Ivan G

    2017-06-26

    Solution-processed organometal halide perovskites are hybrid crystalline semiconductors highly interesting for low-cost and efficient optoelectronics. Their properties are dependent on the crystal structure. Literature shows a variety of crystal phase transition temperatures and often a spread of the transition over tens of degrees Kelvin. We explain this inconsistency by demonstrating that the temperature of the tetragonal-to-orthorhombic phase transition in methylammonium lead triiodide depends on the concentration and nature of local defects. Phase transition in individual nanowires was studied by photoluminescence microspectroscopy and super-resolution imaging. We propose that upon cooling from 160 to 140 K, domains of the crystal containing fewer defects stay in the tetragonal phase longer than highly defected domains that readily transform to the high bandgap orthorhombic phase at higher temperatures. The existence of relatively pure tetragonal domains during the phase transition leads to drastic photoluminescence enhancement, which is inhomogeneously distributed across perovskite microcrystals.Understanding crystal phase transition in materials is of fundamental importance. Using luminescence spectroscopy and super-resolution imaging, Dobrovolsky et al. study the transition from the tetragonal to orthorhombic crystal phase in methylammonium lead triiodide nanowires at low temperature.

  18. Stochastic level-set variational implicit-solvent approach to solute-solvent interfacial fluctuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Shenggao, E-mail: sgzhou@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: bli@math.ucsd.edu [Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Center for Interdiscipline Research, Soochow University, 1 Shizi Street, Jiangsu, Suzhou 215006 (China); Sun, Hui; Cheng, Li-Tien [Department of Mathematics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0112 (United States); Dzubiella, Joachim [Soft Matter and Functional Materials, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, 14109 Berlin, Germany and Institut für Physik, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Li, Bo, E-mail: sgzhou@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: bli@math.ucsd.edu [Department of Mathematics and Quantitative Biology Graduate Program, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0112 (United States); McCammon, J. Andrew [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Department of Pharmacology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0365 (United States)

    2016-08-07

    Recent years have seen the initial success of a variational implicit-solvent model (VISM), implemented with a robust level-set method, in capturing efficiently different hydration states and providing quantitatively good estimation of solvation free energies of biomolecules. The level-set minimization of the VISM solvation free-energy functional of all possible solute-solvent interfaces or dielectric boundaries predicts an equilibrium biomolecular conformation that is often close to an initial guess. In this work, we develop a theory in the form of Langevin geometrical flow to incorporate solute-solvent interfacial fluctuations into the VISM. Such fluctuations are crucial to biomolecular conformational changes and binding process. We also develop a stochastic level-set method to numerically implement such a theory. We describe the interfacial fluctuation through the “normal velocity” that is the solute-solvent interfacial force, derive the corresponding stochastic level-set equation in the sense of Stratonovich so that the surface representation is independent of the choice of implicit function, and develop numerical techniques for solving such an equation and processing the numerical data. We apply our computational method to study the dewetting transition in the system of two hydrophobic plates and a hydrophobic cavity of a synthetic host molecule cucurbit[7]uril. Numerical simulations demonstrate that our approach can describe an underlying system jumping out of a local minimum of the free-energy functional and can capture dewetting transitions of hydrophobic systems. In the case of two hydrophobic plates, we find that the wavelength of interfacial fluctuations has a strong influence to the dewetting transition. In addition, we find that the estimated energy barrier of the dewetting transition scales quadratically with the inter-plate distance, agreeing well with existing studies of molecular dynamics simulations. Our work is a first step toward the

  19. Effects of phase memory in spectroscopy of test field of two level system at small frequencies of collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkhomenko, A.I.; Shalagin, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    One studied theoretically spectrum of absorption (intensification) of a weak sounding field by two-level atoms moving in a strong resonance laser field and colliding with buffer gas atoms. The analysis was performed for the case of small frequencies of collisions in contrast to the Doppler width of absorption line (gas low pressure) with regard to the arbitrary variation of a radiation induced dipole moment phase at elastic collisions of gas particles. The effects of phase memory are found to result in very strong quantitative and qualitative transformation of a test field spectrum even in case of infrequent collisions when the well-known Dike mechanism of manifestation of phase memory effects (elimination of the Doppler widening due to limitation of spatial motion of particles by collisions) does not work. Strong influence of phase memory effects on spectral resonances at gas low pressure results from the fact that phase retaining collisions change dependence on velocity of the partial index of refraction n(v) (index of refraction for particles moving with v velocity) [ru

  20. Seasonal variation in the environmental background level of cosmic ray produced 22Na

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokuyama, Hideki; Igarashi, Shuichi

    1998-01-01

    22 Na (half life 2.6 year) is produced by cosmic rays, nuclear test and reactor. 7 Be (half life 53.3 day) is produced in atmosphere by reaction. 7 Be/ 22 Na activity ratio is good factor to observe the mixing process between stratosphere and troposphere atmosphere. The seasonal variation of 7 Be and 22 Na deposition, the ratio and the background level of 22 Na deposition were observed in Fukui city and reported in this paper. Very large reasonable change of 22 Na deposition was observed, especially the largest peak in winter. Because the concentration of cosmic-ray-produced nuclear in precipitation and the amount of precipitation were large in winter. 22 Na produced by the previous nuclear test was attenuated. The present 22 Na is only produced by cosmic rays, indicating the background level. 22 Na deposition at Fukui was 0.42Bq m -2 y -1 , one ten-thousandth of 7 Be deposition. 7 Be/ 22 Na activity ratio was changed in season and the largest peak was shown in autumn. In this reason, atmosphere showed relatively short residence time in the lower part of stratosphere, Mixture and exchange of atmosphere between stratosphere and troposphere were the most active in autumn. (S.Y.)

  1. Investigations of radioactivity level variations in Armenia after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nalbandyan, A.

    2006-01-01

    The problem of radioactive pollution of biosphere has been acquiring a special topicality after nuclear weapon testing and NPP-induced accidents that have already brought to global pollution of the Earth with radioactive substances. One of visual examples of regional radioactive pollution is dispersion of emissions all over the territory of Central Europe after the Chernobyl accident, which aftermaths impacted Armenia, as well. Monitoring investigations in the Ararat Valley showed a precise peak of gross radioactivity of atmospheric fallout in 1986 - the year of Chernobyl accident. Gross mean annual radioactivity was established 1783 10 7 Bq/KXm 2 yr. Later, a sharp fall in the activity was observed. Mostly, radioactive fallout consisted of short-lived radionuclides. Measurements for 1986-1987 showed that gross β-radioactivity level in soils amounted to 977-1022 Bq/KXg, repeated measurements in 1991 allowed establishing 640-656 Bq/KXg. A precise indicator of radioactive emissions that reached Armenia after the Chernobyl accident was a short-lived radionuclide 134 Cs (T 1 /2=2.07 yr) identified in soils. Measurements made 2 years later showed half as much decay of 134 Cs, and in some points established were its traces only. 137 Cs/134 Cs ratio in varied 1.4 to 1.8 in atmospheric fallout and 2.1 to 33.4 in soils. Thus, monitoring investigations evidence a regional character of Chernobyl emission dispersion, this being proved by investigations of radioactivity level variations in Armenia, too

  2. Impact of Tidal Level Variations on Wave Energy Absorption at Wave Hub

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Castellucci

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The energy absorption of the wave energy converters (WEC characterized by a limited stroke length —like the point absorbers developed at Uppsala University—depends on the sea level variation at the deployment site. In coastal areas characterized by high tidal ranges, the daily energy production of the generators is not optimal. The study presented in this paper quantifies the effects of the changing sea level at the Wave Hub test site, located at the south-west coast of England. This area is strongly affected by tides: the tidal height calculated as the difference between the Mean High Water Spring and the Mean Low Water Spring in 2014 was about 6.6 m. The results are obtained from a hydro-mechanic model that analyzes the behaviour of the point absorber at the Wave Hub, taking into account the sea state occurrence scatter diagram and the tidal time series at the site. It turns out that the impact of the tide decreases the energy absorption by 53%. For this reason, the need for a tidal compensation system to be included in the design of the WEC becomes compelling. The economic advantages are evaluated for different scenarios: the economic analysis proposed within the paper allows an educated guess to be made on the profits. The alternative of extending the stroke length of the WEC is investigated, and the gain in energy absorption is estimated.

  3. Literacy skills gaps: A cross-level analysis on international and intergenerational variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Suehye

    2018-02-01

    The global agenda for sustainable development has centred lifelong learning on UNESCO's Education 2030 Framework for Action. The study described in this article aimed to examine international and intergenerational variations in literacy skills gaps within the context of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). For this purpose, the author examined the trend of literacy gaps in different countries using multilevel and multisource data from the OECD's Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) and UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning survey data from the third edition of the Global Report on Adult Learning and Education (GRALE III). In this article, particular attention is paid to exploring the specific effects of education systems on literacy skills gaps among different age groups. Key findings of this study indicate substantial intergenerational literacy gaps within countries as well as different patterns of literacy gaps across countries. Young generations generally outscore older adults in literacy skills, but feature bigger gaps when examined by gender and social origin. In addition, this study finds an interesting tendency for young generations to benefit from a system of Recognition, Validation and Accreditation (RVA) in closing literacy gaps by formal schooling at country level. This implies the potential of an RVA system for tackling educational inequality in initial schooling. The article concludes with suggestions for integrating literacy skills as a foundation of lifelong learning into national RVA frameworks and mechanisms at system level.

  4. Modeling the dependency of radon concentration levels inside ancient Egyptian tombs on the ambient temperature variations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metwally, S M; Abo-Elmagdb, M [Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Ain Shams University, P. O. Box 11566, Cairo (Egypt); Salamaa, E [National Institute for Standard, Radiation Measurements Department, Cairo (Egypt)

    2007-06-15

    Radon concentration inside partially closed places like dwellings, caves and tombs, depends on many parameters. Some parameters are known quantitatively as radon exhalation rate for walls, decay constant, surface to volume ratio and outdoor concentration while other parameters as ventilation rate is in common known qualitatively due to useless of traditional methods (tracer gases) in many places as ancient Egyptian tombs. This work introduces a derived mathematical model to evaluate the sensitivity of radon concentration levels inside single sided opening places as ancient Egyptian tombs on the ambient temperature differences. The obtained formula for the natural ventilation rate depends on the indoor and outdoor temperature difference and the geometrical dimensions of the doorway. The effects of in and out flow mixing, air viscosity, streamline contraction, swirling flow and turbulence, were taken into consideration in terms of an empirical correction factor. According UNSCEAR reports, the exhalation rate {phi}=C{sub ra}{lambda}{sub rn} f{rho}{sub s}(1-{epsilon})L; C{sub ra} the effective radium content, {lambda}{sub rn} decay constant, f emanation fraction, {rho}{sub s} soil grain density, {epsilon} porosity and L diffusion length, these are approximately static parameters but the variability of ambient temperature introduces a source of energy of fluctuating strength to radon atoms in rocks which controls the flow rate and the ambient content of radon. Therefore, the change of outdoor and indoor temperature difference causes fluctuation of value and direction of volume flow rate in such places consequently causes the daily variation and on average the seasonal variation of radon concentration. Therefore according to the present model, the daily accurate expectation of radon concentrations inside ancient Egyptian tombs, require precise measurements of indoor and outdoor temperatures.

  5. Phthalate metabolites in Norwegian mothers and children: Levels, diurnal variation and use of personal care products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhi, Amrit Kaur; Sabaredzovic, Azemira; Cequier, Enrique; Thomsen, Cathrine

    2017-12-01

    Exposure to phthalates has been associated with reproductive and developmental toxicity. Data on levels of these compounds in the Norwegian population is limited. In this study, urine samples were collected from 48 mothers and their children in two counties in Norway. Eleven different phthalate metabolites originating from six commonly used phthalates in consumer products were determined. Concentrations of phthalate metabolites were significantly higher in children compared to mothers except for mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP). The mothers provided several urine samples during 24hours (h) and diurnal variation showed that the concentrations in the morning urine samples (24-8h) were significantly higher than at other time-periods for most of the phthalate metabolites. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for 24-hour time-period were in the range of 0.49-0.81. These moderate to high ICCs indicate that one spot urine sample can be used to estimate the exposure to phthalates. Since a significant effect of time of day was observed, it is still advisable to standardize the collection time point to reduce the variation. For the mothers, the use of personal care products (PCPs) were less associated with morning urine samples than early day (8-12h) and evening (16-24h) urine samples. The use of perfume and hair products were positively associated with the urinary concentrations of low molecular weight phthalates. Use of shower soap and shampoo were positively associated with urinary concentration of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolites. For children, face cream use was positively associated with phthalate metabolites in the morning samples, and hand soap use was negatively associated with concentration of urinary DEHP metabolites in afternoon/evening samples. Since different PCPs were associated with the urinary phthalate metabolites in different time-periods during a day, more than one spot urine sample might be required to study associations between urinary

  6. Preliminary notes on brain weight variation across labrid fish species with different levels of cooperative behaviour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marta C.SOARES; Gon(c)alo I.ANDR(E); José R.PAULA

    2015-01-01

    Brain size and weight vary tremendously in the animal kingdom.It has been suggested that brain structural development must evolve balanced between the advantages of dealing with greater social challenges and the energetic costs of maintaining and developing larger brains.Here we ask if interspecific differences in cooperative behaviour (i.e.cleaning behaviour) are related to brain weight variations in four close-related species of Labrid fish:two are obligatory cleanerfish throughout their entire life (Labroides dimidiatus and L.bicolor),one facultative cleaner fish Labropsis australis and one last species that never engage in cleaning Labrichthys unilineatus.We first search for the link between the rate of species' cooperation and its relative brain weight,and finally,if the degree of social complexity and cooperation are reflected in the weight of its major brain substructures.Overall,no differences were found in relative brain weight (in relation to body weight) across species.Fine-scale differences were solely demonstrated for the facultative cleaner L.australis,at the brainstem level.Furthermore,data visual examination indicates that the average cerebellum and brainstem weights appear to be larger for L.dimidiatus.Because variation was solely found at specific brain areas (such as cerebellum and brainstem) and not for the whole brain weight values,it suggests that species social-ecological and cognitive demands may be directly contributing to a selective investment in relevant brain areas.This study provides first preliminary evidence that links potential differences in cognitive ability in cooperative behaviour to how these may mediate the evolution of brain structural development in non-mammal vertebrate groups [Current Zoology 61 (2):274-280,2015].

  7. Modeling the dependency of radon concentration levels inside ancient Egyptian tombs on the ambient temperature variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metwally, S.M.; Abo-Elmagdb, M.; Salamaa, E.

    2007-01-01

    Radon concentration inside partially closed places like dwellings, caves and tombs, depends on many parameters. Some parameters are known quantitatively as radon exhalation rate for walls, decay constant, surface to volume ratio and outdoor concentration while other parameters as ventilation rate is in common known qualitatively due to useless of traditional methods (tracer gases) in many places as ancient Egyptian tombs. This work introduces a derived mathematical model to evaluate the sensitivity of radon concentration levels inside single sided opening places as ancient Egyptian tombs on the ambient temperature differences. The obtained formula for the natural ventilation rate depends on the indoor and outdoor temperature difference and the geometrical dimensions of the doorway. The effects of in and out flow mixing, air viscosity, streamline contraction, swirling flow and turbulence, were taken into consideration in terms of an empirical correction factor. According UNSCEAR reports, the exhalation rate Φ=C ra λ rn fρ s (1-ε)L; C ra the effective radium content, λ rn decay constant, f emanation fraction, ρ s soil grain density, ε porosity and L diffusion length, these are approximately static parameters but the variability of ambient temperature introduces a source of energy of fluctuating strength to radon atoms in rocks which controls the flow rate and the ambient content of radon. Therefore, the change of outdoor and indoor temperature difference causes fluctuation of value and direction of volume flow rate in such places consequently causes the daily variation and on average the seasonal variation of radon concentration. Therefore according to the present model, the daily accurate expectation of radon concentrations inside ancient Egyptian tombs, require precise measurements of indoor and outdoor temperatures

  8. Fluvial Responses to Holocene sea Level Variations Along the Macdonald River, New South Wales, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustomji, P.; Chappell, J.; Olley, J.

    2003-12-01

    The Macdonald River drains the rugged eastern flanks of Australia's Great Dividing Range. It has a catchment area of 2000km2, restricted alluvial lowlands confined by bedrock interfluves and flows into the Hawkesbury River, a larger estuarine valley. The Macdonald valley is presently tidal for 14km from the Hawkesbury. At about 8000 year before present (BP), rising sea level invaded the Macdonald Valley for at least 35km upstream of the Hawkesbury River. Rapid aggradation occurred between 8000 and 6000 years BP and a sand bed river was established in the Macdonald Valley, its mouth prograding rapidly towards the Hawkesbury. Little is known about the character of the sand bed river during the +2 meter sea level highstand occurring between 5000 and 4000 BP. However, from 3000 to 1500 BP when sea level was consistently at +1 to +1.5m, major floodplain and levee-like structures, now virtually inactive, were established. The bed is inferred to have been elevated above its present day level and consequently intersected mean sea level (MSL) downstream of its present location. This is consistent with reported sea levels at +1 to +2m above present levels for the New South Wales coast at this time. From 1500 years BP, local sea level fell rapidly to its present level. Aggradation of the levee crests ceased and sedimentation along the valley became restricted to aggradation of an inset floodplain, within the pre-1500 BP deposits. The channel contracted and the sandy river bed incised. An equivalent and synchronous change in sedimentation style is observed along the Tuross River 400km south of the Macdonald, lending support to sea level variations being the factor driving this change. By 1850 AD, the bed dipped below MSL about 10km upstream of its inferred position prior to 1500 years BP. A series of large floods between 1949 and 1955 eroded significant volumes of sandy sediment from the Holocene deposits. The channel bed widened from between 25 and 50m width to ˜100m along

  9. JUPITER’S PHASE VARIATIONS FROM CASSINI : A TESTBED FOR FUTURE DIRECT-IMAGING MISSIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayorga, L. C.; Jackiewicz, J.; Rages, K.; West, R. A.; Knowles, B.; Lewis, N.; Marley, M. S.

    2016-01-01

    We present empirical phase curves of Jupiter from ∼0° to 140° as measured in multiple optical bandpasses by Cassini /Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) during the Millennium flyby of Jupiter in late 2000 to early 2001. Phase curves are of interest for studying the energy balance of Jupiter and understanding the scattering behavior of the planet as an exoplanet analog. We find that Jupiter is significantly darker at partial phases than an idealized Lambertian planet by roughly 25% and is not well fit by Jupiter-like exoplanet atmospheric models across all wavelengths. We provide analytic fits to Jupiter’s phase function in several Cassini /ISS imaging filter bandpasses. In addition, these observations show that Jupiter’s color is more variable with phase angle than predicted by models. Therefore, the color of even a near Jupiter-twin planet observed at a partial phase cannot be assumed to be comparable to that of Jupiter at full phase. We discuss how the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope and other future direct-imaging missions can enhance the study of cool giants.

  10. Conceptual design report for immobilized high-level waste interim storage facility (Phase 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgard, K.C.

    1998-01-01

    The Hanford Site Canister Storage Building (CSB Bldg. 212H) will be utilized to interim store Phase 1 HLW products. Project W-464, Immobilized High-Level Waste Interim Storage, will procure an onsite transportation system and retrofit the CSB to accommodate the Phase 1 HLW products. The Conceptual Design Report establishes the Project W-464 technical and cost basis

  11. Conceptual design report for immobilized high-level waste interim storage facility (Phase 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgard, K.C.

    1998-04-09

    The Hanford Site Canister Storage Building (CSB Bldg. 212H) will be utilized to interim store Phase 1 HLW products. Project W-464, Immobilized High-Level Waste Interim Storage, will procure an onsite transportation system and retrofit the CSB to accommodate the Phase 1 HLW products. The Conceptual Design Report establishes the Project W-464 technical and cost basis.

  12. School-Level Genetic Variation Predicts School-Level Verbal IQ Scores: Results from a Sample of American Middle and High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver, Kevin M.; Wright, John Paul

    2011-01-01

    Research has consistently revealed that average IQ scores vary significantly across macro-level units, such as states and nations. The reason for this variation in IQ, however, has remained at the center of much controversy. One of the more provocative explanations is that IQ across macro-level units is the result of genetic differences, but…

  13. The Phase-1 Upgrade of the ATLAS Level-1 Endcap Muon Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Akatsuka, Shunichi; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Proceedings for RealTime 2018, 9th -15th June 2018 @ Williamsburg, Virginia, USA, on Phase-1 Upgrade of the Level-1 Endcap Muon trigger. The deadline for this document to the conference side is June 24th, 2018.

  14. The types and levels of physical activity and sedentary behaviour of Senior Phase learners in Potchefstroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna C.W. De Vos

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Strategies need to be implemented to raise the physical activity levels of Senior Phase learners, especially during weekdays, and to decrease sedentary behaviour. With this view in mind, recommendations are made for Physical Education teachers.

  15. Efficiency analysis on a two-level three-phase quasi-soft-switching inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geng, Pan; Wu, Weimin; Huang, Min

    2013-01-01

    When designing an inverter, an engineer often needs to select and predict the efficiency beforehand. For the standard inverters, plenty of researches are analyzing the power losses and also many software tools are being used for efficiency calculation. In this paper, the efficiency calculation...... for non-conventional inverters with special shoot-through state is introduced and illustrated through the analysis on a special two-level three-phase quasi-soft-switching inverter. Efficiency comparison between the classical two-stage two-level three-phase inverter and the two-level three-phase quasi......-soft-switching inverter is carried out. A 10 kW/380 V prototype is constructed to verify the analysis. The experimental results show that the efficiency of the new inverter is higher than that of the traditional two-stage two- level three-phase inverter....

  16. Project NOAH: Regulating modern sea-level rise. Phase II: Jerusalem Underground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Walter S.; Fairbridge, Rhodes W.

    This proposal builds a high-speed inter-urban express between Jerusalem and Tel Aviv, generates 1500 megawatts of hydroelectric energy, curtails littoral erosion, builds a port along the Israeli Mediterranean coast and demands peaceful cooperation on both sides of the Jordan River. Phase II represents a pilot project demonstrating the feasibility of continuing to regulate world sea-level by a new series of water regulation schemes. Phase I previously described all those projects already completed or underway which have inadvertently and/or unintentionally served the purpose of sea-level regulation. These forms of Phase I sea-level regulation include large and small reservoirs, irrigation projects, water infiltration schemes, farm ponds, and swimming and reflecting pools. All these water storage projects have already exercised a very appreciable brake on 20th century sea-level rise. Phase II outlines a high-visibility proposal which will serve to illustrate the viability of “Project NOAH”.

  17. Quantification of extracellular levels of corticosterone in the basolateral amygdaloid complex of freely-moving rats: a dialysis study of circadian variation and stress-induced modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchez, Gaëlle; Millan, Mark J; Rivet, Jean-Michel; Billiras, Rodolphe; Boulanger, Raphaël; Gobert, Alain

    2012-05-03

    Corticosterone influences emotion and cognition via actions in a diversity of corticolimbic structures, including the amygdala. Since extracellular levels of corticosterone in brain have rarely been studied, we characterized a specific and sensitive enzymatic immunoassay for microdialysis quantification of corticosterone in the basolateral amygdaloid complex of freely-moving rats. Corticosterone levels showed marked diurnal variation with an evening (dark phase) peak and stable, low levels during the day (light phase). The "anxiogenic agents", FG7142 (20 mg/kg) and yohimbine (10 mg/kg), and an environmental stressor, 15-min forced-swim, induced marked and sustained (1-3 h) increases in dialysis levels of corticosterone in basolateral amygdaloid complex. They likewise increased dialysis levels of dopamine and noradrenaline, but not serotonin and GABA. As compared to basal corticosterone levels of ~200-300 pg/ml, the elevation provoked by forced-swim was ca. 20-fold and this increase was abolished by adrenalectomy. Interestingly, stress-induced rises of corticosterone levels in basolateral amygdaloid complex were abrogated by combined but not separate administration of the corticotrophin releasing factor(1) (CRF(1)) receptor antagonist, CP154,526, and the vasopressin(1b) (V(1b)) receptor antagonist, SSR149,415. Underpinning their specificity, they did not block forced-swim-induced elevations in dopamine and noradrenaline. In conclusion, extracellular levels of corticosterone in the basolateral amygdaloid complex display marked diurnal variation. Further, they are markedly elevated by acute stressors, the effects of which are mediated (in contrast to concomitant elevations in levels of monoamines) by co-joint recruitment of CRF(1) and V(1b) receptors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Variation in pH of Model Secondary Organic Aerosol during Liquid-Liquid Phase Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallemagne, Magda A; Huang, Xiau Ya; Eddingsaas, Nathan C

    2016-05-12

    The majority of atmospheric aerosols consist of both organic and inorganic components. At intermediate relative humidity (RH), atmospheric aerosol can undergo liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) in which the organic and inorganic fractions segregate from each other. We have extended the study of LLPS to the effect that phase separation has on the pH of the overall aerosols and the pH of the individual phases. Using confocal microscopy and pH sensitive dyes, the pH of internally mixed model aerosols consisting of polyethylene glycol 400 and ammonium sulfate as well as the pH of the organic fraction during LLPS have been directly measured. During LLPS, the pH of the organic fraction was observed to increase to 4.2 ± 0.2 from 3.8 ± 0.1 under high RH when the aerosol was internally mixed. In addition, the high spatial resolution of the confocal microscope allowed us to characterize the composition of each of the phases, and we have observed that during LLPS the organic shell still contains large quantities of water and should be characterized as an aqueous organic-rich phase rather than simply an organic phase.

  19. First impressions: geographic variation in media messages during the first phase of ACA implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollust, Sarah E; Barry, Colleen L; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Baum, Laura; Fowler, Erika Franklin

    2014-12-01

    Many Americans will learn about the implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) through the mass media. We examined geographic variation in the volume and content of mass media during the initial two-week rollout of the new health insurance marketplaces in October 2013 across 210 US media markets, using data from the Wesleyan Media Project. We found substantial geographic variation in the volume and tone of insurance product advertisements, political advertisements, and news coverage of the ACA marketplaces. News coverage of the ACA airing in media markets located in states operating federal or partnership marketplaces was more negative than coverage airing in markets located in states running their own marketplaces. Intrastate variation in media volume and content was also substantial and appears distinguishable from the local political climate. Variation in exposure to media messages likely affects public sentiment regarding the ACA and could contribute to geographic differences in insurance enrollment and public perceptions of US health care options. Researchers and policy makers evaluating the implementation of the ACA-and insurance enrollment in the marketplaces in particular-should consider addressing media influences. Copyright © 2014 by Duke University Press.

  20. Opponent Coding of Sound Location (Azimuth) in Planum Temporale is Robust to Sound-Level Variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derey, Kiki; Valente, Giancarlo; de Gelder, Beatrice; Formisano, Elia

    2016-01-01

    Coding of sound location in auditory cortex (AC) is only partially understood. Recent electrophysiological research suggests that neurons in mammalian auditory cortex are characterized by broad spatial tuning and a preference for the contralateral hemifield, that is, a nonuniform sampling of sound azimuth. Additionally, spatial selectivity decreases with increasing sound intensity. To accommodate these findings, it has been proposed that sound location is encoded by the integrated activity of neuronal populations with opposite hemifield tuning ("opponent channel model"). In this study, we investigated the validity of such a model in human AC with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a phase-encoding paradigm employing binaural stimuli recorded individually for each participant. In all subjects, we observed preferential fMRI responses to contralateral azimuth positions. Additionally, in most AC locations, spatial tuning was broad and not level invariant. We derived an opponent channel model of the fMRI responses by subtracting the activity of contralaterally tuned regions in bilateral planum temporale. This resulted in accurate decoding of sound azimuth location, which was unaffected by changes in sound level. Our data thus support opponent channel coding as a neural mechanism for representing acoustic azimuth in human AC. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  1. Functional variation in the arginine vasopressin 2 receptor as a modifier of human plasma von Willebrand factor levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nossent, Anne Yaël; Robben, J H; Deen, P M T

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY OBJECTIVES: Stimulation of arginine vasopressin 2 receptor (V2R) with arginine vasopressin (AVP) results in a rise in von Willebrand factor (VWF) and factor VIII plasma levels. We hypothesized that gain-of-function variations in the V2R gene (AVPR2) would lead to higher plasma levels of V...

  2. Application of the level set method for multi-phase flow computation in fusion engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, X-Y.; Ni, M-J.; Ying, A.; Abdou, M.

    2006-01-01

    Numerical simulation of multi-phase flow is essential to evaluate the feasibility of a liquid protection scheme for the power plant chamber. The level set method is one of the best methods for computing and analyzing the motion of interface among the multi-phase flow. This paper presents a general formula for the second-order projection method combined with the level set method to simulate unsteady incompressible multi-phase flow with/out phase change flow encountered in fusion science and engineering. The third-order ENO scheme and second-order semi-implicit Crank-Nicholson scheme is used to update the convective and diffusion term. The numerical results show this method can handle the complex deformation of the interface and the effect of liquid-vapor phase change will be included in the future work

  3. Suppressed phase variations in a high amplitude rapidly oscillating Ap star pulsating in a distorted quadrupole mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdsworth, Daniel L.; Saio, H.; Bowman, D. M.; Kurtz, D. W.; Sefako, R. R.; Joyce, M.; Lambert, T.; Smalley, B.

    2018-05-01

    We present the results of a multisite photometric observing campaign on the rapidly oscillating Ap (roAp) star 2MASS 16400299-0737293 (J1640; V = 12.7). We analyse photometric B data to show the star pulsates at a frequency of 151.93 d-1 (1758.45 μHz; P = 9.5 min) with a peak-to-peak amplitude of 20.68 mmag, making it one of the highest amplitude roAp stars. No further pulsation modes are detected. The stellar rotation period is measured at 3.674 7 ± 0.000 5 d, and we show that rotational modulation due to spots is in antiphase between broad-band and B observations. Analysis and modelling of the pulsation reveals this star to be pulsating in a distorted quadrupole mode, but with a strong spherically symmetric component. The pulsational phase variation in this star is suppressed, leading to the conclusion that the contribution of ℓ > 2 components dictate the shape of phase variations in roAp stars that pulsate in quadrupole modes. This is only the fourth time such a strong pulsation phase suppression has been observed, leading us to question the mechanisms at work in these stars. We classify J1640 as an A7 Vp SrEu(Cr) star through analysis of classification resolution spectra.

  4. Holocene glacier variations and sea level change in Wahlenbergfjorden, Nordaustlandet, Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomacker, A.; Farnsworth, W. R.; Ingolfsson, O.; Allaart, L.; Håkansson, L.; Retelle, M.

    2017-12-01

    Here we present preliminary results on the Holocene glacier variations in Wahlenbergfjorden on Nordaustlandet, Svalbard. The reconstructions are based on lake sediment records from Lake Kl\\overbladvatna covering the last 9500 years. This lake captures meltwater from the Etonbreen glacier, a main outlet of the Austfonna ice cap, when the glacier extends further than present. Additionally, Kl\\overbladvatna is an isolation basin capturing the postglacial isolation from the marine to lacustrine environment due to glacioisostatic rebound. The chronology is based on radiocarbon dating of terrestrial and marine macrofossils. The lake sediment record also reveals that glacial meltwater exceeded the threshold into Lake Kl\\overbladvatna during the Little Ice Age as witnessed by glacial meltwater clay in the upper part of the sediment cores. In periods of less advanced glaciers, the lake sediment record is dominated by laminated clayey gyttja. Based on radiocarbon datings of driftwood, whalebone, and marine mollusc shells in raised beaches and marine deposits in Pallanderbukta, south Wahlenbergfjorden, we also present a new postglacial sea level curve from this region.

  5. Automatic Fontanel Extraction from Newborns' CT Images Using Variational Level Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Kamran; Ghadimi, Sona; Lyaghat, Alireza; Tarighati, Alla; Golshaeyan, Narjes; Abrishami-Moghaddam, Hamid; Grebe, Reinhard; Gondary-Jouet, Catherine; Wallois, Fabrice

    A realistic head model is needed for source localization methods used for the study of epilepsy in neonates applying Electroencephalographic (EEG) measurements from the scalp. The earliest models consider the head as a series of concentric spheres, each layer corresponding to a different tissue whose conductivity is assumed to be homogeneous. The results of the source reconstruction depend highly on the electric conductivities of the tissues forming the head.The most used model is constituted of three layers (scalp, skull, and intracranial). Most of the major bones of the neonates’ skull are ossified at birth but can slightly move relative to each other. This is due to the sutures, fibrous membranes that at this stage of development connect the already ossified flat bones of the neurocranium. These weak parts of the neurocranium are called fontanels. Thus it is important to enter the exact geometry of fontaneles and flat bone in a source reconstruction because they show pronounced in conductivity. Computer Tomography (CT) imaging provides an excellent tool for non-invasive investigation of the skull which expresses itself in high contrast to all other tissues while the fontanels only can be identified as absence of bone, gaps in the skull formed by flat bone. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to extract the fontanels from CT images applying a variational level set method. We applied the proposed method to CT-images of five different subjects. The automatically extracted fontanels show good agreement with the manually extracted ones.

  6. Analysis and evaluation of atom level composition variation and property change due to materials irradiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuya, Kazuo; Takeguchi, Masaki; Mitsuishi, Kazuki; Song Menhi; Saito, Tetsuya

    2000-01-01

    This study aims at general elucidation of atom level composition variation due to radiation damage and property change accompanied with this under intending to stressing application of the in-situ analysis and evaluation apparatus on material radiation damage. Then, by using the electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) capable of showing a power in composition analysis at microscopic region, measurement of EELS on crystal structure change after heat treatment of Xe precipitation was carried out under parallel of its high resolution observation. As a result, a precipitation with less than 30 nm in diameter was observed on a specimen inserted at 473 K. Xe precipitates in crystalline state began to change at 623 K, to be perfectly gassy state at 773 K. In an energy filter image (EFI) using low loss of Xe, distribution of crystalline and non-crystalline Xe was observed. In EELS, peaks at 14.6 and 15.3 eV were observed in 300 and 773 K, respectively, which were thought to be plasmon. And, difference of peak position at the core loss was thought to reflex difference of Xe state at 300 and 773 K. (G.K.)

  7. Pregnancy and variations of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin levels measured by the candidate reference HPLC method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Vincenza; Ivaldi, Alessandra; Raspagni, Alessia; Arfini, Carlo; Vidali, Matteo

    2011-01-01

    Contrasting data are available on the diagnostic accuracy of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) during pregnancy. These differences may depend in part on how CDT was evaluated and expressed. Here, we report on variations of CDT levels in pregnant women using the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) candidate reference method. Alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, mean corpuscular volume, serum transferrin, urine and serum ethyl glucuronide and CDT were measured in 64 women, self-reporting as non-alcohol abusers (age: median 34, IQR: 28-38), at different stages of normal pregnancy (gestational weeks: median 28, IQR: 8-33). CDT was expressed as percentage of disialotransferrin to total transferrin (%CDT). Transferrin was associated with both %CDT (r = 0.66; P pregnancy trimester (first trimester: mean 1.01% (SD 0.19); second trimester: 1.30% (SD 0.14); third trimester: 1.53% (SD 0.22); ANOVA P pregnancy trimesters (P pregnancy and CDT could be more complex. The diagnostic accuracy of CDT for detecting alcohol abuse in a legal context may be limited in pregnant women and the effect of gestational age should be considered.

  8. Regional Variations of Credits Obtained by LEED 2009 Certified Green Buildings—A Country Level Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Wu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED is one of the most widely recognized green building rating systems. With more than 20% of the projects certified in non-United States (US countries, LEED’s global impact has been increasing and it is critically important for developers and regulatory authorities to understand LEED’s performance at the country level to facilitate global implementation. This study therefore aims to investigate the credit achievement pattern of LEED 2009, which is one of the well-developed versions of LEED, by using 4021 certified projects in the US, China, Turkey, and Brazil. The results show that significant differences can be identified on most rating categories, including sustainable sites, water efficiency, energy and atmosphere, indoor environmental quality, and innovation in design. Using a post hoc analysis, country-specific credit allocation patterns are also identified to help developers to understand existing country-specific green building practices. In addition, it is also found that there is unbalanced achievement of regional priority credits. The study offers a useful reference and benchmark for international developers and contractors to understand the regional variations of LEED 2009 and for regulatory authorities, such as the U.S. Green Building Council, to improve the rating system, especially on designing regional priority credits.

  9. Renewable Energy Potentials along the Bay of Bengal due to Tidal Water Level Variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Myisha

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The projected increase in energy demand coupled with concerns regarding present reliance on fossil fuel and associated environmental concerns had led to increased interest in exploiting renewable energy sources. Among different renewable energy sources, tidal energy is unique and most suitable because of its predictable nature and capability to ensure supply security. Tide consists of both kinetic and potential energy which can be converted to electricity using well-proven technology. The potential energy of tides - the principal focus of the study, is stored due to rise and fall of the sea level. Head difference created due to tidal variation between basin side and sea side of a barrage stores potential energy which is converted into fast-moving water that rotates turbine and generates electricity. Bangladesh with its long coastline has promising prospects of tidal energy resource development. The study focuses on tidal energy resource exploration and exploitation along several competent locations of the Bengal coastline. Tidal records of flood and ebb tide of these locations are analyzed to calculate the potential energy. Finally, available potential techniques of energy extraction are evaluated for annually generated energy estimation. This study investigates the prospect and utilization of tidal energy concept and reviews the possibilities and opportunities of employment of the technology for sustainable development and climate change mitigation in context of Bangladesh.

  10. The role of high-level processes for oscillatory phase entrainment to speech sound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedikt eZoefel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Constantly bombarded with input, the brain has the need to filter out relevant information while ignoring the irrelevant rest. A powerful tool may be represented by neural oscillations which entrain their high-excitability phase to important input while their low-excitability phase attenuates irrelevant information. Indeed, the alignment between brain oscillations and speech improves intelligibility and helps dissociating speakers during a cocktail party. Although well-investigated, the contribution of low- and high-level processes to phase entrainment to speech sound has only recently begun to be understood. Here, we review those findings, and concentrate on three main results: (1 Phase entrainment to speech sound is modulated by attention or predictions, likely supported by top-down signals and indicating higher-level processes involved in the brain’s adjustment to speech. (2 As phase entrainment to speech can be observed without systematic fluctuations in sound amplitude or spectral content, it does not only reflect a passive steady-state ringing of the cochlea, but entails a higher-level process. (3 The role of intelligibility for phase entrainment is debated. Recent results suggest that intelligibility modulates the behavioral consequences of entrainment, rather than directly affecting the strength of entrainment in auditory regions. We conclude that phase entrainment to speech reflects a sophisticated mechanism: Several high-level processes interact to optimally align neural oscillations with predicted events of high relevance, even when they are hidden in a continuous stream of background noise.

  11. The Orbital and Planetary Phase Variations of Jupiter-sized Planets: Characterizing Present and Future Giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayorga, Laura C.; Jackiewicz, Jason; Rages, Kathy; West, Robert; Knowles, Ben; Lewis, Nikole K.; Marley, Mark S.

    2018-01-01

    Knowledge of how the brightness and color of a planet varies with viewing angle is essential for the design of future direct imaging missions and deriving constraints on atmospheric properties. However, measuring the phase curves for the solar system gas giants is impossible from the ground. Using data Cassini/ISS obtained during its flyby of Jupiter, I measured Jupiter's phase curve in six bands spanning 400-1000 nm. I found that Jupiter's brightness is less than that of a Lambertian scatterer and that its color varies more with phase angle than predicted by theoretical models. For hot Jupiters, the light from the planet cannot be spatially isolated from that of the star. As a result, determining the planetary phase curve requires removing the phase-dependent contributions from the host star. I consider the effect of varying the stellar model and present a parameterization of the Doppler beaming amplitude that depends upon the planetary mass, orbital period, and the stellar temperature. I consider the detectability of Doppler beaming amplitudes with data from TESS and find that TESS will be less sensitive to this signal than Kepler. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship Program and the New Mexico Higher Education Department Graduate Scholarship Program.

  12. Hospital-level Variation in Utilization of Surgery for Clinical Stage I-II Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swords, Douglas S; Mulvihill, Sean J; Skarda, David E; Finlayson, Samuel R G; Stoddard, Gregory J; Ott, Mark J; Firpo, Matthew A; Scaife, Courtney L

    2017-07-11

    To (1) evaluate rates of surgery for clinical stage I-II pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), (2) identify predictors of not undergoing surgery, (3) quantify the degree to which patient- and hospital-level factors explain differences in hospital surgery rates, and (4) evaluate the association between adjusted hospital-specific surgery rates and overall survival (OS) of patients treated at different hospitals. Curative-intent surgery for potentially resectable PDAC is underutilized in the United States. Retrospective cohort study of patients ≤85 years with clinical stage I-II PDAC in the 2004 to 2014 National Cancer Database. Mixed effects multivariable models were used to characterize hospital-level variation across quintiles of hospital surgery rates. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the effect of adjusted hospital surgery rates on OS. Of 58,553 patients without contraindications or refusal of surgery, 63.8% underwent surgery, and the rate decreased from 2299/3528 (65.2%) in 2004 to 4412/7092 (62.2%) in 2014 (P < 0.001). Adjusted hospital rates of surgery varied 6-fold (11.4%-70.9%). Patients treated at hospitals with higher rates of surgery had better unadjusted OS (median OS 10.2, 13.3, 14.2, 16.5, and 18.4 months in quintiles 1-5, respectively, P < 0.001, log-rank). Treatment at hospitals in lower surgery rate quintiles 1-3 was independently associated with mortality [Hazard ratio (HR) 1.10 (1.01, 1.21), HR 1.08 (1.02, 1.15), and HR 1.09 (1.04, 1.14) for quintiles 1-3, respectively, compared with quintile 5] after adjusting for patient factors, hospital type, and hospital volume. Quality improvement efforts are needed to help hospitals with low rates of surgery ensure that their patients have access to appropriate surgery.

  13. Reproductive success of Whiskered Tern Chlidonias hybrida in eastern Spain in relation to water level variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz Lledó, Álvaro; Vidal Mateo, Javier; Urios Moliner, Vicente

    2018-01-01

    A study on the Whiskered Tern Chlidonias hybrida was carried out between 2002 and 2009 in wetlands of eastern Spain to evaluate how water level fluctuation affects its reproductive success (hatching, fledgling and breeding success). This species is catalogued as Vulnerable in Spain and has an unfavorable conservation status in Europe. Our study includes 18 sampling areas from five wetlands, covering a total of 663 nests, 1,618 eggs, 777 nestlings and 225 fledglings. The colonies were visited at least twice per week in breeding period. The number of eggs and/or nestlings present in each nest were annotated each time the colonies were visited with the aim to compare the evolution of these parameters with time. Hatching success was calculated as the proportion of egg that hatched successfully. Fledgling success and breeding success were calculated as the proportion of chicks that fledged successfully and the proportion of eggs that produced fledglings. We used the Kruskal-Wallis test to analyze the differences in the dependent variables hatching, fledgling and breeding success among the wetlands and the sampling areas. We explored the relationship between the different reproductive success with the average fluctuation rate and the anchoring depth of nests, using statistics of the linear regression. It was observed that the reproductive success varied significantly in the interaction among the different categories of water level fluctuation and the different areas (using the Kruskal-Wallis test). Our records showed that pronounced variations in water level destroyed several nests, which affected the Whiskered Tern reproductive success. Considering all events that occurred in 18 areas, the mean (±SD) of nests, eggs and nestlings that were lost after water level fluctuations were of 25.60 ± 21.79%, 32.06 ± 27.58% and 31.91 ± 21.28% respectively, also including the effects of rain and predation. Unfavorable climatic events, such as strong wind, rain or hail, also

  14. Reproductive success of Whiskered Tern Chlidonias hybrida in eastern Spain in relation to water level variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Ortiz Lledó

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background A study on the Whiskered Tern Chlidonias hybrida was carried out between 2002 and 2009 in wetlands of eastern Spain to evaluate how water level fluctuation affects its reproductive success (hatching, fledgling and breeding success. This species is catalogued as Vulnerable in Spain and has an unfavorable conservation status in Europe. Methods Our study includes 18 sampling areas from five wetlands, covering a total of 663 nests, 1,618 eggs, 777 nestlings and 225 fledglings. The colonies were visited at least twice per week in breeding period. The number of eggs and/or nestlings present in each nest were annotated each time the colonies were visited with the aim to compare the evolution of these parameters with time. Hatching success was calculated as the proportion of egg that hatched successfully. Fledgling success and breeding success were calculated as the proportion of chicks that fledged successfully and the proportion of eggs that produced fledglings. We used the Kruskal–Wallis test to analyze the differences in the dependent variables hatching, fledgling and breeding success among the wetlands and the sampling areas. We explored the relationship between the different reproductive success with the average fluctuation rate and the anchoring depth of nests, using statistics of the linear regression. Results It was observed that the reproductive success varied significantly in the interaction among the different categories of water level fluctuation and the different areas (using the Kruskal–Wallis test. Our records showed that pronounced variations in water level destroyed several nests, which affected the Whiskered Tern reproductive success. Considering all events that occurred in 18 areas, the mean (±SD of nests, eggs and nestlings that were lost after water level fluctuations were of 25.60 ± 21.79%, 32.06 ± 27.58% and 31.91 ± 21.28% respectively, also including the effects of rain and predation. Discussion Unfavorable

  15. The variation of estrus in endocrinological levels and behaviour in endocrinological ewes throughout the year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basaran, A.; Saban, E. D.

    2002-01-01

    An investigation was carried out to determine reproductive activity of endocrinological and behavior in Akkaraman sheep (n=20.25 years, 74±7.7 body weight) throughout the year in the Middle Anatolian (39 57 deg. N 32.53 deg. W). The onset of estrous was detected by using apron ram for 30-minute period twice a day. Blood samples collected twice a week were analyzed by Enzyme immunoassay for progesterone (p 4 ), by Radio immunoassay for estradiol. Estrus cycle lengths and estrous lengths were (mean±SD) 18.33±1.03 day, 35.16±5.95 hours, respectively. The breeding season lengths were 283±63.36 day and 229.64±63.74 day according to hormonal and behavior data, respectively (P≤0.0032). Frequency of occurrence estrus was high between August and March however the highest peak was in October. The lowest peaks were both in June and July. Plasma progesterone levels were changed between 0.01-9 ng/ml throughout the year and 0.2-0.16 ng/ml in anoestrus. P 4 level of 11-th day of luteal phase of estrus was 3.73±1.50 ng/ml (n=11). Plasma estradiol level was 8.42±2.51 pg/ml between of 1-st and 2-nd day and 3.50±1.50 pg/ml on day 15. Second peak of estradiol determined on day 11 of estrus cycle was 6.09±2.87 pg/ml (n=11)

  16. Variations of Microsegregation and Second Phase Fraction of Binary Mg-Al Alloys with Solidification Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paliwal, Manas; Kang, Dae Hoon; Essadiqi, Elhachmi; Jung, In-Ho

    2014-07-01

    A systematic experimental investigation on microsegregation and second phase fraction of Mg-Al binary alloys (3, 6, and 9 wt pct Al) has been carried out over a wide range of cooling rates (0.05 to 700 K/s) by employing various casting techniques. In order to explain the experimental results, a solidification model that takes into account dendrite tip undercooling, eutectic undercooling, solute back diffusion, and secondary dendrite arm coarsening was also developed in dynamic linkage with an accurate thermodynamic database. From the experimental data and solidification model, it was found that the second phase fraction in the solidified microstructure is not determined only by cooling rate but varied independently with thermal gradient and solidification velocity. Lastly, the second phase fraction maps for Mg-Al alloys were calculated from the solidification model.

  17. A level set approach for shock-induced α-γ phase transition of RDX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josyula, Kartik; Rahul; De, Suvranu

    2018-02-01

    We present a thermodynamically consistent level sets approach based on regularization energy functional which can be directly incorporated into a Galerkin finite element framework to model interface motion. The regularization energy leads to a diffusive form of flux that is embedded within the level sets evolution equation which maintains the signed distance property of the level set function. The scheme is shown to compare well with the velocity extension method in capturing the interface position. The proposed level sets approach is employed to study the α-γphase transformation in RDX single crystal shocked along the (100) plane. Example problems in one and three dimensions are presented. We observe smooth evolution of the phase interface along the shock direction in both models. There is no diffusion of the interface during the zero level set evolution in the three dimensional model. The level sets approach is shown to capture the characteristics of the shock-induced α-γ phase transformation such as stress relaxation behind the phase interface and the finite time required for the phase transformation to complete. The regularization energy based level sets approach is efficient, robust, and easy to implement.

  18. Intra and Interspecific Variations of Gene Expression Levels in Yeast Are Largely Neutral: (Nei Lecture, SMBE 2016, Gold Coast).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian-Rong; Maclean, Calum J; Park, Chungoo; Zhao, Huabin; Zhang, Jianzhi

    2017-09-01

    It is commonly, although not universally, accepted that most intra and interspecific genome sequence variations are more or less neutral, whereas a large fraction of organism-level phenotypic variations are adaptive. Gene expression levels are molecular phenotypes that bridge the gap between genotypes and corresponding organism-level phenotypes. Yet, it is unknown whether natural variations in gene expression levels are mostly neutral or adaptive. Here we address this fundamental question by genome-wide profiling and comparison of gene expression levels in nine yeast strains belonging to three closely related Saccharomyces species and originating from five different ecological environments. We find that the transcriptome-based clustering of the nine strains approximates the genome sequence-based phylogeny irrespective of their ecological environments. Remarkably, only ∼0.5% of genes exhibit similar expression levels among strains from a common ecological environment, no greater than that among strains with comparable phylogenetic relationships but different environments. These and other observations strongly suggest that most intra and interspecific variations in yeast gene expression levels result from the accumulation of random mutations rather than environmental adaptations. This finding has profound implications for understanding the driving force of gene expression evolution, genetic basis of phenotypic adaptation, and general role of stochasticity in evolution. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  19. Nuclear DNA content variation in life history phases of the Bonnemasoniaceae (Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador Soler, Noemi; Gómez Garreta, Amelia; Ribera Siguan, Ma Antonia; Kapraun, Donald F

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear DNA content in gametophytes and sporophytes or the prostrate phases of the following species of Bonnemaisoniaceae (Asparagopsis armata, Asparagopsis taxiformis, Bonnemaisonia asparagoides, Bonnemaisonia clavata and Bonnemaisonia hamifera) were estimated by image analysis and static microspectrophotometry using the DNA-localizing fluorochrome DAPI (4', 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, dilactate) and the chicken erythrocytes standard. These estimates expand on the Kew database of DNA nuclear content. DNA content values for 1C nuclei in the gametophytes (spermatia and vegetative cells) range from 0.5 pg to 0.8 pg, and for 2C nuclei in the sporophytes or the prostrate phases range from 1.15-1.7 pg. Although only the 2C and 4C values were observed in the sporophyte or the prostrate phase, in the vegetative cells of the gametophyte the values oscillated from 1C to 4C, showing the possible start of endopolyploidy. The results confirm the alternation of nuclear phases in these Bonnemaisoniaceae species, in those that have tetrasporogenesis, as well as those that have somatic meiosis. The availability of a consensus phylogenetic tree for Bonnemaisoniaceae has opened the way to determine evolutionary trends in DNA contents. Both the estimated genome sizes and the published chromosome numbers for Bonnemaisoniaceae suggest a narrow range of values consistent with the conservation of an ancestral genome.

  20. Nuclear DNA Content Variation in Life History Phases of the Bonnemasoniaceae (Rhodophyta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador Soler, Noemi; Gómez Garreta, Amelia; Ribera Siguan, Mª Antonia; Kapraun, Donald F.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear DNA content in gametophytes and sporophytes or the prostrate phases of the following species of Bonnemaisoniaceae (Asparagopsis armata, Asparagopsis taxiformis, Bonnemaisonia asparagoides, Bonnemaisonia clavata and Bonnemaisonia hamifera) were estimated by image analysis and static microspectrophotometry using the DNA-localizing fluorochrome DAPI (4′, 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, dilactate) and the chicken erythrocytes standard. These estimates expand on the Kew database of DNA nuclear content. DNA content values for 1C nuclei in the gametophytes (spermatia and vegetative cells) range from 0.5 pg to 0.8 pg, and for 2C nuclei in the sporophytes or the prostrate phases range from 1.15–1.7 pg. Although only the 2C and 4C values were observed in the sporophyte or the prostrate phase, in the vegetative cells of the gametophyte the values oscillated from 1C to 4C, showing the possible start of endopolyploidy. The results confirm the alternation of nuclear phases in these Bonnemaisoniaceae species, in those that have tetrasporogenesis, as well as those that have somatic meiosis. The availability of a consensus phylogenetic tree for Bonnemaisoniaceae has opened the way to determine evolutionary trends in DNA contents. Both the estimated genome sizes and the published chromosome numbers for Bonnemaisoniaceae suggest a narrow range of values consistent with the conservation of an ancestral genome. PMID:24465835

  1. Inter- and intraspecific variation in the germination response to light quality and scarification in grasses growing in two-phase mosaics of the Chihuahuan Desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzani, Fabiana; Montaña, Carlos

    2006-06-01

    In many locations, plants are faced with adjacent, contrasting environments, and the between-species differential evolution of life history traits can be interpreted as an evolutionary response to this environmental heterogeneity. However, there has been little research on the intraspecific variability in these attributes as a possible evolutionary response of plants. In the two-phase mosaic of the Chihuahuan Desert (adjacent patches with contrasting resource availability), analyses were carried out of the germination response to the scarification and light quality to which grass seeds growing on these patches are exposed (open and closed habitats). Species that grow in open habitats exhibited a higher germination success than those from closed habitats after scarification. At both the inter- and intraspecific level, there were differences in the germination percentage and in the germination speed in response to light quality. Intraspecific variation in the species from the closed habitat (Pleuraphis mutica and Trichloris crinita) and in Chloris virgata (which grows in both habitats) was due to genetic variation (the family factor was significant), but there was no genetic variation in phenotypic plasticity (non-significant interaction between family and light quality). In contrast, for the species that grows only in the open habitat (Dasyochloa pulchella), the family did not have a significant effect, but there was genetic variation in the phenotypic plasticity (significant interaction between family and light quality). In C. virgata, P. mutica and T. crinita, natural selection could be favouring those genotypes that responded better in each light environment, but it is not possible that the natural selection resulted in different optimal phenotypes in each habitat. On the contrary, in D. pulchella, selection could have reduced the genetic variation, but there is the possibility of the evolution of reaction norms, resulting in the selection of alternative

  2. OPTIMIZATION OF TRANSIEN PROCESSES OF WATER LEVEL VARIATION IN DRUM OF STEAM BOILERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. T. Kulakov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The work of regulator in general three-impulse automatic control system of water level in drum of boiler doesn’t supply quality of internal and external disturbance attack (presentation of regulation mistakes. That is why it is needed to improve. Different methods of proportional plus reset controller regulation of three-phase automatic feed control system are considered. There were suggested new methods to improve the quality of regulation of water level in boilers. Here the step system of automatic regulation was determined, on the base of transfer function.It is noticed that optimal transient processes supply calculation of numerical value of transmission factor of regulator at g =2,618, it is more then was recommended, but statistic mistakes remain. The transient simulation method in fast-time scale is recommended, this allow to determine early the value of statistic mistake of regulation by disturbances of reheated steam consumption and properly change the task to compensating device of step automatic control system. And numerical value of time constant criteria  should be calculated on the base of numbers of golden section(Phi, taking into account the definite time constant of lead section and time-lag, time-lag on controlled influence channel, and also taking into account maximum value of controlled influence. This method allow to reduce in two times the total time of regulation, to decrease absolute mistake of regulation in three times, and maximum value of regulation influence by feedwater in 1,7 times.

  3. Interactive Effects of Dopamine Baseline Levels and Cycle Phase on Executive Functions: The Role of Progesterone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmeralda Hidalgo-Lopez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Estradiol and progesterone levels vary along the menstrual cycle and have multiple neuroactive effects, including on the dopaminergic system. Dopamine relates to executive functions in an “inverted U-shaped” manner and its levels are increased by estradiol. Accordingly, dopamine dependent changes in executive functions along the menstrual cycle have been previously studied in the pre-ovulatory phase, when estradiol levels peak. Specifically it has been demonstrated that working memory is enhanced during the pre-ovulatory phase in women with low dopamine baseline levels, but impaired in women with high dopamine baseline levels. However, the role of progesterone, which peaks in the luteal cycle phase, has not been taken into account previously. Therefore, the main goals of the present study were to extend these findings (i to the luteal cycle phase and (ii to other executive functions. Furthermore, the usefulness of the eye blink rate (EBR as an indicator of dopamine baseline levels in menstrual cycle research was explored. 36 naturally cycling women were tested during three cycle phases (menses–low sex hormones; pre-ovulatory–high estradiol; luteal–high progesterone and estradiol. During each session, women performed a verbal N-back task, as measure of working memory, and a single trial version of the Stroop task, as measure of response inhibition and cognitive flexibility. Hormone levels were assessed from saliva samples and spontaneous eye blink rate was recorded during menses. In the N-back task, women were faster during the luteal phase the higher their progesterone levels, irrespective of their dopamine baseline levels. In the Stroop task, we found a dopamine-cycle interaction, which was also driven by the luteal phase and progesterone levels. For women with higher EBR performance decreased during the luteal phase, whereas for women with lower EBR performance improved during the luteal phase. These findings suggest an important

  4. Influence of seasonal variations in sea level on the salinity regime of a coastal groundwater-fed wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Cameron; Harrington, Glenn A

    2015-01-01

    Seasonal variations in sea level are often neglected in studies of coastal aquifers; however, they may have important controls on processes such as submarine groundwater discharge, sea water intrusion, and groundwater discharge to coastal springs and wetlands. We investigated seasonal variations in salinity in a groundwater-fed coastal wetland (the RAMSAR listed Piccaninnie Ponds in South Australia) and found that salinity peaked during winter, coincident with seasonal sea level peaks. Closer examination of salinity variations revealed a relationship between changes in sea level and changes in salinity, indicating that sea level-driven movement of the fresh water-sea water interface influences the salinity of discharging groundwater in the wetland. Moreover, the seasonal control of sea level on wetland salinity seems to override the influence of seasonal recharge. A two-dimensional variable density model helped validate this conceptual model of coastal groundwater discharge by showing that fluctuations in groundwater salinity in a coastal aquifer can be driven by a seasonal coastal boundary condition in spite of seasonal recharge/discharge dynamics. Because seasonal variations in sea level and coastal wetlands are ubiquitous throughout the world, these findings have important implications for monitoring and management of coastal groundwater-dependent ecosystems. © 2014, National Ground Water Association.

  5. Seasonal variations in TSH serum levels in athyreotic patients under L-thyroxine replacement monotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullo, Damiano; Latina, Adele; Frasca, Francesco; Squatrito, Sebastiano; Belfiore, Antonino; Vigneri, Riccardo

    2017-08-01

    Whether serum TSH undergoes seasonal fluctuations in euthyroid and hypothyroid residents of temperate climates is controversial. Monthly TSH and thyroid hormone levels were cross-sectionally analysed in a large cohort of euthyroid subjects (n=11 806) and L-thyroxine (L-T4)-treated athyreotic patients (n=3 934). Moreover, in a small group (n=119) of athyreotic patients treated with an unchanged dosage of L-T4 monotherapy, hormones were measured both in the coldest and in the hottest seasons of the same year (longitudinal study). No seasonal hormone change was observed in the euthyroid subjects except for a small FT3 increase in winter (+2.9%, P<.001). In contrast, the L-T4-treated athyreotic patients had significantly higher serum TSH values in the cold season when the FT4 values were significantly lower. The differences were more notable in the longitudinal series (TSH, 0.80 vs. 0.20 mU/L and FT4, 16.3 vs. 17.8 pmol/L in December-March vs. June-September, respectively). In these patients also serum FT3 values significantly decreased in winter (in the longitudinal series, 3.80 in winter vs 4.07 pmol/L in summer). Regression analysis showed that in athyreotic subjects, a greater FT4 change is required to obtain a TSH change similar to that of euthyroid controls and that this effect is more pronounced in the summer. Athyreotic patients undergoing L-T4 monotherapy have abnormal seasonal variations in TSH. These changes are secondary to the FT4 and FT3 serum decreases in winter, which occur in spite of the constant treatment. The underlying mechanisms are unclear, but in some cases, these changes may be clinically relevant. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Voltage harmonic variation in three-phase induction motors with different coil pitches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshmukh, Ram; Moses, Anthony John; Anayi, Fatih

    2006-01-01

    A pulse-width modulation (PWM) inverter feeding four different chorded three-phase induction motors was tested for low-order odd harmonic voltage component and efficiency at different loads. Total harmonic distortion (THD) due to 3rd, 5th and 9th harmonics was less in a motor with 160 o coil pitch. Particular harmonic order for each coil pitch was suppressed and the efficiency of a 120 o coil pitch motor was increased by 7.5%

  7. Variation of Marine Geoid Due to Ocean Circulation and Sea Level Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, P. C.

    2017-12-01

    Sea level (S) change and ocean circulation largely affect the gravity field and in turns the marine geoid (N). Difference between the two, D = S - N, is the dynamic ocean topography (DOT), whose gradient represents the large-scale surface geostrophic circulations. Thus, temporal variability of marine geoid (δN) is caused by the sea level change (δS) and the DOT variation (δD), δN = δS - δD. Here, δS is identified from temporally varying satellite altimeter measures; δD is calculated from the change of DOT. For large-scale processes with conservation of potential vorticity, the geostrophic flows take minimum energy state. Based on that, a new elliptic equation is derived in this study to determine D. Here, H is the water depth; and (X, Y) are forcing functions calculated from the in-situ density. The well-posed elliptic equation is integrated numerically on 1o grids for the world oceans with the boundary values taken from the mean DOT (1993-2006) field at the NASA/JPL website: https://grace.jpl.nasa.gov/data/get-data/dynamic-ocean-typography/, the forcing function F calculated from the three-dimensional temperature and salinity of the NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) World Ocean Atlas 2013 version 2, and sea-floor topography (H) from the NOAA ETOPO5. The numerical solution compares reasonably well (relative root mean square difference of 0.09) with the NASA/JPL satellite observation of the difference between the time-averaged sea surface height and the geoid. In-situ ocean measurements of temperature, salinity, and velocity have also rapidly advanced such that the global ocean is now continuously monitored by near 4,000 free-drifting profiling floats (called Argo) from the surface to 2000 m depth with all data being relayed and made publicly available within hours after collection (http://www.argo.ucsd.edu/). This provides a huge database of temperature and salinity and in turns the forcing function F for the governing elliptic

  8. Understanding of phase modulation in two-level systems through inverse scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasenfeld, A.; Hammes, S.L.; Warren, W.S.

    1988-01-01

    Analytical and numerical calculations describe the effects of shaped radiation pulses on two-level systems in terms of quantum-mechanical scattering. Previous results obtained in the reduced case of amplitude modulation are extended to the general case of simultaneous amplitude and phase modulation. We show that an infinite family of phase- and amplitude-modulated pulses all generate rectangular inversion profiles. Experimental measurements also verify the theoretical analysis

  9. Mass-induced sea level variations in the Red Sea from steric-corrected altimetry, GRACE, in-situ bottom pressure records, and hydrographic observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wei; Lemoine, Jean-Michel; Zhong, Min; Xu, Houze

    2014-05-01

    An annual amplitude of ~18 cm mass-induced sea level variations (SLV) in the Red Sea is detected from steric-corrected altimetry and the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites from 2003 to 2011, which dominates the mean sea level in the region. Seawater mass variations here generally reach maximum in late January/early February. The steric component of SLV calculated from oceanographic temperature and salinity data is relatively small and peaks about seven months later than mass variations. The phase difference between the steric SLV and the mass-induced SLV indicates that when the Red Sea gains the mass from inflow water in winter, the steric SLV fall, and vice versa in summer. In-situ bottom pressure records in the eastern coast of the Red Sea validate the high mass variability observed by steric-corrected altimetry and GRACE. Furthermore, we compare the horizontal water mass flux in the Red Sea from steric-corrected altimetry and GRACE with that estimated from hydrographic observations.

  10. The variation of work hardening characteristics of Al-5 wt% Mg alloy during phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, M.A.; Sobhy, M.; Abd El-Rehim, A.F.; Abdel Rahman, R.M.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of aging conditions on the stress-strain behavior along with microstructure changes of the Al-5 wt% Mg alloy. Following solid solution treatment and aging of specimens at temperatures ranging from 373 to 573 K for various aging times (1/4 to 4 h), stress-strain tests were performed at different testing temperatures (313-343 K). The work hardening parameters (σ y , σ f , χ p and Y) were found to decrease continuously with pre-aging times at all aging and testing temperatures, where the softening parameters (ε f and L) oppose this behavior. The variation in stress-strain parameters with increasing aging temperatures and aging times was explained on the basis of structural transformations taking place in the Al-Mg alloy. A precipitate-dislocation intersections mechanism was assumed as the rate-controlling mechanism for alloy.

  11. Alteration of Hormonal Levels in a Rootless Epiphytic Bromeliad in Different Phenological Phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier; Endres

    1999-11-01

    Major changes in indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and cytokinin (CK) levels occur at different phenological phases of Tillandsia recurvata shoots. This epiphytic rootless bromeliad was chosen as suitable material for hormonal analysis because CK synthesis is restricted to the shoots, thus avoiding problems in the interpretation of results caused by translocation and interconversion of CK forms between roots and leaves encountered in plants with both organs. Young plants of T. recurvata have weak apical dominance because side shoots appeared early in development, and branch growth was correlated with a strong increase in the level of zeatin. The flowering phase was characterized by a significant increase in free base CKs, zeatin, and isopentenyladenine compared with the levels found in adult vegetative shoots. In contrast, both free-base CKs declined in the fruiting phenological phase, and the IAA level increased dramatically. It was concluded that in phases characterized by intense organ formation, such as in the juvenile and flowering stages, there was an enhancement of CK content, mainly caused by zeatin, leading to a lower IAA/CK ratio. Higher ratios were correlated with phases that showed no organogenesis, such as adult and fruiting phenologies.

  12. Cortisol levels during prolonged exercise: the influence of menstrual phase and menstrual status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaley, J A; Boileau, R A; Bahr, J M; Misner, J E; Nelson, R A

    1992-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of menstrual phase and menstrual status on the cortisol response during 90 minutes of treadmill running at 60% VO2max. Eight eumenhorrheic athletes were tested in the early follicular (EF) (day 3-5), late follicular (LF) (day 13-15) and mid-luteal (ML) (day 22-24) phases. Six amenorrheic athletes were tested on two separate occasions. The resting cortisol levels were similar in each menstrual phase and overall a decreasing pattern of cortisol response to exercise was observed in all menstrual phases (P greater than .05). The amenorrheic athletes had a significantly greater (P less than .01) pattern of cortisol response than was observed in eumenorrheic athletes. The net increment in cortisol levels during exercise were distinctly greater (P less than .01) in amenorrheic than eumenorrheic athletes (amenorrheic: 413.8 +/- 113.1, eumenorrheic: EF: -482.8 +/- 88.3, LF: -311.8 +/- 102.1, ML: -386.3 +/- 146.2 nmol.l-1). In conclusion the cortisol levels are independent of menstrual phase. Also a larger cortisol increment is observed in amenorrheic athletes in response to prolonged submaximal exercise. The elevated cortisol levels in amenorrheics at rest and throughout exercise provides further evidence that disturbances in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function are associated with exercise-induced amenorrhea, although the site(s) of physiological disturbance have not been identified.

  13. Phase transformation, morphology evolution and luminescence property variation in Y2O3: Eu hollow microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qin; Guo, Jing; Jia, Wenjing; Liu, Baocang; Zhang, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We report a general and facile method for the synthesis of Y 2 O 3 : Eu hollow microspheres. ► This method may be of great significance in the synthesis of many other hollow spherical materials. ► Phase, morphology and luminescence property were found to be strongly dependent on temperature and pH. ► The evolution process under various temperatures and pH values were discussed. ► The sample shows a strong red emission under short UV irradiation, and the lifetime is determined to be 7.0 ms. - Abstract: Y 2 O 3 : Eu hollow microspheres with average size of 500–600 nm have been successfully synthesized via a solvothermal method in the presence of sodium citrate as surfactant followed by a subsequent heat treatment process. High polymer F127(EO 106 PO 70 EO 106 ) served as a soft template in the formation of as prepared hollow microspheres. It is found that the pH values and the reaction temperature are two crucial factors in determining the phase, morphology and luminescence properties of the Y 2 O 3 : Eu hollow microspheres. Morphology evolution can be achieved by changing the pH and the reaction temperature. The properties of the Eu 3+ -doped Y 2 O 3 : Eu nanocrystals were characterized by XRD, FE-SEM, HR-TEM and UV–vis spectroscopy.

  14. A Spaceborne Multisensory, Multitemporal Approach to Monitor Water Level and Storage Variations of Lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Taravat

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Lake Urmia, the second largest saline Lake on earth and a highly endangered ecosystem, is on the brink of a serious environmental disaster similar to the catastrophic death of the Aral Sea. Progressive drying has been observed during the last decade, causing dramatic changes to Lake Urmia’s surface and its regional water supplies. The present study aims to improve monitoring of spatiotemporal changes of Lake Urmia in the period 1975–2015 using the multi-temporal satellite altimetry and Landsat (5-TM, 7-ETM+ and 8-OLI images. In order to demonstrate the impacts of climate change and human pressure on the variations in surface extent and water level, Lake Sevan and Van Lake with different characteristics were studied along with the Urmia Lake. Normalized Difference Water Index-Principal Components Index (NDWI-PCs, Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI, Modified NDWI (MNDWI, Normalized Difference Moisture Index (NDMI, Water Ratio Index (WRI, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, Automated Water Extraction Index (AWEI, and MultiLayer Perceptron Neural Networks (MLP NNs classifier were investigated for the extraction of surface water from Landsat data. The presented results revealed that MLP NNs has a better performance in the cases where the other models generate poor accuracy. The results show that the area of Lake Sevan and Van Lake have increased while the area of Lake Urmia has decreased by ~65.23% in the past decades, far more than previously reported (~25% to 50%. Urmia Lake’s shoreline has been receding severely between 2010 and 2015 with no sign of recovery, which has been partly blamed on prolonged droughts, aggressive regional water resources development plans, intensive agricultural activities, and anthropogenic changes to the system. The results also indicated that (among the proposed factors changes in inflows due to overuse of surface water resources and constructing dams (mostly during 1995–2005 are the main reasons

  15. Prediction of interindividual variation in drug plasma levels in vivo from individual enzyme kinetic data and physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogaards, J.J.P.; Hissink, E.M.; Briggs, M.; Weaver, R.; Jochemsen, R.; Jackson, P.; Bertrand, M.; Bladeren, P. van

    2000-01-01

    A strategy is presented to predict interindividual variation in drug plasma levels in vivo by the use of physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling and human in vitro metabolic parameters, obtained through the combined use of microsomes containing single cytochrome P450 enzymes and a human liver

  16. Colony-level behavioural variation correlates with differences in expression of the foraging gene in red imported fire ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockoven, Alison A; Coates, Craig J; Eubanks, Micky D

    2017-11-01

    Among social insects, colony-level variation is likely to be widespread and has significant ecological consequences. Very few studies, however, have documented how genetic factors relate to behaviour at the colony level. Differences in expression of the foraging gene have been associated with differences in foraging and activity of a wide variety of organisms. We quantified expression of the red imported fire ant foraging gene (sifor) in workers from 21 colonies collected across the natural range of Texas fire ant populations, but maintained under standardized, environmentally controlled conditions. Colonies varied significantly in their behaviour. The most active colonies had up to 10 times more active foragers than the least active colony and more than 16 times as many workers outside the nest. Expression differences among colonies correlated with this colony-level behavioural variation. Colonies with higher sifor expression in foragers had, on average, significantly higher foraging activity, exploratory activity and recruitment to nectar than colonies with lower expression. Expression of sifor was also strongly correlated with worker task (foraging vs. working in the interior of the nest). These results provide insight into the genetic and physiological processes underlying collective differences in social behaviour. Quantifying variation in expression of the foraging gene may provide an important tool for understanding and predicting the ecological consequences of colony-level behavioural variation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Variation of Student Numerical and Figural Reasoning Approaches by Pattern Generalization Type, Strategy Use and Grade Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mouhayar, Rabih; Jurdak, Murad

    2016-01-01

    This paper explored variation of student numerical and figural reasoning approaches across different pattern generalization types and across grade level. An instrument was designed for this purpose. The instrument was given to a sample of 1232 students from grades 4 to 11 from five schools in Lebanon. Analysis of data showed that the numerical…

  18. Complex patterns of geographic variation in heat tolerance and Hsp70 expression levels in the common frog Rana temporaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Givskov; Pekkonen, Minna; Lindgren, Beatrice

    2009-01-01

    1. We tested for geographical variation in heat tolerance and Hsp70 expression levels of Rana temporaria tadpoles along a 1500 km long latitudinal gradient in Sweden.   2. Temperature tolerance of the hatchling tadpoles did not differ among populations, but they tolerated stressful hot temperatur...

  19. Non-linear response of the Golo River system, Corsica, France, to Late Quaternary climatic and sea level variations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forzoni, A.; Storms, J.E.A.; Reimann, T.; Moreau, J.; Jouet, G.

    2015-01-01

    Disentangling the impact of climatic and sea level variations on fluvio-deltaic stratigraphy is still an outstanding question in sedimentary geology and geomorphology. We used the Golo River system, Corsica, France, as a natural laboratory to investigate the impact of Late Quaternary climate and sea

  20. Present day sea level changes: observation and causes; Les variations actuelles du niveau de la mer: observations et causes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombard, A

    2005-11-15

    Whereas sea level has changed little over the last 2000 years, it has risen at a rate of about 2 mm/year during the 20. century. This unexpected sea level rise has been attributed to the anthropogenic global warming, recorded over several decades. Sea level variations have been measured globally and precisely for about 12 years due to satellite altimeter missions Topex/Poseidon and Jason-1. These observations indicate a global mean sea level rise of about 3 mm/year since 1993, a value significantly larger than observed during previous decades. Recent observations have allowed us to quantify the various climatic factors contributing to observed sea level change: thermal expansion of sea water due to ocean warming, melting of mountain glaciers and ice sheets, and changes in the land water reservoirs. A water budget based on these new observations allows us to partly explain the observed sea level rise. In particular, we show that the thermal expansion explains only 25% of the secular sea level rise as recorded by tide-gauges over the last 50 years, while it contributes about 50% of sea level rise observed over the last decade. Meanwhile, recent studies show that glacier and ice sheet melting could contribute the equivalent of 1 mm/year in sea level rise over the last decade. In addition, the high regional variability of sea level trends revealed by satellite altimetry is mainly due to thermal expansion. There is also an important decadal spatio-temporal variability in the ocean thermal expansion over the last 50 years, which seems to be controlled by natural climate fluctuations. We question for the first time the link between the decadal fluctuations in the ocean thermal expansion and in the land reservoirs, and indeed their climatic contribution to sea level change. Finally a preliminary analysis of GRACE spatial gravimetric observations over the oceans allows us to estimate the seasonal variations in mean sea level due to ocean water mass balance variations

  1. The relative contribution of provider and ED-level factors to variation among the top 15 reasons for ED admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khojah, Imad; Li, Suhui; Luo, Qian; Davis, Griffin; Galarraga, Jessica E; Granovsky, Michael; Litvak, Ori; Davis, Samuel; Shesser, Robert; Pines, Jesse M

    2017-09-01

    We examine adult emergency department (ED) admission rates for the top 15 most frequently admitted conditions, and assess the relative contribution in admission rate variation attributable to the provider and hospital. This was a retrospective, cross-sectional study of ED encounters (≥18years) from 19 EDs and 603 providers (January 2012-December 2013), linked to the Area Health Resources File for county-level information on healthcare resources. "Hospital admission" was the outcome, a composite of inpatient, observation, or intra-hospital transfer. We studied the 15 most commonly admitted conditions, and calculated condition-specific risk-standardized hospital admission rates (RSARs) using multi-level hierarchical generalized linear models. We then decomposed the relative contribution of provider-level and hospital-level variation for each condition. The top 15 conditions made up 34% of encounters and 49% of admissions. After adjustment, the eight conditions with the highest hospital-level variation were: 1) injuries, 2) extremity fracture (except hip fracture), 3) skin infection, 4) lower respiratory disease, 5) asthma/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (A&C), 6) abdominal pain, 7) fluid/electrolyte disorders, and 8) chest pain. Hospital-level intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) ranged from 0.042 for A&C to 0.167 for extremity fractures. Provider-level ICCs ranged from 0.026 for abdominal pain to 0.104 for chest pain. Several patient, hospital, and community factors were associated with admission rates, but these varied across conditions. For different conditions, there were different contributions to variation at the hospital- and provider-level. These findings deserve consideration when designing interventions to optimize admission decisions and in value-based payment programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Variations in Upper-Level Water Vapor Transport Diagnosed from Climatological Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Jeffrey A; Jedlovee, Gary J.; Atkinson, Robert J.

    1998-01-01

    GOES-7 VAS measurements during the Pathfinder period (1987-88) have been analysed to reveal seasonal and interannual variations in moisture transport. Long term measurements of quality winds and humidity from satellite estimates show superior benefit in diagnosing middle and upper tropospheric large scale climate variations such as ENSO events and direct circulation systems such as the Hadley Cell. A water Vapor Transport Index (WVTI) has been developed to diagnose preferred regions of strong moisture transport and to gauge the seasonal and interannual intensities detected in the GOES viewing area. Second-order variables that may be derived from GOES winds will be also discussed on the poster.

  3. Explaining individual- and country-level variations in unregistered employment using a multi-level model: evidence from 35 Eurasian countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasniqi Besnik A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to evaluate the individual- and country-level variations in unregistered employment. To analyse whether it is marginalised groups who are more likely to engage in unregistered employment and explain the country-level variations, a 2010 Life in Transition Survey (LiTS involving 38,864 interviews in 35 Eurasian countries is reported. Multilevel logistic regression analysis reveals that younger age groups, the divorced, and those with fewer years in education, are more likely to be unregistered employed. On a country-level, meanwhile, the prevalence of unregistered employment is strongly associated with tax morale; the greater the asymmetry between informal and formal institutions, the greater is the prevalence of unregistered employment. It is also higher when GDP per capita as well as social distribution and state intervention (subsidies and transfers, social contribution expenditure, health expenditure are lower. The paper concludes by discussing the theoretical and policy implications.

  4. Surface modification induced phase transformation and structure variation on the rapidly solidified recast layer of titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Ming-Hung [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Graduate Institute of Mechanical and Precision Engineering, National Kaoshiung University of Applied Sciences, Kaoshiung 807, Taiwan (China); School of Dentistry, College of Oral Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Haung, Chiung-Fang [School of Dental Technology, College of Oral Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Division of Family and Operative Dentistry, Department of Dentistry, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Research Center for Biomedical Devices and Prototyping Production, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Shyu, Shih-Shiun [Department of Dentistry, Taipei Tzu Chi Hospital, Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical Foundation, New Taipei City 231, Taiwan (China); Chou, Yen-Ru [Research Center for Biomedical Devices and Prototyping Production, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, College of Oral Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Research Center for Biomedical Implants and Microsurgery Devices, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Lin, Ming-Hong [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Graduate Institute of Mechanical and Precision Engineering, National Kaoshiung University of Applied Sciences, Kaoshiung 807, Taiwan (China); Peng, Pei-Wen, E-mail: apon@tmu.edu.tw [School of Dental Technology, College of Oral Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); and others

    2015-08-15

    In this study, neodymium-doped yttrium orthovanadate (Nd:YVO{sub 4}) as a laser source with different scanning speeds was used on biomedical Ti surface. The microstructural and biological properties of laser-modified samples were investigated by means of optical microscope, electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, surface roughness instrument, contact angle and cell cytotoxicity assay. After laser modification, the rough volcano-like recast layer with micro-/nanoporous structure and wave-like recast layer with nanoporous structure were generated on the surfaces of laser-modified samples, respectively. It was also found out that, an α → (α + rutile-TiO{sub 2}) phase transition occurred on the recast layers of laser-modified samples. The Ti surface becomes hydrophilic at a high speed laser scanning. Moreover, the cell cytotoxicity assay demonstrated that laser-modified samples did not influence the cell adhesion and proliferation behaviors of osteoblast (MG-63) cell. The laser with 50 mm/s scanning speed induced formation of rough volcano-like recast layer accompanied with micro-/nanoporous structure, which can promote cell adhesion and proliferation of MG-63 cell on Ti surface. The results indicated that the laser treatment was a potential technology to enhance the biocompatibility for titanium. - Highlights: • Laser induced the formation of recast layer with micro-/nanoporous structure on Ti. • An α → (α + rutile-TiO{sub 2}) phase transition was observed within the recast layer. • The Ti surface becomes hydrophilic at a high speed laser scanning. • Laser-modified samples exhibit good biocompatibility to osteoblast (MG-63) cell.

  5. Baseline levels and trimestral variation of triiodothyronine and thyroxine and their association with mortality in maintenance hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuwese, Christiaan L; Dekker, Friedo W; Lindholm, Bengt; Qureshi, Abdul R; Heimburger, Olof; Barany, Peter; Stenvinkel, Peter; Carrero, Juan J

    2012-01-01

    Conflicting evidence exists with regard to the association of thyroid hormones and mortality in dialysis patients. This study assesses the association between basal and trimestral variation of thyroid stimulating hormone, triiodothyronine, and thyroxine and mortality. In 210 prevalent hemodialysis patients, serum triiodothyronine, thyroxine, thyroid stimulating hormone, and interleukin-6 were measured 3 months apart. Cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular deaths were registered during follow-up. Based on fluctuations along tertiles of distribution, four trimestral patterns were defined for each thyroid hormone: persistently low, decrease, increase, and persistently high. The association of baseline levels and trimestral variation with mortality was investigated with Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazard models. During follow-up, 103 deaths occurred. Thyroid stimulating hormone levels did not associate with mortality. Patients with relatively low basal triiodothyronine concentrations had higher hazards of dying than patients with high levels. Longitudinally, patients with persistently low levels of triiodothyronine during the 3-month period had higher mortality hazards than those having persistently high levels. These associations were mainly attributable to cardiovascular-related mortality. The association between thyroxine and mortality was not altered after adjustment for triiodothyronine. Hemodialysis patients with reduced triiodothyronine or thyroxine levels bear an increased mortality risk, especially due to cardiovascular causes. This was true when considering both baseline measurements and trimestral variation patterns. Our longitudinal design adds observational evidence supporting the hypothesis that the link may underlie a causal effect.

  6. Early follicular phase hormone levels in relation to patterns of alcohol, tobacco, and coffee use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, J; Harlow, B L; Barbieri, R L; Sluss, P; Cramer, D W

    2001-10-01

    To examine the effects of alcohol, caffeine, and tobacco use on early follicular phase FSH, LH, E2, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). Cross-sectional study. Academic medical center. Four hundred ninety-eight women selected from the general population, ages 36-45, who were not currently pregnant, breast feeding, or using exogenous hormones. A general questionnaire assessing demography, anthropometry, and smoking habits and a standardized dietary questionnaire assessing food and beverage frequencies, including sources of alcohol and caffeine. FSH, LH, E2, and SHBG levels measured during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Significant associations observed in a univariate analysis included age > or =40 and current smoking associated with higher FSH; higher body mass index (BMI) associated with lower SHBG levels; and daily alcohol use, cholesterol consumption greater than the median, and coffee use >1 cup/d associated with higher E2 levels. In a multivariate model, total caffeine use was significantly associated with E2 levels after adjustment for age, BMI, total calories, current smoking, alcohol, cholesterol consumption, and day of sampling. Early follicular phase E2 increased from 28.2 pg/mL for women consuming or =500 mg of caffeine per day, about a 70% increase. Coffee consumption and total caffeine use may increase early follicular phase E2 levels independent of related habits of alcohol or tobacco use.

  7. Sociolinguistic Variation and Change in British Sign Language Number Signs: Evidence of Leveling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamp, Rose; Schembri, Adam; Fenlon, Jordan; Rentelis, Ramas

    2015-01-01

    This article presents findings from the first major study to investigate lexical variation and change in British Sign Language (BSL) number signs. As part of the BSL Corpus Project, number sign variants were elicited from 249 deaf signers from eight sites throughout the UK. Age, school location, and language background were found to be significant…

  8. Literacy Skills Gaps: A Cross-Level Analysis on International and Intergenerational Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Suehye

    2018-01-01

    The global agenda for sustainable development has centred lifelong learning on UNESCO's Education 2030 Framework for Action. The study described in this article aimed to examine international and intergenerational variations in literacy skills gaps within the context of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). For this purpose, the…

  9. Correlates of National-Level Homicide Variation in Post-Communist East-Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatel, Janet P.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines whether correlates of cross-national homicide variation tested with data from highly developed, predominantly Western nations could also explain homicide rates in East-Central Europe. Using pooled time-series analyses of data from nine countries from 1990 through 2003, this study found that homicide rates were negatively…

  10. LCL filter design for three-phase two-level power factor correction using line impedance stabilization network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouchaki, Alireza; Nymand, Morten

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents LCL filter design method for three-phase two-level power factor correction (PFC) using line impedance stabilization network (LISN). A straightforward LCL filter design along with variation in grid impedance is not simply achievable and inevitably lead to an iterative solution...... for filter. By introducing of fast power switches for PFC applications such as silicon-carbide, major current harmonics around the switching frequency drops in the region that LISN can actively provide well-defined impedance for measuring the harmonics (i.e. 9 kHz- 30MHz). Therefore, LISN can be replaced...... is derived using the current ripple behavior of converter-side inductor. The grid-side inductor is achieved as a function of LISN impedance to fulfill the grid regulation. To verify the analyses, an LCL filter is designed for a 5 kW SiC-based PFC. The simulation and experimental results support the validity...

  11. Partially filled Landau level at even denominators: A vortex metal with a Berry phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Yizhi

    2018-04-01

    We develop a vortex metal theory for a partially filled Landau level at ν =1/2 n whose ground state contains a composite Fermi surface formed by the vortex of electrons. In the projected Landau-level limit, the composite Fermi surface contains a -π/n Berry phase. Such a fractional Berry phase is a consequence of Landau-level projection which produces the Girvin-MacDonald-Platzman [S. M. Girvin, A. H. MacDonald, and P. M. Platzman, Phys. Rev. B 33, 2481 (1986), 10.1103/PhysRevB.33.2481] guiding center algebra and embellishes an anomalous velocity to the equation of motion for the vortex metal. Further, we investigate a particle-hole symmetric bilayer system with ν1=1/2 n and ν2=1 -1/2 n at each layer, and demonstrate that the -π/n Berry phase on the composite Fermi surface leads to the suppression of 2 kf backscattering between the particle-hole partner bilayer, which could be a smoking gun to detect the fractional Berry phase. We also mention various instabilities and competing orders in such bilayer systems, including a Z4 n topological order phase driven by quantum criticality.

  12. Simulating Phase Variation: A Practical Approach to Teaching Mutation and Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanford, Joe; Aidley, Jack; Bayliss, Chris; Ketley, Julian; Goodwin, Mark

    2018-01-01

    Mutation, diversity, natural selection and the biology of human pathogens (including antibiotic resistance) are key features of the biosciences curriculum at A Level and undergraduate study. Few resources exist to allow students to engage with these topics in an interactive manner. This paper describes an interactive, online simulation of mutation…

  13. Phase diagram of a QED-cavity array coupled via a N-type level scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Jiasen; Rossini, Davide [CNR, NEST, Scuola Normale Superiore and Istituto di Nanoscienze, Pisa (Italy); Fazio, Rosario [CNR, NEST, Scuola Normale Superiore and Istituto di Nanoscienze, Pisa (Italy); National University of Singapore, Center for Quantum Technologies, Singapore (Singapore)

    2015-01-01

    We study the zero-temperature phase diagram of a one-dimensional array of QED cavities where, besides the single-photon hopping, an additional coupling between neighboring cavities is mediated by an N-type four-level system. By varying the relative strength of the various couplings, the array is shown to exhibit a variety of quantum phases including a polaritonic Mott insulator, a density-wave and a superfluid phase. Our results have been obtained by means of numerical density-matrix renormalization group calculations. The phase diagram was obtained by analyzing the energy gaps for the polaritons, as well as through a study of two-point correlation functions. (orig.)

  14. Regional contamination versus regional dietary differences: Understanding geographic variation in brominated and chlorinated contaminant levels in polar bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, M.A.; Letcher, R.J.; Aars, Jon; Born, E.W.; Branigan, M.; Dietz, R.; Evans, T.J.; Gabrielsen, G.W.; Muir, D.C.G.; Peacock, E.; Sonne, C.

    2011-01-01

    The relative contribution of regional contamination versus dietary differences to geographic variation in polar bear (Ursus maritimus) contaminant levels is unknown. Dietary variation between Alaska Canada, East Greenland, and Svalbard subpopulations was assessed by muscle nitrogen and carbon stable isotope (?? 15N, ?? 13C) and adipose fatty acid (FA) signatures relative to their main prey (ringed seals). Western and southern Hudson Bay signatures were characterized by depleted ?? 15N and ??13C, lower proportions of C20 and C22 monounsaturated FAs and higher proportions of C18 and longer chain polyunsaturated FAs. East Greenland and Svalbard signatures were reversed relative to Hudson Bay. Alaskan ?? 2011 American Chemical Society.

  15. Major inter-personal variation in the increase and maximal level of 25-hydroxy vitamin D induced by UVB

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta, Pameli; Philipsen, Peter A.; Olsen, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D influences skeletal health as well as other aspects of human health. Even when the most obvious sources of variation such as solar UVB exposure, latitude, season, clothing habits, skin pigmentation and ethnicity are selected for, variation in the serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH......)D) response to UVB remains extensive and unexplained. Our study assessed the inter-personal variation in 25(OH)D response to UVR and the maximal obtainable 25(OH)D level in 22 healthy participants (220 samples) with similar skin pigmentation during winter with negligible ambient UVB. Participants received...... identical UVB doses on identical body areas until a maximal level of 25(OH)D was reached. Major inter-personal variation in both the maximal obtainable UVB-induced 25(OH)D level (range 85–216 nmol l−1, mean 134 nmol l−1) and the total increase in 25(OH)D (range 3–139 nmol l−1, mean 48 nmol l−1) was found...

  16. 3D variations in human crown dentin tubule orientation: a phase-contrast microtomography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaslansky, Paul; Zabler, Simon; Fratzl, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Tubules dominate the microstructure of dentin, and in crowns of human teeth they are surrounded by thick mineralized peritubular cuffs of high stiffness. Here we examine the three-dimensional (3D) arrangement of tubules in relation to enamel on the buccal and lingual aspects of intact premolars and molars. Specifically we investigate the angular orientation of tubules relative to the plane of the junction of dentin with enamel (DEJ) by means of wet, non-destructive and high-resolution phase-contrast (coherent) tomography. Enamel capped dentin samples (n=16), cut from the buccal and lingual surfaces of upper and lower premolar and molar teeth, were imaged in water by high-resolution synchrotron-based phase-contrast X-ray radiography. Reconstructed 3D virtual images were co-aligned with respect to the DEJ plane. The average tubule orientation was determined at increasing distances from the DEJ, based on integrated projections onto orthogonal virtual planes. The angle and curl of the tubules were determined every 100 microm to a depth of 1.4mm beneath the DEJ. Most tubules do not extend at right angles from the DEJ. Even when they do, tubules always change their orientations substantially within the first half-millimeter zone beneath the DEJ, both on the buccal and lingual aspects of premolar and molar teeth. Tubules also tend to curl and twist within this zone. Student t-tests indicate that lower teeth seem to have greater tilts in the tubule orientations relative to the DEJ normal with an average angle of 42 degrees (+/-2.0 degrees), whereas upper teeth exhibit a smaller change of orientation, with an average of 32 degrees (+/-2.1 degrees). Tubules are a central characteristic of dentin, with important implications on how it is arranged and what the properties are. Knowing about the path that tubules follow is important for various reasons, ranging form improving control over restorative procedures to understanding or simulating the mechanical properties of teeth

  17. Multiqubit quantum phase gate using four-level superconducting quantum interference devices coupled to superconducting resonator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waseem, Muhammad; Irfan, Muhammad [Department of Physics and Applied Mathematics, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Nilore, Islamabad 45650 (Pakistan); Qamar, Shahid, E-mail: shahid_qamar@pieas.edu.pk [Department of Physics and Applied Mathematics, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Nilore, Islamabad 45650 (Pakistan)

    2012-07-15

    In this paper, we propose a scheme to realize three-qubit quantum phase gate of one qubit simultaneously controlling two target qubits using four-level superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) coupled to a superconducting resonator. The two lowest levels Divides 0 Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket and Divides 1 Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket of each SQUID are used to represent logical states while the higher energy levels Divides 2 Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket and Divides 3 Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket are utilized for gate realization. Our scheme does not require adiabatic passage, second order detuning, and the adjustment of the level spacing during gate operation which reduce the gate time significantly. The scheme is generalized for an arbitrary n-qubit quantum phase gate. We also apply the scheme to implement three-qubit quantum Fourier transform.

  18. Investigation of the phase morphology of bacterial PHA inclusion bodies by contrast variation SANS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, R.A.; Holden, P.J.; Garvey, C.J.; Wilde, K.L.; Hammerton, K.M.; Foster, L.J.

    2006-01-01

    Under growth-limiting conditions, many bacteria are able to metabolise excess organic acids into polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) and store these polymers as intracellular inclusions until the return of favourable conditions. Various models have been proposed for the macromolecular organisation of the boundary layer surrounding the polymer, and contrast-variation small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) was used to study its organisation. Inclusions formed by Pseudomonas oleovorans under hydrogenating conditions showed lowest scattering intensity at ca. 20% D 2 O. The inclusions consist of protein and membrane lipids in the boundary layer and polyhydroxyoctanoate (lipid) in the inclusion body. At 20% D 2 O the contributions of lipids were contrast matched with the solvent, indicating that lipids contributed the bulk of the scattering intensity observed at other D 2 O/H 2 O ratios. These results are inconsistent with a model of the boundary layer which proposed outer and inner layers of crystalline protein lattice sandwiching a membrane lipid membrane layer [E.S. Stuart, R.W. Lenz, R.C. Fuller, Can J Microbiol 41(Suppl 1) (1995) 84-93], and is more consistent with a model consisting of a lipid monolayer containing embedded proteins [U. Pieper-furst, M.H. Madkour, F. Mayer, A. Steinbuchel, J. Bacteriol. 176 (1994) 4328-4337.] By altering the H/D content of the precursors, we were able to collect SANS data from preparations of both deuterated and H/D copolymer inclusions, where initial PHA produced was hydrogenated followed by deuteration. Deuterated inclusions showed minimum intensity above 90% D 2 O/H 2 O whereas the sequentially produced copolymer (assumed to be in a core/shell arrangement) displayed minimum scattering some 20% lower, which is consistent with the increased hydrogenation of the boundary layer expected from its synthesis during supply of hydrogenated followed by deuterated precursors

  19. High Chloride Doping Levels Stabilize the Perovskite Phase of Cesium Lead Iodide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastidar, Subham; Egger, David A; Tan, Liang Z; Cromer, Samuel B; Dillon, Andrew D; Liu, Shi; Kronik, Leeor; Rappe, Andrew M; Fafarman, Aaron T

    2016-06-08

    Cesium lead iodide possesses an excellent combination of band gap and absorption coefficient for photovoltaic applications in its perovskite phase. However, this is not its equilibrium structure under ambient conditions. In air, at ambient temperature it rapidly transforms to a nonfunctional, so-called yellow phase. Here we show that chloride doping, particularly at levels near the solubility limit for chloride in a cesium lead iodide host, provides a new approach to stabilizing the functional perovskite phase. In order to achieve high doping levels, we first co-deposit colloidal nanocrystals of pure cesium lead chloride and cesium lead iodide, thereby ensuring nanometer-scale mixing even at compositions that potentially exceed the bulk miscibility of the two phases. The resulting nanocrystal solid is subsequently fused into a polycrystalline thin film by chemically induced, room-temperature sintering. Spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction indicate that the chloride is further dispersed during sintering and a polycrystalline mixed phase is formed. Using density functional theory (DFT) methods in conjunction with nudged elastic band techniques, low-energy pathways for interstitial chlorine diffusion into a majority-iodide lattice were identified, consistent with the facile diffusion and fast halide exchange reactions observed. By comparison to DFT-calculated values (with the PBE exchange-correlation functional), the relative change in band gap and the lattice contraction are shown to be consistent with a Cl/I ratio of a few percent in the mixed phase. At these incorporation levels, the half-life of the functional perovskite phase in a humid atmosphere increases by more than an order of magnitude.

  20. Variations in creatine kinase activity and reactive oxygen species levels are involved in capacitation of bovine spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdoba, M; Pintos, L; Beconi, M T

    2008-12-01

    The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is associated with some factors such as oxidative substrate sources, mitochondrial function and NAD(P)H oxidase activity. In bovine spermatozoa, heparin capacitation produces a respiratory burst sensitive to diphenyleneiodonium (DPI). Creatine kinase (CK) is related to extramitochondrial ATP disponibility. Our purpose was to determine the variation in ROS level and its relation with NAD(P)H oxidase sensitive to DPI and CK participation, as factors involved in redox state and energy generation in capacitation. The chlortetracycline technique was used to evaluate capacitation. CK activity and ROS level were measured by spectrophotometry and spectrofluorometry respectively. The capacitation percentage was increased by heparin or quercetin treatment (P level as control (238.62 +/- 23.47 arbitrary units per 10(8) spermatozoa) (P > 0.05). CK activity decreased by 50% with heparin or quercetin (P level variations were observed in heparin- or quercetin-treated samples (P bovine spermatozoa, capacitation requires equilibrium between oxidative damage susceptibility and ROS levels. CK activity is associated with redox state variation and energy sources. In conclusion, capacitation induction depends on NADPH oxidase and the shuttle creatine-creatine phosphate, both sensitive to DPI.

  1. Spatial variation of mercury levels in nesting Bonelli's eagles from Southwest Portugal: effects of diet composition and prey contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palma, Luis; Beja, Pedro; Tavares, Paula C.; Monteiro, Luis R.

    2005-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) was determined in adult Bonelli's eagles (Hieraaetus fasciatus) and their avian prey, from samples of feathers collected between 1992 and 2001 at the nesting sites of 21 pairs in Southwest Portugal. Eagle Hg levels showed great variation, reflecting primarily differences in diet composition and food chain biomagnification. Concentrations were positively correlated with the dietary proportion of insectivorous and omnivorous birds (e.g. egrets, corvids and thrushes), with very low levels for pairs feeding mainly on herbivores (e.g. rabbits, pigeons and partridges). Differences in prey contamination among breeding territories added to dietary effects in determining variation of Hg levels in eagles, shaping a spatial pattern that was largely consistent with a source of contamination in a coal-burning power-plant lying upwind of the study area. Despite this presumed contamination, Hg levels seemed to be of little concern to this eagle population, though there might be subtle deleterious effects on the reproductive output of a few pairs. This study emphasizes the need to account for dietary effects when biomonitoring Hg contamination using birds of prey. - The effects of diet composition and prey contamination added up to determine the spatial variation of Hg levels in breeding Bonelli's eagles

  2. Levelling-out and register variation in the translations of experienced and inexperienced translators: a corpus-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karien Redelinghuys

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Explicitation, simplification, normalisation and levelling-out, the four features of translation proposed by Baker (1996, have attracted considerable attention in translation studies. Although the first three have been studied extensively, levelling-out has been the subject of less empirical investigation. Furthermore, there are no studies to date that have investigated the extent to which levelling-out occurs in translations by experienced translators and inexperienced translators. In this study, levelling-out is operationalised in terms of register. It is hypothesised that less register variation will be apparent in translations by inexperienced translators and, in keeping with the features of translation hypothesis, it is predicted that select linguistic features will demonstrate less register variation in translations than in non-translations. A custom-built corpus was compiled to test these hypotheses. While some light is shed on how translation expertise contributes to register sensitivity and the distribution of certain features across different registers, little evidence could be found for levelling-out as register variation is evident in the translation corpora.

  3. 16-level differential phase shift keying (D16PSK) in direct detection optical communication systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sambaraju, R.; Tokle, Torger; Jensen, J.B.

    2006-01-01

    Optical 16-level differential phase shift keying (D16PSK) carrying four bits for every symbol is proposed for direct detection optical communication systems. Transmitter and receiver schematics are presented, and the receiver sensitivity is discussed. We numerically investigate the impact...

  4. Capacitance variation induced by microfluidic two-phase flow across insulated interdigital electrodes in lab-on-chip devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Tao; Barbosa, Cátia

    2015-01-26

    Microfluidic two-phase flow detection has attracted plenty of interest in various areas of biology, medicine and chemistry. This work presents a capacitive sensor using insulated interdigital electrodes (IDEs) to detect the presence of droplets in a microchannel. This droplet sensor is composed of a glass substrate, patterned gold electrodes and an insulation layer. A polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) cover bonded to the multilayered structure forms a microchannel. Capacitance variation induced by the droplet passage was thoroughly investigated with both simulation and experimental work. Olive oil and deionized water were employed as the working fluids in the experiments to demonstrate the droplet sensor. The results show a good sensitivity of the droplet with the appropriate measurement connection. This capacitive droplet sensor is promising to be integrated into a lab-on-chip device for in situ monitoring/counting of droplets or bubbles.

  5. Phase diagram of the Shastry-Sutherland Kondo lattice model with classical localized spins: a variational calculation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Munir; Sengupta, Pinaki

    2017-08-01

    We study the Shastry-Sutherland Kondo lattice model with additional Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interactions, exploring the possible magnetic phases in its multi-dimensional parameter space. Treating the local moments as classical spins and using a variational ansatz, we identify the parameter ranges over which various common magnetic orderings are potentially stabilized. Our results reveal that the competing interactions result in a heightened susceptibility towards a wide range of spin configurations including longitudinal ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic order, coplanar flux configurations and most interestingly, multiple non-coplanar configurations including a novel canted-flux state as the different Hamiltonian parameters like electron density, interaction strengths and degree of frustration are varied. The non-coplanar and non-collinear magnetic ordering of localized spins behave like emergent electromagnetic fields and drive unusual transport and electronic phenomena.

  6. Variation in the resumption of cycling and conception by fecal androgen and estradiol levels in female Northern Muriquis (Brachyteles hypoxanthus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strier, Karen B; Ziegler, Toni E

    2005-09-01

    We measured fecal androgen (T+DHT) and estradiol (E2) levels in female northern muriquis (Brachyteles hypoxanthus) at the Estação Biológica de Caratinga/RPPN Feliciano Miguel Abdala, Minas Gerais, Brazil, to evaluate the hormonal bases underlying individual variation in the resumption of cycling and conception. We found that androgen levels were significantly lower in females than in males, and that there were no consistent patterns in female androgen levels across precycling or cycling conditions. Females that resumed cycling earlier in the study (weeks 4-8) had higher precycling E2 levels and correspondingly lower precycling androgen/E2 ratios than females that resumed cycling later (weeks 12-16). There were no differences in female precycling androgen levels, but cycling females that conceived during or immediately after the study period had lower androgen levels and threefold higher E2 peaks than the one cycling female that failed to conceive. These results suggest that minimum E2 thresholds are necessary for both the resumption of ovarian cycling and conception. Individual variation in these components of fertility may be regulated by differences in E2 levels, which affect androgen/E2 ratios, rather than by androgen levels per se. Further research into the relative concentrations of T vs. DHT will be necessary to fully evaluate whether androgens affect cycling and conception in this species.

  7. Unit Level Variations And Peer Influences In Mental Health Diagnoses In The U.S. Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202- 4302, and to the Office of Management and Budget...variations across units without unobserved time-invariant differences such as culture or leadership style , as well as effects of time-variant variables...Nanyang Technological University, 2008 Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE IN MANAGEMENT from the

  8. Latitudinal variation of the topside electron temperature at different levels of solar activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Truhlík, Vladimír; Bilitza, D.; Třísková, Ludmila

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 6 (2009), s. 693-700 ISSN 0273-1177 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300420603 Grant - others: NASA (US) NNH06CD17C Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Electron temperature * Solar activity variation * Latitudinal dependence Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.079, year: 2009

  9. Radial variation of refractive index, plasma frequency and phase velocity in laser induced air plasma

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mathuthu, M

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available is the concentration of the emitting species, is the transition probability, is the emitted wavelength of the detected line, is the statistical weight of the upper level of the transition, is the excitation energy, is the Boltzmann constant, and is the partition... the Boltzmann plane: (3) For each species in a sample, the slope gives the plasma tem- perature while the intercept gives the sample concentration. B. Density Measurement The collisional processes between atoms and ions affect the shape and width...

  10. Dominant role of winds near Sri Lanka in driving seasonal sea level variations along the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suresh, I.; Vialard, J.; Izumo, T.; Lengaigne, M.; Han, W.; Mc; Muraleedharan, P.M.

    version: Geophys. Res. Lett.: 43(13); 2016; 7028-7035 Dominant role of winds near Sri Lanka in driving seasonal sea-level variations along the west coast of India I. Suresh1, J. Vialard2, T. Izumo2,3, M. Lengaigne,2,3, W. Han4, J. McCreary5, P... as manifested both in sea level and surface circulation of the North Indian Ocean (NIO) [e.g., Schott and McCreary, 2001]. The sea level along the west coast of India (WCI), in particular, is dominated by the seasonal cycle. Figure 1a, which shows...

  11. Systematic Moiety Variations of Ultrashort Peptides Produce Profound Effects on Self-Assembly, Nanostructure Formation, Hydrogelation, and Phase Transition

    KAUST Repository

    Chan, Kiat Hwa

    2017-10-04

    Self-assembly of small biomolecules is a prevalent phenomenon that is increasingly being recognised to hold the key to building complex structures from simple monomeric units. Small peptides, in particular ultrashort peptides containing up to seven amino acids, for which our laboratory has found many biomedical applications, exhibit immense potential in this regard. For next-generation applications, more intricate control is required over the self-assembly processes. We seek to find out how subtle moiety variation of peptides can affect self-assembly and nanostructure formation. To this end, we have selected a library of 54 tripeptides, derived from systematic moiety variations from seven tripeptides. Our study reveals that subtle structural changes in the tripeptides can exert profound effects on self-assembly, nanostructure formation, hydrogelation, and even phase transition of peptide nanostructures. By comparing the X-ray crystal structures of two tripeptides, acetylated leucine-leucine-glutamic acid (Ac-LLE) and acetylated tyrosine-leucine-aspartic acid (Ac-YLD), we obtained valuable insights into the structural factors that can influence the formation of supramolecular peptide structures. We believe that our results have major implications on the understanding of the factors that affect peptide self-assembly. In addition, our findings can potentially assist current computational efforts to predict and design self-assembling peptide systems for diverse biomedical applications.

  12. Nonlinearly preconditioned semismooth Newton methods for variational inequality solution of two-phase flow in porous media

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Haijian

    2016-12-10

    Most existing methods for solving two-phase flow problems in porous media do not take the physically feasible saturation fractions between 0 and 1 into account, which often destroys the numerical accuracy and physical interpretability of the simulation. To calculate the solution without the loss of this basic requirement, we introduce a variational inequality formulation of the saturation equilibrium with a box inequality constraint, and use a conservative finite element method for the spatial discretization and a backward differentiation formula with adaptive time stepping for the temporal integration. The resulting variational inequality system at each time step is solved by using a semismooth Newton algorithm. To accelerate the Newton convergence and improve the robustness, we employ a family of adaptive nonlinear elimination methods as a nonlinear preconditioner. Some numerical results are presented to demonstrate the robustness and efficiency of the proposed algorithm. A comparison is also included to show the superiority of the proposed fully implicit approach over the classical IMplicit Pressure-Explicit Saturation (IMPES) method in terms of the time step size and the total execution time measured on a parallel computer.

  13. Nonlinearly preconditioned semismooth Newton methods for variational inequality solution of two-phase flow in porous media

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Haijian; Sun, Shuyu; Yang, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Most existing methods for solving two-phase flow problems in porous media do not take the physically feasible saturation fractions between 0 and 1 into account, which often destroys the numerical accuracy and physical interpretability of the simulation. To calculate the solution without the loss of this basic requirement, we introduce a variational inequality formulation of the saturation equilibrium with a box inequality constraint, and use a conservative finite element method for the spatial discretization and a backward differentiation formula with adaptive time stepping for the temporal integration. The resulting variational inequality system at each time step is solved by using a semismooth Newton algorithm. To accelerate the Newton convergence and improve the robustness, we employ a family of adaptive nonlinear elimination methods as a nonlinear preconditioner. Some numerical results are presented to demonstrate the robustness and efficiency of the proposed algorithm. A comparison is also included to show the superiority of the proposed fully implicit approach over the classical IMplicit Pressure-Explicit Saturation (IMPES) method in terms of the time step size and the total execution time measured on a parallel computer.

  14. Intraspecific Variation in Physiological Condition of Reef-Building Corals Associated with Differential Levels of Chronic Disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisapia, Chiara; Anderson, Kristen; Pratchett, Morgan S.

    2014-01-01

    Even in the absence of major disturbances (e.g., cyclones, bleaching), corals are subject to high levels of partial or whole-colony mortality, often caused by chronic and small-scale disturbances. Depending on levels of background mortality, these chronic disturbances may undermine individual fitness and have significant consequences on the ability of colonies to withstand subsequent acute disturbances or environmental change. This study quantified intraspecific variations in physiological condition (measured based on total lipid content and zooxanthellae density) through time in adult colonies of two common and widespread coral species (Acropora spathulata and Pocillopora damicornis), subject to different levels of biological and physical disturbances along the most disturbed reef habitat, the crest. Marked intraspecific variation in the physiological condition of A. spathulata was clearly linked to differences in local disturbance regimes and habitat. Specifically, zooxanthellae density decreased (r2 = 26, df = 5,42, pzooxanthellae density was strongly and negatively correlated with the individual level of partial mortality (r2 = 26, df = 5,42, p<0.02, B =  −7386077, p = 0.01). Conversely, P. damicornis exhibited very limited intraspecific variation in physiological condition, despite marked differences in levels of partial mortality. This is the first study to relate intraspecific variation in the condition of corals to localized differences in chronic disturbance regimes. The next step is to ascertain whether these differences have further ramifications for susceptibility to periodic acute disturbances, such as climate-induced coral bleaching. PMID:24626395

  15. Intraspecific variation in physiological condition of reef-building corals associated with differential levels of chronic disturbance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Pisapia

    Full Text Available Even in the absence of major disturbances (e.g., cyclones, bleaching, corals are subject to high levels of partial or whole-colony mortality, often caused by chronic and small-scale disturbances. Depending on levels of background mortality, these chronic disturbances may undermine individual fitness and have significant consequences on the ability of colonies to withstand subsequent acute disturbances or environmental change. This study quantified intraspecific variations in physiological condition (measured based on total lipid content and zooxanthellae density through time in adult colonies of two common and widespread coral species (Acropora spathulata and Pocillopora damicornis, subject to different levels of biological and physical disturbances along the most disturbed reef habitat, the crest. Marked intraspecific variation in the physiological condition of A. spathulata was clearly linked to differences in local disturbance regimes and habitat. Specifically, zooxanthellae density decreased (r2 = 26, df = 5,42, p<0.02, B =  -121255, p = 0.03 and total lipid content increased (r2 = 14, df = 5,42, p = 0.01, B = 0.9, p = 0.01 with increasing distance from exposed crests. Moreover, zooxanthellae density was strongly and negatively correlated with the individual level of partial mortality (r2 = 26, df = 5,42, p<0.02, B =  -7386077, p = 0.01. Conversely, P. damicornis exhibited very limited intraspecific variation in physiological condition, despite marked differences in levels of partial mortality. This is the first study to relate intraspecific variation in the condition of corals to localized differences in chronic disturbance regimes. The next step is to ascertain whether these differences have further ramifications for susceptibility to periodic acute disturbances, such as climate-induced coral bleaching.

  16. Small area-level variation in the incidence of psychotic disorders in an urban area in France: an ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szoke, Andrei; Pignon, Baptiste; Baudin, Grégoire; Tortelli, Andrea; Richard, Jean-Romain; Leboyer, Marion; Schürhoff, Franck

    2016-07-01

    We sought to determine whether significant variation in the incidence of clinically relevant psychoses existed at an ecological level in an urban French setting, and to examine possible factors associated with this variation. We aimed to advance the literature by testing this hypothesis in a novel population setting and by comparing a variety of spatial models. We sought to identify all first episode cases of non-affective and affective psychotic disorders presenting in a defined urban catchment area over a 4 years period, over more than half a million person-years at-risk. Because data from geographic close neighbourhoods usually show spatial autocorrelation, we used for our analyses Bayesian modelling. We included small area neighbourhood measures of deprivation, migrants' density and social fragmentation as putative explanatory variables in the models. Incidence of broad psychotic disorders shows spatial patterning with the best fit for models that included both strong autocorrelation between neighbouring areas and weak autocorrelation between areas further apart. Affective psychotic disorders showed similar spatial patterning and were associated with the proportion of migrants/foreigners in the area (inverse correlation). In contrast, non-affective psychoses did not show spatial patterning. At ecological level, the variation in the number of cases and the factors that influence this variation are different for non-affective and affective psychotic disorders. Important differences in results-compared with previous studies in different settings-point to the importance of the context and the necessity of further studies to understand these differences.

  17. Alternate phase variation in expression of two major surface membrane proteins (MBA and UU376) of Ureaplasma parvum serovar 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Carl-Ulrich R; Stiedl, Thomas; Rosengarten, Renate; Spergser, Joachim

    2009-03-01

    Ureaplasma urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum are commensals and pathogens of the human urogenital tract and of newborn infants. There are four distinct U. parvum serovars and 10 distinct U. urealyticum serovars. Both species possess a distinct immunodominant variable surface protein, the multiple banded antigen (MBA), which shows size variability among isolates as a result of changes in the number of C-terminal repeating units. Adjacent to the MBA gene (UU375) lies UU376, which was annotated as 'Ureaplasma-specific conserved hypothetical gene'. In four different strains of U. parvum serovar 3, we demonstrated expression of UU376 by Western blot analysis and phase variation between UU376, here designated Upvmp376 (Ureaplasma phase-variable membrane protein 376), and MBA after application of selective pressure with hyperimmune antisera directed against either protein. By Southern blot analysis, we found that the switch between MBA and Upvmp376 expression is associated with a DNA inversion event in which the nonrepetitive region of the MBA gene and its putative promoter region are opposed to either the repetitive region of MBA or UU376. We propose that in U. parvum serovar 3, and presumably in all U. parvum and U. urealyticum, an inversion event at specific sites effects an alternate ON/OFF switching of the genes UU375 and UU376.

  18. Test plan: Effects of phase separation on waste loading for high level waste glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantzen, C.M.

    2000-01-01

    As part of the Tanks Focus Area's (TFA) effort to increase waste loading for high-level waste (HLW) vitrification at various facilities in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, the occurrence of phase separation in waste glasses spanning the Savannah River Site (SRS) and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) composition ranges were studied during FY99. The type, extent, and impact of phase separation on glass durability for a series of HLW glasses, e.g., SRS-type and INEEL-type, were examined

  19. The Hagedorn spectrum, nuclear level densities and first order phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretto, Luciano G.; Larsen, A. C.; Guttormsen, M.; Siem, S.

    2015-01-01

    An exponential mass spectrum, like the Hagedorn spectrum, with slope 1/T H was interpreted as fixing an upper limiting temperature T H that the system can achieve. However, thermodynamically, such spectrum indicates a 1 st order phase transition at a fixed temperature T H . A much lower energy example is the log linear level nuclear density below the neutron binding energy that prevails throughout the nuclear chart. We show that, for non-magic nuclei, such linearity implies a 1 st order phase transition from the pairing superfluid to an ideal gas of quasi particles

  20. The Hagedorn spectrum, nuclear level densities and first order phase transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moretto, Luciano G., E-mail: lgmoretto@lbl.gov [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Larsen, A. C.; Guttormsen, M.; Siem, S. [Department of Physics, University of Oslo, N-0316 Oslo (Norway)

    2015-10-15

    An exponential mass spectrum, like the Hagedorn spectrum, with slope 1/T{sub H} was interpreted as fixing an upper limiting temperature T{sub H} that the system can achieve. However, thermodynamically, such spectrum indicates a 1{sup st} order phase transition at a fixed temperature T{sub H}. A much lower energy example is the log linear level nuclear density below the neutron binding energy that prevails throughout the nuclear chart. We show that, for non-magic nuclei, such linearity implies a 1{sup st} order phase transition from the pairing superfluid to an ideal gas of quasi particles.

  1. Consistency and Variation in School-Level Youth Sports Traumatic Brain Injury Policy Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coxe, Kathryn; Hamilton, Kelsey; Harvey, Hosea H; Xiang, Joe; Ramirez, Marizen R; Yang, Jingzhen

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the consistency and variation in content of high school written traumatic brain injury (TBI) policies in relation to the three key tenets of youth sports TBI laws. A content analysis was conducted on written TBI policies retrieved from 71 high schools currently participating in High School Reporting Information Online. Each policy was independently analyzed by two trained coders. The number and percent of the policies reflecting the three key tenets of state youth sports TBI laws were described and compared on policy enforcement (i.e., strictness of language), policy description (i.e., details and definitions of the requirements), and policy implementation steps (i.e., specific steps for implementing the requirements). Direct quotes were identified to support quantitative findings. All 71 high school TBI policies contained at least two of the three main TBI law tenets, where 98.6% (n = 70) included the return to play tenet, 83.1% (n = 59) included the removal from play tenet, and 59.2% (n = 42) specified the distribution of TBI information sheets to student-athletes and their parents. Nearly half of the policies (49.3%, n = 35) required parents' signature while only 39.4% (n = 28) required students' signature on the TBI information sheet. The language exhibited wide variance across the 71 TBI policies regarding policy enforcement, policy description, and policy implementation specifications. All 71 TBI policies covered at least two of the three youth sports TBI law tenets, but with considerable variation. Future research should assess variations by schools within the same state and their impact on TBI rates in school athletics. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Impact of GPS antenna phase center and code residual variation maps on orbit and baseline determination of GRACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, X.; Visser, P. N. A. M.; van den IJssel, J.

    2017-06-01

    Precision Orbit Determination (POD) is a prerequisite for the success of many Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) satellite missions. With high-quality, dual-frequency Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers, typically precisions of the order of a few cm are possible for single-satellite POD, and of a few mm for relative POD of formation flying spacecraft with baselines up to hundreds of km. To achieve the best precision, the use of Phase Center Variation (PCV) maps is indispensable. For LEO GPS receivers, often a-priori PCV maps are obtained by a pre-launch ground campaign, which is not able to represent the real space-borne environment of satellites. Therefore, in-flight calibration of the GPS antenna is more widely conducted. This paper shows that a further improvement is possible by including the so-called Code Residual Variation (CRV) maps in absolute/undifferenced and relative/Double-differenced (DD) POD schemes. Orbit solutions are produced for the GRACE satellite formation for a four months test period (August-November, 2014), demonstrating enhanced orbit precision after first using the in-flight PCV maps and a further improvement after including the CRV maps. The application of antenna maps leads to a better consistency with independent Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) and K-band Ranging (KBR) low-low Satellite-to-Satellite Tracking (ll-SST) observations. The inclusion of the CRV maps results also in a much better consistency between reduced-dynamic and kinematic orbit solutions for especially the cross-track direction. The improvements are largest for GRACE-B, where a cross-talk between the GPS main antenna and the occultation antenna yields higher systematic observation residuals. For high-precision relative POD which necessitates DD carrier-phase ambiguity fixing, in principle frequency-dependent PCV maps would be required. To this aim, use is made of an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) that is capable of optimizing relative spacecraft dynamics and iteratively fixing

  3. The Influence of Wind and Basin Eddies in Controlling Sea Level Variations in the Coastal Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Abualnaja, Yasser

    2015-04-01

    Sea level variations in the central Red Sea coastal zone span a range of roughly 1.2 m. Though relatively small, these water level changes can significantly impact the environment over the shallow reef tops prevalent in the central Red Sea, altering the water depth by a factor or two or more. Roughly half of the coastal sea level variance in central Red Sea is due to elevation changes in an \\'intermediate\\' frequency band, with periods between 2 days and 1 month. We examined the sea level signal in this band using the data from pressure sensors maintained for more than five years at a number of locations in Saudi Arabian coastal waters between 20.1 and 23.5 oN. We find that the intermediate-band sea level variations are strongly correlated with the local wind stress measured at a meteorological buoy. The maximum pressure-wind correlation occurs at wind direction closely aligned with the alongshore orientation and at a lag (wind leading) of 45 hr, which is consistent with the expected response of the coastal sea level to local wind forcing. However, less than half of the sea level variance in the intermediate band is related, through linear correlation, with local wind forcing. Our analysis indicates that the residual coastal sea level signal, not associated with wind forcing, is largely driven remotely by the passage of mesoscale eddies, revealed by satellite altimeter-derived sea level anomaly fields of the central Red Sea. These eddy-driven coastal sea level changes occur on time scales of 10-30 days. They span a range of 0.5 m, and thus constitute an import component of the sea level signal in the coastal Red Sea.

  4. The Influence of Wind and Basin Eddies in Controlling Sea Level Variations in the Coastal Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Abualnaja, Yasser; Churchill, James H.; Nellayaputhenpeedika, Mohammedali; Limeburner, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Sea level variations in the central Red Sea coastal zone span a range of roughly 1.2 m. Though relatively small, these water level changes can significantly impact the environment over the shallow reef tops prevalent in the central Red Sea, altering the water depth by a factor or two or more. Roughly half of the coastal sea level variance in central Red Sea is due to elevation changes in an 'intermediate' frequency band, with periods between 2 days and 1 month. We examined the sea level signal in this band using the data from pressure sensors maintained for more than five years at a number of locations in Saudi Arabian coastal waters between 20.1 and 23.5 oN. We find that the intermediate-band sea level variations are strongly correlated with the local wind stress measured at a meteorological buoy. The maximum pressure-wind correlation occurs at wind direction closely aligned with the alongshore orientation and at a lag (wind leading) of 45 hr, which is consistent with the expected response of the coastal sea level to local wind forcing. However, less than half of the sea level variance in the intermediate band is related, through linear correlation, with local wind forcing. Our analysis indicates that the residual coastal sea level signal, not associated with wind forcing, is largely driven remotely by the passage of mesoscale eddies, revealed by satellite altimeter-derived sea level anomaly fields of the central Red Sea. These eddy-driven coastal sea level changes occur on time scales of 10-30 days. They span a range of 0.5 m, and thus constitute an import component of the sea level signal in the coastal Red Sea.

  5. PPARGC1A sequence variation and cardiovascular risk-factor levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brito, E C; Vimaleswaran, K S; Brage, S

    2009-01-01

    .005; rs13117172, p = 0.008) and fasting glucose concentrations (rs7657071, p = 0.002). None remained significant after correcting for the number of statistical comparisons. We proceeded by testing for gene x physical activity interactions for the polymorphisms that showed nominal evidence of association...... in the main effect models. None of these tests was statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Variants at PPARGC1A may influence several metabolic traits in this European paediatric cohort. However, variation at PPARGC1A is unlikely to have a major impact on cardiovascular or metabolic health...

  6. Variation in Serum Creatinine Level Is Correlated to Risk of Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Sung Moon; Ji Eun Lee; Ji Sung Yoon

    2013-01-01

    Background Skeletal muscle is well established as a major target organ of insulin action, and is associated with the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Therefore, we attempted to determine whether a variation in serum creatinine is related to the development of type 2 diabetes and other risk factors for diabetes. Methods A total of 2,676 nondiabetic subjects with stable and normal renal function (estimated glomerular filtration rate >60 mL/min/1.73 m2) were followed up for approximately 4.5 yea...

  7. The day-night variation of cosmic rays intensity at sea level under the influence of meteorological fronts and troughs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mok, H.M.; Cheng, K.M.

    2000-01-01

    The day-night variation of cosmic rays (CR) intensity at sea level has been observed by a simple G-M counter telescope. We perform two 5 hours counting during the day and the night and find that the pattern of variation is closely related to the atmospheric disturbance. The normal pattern shows that the day counts is a few percents lower than that of the night counts. This can be simply explained by the temperature effect. But when our observation station is being affected by a meteorological front or trough, a reversal occurs. At times the reversal pattern occurs even up to a few days ahead the formation of the troughs at a few hundred kilometers away. Such a reversal may lasts for a few days until the influence of the front or trough has significantly weakened. This effect also overrides the barometric effect, except when there is a sharp change of air pressure, such as during the approach of a tropical cyclone. Our further investigation shows that the pattern of variation may be negatively correlated to the altitude of the 0degC level in the atmosphere. A 150 m upward shift of the 0degC level reduces the CR intensity by about 3-4%. Our postulation is that this variation of CR intensity is related to the relativistic effect of the muon decay, and is an indication of the height of the mid-level pressure distribution. The phenomenon should be further investigated for possible application in weather forecasting and better understanding of the phenomenon could be of use in differentiating the atmospheric effect and the solar effects in CR data. (author)

  8. The Phase-1 Upgrade of the 
ATLAS Level-1 Endcap Muon Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Akatsuka, Shunichi; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Talk slides for RealTime 2018, 9th -15th June 2018 @ Williamsburg, Virginia, USA. Time slot 20 min. (probably 15 min. presentation + 5 min. discussion). This talk is on Phase-1 Upgrade of the Level-1 Endcap Muon trigger. The first part of this presentation describes the overview of the ATLAS trigger system, muon trigger in Run 2 and the Phase-1 Upgrade, and the strategy of phase-1 upgrade. Then in the following few pages, the physics algorithm of the Run 3 muon trigger and its performance is described. The main focus of this talk is on the implementation of the trigger logic to the FPGA. The key component of the trigger part implementation is described, using a schematic diagram and a simulation output screenshot.

  9. Low-level feedback control for the phase regulation of CLIC Drive Beam Klystrons

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)752526

    2015-01-01

    The requirement of luminosity loss below 1% raises tight tolerances for the phase and power stability of the CLIC drive beam (DB) klystrons and consequently for the high voltage pulse ripple of the modulators. A low-level RF (LLRF) feedback system needs to be developed and combined with the modulator in order to guarantee the phase and amplitude tolerances. To this aim, three feedback control strategies were investigated, i) Proportional Integral (PI) controller, ii) Linear Quadratic Integral Regulator (LQI) and iii) Model Predictive Controller (MPC). The klystron, as well as the incident phase noise were modelled and used for the design and evaluation of the controllers. First simulation results are presented along with future steps and directions.

  10. A new phase in the production of quality-controlled sea level data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quartly, Graham D.; Legeais, Jean François; Ablain, Michaël

    2017-01-01

    Sea level is an essential climate variable (ECV) that has a direct effect on many people through inundations of coastal areas, and it is also a clear indicator of climate changes due to external forcing factors and internal climate variability. Regional patterns of sea level change inform us...... and predict these phenomena, and thereby alleviate some of the environmental conditions associated with them. All such studies rely on the existence of long-term consistent high-accuracy datasets of sea level. The Climate Change Initiative (CCI) of the European Space Agency was established in 2010 to provide...... improved time series of some ECVs, including sea level, with the purpose of providing such data openly to all to enable the widest possible utilisation of such data. Now in its second phase, the Sea Level CCI project (SL-cci) merges data from nine different altimeter missions in a clear, consistent...

  11. Estimating absolute sea level variations by combining GNSS and Tide gauge data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bos, M.S.; Fernandes, R.M.S; Vethamony, P.; Mehra, P.

    Indian tide gauges can be used to estimate sea level rise. To separate relative sea level rise from vertical land motion at the tide gauges, various GNSS stations have been installed in the last years at, or nearby, tide gauges. Using the PSMSL...

  12. Monthly Variations in Sea Level at the Island of Zanzibar | Mahongo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science ... Air pressure and rainfall remained relatively constant during the 20-year study period, but there were trends in sea level, northeast winds, southeast winds and air temperature. Monthly ... The trend in sea level (9%) appeared to be mainly correlated with northeast winds.

  13. Variation in well-head gamma radiation levels at the Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was generally observed that the level of radiation around the well heads is less than 20x 10-12mSv/hr, which is in agreement with the International Atomic Energy Agency\\'s standard on ionizing radiation background level. Keywords: Radiation, crude oil, radionuclide, contaminant, exposure. Nigerian Journal of Physics ...

  14. Dynamics of a quantum two-level system under the action of phase-diffusion field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobakinskaya, E.A. [Institute for Physics of Microstructures of RAS, Nizhny Novgorod, 603950 (Russian Federation); Pankratov, A.L., E-mail: alp@ipm.sci-nnov.ru [Institute for Physics of Microstructures of RAS, Nizhny Novgorod, 603950 (Russian Federation); Vaks, V.L. [Institute for Physics of Microstructures of RAS, Nizhny Novgorod, 603950 (Russian Federation)

    2012-01-09

    We study a behavior of quantum two-level system, interacting with noisy phase-diffusion field. The dynamics is shown to split into two regimes, determined by the coherence time of the phase-diffusion field. For both regimes we present a model of quantum system behavior and discuss possible applications of the obtained effect for spectroscopy. In particular, the obtained analytical formula for the macroscopic polarization demonstrates that the phase-diffusion field does not affect the absorption line shape, which opens up an intriguing possibility of noisy spectroscopy, based on broadband sources with Lorentzian line shape. -- Highlights: ► We study dynamics of quantum system interacting with noisy phase-diffusion field. ► At short times the phase-diffusion field induces polarization in the quantum system. ► At long times the noise leads to polarization decay and heating of a quantum system. ► Simple model of interaction is derived. ► Application of the described effects for spectroscopy is discussed.

  15. Holocene relative sea level variations at the spit system Feddet (Denmark) resolved by ground-penetrating radar and geomorphological data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, Mikkel Ulfeldt; Bendixen, Mette; Clemmensen, Lars B

    Estimates of Holocene sea-level variations have been presented in a range of studies based on different approaches, including interpretation of internal beach ridge characteristics from ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and geomorphological data. We present GPR data and geomorphological observations...... of independent GPR and geomorphologic data collected across the recent and sub-recent beach ridge deposits. The data analyses include coastal topography, internal dips of beach ridge layers, and sea-level measurements. A clear change in characteristic layer dip is observed between beach face and upper shoreface...

  16. Variations of insulin resistance and associated hormone levels in elderly and middle-aged male persons and their clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuo Liankun; Yan Daochun; Chen Xiumei; Liu Peng; Zhang Aihua

    2005-01-01

    To study the relationship between age and insulin resistance and the variation of associated hormones in elderly and middle-aged males, blood levels of LH, FSH, T, SHBG, TSH, INS were determined by RIA, FBG by GPO, IR by HOMA in 268 healthy male persons aged 41 to 60 years and in 80 normal control male persions of 35 to 40 years old. The results showed that levels of IR, LH, FSH, SHBG were increasing and T, TSH were decreasing along with the increase of age except for TSH. Therefore, analyzing these changes could evaluate the conditions of elderly and middle-aged males. (authors)

  17. Serum and synovial fluid C-reactive protein level variations in dogs with degenerative joint disease and their relationships with physiological parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boal, S; Miguel Carreira, L

    2015-09-01

    Degenerative joint disease (DJD) is a progressive, chronic joint disease with an inflammatory component promoting an acute phase protein (APP) response. C-reactive protein (CRP) is one of the most important APPs, used as an inflammation marker in human, but not veterinary medicine. The study was developed in a sample of 48 dogs (n = 48) with DJD and aimed to: 1) identify and quantify the synovial fluid CRP (SFCRP) in these specimens using a validated ELISA test for serum CRP (SCRP) detection and quantification; and 2) to study the possible relationship between SCRP and SFCRP levels variations in DJD patients evaluating the influence of some physical parameters such as gender, body weight, pain level, DJD grade, and the physical activity (PA) of the patients. Statistical analysis considered the results significant for p values <0.05. Our study showed that it is possible to detect and quantify SFCRP levels in DJD patients using a previously validated canine SCRP ELISA test, allowing us to point out a preliminary reference value for SFCRP in patients with DJD. Although, individuals with DJD presents SCRP values within the normal reference range and the SFCRP levels were always lower. Obesity, pain, and the DJD grade presented by the patients are conditions which seem to influence the SCRP levels but not the SFCRP.

  18. GTS Duratek, Phase I Hanford low-level waste melter tests: 100-kg melter offgas report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaton, W.C.

    1995-11-01

    A multiphase program was initiated in 1994 to test commercially available melter technologies for the vitrification of the low-level waste (LLW) stream from defense wastes stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Phase 1 of the melter demonstration tests using simulated LLW was completed during fiscal year 1995. This document is the 100-kg melter offgas report on testing performed by GTS Duratek, Inc., in Columbia, Maryland. GTS Duratek (one of the seven vendors selected) was chosen to demonstrate Joule heated melter technology under WHC subcontract number MMI-SVV-384215. The document contains the complete offgas report on the 100-kg melter as prepared by Parsons Engineering Science, Inc. A summary of this report is also contained in the GTS Duratek, Phase I Hanford Low-Level Waste Melter Tests: Final Report (WHC-SD-WM-VI-027)

  19. A modified two-level three-phase quasi-soft-switching inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yusheng; Wu, Weimin; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    A traditional Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) has higher efficiency than a Current Voltage Source (CSI) due to the less conduction power loss. However, the reverse recovery of the free-wheeling diode limits the efficiency improvement for the silicon devices based hard-switching VSI. The traditional...... quasi-soft-switching inverter can alternate between VSI and CSI by using a proper control scheme and thereby reduce the power losses caused by the reverse recovery of the free-wheeling diode. Nevertheless, slightly extra conduction power loss of the auxiliary switch is also introduced. In order...... to reduce the extra conduction power loss and the voltage stress across the DC-link capacitor, a modified two-level three-phase quasi-soft-switching inverter is proposed by using a SiC MOSFET instead of an IGBT. The principle of the modified two-level three-phase quasi-soft-switching inverter is analyzed...

  20. City-level variations in NOx emissions derived from hourly monitoring data in Chicago

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Foy, Benjamin

    2018-03-01

    Control on emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) in the United States of America have led to reductions in concentrations in urban areas by up to a factor of two in the last decade. The Air Quality System monitoring network provides surface measurements of concentrations at hourly resolution over multiple years, revealing variations at the annual, seasonal, day of week and diurnal time scales. A multiple linear regression model was used to estimate the temporal profiles in the NOx concentrations as well as the impact of meteorology, ozone concentrations, and boundary layer heights. The model is applied to data from 2005 to 2016 available at 6 sites in Chicago, Illinois. Results confirm the 50% decrease in NOx over the length of the time series. The weekend effect is found to be stronger in more commercial areas, with 32% reductions on Saturdays and 45% on Sundays and holidays; and weaker in more residential areas with 20% reductions on Saturdays and 30% reductions on Sundays. Weekday diurnal profiles follow a double hump with emission peaks during the morning and afternoon rush hours, but only a shallow drop during the middle day. Difference in profiles from the 6 sites suggest that there are different emission profiles within the urban area. Diurnal profiles on Saturdays have less variation throughout the day and more emissions in the evening. Sundays are very different from both weekdays and Saturdays with a gradual increase until the early evening. The results suggest that in addition to vehicle type and vehicle miles traveled, vehicle speed and congestion must be taken into account to correctly quantify morning rush hour emissions and the weekend effect.

  1. Regionalization based on spatial and seasonal variation in ground-level ozone concentrations across China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Linjun; Wang, Shuai; Gong, Zhengyu; Li, Hong; Yang, Qi; Wang, Yeyao

    2018-05-01

    Owing to the vast territory of China and strong regional characteristic of ozone pollution, it's desirable for policy makers to have a targeted and prioritized regulation and ozone pollution control strategy in China based on scientific evidences. It's important to assess its current pollution status as well as spatial and temporal variation patterns across China. Recent advances of national monitoring networks provide an opportunity to insight the actions of ozone pollution. Here, we present rotated empirical orthogonal function (REOF) analysis that was used on studying the spatiotemporal characteristics of daily ozone concentrations. Based on results of REOF analysis in pollution seasons for 3years' observations, twelve regions with clear patterns were identified in China. The patterns of temporal variation of ozone in each region were separated well and different from each other, reflecting local meteorological, photochemical or pollution features. A rising trend in annual averaged Eight-hour Average Ozone Concentrations (O 3 -8hr) from 2014 to 2016 was observed for all regions, except for the Tibetan Plateau. The mean values of annual and 90 percentile concentrations for all 338 cities were 82.6±14.6 and 133.9±25.8μg/m 3 , respectively, in 2015. The regionalization results of ozone were found to be influenced greatly by terrain features, indicating significant terrain and landform effects on ozone spatial correlations. Among 12 regions, North China Plain, Huanghuai Plain, Central Yangtze River Plain, Pearl River Delta and Sichuan Basin were realized as priority regions for mitigation strategies, due to their higher ozone concentrations and dense population. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. EFFERVESCENT TABLETS FORMULATION OF GINGER RHIZOME (Zingiber officinale Rosc. WITH VARIATION OF CITRIC ACID AND TARTARIC ACID LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mufrod Mufrod

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc. has efficacy as an anti-emetic. Ginger rhizome is usually consumed as instant beverages, so that need to be made into a dosage form that more effective, efficient and attractive. This research aims to formulate ginger into effervescent tablets by using variation of the levels of citric acid and tartaric acid. Dried extract of ginger was made with percolation method using ethanol 70% and evaporated using spray dryer. Extract was made for 5 formulas with variation of acid source using smelting method. Granules were tested its physical properties include flow time, tap index, angle of repose, water absorption, compactibility, mass density, water content, and total phenolic level. Granules were compressed become tablets and tested for physical properties include weight uniformity, friability, hardness, dissolve time, flavor response test and total phenolic level. Data were analyzed with Anova One Way using 95% confidence level. The result shown that formula III was the best formula because it meets the physical requirements of granules and tablets. While the formula V (100% tartaric acid was a formula that provides the greatest stability phenolic levels.

  3. Geometric phase for a two-level system in photonic band gab crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrada, K.

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we investigate the geometric phase (GP) for a qubit system coupled to its own anisotropic and isotropic photonic band gap (PBG) crystal environment without Born or Markovian approximation. The qubit frequency affects the GP of the qubit directly through the effect of the PBG environment. The results show the deviation of the GP depends on the detuning parameter and this deviation will be large for relatively large detuning of atom frequency inside the gap with respect to the photonic band edge. Whereas for detunings outside the gap, the GP of the qubit changes abruptly to zero, exhibiting collapse phenomenon of the GP. Moreover, we find that the GP in the isotropic PBG photonic crystal is more robust than that in the anisotropic PBG under the same condition. Finally, we explore the relationship between the variation of the GP and population in terms of the physical parameters.

  4. Alternatives generation and analysis for the phase 1 high-level waste pretreatment process selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manuel, A.F.

    1997-01-01

    This report evaluates the effects of enhanced sludge washing and sludge washing without caustic leaching during the preparation of the Phase 1 high-level waste feeds. The pretreatment processing alternatives are evaluated against their ability to satisfy contractual, cost minimization, and other criteria. The information contained in this report is consistent with, and supplemental to, the Tank Waste Remediation System Operation and Utilization Plan (Kirkbride et al. 1997)

  5. Kinematics of two-phase mixture level motion in BWR pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wulff, W.; Cheng, H.S.; Mallen, A.N.; Stritar, A.

    1985-01-01

    A model is presented for predicting two-phase mixture level elevations in BWR systems. The model accounts for the particular geometry and conditions in a BWR system during Small-Break Loss of Coolant Accidents. The model presented here is particularly suitable for efficient, high-speed simulations on small minicomputers. The model has been implemented and tested. Results are shown from BWR ATWS simulations

  6. Alternatives generation and analysis for the phase 1 high-level waste pretreatment process selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manuel, A.F.

    1997-10-02

    This report evaluates the effects of enhanced sludge washing and sludge washing without caustic leaching during the preparation of the Phase 1 high-level waste feeds. The pretreatment processing alternatives are evaluated against their ability to satisfy contractual, cost minimization, and other criteria. The information contained in this report is consistent with, and supplemental to, the Tank Waste Remediation System Operation and Utilization Plan (Kirkbride et al. 1997).

  7. Environmental variation of arsenic levels in human blood determined by neutron activation analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj

    1970-01-01

    Denmark. Arsenic was determined by neutron activation analysis with radiochemical separation and re-irradiation yield determination. The precision and accuracy of the results have been carefully evaluated in order to permit quantitative tests for the significance of the observed differences. The results......Arsenic levels in blood plasma and red cells from patients with Blackfoot disease, a peripheral arteriosclerosis endemic to a small area in Taiwan, were studied in relation to healthy individuals from the same and other parts of Taiwan and compared with arsenic levels in a control group from...... from Taiwan followed a logarithmic normal distribution, and no difference was found between Blackfoot patients and their healthy family members. However, their overall arsenic levels were higher than the Taiwan average, presumably because of arsenic in their drinking water. Much lower levels were found...

  8. Daily and seasonal variations of serum testosterone levels in bulls after chemical or surgical castration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feher, T.; Bodrogi, L. (Semmelweis Orvostudomanyi Egyetem, Budapest (Hungary). 1. Belklinika); Makray, S. (Mezoegazdasagi Foeiskola, Kaposvar (Hungary))

    1985-01-01

    The dynamics of serum testosterone levels were studied by a radio-immunological assay (RIA) in 7-9 months old Holstein-Friesian bulls. Significant correlation was found between the hormone level and age (rather than body mass) of adult animals. The daily dynamics of hormone level varied to a large extent indicating that only several and repeated hormonal investigations allowed the evaluation of hormonal state and sexual function in bulls. The serum testosterone lewel was the highest in October and the lowest in April; the seasonal differences were not significant. The hormone level of blood was minimal already 24 hours after the surgical castration. Chemical castration (tannic acid-ZnSOsub(4) injection into both testes) resulted in a slower and more moderate decrease of the hormone concentration.

  9. Daily and seasonal variations of serum testosterone levels in bulls after chemical or surgical castration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feher, Tibor; Bodrogi, Lajos

    1985-01-01

    The dynamics of serum testosterone levels were studied by a radio-immunological assay (RIA) in 7-9 months old Holstein-Friesian bulls. Significant correlation was found between the hormone level and age (rather than body mass) of adult animals. The daily dynamics of hormone level varied to a large extent indicating that only several and repeated hormonal investigations allowed the evaluation of hormonal state and sexual function in bulls. The serum testosterone lewel was the highest in October and the lowest in April; the seasonal differences were not significant. The hormon level of blood was minimal already 24 hours after the surgical castration. Chemical castration (tannic acid-ZnSOsub(4) injection into both testes) resulted in a slower and more moderate decrease of the hormone concentration. (author)

  10. Variations in area-level disadvantage of Australian registered fitness trainers usual training locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason A. Bennie

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leisure-time physical activity and strength training participation levels are low and socioeconomically distributed. Fitness trainers (e.g. gym/group instructors may have a role in increasing these participation levels. However, it is not known whether the training location and characteristics of Australian fitness trainers vary between areas that differ in socioeconomic status. Methods In 2014, a sample of 1,189 Australian trainers completed an online survey with questions about personal and fitness industry-related characteristics (e.g. qualifications, setting, and experience and postcode of their usual training location. The Australian Bureau of Statistics ‘Index of Relative Socioeconomic Disadvantage’ (IRSD was matched to training location and used to assess where fitness professionals trained and whether their experience, qualification level and delivery methods differed by area-level disadvantage. Linear regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between IRSD score and selected characteristics adjusting for covariates (e.g. sex, age. Results Overall, 47 % of respondents worked in areas within the three least-disadvantaged deciles. In contrast, only 14.8 % worked in the three most-disadvantaged deciles. In adjusted regression models, fitness industry qualification was positively associated with a higher IRSD score (i.e. working in the least-disadvantaged areas (Cert III: ref; Cert IV β:13.44 [95 % CI 3.86-23.02]; Diploma β:15.77 [95 % CI: 2.17-29.37]; Undergraduate β:23.14 [95 % CI: 9.41-36.86]. Conclusions Fewer Australian fitness trainers work in areas with high levels of socioeconomic disadvantaged areas than in areas with low levels of disadvantage. A higher level of fitness industry qualifications was associated with working in areas with lower levels of disadvantage. Future research should explore the effectiveness of providing incentives that encourage more fitness trainers and those with

  11. Variations in area-level disadvantage of Australian registered fitness trainers usual training locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennie, Jason A; Thornton, Lukar E; van Uffelen, Jannique G Z; Banting, Lauren K; Biddle, Stuart J H

    2016-07-11

    Leisure-time physical activity and strength training participation levels are low and socioeconomically distributed. Fitness trainers (e.g. gym/group instructors) may have a role in increasing these participation levels. However, it is not known whether the training location and characteristics of Australian fitness trainers vary between areas that differ in socioeconomic status. In 2014, a sample of 1,189 Australian trainers completed an online survey with questions about personal and fitness industry-related characteristics (e.g. qualifications, setting, and experience) and postcode of their usual training location. The Australian Bureau of Statistics 'Index of Relative Socioeconomic Disadvantage' (IRSD) was matched to training location and used to assess where fitness professionals trained and whether their experience, qualification level and delivery methods differed by area-level disadvantage. Linear regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between IRSD score and selected characteristics adjusting for covariates (e.g. sex, age). Overall, 47 % of respondents worked in areas within the three least-disadvantaged deciles. In contrast, only 14.8 % worked in the three most-disadvantaged deciles. In adjusted regression models, fitness industry qualification was positively associated with a higher IRSD score (i.e. working in the least-disadvantaged areas) (Cert III: ref; Cert IV β:13.44 [95 % CI 3.86-23.02]; Diploma β:15.77 [95 % CI: 2.17-29.37]; Undergraduate β:23.14 [95 % CI: 9.41-36.86]). Fewer Australian fitness trainers work in areas with high levels of socioeconomic disadvantaged areas than in areas with low levels of disadvantage. A higher level of fitness industry qualifications was associated with working in areas with lower levels of disadvantage. Future research should explore the effectiveness of providing incentives that encourage more fitness trainers and those with higher qualifications to work in more socioeconomically

  12. Variations in area-level disadvantage of Australian registered fitness trainers usual training locations

    OpenAIRE

    Bennie, Jason A.; Thornton, Lukar E.; van Uffelen, Jannique G. Z.; Banting, Lauren K.; Biddle, Stuart J. H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Leisure-time physical activity and strength training participation levels are low and socioeconomically distributed. Fitness trainers (e.g. gym/group instructors) may have a role in increasing these participation levels. However, it is not known whether the training location and characteristics of Australian fitness trainers vary between areas that differ in socioeconomic status. Methods In 2014, a sample of 1,189 Australian trainers completed an online survey with questions about ...

  13. The Monthly Variations in the Blood Glucose Level of Capoeta capoeta capoeta (G.ldenstaedt, 1772) Living in Aras River

    OpenAIRE

    AYDIN, Seyit

    2000-01-01

    In this study, the monthly variation in the blood glucose level of Capoeta capoeta capoeta caught from Aras between August 1995 and June 1996 was determined. The average blood glucose level was determined to be 112.04±5.19 mg/dl in males and 106.32±9.68 mg/dl in females and 110.06±4.19 mg/dl in the population. The blood glucose level was highest (141.07±13.67 mg/dl) in April, and lowest (69.14±9.75 mg/dl) in September. It was deter- mined that the level of blood glucose was related to tem...

  14. Two-level image authentication by two-step phase-shifting interferometry and compressive sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue; Meng, Xiangfeng; Yin, Yongkai; Yang, Xiulun; Wang, Yurong; Li, Xianye; Peng, Xiang; He, Wenqi; Dong, Guoyan; Chen, Hongyi

    2018-01-01

    A two-level image authentication method is proposed; the method is based on two-step phase-shifting interferometry, double random phase encoding, and compressive sensing (CS) theory, by which the certification image can be encoded into two interferograms. Through discrete wavelet transform (DWT), sparseness processing, Arnold transform, and data compression, two compressed signals can be generated and delivered to two different participants of the authentication system. Only the participant who possesses the first compressed signal attempts to pass the low-level authentication. The application of Orthogonal Match Pursuit CS algorithm reconstruction, inverse Arnold transform, inverse DWT, two-step phase-shifting wavefront reconstruction, and inverse Fresnel transform can result in the output of a remarkable peak in the central location of the nonlinear correlation coefficient distributions of the recovered image and the standard certification image. Then, the other participant, who possesses the second compressed signal, is authorized to carry out the high-level authentication. Therefore, both compressed signals are collected to reconstruct the original meaningful certification image with a high correlation coefficient. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulations verify the feasibility of the proposed method.

  15. Risk level project. Summary report, Norwegian Shelf, Phase 7; Risikonivaaprosjektet. Sammendragsrapport Norsk Sokkel, fase 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-04-15

    The project 'developments in risk level - Norwegian shelf', also known as the risk level project, was initiated by the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate in 2000. From 2004 the project has been continued by Petroleum Safety Authority Norway. The project's main objectives are to measure the effect of the health, security and environment (HSE) work in the industry, and contribute to identify the areas critical to HSE, where efforts must be made to prevent unwanted events or accidents. A summary report with results from phase 7 in the project (ml)

  16. Individual variation in baseline and stress-induced corticosterone and prolactin levels predicts parental effort by nesting mourning doves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David A.; Vleck, Carol M.; Otis, David L.

    2009-01-01

    Endocrine systems have an important mechanistic role in structuring life-history trade-offs. During breeding, individual variation in prolactin (PRL) and corticosterone (CORT) levels affects behavioral and physiological processes that drive trade-offs between reproduction and self-maintenance. We examined patterns in baseline (BL) and stress induced (SI; level following a standard capture-restraint protocol) levels of PRL and CORT for breeding mourning doves (Zenaida macroura). We determined whether the relationship of adult condition and parental effort to hormone levels in wild birds was consistent with life-history predictions. Both BL PRL and BL CORT level in adults were positively related to nestling weight at early nestling ages, consistent with the prediction of a positive relationship of hormone levels to current parental effort of adults and associated increased energy demand. Results are consistent with the two hormones acting together at baseline levels to limit negative effects of CORT on reproduction while maintaining beneficial effects such as increased foraging for nestling feeding. Our data did not support predictions that SI responses would vary in response to nestling or adult condition. The magnitude of CORT response in the parents to our capture-restraint protocol was negatively correlated with subsequent parental effort. Average nestling weights for adults with the highest SI CORT response were on average 10–15% lighter than expected for their age in follow-up visits after the stress event. Our results demonstrated a relationship between individual hormone levels and within population variation in parental effort and suggested that hormonal control plays an important role in structuring reproductive decisions for mourning doves.

  17. Mapping groundwater level and aquifer storage variations from InSAR measurements in the Madrid aquifer, Central Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béjar-Pizarro, Marta; Ezquerro, Pablo; Herrera, Gerardo; Tomás, Roberto; Guardiola-Albert, Carolina; Ruiz Hernández, José M.; Fernández Merodo, José A.; Marchamalo, Miguel; Martínez, Rubén

    2017-04-01

    Groundwater resources are under stress in many regions of the world and the future water supply for many populations, particularly in the driest places on Earth, is threatened. Future climatic conditions and population growth are expected to intensify the problem. Understanding the factors that control groundwater storage variation is crucial to mitigate its adverse consequences. In this work, we apply satellite-based measurements of ground deformation over the Tertiary detritic aquifer of Madrid (TDAM), Central Spain, to infer the spatio-temporal evolution of water levels and estimate groundwater storage variations. Specifically, we use Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) data during the period 1992-2010 and piezometric time series on 19 well sites covering the period 1997-2010 to build groundwater level maps and quantify groundwater storage variations. Our results reveal that groundwater storage loss occurred in two different periods, 1992-1999 and 2005-2010 and was mainly concentrated in a region of ∼200 km2. The presence of more compressible materials in that region combined with a long continuous water extraction can explain this volumetric deficit. This study illustrates how the combination of PSI and piezometric data can be used to detect small aquifers affected by groundwater storage loss helping to improve their sustainable management.

  18. Levels, spatial variation and compartmentalization of trace elements in brown algae Cystoseira from marine protected areas of Crimea (Black Sea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravtsova, Alexandra V.; Milchakova, Nataliya A.; Frontasyeva, Marina V.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • 19 trace elements were determined in Cystoseira spp. from marine protected areas. • Levels of 10 elements were lower than reported data for Black Sea Cystoseira spp. • Concentrations of most trace elements were higher in “branches” than in “stems”. • Spatial variations of V, Co, Ni and Zn can be related to anthropogenic activities. • Al, Sc, Fe, Rb, Cs, Th, U varied depending on geological composition of the coast. - Abstract: Levels of Al, Sc, V, Co, Ni, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Ag, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, Th and U that were rarely or never studied, as well as the concentrations of classically investigated Mn, Fe and Zn in brown algae Cystoseira barbata C. Ag. and Cystoseira crinita (Desf.) Bory from the coastal waters of marine protected areas (Crimea, Black Sea), were determined using neutron activation analysis. Spatial variation and compartmentalization were studied for all 19 trace elements (TE). Concentrations of most TE were higher in “branches” than in “stems”. Spatial variations of V, Co, Ni and Zn can be related to anthropogenic activities while Al, Sc, Fe, Rb, Cs, Th and U varied depending on chemical peculiarities of the coastal zone rocks. TE concentrations in C. crinita from marine protected areas near Tarkhankut peninsula and Cape Fiolent, identified as the most clean water areas, are submitted as the background concentrations

  19. Influence of genetic variation on plasma protein levels in older adults using a multi-analyte panel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungeun Kim

    Full Text Available Proteins, widely studied as potential biomarkers, play important roles in numerous physiological functions and diseases. Genetic variation may modulate corresponding protein levels and point to the role of these variants in disease pathophysiology. Effects of individual single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs within a gene were analyzed for corresponding plasma protein levels using genome-wide association study (GWAS genotype data and proteomic panel data with 132 quality-controlled analytes from 521 Caucasian participants in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI cohort. Linear regression analysis detected 112 significant (Bonferroni threshold p=2.44×10(-5 associations between 27 analytes and 112 SNPs. 107 out of these 112 associations were tested in the Indiana Memory and Aging Study (IMAS cohort for replication and 50 associations were replicated at uncorrected p<0.05 in the same direction of effect as those in the ADNI. We identified multiple novel associations including the association of rs7517126 with plasma complement factor H-related protein 1 (CFHR1 level at p<1.46×10(-60, accounting for 40 percent of total variation of the protein level. We serendipitously found the association of rs6677604 with the same protein at p<9.29×10(-112. Although these two SNPs were not in the strong linkage disequilibrium, 61 percent of total variation of CFHR1 was accounted for by rs6677604 without additional variation by rs7517126 when both SNPs were tested together. 78 other SNP-protein associations in the ADNI sample exceeded genome-wide significance (5×10(-8. Our results confirmed previously identified gene-protein associations for interleukin-6 receptor, chemokine CC-4, angiotensin-converting enzyme, and angiotensinogen, although the direction of effect was reversed in some cases. This study is among the first analyses of gene-protein product relationships integrating multiplex-panel proteomics and targeted genes extracted from a GWAS

  20. Levels, spatial variation and compartmentalization of trace elements in brown algae Cystoseira from marine protected areas of Crimea (Black Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravtsova, Alexandra V; Milchakova, Nataliya A; Frontasyeva, Marina V

    2015-08-15

    Levels of Al, Sc, V, Co, Ni, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Ag, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, Th and U that were rarely or never studied, as well as the concentrations of classically investigated Mn, Fe and Zn in brown algae Cystoseira barbata C. Ag. and Cystoseira crinita (Desf.) Bory from the coastal waters of marine protected areas (Crimea, Black Sea), were determined using neutron activation analysis. Spatial variation and compartmentalization were studied for all 19 trace elements (TE). Concentrations of most TE were higher in "branches" than in "stems". Spatial variations of V, Co, Ni and Zn can be related to anthropogenic activities while Al, Sc, Fe, Rb, Cs, Th and U varied depending on chemical peculiarities of the coastal zone rocks. TE concentrations in C. crinita from marine protected areas near Tarkhankut peninsula and Cape Fiolent, identified as the most clean water areas, are submitted as the background concentrations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of Heterogeneity and Uncertainties in Sources and Initial and Boundary Conditions on Spatiotemporal Variations of Groundwater Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y. K.; Liang, X.

    2014-12-01

    Effects of aquifer heterogeneity and uncertainties in source/sink, and initial and boundary conditions in a groundwater flow model on the spatiotemporal variations of groundwater level, h(x,t), were investigated. Analytical solutions for the variance and covariance of h(x, t) in an unconfined aquifer described by a linearized Boussinesq equation with a white noise source/sink and a random transmissivity field were derived. It was found that in a typical aquifer the error in h(x,t) in early time is mainly caused by the random initial condition and the error reduces as time goes to reach a constant error in later time. The duration during which the effect of the random initial condition is significant may last a few hundred days in most aquifers. The constant error in groundwater in later time is due to the combined effects of the uncertain source/sink and flux boundary: the closer to the flux boundary, the larger the error. The error caused by the uncertain head boundary is limited in a narrow zone near the boundary but it remains more or less constant over time. The effect of the heterogeneity is to increase the variation of groundwater level and the maximum effect occurs close to the constant head boundary because of the linear mean hydraulic gradient. The correlation of groundwater level decreases with temporal interval and spatial distance. In addition, the heterogeneity enhances the correlation of groundwater level, especially at larger time intervals and small spatial distances.

  2. Intraspecific variation in physiological condition of reef-building corals associated with differential levels of chronic disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisapia, Chiara; Anderson, Kristen; Pratchett, Morgan S

    2014-01-01

    Even in the absence of major disturbances (e.g., cyclones, bleaching), corals are subject to high levels of partial or whole-colony mortality, often caused by chronic and small-scale disturbances. Depending on levels of background mortality, these chronic disturbances may undermine individual fitness and have significant consequences on the ability of colonies to withstand subsequent acute disturbances or environmental change. This study quantified intraspecific variations in physiological condition (measured based on total lipid content and zooxanthellae density) through time in adult colonies of two common and widespread coral species (Acropora spathulata and Pocillopora damicornis), subject to different levels of biological and physical disturbances along the most disturbed reef habitat, the crest. Marked intraspecific variation in the physiological condition of A. spathulata was clearly linked to differences in local disturbance regimes and habitat. Specifically, zooxanthellae density decreased (r2 = 26, df = 5,42, pzooxanthellae density was strongly and negatively correlated with the individual level of partial mortality (r2 = 26, df = 5,42, pclimate-induced coral bleaching.

  3. Variation of plasma cortisol levels in patients with depression after treatment with bilateral electroconvulsive therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Fortunato Burgese

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: More than 60 years after the introduction of modern psychopharmacology, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT continues to be an essential therapeutic modality in the treatment of mental disorders, but its mechanism of action remains unclear. Hormones play an essential role in the development and expression of a series of behavioral changes. One aspect of the influence of hormones on behavior is their potential contribution to the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders and the mechanism of action of psychotropic drugs and ECT.Objective: We measured blood levels of the hormone cortisol in patients with unipolar depression according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV and compared results with levels found in healthy adults.Method: Blood cortisol levels were measured before the beginning of treatment with ECT, at the seventh session, and at the last session, at treatment completion. Depression symptoms were assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI.Results: Cortisol levels remained stable in both men and women between the seventh and the last sessions of ECT; values ranged from 0.686±9.6330 g/dL for women, and there was a mean decrease of 5.825±6.0780 g/dL (p = 0.024. Mean number of ECT sessions was 12. After the seventh and the last ECT sessions, patients with depression and individuals in the control group had similar cortisol levels, whereas BDI scores remained different.Conclusion: Cortisol levels decreased during ECT treatment. ECT seems to act as a regulator of the hypothalamic-pituitaryadrenal axis.

  4. Solutes transport characteristics in peritoneal dialysis: variations in glucose and insulin serum levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Dirceu R; Figueiredo, Ana E; Antonello, Ivan C; Poli de Figueiredo, Carlos E; d'Avila, Domingos O

    2008-01-01

    Differences in small solutes transport rate (SSTR) during peritoneal dialysis (PD) may affect water and solutes removal. Patients with high SSTR must rely on shorter dwell times and increased dialysate glucose concentrations to keep fluid balance. Glucose absorption during peritoneal dialysis (PD), besides affecting glucose and insulin metabolism, may induce weight gain. The study aimed at examining acute glucose and insulin serum level changes and other potential relationships in PD patients with diverse SSTR. This cross-sectional study used a modified peritoneal equilibration test (PET) that enrolled 34 prevalent PD patients. Zero, 15, 30, 60, 120, 180, and 240-minute glucose and insulin serum levels were measured. Insulin resistance index was assessed by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) formula. SSTR categories were classified by quartiles of the four-hour dialysate/serum creatinine ratio (D(4)/P(Cr)). Demographic and clinical variables were evaluated, and the body mass index (BMI) was estimated. Correlations among variables of interest and categories of SSTR were explored. Glucose serum levels were significantly different at 15, 30, and 60 minutes between high and low SSTR categories (p = 0.014, 0.009, and 0.022). Increased BMI (25.5 +/- 5.1) and insulin resistance [HOMA-IR = 2.60 (1.40-4.23)] were evidenced overall. Very strong to moderate correlations between insulin levels along the PET and HOMA-IR (r = 0.973, 0.834, 0.766, 0.728, 0.843, 0.857, 0.882) and BMI (r = 0.562, 0.459, 0.417, 0.370, 0.508, 0.514, 0.483) were disclosed. CONCLUSIONS; Early glucose serum levels were associated with SSTR during a PET. Overweight or obesity and insulin resistance were prevalent. An association between insulin serum levels and BMI was demonstrated.

  5. Variation in the Level of Grain Defect Light Flecks and Spots on Cattle Hides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafstad, O; Grønstøl, H

    2001-01-01

    The occurrence of hide damage light flecks and spots was determined on tanned hides from 28 herds during a period of 8 to 12 months. Light flecks and spots are described as small areas of grain loss up to 3 mm in diameter that are seen on dyed crust cattle leather. Damage was found on 75.8% of all hides. The neck and shoulders were the anatomical region with the highest prevalence of damage. Sixty-eight per cent of all hides had light flecks and spots in this region. The forelimbs and dewlap were the anatomical region with the second highest occurrence with a prevalence of 39.1%. This distribution corresponded to the known distribution of lice in cattle. No significant differences were observed in age, sex, prevalence of lice in the herd assessed in March or infestations with different lice species. The frequency of light flecks and spots varied significantly during the year. The frequency was highest in the late winter and early spring, decreased significantly during the summer and was lowest in the autumn. This variation supported the importance of lice in the development of light flecks and spots and suggested a relatively long healing period for the damages induced by lice. PMID:11455905

  6. Racial and Ethnic Variation in Lipoprotein (a Levels among Asian Indian and Chinese Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipanjan Banerjee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Lipoprotein (a [Lp(a] is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD in Non-Hispanic Whites (NHW. There are known racial/ethnic differences in Lp(a levels, and the association of Lp(a with CVD outcomes has not been examined in Asian Americans in the USA. Objective. We hypothesized that Lp(a levels would differ in Asian Indians and Chinese Americans when compared to NHW and that the relationship between Lp(a and CVD outcomes would be different in these Asian racial/ethnic subgroups when compared to NHW. Methods. We studied the outpatient electronic health records of 2022 NHW, 295 Asian Indians, and 151 Chinese adults age ≥18 y in Northern California in whom Lp(a levels were assessed during routine clinical care from 2001 to 2008, excluding those who had received prescriptions for niacin (14.6%. Nonparametric methods were used to compare median Lp(a levels. Significance was assessed at the P<.0001 level to account for multiple comparisons. CVD outcomes were defined as ischemic heart disease (IHD (265 events, stroke (122, or peripheral vascular disease (PVD (87. We used logistic regression to determine the relationship between Lp(a and CVD outcomes. Results. Both Asian Indians (36 nmol/L and NHW (29 nmol/L had higher median Lp(a levels than Chinese (22 nmol/L, P≤.0001 and P=.0032. When stratified by sex, the differences in median Lp(a between these groups persisted in the 1761 men (AI v CH: P=.001, NHW v CH: P=.0018 but were not statistically significant in the 1130 women (AI v CH: P=.0402, NHW v CH: P=.0761. Asian Indians (OR=2.0 and Chinese (OR=4.8 exhibited a trend towards greater risk of IHD with high Lp(a levels than NHW (OR=1.4, but no relationship was statistically significant. Conclusion. Asian Indian and NHW men have higher Lp(a values than Chinese men, with a trend toward, similar associations in women. High Lp(a may be more strongly associated with IHD in Asian Indians and Chinese, although we did

  7. Geographic Variations of Colorectal and Breast Cancer Late-Stage Diagnosis and the Effects of Neighborhood-Level Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yan; Wimberly, Michael C

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the geographic variations of late-stage diagnosis in colorectal cancer (CRC) and breast cancer as well as to investigate the effects of 3 neighborhood-level factors-socioeconomic deprivation, urban/rural residence, and spatial accessibility to health care-on the late-stage risks. This study used population-based South Dakota cancer registry data from 2001 to 2012. A total of 4,878 CRC cases and 6,418 breast cancer cases were included in the analyses. Two-level logistic regression models were used to analyze the risk of late-stage CRC and breast cancer. For CRC, there was a small geographic variation across census tracts in late-stage diagnosis, and residing in isolated small rural areas was significantly associated with late-stage risk. However, this association became nonsignificant after adjusting for census-tract level socioeconomic deprivation. Socioeconomic deprivation was an independent predictor of CRC late-stage risk, and it explained the elevated risk among American Indians. No relationship was found between spatial accessibility and CRC late-stage risk. For breast cancer, no geographic variation in the late-stage diagnosis was observed across census tracts, and none of the 3 neighborhood-level factors was significantly associated with late-stage risk. Results suggested that socioeconomic deprivation, rather than spatial accessibility, contributed to CRC late-stage risks in South Dakota as a rural state. CRC intervention programs could be developed to target isolated small rural areas, socioeconomically disadvantaged areas, as well as American Indians residing in these areas. © 2016 National Rural Health Association.

  8. Seasonal variations in the level of heavy metals in the water of minor rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. L. Sukhodolska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the level of heavy metals (Zn, Mn, Fe, Pb, Co, Ni, Cd and characteristics of their transportation through the water of minor rivers in Rivne region, Ukraine. The levels of Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Ni, Co in the waters of these fisheries exceeded the maximum permissible concentration limit in different months. We found that the concentration of Pb and Cd did not exceed the permissible concentration limit in the waters of the fisheries during the year of research, while the level of other metals exceeded the permissible levels by 1.1 to 151.0 times. This research confirms that the surface waters of Rivne region are characterized by high concentrations of iron, manganese, zinc, and nickel. The level of iron exceeded the maximum permissible concentration limit by 1.1 to 5.0 times, the level of zinc by 1.5 to 15.0 times, that of manganese by1.3 to 6.7 times and the nickel level by 1.3 to 151.0 times in the fishery waters. In principle, the increase in the level of heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Ni, Co is connected with the lithological composition of reservoirs in the water-collecting areas of the investigated rivers, and besides with the significant influence of the anthropogenic load (fuel combustion, aqueous wastes of factory units, agricultural effluent, etc., and with the increase in aquatic vegetation, pH balance, temperature change and so on. The appearance of iron-manganese compounds can be explained by natural causes such as reformation of the source minerals into secondary minerals in the conditions of pH level recession in water, which causes the release of these molecular entities; leaching of iron from the iron-manganese septarian nodules, a substantial amount of which is contained in the illuvial horizon. The increase in the level of zinc and nickel in the river water is connected with the leaching of these elements from subsurface rocks, soil and forest leaf litter. Atmospheric condensation is a significant source of the

  9. Study of nanometer-level precise phase-shift system used in electronic speckle shearography and phase-shift pattern interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Chao; Liu, Zhongling; Zhou, Ge; Zhang, Yimo

    2011-11-01

    The nanometer-level precise phase-shift system is designed to realize the phase-shift interferometry in electronic speckle shearography pattern interferometry. The PZT is used as driving component of phase-shift system and translation component of flexure hinge is developed to realize micro displacement of non-friction and non-clearance. Closed-loop control system is designed for high-precision micro displacement, in which embedded digital control system is developed for completing control algorithm and capacitive sensor is used as feedback part for measuring micro displacement in real time. Dynamic model and control model of the nanometer-level precise phase-shift system is analyzed, and high-precision micro displacement is realized with digital PID control algorithm on this basis. It is proved with experiments that the location precision of the precise phase-shift system to step signal of displacement is less than 2nm and the location precision to continuous signal of displacement is less than 5nm, which is satisfied with the request of the electronic speckle shearography and phase-shift pattern interferometry. The stripe images of four-step phase-shift interferometry and the final phase distributed image correlated with distortion of objects are listed in this paper to prove the validity of nanometer-level precise phase-shift system.

  10. Probing the Natural World, Level III, Teacher's Edition: Investigating Variation. Intermediate Science Curriculum Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonar, John R., Ed.; Hathway, James A., Ed.

    This is the teacher's edition of one of the eight units of the Intermediate Science Curriculum Study (ISCS) for level III students (grade 9). This unit focuses on diversity in human populations, measurement, and data collection. Optional excursions are described for students who wish to study a topic in greater depth. An introduction describes…

  11. Probing the Natural World, Level III, Student Guide: Investigating Variation. Intermediate Science Curriculum Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonar, John R., Ed.; Hathway, James A., Ed.

    This is the student's text of one unit of the Intermediate Science Curriculum Study (ISCS) for level III students (grade 9). This unit focuses on diversity in human populations, measurement, and data collection. Numerous activities are given and optional excursions encourage students to pursue a topic in greater depth. Data tables within the…

  12. Seasonal Variation in Exposure Level of Types A and B Ultraviolet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the sun in the sky, cloud cover, and height from ground level affected the amount of UVR received, but the ... the influence dosage of UVR.[5-8] Taking into ... industrial development of Arak city, the specific climate of the region, and given the ...

  13. Variation of level density parameter with angular momentum in 119Sb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, Mamta; Kailas, S.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear level density (NLD), a basic ingredient of Statistical Model has been a subject of interest for various decades as it plays an important role in the understanding of a wide variety of Nuclear reactions. There have been various efforts towards the precise determination of NLD and study its dependence on excitation energy and angular momentum as it is crucial in the determination of cross-sections. Here we report our results of theoretical calculations in a microscopic framework to understand the experimental results on inverse level density parameter (k) extracted for different angular momentum regions for 119 Sb corresponding to different γ-ray multiplicities by comparing the experimental neutron energy spectra with statistical model predictions where an increase in the level density with the increasing angular momentum is predicted. NLD and neutron emission spectra dependence on temperature and spin has been studied in our earlier works where the influence of structural transitions due to angular momentum and temperature on level density of states and neutron emission probability was shown

  14. Variations in levels of care within a hospital provided to acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and given a quality rating out of five levels ranging from excellent to incomplete. .... by their friends or the hospital porter, for example, had passed the. Fig. 1. Quality of .... must be completed and stuck onto the patient's file would force.

  15. Millennial cycles of mean sea level excited by earth´s orbital variations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chapanov, Y.; Ron, Cyril; Vondrák, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 3 (2015), s. 259-266 ISSN 1214-9705 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-15943S Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : millenial cycles * mean sea level * Earth's insolation Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 0.561, year: 2015

  16. Community-Level Characteristics Associated With Variation in Rates of Homelessness Among Families and Single Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fargo, Jamison D.; Munley, Ellen A.; Byrne, Thomas H.; Montgomery, Ann Elizabeth; Culhane, Dennis P.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We modeled rates of family and single-adult homelessness in the United States in metropolitan and nonmetropolitan regions and as a function of community-level demographic, behavioral, health, economic, and safety net characteristics. Methods. We entered community-level characteristics and US Department of Housing and Urban Development point-in-time counts for a single night in January 2009 into separate mixed-effects statistical analyses that modeled homelessness rates for 4 subpopulations: families and single adults in metropolitan and nonmetropolitan regions. Results. Community-level factors accounted for 25% to 50% of the variance in homelessness rates across models. In metropolitan regions, alcohol consumption, social support, and several economic indicators were uniquely associated with family homelessness, and drug use and homicide were uniquely associated with single-adult homelessness. In nonmetropolitan regions, life expectancy, religious adherence, unemployment, and rent burden were uniquely associated with family homelessness, and health care access, crime, several economic indicators, and receipt of Supplemental Security Income were uniquely associated with single-adult homelessness. Conclusions. Considering homeless families and single adults separately enabled more precise modeling of associations between homelessness rates and community-level characteristics, indicating targets for interventions to reduce homelessness among these subpopulations. PMID:24148057

  17. Songbird Community Variation Among Five Levels of Overstory Retention in Northern Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian A. Lesak; Yong Wang; Callie Jo Schweitzer

    2004-01-01

    We compared songbird communities among varying degrees of overstory tree retention in the oak-hickory forest of the southern Mid-Cumberland Plateau region. Three 20-ha complete block replicates of 5 experimental treatments (15 treatment units, 4 ha per unit) were used. The five treatments were operational shelterwood stands with target overstory retention levels of...

  18. Community-level characteristics associated with variation in rates of homelessness among families and single adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fargo, Jamison D; Munley, Ellen A; Byrne, Thomas H; Montgomery, Ann Elizabeth; Culhane, Dennis P

    2013-12-01

    We modeled rates of family and single-adult homelessness in the United States in metropolitan and nonmetropolitan regions and as a function of community-level demographic, behavioral, health, economic, and safety net characteristics. We entered community-level characteristics and US Department of Housing and Urban Development point-in-time counts for a single night in January 2009 into separate mixed-effects statistical analyses that modeled homelessness rates for 4 subpopulations: families and single adults in metropolitan and nonmetropolitan regions. Community-level factors accounted for 25% to 50% of the variance in homelessness rates across models. In metropolitan regions, alcohol consumption, social support, and several economic indicators were uniquely associated with family homelessness, and drug use and homicide were uniquely associated with single-adult homelessness. In nonmetropolitan regions, life expectancy, religious adherence, unemployment, and rent burden were uniquely associated with family homelessness, and health care access, crime, several economic indicators, and receipt of Supplemental Security Income were uniquely associated with single-adult homelessness. Considering homeless families and single adults separately enabled more precise modeling of associations between homelessness rates and community-level characteristics, indicating targets for interventions to reduce homelessness among these subpopulations.

  19. Second foreign language learning strategies and their variations across language proficiency levels among Iranian EFL learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pazhakh, A

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study has attempted to determine weather there is any relationship between language learning strategies employed by language learners, and if so what relationship exists between them. Furthermore, it has tried to investigate what effective and useful strategies the learners employ while learning English as a foreign language correspondent with their proficiency levels. A simulated TOEFL (REA, 1993 test was initially administered to classify the learners into three classes of proficiency levels. Oxford‟s Strategy Inventory, SILL, (Oxford, 1990 was used to determine the frequency of the language learning strategies applied by learners. The results of this study provide confirmation of previous research findings concerning the direct relationship between language learning strategies and language proficiency level, and represent the types of the strategies adopted by advanced, intermediate and elementary language learners. The implications of this study are to suggest both the metacognitive compensatory strategies, the most frequent strategies employed by advanced learners be instructed to the language learners in order to upgrade their proficiency level.

  20. Variation in Music Player Listening Level as a Function of Campus Location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yunea; Guercio, Diana; Ledon, Victoria; Le Prell, Colleen G

    2017-04-01

    There has been significant discussion in the literature regarding music player use by adolescents and young adults, including whether device use is driving an increase in hearing loss in these populations. While many studies report relatively safe preferred listening levels, some studies with college student participants have reported listening habits that may put individuals at risk for noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) if those listening habits continue over the long term. The goal of the current investigation was to extend listening level data collection sites from urban city settings studied by others to a more rural campus setting. This was a prospective study. Participants were 138 students on the University of Florida campus (94 males, 44 females), 18 years or older (mean = 21 years; range: 18-33 years). In this investigation, the current output level (listening level) was measured from personal listening devices used by students as they passed by a recruiting table located in one of three areas of the University of Florida campus. One location was in an open-air campus square; the other two locations were outside the campus recreation building ("gym") and outside the undergraduate library, with participants recruited as they exited the gym or library buildings. After providing written informed consent, participants completed a survey that included questions about demographics and typical listening habits (hours per day, days per week). The output level on their device was then measured using a "Jolene" mannequin. Average listening levels for participants at the three locations were as follows: gym: 85.9 ± 1.4 dBA; campus square: 83.3 ± 2.0 dBA; library: 76.9 ± 1.3 dBA. After adjusting to free-field equivalent level, average listening levels were gym: 79.7 ± 1.4 dBA; campus square: 76.9 ± 2.1 dBA; library: 70.4 ± 1.4 dBA. There were no statistically significant differences between male and female listeners, and there were no reliable differences as a

  1. Endostatin gene variation and protein levels in breast cancer susceptibility and severity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramanian, Sabapathy P; Cross, Simon S; Globe, Jenny; Cox, Angela; Brown, Nicola J; Reed, Malcolm W

    2007-01-01

    Endostatin is a potent endogenous anti-angiogenic agent which inhibits tumour growth. A non-synonymous coding polymorphism in the Endostatin gene is thought to affect Endostatin activity. We aimed to determine the role of this Endostatin polymorphism in breast cancer pathogenesis and any influence on serum Endostatin levels in healthy volunteers. Endostatin protein expression on a breast cancer micro array was also studied to determine any relationship to genotype and to breast cancer prognosis. The 4349G > A (coding non-synonymous) polymorphism in exon 42 of the Endostatin gene was genotyped in approximately 846 breast cancer cases and 707 appropriate controls. In a separate healthy cohort of 57 individuals, in addition to genotyping, serum Endostatin levels were measured using enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA). A semi-quantitative assessment of Endostatin protein expression on immunostained tissue micro arrays (TMA) constructed from breast cancer samples of patients with genotype data was performed. The rare allele (A) was significantly associated with invasive breast cancers compared to non-invasive tumours (p = 0.03), but there was no association with tumour grade, nodal status, vascular invasion or overall survival. There was no association with breast cancer susceptibility. Serum Endostatin levels and Endostatin protein expression on the tissue micro array were not associated with genotype. The Endostatin 4349A allele is associated with invasive breast cancer. The Endostatin 4349G > A polymorphism however does not appear to be associated with breast cancer susceptibility or severity in invasive disease. By studying circulating levels and tumour Endostatin protein expression, we have shown that any influence of this polymorphism is unlikely to be through an effect on the levels of protein produced

  2. Modeling of Two-Phase Flow in Rough-Walled Fracture Using Level Set Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunfeng Dai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To describe accurately the flow characteristic of fracture scale displacements of immiscible fluids, an incompressible two-phase (crude oil and water flow model incorporating interfacial forces and nonzero contact angles is developed. The roughness of the two-dimensional synthetic rough-walled fractures is controlled with different fractal dimension parameters. Described by the Navier–Stokes equations, the moving interface between crude oil and water is tracked using level set method. The method accounts for differences in densities and viscosities of crude oil and water and includes the effect of interfacial force. The wettability of the rough fracture wall is taken into account by defining the contact angle and slip length. The curve of the invasion pressure-water volume fraction is generated by modeling two-phase flow during a sudden drainage. The volume fraction of water restricted in the rough-walled fracture is calculated by integrating the water volume and dividing by the total cavity volume of the fracture while the two-phase flow is quasistatic. The effect of invasion pressure of crude oil, roughness of fracture wall, and wettability of the wall on two-phase flow in rough-walled fracture is evaluated.

  3. Genetic variation in FADS genes and plasma cholesterol levels in 2-year-old infants: KOALA Birth Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Moltó-Puigmartí

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in genes involved in fatty acid metabolism (FADS1 FADS2 gene cluster are associated with plasma lipid levels. We aimed to investigate whether these associations are already present early in life and compare the relative contribution of FADS SNPs vs traditional (non-genetic factors as determinants of plasma lipid levels. METHODS: Information on infants' plasma total cholesterol levels, genotypes of five FADS SNPs (rs174545, rs174546, rs174556, rs174561, and rs3834458, anthropometric data, maternal characteristics, and breastfeeding history was available for 521 2-year-old children from the KOALA Birth Cohort Study. For 295 of these 521 children, plasma HDLc and non-HDLc levels were also known. Multivariable linear regression analysis was used to study the associations of genetic and non-genetic determinants with cholesterol levels. RESULTS: All FADS SNPs were significantly associated with total cholesterol levels. Heterozygous and homozygous for the minor allele children had about 4% and 8% lower total cholesterol levels than major allele homozygotes. In addition, homozygous for the minor allele children had about 7% lower HDLc levels. This difference reached significance for the SNPs rs174546 and rs3834458. The associations went in the same direction for non-HDLc, but statistical significance was not reached. The percentage of total variance of total cholesterol levels explained by FADS SNPs was relatively low (lower than 3% but of the same order as that explained by gender and the non-genetic determinants together. CONCLUSIONS: FADS SNPs are associated with plasma total cholesterol and HDLc levels in preschool children. This brings a new piece of evidence to explain how blood lipid levels may track from childhood to adulthood. Moreover, the finding that these SNPs explain a similar amount of variance in total cholesterol levels as the non-genetic determinants studied reveals the potential

  4. Synchronous drought and flooding in southern Chinese Loess Plateau in phase with the variation of global temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, X.; Kang, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Drought and flooding, usually occurring in the catchment scale, are the main natural threats to human livelihood due to the extreme variation of precipitation in spatiotemporal scales. Within the context of global warming, the risk of flood and drought tends to increase in different regions. Understanding the mechanism of the regional occurrence of flood and drought is of enormous importance for the predicting studies and taking corresponding measures. However, the instrumental records are too short to conduct a prediction. Here, we present a historical-archive-based high-resolution dataset of drought and flooding back to AD 1646 in the southern Chinese Loess Plateau. This sequence, integrated with the modern meteorological observation data, shows that the frequency of drought and flooding in the study region is synchronous on a decadal scale, and they are in phase with the increase in both global and regional temperature. During the warm period, the ENSO activity was found to be increase, resulting in the anomaly distribution of precipitation in different seasons in southern Chinese Loess Plateau, which is the reason for the temperature dependence of flooding and drought in this region. If global temperature continues to rise in the future, the risk of both drought and flooding in the study area would also increase.

  5. Performance of the ATLAS Muon Trigger and Phase-1 Upgrade of Level-1 Endcap Muon Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Mizukami, Atsushi; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment utilises a trigger system to efficiently record interesting events. It consists of first-level and high-level triggers. The first-level trigger is implemented with custom-built hardware to reduce the event rate from 40 MHz to100 kHz. Then the software-based high-level triggers refine the trigger decisions reducing the output rate down to 1 kHz. Events with muons in the final state are an important signature for many physics topics at the LHC. An efficient trigger on muons and a detailed understanding of its performance are required. Trigger efficiencies are, for example, obtained from the muon decay of Z boson, with a Tag&Probe method, using proton-proton collision data collected in 2016 at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. The LHC is expected to increase its instantaneous luminosity to $3\\times10^{34} \\rm{cm^{-2}s^{-1}}$ after the phase-1 upgrade between 2018-2020. The upgrade of the ATLAS trigger system is mandatory to cope with this high-luminosity. In the phase-1 upgrade, new det...

  6. Assessment of a Smart Sensing Shoe for Gait Phase Detection in Level Walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Carbonaro

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Gait analysis and more specifically ambulatory monitoring of temporal and spatial gait parameters may open relevant fields of applications in activity tracking, sports and also in the assessment and treatment of specific diseases. Wearable technology can boost this scenario by spreading the adoption of monitoring systems to a wide set of healthy users or patients. In this context, we assessed a recently developed commercial smart shoe—the FootMoov—for automatic gait phase detection in level walking. FootMoov has built-in force sensors and a triaxial accelerometer and is able to transmit the sensor data to the smartphone through a wireless connection. We developed a dedicated gait phase detection algorithm relying both on force and inertial information. We tested the smart shoe on ten healthy subjects in free level walking conditions and in a laboratory setting in comparison with an optical motion capture system. Results confirmed a reliable detection of the gait phases. The maximum error committed, on the order of 44.7 ms, is comparable with previous studies. Our results confirmed the possibility to exploit consumer wearable devices to extract relevant parameters to improve the subject health or to better manage his/her progressions.

  7. A Variational Level Set Approach Based on Local Entropy for Image Segmentation and Bias Field Correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jian; Jiang, Xiaoliang

    2017-01-01

    Image segmentation has always been a considerable challenge in image analysis and understanding due to the intensity inhomogeneity, which is also commonly known as bias field. In this paper, we present a novel region-based approach based on local entropy for segmenting images and estimating the bias field simultaneously. Firstly, a local Gaussian distribution fitting (LGDF) energy function is defined as a weighted energy integral, where the weight is local entropy derived from a grey level distribution of local image. The means of this objective function have a multiplicative factor that estimates the bias field in the transformed domain. Then, the bias field prior is fully used. Therefore, our model can estimate the bias field more accurately. Finally, minimization of this energy function with a level set regularization term, image segmentation, and bias field estimation can be achieved. Experiments on images of various modalities demonstrated the superior performance of the proposed method when compared with other state-of-the-art approaches.

  8. Cross-regional Variations in Offshore Outsourcing Choices: Evidence from Firm-level Data

    OpenAIRE

    TOMIURA Eiichi; ITO Banri; WAKASUGI Ryuhei

    2008-01-01

    In offshoring, a firm chooses outsourcing to independent suppliers or in-sourcing from their FDI subsidiaries. This paper empirically examines how the factor intensity is related with the firm's offshore make-or-buy decision based on the Japanese direct firm-level data of offshoring across all manufacturing industries. This paper confirms that in-sourcing firms tend to be substantially more capital-intensive than outsourcing firms, even if firm size or industry is controlled for. Among the fi...

  9. Program-Level Variation in Cadet Outcomes at the National Guard Youth ChalleNGe Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    ChalleNGe is to help “young people improve their self - esteem , self -confidence, life skills , education levels, and employment potential” [2...discipline), whether he thinks the development of cognitive or noncognitive skills is more important, and how often the cadets communicate with...components: 1. Leadership/followership 2. Responsible citizenship 3. Service to community 4. Life-coping skills 5. Physical fitness 6. Health and

  10. Sensitivity Variation on Low Cycle Fatigue Cracks Using Level 4/Method B Penetrant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FULWOOD,HARRY; MOORE,DAVID G.

    1999-09-02

    The Federal Aviation Administration's Airworthiness Assurance NDI Validation Center (AANC) is currently conducting experiments with Level 4, Method B penetrant on low cycle fatigue specimens. The main focus of these experiments is to document the affect on penetrant brightness readings by varying inspection parameters. This paper discusses the results of changing drying temperature, drying time, and dwell time of both penetrant and emulsifier on low cycle fatigue specimens.

  11. Seasonal variation in the levels of organohalogen compounds in herring (Clupea harengus) from the Norwegian Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantzen, Sylvia; Måge, Amund; Iversen, Svein Arnholt; Julshamn, Kåre

    2011-09-01

    The Norwegian spring spawning (NSS) herring is an ecologically important fish stock in the Norwegian Sea, and with a catch volume exceeding one million tons a year it is also economically important and a valuable food source. In order to provide a baseline of the levels of contaminants in this fish stock, the levels of organohalogen compounds were determined in 800 individual herring sampled at 29 positions in the Norwegian Sea and off the coast of Norway. Due to seasonal migration, the herring were sampled where they were located during the different seasons. Concentrations of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs, non-dioxin-like PCBs (PCB(7)) and PBDEs were determined in fillet samples of individual herring, and found to be relatively low, with means (min-max) of 0.77 (0.24-3.5) ng TEQ kg(-1) wet weight (ww), 5.0 (1.4-24) μg kg(-1) ww and 0.47 (0.091-3.1) μg kg(-1) ww, respectively. The concentrations varied throughout the year due to the feeding- and spawning cycle: Starved, pre-spawning herring caught off the Norwegian coast in January-February had the highest levels and those caught in the Norwegian Sea in April-June, after further starvation and spawning, had the lowest levels. These results show that the concentrations of organohalogen compounds in NSS herring are relatively low and closely tied to their physiological condition, and that in the future regular monitoring of NSS herring should be made in the spawning areas off the Norwegian coast in late winter. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Moderate variations in CDC25B protein levels modulate the response to DNA damaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aressy, B.; Bugler, B.; Valette, A.; Ducommun, B.; Biard, D.

    2008-01-01

    CDC25B, one of the three members of the CDC25 dual-specificity phosphatase family, plays a critical role in the control of the cell cycle and in the checkpoint response to DNA damage. CDC25B is responsible for the initial dephosphorylation and activation of the cyclin-dependent kinases, thus initiating the train of events leading to entry into mitosis. The critical role played by CDC25B is illustrated by the fact that it is specifically required for checkpoint recovery and that unscheduled accumulation of CDC25B is responsible for illegitimate entry into mitosis. Here, we report that in p53 colon carcinoma cells, a moderate increase in the CDC25B level is sufficient to impair the DNA damage checkpoint, to increase spontaneous mutagenesis, and to sensitize cells to ionising radiation and genotoxic agents. Using a tumour cell spheroid assay as an alternative to animal studies, we demonstrate that the level of CDC25B expression modulates growth inhibition and apoptotic death. Since CDC25B overexpression has been observed in a significant number of human cancers, including colon carcinoma, and is often associated with high grade tumours and poor prognosis, our work suggests that the expression level of CDC25B might be a potential key parameter of the cellular response to cancer therapy. (authors)

  13. Variations in task constraints shape emergent performance outcomes and complexity levels in balancing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero Sánchez, Carla; Barbado Murillo, David; Davids, Keith; Moreno Hernández, Francisco J

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the extent to which specific interacting constraints of performance might increase or decrease the emergent complexity in a movement system, and whether this could affect the relationship between observed movement variability and the central nervous system's capacity to adapt to perturbations during balancing. Fifty-two healthy volunteers performed eight trials where different performance constraints were manipulated: task difficulty (three levels) and visual biofeedback conditions (with and without the center of pressure (COP) displacement and a target displayed). Balance performance was assessed using COP-based measures: mean velocity magnitude (MVM) and bivariate variable error (BVE). To assess the complexity of COP, fuzzy entropy (FE) and detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) were computed. ANOVAs showed that MVM and BVE increased when task difficulty increased. During biofeedback conditions, individuals showed higher MVM but lower BVE at the easiest level of task difficulty. Overall, higher FE and lower DFA values were observed when biofeedback was available. On the other hand, FE reduced and DFA increased as difficulty level increased, in the presence of biofeedback. However, when biofeedback was not available, the opposite trend in FE and DFA values was observed. Regardless of changes to task constraints and the variable investigated, balance performance was positively related to complexity in every condition. Data revealed how specificity of task constraints can result in an increase or decrease in complexity emerging in a neurobiological system during balance performance.

  14. Variations of serum testosterone levels in prostate cancer patients under LH-releasing hormone therapy: an open question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Leonardo Oliveira

    2012-06-01

    The hypothesis 'the lower the better when achieving castration levels of testosterone' is based on the data from second-line hormonal manipulation and its molecular basis, and on better oncological results reported for lower castration levels in prostate cancer (PCa) patients, including those achieved with maximal androgen blockade. In this regard, the equivalence of surgical and different pharmacological castrations has been controversial. The modified amino acid structure that makes LH-releasing hormone (LHRH) analogs more potent than LHRH, and the method of delivering the analogs impacts on bioavailibility and potentially causes differences in androgen levels and in its final oncological efficacy. In addition to this, there is a myriad of circumstances, such as those related to ethnic variations and co-morbidities, which uniquely impact on the pharmacological approach in a highly heterogeneous population of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients. Ineffective testosterone suppression through hormonal escape is currently poorly recognized and may result in increased PCa mortality. Until now, the optimal serum testosterone level in patients under castration, and the impact of its variations in patients under LHRH therapy, remain open questions and have been merged to a broad spectra of patients who are highly heterogeneous. This heterogeneity relates to a number of mechanisms regarding response to treatment, which influences the biology of the relapsing tumor and the sensitivity to subsequent therapies in the individual patient. The rationale to achieve testosterone levels below 20-50 ng/dl warrant further investigation as these levels have recently rescued CRPC patients. In the last few years and months, important advancements in prostate cancer treatment have been achieved. Nevertheless, these advances are measured in a few months of additional survival and under high costs, not available to most of the world population, compared with the benefits

  15. School and class-level variations and patterns of physical activity: a multilevel analysis of Danish high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenholt, Carina Bjørnskov; Pisinger, Veronica Sofie Clara; Danquah, Ida Høgstedt; Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann

    2018-02-14

    There is limited knowledge of physical activity (PA) patterns among high school students. High schools plays an important role as context for the students, but it is uncertain to what extent schools influence student participation in PA during leisure time. The purpose of this study is to describe patterns of PA and assess variations between schools and classes in PA, in a large cohort of Danish high school students. Self-reported cross-sectional data came from The Danish National Youth Study, comprising a total of 70,674 students attending 119 different schools and 3213 classes. Multilevel logistic regressions were applied to evaluate the association between socio-demographic variables and patterns of PA, and to assess the impact of schools and classes on PA measures. Students whose parents have achieved a lower level of education, older students and girls of perceived ethnic minority generally participated less in several forms of PA during leisure time. Substantial variations between schools were observed in terms of participation in PA at school during leisure time and in terms of use of active transportation to and from school. The school-level accounted for 9% (intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.09 (95% CI: 0.06-0.11)) and 8% (ICC = 0.08 (95% CI: 0.07-0.11)) of the variation for participation in PA during leisure time and active transportation. Overall, students whose parents achieved a lower level of education, older students and girls of perceived ethnic minority represent vulnerable groups in relation to participation in several forms of PA during leisure time. The ICCs indicate that schools, in particular, have the potential to influence participation in PA at school during leisure time and active transportation to and from school. Thus, high schools should encourage and facilitate activities aimed at engaging students in PA during leisure time as well as encourage active transportation.

  16. Acute low-level alcohol consumption reduces phase locking of event-related oscillations in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amodeo, Leslie R; Wills, Derek N; Ehlers, Cindy L

    2017-07-14

    Event-related oscillations (EROs) are rhythmic changes that are evoked by a sensory and/or cognitive stimulus that can influence the dynamics of the EEG. EROs are defined by the decomposition of the EEG signal into magnitude (energy) and phase information and can be elicited in both humans and animals. EROs have been linked to several relevant genes associated with ethanol dependence phenotypes in humans and are altered in selectively bred alcohol-preferring rats. However, pharmacological studies are only beginning to emerge investigating the impact low intoxicating doses of ethanol can have on event-related neural oscillations. The main goal of this study was to investigate the effects of low levels of voluntary consumption of ethanol, in rats, on phase locking of EROs in order to give further insight into the acute intoxicating effects of ethanol on the brain. To this end, we allow rats to self-administer unsweetened 20% ethanol over 15 intermittent sessions. This method results in a stable low-dose consumption of ethanol. Using an auditory event-related potential "oddball" paradigm, we investigated the effects of alcohol on the phase variability of EROs from electrodes implanted into the frontal cortex, dorsal hippocampus, and amygdala. We found that intermittent ethanol self-administration was sufficient to produce a significant reduction in overall intraregional synchrony across all targeted regions. These data suggest that phase locking of EROs within brain regions known to be impacted by alcohol may represent a sensitive biomarker of low levels of alcohol intoxication. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A spatial analysis of county-level variation in syphilis and gonorrhea in Guangdong Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas X Tan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Sexually transmitted infections (STI have made a resurgence in many rapidly developing regions of southern China, but there is little understanding of the social changes that contribute to this spatial distribution of STI. This study examines county-level socio-demographic characteristics associated with syphilis and gonorrhea in Guangdong Province.This study uses linear regression and spatial lag regression to determine county-level (n = 97 socio-demographic characteristics associated with a greater burden of syphilis, gonorrhea, and a combined syphilis/gonorrhea index. Data were obtained from the 2005 China Population Census and published public health data. A range of socio-demographic variables including gross domestic product, the Gender Empowerment Measure, standard of living, education level, migrant population and employment are examined. Reported syphilis and gonorrhea cases are disproportionately clustered in the Pearl River Delta, the central region of Guangdong Province. A higher fraction of employed men among the adult population, higher fraction of divorced men among the adult population, and higher standard of living (based on water availability and people per room are significantly associated with higher STI cases across all three models. Gross domestic product and gender inequality measures are not significant predictors of reported STI in these models.Although many ecological studies of STIs have found poverty to be associated with higher reported STI, this analysis found a greater number of reported syphilis cases in counties with a higher standard of living. Spatially targeted syphilis screening measures in regions with a higher standard of living may facilitate successful control efforts. This analysis also reinforces the importance of changing male sexual behaviors as part of a comprehensive response to syphilis control in China.

  18. Upper mantle compositional variations and discontinuity topography imaged beneath Australia from Bayesian inversion of surface-wave phase velocities and thermochemical modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, A.; Zunino, Andrea; Deschamps, F.

    2013-01-01

    Here we discuss the nature of velocity heterogeneities seen in seismic tomography images of Earth's mantle whose origins and relation to thermochemical variations are yet to be understood. We illustrate this by inverting fundamental-mode and higher-order surface-wave phase velocities for radial....../Fe and Mg/Si values relative to surrounding mantle. Correlated herewith are thermal variations that closely follow surface tectonics. We also observe a strong contribution to lateral variations in structure and topography across the “410 km” seismic discontinuity from thermochemically induced phase......-wave tomography models with other regional models is encouraging. Radial anisotropy is strongest at 150/200 km depth beneath oceanic/continental areas, respectively, and appears weak and homogeneous below. Finally, geoid anomalies are computed for a subset of sampled model and compared to observations....

  19. Variation in genome-wide levels of meiotic recombination is established at the onset of prophase in mammalian males.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Baier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Segregation of chromosomes during the first meiotic division relies on crossovers established during prophase. Although crossovers are strictly regulated so that at least one occurs per chromosome, individual variation in crossover levels is not uncommon. In an analysis of different inbred strains of male mice, we identified among-strain variation in the number of foci for the crossover-associated protein MLH1. We report studies of strains with "low" (CAST/EiJ, "medium" (C3H/HeJ, and "high" (C57BL/6J genome-wide MLH1 values to define factors responsible for this variation. We utilized immunofluorescence to analyze the number and distribution of proteins that function at different stages in the recombination pathway: RAD51 and DMC1, strand invasion proteins acting shortly after double-strand break (DSB formation, MSH4, part of the complex stabilizing double Holliday junctions, and the Bloom helicase BLM, thought to have anti-crossover activity. For each protein, we identified strain-specific differences that mirrored the results for MLH1; i.e., CAST/EiJ mice had the lowest values, C3H/HeJ mice intermediate values, and C57BL/6J mice the highest values. This indicates that differences in the numbers of DSBs (as identified by RAD51 and DMC1 are translated into differences in the number of crossovers, suggesting that variation in crossover levels is established by the time of DSB formation. However, DSBs per se are unlikely to be the primary determinant, since allelic variation for the DSB-inducing locus Spo11 resulted in differences in the numbers of DSBs but not the number of MLH1 foci. Instead, chromatin conformation appears to be a more important contributor, since analysis of synaptonemal complex length and DNA loop size also identified consistent strain-specific differences; i.e., crossover frequency increased with synaptonemal complex length and was inversely related to chromatin loop size. This indicates a relationship between recombination

  20. Dipolar-induced interplay between inter-level physics and macroscopic phase transitions in triple-well potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Aixia; Xue Jukui

    2012-01-01

    We propose a scheme to reveal the interplay between dipole–dipole interaction (DDI), inter-level coupling and macroscopic phase transitions in dipolar condensates. By considering a macroscopic sample of dipolar bosons in triple-well potentials, DDI-induced coupling between the inter-level physics and the macroscopic phase transitions is presented. When the DDI exceeds certain thresholds, the degeneracy of the two lowest energy levels and the excitation of new eigenstates occur, respectively. Interestingly, these thresholds give the boundaries of various quantum phase transitions. That is, the quantum phase transitions are the consequence of the levels' degeneracy and the new eigenstates' excitation. Furthermore, DDI-induced long-range macroscopic Josephson oscillations are observed and long-range coherent quantum transportation is achieved. Our results give clear proof of the interplay between the multi-level physics and quantum phase transitions, and also provide a way for designing the long-range coherent quantum transportation. (paper)

  1. Social climate along the pathway of care in women's secure mental health service: variation with level of security, patient motivation, therapeutic alliance and level of disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, C G; Anagnostakis, K; Fox, E; Silaule, P; Somers, J; West, R; Webster, A

    2011-07-01

    Social climate has been measured in a variety of therapeutic settings, but there is little information about it in secure mental health services, or how it may vary along a gender specific care pathway. To assess social climate in women's secure wards and its variation by level of security and ward type, therapeutic alliance, patient motivation, treatment engagement and disturbed behaviour. Three-quarters (80, 76%) of staff and nearly all (65, 92%) of patients in the two medium-security wards and two low-security wards that comprised the unit completed the Essen Climate Evaluation Schema (EssenCES) and the California Psychotherapy Alliance Scale (CALPAS); patients also completed the Patient Motivation Inventory (PMI). Pre-assessment levels of disturbed behaviour and treatment engagement were recorded. Social climate varied according to ward type and level of security. EssenCES ratings indicative of positive social climate were associated with lower levels of security; such ratings were also associated with lower behavioural disturbance and with higher levels of motivation, treatment engagement and therapeutic alliance. This serial cross-sectional survey indicated that use of the EssenCES alone might be a good practical measure of treatment progress/responsivity. A longitudinal study would be an important next step in establishing the extent to which it would be useful in this regard. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Time variation of 222Rn concentration and gamma level in a half-basement room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iimoto, Takeshi; Eguchi, Hoshio; Kosako, Toshiso; Sugiura, Nobuyuki

    1998-01-01

    Correlation between 222 Rn (radon) concentration and gamma level in a half-basement has been discussed. In order to decrease the background count of a whole-body counter (WBC), a ventilation blower of 72 m 2 h -1 was installed. The device succeeded in a big reduction of radon concentration in the half-basement and then the background of WBC (NaI(Tl)) decreased to the 76.5% of the saturated value. Through a radon saturation test the exhalation rate of radon from concrete wall was estimated as 2.1 Bqm -2 h -1 by a simple model calculation. In addition, through a ventilation test, the procedure was analyzed by another simple model. (author)

  3. Seasonal variation measurements of radon levels in caves using SSNTD method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa, G.; Golzarri, J.I.; Gammage, R.B.; Sajo-Bohus, L.; Viccon-Pale, J.; Signoret-Poillon, M.

    2008-01-01

    The results of radon concentration measurements inside of the Gabriel caves of Mexico, during three consecutive two-month periods covering almost three seasons, are reported in the present work. The radio-ecological importance of this site is related to the radon and its concentration-dynamic behavior in the cave. Further interest in radiation safety motivated this initiative since routine biological field work is done, with people spending long periods of time there. CR-39 passive nuclear track detector was chosen for this survey. Radon concentration levels decrease during the rainy season and show different values depending on the ventilation and geometeorological structure. Measured values range between 956 and 4931Bqm -3 , an indication that radon doses may exceed the allowed values for workers. This project is part of a larger study of indoor radon alpha emitters in Mexican caves

  4. Seasonal variation measurements of radon levels in caves using SSNTD method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinosa, G. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: espinosa@fisica.unam.mx; Golzarri, J.I. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Gammage, R.B. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6480 (United States); Sajo-Bohus, L. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Simon Bolivar (Venezuela); Viccon-Pale, J.; Signoret-Poillon, M. [El Hombre y su Ambiente, UAM-Xochimilco, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2008-08-15

    The results of radon concentration measurements inside of the Gabriel caves of Mexico, during three consecutive two-month periods covering almost three seasons, are reported in the present work. The radio-ecological importance of this site is related to the radon and its concentration-dynamic behavior in the cave. Further interest in radiation safety motivated this initiative since routine biological field work is done, with people spending long periods of time there. CR-39 passive nuclear track detector was chosen for this survey. Radon concentration levels decrease during the rainy season and show different values depending on the ventilation and geometeorological structure. Measured values range between 956 and 4931Bqm{sup -3}, an indication that radon doses may exceed the allowed values for workers. This project is part of a larger study of indoor radon alpha emitters in Mexican caves.

  5. Inter- and Intra- Field variations in soil compaction levels and subsequent impacts on hydrological extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattison, Ian; Coates, Victoria

    2015-04-01

    The rural landscape in the UK is dominated by pastoral agriculture, with about 40% of land cover classified as either improved or semi-natural grassland according to the Land Cover Map 2007. Intensification has resulted in greater levels of compaction associated with higher stocking densities. However, there is likely to be a great amount of variability in compaction levels within and between fields due to multiple controlling factors. This research focusses in on two of these factors; firstly animal species, namely sheep, cattle and horses; and secondly field zonation e.g. feeding areas, field gates, open field. Field experiments have been conducted in multiple fields in the River Skell catchment, in Yorkshire, UK, which has an area of 140km2. The effect on physical and hydrologic soil characteristics such as bulk density and moisture contents have been quantified using a wide range of field and laboratory based experiments. Results have highlighted statistically different properties between heavily compacted areas where animals congregate and less-trampled open areas. Furthermore, soil compaction has been hypothesised to contribute to increased flood risk at larger spatial scales. Previous research (Pattison, 2011) on a ~40km2 catchment (Dacre Beck, Lake District, UK) has shown that when soil characteristics are homogeneously parameterised in a hydrological model, downstream peak discharges can be 65% higher for a heavy compacted soil than for a lightly compacted soil. Here we report results from spatially distributed hydrological modelling using soil parameters gained from the field experimentation. Results highlight the importance of both the percentage of the catchment which is heavily compacted and also the spatial distribution of these fields.

  6. Geographic Variation in Festuca rubra L. Ploidy Levels and Systemic Fungal Endophyte Frequencies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Dirihan

    Full Text Available Polyploidy and symbiotic Epichloë fungal endophytes are common and heritable characteristics that can facilitate environmental range expansion in grasses. Here we examined geographic patterns of polyploidy and the frequency of fungal endophyte colonized plants in 29 Festuca rubra L. populations from eight geographic sites across latitudes from Spain to northernmost Finland and Greenland. Ploidy seemed to be positively and negatively correlated with latitude and productivity, respectively. However, the correlations were nonlinear; 84% of the plants were hexaploids (2n = 6x = 42, and the positive correlation between ploidy level and latitude is the result of only four populations skewing the data. In the southernmost end of the gradient 86% of the plants were tetraploids (2n = 4x = 28, whereas in the northernmost end of the gradient one population had only octoploid plants (2n = 8x = 56. Endophytes were detected in 22 out of the 29 populations. Endophyte frequencies varied among geographic sites, and populations and habitats within geographic sites irrespective of ploidy, latitude or productivity. The highest overall endophyte frequencies were found in the southernmost end of the gradient, Spain, where 69% of plants harbored endophytes. In northern Finland, endophytes were detected in 30% of grasses but endophyte frequencies varied among populations from 0% to 75%, being higher in meadows compared to riverbanks. The endophytes were detected in 36%, 30% and 27% of the plants in Faroe Islands, Iceland and Switzerland, respectively. Practically all examined plants collected from southern Finland and Greenland were endophyte-free, whereas in other geographic sites endophyte frequencies were highly variable among populations. Common to all populations with high endophyte frequencies is heavy vertebrate grazing. We propose that the detected endophyte frequencies and ploidy levels mirror past distribution history of F. rubra after the last glaciation

  7. Physicomechanical properties of single- and two-phase polycrystalline materials on micro- and macroscopic levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuksa, L.V.; Arzamaskova, L.M.

    2000-01-01

    The results of studies on elastic and plastic properties of the single- and two-phase polycrystalline materials in dependence on the choice of the consideration scale level are presented. The experimental and theoretical methods, making it possible to study the role of the scale factor by consideration on the micro- and macrolevel and the peculiarities of forming the physicomechanical properties of the material as a whole, are developed. The dependences, characterizing the change of the physicomechanical properties by different scales of consideration, are obtained [ru

  8. Multi-level adaptive simulation of transient two-phase flow in heterogeneous porous media

    KAUST Repository

    Chueh, C.C.

    2010-10-01

    An implicit pressure and explicit saturation (IMPES) finite element method (FEM) incorporating a multi-level shock-type adaptive refinement technique is presented and applied to investigate transient two-phase flow in porous media. Local adaptive mesh refinement is implemented seamlessly with state-of-the-art artificial diffusion stabilization allowing simulations that achieve both high resolution and high accuracy. Two benchmark problems, modelling a single crack and a random porous medium, are used to demonstrate the robustness of the method and illustrate the capabilities of the adaptive refinement technique in resolving the saturation field and the complex interaction (transport phenomena) between two fluids in heterogeneous media. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Vectra GSI, Inc. low-level waste melter testing Phase 1 test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stegen, G.E.; Wilson, C.N.

    1996-02-21

    A multiphase program was initiated in 1994 to test commercially available melter technologies for the vitrification of the low-level waste (LLW) stream from defense wastes stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Vectra GSI, Inc. was one of seven vendors selected for Phase 1 of the melter demonstration tests using simulated LLW that were completed during fiscal year 1995. The attached report prepared by Vectra GSI, Inc. describes results of melter testing using slurry feed and dried feeds. Results of feed drying and prereaction tests using a fluid bed calciner and rotary dryer also are described.

  10. Limitations of two-level emitters as nonlinearities in two-photon controlled-PHASE gates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nysteen, Anders; McCutcheon, Dara P. S.; Heuck, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the origin of imperfections in the fidelity of a two-photon controlled-PHASE gate based on two-level-emitter nonlinearities. We focus on a passive system that operates without external modulations to enhance its performance. We demonstrate that the fidelity of the gate is limited...... by opposing requirements on the input pulse width for one-and two-photon-scattering events. For one-photon scattering, the spectral pulse width must be narrow compared with the emitter linewidth, while two-photon-scattering processes require the pulse width and emitter linewidth to be comparable. We find...

  11. Vectra GSI, Inc. low-level waste melter testing Phase 1 test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stegen, G.E.; Wilson, C.N.

    1996-01-01

    A multiphase program was initiated in 1994 to test commercially available melter technologies for the vitrification of the low-level waste (LLW) stream from defense wastes stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Vectra GSI, Inc. was one of seven vendors selected for Phase 1 of the melter demonstration tests using simulated LLW that were completed during fiscal year 1995. The attached report prepared by Vectra GSI, Inc. describes results of melter testing using slurry feed and dried feeds. Results of feed drying and prereaction tests using a fluid bed calciner and rotary dryer also are described

  12. Excited-state quantum phase transitions in systems with two degrees of freedom: Level density, level dynamics, thermal properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stránský, Pavel; Macek, Michal; Cejnar, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Quantum systems with a finite number of freedom degrees f develop robust singularities in the energy spectrum of excited states as the system’s size increases to infinity. We analyze the general form of these singularities for low f, particularly f=2, clarifying the relation to classical stationary points of the corresponding potential. Signatures in the smoothed energy dependence of the quantum state density and in the flow of energy levels with an arbitrary control parameter are described along with the relevant thermodynamical consequences. The general analysis is illustrated with specific examples of excited-state singularities accompanying the first-order quantum phase transition. -- Highlights: •ESQPTs found in infinite-size limit of systems with low numbers of freedom degrees f. •ESQPTs related to non-analytical evolutions of classical phase–space properties. •ESQPT signatures analyzed for general f, particularly f=2, extending known case f=1. •ESQPT signatures identified in smoothened density and flow of energy spectrum. •ESQPTs shown to induce a new type of thermodynamic anomalies

  13. Isotopic niche variation in a higher trophic level ectotherm: highlighting the role of succulent plants in desert food webs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Delibes

    Full Text Available Stable isotope analysis of animal tissues allows description of isotopic niches, whose axes in an n-dimensional space are the isotopic ratios, compared to a standard, of different isotope systems (e.g. δ(13C, δ(15N. Isotopic niches are informative about where an animal, population or species lives and about what it consumes. Here we describe inter- and intrapopulation isotopic niche (bidimensional δ(13C-δ(15N space of the Orange-throated whiptail (Aspidoscelis hyperythra, an arthropodivorous small lizard, in ten localities of Baja California Sur (Mexico. These localities range from extreme arid to subtropical conditions. Between 13 and 20 individuals were sampled at each locality and 1 cm of tail-tip was collected for isotope analysis. As expected, interpopulation niche width variation was much larger than intrapopulation one. Besides, isotopic variation was not related to age, sex or individual size of lizards. This suggests geographic variation of the isotopic niche was related to changes in the basal resources that fuel the trophic web at each locality. The position of Bayesian isotope ellipses in the δ-space indicated that whiptails in more arid localities were enriched in 13C, suggesting most of the carbon they ingested came from CAM succulent plants (cacti, agaves and in minor degree in C4 grasses. Contrarily, whiptails in subtropical areas were depleted in 13C, as they received more carbon from C3 scrubs and trees. Localities closer to sea-level tended to be enriched in 15N, but a clear influence of marine subsidies was detected only at individual level. The study contributes to identify the origin and pathways through which energy flows across the trophic webs of North American deserts.

  14. Isotopic Niche Variation in a Higher Trophic Level Ectotherm: Highlighting the Role of Succulent Plants in Desert Food Webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delibes, Miguel; Blazquez, Ma Carmen; Fedriani, Jose Maria; Granados, Arsenio; Soriano, Laura; Delgado, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Stable isotope analysis of animal tissues allows description of isotopic niches, whose axes in an n-dimensional space are the isotopic ratios, compared to a standard, of different isotope systems (e.g. δ13C, δ15N). Isotopic niches are informative about where an animal, population or species lives and about what it consumes. Here we describe inter- and intrapopulation isotopic niche (bidimensional δ13C-δ15N space) of the Orange-throated whiptail (Aspidoscelis hyperythra), an arthropodivorous small lizard, in ten localities of Baja California Sur (Mexico). These localities range from extreme arid to subtropical conditions. Between 13 and 20 individuals were sampled at each locality and 1 cm of tail-tip was collected for isotope analysis. As expected, interpopulation niche width variation was much larger than intrapopulation one. Besides, isotopic variation was not related to age, sex or individual size of lizards. This suggests geographic variation of the isotopic niche was related to changes in the basal resources that fuel the trophic web at each locality. The position of Bayesian isotope ellipses in the δ-space indicated that whiptails in more arid localities were enriched in 13C, suggesting most of the carbon they ingested came from CAM succulent plants (cacti, agaves) and in minor degree in C4 grasses. Contrarily, whiptails in subtropical areas were depleted in 13C, as they received more carbon from C3 scrubs and trees. Localities closer to sea-level tended to be enriched in 15N, but a clear influence of marine subsidies was detected only at individual level. The study contributes to identify the origin and pathways through which energy flows across the trophic webs of North American deserts. PMID:25973609

  15. Evolution of a Greenland Ice sheet Including Shelves and Regional Sea Level Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Sarah; Reerink, Thomas; van de Wal, Roderik S. W.; Helsen, Michiel; Goelzer, Heiko

    2016-04-01

    Observational evidence, including offshore moraines and marine sediment cores infer that at the Last Glacial maximum (LGM) the Greenland ice sheet (GIS) grounded out across the Davis Strait into Baffin Bay, with fast flowing ice streams extending out to the continental shelf break along the NW margin. These observations lead to a number of questions as to weather the GIS and Laurentide ice sheet (LIS) coalesced during glacial maximums, and if so, did a significant ice shelf develop across Baffin Bay and how would such a configuration impact on the relative contribution of these ice sheets to eustatic sea level (ESL). Most previous paleo ice sheet modelling simulations of the GIS recreated an ice sheet that either did not extend out onto the continental shelf or utilised a simplified marine ice parameterisation to recreate an extended GIS, and therefore did not fully include ice shelf dynamics. In this study we simulate the evolution of the GIS from 220 kyr BP to present day using IMAU-ice; a 3D thermodynamical ice sheet model which fully accounts for grounded and floating ice, calculates grounding line migration and ice shelf dynamics. As there are few observational estimates of the long-term (yrs) sub marine basal melting rates (mbm) for the GIS, we developed a mbm parameterization within IMAU-ice controlled primarily by changes in paleo water depth. We also investigate the influence of the LIS on the GIS evolution by including relative sea level forcing's derived from a Glacial Isostatic Adjustment model. We will present results of how changes in the mbm directly impacts on the ice sheet dynamics, timing and spatial extent of the GIS at the glacial maximums, but also on the rate of retreat and spatial extent at the Last interglacial (LIG) minimum. Results indicate that with the inclusion of ice shelf dynamics, a larger GIS is generated which is grounded out into Davis strait, up to a water depth of -750 m, but significantly reduces the GIS contribution to Last

  16. Image correction during large and rapid B(0) variations in an open MRI system with permanent magnets using navigator echoes and phase compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianqi; Wang, Yi; Jiang, Yu; Xie, Haibin; Li, Gengying

    2009-09-01

    An open permanent magnet system with vertical B(0) field and without self-shielding can be quite susceptible to perturbations from external magnetic sources. B(0) variation in such a system located close to a subway station was measured to be greater than 0.7 microT by both MRI and a fluxgate magnetometer. This B(0) variation caused image artifacts. A navigator echo approach that monitored and compensated the view-to-view variation in magnetic resonance signal phase was developed to correct for image artifacts. Human brain imaging experiments using a multislice gradient-echo sequence demonstrated that the ghosting and blurring artifacts associated with B(0) variations were effectively removed using the navigator method.

  17. Inter- and intraclutch variation in egg mercury levels in marine bird species from the Canadian Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akearok, Jason A.; Hebert, Craig E.; Braune, Birgit M.; Mallory, Mark L.

    2010-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic metal that has been of increasing concern in the Canadian Arctic. We measured total Hg in eggs of three marine birds (Arctic terns Sterna paradisaea, common eiders Somateria mollissima borealis, long-tailed ducks Clangula hyemalis) that breed in the Canadian Arctic, to compare Hg laying order effects from the same clutch and to examine Hg among species. Early-laid eggs of all three species had 24-48% higher Hg concentrations than late laid eggs. Arctic terns had approximately twice the concentration of Hg in their eggs as the two duck species, and Hg in eider eggs from the High Arctic was higher than Hg in eggs from the Low Arctic. Higher Hg in tern eggs was consistent with this species occupying a higher trophic position in marine food webs, as indicated by stable nitrogen isotope (δ 15 N) values. The egg-laying sequence may need to be considered for Hg biomonitoring studies where small samples sizes are planned, and early eggs may be preferable for such studies since early eggs may be more representative of potential maximum levels of Hg in the marine food webs.

  18. Computerized system to measure interproximal alveolar bone levels in epidemiologic, radiographic investigations. II. Intra- and inter-examinar variation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wouters, F.R.; Frithiof, L.; Soeder, P.Oe.; Hellden, L.; Lavstedt, S.; Salonen, L.

    1988-01-01

    The study was aimed at analyzing intra- and inter-examiner variations in computerized measurement and in non-measurability of alveolar bone level in a cross-sectional, epidemiologic material. At each interproximal tooth surface, alveolar bone height in percentage of root length (B/R) and tooth length (B/T) were determined twice by one examiner and once by a second examiner from X5-magnified periapical radiographs. The overall intra- and inter-examiner variations in measurement were 2.85% and 3.84% of root length and 1.97% and 2.82% of tooth length, respectively. The varations were different for different tooth groups and for different degrees of severity of marginal periodontitis. The overall proportions on non-measurable tooth surfaces varied with examiner from 32% to 39% and from 43% to 48% of the available interproximal tooth surfaces for B/R and B/T, respectively. With regard to the level of reliability, the computerized method reported is appropriate to cross-sectional, epidemiologic investigations from radiographs.

  19. Development of Zinc/Bromine Batteries for Load-Leveling Applications: Phase 1 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eidler, Phillip

    1999-07-01

    The Zinc/Bromine Load-Leveling Battery Development contract (No. 40-8965) was partitioned at the outset into two phases of equal length. Phase 1 started in September 1990 and continued through December 1991. In Phase 1, zinc/bromine battery technology was to be advanced to the point that it would be clear that the technology was viable and would be an appropriate choice for electric utilities wishing to establish stationary energy-storage facilities. Criteria were established that addressed most of the concerns that had been observed in the previous development efforts. The performances of 8-cell and 100-cell laboratory batteries demonstrated that the criteria were met or exceeded. In Phase 2, 100-kWh batteries will be built and demonstrated, and a conceptual design for a load-leveling plant will be presented. At the same time, work will continue to identify improved assembly techniques and operating conditions. This report details the results of the efforts carried out in Phase 1. The highlights are: (1) Four 1-kWh stacks achieved over 100 cycles, One l-kWh stack achieved over 200 cycles, One 1-kWh stack achieved over 300 cycles; (2) Less than 10% degradation in performance occurred in the four stacks that achieved over 100 cycles; (3) The battery used for the zinc loading investigation exhibited virtually no loss in performance for loadings up to 130 mAh/cm{sup 2}; (4) Charge-current densities of 50 ma/cm{sup 2} have been achieved in minicells; (5) Fourteen consecutive no-strip cycles have been conducted on the stack with 300+ cycles; (6) A mass and energy balance spreadsheet that describes battery operation was completed; (7) Materials research has continued to provide improvements in the electrode, activation layer, and separator; and (8) A battery made of two 50-cell stacks (15 kWh) was produced and delivered to Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for testing. The most critical development was the ability to assemble a battery stack that remained leak free. The

  20. Group-level variations in motor representation areas of thenar and anterior tibial muscles: Navigated Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niskanen, Eini; Julkunen, Petro; Säisänen, Laura; Vanninen, Ritva; Karjalainen, Pasi; Könönen, Mervi

    2010-08-01

    Navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can be used to stimulate functional cortical areas at precise anatomical location to induce measurable responses. The stimulation has commonly been focused on anatomically predefined motor areas: TMS of that area elicits a measurable muscle response, the motor evoked potential. In clinical pathologies, however, the well-known homunculus somatotopy theory may not be straightforward, and the representation area of the muscle is not fixed. Traditionally, the anatomical locations of TMS stimulations have not been reported at the group level in standard space. This study describes a methodology for group-level analysis by investigating the normal representation areas of thenar and anterior tibial muscle in the primary motor cortex. The optimal representation area for these muscles was mapped in 59 healthy right-handed subjects using navigated TMS. The coordinates of the optimal stimulation sites were then normalized into standard space to determine the representation areas of these muscles at the group-level in healthy subjects. Furthermore, 95% confidence interval ellipsoids were fitted into the optimal stimulation site clusters to define the variation between subjects in optimal stimulation sites. The variation was found to be highest in the anteroposterior direction along the superior margin of the precentral gyrus. These results provide important normative information for clinical studies assessing changes in the functional cortical areas because of plasticity of the brain. Furthermore, it is proposed that the presented methodology to study TMS locations at the group level on standard space will be a suitable tool for research purposes in population studies. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Human- Versus System-Level Factors and Their Effect on Electronic Work List Variation: Challenging Radiology's Fundamental Attribution Error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Matthew S; Khalatbari, Shokoufeh; Platt, Joel F

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze sources of variation influencing the unread volume on an electronic abdominopelvic CT work list and to compare those results with blinded radiologist perception. The requirement for institutional review board approval was waived for this HIPAA-compliant quality improvement effort. Data pertaining to an electronic abdominopelvic CT work list were analyzed retrospectively from July 1, 2013, to June 30, 2014, and modeled with respect to the unread case total at 6 pm (Monday through Friday, excluding holidays). Eighteen system-level factors outside individual control (eg, number of workers, workload) and 7 human-level factors within individual control (eg, individual productivity) were studied. Attending radiologist perception was assessed with a blinded anonymous survey (n = 12 of 15 surveys completed). The mean daily unread total was 24 (range, 3-72). The upper control limit (48 CT studies [3 SDs above the mean]) was exceeded 10 times. Multivariate analysis revealed that the rate of unread CT studies was affected principally by system-level factors, including the number of experienced trainees on service (postgraduate year 5 residents [odds ratio, 0.83; 95% confidence interval, 0.74-0.92; P = .0008] and fellows [odds ratio, 0.84; 95% confidence interval, 0.74-0.95; P = .005]) and the daily workload (P = .02 to P level factors best predict the variation in unread CT examinations, but blinded faculty radiologists believe that it relates most strongly to variable individual effort. Copyright © 2015 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Farm-level feasibility of bioenergy depends on variations across multiple sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhre, Mitchell; Barford, Carol

    2013-03-01

    The potential supply of bioenergy from farm-grown biomass is uncertain due to several poorly understood or volatile factors, including land availability, yield variability, and energy prices. Although biomass production for liquid fuel has received more attention, here we present a case study of biomass production for renewable heat and power in the state of Wisconsin (US), where heating constitutes at least 30% of total energy demand. Using three bioenergy systems (50 kW, 8.8 MW and 50 MW) and Wisconsin farm-level data, we determined the net farm income effect of producing switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) as a feedstock, either for on-farm use (50 kW system) or for sale to an off-farm energy system operator (8.8 and 50 MW systems). In southern counties, where switchgrass yields approach 10 Mg ha-1 yr-1, the main determinants of economic feasibility were the available land area per farm, the ability to utilize bioheat, and opportunity cost assumptions. Switchgrass yield temporal variability was less important. For the state median farm size and switchgrass yield, at least 25% (50 kW system) or 50% (8.8 MW system) bioheat utilization was required to economically offset propane or natural gas heat, respectively, and purchased electricity. Offsetting electricity only (50 MW system) did not generate enough revenue to meet switchgrass production expenses. Although the opportunity cost of small-scale (50 kW) on-farm bioenergy generation was higher, it also held greater opportunity for increasing farm net income, especially by replacing propane-based heat.

  3. Variation in APOL1 Contributes to Ancestry-Level Differences in HDLc-Kidney Function Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Rebecca Bentley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Low levels of high-density cholesterol (HDLc accompany chronic kidney disease, but the association between HDLc and the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR in the general population is unclear. We investigated the HDLc-eGFR association in nondiabetic Han Chinese (HC, n=1100, West Africans (WA, n=1497, and African Americans (AA, n=1539. There were significant differences by ancestry: HDLc was positively associated with eGFR in HC (β=0.13, P<0.0001, but negatively associated among African ancestry populations (WA: −0.19, P<0.0001; AA: −0.09, P=0.02. These differences were also seen in nationally-representative NHANES data (among European Americans: 0.09, P=0.005; among African Americans −0.14, P=0.03. To further explore the findings in African ancestry populations, we investigated the role of an African ancestry-specific nephropathy risk variant, rs73885319, in the gene encoding HDL-associated APOL1. Among AA, an inverse HDLc-eGFR association was observed only with the risk genotype (−0.38 versus 0.001; P=0.03. This interaction was not seen in WA. In summary, counter to expectation, an inverse HDLc-eGFR association was observed among those of African ancestry. Given the APOL1 × HDLc interaction among AA, genetic factors may contribute to this paradoxical association. Notably, these findings suggest that the unexplained mechanism by which APOL1 affects kidney-disease risk may involve HDLc.

  4. Seasonal variation of indoor radon-222 levels in dwellings in Ramallah province and East Jerusalem suburbs, Palestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leghrouz, A. A.; Abu-samreh, M. M.; Shehadeh, A. K.

    2012-01-01

    This study presents the seasonal variations of indoor radon levels in dwellings located in the Ramallah province and East Jerusalem suburbs, Palestine. The measurements were performed during the summer and winter of the year 2006/2007 using CR-39 solid-state-nuclear-track detectors. The total number of investigated buildings is 75 in summer and 81 in winter. A total number of 142 dosemeters are installed in dwellings for each season for a period of almost 100 d. The radon concentration levels in summer varied from 43 to 192 Bq m -3 for buildings in the Ramallah province and from 30 to 655 Bq m -3 for East Jerusalem suburbs. In winter, the radon concentration levels are found to vary from 38 to 375 Bq m -3 in the Ramallah buildings and from 35 to 984 Bq m -3 in East Jerusalem suburbs. The obtained results for radon concentration levels in most places are found to be within the accepted international levels. (authors)

  5. Temporal and spatial variation in alkaloid levels in Achnatherum robustum, a native grass infected with the endophyte Neotyphodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faeth, Stanley H; Gardner, Dale R; Hayes, Cinnamon J; Jani, Andrea; Wittlinger, Sally K; Jones, Thomas A

    2006-02-01

    The native North American perennial grass Achnatherum robustum (Vasey) Barkworth [= Stipa robusta (Vasey) Scribn.] or sleepygrass is toxic and narcotic to livestock. The causative agents are alkaloidal mycotoxins produced from infections by a systemic and asexual Neotyphodium endophyte. Recent studies suggest that toxicity is limited across the range of sleepygrass in the Southwest USA. We sampled 17 populations of sleepygrass with varying distance from one focal population known for its high toxicity levels near Cloudcroft, NM, USA. For some, we sampled individual plants twice within the same growing season and over successive years (2001-2004). We also determined infection levels in each population. In general, all populations were highly infected, but infection levels were more variable near the focal population. Only infected plants within populations near the Cloudcroft area produced alkaloids. The ergot alkaloid, ergonovine, comprised the bulk of the alkaloids, with lesser amounts of lysergic and isolysergic acid amides and ergonovinine alkaloids. Levels of all alkaloids were positively correlated among individual plants within and between growing seasons. Infected plants that produced no alkaloids in 1 yr did not produce any alkaloids within the same growing season or in other years. Levels of alkaloids in sleepygrass populations declined with distance from the Cloudcroft population, although infection levels increased. Infected plants in populations in northern New Mexico and southern Colorado produced no alkaloids at all despite 100% infectivity. Our results suggest that only specific Neotyphodium haplotypes or specific Neotyphodium-grass combinations produce ergot alkaloids in sleepygrass. The Neotyphodium haplotype or host-endophyte combination that produces toxic levels of alkaloids appears restricted to one locality across the range of sleepygrass. Because of the wide variation in alkaloid levels among populations, interactions between the endophyte

  6. District-level variations in childhood immunizations in India: The role of socio-economic factors and health infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rammohan, Anu; Awofeso, Niyi

    2015-11-01

    Routine childhood immunizations against measles and DPT are part of the World Health Organization's (WHO) Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) set up in 1974, with the aim of reducing childhood morbidity and mortality. Despite this, immunization rates are sub-optimal in developing countries such as India, with wide heterogeneity observed across districts and socio-economic characteristics. The aim of this paper is to examine district-level variations in the propensity to vaccinate a child in India for measles and DPT3, and analyse the extent to which these immunizations are given age-inappropriately, either prematurely or delayed. The present study uses data from the Indian District Level Household Survey (DLHS-3) collected in 2008, and the final sample contains detailed information on 42157 children aged between 12 and 60 months, across 549 Indian districts for whom we have complete information on immunization history. Our empirical study analyses: (i) the district-level average immunization rates for measles and DPT3, and (ii) the extent to which these immunizations have been given age-appropriately. A key contribution of this paper is that we link the household-level data at the district level to data on availability and proximity to health infrastructure and district-level socio-economic factors. Our results show that after controlling for an array of socio-economic characteristics, across all our models, the district's income per capita is a strong predictor of better immunization outcomes for children. Mother's education level at the district-level has a statistically significant and positive influence on immunization outcomes across all our models. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A level-set method for two-phase flows with soluble surfactant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian-Jun; Shi, Weidong; Lai, Ming-Chih

    2018-01-01

    A level-set method is presented for solving two-phase flows with soluble surfactant. The Navier-Stokes equations are solved along with the bulk surfactant and the interfacial surfactant equations. In particular, the convection-diffusion equation for the bulk surfactant on the irregular moving domain is solved by using a level-set based diffusive-domain method. A conservation law for the total surfactant mass is derived, and a re-scaling procedure for the surfactant concentrations is proposed to compensate for the surfactant mass loss due to numerical diffusion. The whole numerical algorithm is easy for implementation. Several numerical simulations in 2D and 3D show the effects of surfactant solubility on drop dynamics under shear flow.

  8. Phase behaviour of macromolecular liquid crystalline materials. Computational studies at the molecular level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stimson, Lorna M.

    2003-01-01

    Molecular simulations provide an increasingly useful insight into the static and dynamic characteristics of materials. In this thesis molecular simulations of macro-molecular liquid crystalline materials are reported. The first liquid crystalline material that has been investigated is a side chain liquid crystal polymer (SCLCP). In this study semi-atomistic molecular dynamics simulations have been conducted at a range of temperatures and an aligning potential has been applied to mimic the effect of a magnetic field. In cooling the SCLCP from an isotropic melt, microphase separation was observed yielding a domain structure. The application of a magnetic field to this structure aligns the domains producing a stable smectic mesophase. This is the first study in which mesophases have been observed using an off-lattice model of a SCLCP. The second material that has been investigated is a dendrimer with terminal mesogenic functionalization. Here, a multi-scale approach has been taken with Monte Carlo studies of a single dendrimer molecule in the gas phase at the atomistic level, semi-atomistic molecular dynamics of a single molecule in liquid crystalline solvents and a coarse-grained molecular dynamics study of the dendrimer in the bulk. The coarse-grained model has been developed and parameterized using the results of the atomistic and semi-atomistic work. The single molecule studies showed that the liquid crystalline dendrimer was able to change its structure by conformational changes in the flexible chains that link the mesogenic groups to the core. Structural change was seen under the application of a mean field ordering potential in the gas phase, and in the presence of liquid crystalline solvents. No liquid crystalline phases were observed for the bulk phase studies of the coarse-grained model. However, when the length of the mesogenic units was increased there was some evidence for microphase separation in these systems. (author)

  9. Sensitivity of three tree ferns during their first phase of life to the variation of solar radiation and water availability in a Mexican cloud forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaño, Karolina; Briones, Oscar

    2015-09-01

    Regeneration niche differentiation promotes species coexistence and diversity; however, the ecological implications for the initial life phases of the majority of pteridophytes are unknown. We analyzed the sensitivity of gametophytes and juvenile sporophytes of the tree ferns Alsophila firma, Cyathea divergens, and Lophosoria quadripinnata to variation in light and water availability. We evaluated gametophyte desiccation tolerance using saturated salt solutions and gametophyte solar radiation tolerance by direct exposure. We also transplanted juvenile sporophytes in environments with 7% and 23% canopy openness and two watering levels. The response of photosynthetic efficiency and water content suggest that the gametophytes of the three species require high relative humidity, tolerate direct solar radiation for up to 30 min and that the response is not species-dependent. Sporophyte size and gas exchange were greater in the more open site, but decreased watering had a lesser effect on these variables in the more closed site. Relative growth rate correlated with the net assimilation rate and leaf weight ratio. Juvenile sporophytes of A. firma were more shade tolerant, while those of C. divergens and L. quadripinnata acclimatized to both environments. Specialization to humid habitats in the tree fern gametophyte restricts the species to humid forests, while differences in the plasticity of the sporophyte facilitate coexistence of the species. © 2015 Botanical Society of America.

  10. Variations in leptin, nesfatin-1 and irisin levels induced by aerobic exercise in young trained and untrained male subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Algul

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to investigate the impacts of acute aerobic exercise on circulating levels of hormones associated with energy metabolism, namely leptin, nesfatin-1 and irisin, in trained and untrained male subjects and to determine whether the timing of the exercise (i.e. morning or night amplified these impacts. Thirty trained (19.2±0.7 years and 30 untrained (19.5±0.6 years male subjects performed two aerobic running exercises (3 days between tests to 64-76% of the subjects’ maximal heart rate for about 30 min. Pre- and post-exercise venous blood samples were taken and analysed for leptin, nesfatin-1 and irisin using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Paired samples and independent samples t-tests were used to analyse data. Irisin levels increased in all the subjects (p<0.001. In both groups, nesfatin-1 levels increased significantly after the night-time exercise (p<0.05. Importantly, leptin and nesfatin-1 levels varied among the trained and untrained groups: Both leptin and nesfatin-1 levels increased in 4 (13% and 12 (40% subjects, respectively, after the morning exercises, and they increased in 9 (30% and 10 (33% subjects, respectively, after the night-time exercise. They decreased in 5 (16% and 7 (23% subjects, respectively, after the morning exercise and in 6 (20% and 3 (10% subjects, respectively, after the night-time exercise. Exercise may result in increased energy consumption by altering irisin levels. However, due to variations among individuals, increasing leptin and nesfatin-1 levels by reducing food intake may not be applicable.

  11. Combined phase and X-Ray fluorescence imaging at the sub-cellular level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosior, Ewelina

    2013-01-01

    This work presents some recent developments in the field of hard X-ray imaging applied to biomedical research. As the discipline is evolving quickly, new questions appear and the list of needs becomes bigger. Some of them are dealt with in this manuscript. It has been shown that the ID22NI beamline of the ESRF can serve as a proper experimental setup to investigate diverse aspects of cellular research. Together with its high spatial resolution, high flux and high energy range the experimental setup provides bigger field of view, is less sensitive to radiation damages (while taking phase contrast images) and suits well chemical analysis with emphasis on endogenous metals (Zn, Fe, Mn) but also with a possibility for exogenous one's like these found in nanoparticles (Au, Pt, Ag) study. Two synchrotron-based imaging techniques, fluorescence and phase contrast imaging were used in this research project. They were correlated with each other on a number of biological cases, from bacteria E.coli to various cells (HEK 293, PC12, MRC5VA, red blood cells). The explorations made in the chapter 5 allowed preparation of more established and detailed analysis, described in the next chapter where both techniques, X-ray fluorescence and phase contrast imaging, were exploited in order to access absolute metal projected mass fraction in a whole cell. The final image presents for the first time true quantitative information at the sub-cellular level, not biased by the cell thickness. Thus for the first time a fluorescence map serves as a complete quantitative image of a cell without any risk of misinterpretation. Once both maps are divided by each other pixel by pixel (fluorescence map divided by the phase map) they present a complete and final result of the metal (Zn in this work) projected mass fraction in ppm of dry weight. For the purpose of this calculation the analysis was extended to calibration (non-biological) samples. Polystyrene spheres of a known diameter and known

  12. Five-Phase Five-Level Open-Winding/Star-Winding Inverter Drive for Low-Voltage/High-Current Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padmanaban, Sanjeevi Kumar; Blaabjerg, Frede; Wheeler, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    This paper work proposed a five-phase five-level open-/star-winding multilevel AC converter suitable for low-voltage/high-current applications. Modular converter consists of classical two-level five-phase voltage source inverter (VSI) with slight reconfiguration to serve as a multilevel converter...... for open-/star-winding loads. Elaborately, per phase of the VSI is built with one additional bi-directional switch (MOSFET/IGBT) and all five legs links to the neutral through two capacitors. The structure allows multilevel generation to five-level output with greater potential for fault tolerability under...

  13. Force systems in the initial phase of orthodontic treatment -- a comparison of different leveling arch wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuck, Lars-Michael; Drescher, Dieter

    2006-01-01

    The determination of orthodontically-effective forces and moments places great demands on the technical equipment. Many patients report severe pain after fixed appliance insertion. Since it is assumed that pain from orthodontic appliances is associated with the force and moment levels applied to the teeth and since the occurrence of root resorption is a common therapeutic side effect, it would seem important to know the actual magnitudes of the components of the active orthodontic force systems. The aim of the present study was therefore to measure initial force systems produced by different leveling arch-wires in a complete multi-bracket appliance and to assess whether force and moment levels can be regarded as biologically acceptable or not. The actual bracket position in 42 patients was transferred onto a measurement model. Forces and moments produced by a super-elastic nickel-titanium (NiTi) archwire, a 6-strand stainless steel archwire, and a 7-strand super-elastic NiTi archwire were determined experimentally on different teeth. Average forces and moments produced by the super-elastic NiTi arch wires were found to be the highest. In spite if their larger diameter, the stranded arch wires' average force and moment levels were lower, especially that of the stranded super-elastic archwire. Nevertheless, maximum force levels sometimes exceeded recommended values in the literature and must be considered as too high. The measured arch wires' initial force systems differed significantly depending on the type of archwire and its material structure. Stranded arch wires produced lower force and moment levels, and we recommend their use in the initial phase of orthodontic treatment.

  14. Assessing population-level morphometric variation of the Mountain Mullet Agonostomus monticola (Teleostei: Mugilidae across its Middle American distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertha P. Díaz-Murillo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Population-level morphometric variation of the Mountain Mullet (Agonostomus monticola was assessed in 419 adult specimens from 25 sample sites (river basins across its Middle American distribution (Pacific and Atlantic-Caribbean drainages. This analysis was based on 36 standardized linear measurements and 19 landmarks on geometric morphometrics approach. Discriminant function analysis (DFA revealed 19 linear morphological characters with significant variation among groups. Geometrically, the most notable changes were associated to the curvature of the frontal region of the head, the anterior and posterior insertion of the first dorsal and anal fins. The resulting grouping based on the DFA and geometric morphometrics techniques (Pacific-A, Pacific-B and NE México-Caribbean were similar to those previously recovered by genetic techniques, where the Pacific-B (Ayuquila river basin was the most different group. Our results provide morphological evidence for considering Agonostomus monticola as a complex of evolutionary entities, represented by two forms in the Pacific Ocean and another in the Atlantic Ocean.

  15. Study of genetic variation at the level of DNA between normal and sterilized potato tuber moth males (phthorimaea operculella, zeller)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammouneh, H.; Makee, H.; Idris, E.

    2009-06-01

    The main objective of current study was to determine the genetic variation at the level of DNA between the normal and sterilized potato tuber moth males. The required mating experiments were carried out to obtain partially sterilized males at 150 Gy and their offspring. Some biological factors of these males were estimated and compared to their unirradiated siblings. To acquire good quality and quantity of DNA for the AFLP technique, several methods were undertaken to isolate DNA of potato tuber moth male from different developmental stages especially from adult stage. However, a method called Modified M5 was used. By Modified M5, which required phenol for the isolation of DNA, in some samples 8 to 12 μg were obtained from one insect with 95-100% purity. In our study, AFLP technique was used to analyze the DNA samples of irradiated and unirradiated males from required mating. The result analysis showed that there was a clear genetic variability between examined individuals. However, the relationship between unirradiated F1 and F2 males was stronger than that between irradiated males. Thus, our result demonstrates that the AFLP could be efficiently utilized for studying genetic variation between insect species or between individuals of the same line which have biological differences induced by several factors such as irradiation. Moreover, this technique could enhance the effectiveness of sterile insect technique by using the AFLP in the monitoring system of released insects. (author)

  16. Study Of Genetic Variation At The Level Of DNA Between Normal And Steriled Potato Tuber Moth Males (Phthorimaea operculella, Zeller)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammouneh, H.; Makee, H.; Idris, E.

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of current study was to determine the genetic variation at the level of DNA between the normal and sterilized potato tuber moth males. The required mating experiments were carried out to obtain partially sterilize males at 150 Gy and their offspring. Some biological factors of these males were estimated and compared to their unirradiated siblings. To acquire good quality and quantity of DNA for the AFLP technique, several methods were undertaken to isolate DNA of potato tuber moth male from different developmental stages especially from adult stage. However, a method called Modified M5 was used. By Modified M5, which required phenol for the isolation of DNA, in some samples 8 to 12 Mg were obtained from one insect with 95-100% purity. In our study, AFLP technique was used to analyze the DNA samples of irradiated and unirradiated males from required mating. The result analysis showed that there was a clear genetic variability between examined individuals. However, the relationship between unirradiated F1 and F2 males was stronger than that between irradiated males. Thus, our result demonstrates that the AFLP could be efficiently utilized for studying genetic variation between insect species or between individuals of the same line which have biological differences induced by several factors such as irradiation. Moreover, this technique could enhance the effectiveness of sterile insect technique by using the AFLP in the monitoring system of released insects. (author)

  17. An extended algebraic variational multiscale-multigrid-multifractal method (XAVM4) for large-eddy simulation of turbulent two-phase flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasthofer, U.; Wall, W. A.; Gravemeier, V.

    2018-04-01

    A novel and comprehensive computational method, referred to as the eXtended Algebraic Variational Multiscale-Multigrid-Multifractal Method (XAVM4), is proposed for large-eddy simulation of the particularly challenging problem of turbulent two-phase flow. The XAVM4 involves multifractal subgrid-scale modeling as well as a Nitsche-type extended finite element method as an approach for two-phase flow. The application of an advanced structural subgrid-scale modeling approach in conjunction with a sharp representation of the discontinuities at the interface between two bulk fluids promise high-fidelity large-eddy simulation of turbulent two-phase flow. The high potential of the XAVM4 is demonstrated for large-eddy simulation of turbulent two-phase bubbly channel flow, that is, turbulent channel flow carrying a single large bubble of the size of the channel half-width in this particular application.

  18. Operational intervention levels and related requirements on radiation monitoring during pre-release / release phase of an accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carny, P.; Cabanekova, H

    2003-01-01

    In this paper authors discusses required outputs of emergency radiological monitoring in various phases of an accident and rationale of these requirements. In various phases of an accident various intervention levels are important and consequently various radiological quantities should be preferably measured. Distinguished tasks or aims of monitoring in different phases of accident have strong influence on methods of monitoring, instrumentation and capabilities of monitoring groups. Required tasks and outputs of monitoring are discussed

  19. Effect of dietary energy levels and phase feeding by protein levels on growth performance, blood profiles and carcass characteristics in growing-finishing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Hong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Providing of insufficient nutrients limits the potential growth of pig, while feeding of excessive nutrients increases the economic loss and causes environment pollution. For these reasons, phase feeding had been introduced in swine farm for improving animal production. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary energy levels and phase feeding by protein levels on growth performance, blood profiles and carcass characteristics in growing-finishing pigs. Methods A total of 128 growing pigs ([Yorkshire × Landrace] × Duroc, averaging 26.62 ± 3.07 kg body weight, were assigned in a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement with 4 pigs per pen. The first factor was two dietary energy level (3,265 kcal of ME/kg or 3,365 kcal of ME/kg, and the second factor was four different levels of dietary protein by phase feeding (1growing(G-2finishing(F phases, 2G-2F phases, 2G-3F phases and 2G-3F phases with low CP requirement. Results In feeding trial, there was no significant difference in growth performance. The BUN concentration was decreased as dietary protein level decreased in 6 week and blood creatinine was increased in 13 week when pigs were fed diets with different dietary energy level. The digestibility of crude fat was improved as dietary energy levels increased and excretion of urinary nitrogen was reduced when low protein diet was provided. Chemical compositions of longissimus muscle were not affected by dietary treatments. In backfat thickness (P2 at 13 week, pigs fed high energy diet had thicker backfat thickness (P = 0.06 and pigs fed low protein diet showed the trend of backfat thinness reduction (P = 0.09. In addition, water holding capacity was decreased (P = 0.01 and cooking loss was increased (P = 0.07 as dietary protein level reduced. When pigs were fed high energy diet with low subdivision of phase feeding, days to 120 kg market weight was reached earlier compared to

  20. The levels, variation characteristics, and sources of atmospheric non-methane hydrocarbon compounds during wintertime in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Liu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric non-methane hydrocarbon compounds (NMHCs were measured at a sampling site in Beijing city from 15 December 2015 to 14 January 2016 to recognize their pollution levels, variation characteristics, and sources. We quantified 53 NMHCs, and the proportions of alkanes, alkenes, acetylene, and aromatics to the total NMHCs were 49.8–55.8, 21.5–24.7, 13.5–15.9, and 9.3–10.7 %, respectively. The variation trends in the NMHC concentrations were basically identical and exhibited remarkable fluctuation, which was mainly ascribed to the variation in meteorological conditions, especially wind speed. The diurnal variations in NMHCs on clear days exhibited two peaks during the morning and evening rush hours, whereas the rush hours' peaks diminished or even disappeared on the haze days, implying that the relative contribution of the vehicular emissions to atmospheric NMHCs depended on the pollution status. Two evident peaks of the propane ∕ propene ratios appeared in the early morning before sun rise and at noontime on clear days, whereas only one peak occurred in the afternoon during the haze days, which were attributed to the relatively fast reactions of propene with OH, NO3, and O3. Based on the chemical kinetic equations, the daytime OH concentrations were calculated to be in the range of 3. 47 × 105–1. 04 × 106 molecules cm−3 on clear days and 6. 42 × 105–2. 35 × 106 molecules cm−3 on haze days. The nighttime NO3 concentrations were calculated to be in the range of 2. 82 × 109–4. 86 × 109 molecules cm−3 on clear days. The correlation coefficients of typical hydrocarbon pairs (benzene ∕ toluene, o-xylene ∕ m,p-xylene, isopentane ∕ n-pentane, etc. revealed that vehicular emissions and coal combustion were important sources for atmospheric NMHCs in Beijing during the wintertime. Five major emission sources for atmospheric NMHCs in Beijing during

  1. The levels, variation characteristics, and sources of atmospheric non-methane hydrocarbon compounds during wintertime in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chengtang; Ma, Zhuobiao; Mu, Yujing; Liu, Junfeng; Zhang, Chenglong; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Liu, Pengfei; Zhang, Hongxing

    2017-09-01

    Atmospheric non-methane hydrocarbon compounds (NMHCs) were measured at a sampling site in Beijing city from 15 December 2015 to 14 January 2016 to recognize their pollution levels, variation characteristics, and sources. We quantified 53 NMHCs, and the proportions of alkanes, alkenes, acetylene, and aromatics to the total NMHCs were 49.8-55.8, 21.5-24.7, 13.5-15.9, and 9.3-10.7 %, respectively. The variation trends in the NMHC concentrations were basically identical and exhibited remarkable fluctuation, which was mainly ascribed to the variation in meteorological conditions, especially wind speed. The diurnal variations in NMHCs on clear days exhibited two peaks during the morning and evening rush hours, whereas the rush hours' peaks diminished or even disappeared on the haze days, implying that the relative contribution of the vehicular emissions to atmospheric NMHCs depended on the pollution status. Two evident peaks of the propane / propene ratios appeared in the early morning before sun rise and at noontime on clear days, whereas only one peak occurred in the afternoon during the haze days, which were attributed to the relatively fast reactions of propene with OH, NO3, and O3. Based on the chemical kinetic equations, the daytime OH concentrations were calculated to be in the range of 3. 47 × 105-1. 04 × 106 molecules cm-3 on clear days and 6. 42 × 105-2. 35 × 106 molecules cm-3 on haze days. The nighttime NO3 concentrations were calculated to be in the range of 2. 82 × 109-4. 86 × 109 molecules cm-3 on clear days. The correlation coefficients of typical hydrocarbon pairs (benzene / toluene, o-xylene / m,p-xylene, isopentane / n-pentane, etc.) revealed that vehicular emissions and coal combustion were important sources for atmospheric NMHCs in Beijing during the wintertime. Five major emission sources for atmospheric NMHCs in Beijing during the wintertime were further identified by positive matrix factorization (PMF), including gasoline-related emissions

  2. Seasonal and spatial variations in Rn-222 and Rn-220 in soil gas, and implications for indoor radon levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharman, G.

    1992-01-01

    Rn-222 enters dwellings as a component of soil gas drawn from the soil by mass flow driven by the pressure difference between the house and soil beneath. In a site on Northampton Sand Ironstone (Aalenian), a preferred path of emanation (hotspot) was found. A difference of 63 Bq L -1 Rn-222 was recorded in July between this point and another 3 m away. Rn-222 in this hotspot shows 12% less variation annually than the surrounding rock. During winter, Rn-222 values within 1.6 m of the house were 44% lower than those at more than 4 m away. Rn-222 showed a 99.5% negative correlation with wind run, showing that on this soil wind pressure can significantly reduce radon in the soil at 500 mm depth. Rn-220 in soil gas correlated positively at the 99.5% level with grass and air temperatures. Rn-220 was not associated with the hotspot. (Author)

  3. Chlamydia trachomatis In Vivo to In Vitro Transition Reveals Mechanisms of Phase Variation and Down-Regulation of Virulence Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vítor Borges

    Full Text Available Research on the obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis demands culture in cell-lines, but the adaptive process behind the in vivo to in vitro transition is not understood. We assessed the genomic and transcriptomic dynamics underlying C. trachomatis in vitro adaptation of strains representing the three disease groups (ocular, epithelial-genital and lymphogranuloma venereum propagated in epithelial cells over multiple passages. We found genetic features potentially underlying phase variation mechanisms mediating the regulation of a lipid A biosynthesis enzyme (CT533/LpxC, and the functionality of the cytotoxin (CT166 through an ON/OFF mechanism. We detected inactivating mutations in CT713/porB, a scenario suggesting metabolic adaptation to the available carbon source. CT135 was inactivated in a tropism-specific manner, with CT135-negative clones emerging for all epithelial-genital populations (but not for LGV and ocular populations and rapidly increasing in frequency (~23% mutants per 10 passages. RNA-sequencing analyses revealed that a deletion event involving CT135 impacted the expression of multiple virulence factors, namely effectors known to play a role in the C. trachomatis host-cell invasion or subversion (e.g., CT456/Tarp, CT694, CT875/TepP and CT868/ChlaDub1. This reflects a scenario of attenuation of C. trachomatis virulence in vitro, which may take place independently or in a cumulative fashion with the also observed down-regulation of plasmid-related virulence factors. This issue may be relevant on behalf of the recent advances in Chlamydia mutagenesis and transformation where culture propagation for selecting mutants/transformants is mandatory. Finally, there was an increase in the growth rate for all strains, reflecting gradual fitness enhancement over time. In general, these data shed light on the adaptive process underlying the C. trachomatis in vivo to in vitro transition, and indicates that it would be prudent to

  4. Occupational exposure levels of bioaerosol components are associated with serum levels of the acute phase protein Serum Amyloid A in greenhouse workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anne Mette; Thilsing, Trine; Bælum, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    to elevated levels of bioaerosols. The objective of this study is to assess whether greenhouse workers personal exposure to bioaerosol components was associated with serum levels of the acute phase proteins Serum Amyloid A (SAA) and C-reactive protein (CRP). METHODS: SAA and CRP levels were determined......-glucan. RESULTS: Serum levels of SAA and CRP were not significantly different in greenhouse workers and a reference group, or on the two work days. In a mixed model, SAA levels were positively associated with endotoxin exposure levels (p = 0.0007). Results for fungi were not clear. CRP levels were positively...... associated with endotoxin exposures (p = 0.022). Furthermore, when workers were categorized into three groups based on SAA and CRP serum levels endotoxin exposure was highest in the group with the highest SAA levels and in the group with middle and highest CRP levels. SAA and CRP levels were elevated...

  5. Nine-phase hex-tuple inverter for five-level output based on double carrier PWM technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padmanaban, S.; Bhaskar, M.S.; Blaabjerg, F.

    2016-01-01

    This work articulates double carrier based five-level pulsewidth modulation for a nine-phase hex-tuple inverter AC drive. A set of standard three-phase voltage source inverter (VSI) with slight modification is used for framing the ninephase AC drive. In particular VSI packed with one bidirectiona...

  6. Pulse number control of electrical resistance for multi-level storage based on phase change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, K; Takata, M; Kasai, T; Kitagawa, A; Akita, J

    2007-01-01

    Phase change nonvolatile memory devices composed of SeSbTe chalcogenide semiconductor thin film were fabricated. The resistivity of the SeSbTe system was investigated to apply to multi-level data storage. The chalcogenide semiconductor acts as a programmable resistor that has a large dynamic range. The resistance of the chalcogenide semiconductor can be set to intermediate resistances between the amorphous and crystalline states using electric pulses of a specified power, and it can be controlled by repetition of the electric pulses. The size of the memory cell used in this work is 200 nm thick with a contact area of 1 μm diameter. The resistance of the chalcogenide semiconductor gradually varies from 41 kΩ to 840 Ω within octal steps. The resistance of the chalcogenide semiconductor decreases with increasing number of applied pulses. The step-down characteristic of the resistance can be explained as the crystalline region of the active phase change region increases with increasing number of applied pulses. The extent of crystallization was also estimated by the overall resistivity of the active region of the memory cell

  7. Multilevel Converter by Cascading Two-Level Three-Phase Voltage Source Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullrahman A. Al-Shamma’a

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a topology using isolated, cascaded multilevel voltage source converters (VSCs and employing two-winding magnetic elements for high-power applications. The proposed topology synthesizes 6 two-level, three-phase VSCs, so the power capability of the presented converter is six times the capability of each VSC module. The characteristics of the proposed topology are demonstrated through analyzing its current relationships, voltage relationships and power capability in detail. The power rating is equally shared among the VSC modules without the need for a sharing algorithm; thus, the converter operates as a single three-phase VSC. The comparative analysis with classical neutral-point clamped, flying capacitor and cascaded H-bridge exhibits the superior features of fewer insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs, capacitor requirement and fewer diodes. To validate the theoretical performance of the proposed converter, it is simulated in a MATLAB/Simulink environment and the results are experimentally demonstrated using a laboratory prototype.

  8. Racial and Ethnic Variation in Time to Prostate Biopsy After an Elevated Screening Level of Serum Prostate-specific Antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reading, Stephanie R; Porter, Kimberly R; Hsu, Jin-Wen Y; Wallner, Lauren P; Loo, Ronald K; Jacobsen, Steven J

    2016-10-01

    To examine the racial and ethnic variation in time to prostate biopsy after an elevated screening level of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Male members of the Kaiser Permanente of Southern California health plan, 45 years of age or older, with no history of prostate cancer or a prostate biopsy, and at least 1 elevated screening level of serum PSA between January 1, 1998 and December 31, 2007 were retrospectively identified (n = 59,506). All participants were passively followed via electronic health records until their time of prostate biopsy, death, membership disenrollment, or study conclusion (December 31, 2014), whichever was the initial event. Proportional hazard regression analyses were used to estimate the association between time from an elevated screening level of serum PSA to prostate biopsy, adjusting for age, benign prostatic hyperplasia, prostatitis, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and Charlson Comorbidity Index score. Median time until biopsy was 0.6 years (214 days), with approximately 41% of participants receiving a prostate biopsy within the study period. Results from the fully adjusted analysis indicated that the non-Hispanic Asian or Pacific Islanders (hazard ratio: 1.10, 95% confidence interval: [1.04, 1.15]) and the non-Hispanic blacks (hazard ratio: 1.04, 95% confidence interval: [1.00, 1.08]) had a slightly shorter time to prostate biopsy after an elevated screening level of serum PSA compared to the non-Hispanic whites. These data suggest that, within an integrated healthcare organization, minimal differences exist between racial and ethnic subgroups in their time to prostate biopsy after an elevated screening level of serum PSA. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Variation of Enzyme Activities and Metabolite Levels in 24 Arabidopsis Accessions Growing in Carbon-Limited Conditions1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Joanna M.; von Korff, Maria; Altmann, Thomas; Bartzetko, Linda; Sulpice, Ronan; Gibon, Yves; Palacios, Natalia; Stitt, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Our understanding of the interaction of carbon (C) metabolism with nitrogen (N) metabolism and growth is based mainly on studies of responses to environmental treatments, and studies of mutants and transformants. Here, we investigate which metabolic parameters vary and which parameters change in a coordinated manner in 24 genetically diverse Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) accessions, grown in C-limited conditions. The accessions were grown in short days, moderate light, and high nitrate, and analyzed for rosette biomass, levels of structural components (protein, chlorophyll), total phenols and major metabolic intermediates (sugars, starch, nitrate, amino acids), and the activities of seven representative enzymes from central C and N metabolism. The largest variation was found for plant weight, reducing sugars, starch at the end of the night, and several enzyme activities. High levels of one sugar correlated with high levels of other sugars and starch, and a trend to increased amino acids, slightly lower nitrate, and higher protein. The activities of enzymes at the interface of C and N metabolism correlated with each other, but were unrelated to carbohydrates, amino acid levels, and total protein. Rosette weight was unrelated or showed a weak negative trend to sugar and amino acid contents at the end of the day in most of the accessions, and was negatively correlated with starch at the end of the night. Rosette weight was positively correlated with several enzyme activities. We propose that growth is not related to the absolute levels of starch, sugars, and amino acids; instead, it is related to flux, which is indicated by the enzymatic capacity to use these central resources. PMID:17085515

  10. GTS Duratek, phase I Hanford low-level waste melter tests: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaton, W.C.

    1995-01-01

    A multiphase program was initiated in 1994 to test commercially available melter technologies for the vitrification of the low-level waste (LLW) stream from defense waste stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Phase 1 of the melter demonstration tests using simulated LLW was completed during fiscal year 1995. This document is the final report on testing performed by GTS Duratek Inc. in Columbia, Maryland. GTS Duratek (one of the seven vendors selected) was chosen to demonstrate Joule heated melter technology under WHC subcontract number MMI-SVV-384215. The report contains description of the tests, observations, test data and some analysis of the data as it pertains to application of this technology for LLW vitrification. The document also contains summaries of the melter offgas reports issued as separate documents for the 100 kg melter (WHC-SD-WM-VI-028) and for the 1000 kg melter (WHC-SD-WM-VI-029)

  11. Leaf-level gas-exchange uniformity and photosynthetic capacity among loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) genotypes of contrasting inherent genetic variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael J. Aspinwall; John S. King; Steven E. McKeand; Jean-Christophe Domec

    2011-01-01

    Variation in leaf-level gas exchange among widely planted genetically improved loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) genotypes could impact stand-level water use, carbon assimilation, biomass production, C allocation, ecosystem sustainability and biogeochemical cycling under changing environmental conditions. We examined uniformity in leaf-level light-saturated photosynthesis...

  12. Longitudinal changes and seasonal variations in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in different age groups: results of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schoor, N. M.; Knol, D. L.; Deeg, D. J. H.; Peters, F. P. A. M. N.; Heijboer, A. C.; Lips, P.

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D levels remained fairly stable during ageing with increasing levels in persons aged 55-65 years old and decreasing levels in persons aged 65-88 years old. The seasonal variation was larger than the longitudinal change. Our findings implicate that vitamin D supplementation becomes more

  13. A medium-independent variational macroscopic theory of two-phase porous media – Part I: Derivation of governing equations and stress partitioning laws

    OpenAIRE

    Serpieri , Roberto; Travascio , Francesco

    2016-01-01

    A macroscopic continuum theory of two-phase saturated porous media is derived by a purely variational deduction based on the least Action principle. The proposed theory proceeds from the consideration of a minimal set of kinematic descriptors and keeps a specific focus on the derivation of most general medium-independent governing equations, which have a form independent from the particular constitutive relations and thermodynamic constraints characterizing a specific medium. The kinematics o...

  14. Temporal analysis of national level Muay-Thai matches: Effects of competitive phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Boscolo Del Vecchio

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Temporal analysis of matches allows the study of fighting patterns in combat sports. With this procedure, we can recreate the efforts in specific training. However, up to date have no information concerning temporal analysis considering competitive level in Muay-Thai. Objective: To investigate temporal characteristics of Muay-Thai athletes in official competition from national level, considering round, and to compare preliminary combats with those that had medal disputes. Material and methods: Were recorded 65 matches in a Brazilian championship. We conducted in loco recording. To time-motion analysis, Software Kinovea™ was used. Were considered Observation, Preparation and Interaction periods, as well as high intensity and low intensity ratio (HI:LI. The average duration of the rounds between competitive phases (preliminary or finals was compared with a t test. A generalized linear model was applied considering effort duration as dependent variable and competitive level, round and effort type as independent. Significant level was set in 5%. Results: Were registered 7 to 8 s of Observation, near from 3 s of Preparation and 4 to 5.5 s of Interaction effort type, and the duration of Observation effort was significantly superior the others. Significant differences were observed in the Interaction between preliminary and finals (respectively 5.5 ± 0.3 s and 3.7 ± 0.5 s; p < 0.05. Pooling the Observation and Preparation time as low intensity (LI, and Interaction as high intensity (HI efforts, the HI:LI ratio was 1:2in eliminatory and 1:3 in the final matches. Conclusions: Muay-Thai is an intermittent combat sport, the duration of Interaction effort type is lower in final in comparison to preliminary matches.

  15. Tradeoffs in Chemical and Thermal Variations in the Post-perovskite Phase Transition: Mixed Phase Regions in the Deep Lower Mantle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, G. F.; Spera, F. J.; Yuen, D. A.

    2005-12-01

    The recent discovery of a phase-transition in Mg-rich perovskite (Pv) to a post-perovskite (pPv) phase at lower mantle depths and its relationship to D", lower mantle heterogeneity and iron content prompted an investigation of the relative importance of lower mantle (LM) compositional and temperature fluctuations in creating topographic undulations on mixed phase regions. Above the transition, Mg-rich Pv makes up ~70 percent by mass of the LM. Using results from experimental phase equilibria, first-principles computations and thermodynamic relations for Fe2+-Mg mixing in silicates, a preliminary thermodynamic model for the perovskite to post-perovskite phase transition in the divariant system MgSiO3-FeSiO3 is developed. Complexities associated with components Fe2O3 and Al2O3 and other phases (Ca-Pv, magnesiowustite) are neglected. The model predicts phase transition pressures are sensitive to the FeSiO3 content of perovskite (~-1.5 GPa per one mole percent FeSiO3). This leads to considerable topography along the top boundary of the mixed phase region. The Clapeyron slope for the Pv to pPv transition at XFeSiO3=0.1 is +11 MPa/K about 20% higher than for pure Mg-Pv. Increasing bulk concentration of iron elevates the mixed (two-phase) layer above the core-mantle boundary (CMB); increasing temperature acts to push the mixed layer deeper into the LM into the D" thermal boundary layer resting upon the (CMB). For various LM geotherms and CMB temperatures, a single mixed layer of thickness ~300 km lies within the bottom 40% of the lower mantle. For low iron contents (XFeSiO3 ~5 mole percent or less), two perched layers are found. This is the divariant analog to the univariant double-crosser. The hotter the mantle, the deeper the mixed phase layer; the more iron-rich the LM, the higher the mixed phase layer. In a hotter Hadean Earth with interior temperatures everywhere 200-500 K warmer pPv is not stable unless the LM bulk composition is Fe-enriched compared to the present

  16. Growth of anatase and rutile phase TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles using pulsed laser ablation in liquid: Influence of surfactant addition and ablation time variation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaturvedi, Amita, E-mail: amita-chaturvedi@rrcat.gov.in [Laser Material Processing Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013, MP (India); Joshi, M.P. [Laser Material Processing Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013, MP (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai – 400094 (India); Mondal, P.; Sinha, A.K.; Srivastava, A.K. [Indus Synchrotron Utilization Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013, MP (India)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Ablations of Ti metal target were carried out in DI water and in 0.001 M SDS solution for different times using PLAL process. • Different characterization studies have been carried out to confirm the growth of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles in both the liquid mediums. • Anatase phase TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were obtained in DI water and rutile phase in 0.001 M SDS aqueous solution. • In surfactant solution, longer time ablation leads depletion of SDS molecules causes growth of anatase phase for 90 min. • Our studies confirmed the role of liquid ambience conditions variation over the different phase formations of nanoparticles. - Abstract: Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanoparticles were grown using nanosecond pulsed laser ablation of Ti target in DI water and in 0.001 M sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) surfactant aqueous solution. Growth was carried out with varying ablation times i. e. 30 min, 60 min and 90 min. The objective of our study was to investigate the influence of variations in liquid ambience conditions on the growth of the nanoparticles in a pulsed laser ablation in liquid (PLAL) process. Size, composition and optical properties of the grown TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), optical absorption, photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. The obtained nanoparticles of TiO{sub 2} were found almost spherical in shape and polycrystalline in nature in both the liquid mediums i.e. DI water and aqueous solution of surfactant. Nanoparticles number density was also found to increase with increasing ablation time in both the liquid mediums. However crystalline phase of the grown TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles differs with the change in liquid ambience conditions. Selected area electron diffraction (SAED), PL and XRD studies suggest that DI water ambience is favorable for the growth of anatase phase TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles for all

  17. Variation at local government level in the support for families of severely disabled children and the factors that affect it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, Rob; McNally, Richard; James, Peter; Crossland, Kevin; Woolley, Mark; Colver, Allan

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine geographical variability in the support for families caring for children with severe disabilities as well as the relationships between this variability and local government social and educational performance indicators. Data were collected from a cross-sectional, self-completed postal survey of the families of 5862 children and young people (aged 0-24 y, mean 10 y 7 mo; 68% male) with severe disabilities resulting in a variety of impairments (21% with autism spectrum disorders, 16% with learning disabilities,* 13% with emotional and behavioural difficulties, and 13% with cerebral palsy [CP]). Data on the severity of intrinsic impairment were assessed using the Health Utilities Index, and the need for support was assessed from the results of a novel parent-completed questionnaire, the European Child Environment Questionnaire (ECEQ). These responses were related to data published by local authorities on educational and social policy. Higher levels of unmet need and lack of support, as reported by parents of children and young people with severe disabilities, are associated with greater impairment but not with socioeconomic deprivation. After controlling for impairment and diagnosis, variation at local government level is of the order of 1 to 1.5 ECEQ standard deviation scores. The best- and the worst-performing local authorities--in terms of the averages of the 'support' scores reported by their surveyed residents--cluster in urban areas. For children with CP, a positive correlation was found between the reported unmet educational support requirements in each local authority area and rates of mainstream school placement for children with special educational needs. This indicates that the placement of children with disabilities into mainstream schools is associated with reported unmet need (r=0.60; p=0.01). In the case of children with autism spectrum diagnoses, the provision of additional basic educational support in mainstream

  18. Levels and patterns of nucleotide variation in domestication QTL regions on rice chromosome 3 suggest lineage-specific selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianfa Xie

    Full Text Available Oryza sativa or Asian cultivated rice is one of the major cereal grass species domesticated for human food use during the Neolithic. Domestication of this species from the wild grass Oryza rufipogon was accompanied by changes in several traits, including seed shattering, percent seed set, tillering, grain weight, and flowering time. Quantitative trait locus (QTL mapping has identified three genomic regions in chromosome 3 that appear to be associated with these traits. We would like to study whether these regions show signatures of selection and whether the same genetic basis underlies the domestication of different rice varieties. Fragments of 88 genes spanning these three genomic regions were sequenced from multiple accessions of two major varietal groups in O. sativa--indica and tropical japonica--as well as the ancestral wild rice species O. rufipogon. In tropical japonica, the levels of nucleotide variation in these three QTL regions are significantly lower compared to genome-wide levels, and coalescent simulations based on a complex demographic model of rice domestication indicate that these patterns are consistent with selection. In contrast, there is no significant reduction in nucleotide diversity in the homologous regions in indica rice. These results suggest that there are differences in the genetic and selective basis for domestication between these two Asian rice varietal groups.

  19. Variations of Lipoprotein(a Levels in the Metabolic Syndrome: A Report from the Maracaibo City Metabolic Syndrome Prevalence Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valmore Bermúdez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Lipoprotein(a [Lp(a] is a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease, yet its influence on metabolic syndrome (MS is still controversial. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact generated by this diagnosis in serum Lp(a concentrations. Materials and Methods. A total of 1807 subjects of both genders (55.3% women and 44.7% men belonging to the Maracaibo City Metabolic Syndrome Prevalence Study were evaluated. Results were expressed as Mean ± SD, determining differences through Student’s t-test and One-Way ANOVA test. Multiple logistic regression models were utilized for analyzing factors associated with elevated serum Lp(a levels and MS. Total cholesterol and LDL-C were corrected according to Lp(a-Cholesterol when necessary. Results. No differences were found in Lp(a values between genders; P=0,292. The association between MS and the classification of Lp(a was statistically significant (χ2=28.33; P<0,0001, with greater levels in subjects with this diagnosis. In the univariate analysis, subjects with each of the separate diagnostic criteria showed higher serum Lp(a concentrations, except for hyperglycemia. Conclusions. Lp(a values exhibit important variations regarding MS and each of its components. Impaired fasting glucose appeared as a protecting factor against elevated Lp(a concentrations, whereas its association with LDL-C and hs-CRP suggests a potential pro-inflammatory role.

  20. Control of fixed-wing UAV at levelling phase using artificial intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayfeddine, Daher

    2018-03-01

    The increase in the share of fly-by-wire and software controlled UAV is explained by the need to release the human-operator and the desire to reduce the degree of influence of the human factor errors that account for 26% of aircraft accidents. An important reason for the introduction of new control algorithms is also the high level of UAV failures due loss of communication channels and possible hacking. This accounts for 17% of the total number of accidents. The comparison with manned flights shows that the frequency of accidents of unmanned flights is 27,000 times higher. This means that the UAV has 1611 failures per million flight hours and only 0.06 failures at the same time for the manned flight. In view of that, this paper studies the flight autonomy of fixed-wing UAV at the levelling phase. Landing parameters of the UAV are described. They will be used to setup a control scheme for an autopilot based on fuzzy logic algorithm.

  1. The Phase-1 Upgrade of the ATLAS First Level Calorimeter Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Andrei, George Victor; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Level-1 calorimeter trigger is planning a series of upgrades in order to face the challenges posed by the upcoming increase of the LHC luminosity. The hardware built for the Phase-1 upgrade will be installed during the long shutdown of the LHC starting in 2019, with the aim of being fully commissioned before the restart in 2021. The upgrade will benefit from new front end electronics for parts of the calorimeter which provide the trigger system with digital data with a tenfold increase in granularity. This makes possible the use of more complex algorithms than currently used and while maintaining low trigger thresholds under much harsher collision conditions. Of principal significance among these harsher conditions will be the increased number interactions per bunch crossing, known as pile-up. The Level-1 calorimeter system upgrade consists of an active and a passive system for digital data distribution and three different Feature EXtraction systems (FEXs) which run complex algorithms to identify el...

  2. Variations of the high-level Balmer line spectrum of the helium-strong star σ Orionis E

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. A.; Bohlender, D. A.

    2007-12-01

    Using the high-level Balmer lines and continuum, we trace the density structure of two magnetospheric disk segments of the prototypical Bp star σ Orionis E (B2p) as these segments occult portions of the star during the rotational cycle. High-resolution spectra of the Balmer lines ≥H9 and Balmer edge were obtained on seven nights in January-February 2007 at an average sampling of 0.01 cycles. We measured equivalent width variations due to the star occultations by two disk segments 0.4 cycles apart and constructed differential spectra of the migrations of the corresponding absorptions across the Balmer line profiles. We first estimated the rotational and magnetic obliquity angles. We then simulated the observed Balmer jump variation using the model atmosphere codes synspec/circus and evaluated the disk geometry and gas thermodynamics. We find that the two occultations are caused by two disk segments. The first of these transits quickly, indicating that the segment resides in a range of distances, perhaps 2.5-6 R*, from the star. The second consists of a more slowly moving segment situated closer to the surface and causing two semi-resolved absorbing maxima. During its transit this segment brushes across the star's “lower” limb. Judging from the line visibility up to H23-H24 during the occultations, both disk segments have mean densities near 1012 cm-3 and are opaque in the lines and continuum. They have semiheights less than 1/2 R*, and their temperatures are near 10 500 K and 12 000 K, respectively. In all, the disks of Bp stars have a much more complicated geometry than has been anticipated, as evidenced by their (sometimes) non-coplanarity, de-centerness, and from star to star, differences in disk height. Based on observations obtained at the the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada.

  3. Quantum phase transitions and collective enhancement of level density in odd–A and odd–odd nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karampagia, S., E-mail: karampag@nscl.msu.edu [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); Renzaglia, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); Zelevinsky, V. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States)

    2017-06-15

    The nuclear shell model assumes an effective mean-field plus interaction Hamiltonian in a specific configuration space. We want to understand how various interaction matrix elements affect the observables, the collectivity in nuclei and the nuclear level density for odd–A and odd–odd nuclei. Using the sd and pf shells, we vary specific groups of matrix elements and study the evolution of energy levels, transition rates and the level density. In all cases studied, a transition between a “normal” and a collective phase is induced, accompanied by an enhancement of the level density in the collective phase. In distinction to neighboring even–even nuclei, the enhancement of the level density is observed already at the transition point. The collective phase is reached when the single-particle transfer matrix elements are dominant in the shell model Hamiltonian, providing a sign of their fundamental role.

  4. Variation in supratentorial cerebrospinal fluid production rate in one day. Measurement by nontriggered phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hiroto; Tanaka, Hisashi; Fujita, Norihiko; Murase, Kenya; Tomiyama, Noriyuki

    2011-01-01

    Measuring the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) production rate is important for understanding the physiology related to normal conditions and neurological disorders. Triggered phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been used to measure CSF production rate, but the use of nontriggered phase-contrast MRI has not been reported. The purposes of this study were to assess the feasibility of using nontriggered phase-contrast MRI to measure CSF flow and to determine whether CSF production exhibits circadian rhythm. The feasibility of phase-contrast MRI was assessed with a phantom simulated human cerebral aqueduct. CSF flow through the cerebral aqueduct was measured with nontriggered phase-contrast MRI four times during 1 day in 10 normal volunteers. In the phantom study, linear regression analysis gave the following measured values (ml/h): 0.80 x (value of steady flow)-10.0 for triggered phase-contrast MRI and 1.27 x (value of steady flow)-12.2 for nontriggered phase-contrast MRI. One-factor analysis of variance showed no significant effect of the time of the measurements (P=0.47). The supratentorial CSF production rate was 510±549 ml/day (mean ± SD). Nontriggered phase-contrast MRI provided good estimates of the flow rate in the phantom study. We observed no circadian rhythm in CSF production. (author)

  5. Study of Morphological, Phenological and Variation of Fruit Traits During Berry Growth Phases of QzlouzumGrapevine Cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Doulati Baneh

    2017-02-01

    quantitative traits, TSS (total soluble solids, TA (titrable acidity, pH, berry weight and diameter, seed length and weight from the beginning of the berry formation to harvest time of clusters in 15-day interval were measured. Results and discussion: The results of this study showed that flowers of Qzlouzum are female with reflexed stamens. The results also determined that none of pollens germinated on both liquid and solid media culture. Based on reflexed stamens and none pollen germination, Qzlouzum grape cultivar proves to be male sterile (physiological substance. This cultivar needs 1483 degree days (above 10°C from bud break till ripening. The changes in TA and TSS were reversed. Amount of acid reduced and sugar content increased with time and berry development. Veraision period was approximately started 55 days after full bloom. At this stage, which is also known as berry softening, acid concentration is reduced and the amount of sugar was increased. Acid content and pH of the fruit were opposite together and by reducing the amount of acid, the pH levels increased. Several studies have confirmed that after changing the color of the grape varieties,sugar can often increase. Conversely, acid reduction in berries is the first happensbefore color change in berries. The berry weight and size changes were described as Double Sigmoid Curve. In the first phase, berry diameter and weight increased rapidly and lasted 60 days. In the second phase or delay phase, berry weight and diameter changedvery slowly while seed weight reached themaximum in this stage. After this phase, the third phase which was associated began with veraision, sugar content increased and the amount of aciddecreased. At this stage berry reached its maximum size and weight. Conclusion: Uniform planting of Qzlouzum red grapes is not recommended because of male sterility and suitable pollinizers should be used. Male sterility, without emasculation will be suitable for grape breeding programs. In areas with

  6. Mapping end-stage renal disease (ESRD: spatial variations on small area level in northern France, and association with deprivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florent Occelli

    Full Text Available Strong geographic variations in the incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD are observed in developed countries. The reasons for these variations are unknown. They may reflect regional inequalities in the population's sociodemographic characteristics, related diseases, or medical practice patterns. In France, at the district level, the highest incidence rates have been found in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region. This area, with a high population density and homogeneous healthcare provision, represents a geographic situation which is quite suitable for the study, over small areas, of spatial disparities in the incidence of ESRD, together with their correlation with a deprivation index and other risk factors.The Renal Epidemiology and Information Network is a national registry, which lists all ESRD patients in France. All cases included in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais registry between 2005 and 2011 were extracted. Adjusted and smoothed standardized incidence ratio (SIR was calculated for each of the 170 cantons, thanks to a hierarchical Bayesian model. The correlation between ESRD incidence and deprivation was assessed using the quintiles of Townsend index. Relative risk (RR and credible intervals (CI were estimated for each quintile.Significant spatial disparities in ESRD incidence were found within the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region. The sex- and age-adjusted, smoothed SIRs varied from 0.66 to 1.64. Although no correlation is found with diabetic or vascular nephropathy, the smoothed SIRs are correlated with the Townsend index (RR: 1.18, 95% CI [1.00-1.34] for Q2; 1.28, 95% CI [1.11-1.47] for Q3; 1.30, 95% CI [1.14-1.51] for Q4; 1.44, 95% CI [1.32-1.74] for Q5.For the first time at this aggregation level in France, this study reveals significant geographic differences in ESRD incidence. Unlike the time of renal replacement care, deprivation is certainly a determinant in this phenomenon. This association is probably independent of the patients' financial

  7. Spinal Surgeon Variation in Single-Level Cervical Fusion Procedures: A Cost and Hospital Resource Utilization Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijji, Fady Y; Massel, Dustin H; Mayo, Benjamin C; Narain, Ankur S; Long, William W; Modi, Krishna D; Burke, Rory M; Canar, Jeff; Singh, Kern

    2017-07-01

    Retrospective analysis. To compare perioperative costs and outcomes of patients undergoing single-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusions (ACDF) at both a service (orthopedic vs. neurosurgical) and individual surgeon level. Hospital systems are experiencing significant pressure to increase value of care by reducing costs while maintaining or improving patient-centered outcomes. Few studies have examined the cost-effectiveness cervical arthrodesis at a service level. A retrospective review of patients who underwent a primary 1-level ACDF by eight surgeons (four orthopedic and four neurosurgical) at a single academic institution between 2013 and 2015 was performed. Patients were identified by Diagnosis-Related Group and procedural codes. Patients with the ninth revision of the International Classification of Diseases coding for degenerative cervical pathology were included. Patients were excluded if they exhibited preoperative diagnoses or postoperative social work issues affecting their length of stay. Comparisons of preoperative demographics were performed using Student t tests and chi-squared analysis. Perioperative outcomes and costs for hospital services were compared using multivariate regression adjusted for preoperative characteristics. A total of 137 patients diagnosed with cervical degeneration underwent single-level ACDF; 44 and 93 were performed by orthopedic surgeons and neurosurgeons, respectively. There was no difference in patient demographics. ACDF procedures performed by orthopedic surgeons demonstrated shorter operative times (89.1 ± 25.5 vs. 96.0 ± 25.5 min; P = 0.002) and higher laboratory costs (Δ+$6.53 ± $5.52 USD; P = 0.041). There were significant differences in operative time (P = 0.014) and labor costs (P = 0.034) between individual surgeons. There was no difference in total costs between specialties or individual surgeons. Surgical subspecialty training does not significantly affect total costs of

  8. A novel five-level optimized carrier multilevel PWM quad-inverter six-phase AC drive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanjeevikumar, P.; Blaabjerg, F.; Wheeler, Pat

    2016-01-01

    A novel single carrier pulse-width modulation (PWM) for a new quad-inverter configuration for multilevel six-phase asymmetrical open-winding ac converter is proposed in this article. Modularity of the circuit consist of four standard two-level voltage source inverters (VSIs) with slight modificat......A novel single carrier pulse-width modulation (PWM) for a new quad-inverter configuration for multilevel six-phase asymmetrical open-winding ac converter is proposed in this article. Modularity of the circuit consist of four standard two-level voltage source inverters (VSIs) with slight...... modifications, i.e. one additional bi-direction switch (MOSFET/IGBT) in each phase and a link to neutral with two capacitors to generate increased output levels. Furthermore, original optimal single carrier zero-shifted five-level modulation (SCZSFM) algorithm is developed for each VSI to behave as equivalent...

  9. Contribution of vertical land motions to coastal sea level variations: a global synthesis of multisatellite altimetry, tide gauge and GPS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeffer, Julia; Allemand, Pascal

    2016-04-01

    Coastal sea level variations result from a complex mix of climatic, oceanic and geodynamical processes driven by natural and anthropogenic constraints. Combining data from multiple sources is one solution to identify particular processes and progress towards a better understanding of the sea level variations and the assessment of their impacts at coast. Here, we present a global database merging multisatellite altimetry with tide gauges and Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements. Vertical land motions and sea level variations are estimated simultaneously for a network of 886 ground stations with median errors lower than 1 mm/yr. The contribution of vertical land motions to relative sea level variations is explored to better understand the natural hazards associated with sea level rise in coastal areas. Worldwide, vertical land motions dominate 30 % of observed coastal trends. The role of the crust is highly heterogeneous: it can amplify, restrict or counter the effects of climate-induced sea level change. A set of 182 potential vulnerable localities are identified by large coastal subsidence which increases by several times the effects of sea level rise. Though regional behaviours exist, principally caused by GIA (Glacial Isostatic Adjustment), the local variability in vertical land motion prevails. An accurate determination of the vertical motions observed at the coast is fundamental to understand the local processes which contribute to sea level rise, to appraise its impacts on coastal populations and make future predictions.

  10. Multicritical phase diagrams of the ferromagnetic spin-3/2 Blume-Emery-Griffiths model with repulsive biquadratic coupling including metastable phases: The cluster variation method and the path probability method with the point distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keskin, Mustafa [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)], E-mail: keskin@erciyes.edu.tr; Canko, Osman [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)

    2008-01-15

    We study the thermal variations of the ferromagnetic spin-3/2 Blume-Emery-Griffiths (BEG) model with repulsive biquadratic coupling by using the lowest approximation of the cluster variation method (LACVM) in the absence and presence of the external magnetic field. We obtain metastable and unstable branches of the order parameters besides the stable branches and phase transitions of these branches are investigated extensively. The classification of the stable, metastable and unstable states is made by comparing the free energy values of these states. We also study the dynamics of the model by using the path probability method (PPM) with the point distribution in order to make sure that we find and define the metastable and unstable branches of the order parameters completely and correctly. We present the metastable phase diagrams in addition to the equilibrium phase diagrams in the (kT/J, K/J) and (kT/J, D/J) planes. It is found that the metastable phase diagrams always exist at the low temperatures, which are consistent with experimental and theoretical works.

  11. Multicritical phase diagrams of the ferromagnetic spin-3/2 Blume-Emery-Griffiths model with repulsive biquadratic coupling including metastable phases: The cluster variation method and the path probability method with the point distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keskin, Mustafa; Canko, Osman

    2008-01-01

    We study the thermal variations of the ferromagnetic spin-3/2 Blume-Emery-Griffiths (BEG) model with repulsive biquadratic coupling by using the lowest approximation of the cluster variation method (LACVM) in the absence and presence of the external magnetic field. We obtain metastable and unstable branches of the order parameters besides the stable branches and phase transitions of these branches are investigated extensively. The classification of the stable, metastable and unstable states is made by comparing the free energy values of these states. We also study the dynamics of the model by using the path probability method (PPM) with the point distribution in order to make sure that we find and define the metastable and unstable branches of the order parameters completely and correctly. We present the metastable phase diagrams in addition to the equilibrium phase diagrams in the (kT/J, K/J) and (kT/J, D/J) planes. It is found that the metastable phase diagrams always exist at the low temperatures, which are consistent with experimental and theoretical works

  12. A molecular dynamics study of ambient and high pressure phases of silica: structure and enthalpy variation with molar volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajappa, Chitra; Sringeri, S Bhuvaneshwari; Subramanian, Yashonath; Gopalakrishnan, J

    2014-06-28

    Extensive molecular dynamics studies of 13 different silica polymorphs are reported in the isothermal-isobaric ensemble with the Parrinello-Rahman variable shape simulation cell. The van Beest-Kramer-van Santen (BKS) potential is shown to predict lattice parameters for most phases within 2%-3% accuracy, as well as the relative stabilities of different polymorphs in agreement with experiment. Enthalpies of high-density polymorphs - CaCl2-type, α-PbO2-type, and pyrite-type - for which no experimental data are available as yet, are predicted here. Further, the calculated enthalpies exhibit two distinct regimes as a function of molar volume-for low and medium-density polymorphs, it is almost independent of volume, while for high-pressure phases a steep dependence is seen. A detailed analysis indicates that the increased short-range contributions to enthalpy in the high-density phases arise not only from an increased coordination number of silicon but also shorter Si-O bond lengths. Our results indicate that amorphous phases of silica exhibit better optimization of short-range interactions than crystalline phases at the same density while the magnitude of Coulombic contributions is lower in the amorphous phase.

  13. Petrochemical variation of Topopah Spring tuff matrix with depth (stratigraphic level), drill hole USW G-4, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byers, F.M. Jr.

    1985-12-01

    This study describes and interprets petrochemical variation of the matrix (excluding fractures and large gas cavities) of the Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff. This tuff includes the candidate host rock for a high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain on the Nevada Test Site. Cored hole USW G-4, near the site of a potential exploratory shaft at Yucca Mountain, penetrated 359.4 m (1179 ft) of the member within the unsaturated zone. This study shows that petrographic textures and chemistry of the matrix vary systematically within recognizable lithologic subunits related to crystallization (cooling) zones, welding (compaction) zones, and compositional zones (rhyolite versus quartz latite). The methods used for this study include petrographic modal thin section analysis using an automated counter and electron microprobe analysis of the groundmass. Distinctive textural categories are defined, and they can be ranked from finest to coarsest as vitrophyre (glass), cryptocrystalline groundmass, spherulites, granophyre, lithic fragments, and phenocrysts. The two main groundmass compositions are also defined: rhyolite high silica) and quartz latite. The value of these petrochemical studies lies in providing microscopic criteria for recognizing the zonal subunits where they may have greatly limited exposure, as in mined drifts and in core from horizontal drill holes. For example, the lower nonlithophysal zone can be distinguished microscopically from the middle nonlithophysal zone by (1) degree of compaction, (2) amount of quartz, and (3) amount of lithic fragments. The variability between these textural categories should also be considered in designing physical and chemical tests of the Topopah Spring

  14. Petrochemical variation of Topopah Spring tuff matrix with depth (stratigraphic level), drill hole USW G-4, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byers, F.M. Jr.

    1985-12-01

    This study describes and interprets petrochemical variation of the matrix (excluding fractures and large gas cavities) of the Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff. This tuff includes the candidate host rock for a high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain on the Nevada Test Site. Cored hole USW G-4, near the site of a potential exploratory shaft at Yucca Mountain, penetrated 359.4 m (1179 ft) of the member within the unsaturated zone. This study shows that petrographic textures and chemistry of the matrix vary systematically within recognizable lithologic subunits related to crystallization (cooling) zones, welding (compaction) zones, and compositional zones (rhyolite versus quartz latite). The methods used for this study include petrographic modal thin section analysis using an automated counter and electron microprobe analysis of the groundmass. Distinctive textural categories are defined, and they can be ranked from finest to coarsest as vitrophyre (glass), cryptocrystalline groundmass, spherulites, granophyre, lithic fragments, and phenocrysts. The two main groundmass compositions are also defined: rhyolite high silica) and quartz latite. The value of these petrochemical studies lies in providing microscopic criteria for recognizing the zonal subunits where they may have greatly limited exposure, as in mined drifts and in core from horizontal drill holes. For example, the lower nonlithophysal zone can be distinguished microscopically from the middle nonlithophysal zone by (1) degree of compaction, (2) amount of quartz, and (3) amount of lithic fragments. The variability between these textural categories should also be considered in designing physical and chemical tests of the Topopah Spring.

  15. Two-phase electro-hydrodynamic flow modeling by a conservative level set model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuan

    2013-03-01

    The principles of electro-hydrodynamic (EHD) flow have been known for more than a century and have been adopted for various industrial applications, for example, fluid mixing and demixing. Analytical solutions of such EHD flow only exist in a limited number of scenarios, for example, predicting a small deformation of a single droplet in a uniform electric field. Numerical modeling of such phenomena can provide significant insights about EHDs multiphase flows. During the last decade, many numerical results have been reported to provide novel and useful tools of studying the multiphase EHD flow. Based on a conservative level set method, the proposed model is able to simulate large deformations of a droplet by a steady electric field, which is beyond the region of theoretic prediction. The model is validated for both leaky dielectrics and perfect dielectrics, and is found to be in excellent agreement with existing analytical solutions and numerical studies in the literature. Furthermore, simulations of the deformation of a water droplet in decyl alcohol in a steady electric field match better with published experimental data than the theoretical prediction for large deformations. Therefore the proposed model can serve as a practical and accurate tool for simulating two-phase EHD flow. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Physiological levels of diacylglycerols in phospholipid membranes induce membrane fusion and stabilize inverted phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, D.P.; Banschbach, J.; Alford, D.; Ellens, H.; Lis, L.J.; Quinn, P.J.; Yeagle, P.L.; Bentz, J.

    1989-01-01

    In a previous paper, it was shown that liposome fusion rates are substantially enhanced under the same conditions which induce isotropic 31 P NMR resonances in multilamellar dispersions of the same lipid. Both of these phenomena occur within the same temperature interval, ΔT I , below the L α /H II phase transition temperature, T H . T H and ΔT I can be extremely sensitive to the lipid composition. The present work shows that 2 mol % of diacylglycerols like those produced by the phosphatidylinositol cycle in vivo can lower T H , ΔT I , and the temperature for fast membrane fusion by 15-20 degree C. N-Monomethylated dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine is used as a model system. These results show that physiological levels of diacylglycerols can substantially increase the susceptibility of phospholipid membranes to fusion. This suggests that, in addition to their role in protein kinase C activation, diacylglycerols could play a more direct role in the fusion event during stimulus-exocytosis coupling in vivo

  17. Phase Angle Control of Three Level Inverter Based D-STATCOM Using Neuro-Fuzzy Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COTELI, R.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Distribution Static Compensator (D-STATCOM is a shunt compensation device used to improve electric power quality in distribution systems. It is well-known that D-STATCOM is a nonlinear, semi-defined and time-varying system. Therefore, control of D-STATCOM by the conventional control techniques is very difficult task. In this paper, the control of D-STATCOM is carried out by the neuro-fuzzy controller (NFC which has non-linear and robust structure. For this aim, an experimental setup based on three-level H-bridge inverter is constructed. Phase angle control method is used for control of D-STATCOM's output reactive power. Control algorithm for this experimental setup is prepared in MATLAB/Simulink and downloaded to DS1103 controller card. A Mamdani type NFC is designed for control of D-STATCOM's reactive current. Output of NFC is integrated to increase tracking performance of controller in steady state. The performance of D-STATCOM is experimentally evaluated by changing reference reactive current as on-line. The experimental results show that the proposed controller gives very satisfactory performance under different loading conditions.

  18. Taiwan industrial cooperation program technology transfer for low-level radioactive waste final disposal - phase I.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knowlton, Robert G.; Cochran, John Russell; Arnold, Bill Walter; Jow, Hong-Nian; Mattie, Patrick D.; Schelling, Frank Joseph Jr. (; .)

    2007-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taiwan have collaborated in a technology transfer program related to low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal in Taiwan. Phase I of this program included regulatory analysis of LLW final disposal, development of LLW disposal performance assessment capabilities, and preliminary performance assessments of two potential disposal sites. Performance objectives were based on regulations in Taiwan and comparisons to those in the United States. Probabilistic performance assessment models were constructed based on limited site data using software including GoldSim, BLT-MS, FEHM, and HELP. These software codes provided the probabilistic framework, container degradation, waste-form leaching, groundwater flow, radionuclide transport, and cover infiltration simulation capabilities in the performance assessment. Preliminary performance assessment analyses were conducted for a near-surface disposal system and a mined cavern disposal system at two representative sites in Taiwan. Results of example calculations indicate peak simulated concentrations to a receptor within a few hundred years of LLW disposal, primarily from highly soluble, non-sorbing radionuclides.

  19. Trophic calculations reveal the mechanism of population-level variation in mercury concentrations between marine ecosystems: Case studies of two polar seabirds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brasso, Rebecka L.; Polito, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Ecosystem-specific baseline and consumer δ 15 N paired for population-specific trophic level. • Source of population-level variation in mercury exposure identified in two seabirds. • High mercury and trophic position suggests trophic driver of population-level variation. • Trophic similarities, differing mercury reveals geographic differences in bioavailability. -- Abstract: The incorporation of quantitative trophic level analysis in ecotoxicological studies provides explanatory power to identify the factors, trophic or environmental, driving population-level variation in mercury exposure at large geographic scales. In the Antarctic marine ecosystem, mercury concentrations and stable isotope values in Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae) were compared between the Antarctic Peninsula and the Ross Sea. Correcting tissue δ 15 N values for baseline δ 15 N values revealed population-level differences in trophic position which contributes to differences in mercury. Data from Thick-billed murres (Uria lomvia) were synthesized from published values from Baffin Bay and Svalbard to demonstrate the utility of baseline δ 15 N values in identifying differences in environmental mercury exposure independent of diet. Here, we demonstrate the importance of calculating population-specific trophic level data to uncover the source of variation in mercury concentrations between geographically distinct populations of marine predators

  20. Development of Zinc/Bromine Batteries for Load-Leveling Applications: Phase 2 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CLARK,NANCY H.; EIDLER,PHILLIP

    1999-10-01

    This report documents Phase 2 of a project to design, develop, and test a zinc/bromine battery technology for use in utility energy storage applications. The project was co-funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Power Technologies through Sandia National Laboratories. The viability of the zinc/bromine technology was demonstrated in Phase 1. In Phase 2, the technology developed during Phase 1 was scaled up to a size appropriate for the application. Batteries were increased in size from 8-cell, 1170-cm{sup 2} cell stacks (Phase 1) to 8- and then 60-cell, 2500-cm{sup 2} cell stacks in this phase. The 2500-cm{sup 2} series battery stacks were developed as the building block for large utility battery systems. Core technology research on electrolyte and separator materials and on manufacturing techniques, which began in Phase 1, continued to be investigated during Phase 2. Finally, the end product of this project was a 100-kWh prototype battery system to be installed and tested at an electric utility.

  1. Phase Variation Analysis of Coxiella burnetii during Serial Passage in Cell Culture by Use of Monoclonal Antibodies

    OpenAIRE

    Hotta, Akitoyo; Kawamura, Midori; To, Ho; Andoh, Masako; Yamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Fukushi, Hideto; Hirai, Katsuya

    2002-01-01

    Antigenic changes in Coxiella burnetii Nine Mile strain phase I during serial passages in cell culture were analyzed with three groups of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against lipopolysaccharide. The MAbs of group 1 did not react with organisms that were passaged over five times, and the MAbs of group 2 did not react with organisms that were passaged over eight times. The MAbs of group 3 reacted with organisms passaged up to 15 times but did not react with phase II cells. These results suggest...

  2. On the interpretation of millennium-scale level variations of the Black Sea during the first quarter of the Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kislov, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Introduction. During the first quarter of the Holocene, the Black Sea (BS) experienced large changes: amid the gradually rising water surface, Black Sea level (BSL) fluctuations occurred. We calculated based on records (e.g., Balabanov, 2007) that the standard deviation is ˜3.5 ÷ 5 m. Their typical duration was ˜1000 years. Time of occurrence of positive and negative anomalies of the BS is different in different reconstructions. The source of these discrepancies could be tectonically induced vertical motions. Before ˜7 ka BP the BSL was higher than the level of the World Ocean. The rising BS spilled over a rocky sill at the Bosphorus (Chepalyga, 2007). It is clear that if the water discharge were quite large, the long-term BSL anomalies could not be. This study focuses on the quantification of this concept. Methodology. I use the equation of the water balance of the BS in term of the annual averaged level anomalies. Time scales of the BSL fluctuations were determined based on the BS basin morphology and averaged volumes of rivers runoff and water discharge via the Bosphorus Sill. The short-term (1-2 year) contribution (like random white noise) to level changes are due to variations of river runoff and precipitation mines evaporation. From this perspective, the water balance equation is represented as a stochastic Langevin equation (Kislov, 2015). In another case, the BSL anomaly could be destructed due to relation "BSL anomaly - value of water discharge via the Bosphorus Sill" which acts as a negative feedback. Results. To quantify the parameters, I use the present day information about hydrological regime of the BS. It should not lead to serious errors, because the first and last quarters of the Holocene exhibit similarity in their hydroclimatic regimes (Panin, Matlakhova, 2014). As well, the paleohydrological data about dynamics of the Dnieper River runoff was used (Swetc, 1978). It was found that the time scale of the BSL fluctuations due to water discharge

  3. Daily variation of I-131, Cs-134 and Cs-137 activity concentrations in the atmosphere in Osaka during the early phase after the FDNPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zijian Zhang; Kazuhiko Ninomiya; Naruto Takahashi; Atsushi Shinohara

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the time variations of radionuclides discharged from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plants accident, we started collecting aerosol samples in Osaka, Japan, using a high-volume sampler from March 15 to May 1, 2011. Atmospheric radioactivity concentrations of I-131, Cs-134 and Cs-137 were measured with germanium semi-conductor detectors. Only I-131 was detected in the early phase and two Cs-134.137 peaks were found in Osaka in April. Using the HYSPLIT model, we concluded that direct transportation of the air mass from the Fukushima area was responsible for such events. (author)

  4. Phase reconstruction from velocity-encoded MRI measurements – A survey of sparsity-promoting variational approaches

    KAUST Repository

    Benning, Martin; Gladden, Lynn; Holland, Daniel; Schö nlieb, Carola-Bibiane; Valkonen, Tuomo

    2014-01-01

    for the reconstruction of phase-encoded magnetic resonance velocity images from sub-sampled k-space data. We are particularly interested in regularisers that correctly treat both smooth and geometric features of the image. These features are common to velocity imaging

  5. Direct Power Control for Three-Phase Two-Level Voltage-Source Rectifiers Based on Extended-State Observation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Zhanfeng; Tian, Yanjun; Yan, Zhuo

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposed a direct power control strategy for three-phase two-level voltage-source rectifiers based on extended-state observation. Active and reactive powers are directly regulated in the stationary reference frame. Similar to the family of predictive controllers whose inherent characte......This paper proposed a direct power control strategy for three-phase two-level voltage-source rectifiers based on extended-state observation. Active and reactive powers are directly regulated in the stationary reference frame. Similar to the family of predictive controllers whose inherent...

  6. Why variation of ground-level O3 differed during air quality control for APEC and Parade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, R.; Shao, M.; Li, X.

    2017-12-01

    Ozone (O3) is an important photochemical product, which represents the atmospheric oxidants capacity. The increasing ground-level O3 in Beijing attracts people's attention and became an urgent thing to manage in recent years. In the autumn of 2014 and summer of 2015, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) China 2014 and the 2015 China Victory Day parade (Parade) were held in Beijing. Thus, spell of emission restrictions was conducted for improving the air quality for the two great events, respectively. Previous studies indicated that significant reduction in the emissions of primary anthropogenic pollutants had been achieved, and the monthly averaged concentration of CO, SO2, NOx (NO + NO2) and NMHCs were decreased by 30%-60% for both events. In contrast to the obvious reduction in primary pollutants, O3 increased by 42% in APEC but decreased by 33% in Parade, which was surprising as the control measures are almost the same during the two events. The regional transport from the surrounding areas contributed lot in APEC, and the non-linearity relationship of O3 and its precursors may be another reason. A zero-dimensional box model based on the compact Regional Atmospheric Chemical Mechanism version 2 (RACM 2) was applied to chase down the internal factor to determine the O3 variation. The EKMA plot showed that / was the important role to effect photochemical regime as well as ozone production efficiency. Except that, the influence of NO-O3 titration effect and low photolysis frequencies in autumn also contributed to that. As high / does help O3 control and NOx continues to fall down due to the government policy, reactivity-based regulations for VOC controls are more cost-effective. With source profile and annual PMF analysis of source apportionment by related studies, we suggest solvent use should be focus on involving VOC control.

  7. Analyzing the equity of public primary care provision in Kenya: variation in facility characteristics by local poverty level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toda Mitsuru

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Equitable access to health care is a key health systems goal, and is a particular concern in low-income countries. In Kenya, public facilities are an important resource for the poor, but little is known on the equity of service provision. This paper assesses whether poorer areas have poorer health services by investigating associations between public facility characteristics and the poverty level of the area in which the facility is located. Methods Data on facility characteristics were collected from a nationally representative sample of public health centers and dispensaries across all 8 provinces in Kenya. A two-stage cluster randomized sampling process was used to select facilities. Univariate associations between facility characteristics and socioeconomic status (SES of the area in which the facility was located were assessed using chi-squared tests, equity ratios and concentration indices. Indirectly standardized concentration indices were used to assess the influence of SES on facility inputs and service availability while controlling for facility type, province, and remoteness. Results For most indicators, we found no indication of variation by SES. The clear exceptions were electricity and laboratory services which showed evidence of pro-rich inequalities, with equity ratios of 3.16 and 3.43, concentration indices of 0.09 (p Conclusions The paper shows how local area poverty data can be combined with national health facility surveys, providing a tool for policy makers to assess the equity of input and service availability. There was little evidence of inequalities for most inputs and services, with the clear exceptions of electricity and laboratory services. However, efforts are required to improve the availability of key inputs and services across public facilities in all areas, regardless of SES.

  8. Study on seasonal variation of indoor radon, thoron and their progeny levels in Hassan District of Karnataka, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasa, E.; Rangswamy, D.R.; Sannappa, J.

    2015-01-01

    Radon, thoron and their progeny concentrations have been measured in different types of buildings at different locations for different seasons in Hassan city using time-integrated passive radon dosimeters containing LR-115 Type II solid state nuclear track detector exposed for four seasons of 3 months each covering a period of one year from October 2012 to September 2013. The radon and thoron activity concentration in summer season in the corresponding dwellings has been found to vary from 7.4 to 45.7 Bq m -3 and 5.4 to 34.9 Bqm -3 with a median of 23.59±11 Bqm -3 and 1447±8 Bq -3 respectively. The radon progeny concentrations varies from 0.4 to 4.1 mWL with an average value of 1.83±1 mWL, while thoron progeny concentrations vary from 0.3 to 3.2 mWL with an average value of 1.12±0.7 mWL respectively. The annual effective dose received due to radon, thoron and its progeny by the inhabitants in the dwellings under study has also been calculated which is found to vary from 0.320±0.4 to 1.860 ±1.1 mSv y -1 with an average value of 0.9576 ± 0.8 mSv y -1 . In general, the level of radon-thoron was observed highest in winter and lowest in summer. A detail analysis of radon and thoron distribution in different houses with seasonal variation is presented in this paper. From this study it is observed that, bathrooms and kitchens have significantly higher radon concentrations as compared to other rooms in the dwellings. (author)

  9. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 3A: Low Levels of Synchronous Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Nicholas W. [GE Energy Management, Atlanta, GA (United States); Leonardi, Bruno [GE Energy Management, Atlanta, GA (United States); D' Aquila, Robert [GE Energy Management, Atlanta, GA (United States); Clark, Kara [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-11-17

    The stability of the North American electric power grids under conditions of high penetrations of wind and solar is a significant concern and possible impediment to reaching renewable energy goals. The 33% wind and solar annual energy penetration considered in this study results in substantial changes to the characteristics of the bulk power system. This includes different power flow patterns, different commitment and dispatch of existing synchronous generation, and different dynamic behavior from wind and solar generation. The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS), sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, is one of the largest regional solar and wind integration studies to date. In multiple phases, it has explored different aspects of the question: Can we integrate large amounts of wind and solar energy into the electric power system of the West? The work reported here focused on the impact of low levels of synchronous generation on the transient stability performance in one part of the region in which wind generation has displaced synchronous thermal generation under highly stressed, weak system conditions. It is essentially an extension of WWSIS-3. Transient stability, the ability of the power system to maintain synchronism among all elements following disturbances, is a major constraint on operations in many grids, including the western U.S. and Texas systems. These constraints primarily concern the performance of the large-scale bulk power system. But grid-wide stability concerns with high penetrations of wind and solar are still not thoroughly understood. This work focuses on 'traditional' fundamental frequency stability issues, such as maintaining synchronism, frequency, and voltage. The objectives of this study are to better understand the implications of low levels of synchronous generation and a weak grid on overall system performance by: 1) Investigating the Western Interconnection under conditions of both high renewable

  10. A plant wide aqueous phase chemistry model describing pH variations and ion speciation/pairing in wastewater treatment process models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flores-Alsina, X.; Mbamba, C. Kazadi; Solon, K.

    cationic/anionic loads. In this way, the general applicability/flexibility of the proposed approach is demonstrated by implementing the aqueous phase chemistry module in some of the most frequently used WWTP process simulation models. Finally, it is shown how traditional wastewater modelling studies can......, require a major, but unavoidable, additional degree of complexity when representing cationic/anionic behaviour in Activated Sludge (AS)/Anaerobic Digestion (AD) systems (Ikumi et al., 2014). In this paper, a plant-wide aqueous phase chemistry module describing pH variations plus ion speciation...... of Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs) in order to reduce the overall stiffness of the system, thereby enhancing simulation speed. Additionally, a multi-dimensional version of the Newton-Raphson algorithm is applied to handle the existing multiple algebraic inter-dependencies (Solon et al., 2015...

  11. A plant-wide aqueous phase chemistry module describing pH variations and ion speciation/pairing in wastewater treatment process models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flores Alsina, Xavier; Kazadi Mbamba, Christian; Solon, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    at different cationic/anionic loads. In this way, the general applicability/flexibility of the proposed approach is demonstrated, by implementing the aqueous phase chemistry module in some of the most frequently used WWTP process simulation models. Finally, it is shown how traditional wastewater modelling......, but unavoidable, additional degree of complexity when representing cationic/anionic behaviour in Activated Sludge (AS)/Anaerobic Digestion (AD) systems. In this paper, a plant-wide aqueous phase chemistry module describing pH variations plus ion speciation/pairing is presented and interfaced with industry......) in order to reduce the overall stiffness of the system, thereby enhancing simulation speed. Additionally, a multi-dimensional version of the Newton-Raphson algorithm is applied to handle the existing multiple algebraic inter-dependencies. The latter is reinforced with the Simulated Annealing method...

  12. Inter-individual variation, seasonal variation and close correlation of OGG1 and ERCC1 mRNA levels in full blood from healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Ulla Birgitte; Møller, Peter; Dragsted, Lars

    2002-01-01

    The mRNA levels of the nucleotide excision DNA repair gene ERCC1 and the base excision DNA repair gene OGG1 were quantified in 43 healthy volunteers in a dietary intervention trial as markers for the DNA repair capacity. Nine samples were collected from each subject over a period of 52 days. Samp...

  13. Ant-caterpillar antagonism at the community level: interhabitat variation of tritrophic interactions in a neotropical savanna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendoya, Sebastián F; Oliveira, Paulo S

    2015-03-01

    Ant foraging on foliage can substantially affect how phytophagous insects use host plants and represents a high predation risk for caterpillars, which are important folivores. Ant-plant-herbivore interactions are especially pervasive in cerrado savanna due to continuous ant visitation to liquid food sources on foliage (extrafloral nectaries, insect honeydew). While searching for liquid rewards on plants, aggressive ants frequently attack or kill insect herbivores, decreasing their numbers. Because ants vary in diet and aggressiveness, their effect on herbivores also varies. Additionally, the differential occurrence of ant attractants (plant and insect exudates) on foliage produces variable levels of ant foraging within local floras and among localities. Here, we investigate how variation of ant communities and of traits among host plant species (presence or absence of ant attractants) can change the effect of carnivores (predatory ants) on herbivore communities (caterpillars) in a cerrado savanna landscape. We sampled caterpillars and foliage-foraging ants in four cerrado localities (70-460 km apart). We found that: (i) caterpillar infestation was negatively related with ant visitation to plants; (ii) this relationship depended on local ant abundance and species composition, and on local preference by ants for plants with liquid attractants; (iii) this was not related to local plant richness or plant size; (iv) the relationship between the presence of ant attractants and caterpillar abundance varied among sites from negative to neutral; and (v) caterpillars feeding on plants with ant attractants are more resistant to ant predation than those feeding on plants lacking attractants. Liquid food on foliage mediates host plant quality for lepidopterans by promoting generalized ant-caterpillar antagonism. Our study in cerrado shows that the negative effects of generalist predatory ants on herbivores are detectable at a community level, affecting patterns of abundance and

  14. Assessment of an ultrasonic sensor and a capacitance probe for measurement of two-phase mixture level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chang Hyun; Lee, Dong Won; No, Hee Cheon

    2004-01-01

    We performed a comparison of two-phase mixture levels measured by an ultrasonic sensor and a two-wire type capacitance probe with visual data under the same experimental conditions. A series of experiments are performed with various combinations of airflow and initial water level using a test vessel with a height of 2m and an inner diameter of 0.3m. The ultrasonic sensor measured the two-phase mixture level with a maximum error of 1.77% with respect to the visual data. The capacitance probe severely under-predicted the level data in the high void fraction region. The cause of the error was identified as the change of the dielectric constant as the void fraction changes when the probe is applied to the measurement of the two-phase mixture levels. A correction method for the capacitance probe is proposed by correcting the change of the dielectric constant of the two-phase mixture. The correction method for the capacitance probe produces a r.m.s. error of 5.4%. The present experimental data are compared with the existing pool void fraction correlations based on drift-flux model. The Kataoka-Ishii correlation has the best agreement with the present experimental data with an r.m.s error of 2.5%

  15. Assessment of an ultrasonic sensor and a capacitance probe for measurement of two-phase mixture level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chang Hyun; Lee, Dong Won; No, Hee Cheon

    2004-01-01

    We perform a comparison of two-phase mixture levels measured by an ultrasonic sensor and a two-wire type capacitance probe with visual data under the same experimental conditions. A series of experiments are performed with various combinations of airflow and initial water level using a test vessel with a height of 2m and an inner diameter of 0.3 m under atmospheric pressure and room temperature. The ultrasonic sensor measures the two-phase mixture level with a maximum error of 1.77% with respect to the visual data. The capacitance probe severely under-predicts the level data in the high void fraction region. The cause of the error is identified as the change of the dielectric constant as the void fraction changes when the probe is applied to the measurement of the two-phase mixture levels. A correction method for the capacitance probe is proposed by correcting the change of dielectric constant of the two-phase mixture. The correction method for the capacitance probe produces a r.m.s. error of 5.4%. (author)

  16. The onset of the progression of acute phase response mechanisms induced by extreme impacts can be followed by the decrease in blood levels of positive acute phase proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larina, Olga; Bekker, Anna

    Studies performed at space flights and earth-based simulation models detected the plasma indices of acute phase reaction (APR), i.e. the increase of APR cytokine mediators and alterations in the production of blood acute phase proteins (APP) at the initial stages of adaptation to altered gravity conditions. Acute phase response is the principal constituent of the functional activity of innate immunity system. Changes in plasma APPs contents are considered to serve the restoration of homeostasis state. According to trends of their concentration shifts at the evolving of acute phase reaction APPs are denoted as positive, neutral, or negative. Plasma concentrations of positive acute phase proteins α1-acid glycoprotein (α1-AGP), α1-antitrypsin (α1-AT), and neutral α2-macroglobulin (α2-M) were measured in human study at 12-hour antiorthostatic position (AOP) with 15° head down tilt and hypoxia experiments at 14% oxygen in pressure chamber. Both of these impacts were shown to produce alterations in the APP levels indicative for acute phase response. Nevertheless, in AOP experiment noticeable decrease in α1-AGP concentration occurred by hour 12, and even more pronounced decline of α1-AGP and α1-AT were found on hypoxia hours 12 and 36. Acute phase proteins α1-AGP and α2-M possess the features of proteinase inhibitors. This function is implemented by the formation of complexes with the molecules of proteolytic enzymes which subsequently are removed from the blood flow. Transient decrease in plasma concentrations of protease inhibitors on early phases of APR development was reported to result from the growth of plasma protease activity due to cathepsin release from activated leukocytes, which had not yet been compensated by enhanced APP synthesis. Being a carrier protein for positively charged and neutral substances, α1-AGP shows pronounced elevation in its blood content during APR development. As assumed, it is required for the transportation of the increased

  17. Reproductive phase dependent daily variation in melatonin receptors (Mel(1a) and Mel(1b)), androgen receptor (AR) and lung associated immunity of Perdicula asiatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharwar, R K; Haldar, C

    2011-06-01

    Our knowledge about the involvement of melatonin in the regulation of lung associated immune system (LAIS) is still poor though the melatonin receptor types (Mel(1a) and Mel(1b)) have been localized in lungs of some wild birds. We thought to explore the correlation between daily variation (within a 24h time scale) in peripheral melatonin and testosterone along with expression of melatonin receptors (Mel(1a) and Mel(1b)) and androgen receptor (AR) in lungs during reproductively active and inactive phases. Receptor expression of Mel(1b) was more prominent than Mel(1a) at all the time points during both the reproductive phases. The expression of AR was inversely related to both the melatonin and its receptor expression at the 24h time scale during both the reproductive phases. Results also reflected a parallel relationship of melatonin, melatonin receptors and all the immune parameters (total leukocyte count, lymphocyte count, % stimulation ratio) suggesting that peripheral melatonin might be responsible for daily periodicity of LAIS. The presence of androgen receptors in lung led us to propose that gonadal steroid does influence the LAIS. Therefore melatonin along with testosterone might be acting as a temporal synchronizer for daily rhythms in lung associated immunity in Perdicula asiatica during different reproductive phases. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Microstructure and phase analysis of Zirconia-ODS (Oxide Dispersion Strengthen) alloy sintered by APS with milling time variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugeng, Bambang; Bandriyana, B.; Sugeng, Bambang; Salam, Rohmad; Sumariyo; Sujatno, Agus; Dimyati, Arbi

    2018-03-01

    Investigation on the relationship between the process conditions of milling time and the microstructure on the synthesis of the zirconia-ODS steel alloy has been performed. The elemental composition of the alloy was determined on 20 wt% Cr and zirconia dispersoid of 0.50 wt%. The synthesis was carried out by powder metallurgy method with milling time of 3, 5 and 7 hours, static compression of 20 Ton and sintering process for 4 minutes using the APS (Arc Plasma Sintering) equipment. SEM-EDX and XRD test was carried out to characterize the phase and morphology of the alloy and the effect to the mechanical properties was evaluated by the Vickers Hardness testing. The synthesis produced sample of ODS steel with good dense and very little porous with the Fe-Cr phase that clearly observed in the XRD peak pattern. In addition milling time increased the homogeneously of Fe-Cr phase formulation, enhanced the grain refinement of the structure and increase the hardness of the alloy.

  19. Phase transitions between lower and higher level management learning in times of crisis: an experimental study based on synergetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liening, Andreas; Strunk, Guido; Mittelstadt, Ewald

    2013-10-01

    Much has been written about the differences between single- and double-loop learning, or more general between lower level and higher level learning. Especially in times of a fundamental crisis, a transition between lower and higher level learning would be an appropriate reaction to a challenge coming entirely out of the dark. However, so far there is no quantitative method to monitor such a transition. Therefore we introduce theory and methods of synergetics and present results from an experimental study based on the simulation of a crisis within a business simulation game. Hypothesized critical fluctuations - as a marker for so-called phase transitions - have been assessed with permutation entropy. Results show evidence for a phase transition during the crisis, which can be interpreted as a transition between lower and higher level learning.

  20. Women's preferences for men's beards show no relation to their ovarian cycle phase and sex hormone levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixson, Barnaby J W; Lee, Anthony J; Blake, Khandis R; Jasienska, Grazyna; Marcinkowska, Urszula M

    2018-01-01

    According to the ovulatory shift hypothesis, women's mate preferences for male morphology indicative of competitive ability, social dominance, and/or underlying health are strongest at the peri-ovulatory phase of the menstrual cycle. However, recent meta-analyses are divided on the robustness of such effects and the validity of the often-used indirect estimates of fertility and ovulation has been called into question in methodological studies. In the current study, we test whether women's preferences for men's beardedness, a cue of male sexual maturity, androgenic development and social dominance, are stronger at the peri-ovulatory phase of the menstrual cycle compared to during the early follicular or the luteal phase. We also tested whether levels of estradiol, progesterone, and the estradiol to progesterone ratio at each phase were associated with facial hair preferences. Fifty-two heterosexual women completed a two-alternative forced choice preference test for clean-shaven and bearded male faces during the follicular, peri-ovulatory (validated by the surge in luteinizing hormone or the drop in estradiol levels) and luteal phases. Participants also provided for one entire menstrual cycle daily saliva samples for subsequent assaying of estradiol and progesterone. Results showed an overall preference for bearded over clean-shaven faces at each phase of the menstrual cycle. However, preferences for facial hair were not significantly different over the phases of menstrual cycle and were not significantly associated with levels of reproductive hormones. We conclude that women's preferences for men's beardedness may not be related to changes in their likelihood of conception. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Results of Washington's phase two study on closure requirements for the Hanford commercial low-level waste facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.C.; Hana, S.L.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on the closure design objectives and cover alternatives resulting from the state of Washington's phase two study on closure and long-term care for the Hanford commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. Four approaches to dealing with subsidence and two cover design alternatives are discussed in this paper, along with information on each layer of