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Sample records for level phagocytic activity

  1. High content analysis of phagocytic activity and cell morphology with PuntoMorph

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Ali, Hassan; Gao, Han; Dalby-Hansen, Camilla

    2017-01-01

    methods for quantifying phagocytic activity in multiple dimensions including speed, accuracy, and resolution. Conclusions We provide a framework to facilitate the development of high content assays suitable for drug screening. For convenience, we implemented our algorithm in a standalone software package...... with image-based quantification of phagocytic activity. New method We present a robust algorithm and cell-based assay system for high content analysis of phagocytic activity. The method utilizes fluorescently labeled beads as a phagocytic substrate with defined physical properties. The algorithm employs...... content screening. Results We tested our assay system using microglial cultures. Our results recapitulated previous findings on the effects of microglial stimulation on cell morphology and phagocytic activity. Moreover, our cell-level analysis revealed that the two phenotypes associated with microglial...

  2. [Effect of general magnetotherapy on specific activity of blood phagocytes in patients with ischemic heart disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishutin, I S; Klemenkov, S V; Lesovskaia, M I; Spiridonova, M S; Krotova, T K; Ishutin, E I; Tsyganova, O B

    2007-01-01

    In general magnetotherapy for patients with hyporeactive phagocytes (less than 67% from the level of normal chelicoluminescent response) the adequate level of magnetic induction is 1 mT, for patients with normoreactive phagocytes--0.5 mT and for patients with hyperreactive phagocytes (more than 133% from the level of normal chelicoluminescent response)--0.75 mT daily.

  3. High content analysis of phagocytic activity and cell morphology with PuntoMorph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ali, Hassan; Gao, Han; Dalby-Hansen, Camilla; Peters, Vanessa Ann; Shi, Yan; Brambilla, Roberta

    2017-11-01

    Phagocytosis is essential for maintenance of normal homeostasis and healthy tissue. As such, it is a therapeutic target for a wide range of clinical applications. The development of phenotypic screens targeting phagocytosis has lagged behind, however, due to the difficulties associated with image-based quantification of phagocytic activity. We present a robust algorithm and cell-based assay system for high content analysis of phagocytic activity. The method utilizes fluorescently labeled beads as a phagocytic substrate with defined physical properties. The algorithm employs statistical modeling to determine the mean fluorescence of individual beads within each image, and uses the information to conduct an accurate count of phagocytosed beads. In addition, the algorithm conducts detailed and sophisticated analysis of cellular morphology, making it a standalone tool for high content screening. We tested our assay system using microglial cultures. Our results recapitulated previous findings on the effects of microglial stimulation on cell morphology and phagocytic activity. Moreover, our cell-level analysis revealed that the two phenotypes associated with microglial activation, specifically cell body hypertrophy and increased phagocytic activity, are not highly correlated. This novel finding suggests the two phenotypes may be under the control of distinct signaling pathways. We demonstrate that our assay system outperforms preexisting methods for quantifying phagocytic activity in multiple dimensions including speed, accuracy, and resolution. We provide a framework to facilitate the development of high content assays suitable for drug screening. For convenience, we implemented our algorithm in a standalone software package, PuntoMorph. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of detonation nanodiamonds on phagocyte activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpukhin, Alexey V; Avkhacheva, Nadezhda V; Yakovlev, Ruslan Yu; Kulakova, Inna I; Yashin, Valeriy A; Lisichkin, Georgiy V; Safronova, Valentina G

    2011-07-01

    Detonation ND (nanodiamond) holds much promise for biological studies and medical applications. Properties like size of particles, inclination for modification of their surface and unambiguous biocompatibility are crucial. Of prime importance is interaction between ND and immune cells, which supervise foreign intrusion into an organism and eliminate it. Neutrophils are more reactive in inflammatory response implementing cytotoxical arsenal including ROS (reactive oxygen species). The aim of the work was to estimate the ability of two ND samples (produced by Diamond Center and PlasmaChem) to keep the vitality of neutrophils from the inflammatory site. The ability of cells to generate ROS in the presence of ND particles is considered as indicating their biocompatibility. IR spectra and size of particles in the samples were characterized. Acid modification of ND was carried out to get the luminescent form. In the biological aspect, ND demonstrated up or down action, depending on the concentration, time and conditions of activation of cells. Weak action of ND in whole blood was obtained possibly owing to the ND adsorbed plasma proteins, which mask active functional groups to interact with the cell membrane. ND did not influence the viability of isolated inflammatory neutrophils in low and moderate concentrations and suppressed it in high concentrations (≥1 g/l). Addition of ND to the cell suspension initiated concentration-dependent reaction to produce ROS similar to respiratory burst. ND up-regulated response to bacterial formylpeptide, but up- and down-modified (low or high concentrations, accordingly) response to such bacterial agents as OZ (opsonized zymosan), which neutrophils swallow up by oxygen-dependent phagocytosis. Localization of the particles on the cell surface as into the cells was identified by monitoring the intrinsic fluorescence of oxidized ND. The various mechanisms that could account for penetration of ND particles into the cell are discussed

  5. Leishmania mexicana amazonensis: heterogeneity in 5-nucleotidase and peroxidase activities of mononuclear phagocytes during in vivo and in vitro infection

    OpenAIRE

    Côrte-Real, Suzana; Grimaldi Junior, Gabriel; Meirelles, Maria de Nazareth Leal de

    1988-01-01

    The degree of maturation of cells of the Mononuclear Phagocyte System (MPS), during in vivo and in vitro infection by Leishmania mexicana amazonenesis, was evaluated in this study. The macrophages' differentiation was assayed by cytochemical characterization at the ultrastrctural level, using two well-established markers: 5'-nucleotidase enzyme activity, for revealing the mature cells, and the peroxidase activity present in the cell granules to demonstrate immature mononuclear phagocytes. onl...

  6. Uptake and intracellular activity of AM-1155 in phagocytic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, T; Kusajima, H; Hosaka, M; Fukuda, H; Oomori, Y; Shinoda, H

    1996-01-01

    The uptake and intracellular activity of AM-1155 in murine J774.1 macrophages and human polymorphonuclear leukocytes were investigated. AM-1155 penetrated phagocytic cells rapidly and reversibly, although the penetration process was not affected by metabolic inhibitors such as sodium fluoride, cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, or ouabain or by nucleoside transport system inhibitors such as adenosine. The intracellular concentration-to-extracellular concentration ratio of AM-1155 in both cell types of phagocytes ranged from 5 to 7. These ratios were almost equal to those for sparfloxacin. The intracellular activity of AM-1155 in J774.1 macrophages, examined with Staphylococcus aureus 209P as a test bacterium, was dependent on the extracellular concentration. AM-1155 at a concentration of 1 microgram/ml reduced the number of viable cells of S. aureus ingested by more than 90%. The intracellular activity of AM-1155 was more potent than those of sparfloxacin, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, flomoxef, and erythromycin. These results suggest that the potent intracellular activity of AM-1155 might mainly be due to the high intracellular concentration and its potent in vitro activity. PMID:9124835

  7. Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 regulates microglial motility and phagocytic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeon Hyejin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1 is the primary inhibitor of urokinase type plasminogen activators (uPA and tissue type plasminogen activators (tPA, which mediate fibrinolysis. PAI-1 is also involved in the innate immunity by regulating cell migration and phagocytosis. However, little is known about the role of PAI-1 in the central nervous system. Methods In this study, we identified PAI-1 in the culture medium of mouse mixed glial cells by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Secretion of PAI-1 from glial cultures was detected by ELISA and western blotting analysis. Cell migration was evaluated by in vitro scratch-wound healing assay or Boyden chamber assay and an in vivo stab wound injury model. Phagocytic activity was measured by uptake of zymosan particles. Results The levels of PAI-1 mRNA and protein expression were increased by lipopolysaccharide and interferon-γ stimulation in both microglia and astrocytes. PAI-1 promoted the migration of microglial cells in culture via the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP 1/Janus kinase (JAK/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT1 axis. PAI-1 also increased microglial migration in vivo when injected into mouse brain. PAI-1-mediated microglial migration was independent of protease inhibition, because an R346A mutant of PAI-1 with impaired PA inhibitory activity also promoted microglial migration. Moreover, PAI-1 was able to modulate microglial phagocytic activity. PAI-1 inhibited microglial engulfment of zymosan particles in a vitronectin- and Toll-like receptor 2/6-dependent manner. Conclusion Our results indicate that glia-derived PAI-1 may regulate microglial migration and phagocytosis in an autocrine or paracrine manner. This may have important implications in the regulation of brain microglial activities in health and disease.

  8. Effects of Levamisole on Phagocytic Activity of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss W.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Ispir

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, activation of phagocytic cells was examined in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss W. exposed to 1, 5 and 10 μg ml-1 concentrations of levamisole solution. For this purpose, blood samples were taken from fish on days 1, 7 and 14 of exposure. Potential killing activity was determined by measuring oxidative radical production and phagocytic activity of neutrophils and superoxide anion production of phagocytic cells against Y. ruckeri. The activity of phagocytic cells in fish exposed to each of three concentrations was found higher than that in controls and the differences were statistically significant (p p -1 concentration of levamisole solution was determined on day 7, it was observed that all indicators increased on day 14 of exposure. The present results suggest that the application of levamisole in fish farms could increase non-specific immunity and resistance to infection of fish and offer economics benefits.

  9. Ultrastuctural study of the phagocytic activities of splenic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    Direct phagocytic reaction of cells in the presence of an antigen is therefore very important in immunity. Key words: ... The main lymphoid organs of fish are the thymus, the ... The innate (non-specific) immunity is thought to have a major role in ...

  10. Phagocytic and bactericidal activities of leukocytes in whole blood from atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasagawa, S.; Yoshimoto, Y.; Toyota, E.; Neriishi, S.; Yamakido, M.; Matsuo, M.; Hosoda, Y.; Finch, S.C.

    1990-01-01

    This study evaluated the phagocytic and bactericidal activities of peripheral blood leukocytes from Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors for Staphylococcus aureus. The data were analyzed by multiple linear regression for age, sex, radiation exposure, city of exposure, and neutrophil counts. No significant radiation effect was observed for either blood phagocytic or bactericidal activities. The only significant variable for these functions was the neutrophil count

  11. Influence of indicators for thiotriazolin phagocytic activity of leukocytes in the blood in the later period of development of stomach ulcers against pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. O. Furdychko

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Important for the pathogenesis of pneumonia and gastric ulcers should state phagocytic activity of leukocytes (PHAL in the blood. In fact the state of nonspecific resistance factors to some extent depends on the disease, the development of complications, prognosis and therapy. Materials and methods. The study was conducted on 49 male guinea pigs. The experimental pneumonia caused by the method Shlyapnykova V. N., Solodova T. L., gastric ulcer simulated method Komarov V. I. Nonspecific resistance of animals we evaluated, examining the phagocytic activity of leukocytes (PHAL, nitroblue tetrazolium test (NST- test. Phagocytic activity of leukocytes (PHAL in blood were studied in terms phagocytic index (PHI and the phagocytic number (PHN and determined by the method Menshikov V. V. NST - test method Vyksmana M. E., Mayanskoho A. H. The figures research results processed by statistical method Student. Results and discussion. For the experiment, we selected two models of disease: experimental pneumonia (EP and peptic ulcer (PU. State PHAL determined by the level of phagocytic number (PHN, phagocytic index (PHI, NST-test levels in the ЕP+ PU. Found that in the 10-th and 18-th day of development of pathological process both in the stomach and the lungs of guinea pigs, there was reduction of PHI respectively 15,8% (P

  12. Defective natural killer and phagocytic activities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are restored by glycophosphopeptical (inmunoferón).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, A; Reyes, E; Bernstein, E D; Martinez, B; Monserrat, J; Izquierdo, J L; Callol, L; de LUCAS, P; Alvarez-Sala, R; Alvarez-Sala, J L; Villarrubia, V G; Alvarez-Mon, M

    2001-06-01

    We have investigated both modifications in natural (innate) immunity caused by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and the effects of a glycophosphopeptical immunomodulator (Inmunoferón) treatment on COPD-associated immunoalterations. In a double-blinded clinical trial, 60 patients with COPD received glycophosphopeptical or placebo during 90 consecutive days at oral doses of 3 g/d. Fifty-six sex- and age-matched healthy control subjects were included as a reference group for immunologic parameters. Peripheral blood natural killer (PBNK) cell cytotoxic activity and phagocytic activity of peripheral monocytes/macrophages (Mo/Ma) and polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells were assessed at baseline and then again at the end of treatments. We found both PBNK activity and phagocytic activity to be significantly decreased in patients with COPD compared with levels in healthy volunteers. The treatment with glycophosphopeptical provoked significant stimulatory effects on PBNK cytotoxic activity. This stimulation was not mediated by an increase in CD3(-)CD56(+) NK cells. Further, glycophosphopeptical significantly increased the percentage of monocytes and PMNs that phagocytize Escherichia coli in vitro, as well as increased phagocytic indices. We conclude that peripheral blood cells of patients with COPD show clear defects in natural immunity that are partially rescued by glycophosphopeptical.

  13. Modulation of rat blood phagocyte activity by serotonin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Okénková, Kateřina; Lojek, Antonín; Kubala, Lukáš; Číž, Milan

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 101, č. 14 (2007), s245-s246 E-ISSN 1213-7103. [Mezioborová česko-slovenská toxikologická konference /12./. Praha, 11.06.2007-13.06.2007] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA524/04/0897 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : phagocytes * serotonin * reactive oxygen species Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  14. Chloride flux in phagocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoshun

    2016-09-01

    Phagocytes, such as neutrophils and macrophages, engulf microbes into phagosomes and launch chemical attacks to kill and degrade them. Such a critical innate immune function necessitates ion participation. Chloride, the most abundant anion in the human body, is an indispensable constituent of the myeloperoxidase (MPO)-H2 O2 -halide system that produces the potent microbicide hypochlorous acid (HOCl). It also serves as a balancing ion to set membrane potentials, optimize cytosolic and phagosomal pH, and regulate phagosomal enzymatic activities. Deficient supply of this anion to or defective attainment of this anion by phagocytes is linked to innate immune defects. However, how phagocytes acquire chloride from their residing environment especially when they are deployed to epithelium-lined lumens, and how chloride is intracellularly transported to phagosomes remain largely unknown. This review article will provide an overview of chloride protein carriers, potential mechanisms for phagocytic chloride preservation and acquisition, intracellular chloride supply to phagosomes for oxidant production, and methods to measure chloride levels in phagocytes and their phagosomes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Blood phagocyte activity after race training sessions in Thoroughbred and Arabian horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cywinska, Anna; Szarska, Ewa; Degorski, Andrzej; Guzera, Maciej; Gorecka, Renata; Strzelec, Katarzyna; Kowalik, Sylwester; Schollenberger, Antoni; Winnicka, Anna

    2013-10-01

    Intensive exercise and exertion during competition promote many changes that may result in the impairment of immunity and increased susceptibility to infections. The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of "the first line of defense": neutrophils and monocytes in racing Thoroughbred and Arabian horses after routine training sessions. Twenty-three (12 Thoroughbred and 11 Arabian) horses were examined. Routine haematological (number of red blood cells - RBC, haemoglobin concentration - HGB, haematocrit - HCT, total number of white blood cells - WBC), biochemical (creatine phosphokinase activity - CPK and total protein concentration - TP) parameters, cortisol concentration as well as phagocytic and oxidative burst activity of neutrophils and monocytes were determined. The values of basic parameters and the activity of phagocytes differed between breeds and distinct patterns of exercise-induced changes were observed. The training sessions did not produce the decrease in phagocyte activity that might lead to the suppression of immunity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Pranic meditation affects phagocyte functions and hormonal levels of recent practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, César A; Nóbrega, Yanna K M; Tosta, C Eduardo

    2012-08-01

    Despite the recognized importance of phagocytes in the maintenance and recovery of health, the influence of meditation on their functions is not properly established. This investigation aimed at evaluating the influence of pranic meditation on the functions of phagocytes, and on the levels of hormones that influence them. A pre-post design was adopted. The investigation was carried out at a university research laboratory. Twenty-nine (29) healthy individuals of both sexes, 24-67 years old (median 45), with no previous experience in meditation, received 3-hour-duration weekly training on pranic meditation during 10 weeks and agreed to engage in daily home practice for 20 minutes. Pranic meditation is a novel method of meditation, based on the Vedic tradition, which uses techniques of breathing and visualization for quieting the mind, and for capturing and intentionally directing prana ("vital energy") wherever necessary. For assessing phagocytosis, the production of hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide by monocytes, and the concentrations of corticotrophin and cortisol, blood was collected at the beginning (week 1), at the middle (week 5), and by the end (week 10) of the practice period. At the same intervals, melatonin concentrations were evaluated in the saliva. Those who meditated for more than 980 minutes showed increased phagocytosis, their monocytes produced higher concentrations of hydrogen peroxide, and their plasma levels of corticotrophin were reduced. The production of nitric oxide by monocytes, and the levels of cortisol and melatonin were not modified by meditation. This is the first study to show that a short program of pranic meditation practice was able to upregulate the function and metabolism of phagocytes, in parallel with the reduction of the plasma levels of corticotrophin. The results of this study point to a possible causal effect between these events, and indicate that pranic meditation could be useful for stimulating the function and

  17. Whole-blood phagocytic and bactericidal activities of atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasagawa, Sumiko; Yoshimoto, Yasuhiko; Toyota, Emiko; Neriishi, Shotaro; Yamakido, Michio; Matsuo, Miyo; Hosoda, Yutaka; Finch, S.C.

    1989-04-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the phagocytic and bactericidal activities of leukocytes in aliquots of whole blood from Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors for Staphylococcus aureus. The data were analyzed by multiple linear regression. Any significant effects of exposure to A-bomb radiation could not be detected for both phagocytic and bactericidal activities of whole blood from A-bomb survivors. In addition, there were no significant effects of age categories, sex or city, except in neutrophil counts. (J.P.N.)

  18. Phagocytic activities of hemocytes from the deep-sea symbiotic mussels Bathymodiolus japonicus, B. platifrons, and B. septemdierum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tame, Akihiro; Yoshida, Takao; Ohishi, Kazue; Maruyama, Tadashi

    2015-07-01

    Deep-sea mytilid mussels harbor symbiotic bacteria in their gill epithelial cells that are horizontally or environmentally transmitted to the next generation of hosts. To understand the immune defense system in deep-sea symbiotic mussels, we examined the hemocyte populations of the symbiotic Bathymodiolus mussel species Bathymodiolus japonicus, Bathymodiolus platifrons, and Bathymodiolus septemdierum, and characterized three types of hemocytes: agranulocytes (AGs), basophilic granulocytes (BGs), and eosinophilic granulocytes (EGs). Of these, the EG cells were the largest (diameter, 8.4-10.0 μm) and had eosinophilic cytoplasm with numerous eosinophilic granules (diameter, 0.8-1.2 μm). Meanwhile, the BGs were of medium size (diameter, 6.7-8.0 μm) and contained small basophilic granules (diameter, 0.3-0.4 μm) in basophilic cytoplasm, and the AGs, the smallest of the hemocytes (diameter, 4.8-6.0 μm), had basophilic cytoplasm lacking granules. A lectin binding assay revealed that concanavalin A bound to all three hemocyte types, while wheat germ agglutinin bound exclusively to EGs and BGs. The total hemocyte population densities within the hemolymph of all three Bathymodiolus mussel species were similar (8.4-13.3 × 10(5) cells/mL), and the percentages of circulating AGs, BGs, and EGs in the hemolymph of these organisms were 44.7-48.5%, 14.3-17.6%, and 34.3-41.0%, respectively. To analyze the functional differences between these hemocytes, the phagocytic activity and post-phagocytic phagosome-lysosome fusion events were analyzed in each cell type using a fluorescent Alexa Fluor(®) 488-conjugated Escherichia coli bioparticle and a LysoTracker(®) lysosomal marker, respectively. While the AGs exhibited no phagocytic activity, both types of granulocytes were phagocytic. Of the three hemocyte types, the EGs exhibited the highest level of phagocytic activity as well as rapid phagosome-lysosome fusion, which occurred within 2 h of incubation. Meanwhile, the BGs showed

  19. The HIV-1 Nef protein and phagocyte NADPH oxidase activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilhardt, Frederik; Plastre, Olivier; Sawada, Makoto

    2002-01-01

    of Rac by Clostridium difficile toxin B abolished the Nef effect. (ii) The fraction of activated Rac1 was increased in Nef-transduced cells, and (iii) the dominant positive Rac1(V12) mutant mimicked the effect of Nef. These results are to our knowledge the first analysis of the effect of Rac activation...

  20. Cellular immune responses and phagocytic activity of fishes exposed to pollution of volcano mud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risjani, Yenny; Yunianta; Couteau, Jerome; Minier, Christophe

    2014-05-01

    Since May 29, 2006, a mud volcano in the Brantas Delta of the Sidoarjo district has emitted mud that has inundated nearby villages. Pollution in this area has been implicated in detrimental effects on fish health. In fishes, leukocyte and phagocytic cells play a vital role in body defenses. We report for the first time the effect of "LUSI" volcano mud on the immune systems of fish in the Brantas Delta. The aim of this study was to find biomarkers to allow the evaluation of the effects of volcanic mud and anthropogenic pollution on fish health in the Brantas Delta. The study took places at the Brantas Delta, which was polluted by volcano mud, and at reference sites in Karangkates and Pasuruan. Leukocyte numbers were determined using a Neubauer hemocytometer and a light microscope. Differential leukocyte counts were determined using blood smears stained with May Grunwald-Giemsa, providing neutrophil, lymphocyte and monocyte counts. Macrophages were taken from fish kidney, and their phagocytic activity was measured. In vitro analyses revealed that leukocyte and differential leukocyte counts (DLC) were higher in Channa striata and Chanos chanos caught from the polluted area. Macrophage numbers were higher in Oreochromis mossambicus than in the other species, indicating that this species is more sensitive to pollution. In areas close to volcanic mud eruption, all specimens had lower phagocytic activity. Our results show that immune cells were changed and phagocytic activity was reduced in the polluted area indicating cytotoxicity and alteration of the innate immune system in fishes exposed to LUSI volcano mud and anthropogenic pollution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of the Gc-derived macrophage-activating factor precursor (preGcMAF) on phagocytic activation of mouse peritoneal macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uto, Yoshihiro; Yamamoto, Syota; Takeuchi, Ryota; Nakagawa, Yoshinori; Hirota, Keiji; Terada, Hiroshi; Onizuka, Shinya; Nakata, Eiji; Hori, Hitoshi

    2011-07-01

    The 1f1f subtype of the Gc protein (Gc(1f1f) protein) was converted into Gc-derived macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) by enzymatic processing in the presence of β-galactosidase of an activated B-cell and sialidase of a T-cell. We hypothesized that preGc(1f1f)MAF, the only Gc(1f1f) protein lacking galactose, can be converted to GcMAF in vivo because sialic acid is cleaved by residual sialidase. Hence, we investigated the effect of preGc(1f1f)MAF on the phagocytic activation of mouse peritoneal macrophages. We examined the sugar moiety of preGc(1f1f)MAF with a Western blot using peanut agglutinin (PNA) and Helix pomatia agglutinin (HPA) lectin. We also found that preGc(1f1f)MAF significantly enhanced phagocytic activity in mouse peritoneal macrophages but only in the presence of the mouse peritoneal fluid; the level of phagocytic activity was the same as that observed for GcMAF. PreGc(1f1f)MAF can be used as an effective macrophage activator in vivo.

  2. Chemical composition and phagocyte immunomodulatory activity of Ferula iliensis essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özek, Gulmira; Schepetkin, Igor A; Utegenova, Gulzhakhan A; Kirpotina, Liliya N; Andrei, Spencer R; Özek, Temel; Başer, Kemal Hüsnü Can; Abidkulova, Karime T; Kushnarenko, Svetlana V; Khlebnikov, Andrei I; Damron, Derek S; Quinn, Mark T

    2017-06-01

    Essential oil extracts from Ferula iliensis have been used traditionally in Kazakhstan for treatment of inflammation and other illnesses. Because little is known about the biologic activity of these essential oils that contributes to their therapeutic properties, we analyzed their chemical composition and evaluated their phagocyte immunomodulatory activity. The main components of the extracted essential oils were ( E )-propenyl sec -butyl disulfide (15.7-39.4%) and ( Z )-propenyl sec -butyl disulfide (23.4-45.0%). Ferula essential oils stimulated [Ca 2+ ] i mobilization in human neutrophils and activated ROS production in human neutrophils and murine bone marrow phagocytes. Activation of human neutrophil [Ca 2+ ] i flux by Ferula essential oils was dose-dependently inhibited by capsazepine, a TRPV1 channel antagonist, indicating that TRPV1 channels mediate this response. Furthermore, Ferula essential oils stimulated Ca 2+ influx in TRPV1 channel-transfected HEK293 cells and desensitized the capsaicin-induced response in these cells. Additional molecular modeling with known TRPV1 channel agonists suggested that the active component is likely to be ( Z )-propenyl sec -butyl disulfide. Our results provide a cellular and molecular basis to explain at least part of the beneficial therapeutic properties of FEOs. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  3. Intracellular glutathione status regulates mouse bone marrow monocyte-derived macrophage differentiation and phagocytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin-Man; Kim, Hyunsoo; Kwon, Soon Bok; Lee, Soo Young; Chung, Sung-Chang; Jeong, Dae-Won; Min, Byung-Moo

    2004-01-01

    Although a redox shift can regulate the development of cells, including proliferation, differentiation, and survival, the role of the glutathione (GSH) redox status in macrophage differentiation remains unclear. In order to elucidate the role of a redox shift, macrophage-like cells were differentiated from the bone marrow-derived monocytes that were treated with a macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF or CSF-1) for 3 days. The macrophagic cells were characterized by a time-dependent increase in three major symptoms: the number of phagocytic cells, the number of adherent cells, and the mRNA expression of c-fms, a M-CSF receptor that is one of the macrophage-specific markers and mediates development signals. Upon M-CSF-driven macrophage differentiation, the GSH/GSSG ratio was significantly lower on day 1 than that observed on day 0 but was constant on days 1-3. To assess the effect of the GSH-depleted and -repleted status on the differentiation and phagocytosis of the macrophages, GSH depletion by BSO, a specific inhibitor of the de novo GSH synthesis, inhibited the formation of the adherent macrophagic cells by the down-regulation of c-fms, but did not affect the phagocytic activity of the macrophages. To the contrary, GSH repletion by the addition of NAC, which is a GSH precursor, or reduced GSH in media had no effect on macrophage differentiation, and led to a decrease in the phagocytic activity. Furthermore, we observed that there is checkpoint that is capable of releasing from the inhibition of the formation of the adherent macrophagic cells according to GSH depletion by BSO. Summarizing, these results indicate that the intracellular GSH status plays an important role in the differentiation and phagocytosis of macrophages

  4. Quantitation of microbicidal activity of mononuclear phagocytes: an in vitro technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rege N

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available An in vitro assay technique was set up to determine the phagocytic and microbicidal activity of a monocyte-macrophage cell line using Candida species as test organisms. The norms were determined for the activity of peritoneal macrophages of rats (24.69 +/- 2.6% phagocytosis and 35.4 +/- 5.22% ICK and human (27.89 +/- 3.63% phagocytosis and 50.91 +/- 6.3% ICK. The assay technique was used to test the degree of activation of macrophages induced by metronidazole, Tinospora cordifolia and Asparaqus racemousus and to compare their effects with a standard immunomodulator muramyl-dipeptide. All the three test agents increased the phagocytic and killing capacity of macrophages in a dose dependent manner upto a certain dose, beyond which either these activities were found to have plateaued or decreased. The optimal doses for MDP, Metronidazole, Asparagus racemosus and Tinospora cordifolia were found to be 100 micrograms, 300 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg respectively. Patients with cirrhosis were screened for defects in monocyte function. The depressed monocyte function (20.58 +/- 5% phago and 41.24 +/- 12.19% ICK; P < 0.05 was observed indicating a compromised host defense. The utility of this candidicidal assay in experimental and clinical studies is discussed.

  5. The modulatory role of cytokines IL-4 and IL-17 in the functional activity of phagocytes in diabetic pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagundes, Danny L G; França, Eduardo L; Gonzatti, Michelangelo B; Rugde, Marilza V C; Calderon, Iracema M P; Honorio-França, Adenilda C

    2018-01-01

    The study investigated the role of cytokines IL-4 and IL-17 in the modulation of the functional activity of mononuclear phagocytes in diabetic pregnant women with hyperglycemia. Sixty pregnant women were assigned to the following groups: nondiabetic (ND), mild gestational hyperglycemia (MGH), gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), or type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). The functional activity of phagocytes from maternal blood, cord blood, and colostrum was assessed by determining their superoxide release, phagocytosis, microbicidal activity, and intracellular Ca 2+ release. Irrespective of glycemic status, colostrum and blood cells treated with IL-4 and IL-17 increased superoxide release in the presence of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC). The highest phagocytosis rate was observed in cells from the DM2 group treated with IL-4. In all the groups, phagocytes from colostrum, maternal blood, and cord blood exhibited higher microbicidal activity against EPEC when treated with cytokines. IL-17 increased intracellular Ca 2+ release by colostrum phagocytes in diabetic groups. The results indicate that the IL-4 and IL-17 modulate the functional activity of phagocytes in the maternal blood, cord blood, and colostrum of diabetic mother. The natural immunity resulting from the interaction between the cells and cytokines tested may be an alternative procedure to improve the prognosis of maternal and newborn infections. © 2017 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. In vitro studies on the relationship between the anti-inflammatory activity of Physalis peruviana extracts and the phagocytic process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Willington; Ospina, Luis Fernando; Granados, Diana; Delgado, Gabriela

    2010-03-01

    The study of plants used in traditional medicine has drawn the attention of researchers as an alternative in the development of new therapeutics agents, such as the American Solanaceae Physalis peruviana, which has significant anti-inflammatory activity. The Physalis peruviana anti-inflammatory effect of ethanol or ether calyces extracts on the phagocytic process was assessed by using an in vitro phagocytosis model (Leishmania panamensis infection to murine macrophages). The Physalis peruviana extracts do not inhibit microorganism internalization and have no parasiticide effect. Most ET and EP extracts negatively affected the parasite's invasion of macrophages (Infected cells increased.). This observation might result from a down-regulation of the macrophage's microbicide ability associated with a selective reduction of proinflammatory cytokines levels. Physalis peruviana's anti-inflammatory activity described in this model is related to an immunomodulatory effect exerted on macrophages infected, which directly or indirectly "blocks" their ability to secrete soluble proinflammatory mediators.

  7. Early decreased TLR2 expression on monocytes is associated with their reduced phagocytic activity and impaired maturation in a porcine polytrauma model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimunek, Lukas; Serve, Rafael; Teuben, Michel P. J.; Störmann, Philipp; Auner, Birgit; Woschek, Mathias; Pfeifer, Roman; Horst, Klemens; Simon, Tim-P.; Kalbitz, Miriam; Sturm, Ramona; Pape, Hans-C.; Hildebrand, Frank; Marzi, Ingo

    2017-01-01

    In their post-traumatic course, trauma patients suffering from multiple injuries have a high risk for immune dysregulation, which may contribute to post-injury complications and late mortality. Monocytes as specific effector cells of the innate immunity play a crucial role in inflammation. Using their Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs), notably Toll-Like Receptors (TLR), the monocytes recognize pathogens and/or pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and organize their clearance. TLR2 is the major receptor for particles of gram-positive bacteria, and initiates their phagocytosis. Here, we investigated the phagocytizing capability of monocytes in a long-term porcine severe trauma model (polytrauma, PT) with regard to their TLR2 expression. Polytrauma consisted of femur fracture, unilateral lung contusion, liver laceration, hemorrhagic shock with subsequent resuscitation and surgical fracture fixation. After induction of PT, peripheral blood was withdrawn before (-1 h) and directly after trauma (0 h), as well as 3.5 h, 5.5 h, 24 h and 72 h later. CD14+ monocytes were identified and the expression levels of H(S)LA-DR and TLR2 were investigated by flow cytometry. Additionally, the phagocytizing activity of monocytes by applying S. aureus particles labelled with pHrodo fluorescent reagent was also assessed by flow cytometry. Furthermore, blood samples from 10 healthy pigs were exposed to a TLR2-neutralizing antibody and subsequently to S. aureus particles. Using flow cytometry, phagocytizing activity was determined. P below 0.05 was considered significant. The number of CD14+ monocytes of all circulating leukocytes remained constant during the observational time period, while the percentage of CD14+H(S)LA-DR+ monocytes significantly decreased directly, 3.5 h and 5.5 h after trauma. The percentage of TLR2+ expressing cells out of all monocytes significantly decreased directly, 3.5 h and 5.5 h after trauma. The percentage of phagocytizing monocytes decreased

  8. Assessment of inflammatory bowel disease activity by technetium 99m phagocyte scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pullman, W.E.; Sullivan, P.J.; Barratt, P.J.; Lising, J.; Booth, J.A.; Doe, W.F.

    1988-01-01

    Autologous technetium 99m-labeled phagocyte scanning has been used to assess disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease in 51 consecutive patients. Strong correlations were found between the 24-h fecal excretion of isotope and the histologic score of mucosal biopsy specimens (rS = 0.84, p less than 0.001, where rS is Spearman's rank correlation coefficient), and between the 24-h fecal excretion of isotope and a clinical inflammatory bowel disease activity index based on the Crohn's disease activity index (rS = 0.87, p less than 0.001). To develop a clinically useful and objective measure of inflammatory bowel disease activity that did not require a 24-h stool collection, the intensity of bowel uptake on scanning was graded visually from 0 to 4, a ratio of count rates for the region of interest to the iliac crest reference region was calculated, and the rapidity of labeled phagocyte uptake into inflamed bowel was measured as the peak uptake time. Visual grading of disease activity on the scans was validated by comparing it with the ratio of count rates from inflamed bowel regions of interest and those from the iliac crest reference region. The ratio of count rates showed a significant correlation with the clinical disease activity index (r = 0.75, p less than 0.001). The visual scan grade also correlated well with the clinical activity index (r = 0.87, p less than 0.001). Count rates from hourly scans were also used to calculate the time of peak uptake of counts for a given region of interest. There was a strong negative correlation between this peak uptake time and the fecal excretion of isotope (rS = -0.81, p less than 0.001), a clinical activity index (r = -0.60, p less than 0.001), and the histologic score of the mucosal biopsy specimens (r = -0.84, p less than 0.001)

  9. Degalactosylated/Desialylated Bovine Colostrum Induces Macrophage Phagocytic Activity Independently of Inflammatory Cytokine Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uto, Yoshihiro; Kawai, Tomohito; Sasaki, Toshihide; Hamada, Ken; Yamada, Hisatsugu; Kuchiike, Daisuke; Kubo, Kentaro; Inui, Toshio; Mette, Martin; Tokunaga, Ken; Hayakawa, Akio; Go, Akiteru; Oosaki, Tomohiro

    2015-08-01

    Colostrum contains antibodies, such as immunoglobulin G (IgG), immunoglobulin A (IgA) and immunoglobulin M (IgM), and, therefore, has potent immunomodulating activity. In particular, IgA has an O-linked sugar chain similar to that in the group-specific component (Gc) protein, a precursor of the Gc protein-derived macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF). In the present study, we investigated the macrophage-activating effects of degalactosylated/desialylated bovine colostrum. We detected the positive band in degalactosylated/ desialylated bovine colostrum by western blotting using Helix pomatia agglutinin lectin. We also found that degalactosylated/ desialylated bovine colostrum could significantly enhance the phagocytic activity of mouse peritoneal macrophages in vitro and of intestinal macrophages in vivo. Besides, degalactosylated/desialylated bovine colostrum did not mediate the production of inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Similar to the use of GcMAF, degalactosylated/desialylated bovine colostrum can be used as a potential macrophage activator for various immunotherapies. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of influenza infection on the phagocytic and bactericidal activities of pulmonary macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nugent, K.M.; Pesanti, E.L.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of mouse-adapted influenza A/PR/8/34 virus on pulmonary macrophage function was evaluated by using an in vitro system which allowed direct virus interaction with macrophages and then separate analysis of the steps required for bacterial clearance by macrophages. Infection of macrophages with this virus resulted in the appearance of a hemagglutinating activity on the macrophage surface; expression of this activity was inhibited by amantadine, 2-deoxyglucose, and cycloheximide and by pretreatment of the virus inoculum with with ultraviolet light and specific antiserum. After influenza infection, net ingestion of viable Staphylococcus aureus by macrophage monolayers was unaltered and there was no change in the fraction of the monolayer which ingested cocci over a wide range of bacterial inputs. Influenza-infected microphages also inactivated intracellular S. aureus at a rate indistinguishable from controls. Therefore, these in vitro studies do not support the hypothesis that the defect in pulmonary antibacterial mechanisms associated with influenza infections results from a direct effect of virus infection on either the phagocytic or bactericidal activity of resistant pulmonary macarophages

  11. Degalactosylated/desialylated human serum containing GcMAF induces macrophage phagocytic activity and in vivo antitumor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchiike, Daisuke; Uto, Yoshihiro; Mukai, Hirotaka; Ishiyama, Noriko; Abe, Chiaki; Tanaka, Daichi; Kawai, Tomohito; Kubo, Kentaro; Mette, Martin; Inui, Toshio; Endo, Yoshio; Hori, Hitoshi

    2013-07-01

    The group-specific component protein-derived macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) has various biological activities, such as macrophage activation and antitumor activity. Clinical trials of GcMAF have been carried out for metastatic breast cancer, prostate cancer, and metastatic colorectal cancer. In this study, despite the complicated purification process of GcMAF, we used enzymatically-treated human serum containing GcMAF with a considerable macrophage-stimulating activity and antitumor activity. We detected GcMAF in degalactosylated/desialylated human serum by western blotting using an anti-human Gc globulin antibody, and Helix pomatia agglutinin lectin. We also found that GcMAF-containing human serum significantly enhanced the phagocytic activity of mouse peritoneal macrophages and extended the survival time of mice bearing Ehrlich ascites tumors. We demonstrated that GcMAF-containing human serum can be used as a potential macrophage activator for cancer immunotherapy.

  12. Melatonin signaling affects the timing in the daily rhythm of phagocytic activity by the retinal pigment epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Virgine; Sengupta, Anamika; Sánchez-Bretaño, Aída; Hicks, David; Tosini, Gianluca

    2017-12-01

    Earlier studies in Xenopus have indicated a role for melatonin in the regulation of retinal disk shedding, but the role of melatonin in the regulation of daily rhythm in mammalian disk shedding and phagocytosis is still unclear. We recently produced a series of transgenic mice lacking melatonin receptor type 1 (MT 1 ) or type 2 (MT 2 ) in a melatonin-proficient background and have shown that removal of MT 1 and MT 2 receptors induces significant effects on daily and circadian regulation of the electroretinogram as well as on the viability of photoreceptor cells during aging. In this study we investigated the daily rhythm of phagocytic activity by the retinal pigment epithelium in MT 1 and MT 2 knock-out mice. Our data indicate that in MT 1 and MT 2 knock-out mice the peak of phagocytosis is advanced by 3 h with respect to wild-type mice and occurred in dark rather than after the onset of light, albeit the mean phagocytic activity over the 24-h period did not change among the three genotypes. Nevertheless, this small change in the profile of daily phagocytic rhythms may produce a significant effect on retinal health since MT 1 and MT 2 knock-out mice showed a significant increase in lipofuscin accumulation in the retinal pigment epithelium. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Ion channel signaling influences cellular proliferation and phagocyte activity during axolotl tail regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Brandon M; Voss, S Randal; Osborn, Jeffrey L

    2017-08-01

    Little is known about the potential for ion channels to regulate cellular behaviors during tissue regeneration. Here, we utilized an amphibian tail regeneration assay coupled with a chemical genetic screen to identify ion channel antagonists that altered critical cellular processes during regeneration. Inhibition of multiple ion channels either partially (anoctamin1/Tmem16a, anoctamin2/Tmem16b, K V 2.1, K V 2.2, L-type Ca V channels and H/K ATPases) or completely (GlyR, GABA A R, K V 1.5 and SERCA pumps) inhibited tail regeneration. Partial inhibition of tail regeneration by blocking the calcium activated chloride channels, anoctamin1&2, was associated with a reduction of cellular proliferation in tail muscle and mesenchymal regions. Inhibition of anoctamin 1/2 also altered the post-amputation transcriptional response of p44/42 MAPK signaling pathway genes, including decreased expression of erk1/erk2. We also found that complete inhibition via voltage gated K + channel blockade was associated with diminished phagocyte recruitment to the amputation site. The identification of H + pumps as required for axolotl tail regeneration supports findings in Xenopus and Planaria models, and more generally, the conservation of ion channels as regulators of tissue regeneration. This study provides a preliminary framework for an in-depth investigation of the mechanistic role of ion channels and their potential involvement in regulating cellular proliferation and other processes essential to wound healing, appendage regeneration, and tissue repair. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The immunomodulatory effect of Zingiber cassumunar ethanolic extract on phagocytic activity, nitrit oxide and reaxtive oxygen intermediate secretions of macrophage in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurkhasanah; Santoso, R. D.; Fauziah, R.

    2017-11-01

    Immunomodulators could protect the body from a variety of infectious agents and boost immunity. Zingiber cassumunar rhizome or bangle potentially showed as an immunomodulator through increasing of macrophage activity in vitro. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of Z. cassumunar rhizome ethanolic extract on phagocytic activity, nitrite oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen intermediate (ROI) secretions in macrophages in vivo. A total of 200 g of Z. cassumunar rhizome was powdered, macerated in 96% ethanol and evaporated to get concentrated extract. Mice were divided into 5 groups as follow: the normal group was given by water only, the negative control group was given by a 0.94% CMC-Na suspension, the treatment groups were given by 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kgBW, respectively, of Z. cassumunar ethanolic extract. The extract was administered orally for 7 days. On the 8th day the mice were injected intraperitoneally 0.7 mg/kg BW of lipopolysaccharide. Four hours later macrophage was isolated. Furthermore, the determination of the phagocytic activity, NO and ROI secretions levels of macrophage were performed. The treatments of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg BW of Z. cassumunar ethanolic extract significantly increase the ROI and NO secretions levels (p0.05) of macrophage. Z. cassumunar ethanolic extract have immunomodulatory effect in vivo.

  15. Leishmania mexicana amazonensis: heterogeneity in 5-nucleotidase and peroxidase activities of mononuclear phagocytes during in vivo and in vitro infection Leishmania mexicana amazonensis: heterogeneidade da 5’-Nucleotidase e da peroxidase em fagócitos mononucleares durante infecção in vivo e in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Suzana Côrte-Real; Gabriel Grimaldi Junior; Maria de Nazareth Leal de Meirelles

    1988-01-01

    The degree of maturation of cells of the Mononuclear Phagocyte System (MPS), during in vivo and in vitro infection by Leishmania mexicana amazonenesis, was evaluated in this study. The macrophages' differentiation was assayed by cytochemical characterization at the ultrastrctural level, using two well-established markers: 5'-nucleotidase enzyme activity, for revealing the mature cells, and the peroxidase activity present in the cell granules to demonstrate immature mononuclear phagocytes. onl...

  16. One-year follow-up of the phagocytic activity of leukocytes after exposure of rats to asbestos and basalt fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurbánková, M

    1994-01-01

    The phagocytic activity of leukocytes in peripheral blood was investigated after 2, 24, and 48 hr; 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks; and 6 and 12 months following intraperitoneal administration of asbestos and basalt fibers to Wistar rats. Asbestos and basalt fibers differed in their effects on the parameters studied. Both granulocyte count and phagocytic activity of leukocytes during the 1-year dynamic follow-up in both dust-exposed groups of animals changed in two phases, characterized by the initial stimulation of the acute phase I, followed by the suppression of the parameters in the chronic phase II. Exposure to asbestos and basalt fibers led, in phase II, to impairment of the phagocytic activity of granulocytes. Asbestos fibers also significantly decreased phagocytic activity of monocytes. Exposure to basalt fibers did not affect the phagocytic activity of monocytes in phase II. Results suggest that the monocytic component of leukocytes plays an important role in the development of diseases caused by exposure to fibrous dusts, but basalt fibers have lesser biological effects than asbestos fibers. PMID:7882931

  17. Cellular defense of the avian respiratory system: effects of Pasteurella multocida on respiratory burst activity of avian respiratory tract phagocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochs, D L; Toth, T E; Pyle, R H; Siegel, P B

    1988-12-01

    The respiratory tract of healthy chickens contain few free-residing phagocytic cells. Intratracheal inoculation with Pasteurella multocida stimulated a significant (P less than 0.05) migration of cells to the lungs and air sacs of White Rock chickens within 2 hours after inoculation. We found the maximal number of avian respiratory tract phagocytes (22.9 +/- 14.0 x 10(6] at 8 hours after inoculation. Flow cytometric analysis of these cells revealed 2 populations on the basis of cell-size and cellular granularity. One of these was similar in size and granularity to those of blood heterophils. Only this population was capable of generating oxidative metabolites in response to phorbol myristate acetate. The ability of the heterophils to produce hydrogen peroxide, measured as the oxidation of intracellularly loaded 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein, decreased with time after inoculation. These results suggest that the migration of heterophils, which are capable of high levels of oxidative metabolism, to the lungs and air sacs may be an important defense mechanism of poultry against bacterial infections of the respiratory tract.

  18. Inhibitory Effects of Standardized Extracts of Phyllanthus amarus and Phyllanthus urinaria and Their Marker Compounds on Phagocytic Activity of Human Neutrophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuandani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The standardized methanol extracts of Phyllanthus amarus and P. urinaria, collected from Malaysia and Indonesia, and their isolated chemical markers, phyllanthin and hypophyllanthin, were evaluated for their effects on the chemotaxis, phagocytosis and chemiluminescence of human phagocytes. All the plant extracts strongly inhibited the migration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs with the Malaysian P. amarus showing the strongest inhibitory activity (IC50 value, 1.1 µg/mL. There was moderate inhibition by the extracts of the bacteria engulfment by the phagocytes with the Malaysian P. amarus exhibiting the highest inhibition (50.8% of phagocytizing cells. The Malaysian P. amarus and P. urinaria showed strong reactive oxygen species (ROS inhibitory activity, with both extracts exhibiting IC50 value of 0.7 µg/mL. Phyllanthin and hypophyllanthin exhibited relatively strong activity against PMNs chemotaxis, with IC50 values slightly lower than that of ibuprofen (1.4 µg/mL. Phyllanthin exhibited strong inhibitory activity on the oxidative burst with an IC50 value comparable to that of aspirin (1.9 µg/mL. Phyllanthin exhibited strong engulfment inhibitory activity with percentage of phagocytizing cells of 14.2 and 27.1% for neutrophils and monocytes, respectively. The strong inhibitory activity of the extracts was due to the presence of high amounts of phyllanthin and hypophyllanthin although other constituents may also contribute.

  19. Heterophil Phagocytic Activity Stimulated by L61 and L55 Supplementation in Broilers with Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pairat Sornplang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Newborn chicks are susceptible to Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Lactobacillus probiotic isolated from chicken feces on heterophil phagocytosis in broiler chicks. A total of 150 newborn broiler chicks were divided into 5 groups (30 chicks per group as follows: group 1 (normal control, given feed and water only, group 2 (positive control given feed, water and SE infection, group 3 (L61 treated given feed, water, SE infection followed by Lactobacillus salivarius L61 treatment, group 4 (L55 treated given feed, water, SE infection followed by L. salivarius L55 treatment, and group 5 given feed, water, SE infection followed by L. salivarius L61 + L55 combination treatment. After SE infection, L. salivarius treatment lasted for 7 days. The results showed that L. salivarius L61 and L. salivarius L55 treatment, either alone or combination of both, increased the survival rate after SE infection, and upregulated heterophil phagocytosis and phagocytic index (PI. Conversely, chick groups treated with Lactobacillus showed lower SE recovery rate from cecal tonsils than that of the positive control group. The PI values of the chicken group with SE infection, followed by the combination of L. salivarius L61 and L. salivarius L55 were the highest as compared to either positive control or normal control group. Two Lactobacillus strains supplementation group showed significantly (p<0.05 higher PI value at 48 h than 24 h after treatment.

  20. Lipofuscin-mediated photic stress inhibits phagocytic activity of ARPE-19 cells; effect of donors' age and antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olchawa, Magdalena M; Furso, Justyna A; Szewczyk, Grzegorz M; Sarna, Tadeusz J

    2017-10-01

    The risk of chronic oxidative stress in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) increases with age due to accumulation of the photoreactive age pigment lipofuscin (LFG). Here, we asked whether sublethal and weakly lethal photic stress, induced by irradiation of ARPE-19 cells containing phagocytised LFG, affected the cell specific phagocytic activity, which is critically important for proper functioning and survival of the retina, and if natural antioxidants could modify the observed outcomes. ARPE-19 cells preloaded with LFG isolated from human donors of different age or containing LFG enriched with zeaxanthin and α-tocopherol (LFG-A), were irradiated with blue light. Phagocytosis of fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate (FITC)-labelled photoreceptor outer segments was determined by flow cytometry. Photoreactivity of LFG and LFG-A was analysed by measuring photoconsumption of oxygen and photogeneration of singlet oxygen mediated by the granules. LFG-mediated photic stress in ARPE-19 cells induced significant inhibition of their specific phagocytosis. The inhibitory effect increased with age of LFG donors and was reduced by enrichment of the granules with antioxidants. Oxygen consumption and generation of singlet oxygen induced by the photoexcited LFG increased with donor's age and was partially quenched by antioxidants. Although the phototoxic potential of lipofuscin increased with age, natural antioxidants reduced photoreactivity of LFG and their efficiency to induce oxidative stress. This study has demonstrated, for the first time, that mild oxidative stress, mediated by the age pigment lipofuscin, impairs specific phagocytic activity of RPE, and that natural antioxidants can protect this important cellular function by reducing lipofuscin photoreactivity.

  1. A primary study on the phagocytic activity of Kupffer cells with superparamagnetic iron oxide particles enhanced MR imaging in a rat nonalcoholic steatohepatitis model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao Zhiyun; Li Cheng; Ma Zhanlong; Chen Wenjuan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the feasibility of using superparamgnetic iron oxide (SPIO) as MRI contrast agent to assess rat nonalcoholic steatohepatitis Kupffer cells (KC) function. Methods: Twenty male SD rats were randomly divided into A and B groups, group A (n=10) was the experimental group fed high fat diet, group B (n=10) was the control group fed normal diet. After 8 weeks, plain MR and SPIO enhanced MR were performed in all the rats. Blood lipids were measured, and HE and Perl's blue staining in all livers specimen was done. The related results of the staining were analyzed with t test. Results: Group A TC and TG levels [(6.58 ± 1.25) and (1.53 ± 0.23) mmol/L respectively] were significantly higher than group B[(1.64 ± 0.22) and (0.55 ± 0.14) mmol/L respectively] (t=11.716 and 11.588, P 1 WI, ad statistically significant differences (t=-18.451 and -16.240, P 2 WI, T 2 WI and T 1 WI (t=10.745, 19.800, 39.168 and 92.785, P<0.01). Typical histological hepatic lesions of NASH were observed in group A, Perl's staining-positive particles in group A (2.33 ± 0.50) were fewer than in group B (4) (t=-10.000, P<0.01). Conclusion: The high-fat diet induced model of SD rats was close to the human NASH and was easy to establish. Clinical application of SPIO enhanced MR successfullly assessed the phagocytic activity of KC in the study, and it suggested that the pathogenesis of NASH was related to the decreased phagocytic activity of KC. (authors)

  2. The effect of core and lanthanide ion dopants in sodium fluoride-based nanocrystals on phagocytic activity of human blood leukocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sojka, Bartlomiej; Liskova, Aurelia; Kuricova, Miroslava; Banski, Mateusz; Misiewicz, Jan; Dusinska, Maria; Horvathova, Mira; Ilavska, Silvia; Szabova, Michaela; Rollerova, Eva; Podhorodecki, Artur; Tulinska, Jana

    2017-01-01

    Sodium fluoride-based β-NaLnF4 nanoparticles (NPs) doped with lanthanide ions are promising materials for application as luminescent markers in bio-imaging. In this work, the effect of NPs doped with yttrium (Y), gadolinium (Gd), europium (Eu), thulium (Tm), ytterbium (Yb) and terbium (Tb) ions on phagocytic activity of monocytes and granulocytes and the respiratory burst was examined. The surface functionalization of <10-nm NPs was performed according to our variation of patent pending ligand exchange method that resulted in meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) molecules on their surface. Y-core-based NCs were doped with Eu ions, which enabled them to be excited with UV light wavelengths. Cultures of human peripheral blood (n = 8) were in vitro treated with five different concentrations of eight NPs for 24 h. In summary, neither type of nanoparticles is found toxic with respect to conducted test; however, some cause toxic effects (they have statistically significant deviations compared to reference) in some selected doses tested. Both core types of NPs (Y-core and Gd-core) impaired the phagocytic activity of monocytes the strongest, having minimal or none whatsoever influence on granulocytes and respiratory burst of phagocytic cells. The lowest toxicity was observed in Gd-core, Yb, Tm dopants and near-infrared nanoparticles. Clear dose-dependent effect of NPs on phagocytic activity of leukocytes and respiratory burst of cells was observed for limited number of samples.

  3. The effect of core and lanthanide ion dopants in sodium fluoride-based nanocrystals on phagocytic activity of human blood leukocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojka, Bartlomiej; Liskova, Aurelia; Kuricova, Miroslava; Banski, Mateusz; Misiewicz, Jan; Dusinska, Maria; Horvathova, Mira; Ilavska, Silvia; Szabova, Michaela; Rollerova, Eva; Podhorodecki, Artur; Tulinska, Jana

    2017-02-01

    Sodium fluoride-based β-NaLnF4 nanoparticles (NPs) doped with lanthanide ions are promising materials for application as luminescent markers in bio-imaging. In this work, the effect of NPs doped with yttrium (Y), gadolinium (Gd), europium (Eu), thulium (Tm), ytterbium (Yb) and terbium (Tb) ions on phagocytic activity of monocytes and granulocytes and the respiratory burst was examined. The surface functionalization of toxic with respect to conducted test; however, some cause toxic effects (they have statistically significant deviations compared to reference) in some selected doses tested. Both core types of NPs (Y-core and Gd-core) impaired the phagocytic activity of monocytes the strongest, having minimal or none whatsoever influence on granulocytes and respiratory burst of phagocytic cells. The lowest toxicity was observed in Gd-core, Yb, Tm dopants and near-infrared nanoparticles. Clear dose-dependent effect of NPs on phagocytic activity of leukocytes and respiratory burst of cells was observed for limited number of samples.

  4. Molecular cloning of rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) tumor necrosis factor-alpha and its effect on the respiratory burst activity of phagocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Sun; Hwang, Yoon Jung; Yoon, Ki Joon; Zenke, Kosuke; Nam, Yoon Kwon; Kim, Sung Koo; Kim, Ki Hong

    2009-11-01

    Rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) tumor necrosis factor-alpha (rbTNF-alpha) gene was cloned, recombinantly produced, and the effect of the recombinant rbTNF-alpha on the respiratory burst activity of rock bream phagocytes was analyzed. Structurally, genomic DNA of rbTNF-alpha was comprised with four exons and three introns, and deduced amino acid sequence of its cDNA possessed the TNF family signature, a transmembrane domain, a protease cleavage site, and two cysteine residues, which are the typical characteristics of TNF-alpha gene in mammals and fish. The chemiluminescent (CL) response of rock bream phagocytes was significantly enhanced by pre-incubation with recombinant rbTNF-alpha, when opsonized zymosan was used as a stimulant of the respiratory burst. However, CL enhancing effect of the recombinant rbTNF-alpha was very weak when the respiratory burst activity of phagocytes was triggered with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) instead of zymosan. These results suggest that rock bream TNF-alpha might have an ability to prime the respiratory burst activity of phagocytes against receptor-mediated phagocytosis inducing stimulants, such as zymosan, but have little ability against stimulants not accompanying receptor-mediated phagocytosis.

  5. The effect of core and lanthanide ion dopants in sodium fluoride-based nanocrystals on phagocytic activity of human blood leukocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sojka, Bartlomiej [Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Department of Experimental Physics (Poland); Liskova, Aurelia; Kuricova, Miroslava [Slovak Medical University, Medical Faculty, Department of Immunology and Immunotoxicology (Slovakia); Banski, Mateusz; Misiewicz, Jan [Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Department of Experimental Physics (Poland); Dusinska, Maria [Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Health Effects Laboratory, Department of Environmental Chemistry (Norway); Horvathova, Mira; Ilavska, Silvia; Szabova, Michaela [Slovak Medical University, Medical Faculty, Department of Immunology and Immunotoxicology (Slovakia); Rollerova, Eva [Slovak Medical University, Faculty of Public Health, Department of Toxicology (Slovakia); Podhorodecki, Artur, E-mail: artur.p.podhorodecki@pwr.edu.pl [Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Department of Experimental Physics (Poland); Tulinska, Jana, E-mail: jana.tulinska@szu.sk [Slovak Medical University, Medical Faculty, Department of Immunology and Immunotoxicology (Slovakia)

    2017-02-15

    Sodium fluoride-based β-NaLnF4 nanoparticles (NPs) doped with lanthanide ions are promising materials for application as luminescent markers in bio-imaging. In this work, the effect of NPs doped with yttrium (Y), gadolinium (Gd), europium (Eu), thulium (Tm), ytterbium (Yb) and terbium (Tb) ions on phagocytic activity of monocytes and granulocytes and the respiratory burst was examined. The surface functionalization of <10-nm NPs was performed according to our variation of patent pending ligand exchange method that resulted in meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) molecules on their surface. Y-core-based NCs were doped with Eu ions, which enabled them to be excited with UV light wavelengths. Cultures of human peripheral blood (n = 8) were in vitro treated with five different concentrations of eight NPs for 24 h. In summary, neither type of nanoparticles is found toxic with respect to conducted test; however, some cause toxic effects (they have statistically significant deviations compared to reference) in some selected doses tested. Both core types of NPs (Y-core and Gd-core) impaired the phagocytic activity of monocytes the strongest, having minimal or none whatsoever influence on granulocytes and respiratory burst of phagocytic cells. The lowest toxicity was observed in Gd-core, Yb, Tm dopants and near-infrared nanoparticles. Clear dose-dependent effect of NPs on phagocytic activity of leukocytes and respiratory burst of cells was observed for limited number of samples.

  6. Effect of intravenous plasma transfusion on granulocyte and monocyte oxidative and phagocytic activity in dairy calves with failure of passive immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Victoria C; Rayburn, Maire C; Chigerwe, Munashe

    2017-12-01

    Plasma administration has been recommended in calves older than 48h with failure of passive immunity (FPI) to provide immunity consistent with adequate colostral ingestion. However, the protective serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentrations (≥1000mg/dL) of plasma derived IgG only lasts up to 12h. In addition to IgG, maternally derived colostral cells also confer immunity. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of intravenous plasma transfusion on granulocyte and monocyte oxidative and phagocytic activity in calves with FPI. Twenty-seven, one day-old, Jersey calves were assigned into 3 groups. The colostral (CL, N=9) group received 3L of colostrum once by oroesophageal tubing. Two other groups of calves received 1L of colostrum once by oroesophageal tubing and were assigned based on their health status (sick or non-sick) at 4days of age, as the sick-group (SG, N=7) or the non-sick (NG, N=11) groups. At 4days of age, the SG and NG groups were administered plasma intravenously at 30mL/kg. Granulocyte and monocyte oxidative and phagocytic activity was determined by flow cytometry. There was no significant difference in the granulocyte and monocyte oxidative or phagocytic activity among the 3 groups (P>0.05). Plasma administration had no significant effect on the oxidative or phagocytic activity of granulocytes or monocytes. In clinical practice, plasma administration for enhancing oxidative or phagocytic activity of granulocytes or monocytes, alone, might not be justified in calves with FPI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Microglia in Glia-Neuron Co-cultures Exhibit Robust Phagocytic Activity Without Concomitant Inflammation or Cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Alexandra C; Kyle, Michele; Beaman-Hall, Carol M; Monaco, Edward A; Cullen, Matthew; Vallano, Mary Lou

    2015-10-01

    A simple method to co-culture granule neurons and glia from a single brain region is described, and microglia activation profiles are assessed in response to naturally occurring neuronal apoptosis, excitotoxin-induced neuronal death, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) addition. Using neonatal rat cerebellar cortex as a tissue source, glial proliferation is regulated by omission or addition of the mitotic inhibitor cytosine arabinoside (AraC). After 7-8 days in vitro, microglia in AraC(-) cultures are abundant and activated based on their amoeboid morphology, expressions of ED1 and Iba1, and ability to phagocytose polystyrene beads and the majority of neurons undergoing spontaneous apoptosis. Microglia and phagocytic activities are sparse in AraC(+) cultures. Following exposure to excitotoxic kainate concentrations, microglia in AraC(-) cultures phagocytose most dead neurons within 24 h without exacerbating neuronal loss or mounting a strong or sustained inflammatory response. LPS addition induces a robust inflammatory response, based on microglial expressions of TNF-α, COX-2 and iNOS proteins, and mRNAs, whereas these markers are essentially undetectable in control cultures. Thus, the functional effector state of microglia is primed for phagocytosis but not inflammation or cytotoxicity even after kainate exposure that triggers death in the majority of neurons. This model should prove useful in studying the progressive activation states of microglia and factors that promote their conversion to inflammatory and cytotoxic phenotypes.

  8. Dental Calculus Stimulates Interleukin-1β Secretion by Activating NLRP3 Inflammasome in Human and Mouse Phagocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luis Montenegro Raudales

    Full Text Available Dental calculus is a mineralized deposit associated with periodontitis. The bacterial components contained in dental calculus can be recognized by host immune sensors, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs, and induce transcription of proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1β. Studies have shown that cellular uptake of crystalline particles may trigger NLRP3 inflammasome activation, leading to the cleavage of the IL-1β precursor to its mature form. Phagocytosis of dental calculus in the periodontal pocket may therefore lead to the secretion of IL-1β, promoting inflammatory responses in periodontal tissues. However, the capacity of dental calculus to induce IL-1β secretion in human phagocytes has not been explored. To study this, we stimulated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs with dental calculus collected from periodontitis patients, and measured IL-1β secretion by ELISA. We found that calculus induced IL-1β secretion in both human PMNs and PBMCs. Calculus also induced IL-1β in macrophages from wild-type mice, but not in macrophages from NLRP3- and ASC-deficient mice, indicating the involvement of NLRP3 and ASC. IL-1β induction was inhibited by polymyxin B, suggesting that LPS is one of the components of calculus that induces pro-IL-1β transcription. To analyze the effect of the inorganic structure, we baked calculus at 250°C for 1 h. This baked calculus failed to induce pro-IL-1β transcription. However, it did induce IL-1β secretion in lipid A-primed cells, indicating that the crystalline structure of calculus induces inflammasome activation. Furthermore, hydroxyapatite crystals, a component of dental calculus, induced IL-1β in mouse macrophages, and baked calculus induced IL-1β in lipid A-primed human PMNs and PBMCs. These results indicate that dental calculus stimulates IL-1β secretion via NLRP3 inflammasome in human and mouse phagocytes, and that the crystalline structure has a

  9. Dental Calculus Stimulates Interleukin-1β Secretion by Activating NLRP3 Inflammasome in Human and Mouse Phagocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro Raudales, Jorge Luis; Yoshimura, Atsutoshi; Sm, Ziauddin; Kaneko, Takashi; Ozaki, Yukio; Ukai, Takashi; Miyazaki, Toshihiro; Latz, Eicke; Hara, Yoshitaka

    2016-01-01

    Dental calculus is a mineralized deposit associated with periodontitis. The bacterial components contained in dental calculus can be recognized by host immune sensors, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs), and induce transcription of proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1β. Studies have shown that cellular uptake of crystalline particles may trigger NLRP3 inflammasome activation, leading to the cleavage of the IL-1β precursor to its mature form. Phagocytosis of dental calculus in the periodontal pocket may therefore lead to the secretion of IL-1β, promoting inflammatory responses in periodontal tissues. However, the capacity of dental calculus to induce IL-1β secretion in human phagocytes has not been explored. To study this, we stimulated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with dental calculus collected from periodontitis patients, and measured IL-1β secretion by ELISA. We found that calculus induced IL-1β secretion in both human PMNs and PBMCs. Calculus also induced IL-1β in macrophages from wild-type mice, but not in macrophages from NLRP3- and ASC-deficient mice, indicating the involvement of NLRP3 and ASC. IL-1β induction was inhibited by polymyxin B, suggesting that LPS is one of the components of calculus that induces pro-IL-1β transcription. To analyze the effect of the inorganic structure, we baked calculus at 250°C for 1 h. This baked calculus failed to induce pro-IL-1β transcription. However, it did induce IL-1β secretion in lipid A-primed cells, indicating that the crystalline structure of calculus induces inflammasome activation. Furthermore, hydroxyapatite crystals, a component of dental calculus, induced IL-1β in mouse macrophages, and baked calculus induced IL-1β in lipid A-primed human PMNs and PBMCs. These results indicate that dental calculus stimulates IL-1β secretion via NLRP3 inflammasome in human and mouse phagocytes, and that the crystalline structure has a partial role in

  10. Dental Calculus Stimulates Interleukin-1β Secretion by Activating NLRP3 Inflammasome in Human and Mouse Phagocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro Raudales, Jorge Luis; Yoshimura, Atsutoshi; SM, Ziauddin; Kaneko, Takashi; Ozaki, Yukio; Ukai, Takashi; Miyazaki, Toshihiro; Latz, Eicke; Hara, Yoshitaka

    2016-01-01

    Dental calculus is a mineralized deposit associated with periodontitis. The bacterial components contained in dental calculus can be recognized by host immune sensors, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs), and induce transcription of proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1β. Studies have shown that cellular uptake of crystalline particles may trigger NLRP3 inflammasome activation, leading to the cleavage of the IL-1β precursor to its mature form. Phagocytosis of dental calculus in the periodontal pocket may therefore lead to the secretion of IL-1β, promoting inflammatory responses in periodontal tissues. However, the capacity of dental calculus to induce IL-1β secretion in human phagocytes has not been explored. To study this, we stimulated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with dental calculus collected from periodontitis patients, and measured IL-1β secretion by ELISA. We found that calculus induced IL-1β secretion in both human PMNs and PBMCs. Calculus also induced IL-1β in macrophages from wild-type mice, but not in macrophages from NLRP3- and ASC-deficient mice, indicating the involvement of NLRP3 and ASC. IL-1β induction was inhibited by polymyxin B, suggesting that LPS is one of the components of calculus that induces pro-IL-1β transcription. To analyze the effect of the inorganic structure, we baked calculus at 250°C for 1 h. This baked calculus failed to induce pro-IL-1β transcription. However, it did induce IL-1β secretion in lipid A-primed cells, indicating that the crystalline structure of calculus induces inflammasome activation. Furthermore, hydroxyapatite crystals, a component of dental calculus, induced IL-1β in mouse macrophages, and baked calculus induced IL-1β in lipid A-primed human PMNs and PBMCs. These results indicate that dental calculus stimulates IL-1β secretion via NLRP3 inflammasome in human and mouse phagocytes, and that the crystalline structure has a partial role in

  11. Inhibitory effect of red ginseng acidic polysaccharide from Korean red ginseng on phagocytic activity and intracellular replication of Brucella abortus in RAW 264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Alisha Wehdnesday Bernardo; Simborio, Hannah Leah Tadeja; Hop, Huynh Tan; Arayan, Lauren Togonon; Min, Won Gi; Lee, Hu Jang; Rhee, Man Hee; Chang, Hong Hee; Kim, Suk

    2016-09-30

    Korean red ginseng (KRG) has long been used in traditional Korean and Oriental medicine. However, the anti-bacterial mechanism and therapeutic efficiency of KGR for intracellular Brucella infection are still unclear. In this study, the bactericidal activity of Korean red ginseng acidic polysaccharide (RGAP) on Brucella (B.) abortus and its cytotoxic effects on RAW 264.7 cells were evaluated. In addition, B. abortus internalization and intracellular replication in macrophages were investigated after RGAP treatment. RGAP-incubated cells displayed a marked reduction in the adherence, internalization and intracellular growth of B. abortus in macrophages. Furthermore, decreased F-actin fluorescence was observed relative to untreated B. abortus-infected cells. Western blot analysis of intracellular signaling proteins revealed reduced ERK, JNK and p38α phosphorylation levels in B. abortus-infected RGAP-treated cells compared to the control. Moreover, elevated co-localization of B. abortus-containing phagosomes with lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP-1) were observed in RGAP-treated cells compared with the control. Overall, the results of this study suggest that RGAP can disrupt phagocytic activity of B. abortus via suppression of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) signaling proteins ERK, JNK and p38 levels and inhibit intracellular replication of B. abortus by enhancing phagolysosome fusion, which may provide an alternative control of brucellosis.

  12. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles stimulate sea urchin immune cell phagocytic activity involving TLR/p38 MAPK-mediated signalling pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsino, Annalisa; Russo, Roberta; Bonaventura, Rosa; Brunelli, Andrea; Marcomini, Antonio; Matranga, Valeria

    2015-01-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2NPs) are one of the most widespread-engineered particles in use for drug delivery, cosmetics, and electronics. However, TiO2NP safety is still an open issue, even for ethical reasons. In this work, we investigated the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus immune cell model as a proxy to humans, to elucidate a potential pathway that can be involved in the persistent TiO2NP-immune cell interaction in vivo. Morphology, phagocytic ability, changes in activation/inactivation of a few mitogen-activated protein kinases (p38 MAPK, ERK), variations of other key proteins triggering immune response (Toll-like receptor 4-like, Heat shock protein 70, Interleukin-6) and modifications in the expression of related immune response genes were investigated. Our findings indicate that TiO2NPs influence the signal transduction downstream targets of p38 MAPK without eliciting an inflammatory response or other harmful effects on biological functions. We strongly recommend sea urchin immune cells as a new powerful model for nano-safety/nano-toxicity investigations without the ethical normative issue. PMID:26412401

  13. Influence of platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFR) on Brucella abortus infection: implications for manipulating the phagocytic strategy of B. abortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Ju; Simborio, Hannah Leah; Reyes, Alisha Wehdnesday Bernardo; Hop, Huynh Tan; Arayan, Lauren Togonon; Lee, Hu Jang; Min, Wongi; Her, Moon; Rhee, Man Hee; Watarai, Masahisa; Chang, Hong Hee; Kim, Suk

    2016-04-21

    Brucella abortus is an intracellular pathogen which can infect and persist in host cells through multiple interactions. Above all, its interaction to host cell receptor is important to understand the pathogenic mechanisms of B. abortus. Accordingly, we demonstrated that platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFR) affects host cell response against B. abortus infection. First of all, B. abortus infection to macrophage induces secretion of platelet-activating factor (PAF), which is a PAFR agonist. The stimulation of PAFR by PAF remarkably increases B. abortus uptake into macrophages. It induces Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) and p38α phosphorylation, indicating that PAFR-mediated activation of JAK2 signaling leads to enhanced uptake of B. abortus. Moreover, the dynamics of F-actin polymerization revealed that PAFR-mediated B. abortus uptake is related with the reorganization of F-actin and JAK2. Upon B. abortus phagocytosis, reduced PAFR in the membrane and subsequently increased levels of PAFR colocalization with endosomes were observed which indicate that B. abortus uptake into macrophages allowed PAFR trafficking to endosomes. This study demonstrated that PAFR has a compelling involvement in B. abortus uptake as a promoter of phagocytosis, which is associated with JAK2 activation. Thus, our findings establish a novel insight into a receptor-related phagocytic mechanism of B. abortus.

  14. Complement Receptor 3-Mediated Inhibition of Inflammasome Priming by Ras GTPase-Activating Protein During Francisella tularensis Phagocytosis by Human Mononuclear Phagocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ky V. Hoang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis is a remarkably infectious facultative intracellular bacterium of macrophages that causes tularemia. Early evasion of host immune responses contributes to the success of F. tularensis as a pathogen. F. tularensis entry into human monocytes and macrophages is mediated by the major phagocytic receptor, complement receptor 3 (CR3, CD11b/CD18. We recently determined that despite a significant increase in macrophage uptake following C3 opsonization of the virulent Type A F. tularensis spp. tularensis Schu S4, this phagocytic pathway results in limited pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Notably, MAP kinase/ERK activation is suppressed immediately during C3-opsonized Schu S4-CR3 phagocytosis. A mathematical model of CR3-TLR2 crosstalk predicted early involvement of Ras GTPase-activating protein (RasGAP in immune suppression by CR3. Here, we link CR3-mediated uptake of opsonized Schu S4 by human monocytes and macrophages with inhibition of early signal 1 inflammasome activation, evidenced by limited caspase-1 cleavage and IL-18 release. This inhibition is due to increased RasGAP activity, leading to a reduction in the Ras-ERK signaling cascade upstream of the early inflammasome activation event. Thus, our data uncover a novel signaling pathway mediated by CR3 following engagement of opsonized virulent F. tularensis to limit inflammasome activation in human phagocytic cells, thereby contributing to evasion of the host innate immune system.

  15. A pharmacologic study on the mechanism of action of Kakkon-to: body temperature elevation and phagocytic activation of macrophages in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraoka, Kenichi; Yoshida, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Kazumasa; Nakanishi, Nobuo; Fukuzawa, Isao; Tomita, Akio; Cyong, Jong Chol

    2004-10-01

    The phagocytic activity of macrophages as a novel approach to scientific elucidation of the effects of Chinese medicines was studied through administration of a kampo preparation, by measuring the rise in body temperature, which is thought to stimulate innate defensive functions of organisms and enhance the immune systems. Using dogs as experimental models, a rise in body temperature following administration of Kakkon-to was observed, and the average number and average rate of phagocytosis of macrophages in blood using latex micro-particles was investigated. The body temperature of the treated animals significantly increased 30 minutes after administration (ptemperatures before and after administration showed significant increases over controls from 1 to 11 hours, ptemperature but also enhances the phagocytic activity of macrophages, an in vivo defense mechanism, suggesting that Kakkon-to contributes to the suppression of multiplication of common cold viruses and influenza viruses, which consequently results in improvement of various symptoms during infection with common cold viruses.

  16. Dynamics of the changes in the number and phagocytic activity of leucocytes from whole-body gamma-irradiated guinea pigs with respect to R and S forms of Pseudomonas pseudomallei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najdenski, Kh.M.; Velyanov, D.K.

    1987-01-01

    Guinea pigs of both sexes received whole-body gamma irradiation (0.5 Gy, 4 x 0.5 Gy and 2 Gy; 92.5 rad/min). Two bacterial strains were used: Ps. pseudomallei R 1 5 and S 7 . The measurments were carried out on days 1, 3, 7, 15 and 30 after treatment. The changes observed were directly dependent on the dose applied: for sublethally (2 Gy) irradiated animals - an abrupt decrease of leukocytes and strongly expressed leukopenia lasting throughout the whole investigation; for fractiionally irradiated (4 x 0.5 Gy) -the number of leukocytes P<0.001 and leukopenia being observed to day 7 after irradiation; for 0.5 Gy irradiated -the leucocytes number equal to that of the controls on day 15 and significantly higher on day 30; less strongly expressed leukopenia. The alterations in phagocytic activity in relation to R and S forms of Ps. pseudomallei were similar: leukocytes from 2 Gy irradiated guinea pigs showed on day 1 a markedly raised phagocytic activity and phagocytized the R and S forms to a similar degree, while at later intervals of the study the phagocytic activity decreased and they began to phagocytize the R forms more actively. Leukocytes from 0.5 Gy treated animals phagocytized the R forms more actively than the S forms throughout the whole investigation

  17. [EFFICIENCY OF COMBINATION OF ROFLUMILAST AND QUERCETIN FOR CORRECTION OXYGEN- INDEPENDENT MECHANISMS AND PHAGOCYTIC ACTIVITY OF MACROPHAGE CELLS OF PATIENTS WITH ACUTE EXACERBATION OF CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE WHEN COMBINED WITH CORONARY HEART DISEASE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerych, P; Yatsyshyn, R

    2015-01-01

    Studied oxygen independent reaction and phagocytic activity of macrophage cells of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) II-III stage when combined with coronary heart disease (CHD). The increasing oxygen independent reactions monocytes and neutrophils and a decrease of the parameters that characterize the functional state of phagocytic cells, indicating a decrease in the functional capacity of macrophage phagocytic system (MPS) in patients with acute exacerbation of COPD, which runs as its own or in combination with stable coronary heart disease angina I-II. FC. Severity immunodeficiency state in terms of cellular component of nonspecific immunity in patients with acute exacerbation of COPD II-III stage in conjunction with the accompanying CHD increases with the progression of heart failure. Inclusion of basic therapy of COPD exacerbation and standard treatment of coronary artery disease and drug combinations Roflumilastand quercetin causes normalization of phagocytic indices MFS, indicating improved immune status and improves myocardial perfusion in terms of daily ECG monitoring.

  18. Anti-Pseudomonas aeruginosa IgY antibodies promote bacterial opsonization and augment the phagocytic activity of polymorphonuclear neutrophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kim; Christophersen, Lars; Jensen, Peter Østrup

    2016-01-01

    Moderation of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) as part of a critical defense against invading pathogens may offer a promising therapeutic approach to supplement the antibiotic eradication of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in non-chronically infected cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. We have...... observed that egg yolk antibodies (IgY) harvested from White leghorn chickens that target P. aeruginosa opsonize the pathogen and enhance the PMN-mediated respiratory burst and subsequent bacterial killing in vitro. The effects on PMN phagocytic activity were observed in different Pseudomonas aeruginosa...

  19. Heterophil Phagocytic Activity Stimulated by Lactobacillus salivarius L61 and L55 Supplementation in Broilers with Salmonella Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sornplang, Pairat; Leelavatcharamas, Vichai; Soikum, Chaiyaporn

    2015-11-01

    Newborn chicks are susceptible to Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Lactobacillus probiotic isolated from chicken feces on heterophil phagocytosis in broiler chicks. A total of 150 newborn broiler chicks were divided into 5 groups (30 chicks per group) as follows: group 1 (normal control), given feed and water only, group 2 (positive control) given feed, water and SE infection, group 3 (L61 treated) given feed, water, SE infection followed by Lactobacillus salivarius L61 treatment, group 4 (L55 treated) given feed, water, SE infection followed by L. salivarius L55 treatment, and group 5 given feed, water, SE infection followed by L. salivarius L61 + L55 combination treatment. After SE infection, L. salivarius treatment lasted for 7 days. The results showed that L. salivarius L61 and L. salivarius L55 treatment, either alone or combination of both, increased the survival rate after SE infection, and upregulated heterophil phagocytosis and phagocytic index (PI). Conversely, chick groups treated with Lactobacillus showed lower SE recovery rate from cecal tonsils than that of the positive control group. The PI values of the chicken group with SE infection, followed by the combination of L. salivarius L61 and L. salivarius L55 were the highest as compared to either positive control or normal control group. Two Lactobacillus strains supplementation group showed significantly (p<0.05) higher PI value at 48 h than 24 h after treatment.

  20. Plasmodium and mononuclear phagocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac-Daniel, Laura; Ménard, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium, the causative agent of malaria, initially multiplies inside liver cells and then in successive cycles inside erythrocytes, causing the symptoms of the disease. In this review, we discuss interactions between the extracellular and intracellular forms of the Plasmodium parasite and innate immune cells in the mammalian host, with a special emphasis on mononuclear phagocytes. We overview here what is known about the innate immune cells that interact with parasites, mechanisms used by the parasite to evade them, and the protective or detrimental contribution of these interactions on parasite progression through its life cycle and pathology in the host. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. In vitro exposure of haemocytes of the clam Ruditapes philippinarum to titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles: nanoparticle characterisation, effects on phagocytic activity and internalisation of nanoparticles into haemocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marisa, Ilaria; Marin, Maria Gabriella; Caicci, Federico; Franceschinis, Erica; Martucci, Alessandro; Matozzo, Valerio

    2015-02-01

    The continuous growth of nanotechnology and nano-industries, the considerable increase of products containing nanoparticles (NPs) and the potential release of NPs in aquatic environments suggest a need to study NP effects on aquatic organisms. In this context, in vitro assays are commonly used for evaluating or predicting the negative effects of chemicals and for understanding their mechanisms of action. In this study, a physico-chemical characterisation of titanium dioxide NPs (n-TiO2) was performed, and an in vitro approach was used to investigate the effects of n-TiO2 on haemocytes of the clam Ruditapes philippinarum. In particular, the effects on haemocyte phagocytic activity were evaluated in two different experiments (with and without pre-treatment of haemocytes) by exposing cells to P25 n-TiO2 (0, 1 and 10 μg/mL). In addition, the capability of n-TiO2 to interact with clam haemocytes was evaluated with a transmission electron microscope (TEM). In this study, n-TiO2 particles showed a mean diameter of approximately 21 nm, and both anatase (70%) and rutile (30%) phases were revealed. In both experiments, n-TiO2 significantly decreased the phagocytic index compared with the control, suggesting that NPs are able to interfere with cell functions. The results of the TEM analysis support this hypothesis. Indeed, we observed that TiO2 NPs interact with cell membranes and enter haemocyte cytoplasm and vacuoles after 60 min of exposure. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating the internalisation of TiO2 NPs into R. philippinarum haemocytes. The present study can contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms of action of TiO2 NPs in bivalve molluscs, at least at the haemocyte level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cathepsin B is up-regulated and mediates extracellular matrix degradation in trabecular meshwork cells following phagocytic challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Porter

    Full Text Available Cells in the trabecular meshwork (TM, a tissue responsible for draining aqueous humor out of the eye, are known to be highly phagocytic. Phagocytic activity in TM cells is thought to play an important role in outflow pathway physiology. However, the molecular mechanisms triggered by phagocytosis in TM cells are unknown. Here we investigated the effects of chronic phagocytic stress on lysosomal function using different phagocytic ligands (E. coli, carboxylated beads, collagen I-coated beads, and pigment. Lysotracker red co-localization and electron micrographs showed the maturation of E. coli- and collagen I-coated beads-containing phagosomes into phagolysosomes. Maturation of phagosomes into phagolysosomes was not observed with carboxylated beads or pigment particles. In addition, phagocytosis of E. coli and collagen I-coated beads led to increased lysosomal mass, and the specific up-regulation and activity of cathepsin B (CTSB. Higher levels of membrane-bound and secreted CTSB were also detected. Moreover, in vivo zymography showed the intralysosomal degradation of ECM components associated with active CTSB, as well as an overall increased gelatinolytic activity in phagocytically challenged TM cells. This increased gelatinolytic activity with phagocytosis was partially blocked with an intracellular CTSB inhibitor. Altogether, these results suggest a potential role of phagocytosis in outflow pathway tissue homeostasis through the up-regulation and/or proteolytic activation of extracellular matrix remodeling genes.

  3. Resveratrol Protects Against Ultraviolet A-Mediated Inhibition of the Phagocytic Function of Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells Via Large-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shwu-Jiuan Sheu

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to examine the protective effect of resveratrol on human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cell phagocytosis against ultraviolet irradiation damage. Cultured RPE cells were exposed to ultraviolet A (UVA, 20 minutes irradiation, and treated with meclofenamic acid (30μM, 20 minutes, paxilline (100 μM, 20 minutes or resveratrol (10μM, 20 minutes. Meclofenamic acid and resveratrol were given after exposure to UVA. Pretreatment with meclofenamic acid, resveratrol or paxilline before UVA irradiation was also performed. Fluorescent latex beads were then fed for 4 hours and the phagocytotic function was assessed by flow cytometry. UVA irradiation inhibited the phagocytic function of human RPE cells. The large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel activator meclofenamic acid ameliorated the damage caused by UVA irradiation. Pretreatment with resveratrol acid also provided protection against damage caused by UVA. Posttreatment with meclofenamic acid offered mild protection, whereas resveratrol did not. In conclusion, the red wine flavonoid resveratrol ameliorated UVA-mediated inhibition of human RPE phagocytosis. The underlying mechanism might involve the large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels.

  4. Survival and function of phagocytes in blood culture media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, T K; Prag, J; Kharazmi, A

    1999-01-01

    The survival and function of human phagocytes in sterile aerobic and anaerobic blood culture media were investigated using neutrophil morphology, white blood cell count in a haemoanalyser, flow cytometry, oxidative burst response, and bactericidal effect in Colorbact and Septi-Chek blood culture...... media and Bact/Alert. When comparing agitation to stationary incubation no difference in phagocytic activity was found. The methods showed the same trends demonstrating that the phagocytes' viability and activity were prolonged by oxygen and shortened by anaerobic conditions and sodium polyethanol...... sulfonate (SPS). Best preserved activity and viability were found in the aerobic media containing less than 0.5 g/l SPS, in which significant phagocyte oxidative burst and bactericidal activity were found up to 4 days after inoculation. Considering that the majority of bacteremias are due to aerobic...

  5. The effect of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) on the proliferative response of blood lymphocytes and the phagocytic activity of blood monocytes and granulocytes in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik, R; Małaczewska, J; Siwicki, A K; Miciński, J; Zwierzchowski, G

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of HMB on selected indicators of immunity in calves. The experiment was performed on 14 calves aged 30 +/- 2 days, divided into two equal groups of control (group I) and experimental (group II) animals. The feed administered to experimental group calves was supplemented with HMB at 40 mg/kg BW, whereas control calves were administered standard farm-made feed without supplementation. Blood was sampled from the jugular vein immediately before the experiment (day 0) and on experimental days 15, 30 and 60 to determine the following parameters of immunity: proliferative response of LPS- and ConA-stimulated lymphocytes (MTT), respiratory burst activity (RBA) and potential killing activity (PKA) of phagocytes. The results revealed a significant increase in RBA and MTT values in calves administered HMB in comparison with the control group throughout the experiment. In the group of animals receiving HMB, an increase in PKA values was noted only on day 30.

  6. Decreased Fc receptor expression on innate immune cells is associated with impaired antibody-mediated cellular phagocytic activity in chronically HIV-1 infected individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugast, Anne-Sophie; Tonelli, Andrew; Berger, Christoph T; Ackerman, Margaret E; Sciaranghella, Gaia; Liu, Qingquan; Sips, Magdalena; Toth, Ildiko; Piechocka-Trocha, Alicja; Ghebremichael, Musie; Alter, Galit

    2011-07-05

    In addition to neutralization, antibodies mediate other antiviral activities including antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP), antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), as well as complement deposition. While it is established that progressive HIV infection is associated with reduced ADCC and ADCP, the underlying mechanism for this loss of function is unknown. Here we report considerable changes in FcR expression over the course of HIV infection on both mDCs and monocytes, including elevated FcγRI expression in acute HIV infection and reduced expression of FcγRII and FcγRIIIa in chronic HIV infection. Furthermore, selective blockade of FcγRII alone was associated with a loss in ADCP activity, suggesting that FcγRII plays a central role in modulating ADCP. Overall, HIV infection is associated with a number of changes in FcR expression on phagocytic cells that are associated with changes in their ability to respond to antibody-opsonized targets, potentially contributing to a failure in viral clearance in progressive HIV-1 infection. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Decreased Fc-Receptor expression on innate immune cells is associated with impaired antibody mediated cellular phagocytic activity in chronically HIV-1 infected individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugast, Anne-Sophie; Tonelli, Andrew; Berger, Christoph T.; Ackerman, Margaret E.; Sciaranghella, Gaia; Liu, Qingquan; Sips, Magdalena; Toth, Ildiko; Piechocka-Trocha, Alicja; Ghebremichael, Musie; Alter, Galit

    2011-01-01

    In addition to neutralization, antibodies mediate other antiviral activities including antibody-dependent cellular-phagocytosis (ADCP), antibody dependent cellular-cytotoxicity (ADCC), as well as complement deposition. While it is established that progressive HIV infection is associated with reduced ADCC and ADCP, the underlying mechanism for this loss of function is unknown. Here we report considerable changes in FcR expression over the course of HIV infection on both mDCs and monocytes, including elevated FcγRI expression in acute HIV infection and reduced expression of FcγRII and FcγRIIIa in chronic HIV infection. Furthermore, selective blockade of FcγRII alone was associated with a loss in ADCP activity, suggesting that FcγRII plays a central role in modulating ADCP. Overall, HIV infection is associated with a number of changes in FcR expression on phagocytic cells that are associated with changes in their ability to respond to antibody-opsonized targets, potentially contributing to a failure in viral clearance in progressive HIV-1 infection. PMID:21565376

  8. INFLUENCE OF LOCAL RONKOLEIKIN TREATMENT UPON CLINICAL COURSE OF PURULENT WOUNDS AND FUNCTIONAL ACTIVITY OF WOUND PHAGOCYTES IN PATIENTS WITH ODONTOGENIC PHLEGMONAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Dolgushin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The aim of the work was to evaluate clinical features of purulent wounds trend and functional activity of local wound phagocytes in the patients with odontogenic phlegmones in the course of local treatment with Ronkoleukin. A randomized clinical study was performed which included sixty-five patients with odontogenic phlegmones. Their age ranged from 18 to 74 years old. The group was divided in two parts, i.e., patients of a comparison group (n = 33 receiving a conventional combined drug therapy, and the persons from study group (n = 32 who were subject to local immunotherapy with Ronkoleukin, applied along with conventional therapy. It was established that the local therapy with Ronkoleikin exerts distinct positive effects, i.e., increase in wound-located lymphocytes and macrophages, acceleration of phasic dynamics of inflammatory events, augmentation of an lysosomal luminescence index (2.3-fold, enhancement of phagocytosis intensity in wound neutrophiles and macrophages (1.9-2-fold, strengthening the reserve abilities of wound neutrophils (1.3-fold. These effects create favorable conditions for elimination of pathogen and optimal healing of purulent wounds in the patients with odontogenic phlegmones.

  9. CCR1+/CCR5+ mononuclear phagocytes accumulate in the central nervous system of patients with multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trebst, C; Sørensen, Torben Lykke; Kivisäkk, P

    2001-01-01

    Mononuclear phagocytes (monocytes, macrophages, and microglia) are considered central to multiple sclerosis (MS) pathogenesis. Molecular cues that mediate mononuclear phagocyte accumulation and activation in the central nervous system (CNS) of MS patients may include chemokines RANTES/CCL5...

  10. Autophagy Proteins in Phagocyte Endocytosis and Exocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Münz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy was initially described as a catabolic pathway that recycles nutrients of cytoplasmic constituents after lysosomal degradation during starvation. Since the immune system monitors products of lysosomal degradation via major histocompatibility complex (MHC class II restricted antigen presentation, autophagy was found to process intracellular antigens for display on MHC class II molecules. In recent years, however, it has become apparent that the molecular machinery of autophagy serves phagocytes in many more membrane trafficking pathways, thereby regulating immunity to infectious disease agents. In this minireview, we will summarize the recent evidence that autophagy proteins regulate phagocyte endocytosis and exocytosis for myeloid cell activation, pathogen replication, and MHC class I and II restricted antigen presentation. Selective stimulation and inhibition of the respective functional modules of the autophagy machinery might constitute valid therapeutic options in the discussed disease settings.

  11. Inhibitory effect of immature dendritic cells (iDCs phagocytizing apoptotic lymphocytes on LPS-mediated activation of iDCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-xiang WEI

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the inhibitory effect of immature dendritic cells(iDCs on LPS-mediated maturation of iDCs phagocytizing allogeneic spleen lymphocytes after being treated bypsoralen plus ultraviolet A(PUVA. Methods Bone marrow-derived DCs were obtained from bone marrow cells of C57BL/6 mice by co-cultivation with recombinant mouse IL-4 and GM-CSF. Spleenlymphocytes(SLP of BALB/c mice were isolated and transformed to PUVA-SLP by treatment with 8-methoxy PUVA irradiation.The bone marrow-derived iDCs of C57BL/6 were co-cultured with PUVA-SLP of BALB/c mice to obtain PUVA¬SLPDCs. After incubation, iDCs and PUVA-SP DCs were induced to maturation by LPS(10ng/ml,24h, and then they were analyzed by flow cytometry.At the same time,the concentrations of the immunoreactive proteins IL-12p70,IL-12p40andIL-10 in cell supernatants were determined by ELISA kits according to the manufacturer's recommendations. Results PUVA-SLP DCs and iDCs were compared in terms of LPS responsiveness.The phenotype of iDCs(CD40,CD80, andCD86 was 50.58%, 66.29%, 71.20%, respectively, showed more rapid changes from immature to mature statein response to LPS stimulation compared with PUVA-SP DCs, the phenotype of which was 21.26%,38.50% and 39.78%, respectively(P0.05.PUVA-SPDCs secreted high levels of IL-10(435.6±13.9, but lowlevels of IL-12(p7018.56±1.3,p4015.22±1.2, as compared with those of iDCs (132.6±2.8, p70192.1±5.9, p40999.8±26.9, P<0.01 after LPS stimulation. Conclusions Although PUVA-SLPDCs do not express as immature phenotype, they can be readily induced to differentiate into mature DCs in the presence of antigen or LPS. It may be suitable to use iDCs clinically in autoimmune diseases and transplantation.

  12. Nanoparticles of barium induce apoptosis in human phagocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mores, Luana; França, Eduardo Luzia; Silva, Núbia Andrade; Suchara, Eliane Aparecida; Honorio-França, Adenilda Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Nutrients and immunological factors of breast milk are essential for newborn growth and the development of their immune system, but this secretion can contain organic and inorganic toxins such as barium. Colostrum contamination with barium is an important issue to investigate because this naturally occurring element is also associated with human activity and industrial pollution. The study evaluated the administration of barium nanoparticles to colostrum, assessing the viability and functional activity of colostral mononuclear phagocytes. Colostrum was collected from 24 clinically healthy women (aged 18-35 years). Cell viability, superoxide release, intracellular Ca(2+) release, and phagocyte apoptosis were analyzed in the samples. Treatment with barium lowered mononuclear phagocyte viability, increased superoxide release, and reduced intracellular calcium release. In addition, barium increased cell death by apoptosis. These data suggest that nanoparticles of barium in colostrum are toxic to cells, showing the importance of avoiding exposure to this element.

  13. Effects of 6-methyl-uracil upon the phagocytic activity in mice following whole-body X-irradiation or 2,4,6,-triethyleneimino-s-triazine treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raake, W.; Tempel, K.

    1977-01-01

    1. Phagocytic activity measured by means of the intravasal clearence of a soot dispersion in male NMRI-mice was increased six to ten days after whole-body X-irradiation (640 R) and decreased during the same period after i.v. administration of 2,4,6-triethyleneimino-s-triazine (TEM 2.0 mg/kg). 2. By means of 6-methyl-uracil food admixtures (200 to 400 ppm during 2 or 3 weeks) or by repeated intravenous injections of a N-methyl-D-glucosamine-6-methyluracil complex (62.5 to 250 mg/kg daily during five days), a significant augmentation of the phagocytic index being related to time and dosage was obtained in otherwise untreated mice. Comparable results were seen using cytidine and cytidine-5'-phosphate, whereas guanosine-5'-phosphate remained ineffective. 3. Whilst stimulating effects of 6-methyl-uracil or its N-methyl-D-glucosamine complex on X-irradiated mice were suspended, an increase up to supernormal values of the phagocytic index was produced by the pyrimidine base in animals treated with TEM. In accordance to this the survival rate of lethally X-irradiated mice (960 R) could not be increased; with animals given lethal TEM-doses, however, a significantly increased survival rate was obtained. 4. The present investigations as well as former biochemical analyses confirm the assumption that 6-methyluracil produces its regeneration effects, to some extent at least, by specific pathways influencing the reticuloendothelium. Different results from X-irradiated and TEM-treated mice are referring to the different points of attack of the two noxa. (orig.) [de

  14. In vivo evaluation of the antibacterial capacity of tissue phagocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra, H.

    1975-01-01

    The phagocytic activity of guinea pig liver to deal with bacterial infection was investigated on 14 C- or 32 P-labelled Brucella melitensis. Some in vitro work has been started, using immunoglobulins (IgG, IgM) with antibody activity against whole Brucella

  15. The identification of CD163 expressing phagocytic chondrocytes in joint cartilage and its novel scavenger role in cartilage degradation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Jiao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cartilage degradation is a typical characteristic of arthritis. This study examined whether there was a subset of phagocytic chondrocytes that expressed the specific macrophage marker, CD163, and investigated their role in cartilage degradation. METHODS: Cartilage from the knee and temporomandibular joints of Sprague-Dawley rats was harvested. Cartilage degradation was experimentally-induced in rat temporomandibular joints, using published biomechanical dental methods. The expression levels of CD163 and inflammatory factors within cartilage, and the ability of CD163(+ chondrocytes to conduct phagocytosis were investigated. Cartilage from the knees of patients with osteoarthritis and normal cartilage from knee amputations was also investigated. RESULTS: In the experimentally-induced degrading cartilage from temporomandibular joints, phagocytes were capable of engulfing neighboring apoptotic and necrotic cells, and the levels of CD163, TNF-α and MMPs were all increased (P0.05. CD163(+ chondrocytes were found in the cartilage mid-zone of temporomandibular joints and knee from healthy, three-week old rats. Furthermore, an increased number of CD163(+ chondrocytes with enhanced phagocytic activity were present in Col-II(+ chondrocytes isolated from the degraded cartilage of temporomandibular joints in the eight-week experimental group compared with their age-matched controls. Increased number with enhanced phagocytic activity of CD163(+ chondrocytes were also found in isolated Col-II(+ chondrocytes stimulated with TNF-α (P<0.05. Mid-zone distribution of CD163(+ cells accompanied with increased expression of CD163 and TNF-α were further confirmed in the isolated Col-II(+ chondrocytes from the knee cartilage of human patients with osteoarthritis, in contrast to the controls (both P<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: An increased number of CD163(+ chondrocytes with enhanced phagocytic activity were discovered within degraded joint cartilage, indicating a

  16. Global physical activity levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallal, Pedro C; Andersen, Lars Bo; Bull, Fiona C

    2012-01-01

    To implement effective non-communicable disease prevention programmes, policy makers need data for physical activity levels and trends. In this report, we describe physical activity levels worldwide with data for adults (15 years or older) from 122 countries and for adolescents (13-15-years......-income countries. The proportion of 13-15-year-olds doing fewer than 60 min of physical activity of moderate to vigorous intensity per day is 80·3% (80·1-80·5); boys are more active than are girls. Continued improvement in monitoring of physical activity would help to guide development of policies and programmes......-old) from 105 countries. Worldwide, 31·1% (95% CI 30·9-31·2) of adults are physically inactive, with proportions ranging from 17·0% (16·8-17·2) in southeast Asia to about 43% in the Americas and the eastern Mediterranean. Inactivity rises with age, is higher in women than in men, and is increased in high...

  17. Molecular pharmacology of antihistamines in inhibition of oxidative burst of professional phagocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosáľ, Radomír; Jančinová, Viera; Drábiková, Katarína; Perečko, Tomáš

    2015-04-01

    Antihistamines of the H₁and H₃/H₄groups interfere with oxidative burst of human professional phagocytes in vitro. In the concentration of 10 μM, H₁antihistamines of the 1st and 2nd generation inhibited oxidative burst of human neutrophils in the rank order of potency: dithiaden > loratadine > brompheniramine > chlorpheniramine > pheniramine. Of the H₁antihistamines, the most effective was dithiaden in suppressing oxidative burst of whole human blood and dose-dependently the chemiluminescence of isolated neutrophils at extra- and intracellular level. Inhibition of free oxygen radical generation in isolated neutrophils by dithiaden resulted from the inhibition of protein kinase C activation. The potentiation of recombinant caspase-3 by dithiaden is supportive of the antiinflammatory effect of dithiaden and suggestive of increasing the apoptosis of professional phagocytes. Of the H₃/H₄antihistamines, the most effective was JNJ7777120 in decreasing chemiluminescence in whole blood and also at extra- and intracellular sites of isolated neutrophils. JNJ 10191584 and thioperamide were less effective and the latter significantly potentiated free oxygen radical generation intracellularly. The results demonstrated that, compared with the H₃/H₄antihistamines investigated, H₁antihistamines were much more potent in inhibiting free oxygen radical generation in human professional phagocytes. This finding should be taken into account therapeutically.

  18. Scrambled Eggs: Apoptotic Cell Clearance by Non-Professional Phagocytes in the Drosophila Ovary

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    Sandy B. Serizier

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available For half of a century, it has been known that non-professional phagocytes, such as fibroblasts, endothelial, and epithelial cells, are capable of efferocytosis (engulfment of apoptotic cells. Non-professional phagocytes differ from professional phagocytes in the range and efficiency of engulfment. Much of the recognition and underlying signaling machinery between non-professional and professional phagocytes is the same, but it is not known how the engulfment capacity of non-professional phagocytes is controlled. Moreover, the signaling networks involved in cell corpse recognition, engulfment, and phagosome maturation are only partially understood. The Drosophila ovary provides an excellent system to investigate the regulation of phagocytic activity by epithelial cells, a major class of non-professional phagocytes. During Drosophila oogenesis, mid-stage egg chambers undergo apoptosis of the germline in response to nutrient deprivation. Epithelial follicle cells then undergo major cell shape changes and concomitantly engulf the germline material. Our previous work has established that Draper and the integrin α-PS3/β-PS heterodimer are required in follicle cells for germline cell clearance. In addition, we have characterized phagosome maturation pathways, and found that the JNK pathway amplifies the engulfment response. In this review, we discuss recent advances on the interplay between engulfment pathways in the follicular epithelium for cell clearance in the Drosophila ovary. We also provide a comparison to apoptotic cell clearance mechanisms in C. elegans and mammals, illustrating strong conservation of efferocytosis mechanisms by non-professional phagocytes.

  19. Scrambled Eggs: Apoptotic Cell Clearance by Non-Professional Phagocytes in the Drosophila Ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serizier, Sandy B; McCall, Kimberly

    2017-01-01

    For half of a century, it has been known that non-professional phagocytes, such as fibroblasts, endothelial, and epithelial cells, are capable of efferocytosis (engulfment of apoptotic cells). Non-professional phagocytes differ from professional phagocytes in the range and efficiency of engulfment. Much of the recognition and underlying signaling machinery between non-professional and professional phagocytes is the same, but it is not known how the engulfment capacity of non-professional phagocytes is controlled. Moreover, the signaling networks involved in cell corpse recognition, engulfment, and phagosome maturation are only partially understood. The Drosophila ovary provides an excellent system to investigate the regulation of phagocytic activity by epithelial cells, a major class of non-professional phagocytes. During Drosophila oogenesis, mid-stage egg chambers undergo apoptosis of the germline in response to nutrient deprivation. Epithelial follicle cells then undergo major cell shape changes and concomitantly engulf the germline material. Our previous work has established that Draper and the integrin α-PS3/β-PS heterodimer are required in follicle cells for germline cell clearance. In addition, we have characterized phagosome maturation pathways, and found that the JNK pathway amplifies the engulfment response. In this review, we discuss recent advances on the interplay between engulfment pathways in the follicular epithelium for cell clearance in the Drosophila ovary. We also provide a comparison to apoptotic cell clearance mechanisms in C. elegans and mammals, illustrating strong conservation of efferocytosis mechanisms by non-professional phagocytes.

  20. Adenylate Cyclase Toxin promotes bacterial internalisation into non phagocytic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, César; Etxaniz, Asier; Uribe, Kepa B; Etxebarria, Aitor; González-Bullón, David; Arlucea, Jon; Goñi, Félix M; Aréchaga, Juan; Ostolaza, Helena

    2015-09-08

    Bordetella pertussis causes whooping cough, a respiratory infectious disease that is the fifth largest cause of vaccine-preventable death in infants. Though historically considered an extracellular pathogen, this bacterium has been detected both in vitro and in vivo inside phagocytic and non-phagocytic cells. However the precise mechanism used by B. pertussis for cell entry, or the putative bacterial factors involved, are not fully elucidated. Here we find that adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT), one of the important toxins of B. pertussis, is sufficient to promote bacterial internalisation into non-phagocytic cells. After characterization of the entry route we show that uptake of "toxin-coated bacteria" proceeds via a clathrin-independent, caveolae-dependent entry pathway, allowing the internalised bacteria to survive within the cells. Intracellular bacteria were found inside non-acidic endosomes with high sphingomyelin and cholesterol content, or "free" in the cytosol of the invaded cells, suggesting that the ACT-induced bacterial uptake may not proceed through formation of late endolysosomes. Activation of Tyr kinases and toxin-induced Ca(2+)-influx are essential for the entry process. We hypothesize that B. pertussis might use ACT to activate the endocytic machinery of non-phagocytic cells and gain entry into these cells, in this way evading the host immune system.

  1. Acute myeloid leukemia associated with t(10;17)(p13-15;q12-21) and phagocytic activity by leukemic blasts: a clinical study and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Seung Hwan; Park, Tae Sung; Cho, Sun Young; Kim, Min Jin; Huh, Jungwon; Kim, Bomi; Song, Sae Am; Lee, Ja Young; Jun, Kyung Ran; Shin, Jeong Hwan; Kim, Hye Ran; Lee, Jeong Nyeo

    2010-10-01

    Translocation (10;17)(p13-15;q12-21) in acute leukemia is rarely reported in the literature. Here, we present both a novel t(10;17) case study and a review of relevant literature on t(10;17) in acute leukemia (10 cases). In summary, we came to the following preliminary conclusions: t(10;17) is associated with poorly differentiated acute leukemia subtype [90%; eight cases of acute myeloid leukemia (AML M0, M1) and one case of acute undifferentiated leukemia], phagocytic activity by blasts occurs (30%), and the survival time was short in three of the seven t(10;17) cases for whom follow-up data were available (median, 8 months). More clinical studies concerning the prognosis, treatment response, and survival of patients with t(10;17) are necessary. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Similarities and differences between the responses induced in human phagocytes through activation of the medium chain fatty acid receptor GPR84 and the short chain fatty acid receptor FFA2R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundqvist, Martina; Christenson, Karin; Holdfeldt, André; Gabl, Michael; Mårtensson, Jonas; Björkman, Lena; Dieckmann, Regis; Dahlgren, Claes; Forsman, Huamei

    2018-05-01

    GPR84 is a recently de-orphanized member of the G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) family recognizing medium chain fatty acids, and has been suggested to play important roles in inflammation. Due to the lack of potent and selective GPR84 ligands, the basic knowledge related to GPR84 functions is very limited. In this study, we have characterized the GPR84 activation profile and regulation mechanism in human phagocytes, using two recently developed small molecules that specifically target GPR84 agonistically (ZQ16) and antagonistically (GLPG1205), respectively. Compared to our earlier characterization of the short chain fatty acid receptor FFA2R which is functionally expressed in neutrophils but not in monocytes, GPR84 is expressed in both cell types and in monocyte-derived macrophages. In neutrophils, the GPR84 agonist had an activation profile very similar to that of FFA2R. The GPR84-mediated superoxide release was low in naïve cells, but the response could be significantly primed by TNFα and by the actin cytoskeleton disrupting agent Latrunculin A. Similar to that of FFA2R, a desensitization mechanism bypassing the actin cytoskeleton was utilized by GPR84. All ZQ16-mediated cellular responses were sensitive to GLPG1205, confirming the GPR84-dependency. Finally, our data of in vivo transmigrated tissue neutrophils indicate that both GPR84 and FFA2R are involved in neutrophil recruitment processes in vivo. In summary, we show functional similarities but also some important differences between GPR84 and FFA2R in human phagocytes, thus providing some mechanistic insights into GPR84 regulation in blood neutrophils and cells recruited to an aseptic inflammatory site in vivo. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of Enrofloxacin on Porcine Phagocytic Function

    OpenAIRE

    Schoevers, E. J.; van Leengoed, L. A. M. G.; Verheijden, J. H. M.; Niewold, T. A.

    1999-01-01

    The interaction between enrofloxacin and porcine phagocytes was studied with clinically relevant concentrations of enrofloxacin. Enrofloxacin accumulated in phagocytes, with cellular concentration/extracellular concentration ratios of 9 for polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and 5 for alveolar macrophages (AMs). Cells with accumulated enrofloxacin brought into enrofloxacin-free medium released approximately 80% (AMs) to 90% (PMNs) of their enrofloxacin within the first 10 min, after which no...

  4. Mechanisms Underlying the Delayed Activation of the Cap1 Transcription Factor in Candida albicans following Combinatorial Oxidative and Cationic Stress Important for Phagocytic Potency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kos, Iaroslava; Patterson, Miranda J; Znaidi, Sadri; Kaloriti, Despoina; da Silva Dantas, Alessandra; Herrero-de-Dios, Carmen M; d'Enfert, Christophe; Brown, Alistair J P; Quinn, Janet

    2016-03-29

    Following phagocytosis, microbes are exposed to an array of antimicrobial weapons that include reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cationic fluxes. This is significant as combinations of oxidative and cationic stresses are much more potent than the corresponding single stresses, triggering the synergistic killing of the fungal pathogenCandida albicansby "stress pathway interference." Previously we demonstrated that combinatorial oxidative plus cationic stress triggers a dramatic increase in intracellular ROS levels compared to oxidative stress alone. Here we show that activation of Cap1, the major regulator of antioxidant gene expression inC. albicans, is significantly delayed in response to combinatorial stress treatments and to high levels of H2O2 Cap1 is normally oxidized in response to H2O2; this masks the nuclear export sequence, resulting in the rapid nuclear accumulation of Cap1 and the induction of Cap1-dependent genes. Here we demonstrate that following exposure of cells to combinatorial stress or to high levels of H2O2, Cap1 becomes trapped in a partially oxidized form, Cap1(OX-1) Notably, Cap1-dependent gene expression is not induced when Cap1 is in this partially oxidized form. However, while Cap1(OX-1)readily accumulates in the nucleus and binds to target genes following high-H2O2stress, the nuclear accumulation of Cap1(OX-1)following combinatorial H2O2and NaCl stress is delayed due to a cationic stress-enhanced interaction with the Crm1 nuclear export factor. These findings define novel mechanisms that delay activation of the Cap1 transcription factor, thus preventing the rapid activation of the stress responses vital for the survival ofC. albicanswithin the host. Combinatorial stress-mediated synergistic killing represents a new unchartered area in the field of stress signaling. This phenomenon contrasts starkly with "stress cross-protection," where exposure to one stress protects against subsequent exposure to a different stress. Previously we

  5. Phagocytic response of astrocytes to damaged neighboring cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole M Wakida

    Full Text Available This study aims to understand the phagocytic response of astrocytes to the injury of neurons or other astrocytes at the single cell level. Laser nanosurgery was used to damage individual cells in both primary mouse cortical astrocytes and an established astrocyte cell line. In both cases, the release of material/substances from laser-irradiated astrocytes or neurons induced a phagocytic response in near-by astrocytes. Propidium iodide stained DNA originating from irradiated cells was visible in vesicles of neighboring cells, confirming phagocytosis of material from damaged cortical cells. In the presence of an intracellular pH indicator dye, newly formed vesicles correspond to acidic pH fluorescence, thus suggesting lysosome bound degradation of cellular debris. Cells with shared membrane connections prior to laser damage had a significantly higher frequency of induced phagocytosis compared to isolated cells with no shared membrane. The increase in phagocytic response of cells with a shared membrane occurred regardless of the extent of shared membrane (a thin filopodial connection vs. a cell cluster with significant shared membrane. In addition to the presence (or lack of a membrane connection, variation in phagocytic ability was also observed with differences in injury location within the cell and distance separating isolated astrocytes. These results demonstrate the ability of an astrocyte to respond to the damage of a single cell, be it another astrocyte, or a neuron. This single-cell level of analysis results in a better understanding of the role of astrocytes to maintain homeostasis in the CNS, particularly in the sensing and removal of debris in damaged or pathologic nervous tissue.

  6. Comparative anatomy of phagocytic and immunological synapses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence eNiedergang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The generation of phagocytic cups and immunological synapses are crucial events of the innate and adaptive immune responses, respectively. They are triggered by distinct immune receptors and performed by different cell types. However, growing experimental evidence shows that a very close series of molecular and cellular events control these two processes. Thus, the tight and dynamic interplay between receptor signaling, actin and microtubule cytoskeleton, and targeted vesicle traffic are all critical features to build functional phagosomes and immunological synapses. Interestingly, both phagocytic cups and immunological synapses display particular spatial and temporal patterns of receptors and signaling molecules, leading to the notion of phagocytic synapse. Here we discuss both types of structures, their organization and the mechanisms by which they are generated and regulated.

  7. Leishmania mexicana amazonensis: heterogeneity in 5-nucleotidase and peroxidase activities of mononuclear phagocytes during in vivo and in vitro infection Leishmania mexicana amazonensis: heterogeneidade da 5’-Nucleotidase e da peroxidase em fagócitos mononucleares durante infecção in vivo e in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Côrte-Real

    1988-03-01

    Full Text Available The degree of maturation of cells of the Mononuclear Phagocyte System (MPS, during in vivo and in vitro infection by Leishmania mexicana amazonenesis, was evaluated in this study. The macrophages' differentiation was assayed by cytochemical characterization at the ultrastrctural level, using two well-established markers: 5'-nucleotidase enzyme activity, for revealing the mature cells, and the peroxidase activity present in the cell granules to demonstrate immature mononuclear phagocytes. only a few mcrophages, demonstrating 5'-nucleotidase positive reaction in both the plasma membrane and within their cytoplasmic vesicles, were found scattered in the chronic inflammation at the L. m. amazonensis lesions in albino mice. However, by the peroxidase activity analysis, we were also able to demonstrate the presence of immature MPS cells, which predominate, together with parasitized vacuolated macrophages, in chronic lesions induced in this systemby L. m. amazonensis. The implications of these results on the pathogenesis of murine cutaneous leishmaniasis are discussed.Um estudo sobre o grau de maturação das células do Sistema Fagocítico Mononuclear foi realizado durante a infecção in vivo e in vitro com a Leishmania mexicana amazonensis. A caracterização da diferenciação das células fagocíticas foi obtida com a localização ultraestrutural de dois marcadores enzimáticos bam conhecidos: a enzima 5'-Nucleotidase marcadora de membrana plasmática de células maduras e a enzima peroxidase, presente em grânulos, marcadora de células imaturas. A atividade da enzima 5'-Nucleotidase foi encontrada apenas em alguns macrófagos, presentes no foco inflamatório, em projeções da membrana plasmática e em algumas vesículas citoplasmáticas. Macrófagos peritoneais de camundongo apresentaram a mesma reatividade para este marcador. Contudo a análise da atividade peroxidásica demonstrou a predominância da presença de fagócitos mononucleares

  8. Surface modification of nanoparticles enables selective evasion of phagocytic clearance by distinct macrophage phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qie, Yaqing; Yuan, Hengfeng; von Roemeling, Christina A.; Chen, Yuanxin; Liu, Xiujie; Shih, Kevin D.; Knight, Joshua A.; Tun, Han W.; Wharen, Robert E.; Jiang, Wen; Kim, Betty Y. S.

    2016-05-01

    Nanomedicine is a burgeoning industry but an understanding of the interaction of nanomaterials with the immune system is critical for clinical translation. Macrophages play a fundamental role in the immune system by engulfing foreign particulates such as nanoparticles. When activated, macrophages form distinct phenotypic populations with unique immune functions, however the mechanism by which these polarized macrophages react to nanoparticles is unclear. Furthermore, strategies to selectively evade activated macrophage subpopulations are lacking. Here we demonstrate that stimulated macrophages possess higher phagocytic activities and that classically activated (M1) macrophages exhibit greater phagocytic capacity than alternatively activated (M2) macrophages. We show that modification of nanoparticles with polyethylene-glycol results in decreased clearance by all macrophage phenotypes, but importantly, coating nanoparticles with CD47 preferentially lowers phagocytic activity by the M1 phenotype. These results suggest that bio-inspired nanoparticle surface design may enable evasion of specific components of the immune system and provide a rational approach for developing immune tolerant nanomedicines.

  9. Activation of phagocytic cells by Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms: effects of extracellular matrix proteins and the bacterial stress protein GroEL on netosis and MRP-14 release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapunt, Ulrike; Gaida, Matthias M; Meyle, Eva; Prior, Birgit; Hänsch, Gertrud M

    2016-07-01

    The recognition and phagocytosis of free-swimming (planktonic) bacteria by polymorphonuclear neutrophils have been investigated in depth. However, less is known about the neutrophil response towards bacterial biofilms. Our previous work demonstrated that neutrophils recognize activating entities within the extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) of biofilms (the bacterial heat shock protein GroEL) and that this process does not require opsonization. Aim of this study was to evaluate the release of DNA by neutrophils in response to biofilms, as well as the release of the inflammatory cytokine MRP-14. Neutrophils were stimulated with Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms, planktonic bacteria, extracted EPS and GroEL. Release of DNA and of MRP-14 was evaluated. Furthermore, tissue samples from patients suffering from biofilm infections were collected and evaluated by histology. MRP-14 concentration in blood samples was measured. We were able to show that biofilms, the EPS and GroEL induce DNA release. MRP-14 was only released after stimulation with EPS, not GroEL. Histology of tissue samples revealed MRP-14 positive cells in association with neutrophil infiltration and MRP-14 concentration was elevated in blood samples of patients suffering from biofilm infections. Our data demonstrate that neutrophil-activating entities are present in the EPS and that GroEL induces DNA release by neutrophils. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Diversity and functions of intestinal mononuclear phagocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joeris, Thorsten; Müller-Luda, K; Agace, William Winston

    2017-01-01

    The intestinal lamina propria (LP) contains a diverse array of mononuclear phagocyte (MNP) subsets, including conventional dendritic cells (cDC), monocytes and tissue-resident macrophages (mφ) that collectively play an essential role in mucosal homeostasis, infection and inflammation. In the curr......The intestinal lamina propria (LP) contains a diverse array of mononuclear phagocyte (MNP) subsets, including conventional dendritic cells (cDC), monocytes and tissue-resident macrophages (mφ) that collectively play an essential role in mucosal homeostasis, infection and inflammation....... In the current review we discuss the function of intestinal cDC and monocyte-derived MNP, highlighting how these subsets play several non-redundant roles in the regulation of intestinal immune responses. While much remains to be learnt, recent findings also underline how the various populations of MNP adapt...

  11. The Phagocyte, Metchnikoff, and the Foundation of Immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teti, Giuseppe; Biondo, Carmelo; Beninati, Concetta

    2016-04-01

    Since the ability of some cells to engulf particulate material was observed before Metchnikoff, he did not "discover" phagocytosis, as is sometimes mentioned in textbooks. Rather, he assigned to particle internalization the role of defending the host against noxious stimuli, which represented a new function relative to the previously recognized task of intracellular digestion. With this proposal, Metchnikoff built the conceptual framework within which immunity could finally be seen as an active host function triggered by noxious stimuli. In this sense, Metchnikoff can be rightly regarded as the father of all immunological sciences and not only of innate immunity or myeloid cell biology. Moreover, the recognition properties of his phagocyte fit surprisingly well with recent discoveries and modern models of immune sensing. For example, rather than assigning to immune recognition exclusively the function of eliminating nonself components (as others did after him), Metchnikoff viewed phagocytes as homeostatic agents capable of monitoring the internal environment and promoting tissue remodeling, thereby continuously defining the identity of the organism. No doubt, Metchnikoff's life and creativity can provide, still today, a rich source of inspiration.

  12. Effects of Enrofloxacin on Porcine Phagocytic Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoevers, E. J.; van Leengoed, L. A. M. G.; Verheijden, J. H. M.; Niewold, T. A.

    1999-01-01

    The interaction between enrofloxacin and porcine phagocytes was studied with clinically relevant concentrations of enrofloxacin. Enrofloxacin accumulated in phagocytes, with cellular concentration/extracellular concentration ratios of 9 for polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and 5 for alveolar macrophages (AMs). Cells with accumulated enrofloxacin brought into enrofloxacin-free medium released approximately 80% (AMs) to 90% (PMNs) of their enrofloxacin within the first 10 min, after which no further release was seen. Enrofloxacin affected neither the viability of PMNs and AMs nor the chemotaxis of PMNs at concentrations ranging from 0 to 10 μg/ml. Enrofloxacin (0.5 μg/ml) did not alter the capability of PMNs and AMs to phagocytize fluorescent microparticles or Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Pasteurella multocida, and Staphylococcus aureus. Significant differences in intracellular killing were seen with enrofloxacin at 5× the MIC compared with that for controls not treated with enrofloxacin. PMNs killed all S. aureus isolates in 3 h with or without enrofloxacin. Intracellular S. aureus isolates in AMs were less susceptible than extracellular S. aureus isolates to the bactericidal effect of enrofloxacin. P. multocida was not phagocytosed by PMNs. AMs did not kill P. multocida, and similar intra- and extracellular reductions of P. multocida isolates by enrofloxacin were found. Intraphagocytic killing of A. pleuropneumoniae was significantly enhanced by enrofloxacin at 5× the MIC in both PMNs and AMs. AMs are very susceptible to the A. pleuropneumoniae cytotoxin. This suggests that in serologically naive pigs the enhancing effect of enrofloxacin on the bactericidal action of PMNs may have clinical relevance. PMID:10471554

  13. Innate Immunity to Leishmania Infection: Within Phagocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Freitas Lopes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection by Leishmania takes place in the context of inflammation and tissue repair. Besides tissue resident macrophages, inflammatory macrophages and neutrophils are recruited to the infection site and serve both as host cells and as effectors against infection. Recent studies suggest additional important roles for monocytes and dendritic cells. This paper addresses recent experimental findings regarding the regulation of Leishmania major infection by these major phagocyte populations. In addition, the role of IL-4 on dendritic cells and monocytes is discussed.

  14. Myelin down-regulates myelin phagocytosis by microglia and macrophages through interactions between CD47 on myelin and SIRPα (signal regulatory protein-α on phagocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reichert Fanny

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traumatic injury to axons produces breakdown of axons and myelin at the site of the lesion and then further distal to this where Wallerian degeneration develops. The rapid removal of degenerated myelin by phagocytosis is advantageous for repair since molecules in myelin impede regeneration of severed axons. Thus, revealing mechanisms that regulate myelin phagocytosis by macrophages and microglia is important. We hypothesize that myelin regulates its own phagocytosis by simultaneous activation and down-regulation of microglial and macrophage responses. Activation follows myelin binding to receptors that mediate its phagocytosis (e.g. complement receptor-3, which has been previously studied. Down-regulation, which we test here, follows binding of myelin CD47 to the immune inhibitory receptor SIRPα (signal regulatory protein-α on macrophages and microglia. Methods CD47 and SIRPα expression was studied by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy, and myelin phagocytosis by ELISA. Results We first document that myelin, oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells express CD47 without SIRPα and further confirm that microglia and macrophages express both CD47 and SIRPα. Thus, CD47 on myelin can bind to and subsequently activate SIRPα on phagocytes, a prerequisite for CD47/SIRPα-dependent down-regulation of CD47+/+ myelin phagocytosis by itself. We then demonstrate that phagocytosis of CD47+/+ myelin is augmented when binding between myelin CD47 and SIRPα on phagocytes is blocked by mAbs against CD47 and SIRPα, indicating that down-regulation of phagocytosis indeed depends on CD47-SIRPα binding. Further, phagocytosis in serum-free medium of CD47+/+ myelin is augmented after knocking down SIRPα levels (SIRPα-KD in phagocytes by lentiviral infection with SIRPα-shRNA, whereas phagocytosis of myelin that lacks CD47 (CD47-/- is not. Thus, myelin CD47 produces SIRPα-dependent down-regulation of CD47+/+ myelin phagocytosis in phagocytes

  15. The effect of propylthiouracil on function of phagocytic peripheral blood cells in persons with thyroid hyperfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đukić Aleksandar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. It is known that hyperthyroidism as well as thyrosuppressive therapy can influence the cells of immunological system. Objective. To examine the function of phagocyte cells in persons with hyperthyroidism and to examine if propylthiouracil (PTU influences this function. Method. The study included 15 patients with hyperthyroidism and 10 healthy persons. The parameters of phagocytic activity of mononuclear and polymorphonuclear leucocytes were tested by method of ingestion of particles of inactivated yeast labeled with neutral-red. Results. It was demonstrated that patients with hyperthyroidism, before the onset of therapy as well as 14 days after introduction of PTU, had decreased number of leucocytes (before PTU: 6.7±3.2Ч109/l, after PTU: 6.1±2.0Ч109/l and control: 8.0±1.6Ч109/l; p=0.039, PMN leucocytes (before PTU: 3.9±2,4 Ч109/l, after PTU: 3.5±1.6Ч109/l and control: 4.8±0.9Ч109/l; p=0.037 and number of phagocyte PMN cells (before PTU: 0.9±0.9Ч109/l, after PTU: 0.9±0.7Ч109/l and control: 1.3±0.6 Ч109/l; p<0,05, but they had increased index of phagocytosis (before PTU: 2.0±0.2, after PTU: 1.9±0.2 and control: 1.7±0.2; p=0.029, while capacity of phagocytosis remained unchanged (before PTU: 1.9±1.7Ч109/l, after PTU: 1.6±1.9Ч109/l and control: 2.4±1.4Ч109/l; p>0.05. The number of mononuclear leucocytes and parameters of phagocytic activity of mononuclear phagocytes in persons with hyperthyroidism did not change significantly in comparison with the control group. Conclusion. Patients with hyperthyroidism had decreased number of leucocytes, PMN leucocytes and number of phagocyte PMN cells, and increased index of phagocytosis, while capacity of phagocytosis remained unchanged. The number and parameters of phagocytic activity of mononuclear leucocytes did not change. PTU therapy had no effect on the examined parameters.

  16. Value of phagocyte function screening for immunotoxicity of nanoparticles in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröhlich, Eleonore

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) present in the environment and in consumer products can cause immunotoxic effects. The immune system is very complex, and in vivo studies are the gold standard for evaluation. Due to the increased amount of NPs that are being developed, cellular screening assays to decrease the amount of NPs that have to be tested in vivo are highly needed. Effects on the unspecific immune system, such as effects on phagocytes, might be suitable for screening for immunotoxicity because these cells mediate unspecific and specific immune responses. They are present at epithelial barriers, in the blood, and in almost all organs. This review summarizes the effects of carbon, metal, and metal oxide NPs used in consumer and medical applications (gold, silver, titanium dioxide, silica dioxide, zinc oxide, and carbon nanotubes) and polystyrene NPs on the immune system. Effects in animal exposures through different routes are compared to the effects on isolated phagocytes. In addition, general problems in the testing of NPs, such as unknown exposure doses, as well as interference with assays are mentioned. NPs appear to induce a specific immunotoxic pattern consisting of the induction of inflammation in normal animals and aggravation of pathologies in disease models. The evaluation of particle action on several phagocyte functions in vitro may provide an indication on the potency of the particles to induce immunotoxicity in vivo. In combination with information on realistic exposure levels, in vitro studies on phagocytes may provide useful information on the health risks of NPs.

  17. Value of phagocyte function screening for immunotoxicity of nanoparticles in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fröhlich E

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Eleonore Fröhlich Center for Medical Research, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria Abstract: Nanoparticles (NPs present in the environment and in consumer products can cause immunotoxic effects. The immune system is very complex, and in vivo studies are the gold standard for evaluation. Due to the increased amount of NPs that are being developed, cellular screening assays to decrease the amount of NPs that have to be tested in vivo are highly needed. Effects on the unspecific immune system, such as effects on phagocytes, might be suitable for screening for immunotoxicity because these cells mediate unspecific and specific immune responses. They are present at epithelial barriers, in the blood, and in almost all organs. This review summarizes the effects of carbon, metal, and metal oxide NPs used in consumer and medical applications (gold, silver, titanium dioxide, silica dioxide, zinc oxide, and carbon nanotubes and polystyrene NPs on the immune system. Effects in animal exposures through different routes are compared to the effects on isolated phagocytes. In addition, general problems in the testing of NPs, such as unknown exposure doses, as well as interference with assays are mentioned. NPs appear to induce a specific immunotoxic pattern consisting of the induction of inflammation in normal animals and aggravation of pathologies in disease models. The evaluation of particle action on several phagocyte functions in vitro may provide an indication on the potency of the particles to induce immunotoxicity in vivo. In combination with information on realistic exposure levels, in vitro studies on phagocytes may provide useful information on the health risks of NPs. Keywords: immunotoxicity, phagocytes, cytokines, respiratory burst, nitric oxide generation, phagocytosis

  18. A radiolabel release microassay for phagocytic killing of Candida albicans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bistoni, F.; Baccarini, M.; Blasi, E.; Marconi, P.; Puccetti, P.

    1982-01-01

    The chromium-51 release technique for quantifying intracellular killing of radiolabelled Candida albicans particles was exploited in a microassay in which murine and human phagocytes acted as effectors under peculiarly simple conditions. At appropriate effector: target ratios and with a 4 h incubation, up to 50% specific chromium release could be detected in the supernatant with no need for opsonization or lysis of phagocytes. This simple microassay permits easy-to-perform, simultaneous testing of a variety of different phagocytes even if only available in limited amounts, and provides an objective measurement of intracellular killing of Candida albicans. (Auth.)

  19. Iron inhibits respiratory burst of peritoneal phagocytes in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotfryd, Kamil; Jurek, Aleksandra; Kubit, Piotr

    2011-01-01

    Objective. This study examines the effects of iron ions Fe(3+) on the respiratory burst of phagocytes isolated from peritoneal effluents of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients, as an in vitro model of iron overload in end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Material and Methods....... Respiratory burst of peritoneal phagocytes was measured by chemiluminescence method. Results. At the highest used concentration of iron ions Fe(3+) (100 µM), free radicals production by peritoneal phagocytes was reduced by 90% compared to control. Conclusions. Iron overload may increase the risk of infectious...

  20. Cortactin is involved in the entry of Coxiella burnetii into non-phagocytic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana M Rosales

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cortactin is a key regulator of the actin cytoskeleton and is involved in pathogen-host cell interactions. Numerous pathogens exploit the phagocytic process and actin cytoskeleton to infect host cells. Coxiella burnetii, the etiologic agent of Q fever, is internalized by host cells through a molecular mechanism that is poorly understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Here we analyzed the role of different cortactin motifs in the internalization of C. burnetii by non-phagocytic cells. C. burnetii internalization into HeLa cells was significantly reduced when the cells expressed GFP-cortactin W525K, which carries a mutation in the SH3 domain that renders the protein unable to bind targets such as N-WASP. However, internalization was unaffected when the cells expressed the W22A mutant, which has a mutation in the N-terminal acidic region that destroys the protein's ability to bind and activate Arp2/3. We also determined whether the phosphorylation status of cortactin is important for internalization. Expression of GFP-cortactin 3F, which lacks phosphorylatable tyrosines, significantly increased internalization of C. burnetii, while expression of GFP-cortactin 3D, a phosphotyrosine mimic, did not affect it. In contrast, expression of GFP-cortactin 2A, which lacks phosphorylatable serines, inhibited C. burnetii internalization, while expression of GFP-cortactin SD, a phosphoserine mimic, did not affect it. Interestingly, inhibitors of Src kinase and the MEK-ERK kinase pathway blocked internalization. In fact, both kinases reached maximal activity at 15 min of C. burnetii infection, after which activity decreased to basal levels. Despite the decrease in kinase activity, cortactin phosphorylation at Tyr421 reached a peak at 1 h of infection. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that the SH3 domain of cortactin is implicated in C. burnetii entry into HeLa cells. Furthermore, cortactin phosphorylation at serine and dephosphorylation

  1. Birth Order and Activity Level in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Warren O.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Studied 7,018 children between birth and 7 years and 81 children of 5-8 years to test the hypothesis that birth order is negatively related to motor activity level. Activity level declined linearly across birth position, so that early-borns were rated as more active than later-borns. (RJC)

  2. Clearance and binding of radiolabeled glycoproteins by cells of the murine mononuclear phagocyte system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imber, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    The clearance and binding of radiolabeled lactoferrin and fast α 2 -macroglobulin were studied. Both glycoproteins cleared rapidly following intravenous injection in mice, and both bound specifically to discrete receptors on murine peritoneal macrophages. The simultaneous presence of excess, unlabeled ligands specific for receptors recognizing terminal fucose, mannose, N-acetylglucosamine or galactose residues did not inhibit the clearance or binding of either lactoferrin or fast-α 2 M. The clearance and binding of enzymatically defucosylated lactoferrin was indistinguishable from native lactoferrin, indicating that terminal α(1-3)-linked fucose on lactoferrin is not necessary for receptor recognition. The clearance and binding of two fast -α 2 M forms, α 2 M-trypsin and α 2 M-MeNH 2 cross compete with each other. Saturation binding studies indicated that the total binding of mannosyl -BSA, fusocyl-BSA, and N-acetylglucosaminyl-BSA to macrophages activated by BCG was approximately 15% of the levels observed with inflammatory macrophages elicited by thioglycollate broth. Cross-competition binding studies demonstrated a common surface receptor mediated binding of all three neoglycoprotein ligands and was identical to the receptor on mononuclear phagocytes that binds mannosyl- and N-acetylglucosaminyl-terminated glycoproteins. These results suggest that difference between discrete states of macrophage function may be correlated with selective changes in levels of the surface receptor for mannose-containing glycoproteins

  3. Activity Level Change Detection for Persistent Surveillance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, F; Bush, L. A

    2004-01-01

    .... Instead of traditional target tracking, this approach utilizes GMTI data as moving spots on the ground to estimate the level of activities and detect unusual activities such as military deployments...

  4. The specificity of immune priming in silkworm, Bombyx mori, is mediated by the phagocytic ability of granular cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Gongqing; Li, Mei; Liu, Yi; Ding, Ying; Yi, Yunhong

    2015-10-01

    In the past decade, the phenomenon of immune priming was documented in many invertebrates in a large number of studies; however, in most of these studies, behavioral evidence was used to identify the immune priming. The underlying mechanism and the degree of specificity of the priming response remain unclear. We studied the mechanism of immune priming in the larvae of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, and analyzed the specificity of the priming response using two closely related Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria (Photorhabdus luminescens TT01 and P. luminescens H06) and one Gram-positive pathogenic bacterium (Bacillus thuringiensis HD-1). Primed with heat-killed bacteria, the B. mori larvae were more likely to survive subsequent homologous exposure (the identical bacteria used in the priming and in the subsequent challenge) than heterologous (different bacteria used in the priming and subsequent exposure) exposure to live bacteria. This result indicated that the B. mori larvae possessed a strong immune priming response and revealed a degree of specificity to TT01, H06 and HD-1 bacteria. The degree of enhanced immune protection was positively correlated with the level of phagocytic ability of the granular cells and the antibacterial activity of the cell-free hemolymph. Moreover, the granular cells of the immune-primed larvae increased the phagocytosis of a previously encountered bacterial strain compared with other bacteria. Thus, the enhanced immune protection of the B. mori larvae after priming was mediated by the phagocytic ability of the granular cells and the antibacterial activity of the hemolymph; the specificity of the priming response was primarily attributed to the phagocytosis of bacteria by the granular cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Zebrafish kidney phagocytes utilize macropinocytosis and Ca+-dependent endocytic mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Hohn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The innate immune response constitutes the first line of defense against invading pathogens and consists of a variety of immune defense mechanisms including active endocytosis by macrophages and granulocytes. Endocytosis can be used as a reliable measure of selective and non-selective mechanisms of antigen uptake in the early phase of an immune response. Numerous assays have been developed to measure this response in a variety of mammalian and fish species. The small size of the zebrafish has prevented the large-scale collection of monocytes/macrophages and granulocytes for these endocytic assays. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Pooled zebrafish kidney hematopoietic tissues were used as a source of phagocytic cells for flow-cytometry based endocytic assays. FITC-Dextran, Lucifer Yellow and FITC-Edwardsiella ictaluri were used to evaluate selective and non-selective mechanisms of uptake in zebrafish phagocytes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Zebrafish kidney phagocytes characterized as monocytes/macrophages, neutrophils and lymphocytes utilize macropinocytosis and Ca(2+-dependant endocytosis mechanisms of antigen uptake. These cells do not appear to utilize a mannose receptor. Heat-killed Edwardsiella ictaluri induces cytoskeletal interactions for internalization in zebrafish kidney monocytes/macrophages and granulocytes. The proposed method is easy to implement and should prove especially useful in immunological, toxicological and epidemiological research.

  6. In vitro formation of osteoclasts from long-term cultures of bone marrow mononuclear phagocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, E.H.; Van der Meer, J.W.; van de Gevel, J.S.; Gribnau, J.C.; Thesingh, G.W.; van Furth, R.

    1982-01-01

    The origin of osteoclasts was studied in an in vitro model using organ cultures of periosteum-free embryonic mouse long-bone primordia, which were co-cultured with various cell populations. The bone rudiments were freed of their periosteum-perichondrium by collagenase treatment in a stage before cartilage erosion and osteoclast formation, and co-cultured for 7 d with either embryonic liver or mononuclear phagocytes from various sources. Light and electron microscopic examination of the cultures showed that mineralized matrix-resorbing osteoclasts developed only in bones co-cultured with embryonic liver or with cultured bone marrow mononuclear phagocytes but not when co-cultured with blood monocytes or resident or exudate peritoneal macrophages. Osteoclasts developed from the weakly adherent, but not from the strongly adherent cells of bone marrow cultures, whereas 1,000 rad irradiation destroyed the capacity of such cultures to form osteoclasts. In bone cultures to which no other cells were added, osteoclasts were virtually absent. Bone-resorbing activity of in vitro formed osteoclasts was demonstrated by 45 Ca release studies. These studies demonstrate that osteoclasts develop from cells present in cultures of proliferating mononuclear phagocytes and that, at least in our system, monocytes and macrophages are unable to form osteoclasts. The most likely candidates for osteoclast precursor cells seem to be monoblasts and promonocytes

  7. Enhancement in ex vivo phagocytic capacity of peritoneal leukocytes in mice by oral delivery of various lactic-acid-producing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeonhee; Lee, Taik-Soo

    2005-01-01

    Lactic-acid-producing bacteria (LABs) are known to have immunomodulating activity. In the current study, various LABs were tested for their immunity-enhancing activity, especially the phagocytic activity of leukocytes. Viable but not heat-killed cells of Weissella kimchii strain PL9001, Lactobacillus fermentum strain PL9005, and L. plantarum strain PL9011 significantly increased the ex vivo phagocytic capacity of mouse peritoneal leukocytes to ingest fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled Escherichia coli in a strain-dependent manner. Results of this and previous studies suggest these LABs as candidates for new probiotics. This is the first report of the enhancement of peritoneal leukocyte activity of these species.

  8. Apoptosis as a post-phagocytic winnowing mechanism in a coral-dinoflagellate mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Simon R; Weis, Virginia M

    2009-01-01

    This study was aimed at detecting apoptosis as a post-phagocytic mechanism of symbiont selection during the onset of symbiosis in larvae of the scleractinian coral Fungia scutaria. Larvae were infected with one of three Symbiodinium types: freshly isolated homologous ITS-type C1f from adult F. scutaria, heterologous C31 from adult Montipora capitata, known to be unable to successfully colonize F. scutaria larvae, and type B1 from the symbiotic sea anemone Aiptasia spp. Apoptosis was detected by the activation of caspases, enzymes specific to apoptosis. Caspase activity was measured in situ by cleavage of a specific fluorophore and detection with confocal microscopy. At 6 h post infection, there was a significant increase in caspase activation in gastrodermal cells in C31-infected larvae, compared with larvae infected with C1f or B1 types. Compared with control larvae infected with C31, which had decreased infection rates present by 24 h post infection, when C31-infected larvae were incubated with a broad-scale caspase inhibitor, the per cent of larvae infected with C31 did not significantly decrease over time. This indicates that the reduction in infection success observed in untreated C31-infected larvae can be rescued with inhibition of caspases and apoptosis. This suggests the presence of a post-phagocytic recognition mechanism. Larvae infected with freshly isolated B1 retained infection success over time compared with C31-infected larvae, suggesting that there is host discrimination between heterologous algae. Initiation of this post-phagocytic response may occur more readily with a highly specific heterologous symbiont type such as C31, compared with a generalist heterologous type such as clade B1.

  9. Actively shielded low level gamma - spectrometric system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrdja, D.; Bikit, I.; Forkapic, S.; Slivka, J.; Veskovic, M.

    2005-01-01

    The results of the adjusting and testing of the actively shielded low level gamma-spectrometry system are presented. The veto action of the shield reduces the background in the energy region of 50 keV to the 2800 keV for about 3 times. (author) [sr

  10. Physical activity level among undergraduate students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physical activity level among undergraduate students in Terengganu, Malaysia using pedometer. N.A.M. Yusoff, S Ganeson, K.F. Ismail, H Juahir, M.R. Shahril, L.P. Lin, A Ahmad, S.W. Wafa, S Harith, R Rajikan ...

  11. Depletion of dendritic cells enhances innate anti-bacterial host defense through modulation of phagocyte homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella E Autenrieth

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs as professional antigen-presenting cells play an important role in the initiation and modulation of the adaptive immune response. However, their role in the innate immune response against bacterial infections is not completely defined. Here we have analyzed the role of DCs and their impact on the innate anti-bacterial host defense in an experimental infection model of Yersinia enterocolitica (Ye. We used CD11c-diphtheria toxin (DT mice to deplete DCs prior to severe infection with Ye. DC depletion significantly increased animal survival after Ye infection. The bacterial load in the spleen of DC-depleted mice was significantly lower than that of control mice throughout the infection. DC depletion was accompanied by an increase in the serum levels of CXCL1, G-CSF, IL-1α, and CCL2 and an increase in the numbers of splenic phagocytes. Functionally, splenocytes from DC-depleted mice exhibited an increased bacterial killing capacity compared to splenocytes from control mice. Cellular studies further showed that this was due to an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS by neutrophils. Adoptive transfer of neutrophils from DC-depleted mice into control mice prior to Ye infection reduced the bacterial load to the level of Ye-infected DC-depleted mice, suggesting that the increased number of phagocytes with additional ROS production account for the decreased bacterial load. Furthermore, after incubation with serum from DC-depleted mice splenocytes from control mice increased their bacterial killing capacity, most likely due to enhanced ROS production by neutrophils, indicating that serum factors from DC-depleted mice account for this effect. In summary, we could show that DC depletion triggers phagocyte accumulation in the spleen and enhances their anti-bacterial killing capacity upon bacterial infection.

  12. Physical activity levels early after lung transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickerson, Lisa; Mathur, Sunita; Singer, Lianne G; Brooks, Dina

    2015-04-01

    Little is known of the early changes in physical activity after lung transplantation. The purposes of this study were: (1) to describe physical activity levels in patients up to 6 months following lung transplantation and (2) to explore predictors of the change in physical activity in that population. This was a prospective cohort study. Physical activity (daily steps and time spent in moderate-intensity activity) was measured using an accelerometer before and after transplantation (at hospital discharge, 3 months, and 6 months). Additional functional measurements included submaximal exercise capacity (measured with the 6-Minute Walk Test), quadriceps muscle torque, and health-related quality of life (measured with the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey 36 [SF-36] and the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire). Thirty-six lung transplant recipients (18 men, 18 women; mean age=49 years, SD=14) completed posttransplant measurements. Before transplant, daily steps were less than a third of the general population. By 3 months posttransplant, the largest improvement in physical activity had occurred, and level of daily steps reached 55% of the general population. The change in daily steps (pretransplant to 3 months posttransplant) was inversely correlated with pretransplant 6-minute walk distance (r=-.48, P=.007), daily steps (r=-.36, P=.05), and SF-36 physical functioning (SF-36 PF) score (r=-.59, P=.0005). The SF-36 PF was a significant predictor of the change in physical activity, accounting for 35% of the variation in change in daily steps. Only individuals who were ambulatory prior to transplant and discharged from the hospital in less than 3 months were included in the study. Physical activity levels improve following lung transplantation, particularly in individuals with low self-reported physical functioning. However, the majority of lung transplant recipients remain sedentary between 3 to 6 months following transplant. The role of exercise

  13. How important is the myeloperoxidase microbicidal system of phagocytic cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thong, Y H

    1982-03-01

    The myeloperoxidase system is presented by most immunology textbooks as a major microbicidal system of phagocytic cells. This theory, however, has not bee subjected to vigorous testing in the clinical arena. Of 14 patients with primary myeloperoxidase deficiency, only 3 had infectious complication. All 3 patients have more plausible explanation than myeloperoxidase deficiency for their infectious complications. Two of these patients were healthy until middle age when they developed systemic candidiasis after the onset of diabetes mellitus. The third patient was an infant with a maturational defect in neutrophil chemotaxis whose infectious complications ceased after the normalization of the chemotactic defect. The results of these "experiments of nature" indicate that the meyloperoxidase system is not a major microbicidal mechanism of phagocytic cells.

  14. Fungal invasion of normally non-phagocytic host cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott G Filler

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Many fungi that cause invasive disease invade host epithelial cells during mucosal and respiratory infection, and subsequently invade endothelial cells during hematogenous infection. Most fungi invade these normally non-phagocytic host cells by inducing their own uptake. Candida albicans hyphae interact with endothelial cells in vitro by binding to N-cadherin on the endothelial cell surface. This binding induces rearrangement of endothelial cell microfilaments, which results in the endocytosis of the organism. The capsule of Cryptococcus neoformans is composed of glucuronoxylomannan, which binds specifically to brain endothelial cells, and appears to mediate both adherence and induction of endocytosis. The mechanisms by which other fungal pathogens induce their own uptake are largely unknown. Some angioinvasive fungi, such as Aspergillus species and the Zygomycetes, invade endothelial cells from the abluminal surface during the initiation of invasive disease, and subsequently invade the luminal surface of endothelial cells during hematogenous dissemination. Invasion of normally non-phagocytic host cells has different consequences, depending on the type of invading fungus. Aspergillus fumigatus blocks apoptosis of pulmonary epithelial cells, whereas Paracoccidioides brasiliensis induces apoptosis of epithelial cells. This review summarizes the mechanisms by which diverse fungal pathogens invade normally non-phagocytic host cells and discusses gaps in our knowledge that provide opportunities for future research.

  15. Role of the phagocytes on embryos: some morphological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, José Roberto Machado Cunha

    2002-06-15

    Phagocytosis in embryos was studied by Elie Metchnikoff more than a century ago and is a pillar of the Phagocytic Theory. Throughout the last three decades phagocytosis in embryos has been studied from different perspectives, which this review describes and analyzes. The following branches were identified: 1) the search for the origin and first identification of well-known adult phagocytes in embryos, including their role after induced injuries; 2) the search for the occurrence of phagocytosis in embryos and its role during their physiological development; and 3) the search for phagocytosis in embryos, as a tool to study identity and self-recognition. It is possible to verify that different cell types are able to undertake phagocytosis, under a variety of different stimuli, and that the nature of what is phagocytosed also varies widely. Although the overwhelming majority of species described among metazoarians are invertebrates, most published articles in this field relate to mammals (particularly mice and humans) and birds (particularly chicks). In order to enrich this field of knowledge, research using a wider variety of vertebrate and invertebrate species should be undertaken. Furthermore, the present knowledge of phagocytosis in embryos needs a revised paradigm capable of embracing all the above-mentioned research trends under a single, more general, biological theory. In this sense, Metchnikoff's Phagocytic Theory, which is based on a broad biological paradigm and is thus capable of dealing with all research trends mentioned herein, should be revisited in order to contribute to this edification. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Selective Biological Responses of Phagocytes and Lungs to Purified Histones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattahi, Fatemeh; Grailer, Jamison J; Lu, Hope; Dick, Rachel S; Parlett, Michella; Zetoune, Firas S; Nuñez, Gabriel; Ward, Peter A

    2017-01-01

    Histones invoke strong proinflammatory responses in many different organs and cells. We assessed biological responses to purified or recombinant histones, using human and murine phagocytes and mouse lungs. H1 had the strongest ability in vitro to induce cell swelling independent of requirements for toll-like receptors (TLRs) 2 or 4. These responses were also associated with lactate dehydrogenase release. H3 and H2B were the strongest inducers of [Ca2+]i elevations in phagocytes. Cytokine and chemokine release from mouse and human phagocytes was predominately a function of H2A and H2B. Double TLR2 and TLR4 knockout (KO) mice had dramatically reduced cytokine release induced in macrophages exposed to individual histones. In contrast, macrophages from single TLR-KO mice showed few inhibitory effects on cytokine production. Using the NLRP3 inflammasome protocol, release of mature IL-1β was predominantly a feature of H1. Acute lung injury following the airway delivery of histones suggested that H1, H2A, and H2B were linked to alveolar leak of albumin and the buildup of polymorphonuclear neutrophils as well as the release of chemokines and cytokines into bronchoalveolar fluids. These results demonstrate distinct biological roles for individual histones in the context of inflammation biology and the requirement of both TLR2 and TLR4. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Are Preschool Children Active Enough? Objectively Measured Physical Activity Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardon, Greet M.; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse M. M.

    2008-01-01

    The present study aimed to describe accelerometer-based physical activity levels in 4- and 5-year-old children (N = 76) on 2 weekdays and 2 weekend days. The children were sedentary for 9.6 hr (85%) daily, while they engaged in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) for 34 min (5%). Only 7% of the children engaged in MVPA for 60 min per…

  18. [Formation of endogenous pyrogen by mononuclear phagocytes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agasarov, L G

    1980-03-01

    Incubation of alveolar macrophages of rabbits and peritoneal macrophages of the abdominal cavity washing of albino mice does not lead to endogenous pyrogen release. Peritoneal macrophages obtained after peritoneal administration to mice of thioglycollate, glycogen or heterologous blood cells do not discharge pyrogen either during incubation without additional stimulation. Macrophages isolated after intraperitoneal administration of heterologous blood cells do not exhibit pyrogenic activity possibly because of a long period of time elapsed after phagocytosis of foreign agents. The triggering of pyrogen formation by macrophages can be effected by means of in vitro phagocytosis of corpuscular particles: staphylococci or heterologous blood cells.

  19. Onset of apoprotein E secretion during differentiation of mouse bone marrow-derived mononuclear phagocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werb, Z.; Chin, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    A number of macrophage functions were sequentially expressed when the bone marrow precursors of mononuclear phagocytes differentiated in culture in the presence of a specific growth factor, colony-stimulating factor-1. The authors defined the expression of apoprotein E (ApoE), a major secreted protein of resident peritoneal macrophages, during maturation of adherent bone marrow-derived mononuclear phagocytes into macrophages. By 5 d the bone marrow macrophages were active secretory cells, but few cells contained intracellular immunoreactive ApoE, and little, if any, ApoE was secreted. ApoE secretion was initiated at 9 d, and this correlated with an increase in the percentage of macrophages containing intracellular ApoE. The onset of ApoE secretion was selective, and little change occurred in the other major secreted proteins detected by [ 35 S]methionine incorporation. In parallel, the high rate of plasminogen activator secretion, which peaked at 7 d, decreased markedly. ApoE secretion was not associated with altered expression of the macrophage surface antigen, la, or with secretion of fibronectin. Virtually all cells in independent colonies of bone marrow-derived macrophages eventually expressed ApoE. The proliferating monocyte/macrophage-like cell lines P388D1, J774.2, WHEI-3, RAW 264.1, and MGI.D + secreted little or no ApoE. These data establish that ApoE secretion is developmentally regulated

  20. Involvement of activated leukocytes in the regulation of plasma levels of acute phase proteins in microgravity simulation experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larina, Olga; Bekker, Anna; Turin-Kuzmin, Alexey

    2016-07-01

    experiment. The effects obtained in this survey suggest the enhancement of the synthesis of active oxygen species by blood phagocytes at the initial stages of adaptation to immersion conditions. The gain of chemiluminescence signal correlated with maximal augment in APP concentrations registered in the course of 4-day immersion. Moreover, in the only case with zero effects in chemiluminescent reply stable APP levels were obtained. The data from functional studies performed with phagocytic cells in the experiment with dry immersion corroborate their implication in acute phase mechanisms participating in the adaptation to simulated microgravity conditions.

  1. New Insights into the Immunobiology of Mononuclear Phagocytic Cells and Their Relevance to the Pathogenesis of Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Maria Sanmarco

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Macrophages are the primary immune cells that reside within the myocardium, suggesting that these mononuclear phagocytes are essential in the orchestration of cardiac immunity and homeostasis. Independent of the nature of the injury, the heart triggers leukocyte activation and recruitment. However, inflammation is harmful to this vital terminally differentiated organ with extremely poor regenerative capacity. As such, cardiac tissue has evolved particular strategies to increase the stress tolerance and minimize the impact of inflammation. In this sense, growing evidences show that mononuclear phagocytic cells are particularly dynamic during cardiac inflammation or infection and would actively participate in tissue repair and functional recovery. They respond to soluble mediators such as metabolites or cytokines, which play central roles in the timing of the intrinsic cardiac stress response. During myocardial infarction two distinct phases of monocyte influx have been identified. Upon infarction, the heart modulates its chemokine expression profile that sequentially and actively recruits inflammatory monocytes, first, and healing monocytes, later. In the same way, a sudden switch from inflammatory macrophages (with microbicidal effectors toward anti-inflammatory macrophages occurs within the myocardium very shortly after infection with Trypanosoma cruzi, the causal agent of Chagas cardiomyopathy. While in sterile injury, healing response is necessary to stop tissue damage; during an intracellular infection, the anti-inflammatory milieu in infected hearts would promote microbial persistence. The balance of mononuclear phagocytic cells seems to be also dynamic in atherosclerosis influencing plaque initiation and fate. This review summarizes the participation of mononuclear phagocyte system in cardiovascular diseases, keeping in mind that the immune system evolved to promote the reestablishment of tissue homeostasis following infection/injury, and

  2. Suppression of annexin A2 by prostaglandin E₂ impairs phagocytic ability of peritoneal macrophages in women with endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meng-Hsing; Chuang, Pei-Chin; Lin, Yiu-Juian; Tsai, Shaw-Jenq

    2013-04-01

    Is annexin A2 involved in the reduced phagocytic ability of macrophages in endometriosis? Data from women with endometriosis and a murine model of the disease show that expression of annexin A2 in peritoneal macrophages is inhibited by prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and this impairs the phagocytic ability of macrophages. Endometriosis is a chronic inflammatory disease that recruits many immune cells, especially macrophages, to the peritoneal cavity. The phagocytic ability of peritoneal macrophages isolated from women with endometriosis is reduced. A laboratory study. Thirty-five patients (20 with and 15 without endometriosis) of reproductive age with normal menstrual cycles were recruited. Peritoneal macrophages isolated from women with or without endometriosis were cultured and treated with vehicle, PGE2 and different EP receptor agonists, and the expression of annexin A2 was quantified by RT-PCR and western blotting. Annexin A2 was knocked down (by small interfering RNA) in normal macrophages or overexpressed (by treatment with recombinant protein) in endometriotic macrophages and their phagocytic ability was measured by flow cytometry. Peritoneal macrophages were isolated from a mouse model of endometriosis and treated with PGE2 or cyclo-oxygenase (COX) inhibitors, and annexin A2 mRNA was quantified. Levels of annexin A2 were markedly reduced in peritoneal macrophages from women with endometriosis versus controls (mRNA: P endometriosis versus control) via the EP2/EP4 receptor-dependent signaling pathway. Treatment with PGE2 or knockdown of annexin A2 inhibited the phagocytic ability of macrophages (P peritoneal macrophages were markedly reduced in mice treated with PGE2 (P peritoneal macrophages (P peritoneal cells from patients with endometriosis or that their endometriotic fluid contains increased amounts of PGE2 when compared with control subjects. Inhibiting PGE2 signaling, in order to restore or enhance the phagocytic capability of macrophages, may represent a new

  3. Immune Defenses of the Invasive Apple Snail Pomacea canaliculata (Caenogastropoda, Ampullariidae: Phagocytic Hemocytes in the Circulation and the Kidney.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A Cueto

    Full Text Available Hemocytes in the circulation and kidney islets, as well as their phagocytic responses to microorganisms and fluorescent beads, have been studied in Pomacea canaliculata, using flow cytometry, light microscopy (including confocal laser scanning microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Three circulating hemocyte types (hyalinocytes, agranulocytes and granulocytes were distinguished by phase contrast microscopy of living cells and after light and electron microscopy of fixed material. Also, three different populations of circulating hemocytes were separated by flow cytometry, which corresponded to the three hemocyte types. Hyalinocytes showed a low nucleus/cytoplasm ratio, and no apparent granules in stained material, but showed granules of moderate electron density under TEM (L granules and at least some L granules appear acidic when labeled with LysoTracker Red. Both phagocytic and non-phagocytic hyalinocytes lose most (if not all L granules when exposed to microorganisms in vitro. The phagosomes formed differed whether hyalinocytes were exposed to yeasts or to Gram positive or Gram negative bacteria. Agranulocytes showed a large nucleus/cytoplasm ratio and few or no granules. Granulocytes showed a low nucleus/cytoplasm ratio and numerous eosinophilic granules after staining. These granules are electron dense and rod-shaped under TEM (R granules. Granulocytes may show merging of R granules into gigantic ones, particularly when exposed to microorganisms. Fluorescent bead exposure of sorted hemocytes showed phagocytic activity in hyalinocytes, agranulocytes and granulocytes, but the phagocytic index was significantly higher in hyalinocytes. Extensive hemocyte aggregates ('islets' occupy most renal hemocoelic spaces and hyalinocyte-like cells are the most frequent component in them. Presumptive glycogen deposits were observed in most hyalinocytes in renal islets (they also occur in the circulation but less frequently and may mean that

  4. Cell-Type Specific Determinants of NRAMP1 Expression in Professional Phagocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu F. M. Cellier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 1 (Nramp1 or Solute carrier 11 member 1, Slc11a1 transports divalent metals across the membrane of late endosomes and lysosomes in professional phagocytes. Nramp1 represents an ancient eukaryotic cell-autonomous defense whereas the gene duplication that yielded Nramp1 and Nramp2 predated the origin of Sarcopterygians (lobe-finned fishes and tetrapods. SLC11A1 genetic polymorphisms associated with human resistance to tuberculosis consist of potential regulatory variants. Herein, current knowledge of the regulation of SLC11A1 gene expression is reviewed and comprehensive analysis of ENCODE data available for hematopoietic cell-types suggests a hypothesis for the regulation of SLC11A1 expression during myeloid development and phagocyte functional polarization. SLC11A1 is part of a 34.6 kb CTCF-insulated locus scattered with predicted regulatory elements: a 3' enhancer, a large 5' enhancer domain and four elements spread around the transcription start site (TSS, including several C/EBP and PU.1 sites. SLC11A1 locus ends appear mobilized by ETS-related factors early during myelopoiesis; activation of both 5' and 3' enhancers in myelo-monocytic cells correlate with transcription factor binding at the TSS. Characterizing the corresponding cis/trans determinants functionally will establish the mechanisms involved and possibly reveal genetic variation that impacts susceptibility to infectious or immune diseases.

  5. The perivascular phagocyte of the mouse pineal gland: An antigen-presenting cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Morten; Rath, Martin F; Klein, David C

    2006-01-01

    The perivascular space of the rat pineal gland is known to contain phagocytic cells that are immunoreactive for leukocyte antigens, and thus they appear to belong to the macrophage/microglial cell line. These cells also contain MHC class II proteins. We investigated this cell type in the pineal g...... for MHC class II protein and for CD68, a marker of monocytes/phagocytes. This study verifies that perivascular phagocytes with antigen-presenting properties are present in the mouse pineal gland....

  6. Hacker Within! Ehrlichia chaffeensis Effector Driven Phagocyte Reprogramming Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taslima Taher Lina

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Ehrlichia chaffeensis is a small, gram negative, obligately intracellular bacterium that preferentially infects mononuclear phagocytes. It is the etiologic agent of human monocytotropic ehrlichiosis (HME, an emerging life-threatening tick-borne zoonosis. Mechanisms by which E. chaffeensis establishes intracellular infection, and avoids host defenses are not well understood, but involve functionally relevant host-pathogen interactions associated with tandem and ankyrin repeat effector proteins. In this review, we discuss the recent advances in our understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms that underlie Ehrlichia host cellular reprogramming strategies that enable intracellular survival.

  7. Mononuclear phagocytes as a target, not a barrier, for drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Seok-Beom; Song, Yoonsung; Kim, Hyung Jin; Ain, Qurrat Ul; Kim, Yong-Hee

    2017-08-10

    Mononuclear phagocytes have been generally recognized as a barrier to drug delivery. Recently, a new understanding of mononuclear phagocytes (MPS) ontogeny has surfaced and their functions in disease have been unveiled, demonstrating the need for re-evaluation of perspectives on mononuclear phagocytes in drug delivery. In this review, we described mononuclear phagocyte biology and focus on their accumulation mechanisms in disease sites with explanations of monocyte heterogeneity. In the 'MPS as a barrier' section, we summarized recent studies on mechanisms to avoid phagocytosis based on two different biological principles: protein adsorption and self-recognition. In the 'MPS as a target' section, more detailed descriptions were given on mononuclear phagocyte-targeted drug delivery systems and their applications to various diseases. Collectively, we emphasize in this review that mononuclear phagocytes are potent targets for future drug delivery systems. Mononuclear phagocyte-targeted delivery systems should be created with an understanding of mononuclear phagocyte ontogeny and pathology. Each specific subset of phagocytes should be targeted differently by location and function for improved disease-drug delivery while avoiding RES clearance such as Kupffer cells and splenic macrophages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Csf1r-mApple Transgene Expression and Ligand Binding In Vivo Reveal Dynamics of CSF1R Expression within the Mononuclear Phagocyte System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Catherine A; Rojo, Rocio; Raper, Anna; Sauter, Kristin A; Lisowski, Zofia M; Grabert, Kathleen; Bain, Calum C; Davis, Gemma M; Louwe, Pieter A; Ostrowski, Michael C; Hume, David A; Pridans, Clare; Jenkins, Stephen J

    2018-03-15

    CSF1 is the primary growth factor controlling macrophage numbers, but whether expression of the CSF1 receptor differs between discrete populations of mononuclear phagocytes remains unclear. We have generated a Csf1r -mApple transgenic fluorescent reporter mouse that, in combination with lineage tracing, Alexa Fluor 647-labeled CSF1-Fc and CSF1, and a modified Δ Csf1- enhanced cyan fluorescent protein (ECFP) transgene that lacks a 150 bp segment of the distal promoter, we have used to dissect the differentiation and CSF1 responsiveness of mononuclear phagocyte populations in situ. Consistent with previous Csf1r- driven reporter lines, Csf1r -mApple was expressed in blood monocytes and at higher levels in tissue macrophages, and was readily detectable in whole mounts or with multiphoton microscopy. In the liver and peritoneal cavity, uptake of labeled CSF1 largely reflected transgene expression, with greater receptor activity in mature macrophages than monocytes and tissue-specific expression in conventional dendritic cells. However, CSF1 uptake also differed between subsets of monocytes and discrete populations of tissue macrophages, which in macrophages correlated with their level of dependence on CSF1 receptor signaling for survival rather than degree of transgene expression. A double Δ Csf1r -ECFP- Csf1r -mApple transgenic mouse distinguished subpopulations of microglia in the brain, and permitted imaging of interstitial macrophages distinct from alveolar macrophages, and pulmonary monocytes and conventional dendritic cells. The Csf1r- mApple mice and fluorescently labeled CSF1 will be valuable resources for the study of macrophage and CSF1 biology, which are compatible with existing EGFP-based reporter lines. Copyright © 2018 The Authors.

  9. Far beyond Phagocytosis: Phagocyte-Derived Extracellular Traps Act Efficiently against Protozoan Parasites In Vitro and In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana M. R. Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Professional mononuclear phagocytes such as polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN, monocytes, and macrophages are considered as the first line of defence against invasive pathogens. The formation of extracellular traps (ETs by activated mononuclear phagocytes is meanwhile well accepted as an effector mechanism of the early host innate immune response acting against microbial infections. Recent investigations showed evidence that ETosis is a widely spread effector mechanism in vertebrates and invertebrates being utilized to entrap and kill bacteria, fungi, viruses, and protozoan parasites. ETs are released in response to intact protozoan parasites or to parasite-specific antigens in a controlled cell death process. Released ETs consist of nuclear DNA as backbone adorned with histones, antimicrobial peptides, and phagocyte-specific granular enzymes thereby producing a sticky extracellular matrix capable of entrapping and killing pathogens. This review summarizes recent data on protozoa-induced ETosis. Special attention will be given to molecular mechanisms of protozoa-induced ETosis and on its consequences for the parasites successful reproduction and life cycle accomplishment.

  10. Divergence of macrophage phagocytic and antimicrobial programs in leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Dennis; Cruz, Daniel; Teles, Rosane M B; Lee, Delphine J; Ochoa, Maria Teresa; Krutzik, Stephan R; Chun, Rene; Schenk, Mirjam; Zhang, Xiaoran; Ferguson, Benjamin G; Burdick, Anne E; Sarno, Euzenir N; Rea, Thomas H; Hewison, Martin; Adams, John S; Cheng, Genhong; Modlin, Robert L

    2009-10-22

    Effective innate immunity against many microbial pathogens requires macrophage programs that upregulate phagocytosis and direct antimicrobial pathways, two functions generally assumed to be coordinately regulated. We investigated the regulation of these key functions in human blood-derived macrophages. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) induced the phagocytic pathway, including the C-type lectin CD209 and scavenger receptors, resulting in phagocytosis of mycobacteria and oxidized low-density lipoprotein. IL-15 induced the vitamin D-dependent antimicrobial pathway and CD209, yet the cells were less phagocytic. The differential regulation of macrophage functional programs was confirmed by analysis of leprosy lesions: the macrophage phagocytosis pathway was prominent in the clinically progressive, multibacillary form of the disease, whereas the vitamin D-dependent antimicrobial pathway predominated in the self-limited form and in patients undergoing reversal reactions from the multibacillary to the self-limited form. These data indicate that macrophage programs for phagocytosis and antimicrobial responses are distinct and differentially regulated in innate immunity to bacterial infections.

  11. HIV impairs opsonic phagocytic clearance of pregnancy-associated malaria parasites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Keen

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Primigravid (PG women are at risk for pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM. Multigravid (MG women acquire protection against PAM; however, HIV infection impairs this protective response. Protection against PAM is associated with the production of IgG specific for variant surface antigens (VSA-PAM expressed by chondroitin sulfate A (CSA-adhering parasitized erythrocytes (PEs. We hypothesized that VSA-PAM-specific IgG confers protection by promoting opsonic phagocytosis of PAM isolates and that HIV infection impairs this response. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We assessed the ability of VSA-PAM-specific IgG to promote opsonic phagocytosis of CSA-adhering PEs and the impact of HIV infection on this process. Opsonic phagocytosis assays were performed using the CSA-adherent parasite line CS2 and human and murine macrophages. CS2 PEs were opsonized with plasma or purified IgG subclasses from HIV-negative or HIV-infected PG and MG Kenyan women or sympatric men. Levels of IgG subclasses specific for VSA-PAM were compared in HIV-negative and HIV-infected women by flow cytometry. Plasma from HIV-negative MG women, but not PG women or men, promoted the opsonic phagocytosis of CSA-binding PEs (p < 0.001. This function depended on VSA-PAM-specific plasma IgG1 and IgG3. HIV-infected MG women had significantly lower plasma opsonizing activity (median phagocytic index 46 [interquartile range (IQR 18-195] versus 251 [IQR 93-397], p = 0.006 and levels of VSA-PAM-specific IgG1 (mean fluorescence intensity [MFI] 13 [IQR 11-20] versus 30 [IQR 23-41], p < 0.001 and IgG3 (MFI 17 [IQR 14-23] versus 28 [IQR 23-37], p < 0.001 than their HIV-negative MG counterparts. CONCLUSIONS: Opsonic phagocytosis may represent a novel correlate of protection against PAM. HIV infection may increase the susceptibility of multigravid women to PAM by impairing this clearance mechanism.

  12. PSA Level 2 activities for RBMK reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubler, R.

    1998-01-01

    Probabilistic safety analyses (PSAs) of the boiling water graphite moderated pressure tube reactors (RBMKs) have been developed only recently and they are limited to Level 1. Activities at the IAEA were first motivated because of the difficulties to characterize core damage for RBMK reactors. Core damage probability is used in documents of the IAEA as a convenient single valued measure, for example for probabilistic safety criteria. The limited number of PSAs that have been completed for the RBMK reactors have shown that several special features of these channel type reactors necessitate revisiting of the characterization of core damage for these reactors. Furthermore, it has become increasingly evident that detailed deterministic analysis of DBAs and beyond design basis accidents reveal considerable insights into RBMK response to various accident conditions. These analyses can also help in better characterizing the outstanding phenomenological uncertainties, improved EOPs and AM strategies, including potential risk-beneficial accident negative backfits. The deterministic efforts should be focused first on elucidating accident progression processes and phenomena, and second on finding, qualifying and implementing procedures to minimize the risk of severe accident states The IAEA PSA procedures were mainly developed in New of vessel type LWRs, and would therefore require extensions to make them directly applicable. to channel type reactors. (author) (author)

  13. Reciprocal upregulation of scavenger receptors complicates interpretation of nanoparticle uptake in non-phagocytic cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prapainop, Kanlaya; Miao, Rong; Åberg, Christoffer; Salvati, Anna; Dawson, Kenneth A

    2017-01-01

    Nanoparticles have great potential as drug delivery vehicles or as imaging agents for treatment and diagnosis of various diseases. It is therefore crucial to understand how nanoparticles are taken up by cells, both phagocytic and non-phagocytic. Small interference RNA has previously been used to

  14. A specific primed immune response in Drosophila is dependent on phagocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linh N Pham

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila melanogaster, like other invertebrates, relies solely on its innate immune response to fight invading microbes; by definition, innate immunity lacks adaptive characteristics. However, we show here that priming Drosophila with a sublethal dose of Streptococcus pneumoniae protects against an otherwise-lethal second challenge of S. pneumoniae. This protective effect exhibits coarse specificity for S. pneumoniae and persists for the life of the fly. Although not all microbial challenges induced this specific primed response, we find that a similar specific protection can be elicited by Beauveria bassiana, a natural fly pathogen. To characterize this primed response, we focused on S. pneumoniae-induced protection. The mechanism underlying this protective effect requires phagocytes and the Toll pathway. However, activation of the Toll pathway is not sufficient for priming-induced protection. This work contradicts the paradigm that insect immune responses cannot adapt and will promote the search for similar responses overlooked in organisms with an adaptive immune response.

  15. The atherogenic bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis evades circulating phagocytes by adhering to erythrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belstrøm, Daniel; Holmstrup, Palle; Damgaard, Christian

    2011-01-01

    A relationship between periodontitis and coronary heart disease has been investigated intensively. A pathogenic role for the oral bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis has been suggested for both diseases. We examined whether complement activation by P. gingivalis strain ATCC 33277 allows...... the bacterium to adhere to human red blood cells (RBCs) and thereby evade attack by circulating phagocytes. On incubation with normal human serum, the P. gingivalis strain efficiently fixed complement component 3 (C3). Incubation of bacteria with washed whole blood cells suspended in autologous serum resulted...... in a dose- and time-dependent adherence to RBCs. The adherence required functionally intact complement receptor 1 (CR1; also called CD35) on the RBCs and significantly inhibited the uptake of P. gingivalis by neutrophils and B cells within 1 min of incubation (by 64% and 51%, respectively...

  16. DMPD: Regulation of phagocyte migration and recruitment by Src-family kinases. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18385944 Regulation of phagocyte migration and recruitment by Src-family kinases. B...how Regulation of phagocyte migration and recruitment by Src-family kinases. PubmedID 18385944 Title Regulat...ion of phagocyte migration and recruitment by Src-family kinases. Authors Baruzzi

  17. Habitual physical activity levels are positively correlated with CD4 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Habitual physical activity levels are positively correlated with CD4 counts in an ... per month) and functional independence as assessed from the responses to the ... and between CD4 cell counts and total habitual physical activity levels (p ...

  18. Photochemical Targeting Of Phagocytic Trabecular Meshwork Cells Using Chlorin E6 Coupled Microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latina, M. A.; Kobsa, P. H.; Rakestraw, S. L.; Crean, E. A.; Hasan, T.; Yarmush, M. L.

    1989-03-01

    We have investigated a novel and efficient delivery system utilizing photosensitizer-coupled-latex microspheres to photochemically target and kill phagocytic trabecular meshwork (TM) cells. TM cells are the most actively phagocytic cells within the anterior chamber of the eye and are located within an optically accessible discrete band. This delivery system, along with the property of cell photocytosis, will achieve double selectivity by combining preferential localization of the photosensitizer to the target cells with spatial localization of illumination on the target cells. All experiments were performed with preconfluent bovine TM cells, 3rd to 4th passage, plated in 15 mm wells. Chlorin e6 monoethylene diamine monoamide was conjugated to the surface of 1.0 Am MX Duke Scientific fluorescent latex microspheres. Spectroscopic analysis revealed an average of 1.3 x 10 -17 moles of chlorin e6 per microsphere. TM cells were incubated for 18 hours with 5 x 10 7 microspheres/ml in MEM with 10% FCS, washed with MEM, and irradiated through fresh media using an argon-pumped dye laser emitting .2 W at 660 nm. A dose-survival study indicated that energy doses of 10 J/cm2 or greater resulted in greater than 95% cell death as determined by ethidium bromide exclusion. Cell death could be demonstrated as early as 4 hours post-irradiation. TM cells incubated with a solution of chlorin e6 at a concentration equal to that conjugated to the microspheres showed no cell death. Unirradiated controls also showed no cell death.

  19. ROLE OF MONOCYTE PHAGOCYTIC SYSTEM IN FORMATION OF ANTIVIRAL RESISTANCE IN MICE AFTER PRELIMINARY INJECTION OF CRYOPRESERVED CORD BLOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozhina OYu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Now the task of preventive maintenance and search of biologically active substances, capable to make active the nonspecific immune response, remains an actual during flu epidemic. It has been previously established, that cryopreserved leucoconcentrate of human cord blood (cLHCB can act as modulator of activity of immunity. In the given work there was estimated influence of preventive injection of cLHCB and its components on functional activity of monocyte phagocytic system cells (MPSC in mice in the conditions of the induced influenzal infection. Preliminary introduction of cLHCB and its components 6 months prior to infection by flu virus makes 2 times increase of functional activity of macrophages, preventing inhibition of a nonspecific link of immunity. Thus, cLHCB inhibit of secondary immune deficiency development. The found increase in phagocytic activity of peritoneal cavity cells and 3 times increasesing of CD11b-marker expression after preventive injection of cLHCB testifies to rise of adherence and protective potential of MPSC that is one of possible mechanisms of formation of resistance to a flu virus. It is shown, that intranasal cLHCB injection before development of viral infection it can be o recommended as the method of preventive maintenance of flu.

  20. Quantifying levels of animal activity using camera trap data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rowcliffe, J.M.; Kays, R.; Kranstauber, B.; Carbone, C.; Jansen, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    1.Activity level (the proportion of time that animals spend active) is a behavioural and ecological metric that can provide an indicator of energetics, foraging effort and exposure to risk. However, activity level is poorly known for free-living animals because it is difficult to quantify activity

  1. The Greenlandic sea areas and activity level up to 2025

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Uffe; í Dali, Birita

    2016-01-01

    , petroleum activity, tourism and research/government activity. The last chapter is devoted to summarizing findings about the current developed activity level in the High North sea and coastal regions and the estimated activity level up to 2025. Possible implications for the preparedness system in the High....... It includes an overview of types of vessels and other objects involved in different activities, and the volume of traffic connected to different types of activities, such as fisheries, petroleum, tourism, navy and research. Furthermore, this report estimates the maritime activity level in the area the next...

  2. Do low levels of physical activity in female adolescents cause ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. The increase in obesity levels in South African adolescents is attributed to an energy imbalance such that physical inactivity is causally related to adiposity. However, in some settings obesity occurs in spite of high physical activity levels. Objectives. To examine objectively measured physical activity levels of ...

  3. Platelets retain high levels of active plasminogen activator inhibitor 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helén Brogren

    Full Text Available The vascular fibrinolytic system is crucial for spontaneous lysis of blood clots. Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1, the principal inhibitor of the key fibrinolytic enzyme tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA, is present in platelets at high concentrations. However, the majority of PAI-1 stored in platelets has been considered to be inactive. Our recent finding (Brogren H, et al. Blood 2004 that PAI-1 de novo synthesized in platelets remained active for over 24 h, suggested that PAI-1 stored in the α-granules might be active to a larger extent than previously reported. To re-evaluate this issue, we performed experiments where the fraction of active PAI-1 was estimated by analyzing the tPA-PAI-1 complex formation. In these experiments platelets were lysed with Triton X-100 in the presence of serial dilutions of tPA and subsequently the tPA-PAI-1 complex was evaluated by Western blot. Also, using a non-immunologic assay, tPA was labeled with (125I, and (125I-tPA and (125I-tPA-PAI-1 was quantified by scintigraphy. Interestingly, both methods demonstrated that the majority (>50% of platelet PAI-1 is active. Further analyses suggested that pre-analytical procedures used in previous studies (sonication or freezing/thawing may have substantially reduced the activity of platelet PAI-1, which has lead to an underestimation of the proportion of active PAI-1. Our in vitro results are more compatible with the role of PAI-1 in clot stabilization as demonstrated in physiological and pathophysiological studies.

  4. Human and mouse mononuclear phagocyte networks: a tale of two species?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary eReynolds

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs, monocytes and macrophages are a heterogeneous population of mononuclear phagocytes that are involved in antigen processing and presentation to initiate and regulate immune responses to pathogens, vaccines, tumour and tolerance to self. In addition to their afferent sentinel function, DCs and macrophages are also critical as effectors and coordinators of inflammation and homeostasis in peripheral tissues. Harnessing DCs and macrophages for therapeutic purposes has major implications for infectious disease, vaccination, transplantation, tolerance induction, inflammation and cancer immunotherapy. There has been a paradigm shift in our understanding of the developmental origin and function of the cellular constituents of the mononuclear phagocyte system. Significant progress has been made in tandem in both human and mouse mononuclear phagocyte biology. This progress has been accelerated by comparative biology analysis between mouse and human, which has proved to be an exceptionally fruitful strategy to harmonise findings across species. Such analyses have provided unexpected insights and facilitated productive reciprocal and iterative processes to inform our understanding of human and mouse mononuclear phagocytes. In this review, we discuss the strategies, power and utility of comparative biology approaches to integrate recent advances in human and mouse mononuclear phagocyte biology and its potential to drive forward clinical translation of this knowledge. We also present a functional framework on the parallel organisation of human and mouse mononuclear phagocyte networks.

  5. Prenatal androgen exposure and children's aggressive behavior and activity level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Debra; Pasterski, Vickie; Neufeld, Sharon; Glover, Vivette; O'Connor, Thomas G; Hindmarsh, Peter C; Hughes, Ieuan A; Acerini, Carlo L; Hines, Melissa

    2017-11-01

    Some human behaviors, including aggression and activity level, differ on average for males and females. Here we report findings from two studies investigating possible relations between prenatal androgen and children's aggression and activity level. For study 1, aggression and activity level scores for 43 girls and 38 boys, aged 4 to 11years, with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH, a genetic condition causing increased adrenal androgen production beginning prenatally) were compared to those of similarly-aged, unaffected relatives (41 girls, 31 boys). Girls with CAH scored higher on aggression than unaffected girls, d=0.69, and unaffected boys scored higher on activity level than unaffected girls, d=0.50. No other group differences were significant. For study 2, the relationship of amniotic fluid testosterone to aggression and activity level was investigated in typically-developing children (48 girls, 44 boys), aged 3 to 5years. Boys scored higher than girls on aggression, d=0.41, and activity level, d=0.50. However, amniotic fluid testosterone was not a significant predictor of aggression or activity level for either sex. The results of the two studies provide some support for an influence of prenatal androgen exposure on children's aggressive behavior, but not activity level. The within-sex variation in amniotic fluid testosterone may not be sufficient to allow reliable assessment of relations to aggression or activity level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Do low levels of physical activity in female adolescents cause ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recently Mokabane et al. asserted that black female periurban adolescents exhibited low levels of physical activity and high levels of sedentary behaviour, and that there is a causal, unidirectional, inverse relationship between physical activity and adiposity.[1] However, contrary to their conclusions, the data they presented ...

  7. Perforin-2 is essential for intracellular defense of parenchymal cells and phagocytes against pathogenic bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Ryan M; de Armas, Lesley R; Shiratsuchi, Motoaki; Fiorentino, Desiree G; Olsson, Melissa L; Lichtenheld, Mathias G; Morales, Alejo; Lyapichev, Kirill; Gonzalez, Louis E; Strbo, Natasa; Sukumar, Neelima; Stojadinovic, Olivera; Plano, Gregory V; Munson, George P; Tomic-Canic, Marjana; Kirsner, Robert S; Russell, David G; Podack, Eckhard R

    2015-01-01

    Perforin-2 (MPEG1) is a pore-forming, antibacterial protein with broad-spectrum activity. Perforin-2 is expressed constitutively in phagocytes and inducibly in parenchymal, tissue-forming cells. In vitro, Perforin-2 prevents the intracellular replication and proliferation of bacterial pathogens in these cells. Perforin-2 knockout mice are unable to control the systemic dissemination of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or Salmonella typhimurium and perish shortly after epicutaneous or orogastric infection respectively. In contrast, Perforin-2-sufficient littermates clear the infection. Perforin-2 is a transmembrane protein of cytosolic vesicles -derived from multiple organelles- that translocate to and fuse with bacterium containing vesicles. Subsequently, Perforin-2 polymerizes and forms large clusters of 100 Å pores in the bacterial surface with Perforin-2 cleavage products present in bacteria. Perforin-2 is also required for the bactericidal activity of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and hydrolytic enzymes. Perforin-2 constitutes a novel and apparently essential bactericidal effector molecule of the innate immune system. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06508.001 PMID:26402460

  8. Alzheimer's associated β-amyloid protein inhibits influenza A virus and modulates viral interactions with phagocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell R White

    Full Text Available Accumulation of β-Amyloid (βA is a key pathogenetic factor in Alzheimer's disease; however, the normal function of βA is unknown. Recent studies have shown that βA can inhibit growth of bacteria and fungi. In this paper we show that βA also inhibits replication of seasonal and pandemic strains of H3N2 and H1N1 influenza A virus (IAV in vitro. The 42 amino acid fragment of βA (βA42 had greater activity than the 40 amino acid fragment. Direct incubation of the virus with βA42 was needed to achieve optimal inhibition. Using quantitative PCR assays βA42 was shown to reduce viral uptake by epithelial cells after 45 minutes and to reduce supernatant virus at 24 hours post infection. βA42 caused aggregation of IAV particles as detected by light transmission assays and electron and confocal microscopy. βA42 did not stimulate neutrophil H2O2 production or extracellular trap formation on its own, but it increased both responses stimulated by IAV. In addition, βA42 increased uptake of IAV by neutrophils. βA42 reduced viral protein synthesis in monocytes and reduced IAV-induced interleukin-6 production by these cells. Hence, we demonstrate for the first time that βA has antiviral activity and modulates viral interactions with phagocytes.

  9. Transglutaminase 2 is needed for the formation of an efficient phagocyte portal in macrophages engulfing apoptotic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Beáta; Garabuczi, Eva; Sarang, Zsolt; Vereb, György; Vámosi, György; Aeschlimann, Daniel; Blaskó, Bernadett; Bécsi, Bálint; Erdõdi, Ferenc; Lacy-Hulbert, Adam; Zhang, Ailiang; Falasca, Laura; Birge, Raymond B; Balajthy, Zoltán; Melino, Gerry; Fésüs, László; Szondy, Zsuzsa

    2009-02-15

    Transglutaminase 2 (TG2), a protein cross-linking enzyme with many additional biological functions, acts as coreceptor for integrin beta(3). We have previously shown that TG2(-/-) mice develop an age-dependent autoimmunity due to defective in vivo clearance of apoptotic cells. Here we report that TG2 on the cell surface and in guanine nucleotide-bound form promotes phagocytosis. Besides being a binding partner for integrin beta(3), a receptor known to mediate the uptake of apoptotic cells via activating Rac1, we also show that TG2 binds MFG-E8 (milk fat globulin EGF factor 8), a protein known to bridge integrin beta(3) to apoptotic cells. Finally, we report that in wild-type macrophages one or two engulfing portals are formed during phagocytosis of apoptotic cells that are characterized by accumulation of integrin beta(3) and Rac1. In the absence of TG2, integrin beta(3) cannot properly recognize the apoptotic cells, is not accumulated in the phagocytic cup, and its signaling is impaired. As a result, the formation of the engulfing portals, as well as the portals formed, is much less efficient. We propose that TG2 has a novel function to stabilize efficient phagocytic portals.

  10. Intermittent Hypoxia Affects the Spontaneous Differentiation In Vitro of Human Neutrophils into Long-Lived Giant Phagocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Dyugovskaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Previously we identified, for the first time, a new small-size subset of neutrophil-derived giant phagocytes (Gϕ which spontaneously develop in vitro without additional growth factors or cytokines. Gϕ are CD66b+/CD63+/MPO+/LC3B+ and are characterized by extended lifespan, large phagolysosomes, active phagocytosis, and reactive oxygen species (ROS production, and autophagy largely controls their formation. Hypoxia, and particularly hypoxia/reoxygenation, is a prominent feature of many pathological processes. Herein we investigated Gϕ formation by applying various hypoxic conditions. Chronic intermittent hypoxia (IH (29 cycles/day for 5 days completely abolished Gϕ formation, while acute IH had dose-dependent effects. Exposure to 24 h (56 IH cycles decreased their size, yield, phagocytic ability, autophagy, mitophagy, and gp91-phox/p22-phox expression, whereas under 24 h sustained hypoxia (SH the size and expression of LC3B and gp91-phox/p22-phox resembled Gϕ formed in normoxia. Diphenyl iodide (DPI, a NADPH oxidase inhibitor, as well as the PI3K/Akt and autophagy inhibitor LY294002 abolished Gϕ formation at all oxygen conditions. However, the potent antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine (NAC abrogated the effects of IH by inducing large CD66b+/LC3B+ Gϕ and increased both NADPH oxidase expression and phagocytosis. These findings suggest that NADPH oxidase, autophagy, and the PI3K/Akt pathway are involved in Gϕ development.

  11. Towards a new paradigm: Activity level balanced sustainability reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samudhram, Ananda; Siew, Eu-Gene; Sinnakkannu, Jothee; Yeow, Paul H P

    2016-11-01

    Technoeconomic paradigms based economic growth theories suggest that waves of technological innovations drove the economic growth of advanced economies. Widespread economic degradation and pollution is an unintended consequence of such growth. Tackling environmental and social issues at firm levels would help us to overcome such issues at macro-levels. Consequently, the Triple Bottom Line (TBL) reporting approach promotes firm level economic, environmental and social performances. Incorporating Zink's (2014) 3-pillar presentation model, this paper indicates that economic, social and environmental performances tend to be reported at firm level. All three pillars are not covered evenly at the activity levels. Thus, a loophole is identified whereby excellent environmental performance at activity levels could potentially leave poor social performance undisclosed. A refinement of the TBL paradigm, whereby all three pillars are covered at the activity level, is suggested, to enhance sustainability reporting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The perceived constraints, motivation, and physical activity levels of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this research was threefold; Are Korean youth physically active to promote health during leisure time? What constraints to physical active do youth experience during leisure time? Are there relationships among constraints, motivation, and physical activity level? Of 1 280 youth randomly selected by a ...

  13. Effects of lethal and non-lethal malaria on the mononuclear phagocyte system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Tosta

    1983-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects ofone non-lethal species ofmalarialparasite, Plasmodium yoelii, and one lethal species, P. berghei, on the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS of BALB/c mice were studied. P. yoelii caused a greater and more sustained expansion and activation of the MPS, and the two major populations of spleen phagocytic cells-red pulp and marginal zone macrophages - exhibited a greater increase in numbers in this infection. During the course of P. berghei mataria, the spleen was progressively occupied by haematopoietic tissue and, at the terminal stage of infection, an extensive depletion of lymphocytes and macrophages was apparent. The possibility was suggested that the outcome of mataria may be inftuenced by the particular way the parasite interacts with the MPS.Estudou-se o efeito da infecção causada por espécie letal (Plasmodium berghei e não- letal (P. yoelii de plasmódio sobre o sistema de fagócitos mononucleares de camundongo BALB/c. O P. yoelii causou maior e mais prolongada expansão e ativação do sistema de macrófagos. As duas mais importantes populações de fagócitos esplênicos - macrófagos de polpa vermelha e da zona marginal - exibiam maior aumento do número de células nesta infecção. Durante a evolução da malária por P. berghei, o baço foi progressivamente ocupado por tecido hematopoiético e, na fase terminal da infecção, observou-se significativa depleção dos linfócitos e macrófagos esplênicos. Os dados apresentados indicam que a evolução da malária depende do tipo de interação entre o plasmódio e o sistema de fagócitos mononucleares.

  14. Ferromagnetic interaction model of activity level in workplace communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akitomi, Tomoaki; Ara, Koji; Watanabe, Jun-ichiro; Yano, Kazuo

    2013-03-01

    The nature of human-human interaction, specifically, how people synchronize with each other in multiple-participant conversations, is described by a ferromagnetic interaction model of people’s activity levels. We found two microscopic human interaction characteristics from a real-environment face-to-face conversation. The first characteristic is that people quite regularly synchronize their activity level with that of the other participants in a conversation. The second characteristic is that the degree of synchronization increases as the number of participants increases. Based on these microscopic ferromagnetic characteristics, a “conversation activity level” was modeled according to the Ising model. The results of a simulation of activity level based on this model well reproduce macroscopic experimental measurements of activity level. This model will give a new insight into how people interact with each other in a conversation.

  15. Active Crohn's disease is associated with low vitamin D levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Søren Peter; Hvas, Christian Lodberg; Agnholt, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    activity is associated with low vitamin D levels. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study of 182 CD patients and 62 healthy controls, we measured serum 25-OH vitamin D. Stratified analysis was used to compare 25-OH vitamin D levels with Crohn's disease activity index, C-reactive protein, smoking status, intake...... of oral vitamin D supplements and seasonal variation in CD patients and healthy controls. RESULTS: Serum 25-OH vitamin D was inversely associated with disease activity: Median 25-OH vitamin D levels of Crohn's disease in remission, mildly, and moderately active diseases evaluated by Crohn's disease...... D levels (51nmol/l) than patients who did not smoke (76nmol/l), plevels. CONCLUSIONS: Active Crohn's disease was associated with low serum 25-OH vitamin D. Patients who smoked had lower 25-OH...

  16. Phagocytic Index of Peritoneal Macrophages after Propolis Suplementation in Mice (Mus musculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Eva Mustafiah

    2011-12-01

    Design and Method: This research is an experiment with post test study design randomized control group design. This study used mice that were divided into four groups randomly. The first group / Group-I were for negative control (standard feed and aquadest; The second group/Group-II were fed standard-feed, aquadest, and propolis at a dose of 1.25 mg/kgBM; the third group/group-III were fed standard-feed, water, and propolis at a dose of 2.5 mg/KgBM; The fourth group/Group-IV were fed standard feed, water, and propolis at a dose of 5 mg/KgBM. Treatment where conducted for 3 days. Result: The average macrophage phagocytic index, were at the highest level of it (7.82 1.63 while the lowest one were the first group 3.43 0.13. The Kruskall Wallis result stated that there is index difference among various groups with p 0.002 (p < 0.05. Conclusion: Propolis effected on mice peritoneal macrophage phagocytosis index (Sains Medika, 3(2:121-128.

  17. Structure and function of the IFNγ receptor on human mononuclear phagocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.; Celada, A.

    1986-01-01

    Human mononuclear phagocytes bear a receptor that binds 125 I-IFNγ in a saturable, reversible and specific manner. The receptor consists minimally of a 70 kD polypeptide chain and its expression (5000/cell) and binding affinity (Ka=10 9 M -1 ) are unaffected by cellular activation or differentiation. The receptor's biological relevance was validated by correlating receptor occupancy with induction of a cellular response. 50% maximal induction of Fc receptors on U937 was effected by 0.8 nM IFNγ; the same concentration needed to half saturate U937 IFNγ receptors. Ligand-receptor interaction displayed species specificity but not cellular specificity. The receptors on U937 and human fibroblasts displayed identical ligand binding affinities (1.5-1.8 x 10 9 M -1 ). At 37 0 C, IFNγ bound to U937 in a biphasic manner. The high affinity binding component was due to ligand internalization since purified cell membranes and paraformaldehyde fixed cells displayed only the lower Ka and ligand internalization could be directly demonstrated. Using lysosomotropic amines, the internalized IFNγ-IFNγ receptor complex was tracked into an acid compartment where dissociation occurred. Free intracellular IFNγ was then degraded while free receptor entered an intracellular pool and eventually recycled back to the cell surface

  18. The impact of pregnancy on physical activity level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fell, Deshayne B; Joseph, K S; Armson, B Anthony; Dodds, Linda

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare women's levels of physical activity during early pregnancy and during the year before pregnancy, and to identify characteristics associated with discontinuing sports and exercise among women previously active during the year before pregnancy. Data collected from 1,737 women enrolled in a prospective cohort study and who had no contraindications for exercise were included in this analysis. Measures of physical activity (including household and care-giving activities, active living and sports and exercise activities) during early pregnancy were compared to the year before pregnancy. Log binomial regression was used to identify factors associated with discontinuing sports and exercise during pregnancy. There was a statistically significant decrease in all summary measures of physical activity during early pregnancy. The largest decreases were observed in sports and exercise activity. Among women active before pregnancy, age pregnancy body mass index (BMI) > or = 30 kg/m(2) and lower levels of pre-pregnancy exercise were associated with discontinuing sports and exercise activities during pregnancy. Most women reduced their physical activity level during the first 20 weeks of pregnancy compared with their level of activity during the year prior to pregnancy, particularly for sports and exercise, although a small proportion of women in this study actually increased their activity in this area during early pregnancy. Participation in sports and exercise activity during pregnancy is potentially modifiable and could favorably impact perinatal health and maternal post-partum weight. The results of this study suggests that pregnancy is an event that leads to a decrease in physical activity.

  19. Interactions of phagocytes with the Lyme disease spirochete: role of the Fc receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benach, J.L.; Fleit, H.B.; Habicht, G.S.; Coleman, J.L.; Bosler, E.M.; Lane, B.P.

    1984-01-01

    The phagocytic capacity of murine and human mononuclear and polymorphonuclear phagocytes (including peripheral blood monocytes and neutrophils), rabbit and murine peritoneal exudate cells, and the murine macrophage cell line P388D1 against the Lyme disease spirochete was studied. All of these cells were capable of phagocytosing the spirochete; phagocytosis was measured by the uptake of radiolabeled spirochetes, the appearance of immunofluorescent bodies in phagocytic cells, and electron microscopy. Both opsonized and nonopsonized organisms were phagocytosed. The uptake of opsonized organisms by neutrophils was blocked by a monoclonal antibody specific for the Fc receptor and by immune complexes; these findings suggested that most phagocytosis is mediated by the Fc receptor. Similarly, the uptake of opsonized organisms by human monocytes was inhibited by human monomeric IgG1 and by immune complexes. These results illustrate the role of immune phagocytosis of spirochetes in host defense against Lyme disease

  20. Movement Activity Levels on Traditional and Contemporary Playground Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbard, Carl P.; LeBlanc, Elizabeth

    This study investigated playground activity levels of children in grades K-4 and compared levels of use of traditional and creative playground apparatus. The traditional playground area consisted of climbing bars, slides, ladders, chin bars, swings, see saws, and a merry-go-round. The creative playground contained tire hurdles, tire walk, tire…

  1. Protein C activity and antigen levels in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Teunenbroek, A.; Peters, M.; Sturk, A.; Borm, J. J.; Breederveld, C.

    1990-01-01

    Hereditary protein C deficiency is an important risk factor for thrombosis. To enable its diagnosis shortly after birth, we determined reference values of protein C antigen and activity levels for the first 3 months of life. To establish an age-related range of protein C levels we also determined

  2. Active Ageing Level of Older Persons: Regional Comparison in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Nuruzzaman Haque

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Active ageing level and its discrepancy in different regions (Bangkok, Central, North, Northeast, and South of Thailand have been examined for prioritizing the policy agenda to be implemented. Attempt has been made to test preliminary active ageing models for Thai older persons and hence active ageing index (AAI, ranges from 0 to 1 has been estimated. Using nationally representative data and confirmatory factor analysis approach, this study justified active ageing models for female and male older persons in Thailand. Results revealed that active ageing level of Thai older persons is not high (mean AAIs for female and male older persons are 0.64 and 0.61, resp., and those are significantly different (p<0.001. Mean AAI in Central region is lower than North, Northeast, and South regions but there is no significant difference in the latter three regions of Thailand. Special emphasis should be given to Central region and policy should be undertaken for increasing active ageing level. Implementation of an Integrated Active Ageing Package (IAAP, containing policies for older persons to improve their health and economic security, to promote participation in social groups and longer working lives, and to arrange learning programs, would be helpful for increasing older persons’ active ageing level in Thailand.

  3. Active Ageing Level of Older Persons: Regional Comparison in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Md Nuruzzaman

    2016-01-01

    Active ageing level and its discrepancy in different regions (Bangkok, Central, North, Northeast, and South) of Thailand have been examined for prioritizing the policy agenda to be implemented. Attempt has been made to test preliminary active ageing models for Thai older persons and hence active ageing index (AAI, ranges from 0 to 1) has been estimated. Using nationally representative data and confirmatory factor analysis approach, this study justified active ageing models for female and male older persons in Thailand. Results revealed that active ageing level of Thai older persons is not high (mean AAIs for female and male older persons are 0.64 and 0.61, resp., and those are significantly different (p active ageing level. Implementation of an Integrated Active Ageing Package (IAAP), containing policies for older persons to improve their health and economic security, to promote participation in social groups and longer working lives, and to arrange learning programs, would be helpful for increasing older persons' active ageing level in Thailand.

  4. Seasonality in Children's Pedometer-Measured Physical Activity Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beighle, Aaron; Alderman, Brandon; Morgan, Charles F.; Le Masurier, Guy

    2008-01-01

    Seasonality appears to have an impact on children's physical activity levels, but equivocal findings demand more study in this area. With the increased use of pedometers in both research and practice, collecting descriptive data in various seasons to examine the impact of seasonality on pedometer-measured physical activity among children is…

  5. High Levels of Phytophenolics and Antioxidant Activities in Oryza ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate phenolic levels, phytophenolic profiles and total antioxidant activities of Oryza sativa, unpolished Thai rice. Methods: Unpolished Thai rice strains of Leum Phua, Klam, Hawm Nil and Black Rose were measured for antioxidant activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ...

  6. Serum paraoxonase activity and lipid hydroperoxide levels in adult ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    2013-09-03

    Sep 3, 2013 ... Objectives: In this study, we aimed to investigate serum PON1 activity and lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH) levels in adult football players after three days ... oxidative stress after three days football tournament. In addition, physical activity for a ... polymorphism, gender, and exercise. Furthermore, it has been ...

  7. Supraependymal cells of hypothalamic third ventricle: identification as resident phagocytes of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleier, R; Albrecht, R; Cruce, J A

    1975-07-25

    Cells lying on the ventricular surface of the hypothalamic ependyma of the tegu lizard exhibit the pseudopodial and flaplike processes characteristic of macrophages found elsewhere. Since they ingest latex beads, they may be considered a resident phagocytic system of the brain. The importance of ependyma and ventricular phagocytes as a first line of defense against viral invasion of the brain, as well as their role in the pathogenesis of certain virus-related diseases, is suggested by a number of experimental and clinical observations.

  8. Correlation of Level of Trauma Activation With Emergency Department Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Michael C; Srivastava, Geetanjali

    2018-06-01

    In-hospital trauma team activation criteria are formulated to identify severely injured patients requiring specialized multidisciplinary care. Efficacy of trauma activation (TA) criteria is commonly measured by emergency department (ED) disposition, injury severity score, and mortality. Necessity of critical ED interventions is another measure that has been proposed to evaluate the appropriateness of TA criteria. Two-year retrospective cohort study of 1715 patients from our trauma registry at a Level 1 pediatric trauma center. We abstracted data on acute interventions, level and criterion of TA, ED disposition, and mortality. We report odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), positive predictive value, and frequency of acute interventions. Trauma activation was initiated for 947 (55%) of the 1715 patients. There were 426 ED interventions performed on 235 patients (14%); 67.8% were in level 1 activations; 17.6% in level 2, and 14.6% in level 3. Highest-level activations were highly associated with need for ED interventions (OR, 16.1; 95% CI, 11.5-22.4). The ORs for requiring an ED intervention were low for lower level activations (OR, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.3-0.5), trauma service consults (OR, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.2-0.4), and certain mechanism-based criteria. The ORs for ED intervention for isolated motor vehicle collision (0.2; 95% CI, 0.1-0.7), isolated all-terrain vehicle rollover (0.4; 95% CI, 0.1-1.7), and suspected spinal cord injury (0.5; 95% CI, 0.1-3.7) were significantly lower than 1. Highest-level activation criteria correlate with high utilization of ED resources and interventions. Lower level activation criteria and trauma service consult criteria are not highly correlated with need for ED interventions. Downgrading isolated motor vehicle collision and all-terrain vehicle rollovers and suspected spinal cord injury to lower level activations could decrease the overtriage rate, and adding age-specific bradycardia as a physiologic criterion could improve our

  9. Prediction of BMI by impulsivity, eating behavior and activity level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Xiaxia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Discuss the relationship between the impulsivity, eating behavior and activity level and the body mass index (BMI. Method: Test 147 female college students with the impulsivity questionnaire (BIS-11 and BIS/BAS, Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DBEQ, Sitting Time Scale (STS and Exercising Time Scale (ETS. Results: (1 The correlation analysis indicates that BMI and impulsivity (r = 0.43 and 0.52 have a significant positive correlation with the sitting time (r = 0.61 and a significant negative correlation with the activity level (r= −0.49. (2 The path analysis indicates that the reward sensitivity directly affects BMI and indirectly affects BMI through the activity level as well; the eating behavior has an insignificantly direct impact on BMI, because its impact is generated by the intermediary role of induced diet. Conclusion: (1 The impulsivity, eating behavior and activity level are closely related to BMI; (2 the activity level, sitting time and induced diet play an intermediary role between the impulsivity and BMI.

  10. Systemic lupus erythematosus activity and beta two microglobulin levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thelma Larocca Skare

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is an autoimmune disease with a cyclical clinical course. Evaluation of the clinical activity of this disease is important for choosing the correct treatment. The objective of this study was to analyze the value of beta-2 microglobulin (β2M serum levels in determining SLE clinical activity.DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional analytical study conducted at the rheumatology outpatient clinic of a private university hospital.METHODS: 129 SLE patients were studied regarding disease activity using SLEDAI (SLE Disease Activity Index and cumulative damage using SLICC ACR (SLE International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology Damage Index for SLE. At the same time, the β2M serum level, ESR (erythrocyte sedimentation rate, anti-dsDNA (anti-double-stranded DNA and C3 and C4 complement fractions were determined.RESULTS: β2M levels correlated positively with SLEDAI (P = 0.02 and ESR (P = 0.0009 and negatively with C3 (P = 0.007. Patients who were positive for anti-dsDNA had higher β2M serum levels (P = 0.009.CONCLUSION: β2M levels are elevated in SLE patients with active disease.

  11. Serum Renalase Levels Correlate with Disease Activity in Lupus Nephritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaojun Qi

    Full Text Available Lupus nephritis (LN is among the most serious complications of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, which causes significant morbidity and mortality. Renalase is a novel, kidney-secreted cytokine-like protein that promotes cell survival. Here, we aimed to investigate the relationship of serum renalase levels with LN and its role in the disease progression of LN.For this cross-sectional study, 67 LN patients and 35 healthy controls were enrolled. Seventeen active LN patients who received standard therapies were followed up for six months. Disease activity was determined by the SLE Disease Activity-2000 (SLEDAI-2K scoring system and serum renalase amounts were determined by ELISA. Predictive value of renalase for disease activity was assessed. Furthermore, the expression of renalase in the kidneys of patients and macrophage infiltration was assessed by immunohistochemistry.Serum renalase amounts were significantly higher in LN patients than in healthy controls. Moreover, patients with proliferative LN had more elevated serum renalase levels than Class V LN patients. In proliferative LN patients, serum renalase levels were significantly higher in patients with active LN than those with inactive LN. Serum renalase levels were positively correlated with SLEDAI-2K, 24-h urine protein excretion, ds-DNA and ESR but inversely correlated with serum albumin and C3. Renalase amounts decreased significantly after six-months of standard therapy. The performance of renalase as a marker for diagnosis of active LN was 0.906 with a cutoff value of 66.67 μg/ml. We also observed that the amount of renalase was significantly higher in glomerular of proliferative LN along with the co-expression of macrophages.Serum renalase levels were correlated with disease activity in LN. Serum renalase might serve as a potential indicator for disease activity in LN. The marked increase of glomerular renalase and its association with macrophages suggest that it might play an

  12. Extraction of Children's Friendship Relation from Activity Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Aki; Shintani, Kimio; Katsuki, Takuya; Kihara, Shin'ya; Ueda, Mari; Kaneda, Shigeo; Haga, Hirohide

    Children learn to fit into society through living in a group, and it's greatly influenced by their friend relations. Although preschool teachers need to observe them to assist in the growth of children's social progress and support the development each child's personality, only experienced teachers can watch over children while providing high-quality guidance. To resolve the problem, this paper proposes a mathematical and objective method that assists teachers with observation. It uses numerical data of activity level recorded by pedometers, and we make tree diagram called dendrogram based on hierarchical clustering with recorded activity level. Also, we calculate children's ``breadth'' and ``depth'' of friend relations by using more than one dendrogram. When we record children's activity level in a certain kindergarten for two months and evaluated the proposed method, the results usually coincide with remarks of teachers about the children.

  13. Play Equipment, Physical Activity Opportunities, and Children's Activity Levels at Childcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica S. Gubbels

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the association between physical activity facilities at childcare (e.g., play equipment and physical activity of 2- and 3-year olds. Observations of physical activity intensity were performed among 175 children at 9 childcare centers in The Netherlands, using the OSRAC-P. The physical activity facilities were assessed for indoors and outdoors separately, using the EPAO instrument. Regular (single-level multivariate and multilevel linear regression analyses examined the association of the facilities and child characteristics (age and sex with children's activity levels. Various physical activity facilities were available in all childcare centers (e.g., balls. Riding toys and a small playing area were associated with lower indoor physical activity levels. Outdoor physical activity levels were positively associated with the availability of portable jumping equipment and the presence of a structured track on the playground. Portable slides, fixed swinging equipment, and sandboxes were negatively associated with outdoor activity levels. In addition, the 3-year old children were more active outdoors than the 2-year olds. In conclusion, not all physical activity facilities at childcare were indeed positively associated with children's activity levels. The current findings provide concrete leads for childcare providers regarding which factors they can improve in the physical environment to facilitate children's physical activity.

  14. Effect of fluorozis on the erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akdogan, M.; YiImaz, D.; Yontem, M.; Kalei, S.; Kilic, I.

    2011-01-01

    While the flourine level of (drinking) water was higher than normal ranges in the center of Isparta region before 1995 year, this problematic situation is solved in later years. (However) the individuals who are staying in Yenice district are still expose to high levels of fluorine because of the usage of Andik spring water (3.8 mg/L flour level) as drinking water. In this study we aimed to investigate the harmful effect of floride on human erythrocytes via antioxidant defence system and lipid peroxidation. Therefore, we studied the activities of erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes such as Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), Glutathione Peroxidase (GSH-Px) and Catalase (CAT), and the level of erythrocyte Glutathione (GSH), thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and the level of urine floride in high floride exposed people (children, adult and elderly). The activities of SOD, GSH-Px and CAT and the level of GSH, TBARS and urine floride were higher in 3.8 mg/L floride exposed children (Group II) than 0.8 mg/L floride exposed control children (Group I) (p 0.05). The activities of SOD, GSH-Px and CAT were lower and the levels of TBARS and urine floride were higher in 3.8 mg/L floride exposed elderly people (Group VI) than 0.8 mg/L floride exposed control elderly people (Group V) (p 0.05). As a result we thought that increased SOD, GSH-Px and CAT activities in floride exposed children and adult people, decreased activities of these enzymes in floride exposed elderly people, and increased TBARS in all groups may indicate floride caused oxidative damage in erythrocytes. (author)

  15. Mental health and physical activity levels of school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle Cerqueira da Silva

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The regular practice of physical activity is fundamental to the health of children, it has been cited as factor of protection for mental disorders in school age. Objective: To verify the relation between mental health and physical activity levels in schoolchildren of the city Jacobina, Bahia. Method: Sample composed of 55 students between the ages 08 to 10 and their parents, who participated as secondary informants in this study. The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL was used for evaluation of mental health problems of the schoolchildren, Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C, for evaluation of the physical activity levels of the subject, and a social-demographic questionnaire. Results: Most children were classified as sedentary (80% and only 7.3% of the sample showed positive for trace of mental disorder. No significant association was found between mental disorders and physical activity levels among the group, or between these variables and socio-demographic characteristics of children. It was observed that the girls were more sedentary than boys, with significant difference (p < 0.01. Conclusion: Despite the low prevalence of mental health problems among schoolchildren and the non-association with physical activity levels, special attention is necessary with this audience, aiming to strengthen physical activity as a protective factor for children’s mental health, with investments in actions aimed at the encouragement of regular practice of physical activity, combining family and school. Studies with a larger number of samples need to be conducted and its findings must be thoroughly analyzed.

  16. The phagocyte inhibitory receptor sirpα in the immune system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Álvarez Zárate, J.

    2014-01-01

    Phagocytes play a central role in the host defense against pathogens, by virtue of amongst other things their ability to recognize and destroy them. These processes have to be tightly controlled to prevent unwanted inflammation that could harm the host. From previous studies it has become clear that

  17. Lessons Learned from Phagocytic Function Studies in a Large Cohort of Patients with Recurrent Infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolach, Baruch; Gavrieli, Ronit; Roos, Dirk; Berger-Achituv, Sivan

    2012-01-01

    Background There is a paucity of data on the relationship between demographic characteristics, specific clinical manifestations, and neutrophil dysfunction, guiding physicians to decide which clinical signs and symptoms are a code for an underlying phagocytic disorder. Methods The data over a

  18. Click-Evoked Auditory Efferent Activity: Rate and Level Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boothalingam, Sriram; Kurke, Julianne; Dhar, Sumitrajit

    2018-05-07

    There currently are no standardized protocols to evaluate auditory efferent function in humans. Typical tests use broadband noise to activate the efferents, but only test the contralateral efferent pathway, risk activating the middle ear muscle reflex (MEMR), and are laborious for clinical use. In an attempt to develop a clinical test of bilateral auditory efferent function, we have designed a method that uses clicks to evoke efferent activity, obtain click-evoked otoacoustic emissions (CEOAEs), and monitor MEMR. This allows for near-simultaneous estimation of cochlear and efferent function. In the present study, we manipulated click level (60, 70, and 80 dB peak-equivalent sound pressure level [peSPL]) and rate (40, 50, and 62.5 Hz) to identify an optimal rate-level combination that evokes measurable efferent modulation of CEOAEs. Our findings (n = 58) demonstrate that almost all click levels and rates used caused significant inhibition of CEOAEs, with a significant interaction between level and rate effects. Predictably, bilateral activation produced greater inhibition compared to stimulating the efferents only in the ipsilateral or contralateral ear. In examining the click rate-level effects during bilateral activation in greater detail, we observed a 1-dB inhibition of CEOAE level for each 10-dB increase in click level, with rate held constant at 62.5 Hz. Similarly, a 10-Hz increase in rate produced a 0.74-dB reduction in CEOAE level, with click level held constant at 80 dB peSPL. The effect size (Cohen's d) was small for either monaural condition and medium for bilateral, faster-rate, and higher-level conditions. We were also able to reliably extract CEOAEs from efferent eliciting clicks. We conclude that clicks can indeed be profitably employed to simultaneously evaluate cochlear health using CEOAEs as well as their efferent modulation. Furthermore, using bilateral clicks allows the evaluation of both the crossed and uncrossed elements of the auditory

  19. Default activity patterns at the neocortical microcircuit level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur eLuczak

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Even in absence of sensory stimuli cortical networks exhibit complex, self-organized activity patterns. While the function of those spontaneous patterns of activation remains poorly understood, recent studies both in vivo and in vitro have demonstrated that neocortical neurons activate in a surprisingly similar sequential order both spontaneously and following input into cortex. For example, neurons that tend to fire earlier within spontaneous bursts of activity also fire earlier than other neurons in response to sensory stimuli. These 'default patterns' can last hundreds of milliseconds and are strongly conserved under a variety of conditions. In this paper we will review recent evidence for these default patterns at the local cortical level. We speculate that cortical architecture imposes common constraints on spontaneous and evoked activity flow, which result in the similarity of the patterns.

  20. Evidence that leishmania donovani utilizes a mannose receptor on human mononuclear phagocytes to establish intracellular parasitism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, M.E.; Pearson, R.D.

    1986-01-01

    The pathogenic protozoan Leishmania donovani must gain entrance into mononuclear phagocytes to successfully parasitize man. The parasite's extracellular promastigote stage is ingested by human peripheral blood monocytes or monocyte-derived macrophages in the absence of serum, in a manner characteristic of receptor-mediated endocytosis. Remarkable similarities have been found between the macrophage receptor(s) for promastigotes and a previously characterized eucaryotic receptor system, the mannose/fucose receptor (MFR), that mediates the binding of zymosan particles and mannose- or fucose-terminal glycoconjugates to macrophages. Ingestion of promastigotes by monocyte-derived macrophages was inhibited by several MFR ligands; that is mannan, mannose-BSA and fucose-BSA. In contrast, promastigote ingestion by monocytes was unaffected by MFR ligands. Furthermore, attachment of promastigotes to macrophages, assessed by using cytochalasin D to prevent phagocytosis, was reduced 49.8% by mannan. Reorientation of the MFR to the ventral surface of the cell was achieved by plating macrophages onto mannan-coated coverslips, reducing MFR activity on the exposed cell surface by 94% as assessed by binding of 125 I-mannose-BSA. Under these conditions, ingestion of promastigotes was inhibited by 71.4%. Internalization of the MFR by exposure of macrophages to zymosan before infection with promastigotes resulted in a 62.3% decrease in parasite ingestion. Additionally, NH 4 Cl decreased macrophage ingestion of promastigotes by 38.2%. Subinhibitory concentration of NH 4 Cl (10 mM) and of mannan (0.25 mg/ml) together inhibited parsite ingestion by 76.4%

  1. Physical Activity Level and Adiposity: Are they Associated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information on self-reported physical activity (PA) level in association with primary dysmenorrhea (PD) is not readily available on African populations, and there is a dearth of information on the association of adiposity with PD. This study explored the association of PA and adiposity indices with PD and associated menstrual ...

  2. Malondialdehyde level and some enzymatic activities in subclinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the changes occurring in milk malondialdehyde (MDA) level and some enzymatic activities as a result of subclinical mastitis (SCM) in dairy cows. A total of 124 milk samples were collected from 124 lactating cows from the same herd in the period between the 2nd week after calving ...

  3. Food choices, physical activity levels and other factors associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to evaluate educators' health behaviours regarding dietary intake and physical activity (PA). A survey was undertaken in 517 educators at 83 primary schools in the Western Cape. Food choices (healthy vs. unhealthy), PA levels, and health knowledge were measured by questionnaire. The six most ...

  4. Physical activity level among children recovering from severe acute malnutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babirekere-Iriso, Esther; Rytter, Maren Johanne Heilskov; Namusoke, Hanifa

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the level and predictors of physical activity at discharge among children recovering from severe acute malnutrition (SAM). METHODS: We conducted a prospective study among 69 children 6 - 59 months of age admitted with SAM for nutritional rehabilitation at Mulago National...

  5. Seasonal disease activity and serum vitamin D levels in rheumatoid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Vitamin D is a steroid hormone that plays essential roles in calcium and phosphorus metabolism, bone formation and mineralization homeostasis, also has a role in the maintenance of immune-homeostasis. Objective: We aimed to investigate seasonal serum vitamin D levels and seasonal disease activity in ...

  6. Physical activity, fitness level and health problems of healthcare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine the level of physical activity of healthcare workers using the transtheoretical model (TTM) as a framework and to identify barriers to exercise. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 200 randomly selected hospital staff members in South Africa. The weight and height of the ...

  7. 34 CFR 300.704 - State-level activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... mental health services for children with disabilities; (iv) To improve the use of technology in the... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State-level activities. 300.704 Section 300.704 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION...

  8. Self Reported Physical Activity Levels in Hypertensive Patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This was mainly described as brisk-walking 179(69.1%), jogging 27(10.4%), gymnasium workouts 13(5.1%), dancing 4(1.5), cycling 4(1.5%) and weight lifting ... There is need to engage hypertensive patients on the relevance of physical activity and encourage them to obtain the known benefits by optimizing their levels of ...

  9. Prostaglandin levels and lysosomal enzyme activities in irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trocha, P.J.; Catravas, G.N.

    1980-01-01

    Whole-body irradiation of rats results in the release of hydrolases from lysosomes, an increase in lysosomal enzyme activities, and changes in the prostaglandin levels in spleen and liver tissues. A transient increase in the concentration of prostaglandins E and F and leakage of lysosomal hydrolases occurred in both spleen and liver tissues 3-6 hours after the animals were irradiated. Maximal values for hydrolase activities, prostaglandin E and F content, and release of lysosomal enzymes were found 4 days postirradiation in rat spleens whereas in the liver only slight increases were observed at this time period for prostaglandin F levels. On day 7 there was a final rise in the spleen's prostaglandin E and F concentrations and leakage of hydrolases from the lysosomes before returning to near normal values on day 11. The prostaglandin F concentration in liver was also slightly elevated on the 7th day after irradiation and then decreased to control levels. (author)

  10. Suppression and recovery of the alveolar macrophage phagocytic system during continuous exposure to 0. 5 ppm ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilmour, M.I.; Hmieleski, R.R.; Stafford, E.A.; Jakab, G.J. (Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Baltimore, MD (USA))

    1991-05-01

    Short-term exposures to ozone (O3) are known to impair pulmonary antibacterial defenses and alveolar macrophage (AM) phagocytosis in a dose-related manner. To determine the effect of prolonged O3 exposure, Swiss mice were exposed continuously to 0.5 ppm O3. At 1, 3, 7, and 14 days, intrapulmonary killing was assessed by inhalation challenge with Staphylococcus aureus or Proteus mirabilis and by comparing the number of viable bacteria remaining in the lungs at 4 h between O3-exposed and control animals. To evaluate the effects of O3 on the functional capacity of the AMs, Fc-receptor mediated phagocytosis was assessed. Ozone exposure impaired the intrapulmonary killing of S. aureus at 1 and 3 days; however, with prolonged exposure, the bactericidal capacity of the lungs returned to normal. This trend of an initial suppression followed by recovery was reflected in the phagocytic capacity of the AMs. In contrast to S. aureus, when P. mirabilis was used as the challenge organism, O3 exposure had no suppressive effect on pulmonary bactericidal activity, which correlated with an increase in the phagocytic cell population in the lungs. Morphologic examination of the lavaged macrophages showed that after 1 day of O3 exposure, the AMs were more foamy, and contained significantly more vacuoles. There was also a significant increase in binucleated cells at 3 days. These studies demonstrate that continuous exposure to O3 modulates AM-dependent lung defenses and points to the importance of the challenge organism and exposure protocol in establishing the adverse effect of O3.

  11. Effects of Curricular Activity on Students' Situational Motivation and Physical Activity Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zan; Hannon, James C.; Newton, Maria; Huang, Chaoqun

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine (a) the effects of three curricular activities on students' situational motivation (intrinsic motivation [IM], identified regulation [IR], external regulation, and amotivation [AM]) and physical activity (PA) levels, and (b) the predictive strength of situational motivation to PA levels. Four hundred twelve…

  12. Anthropogenic noise alters bat activity levels and echolocation calls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie P. Bunkley

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Negative impacts from anthropogenic noise are well documented for many wildlife taxa. Investigations of the effects of noise on bats however, have not been conducted outside of the laboratory. Bats that hunt arthropods rely on auditory information to forage. Part of this acoustic information can fall within the spectrum of anthropogenic noise, which can potentially interfere with signal reception and processing. Compressor stations associated with natural gas extraction produce broadband noise 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. With over half a million producing gas wells in the U.S. this infrastructure is a major source of noise pollution across the landscape. We conducted a ‘natural experiment’ in the second largest gas extraction field in the U.S. to investigate the potential effects of gas compressor station noise on the activity levels of the local bat assemblage. We used acoustic monitoring to compare the activity level (number of minutes in a night with a bat call of the bat assemblage at sites with compressor stations to sites lacking this infrastructure. We found that activity levels for the Brazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis were 40% lower at loud compressor sites compared to quieter well pads, whereas the activity levels of four other species (Myotis californicus, M. cillolabrum, M. lucifugus, Parastrellus hesperus were not affected by noise. Furthermore, our results reveal that the assemblage of bat species emitting low frequency (35 kHz echolocation did not exhibit altered activity levels in noise. Lower activity levels of Brazilian free-tailed bats at loud sites indicate a potential reduction in habitat for this species. Additionally, a comparison of echolocation search calls produced by free-tailed bats at sites with and without compressor stations reveal that this species modifies its echolocation search calls in noise—producing longer calls with a narrower bandwidth. Call alterations might affect prey

  13. Evaluation of the activity levels in fusion reactor blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, J.

    1977-05-01

    The activation of a fusion reactor blanket (316 SS or V-10Cr-10Ti as structure) with a minimum lithium inventory has been calculated for 0.83 MW/m 2 wall load. The resulting radiation levels and waste problems are discussed. The dose rate near the steel structure will always be higher than 0.1 rem/h due to its niobium content. After 200 to 100,000 years of decay the potential biological hazard originating from this high level fusion reactor waste (with plutonium recyclation). (orig.) [de

  14. Mediating Role of Activity Level in the Depressive Realism Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco, Fernando; Matute, Helena; A. Vadillo, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Several classic studies have concluded that the accuracy of identifying uncontrollable situations depends heavily on depressive mood. Nondepressed participants tend to exhibit an optimistic illusion of control, whereas depressed participants tend to better detect a lack of control. Recently, we suggested that the different activity levels (measured as the probability of responding during a contingency learning task) exhibited by depressed and nondepressed individuals is partly responsible for...

  15. Determinants of anti-corruption activities at the regional level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Ovchinnikova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the concept of corruption, defined as an obstacle to economic and social development, created by representatives of the power structures of the country, region, enterprise, weakening the efficiency of management and the institutional foundation of society. Anticorruption activity is presented in the article as conditions created by the state and ensuring that the country's economy is not irreparably damaged by internal and external economic threats. The estimated characteristics of the anti-corruption activities of the regions and the country as a whole, as a rule, are studied in the domestic sources and among foreign authors. Statistical evaluation of the relationship between the level of corruption and indicators: the dynamics of GRP growth, the index of real incomes of the population, the costs of training, health care is made on the basis of the coefficient Pearson correlation. Based on the correlation analysis, stable links were established between the level of corruption and the socio-economic indicators of the region's development: an increase in the level of corruption associated with an increase in the population's spending on education and medicine; a reduction in the level of corruption, as a result of increased incomes of the population and higher wages. The consequences of corruption are presented: legal (the undeveloped legislative base, which involves bribery of powerful people, the growth of corruption in the society, the increase in corruption crimes, the inefficiency of the regulatory framework, social (moral violation, low public evaluation of the activities of power structures, low level of culture and upbringing , economic (bias financial, investment decisions, illegal distribution of property and non-property benefits, the impossibility of competitors Vat with developed countries and others.

  16. Cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity level in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Schultz Straatmann

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2015v17n1p21   More objective methods to detect inactive adolescents may help identify young people that are vulnerable to obesity and other chronic diseases. The objective of this study was to examine the association between classifications obtained with the cardiorespiratory fitness test and physical activity level in adolescents, as well as the agreement between tertiles and z-score distribution of the variables generated with these methods (distance covered and total physical activity score. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a random sample of 639 adolescents (61% girls aged 12 to 19 years (mean age of 16 ± 1.8 and categorized into two age groups: 12-13 and 14-19 years, from public schools in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed by a 9-min run/walk test (T9 and physical activity level by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ. The chi-square test (or Fisher’s exact test and Kruskal-Wallis test were applied for the evaluation of associations, and the weighted kappa coefficient and intraclass correlation coefficient were used to investigate agreement between variables. A level of significance of p<0.05 was adopted. A significant association between the classifications obtained with the two methods was only observed for adolescents aged ≥ 14 years. However, there was agreement between the variables generated with the two methods in both age groups. The median distance covered in the T9 increased according to tertiles of total physical activity score. An association between the classifications obtained with the IPAQ and T9 was only found for older adolescents. However, the continuous variables and variables categorized into tertiles generated with the methods were associated and showed agreement in both age groups.

  17. The relationship between postnatal depression, sociodemographic factors, levels of partner support, and levels of physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam eSaligeh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: postnatal depression (PND is defined as a psychological mood disorder that occurs in a mother within six weeks of her giving birth. It refers to an episode that causes mood disturbance and it could begin in, or extend into, the postpartum period. It is thought to have a high impact upon the mother’s health as well as the family’s functioning and the child’s development. Socio-demographic, psych-social, and physical activity factors may all contribute to postpartum mood and ability to cope with responsibilities. The primary aim of this study was to determine which of these factors predicted PND in postpartum women. A secondary aim was to identify the socio-demographic and psycho-social predictors of physical activity in postpartum women . Methods: The study used a cross-sectional correlational design. A sample of 150 postpartum women was sent a package of six standardised questionnaires. Results: There was no association between physical activity and PND; however, older mothers, mothers of younger children, mothers who are less reluctant to ask for help, and mothers who are more satisfied with the help they get experience lower levels of PND. Mothers of older babies, mothers with more children, and less educated mothers are more likely to engage in caregiving activities, whereas mothers with fewer children and higher levels of partner support are more likely to engage in occupational activities. None of the socio-demographic factors or any of the parenting factors predicted levels of sporting activity.

  18. Associations between personality traits, physical activity level, and muscle strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolea, Magdalena I.; Terracciano, Antonio; Simonsick, Eleanor M.; Metter, E. Jeffrey; Costa, Paul T.; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Associations among personality as measured by the Five Factor Model, physical activity, and muscle strength were assessed using data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (N = 1220, age: mean = 58, SD = 16). General linear modeling with adjustment for age, sex, race, and body mass index, and bootstrapping for mediation were used. We found neuroticism and most of its facets to negatively correlate with strength. The extraversion domain and its facets of warmth, activity, and positive-emotions were positively correlated with strength, independent of covariates. Mediation analysis results suggest that these associations are partly explained by physical activity level. Findings extend the evidence of an association between personality and physical function to its strength component and indicate health behavior as an important pathway. PMID:23966753

  19. Physical activity level and exercise in patients with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Camila Kümmel; Almeida, Jussara Carnevale de; Merker, Aline Juliana Schneider; Brauer, Fabiane de Oliveira; Rodrigues, Ticiana da Costa

    2012-01-01

    To compare physical activity level (PAL) and care related to exercise in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). DM outpatients (adult, insulin-user patients) were assessed for PAL (international questionnaire; moderate- and high-level activities, as well as walking, over a typical week) and questioned about formal exercise practice, self-care, and hypoglycemic episodes related to exercise or reasons for not exercising. Two hundred twenty five patients were assessed: 107 (47.6%) had type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and 118 (52.4%) had type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1), with a larger percentage of patients with DM2 being classified as poorly active [33 (30.7%) versus 12 (10.3%)] and a lower percentage being classified as highly active [9 (8.7%) versus 29 (25%)], compared with patients having DM1. Patients who do not exercise (n = 140) gave different reasons for not doing so: patients with DM2 claimed that they "felt uncomfortable", "presented medical restrictions", and "did not like it"; DM1 patients claimed that they "had no time to exercise", "were lazy", and "had hypoglycemic episodes". Only 85 patients exercised regularly, regardless of the PAL, and 38.8% performed self-care, such as eating, stretching, and capillary glucose monitoring. Patients with DM2 [5 (14.3%)] reported a lower number of hypoglycemic episodes related to exercise than those with DM1 [17 (34%)]. Patients with DM2 have different PAL and behavior related to exercise than those seen in DM1 patients.

  20. Theory-based physical activity beliefs by race and activity levels among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosma, Maria; Cardinal, Bradley J

    2016-01-01

    Given the benefits of physical activity and the high proportion of inactivity among older adults, the purpose was to elicit theory-based behavioral, normative, and control physical activity beliefs among 140 educationally and economically diverse older adults and compare their beliefs by race (Blacks vs. Whites) and physical activity levels (inactive/underactive vs. highly active individuals). This was an elicitation study that took place in eight, mostly rural community settings in a Southeastern US state, such as Council of Aging Offices, retirement centers, and churches. Participants' behavioral, normative, and control beliefs were elicited via in person interviews. A valid and reliable questionnaire was also used to assess their physical activity levels. According to the content analysis, inactive/underactive participants reported fewer physical activity advantages than highly active participants. Common physical activity advantages between the two groups were overall health, emotional functioning, and physical functioning. Similar physical activity advantages were reported among Blacks and Whites with overall health being the most important advantage. The most common physical activity disadvantages and barriers for all four groups were falls, injuries, pain, and health issues. Inactive/underactive individuals and Blacks tended to report more disadvantages and barriers than their peers. Common physical activity supporters were family members, friends and peers, and health-care professionals. In their physical activity motivational programs, health promoters should reinforce physical activity benefits, social support, access to activity programs, and safety when intervening among older adults.

  1. Levels of physical activity in people with chronic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romy Parker

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: People who suffer from chronic pain are thought to have lower levels of physical activity compared to healthy individuals. However, there is a lack of evidence concerning levels of physical activity in South Africans with chronic pain. Objectives: To compare levels of physical activity in a South African sample of people with chronic pain compared to matched controls. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 24 participants (12 with chronic pain and 12 in the control group matched for age, gender and residential area. Convenience sampling was used. The participants with chronic pain (12 were identified from the Groote Schuur Hospital, Chronic Pain Management Clinic (CPMC waiting list and had not yet received any chronic pain management intervention. Healthy matched controls were selected from volunteers in the community. With the desired alpha level set at 0.05 and the power at 0.9, 45 participants were required to detect a minimum of a 50 per cent difference between groups in levels of physical activity as measured in steps per day using pedometers. The international physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ and the brief pain inventory (BPI were used as measures of physical activity and pain. Objective indicators of physical activity that were used included the 6-minute walk test (6MWT, repeated sit-to-stand test (RSST, 7 days of pedometry and body mass index (BMI. Results: The chronic pain group performed significantly worse on the 6MWT (335 m [30–430] vs 680 m [430–795]; U = 0.5; p < 0.01 and on the RSST (17.9 s [11.83–105] vs 7.85 s [5.5–11.5]; U = 0; p < 0.01. The chronic pain group also had significantly lower scores on pedometry (mean daily: 2985.1 [32.8–13785.4] vs 6409.4 [4207.1–15313.6]; U = 35; p < 0.03. The BMI for the chronic pain group was significantly higher than matched controls (29.36 kg/m2 [18.94–34.63] vs 22.16 kg/m2 [17.1–30.86]; U = 34; p < 0.03. Conclusion: Participants with chronic pain

  2. Differences in leisure-time activities according to level of physical activity in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Jorge; Santos, Maria Paula; Ribeiro, Jose Carlos

    2008-03-01

    The main goals of this study were: (1) to examine the relationship between physical activity (PA) involvement and other leisure activities in a sample of Portuguese youth and (2) to analyze gender differences in PA and leisure-time activity structure. The sample comprised 1123 adolescents that were classified according to PA levels as active (n = 589) and nonactive (n = 534). A questionnaire assessing leisure-time activities was used. Girls were significantly more engaged in social leisure, dutiful, and individual artistic activities during leisure time, whereas boys were more involved in sports and computer and TV viewing activities. Significant associations between PA and social leisure were found in girls (r = .18, P leisure (girls: r = .56, P importance of organized and nonorganized sports/PA during leisure time for overall levels of PA in adolescents.

  3. Physical Activity Levels and Well-Being in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Wonyul; Ik Suh, Young; Ryu, Jungsu; Heo, Jinmoo

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the interconnectedness of different intensity levels of physical activity and psychological (life satisfaction and positive affect) and physical (physical health) well-being. Participants were from the National Study of Midlife in the United States with assessments in 2004 and aged 25 to 74 living in the United States were included in the analyses. We conducted bivariate correlations to examine significant relationships among the study variables. In addition, after multicollinearity among the independent variable was checked, a series of hierarchical regression analyses with physical health, positive affect, and life satisfaction as criterion variables were conducted. The results showed that light physical activities were positively associated with physical health and life satisfaction in summer, whereas light physical activities and all dependent variables were positively correlated in winter. Furthermore, engaging in moderate physical activities was positively related only with physical health. Meanwhile, vigorous physical activities were not associated with life satisfaction, physical health, and positive affect in summer and winter.

  4. Delayed polarization of mononuclear phagocyte transcriptional program by type I interferon isoforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Ena

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interferon (IFN-α is considered a key modulator of immunopathological processes through a signature-specific activation of mononuclear phagocytes (MPs. This study utilized global transcript analysis to characterize the effects of the entire type I IFN family in comparison to a broad panel of other cytokines on MP previously exposed to Lipopolysaccharide (LPS stimulation in vitro. Results Immature peripheral blood CD14+ MPs were stimulated with LPS and 1 hour later with 42 separate soluble factors including cytokines, chemokines, interleukins, growth factors and IFNs. Gene expression profiling of MPs was analyzed 4 and 9 hours after cytokine stimulation. Four hours after stimulation, the transcriptional analysis of MPs revealed two main classes of cytokines: one associated with the alternative and the other with the classical pathway of MP activation without a clear polarization of type I IFNs effects. In contrast, after 9 hours of stimulation most type I IFN isoforms induced a characteristic and unique transcriptional pattern separate from other cytokines. These "signature" IFNs included; IFN-β, IFN-α2b/α2, IFN-αI, IFN-α2, IFN-αC, IFN-αJ1, IFN-αH2, and INF-α4B and induced the over-expression of 44 genes, all of which had known functional relationships with IFN such as myxovirus resistance (Mx-1, Mx-2, and interferon-induced hepatitis C-associated microtubular aggregation protein. A second group of type I IFNs segregated separately and in closer association with the type II IFN-γ. The phylogenetic relationship of amino acid sequences among type I IFNs did not explain their sub-classification, although differences at positions 94 through 109 and 175 through 189 were present between the signature and other IFNs. Conclusion Seven IFN-α isoforms and IFN-β participate in the late phase polarization of MPs conditioned by LPS. This information broadens the previous view of the central role played by IFN-α in

  5. The effect of carvedilol on the oxidative burst of rat phagocytes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravcová, Aneta; Lojek, Antonín; Číž, Milan; Pečivová, J.; Jančinová, V.; Nosál, R.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 101, č. 14 (2007), s232-s233 E-ISSN 1213-7103. [Mezioborová česko-slovenská toxikologická konference /12./. Praha, 11.06.2007-13.06.2007] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA524/07/1511 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : carvedilol * phagocytes * oxidative burst Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  6. Leptospira interrogans stably infects zebrafish embryos, altering phagocyte behavior and homing to specific tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Muse Davis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is an extremely widespread zoonotic infection with outcomes ranging from subclinical infection to fatal Weil's syndrome. Despite the global impact of the disease, key aspects of its pathogenesis remain unclear. To examine in detail the earliest steps in the host response to leptospires, we used fluorescently labelled Leptospira interrogans serovar Copenhageni to infect 30 hour post fertilization zebrafish embryos by either the caudal vein or hindbrain ventricle. These embryos have functional innate immunity but have not yet developed an adaptive immune system. Furthermore, they are optically transparent, allowing direct visualization of host-pathogen interactions from the moment of infection. We observed rapid uptake of leptospires by phagocytes, followed by persistent, intracellular infection over the first 48 hours. Phagocytosis of leptospires occasionally resulted in formation of large cellular vesicles consistent with apoptotic bodies. By 24 hours, clusters of infected phagocytes were accumulating lateral to the dorsal artery, presumably in early hematopoietic tissue. Our observations suggest that phagocytosis may be a key defense mechanism in the early stages of leptospirosis, and that phagocytic cells play roles in immunopathogenesis and likely in the dissemination of leptospires to specific target tissues.

  7. State and Federal activities on low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    With the passage of the Low-Level Waste Policy Act in December 1980, the states have assumed the management responsibility and the federal government has become a facilitator. State and Federal roles in regulation have not altered. This paper reviews the developments over the last two years to point out the progress made and critical steps that lie ahead. Both technological and political aspects are covered, and a conclusion is presented with a look to the future. Since compact development in the tool chosen by the politicans for low-level waste management, the author reviews the present status starting with the northwest compact which has been introduced into the House and Senate and is subject to hearings. The past two years have seen real progress in technology in the broadest sense. An information development and dissemination system was established in 1978 wih the state-by-state assessment of low-level waste disposal. Annual examinations have been made through 1981 which enables one to understand the generation of low-level wastes. Policy level planning by states can be supported by the base level of information available. Incineration of dry active waste and other non-fuel cycle waste is ready to be fully accepted. Much work has been done on volume reduction of liquids. The increased understanding of the ways to make a disposal site work represents a major technolological improvement. Within the DOE system, there is beginning to be a real understanding of the critical parameters in disposal site performance in the East

  8. Leisure activities, caregiving demands and catecholamine levels in dementia caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattillion, Elizabeth A; Mausbach, Brent T; Roepke, Susan K; von Känel, Roland; Mills, Paul J; Dimsdale, Joel E; Allison, Matthew; Ziegler, Michael G; Patterson, Thomas L; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Grant, Igor

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether satisfaction from leisure activities moderates the relationship between caregiving demands (i.e., hours per day spent caring for a spouse with dementia) and resting levels of the catecholamines norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (EPI). Spousal caregivers (n = 107; mean age = 73.95 ± 8.12 years) were assessed in home for plasma levels of NE and EPI, amount of care provided, and leisure satisfaction. Regression was used to determine whether leisure satisfaction moderated the relationship between hours providing care per day and catecholamine levels. A significant interaction was found between hours caregiving and leisure satisfaction for NE, but not for EPI. Post hoc regressions were conducted for both NE and EPI. At low leisure satisfaction, time spent caring for a spouse was positively associated with plasma NE (β = 0.41; p = 0.005) and EPI (β = 0.44; p = 0.003). In contrast, at high levels of satisfaction, time caregiving was not significantly associated with plasma NE (β = -0.08; p = 0.57) or EPI (β = 0.23; p = 0.12). These findings suggest that leisure satisfaction may protect caregivers from increases in catecholamines, which have been implicated in cardiovascular risk. Further support for these findings may impact psychological treatments for distressed caregivers.

  9. Low level alpha activity measurements with pulse shape discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguchi, Masayasu; Satoh, Kaneaki; Higuchi, Hideo.

    1984-01-01

    Pulse shape discrimination of α and β rays with liquid scintillation counting was investigated for the purpose of low level α activity measurements. Various liquid scintillators for pulse shape discrimination were examined by means of pulse rise time analysis. A new scintillator of low cost and of superior characteristics was found. The figure of merits better than 3.5 in risetime spectrum and the energy resolution better than 9% were obtained for carefully prepared samples. The background counting rate for a sample of 10 ml was reduced to 0.013 cpm/MeV in the range of α ray energy 5 to 7 MeV. (author)

  10. Segregation of low-level dry active waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornblith, L. Jr.; Naughton, M.D.; Welsh, L.

    1984-01-01

    A program has been carried out to characterize the Dry Active Waste (DAW) stream from a typical PWR power plant in order to determine the usefulness of large-volume DAW monitors for segregating such waste in order to dispose of it in appropriate facilities. A waste monitor using plastic scintillation counters was used for measuring the waste. The monitor had a volume of about 300 liters and an overall efficiency of about 12% for a typical fission product mixture. It provides automatic compensation for background radioactivity and can measure a bag of waste in less than a minute, including background measurements. Six hundred consecutively generated bags of DAW were measured. These had a total activity of about one millicurie and an average specific activity of about 540 nanocuries per kilogram. About half of the bags contained less than 1000 nanocuries and had specific activities of less than 100 nanocuries per kilogram. Based on simplified preliminary calculations, it appears that an evaluation of the risks of disposal of bags such as these in a landfill other than a low-level waste disposal facility could be carried out that would demonstrate that such disposal of half or more of these bags would not result in any substantial hazard, either short or long term

  11. Physical activity level and sedentary behavior among students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Augusto Santos Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2009v11n3p299   The objective of this study was to determine the physical activity level (PAL and sedentary behavior of students from the city of Aracaju (SE. A total of 1028 students of both genders participated in the study, with a mean age of 15.38 (2.44 years for girls and 15.24 (2.40 years for boys. Among the sample, 24.7% were children and 75.3% were adolescents, with a mean age of 12.07 (0.88 and 16.39 (1.72 years, respectively. An instrument already used in Brazilian studies was applied to identify the average time (hours watching TV per day (hTV and PAL – PAQ-C. Descriptive statistics, t-test for independent samples, Fisher’s exact test and comparison test between two proportions were used for data analysis, with the level of significance set at 5% (p≤0.05. Boys presented a significantly higher physical activity score 2.25 (0.60 than girls. The prevalence of sedentarism was 72.5, 89.3 and 85.2% in the groups of children and adolescents and in the group as a whole, respectively, for girls, and 55.4, 74.8 and 69.8% for boys. No differences in hTV were observed between genders or between sedentary and physically active students (p > 0.05. We conclude that a there is a high prevalence of “sedentary” and “very sedentary” children and adolescents; b boys present a higher PAL than girls; c adolescents are less active than children, and d the number of hTV is high in the group studied.

  12. Physical activity level and sedentary behavior among students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Jerônimo dos Santos Silva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the physical activity level (PAL and sedentary behavior of students from the city of Aracaju (SE. A total of 1028 students of both genders participated in the study, with a mean age of 15.38 (2.44 years for girls and 15.24 (2.40 years for boys. Among the sample, 24.7% were children and 75.3% were adolescents, with a mean age of 12.07 (0.88 and 16.39 (1.72 years, respectively. An instrument already used in Brazilian studies was applied to identify the average time (hours watching TV per day (hTV and PAL – PAQ-C. Descriptive statistics, t-test for independent samples, Fisher’s exact test and comparison test between two proportions were used for data analysis, with the level of significance set at 5% (p≤0.05. Boys presented a significantly higher physical activity score 2.25 (0.60 than girls. The prevalence of sedentarism was 72.5, 89.3 and 85.2% in the groups of children and adolescents and in the group as a whole, respectively, for girls, and 55.4, 74.8 and 69.8% for boys. No differences in hTV were observed between genders or between sedentary and physically active students (p > 0.05. We conclude that a there is a high prevalence of “sedentary” and “very sedentary” children and adolescents; b boys present a higher PAL than girls; c adolescents are less active than children, and d the number of hTV is high in the group studied.

  13. Mediating role of activity level in the depressive realism effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Fernando; Matute, Helena; A Vadillo, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Several classic studies have concluded that the accuracy of identifying uncontrollable situations depends heavily on depressive mood. Nondepressed participants tend to exhibit an optimistic illusion of control, whereas depressed participants tend to better detect a lack of control. Recently, we suggested that the different activity levels (measured as the probability of responding during a contingency learning task) exhibited by depressed and nondepressed individuals is partly responsible for this effect. The two studies presented in this paper provide further support for this mediational hypothesis, in which mood is the distal cause of the illusion of control operating through activity level, the proximal cause. In Study 1, the probability of responding, P(R), was found to be a mediator variable between the depressive symptoms and the judgments of control. In Study 2, we intervened directly on the mediator variable: The P(R) for both depressed and nondepressed participants was manipulated through instructions. Our results confirm that P(R) manipulation produced differences in the participants' perceptions of uncontrollability. Importantly, the intervention on the mediator variable cancelled the effect of the distal cause; the participants' judgments of control were no longer mood dependent when the P(R) was manipulated. This result supports the hypothesis that the so-called depressive realism effect is actually mediated by the probability of responding.

  14. Mediating role of activity level in the depressive realism effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Blanco

    Full Text Available Several classic studies have concluded that the accuracy of identifying uncontrollable situations depends heavily on depressive mood. Nondepressed participants tend to exhibit an optimistic illusion of control, whereas depressed participants tend to better detect a lack of control. Recently, we suggested that the different activity levels (measured as the probability of responding during a contingency learning task exhibited by depressed and nondepressed individuals is partly responsible for this effect. The two studies presented in this paper provide further support for this mediational hypothesis, in which mood is the distal cause of the illusion of control operating through activity level, the proximal cause. In Study 1, the probability of responding, P(R, was found to be a mediator variable between the depressive symptoms and the judgments of control. In Study 2, we intervened directly on the mediator variable: The P(R for both depressed and nondepressed participants was manipulated through instructions. Our results confirm that P(R manipulation produced differences in the participants' perceptions of uncontrollability. Importantly, the intervention on the mediator variable cancelled the effect of the distal cause; the participants' judgments of control were no longer mood dependent when the P(R was manipulated. This result supports the hypothesis that the so-called depressive realism effect is actually mediated by the probability of responding.

  15. Physical activity levels in adolescents: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Sevilla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical Activity (PA is very important during childhood and adolescence in order to promote healthy development and prevent obesity. The WHO recommends 60 minutes daily of moderate-vigorous activity (e» 3 METs/day. The main objective of the study is to assess the levels of PA intensity performed daily by adolescents from a school using the triaxial accelerometry system and to know if they achieve the WHO recommendations. The sample size was 60 Spanish adolescents (14.52 ± .854 year-old belongs to the Empordá school (Empúries, Spain. Previous informed consent was obtained from their parents and/or tutors. PA levels were obtained through accelerometry, Body Mass Index (BMI was calculated though weight and height, heart rate (HR and blood pressure (BP were measured using a digital automatic blood pressure monitor. Descriptive for all data was calculated, and T–test (p < .05 was used to analyze the differences between boys and girls. The main result show that males performed PA during longer time and at higher intensity than women. There is a low percentage of students who achieve the WHO recommendations. In conclusion, we believe very important to seek new strategies and methods to involve more adolescents in the practice of PA, and we believe that PA sessions at school are very important.

  16. Mediating Role of Activity Level in the Depressive Realism Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Fernando; Matute, Helena; A. Vadillo, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Several classic studies have concluded that the accuracy of identifying uncontrollable situations depends heavily on depressive mood. Nondepressed participants tend to exhibit an optimistic illusion of control, whereas depressed participants tend to better detect a lack of control. Recently, we suggested that the different activity levels (measured as the probability of responding during a contingency learning task) exhibited by depressed and nondepressed individuals is partly responsible for this effect. The two studies presented in this paper provide further support for this mediational hypothesis, in which mood is the distal cause of the illusion of control operating through activity level, the proximal cause. In Study 1, the probability of responding, P(R), was found to be a mediator variable between the depressive symptoms and the judgments of control. In Study 2, we intervened directly on the mediator variable: The P(R) for both depressed and nondepressed participants was manipulated through instructions. Our results confirm that P(R) manipulation produced differences in the participants’ perceptions of uncontrollability. Importantly, the intervention on the mediator variable cancelled the effect of the distal cause; the participants’ judgments of control were no longer mood dependent when the P(R) was manipulated. This result supports the hypothesis that the so-called depressive realism effect is actually mediated by the probability of responding. PMID:23029435

  17. The non-phagocytic route of collagen uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Daniel H; Ingvarsen, Signe; Jürgensen, Henrik J

    2011-01-01

    The degradation of collagens, the most abundant proteins of the extracellular matrix, is involved in numerous physiological and pathological conditions including cancer invasion. An important turnover pathway involves cellular internalization and degradation of large, soluble collagen fragments......, generated by initial cleavage of the insoluble collagen fibers. We have previously observed that in primary mouse fibroblasts, this endocytosis of collagen fragments is dependent on the receptor urokinase plasminogen activator receptor-associated protein (uPARAP)/Endo180. Others have identified additional...... mechanisms of collagen uptake, with different associated receptors, in other cell types. These receptors include β1-integrins, being responsible for collagen phagocytosis, and the mannose receptor. We have now utilized a newly developed monoclonal antibody against uPARAP/Endo180, which down...

  18. Objectively assessed physical activity levels in Spanish cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Casado, Ana; Verdugo, Ana Soria; Solano, María J Ortega; Aldazabal, Itziar Pagola; Fiuza-Luces, Carmen; Alejo, Lidia Brea; del Hierro, Julio R Padilla; Palomo, Isabel; Aguado-Arroyo, Oscar; Garatachea, Nuria; Cebolla, Héctor; Lucia, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    To objectively assess physical activity (PA) levels in a cohort of Spanish cancer survivors. Descriptive, cross-sectional. The Hospital Universitario de Fuenlabrada and two healthcare centers in Madrid, Spain. 204 cancer survivors and 115 adults with no history of cancer. Participants wore a triaxial accelerometer for seven or more consecutive days to assess PA levels. Body mass index (BMI), indirect indicators of adiposity (waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio), and cardiorespiratory fitness also were determined. Light, moderate, vigorous, and total PA (sum of the former). Most (94%) of the cancer survivors met international recommendations for moderate PA, but very few (3%) fulfilled those (75 minutes or more per week) for vigorous PA. Except for lower total (minute per day, p=0.048) and vigorous PA levels (p0.05). A high percentage of the survivors (33%) were obese (BMI greater than 30 kg/m2), and many also showed poor cardiorespiratory fitness (45% were below the 8 metabolic equivalent threshold). Although cancer survivors overall met international PA recommendations for a healthy lifestyle, their BMI and cardiorespiratory profiles were not within the healthy range. Cancer survivors need to be informed about healthy lifestyle habits and should be regularly monitored.

  19. Adhesion molecules levels in blood correlate with MRI activity and clinical activity in multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millers, A.; Enina, G.; Platkajis, A.; Metra, M.; Kukaine, R.

    2002-01-01

    Research into pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) has prompted efforts to identify immunological markers associated with disease activity. Adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 are associated with inflammatory mediated blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction. In this study investigates the correlation between blood level of circulating ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) activity in different clinical phases of patients with MS. We show that RRMS and SPMS patients in clinically active phase with Gd-enhancing lesions in CNS had higher blood levels of cICAM-1 and cVCAM-1 compared these parameters levers of RRMS patients in remission stage. These results suggest that cICAM-1 and cVCAM-1 is a sensitive indicator of disease activity associated with BBB inflammatory dysfunction. Elevated blood level of cICAM-1 more strongly correlated with clinical activity and BBB damage, than cVCAM-1 and that could be used as biological marker of disease activity. Circulating VCAM-1 as an early indicator of BBB disturbance, may also serve as marker of beneficial activity in relapses phase of MS course. (authors)

  20. Prediction of habitual physical activity level and weight status from fundamental movement skill level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Elizabeth Sarah; James, Rob S; Birch, Samantha Louise; Duncan, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Fundamental movement skills (FMS) have been assessed in children in order to investigate the issues of the low proportion of children who meet physical activity (PA) guidelines and rising levels of obesity. The aim of this research was to identify whether previous or current FMS level is a better predictor of PA levels and weight status in children. In January 2012 (year 1), 281 children were recruited from one primary school in the West Midlands, UK. Children performed eight FMS three times, which were videoed and assessed using a subjective checklist. Sprint speed and jump height were measured objectively. Height and mass were measured to calculate the body mass index to determine the weight status. Skinfold calliper readings were used to calculate body fat percentage. One year later, in January 2013, all these tests were repeated on the same children, with the additional collection of PA data via the use of pedometers. Following multiple linear regression, it was identified that prior mastery in FMS was a better predictor of current PA, whereas current FMS was a better predictor of current weight status. Overall, FMS mastery is needed in childhood to be able to participate in PA and maintain a healthy weight status.

  1. The Effect of Gender and Level of Vision on the Physical Activity Level of Children and Adolescents with Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Ummuhan Bas; Calik, Bilge Basakci; Kitis, Ali

    2012-01-01

    This study was planned in order to determine physical activity levels of visually impaired children and adolescents and to investigate the effect of gender and level of vision on physical activity level in visually impaired children and adolescents. A total of 30 visually impaired children and adolescents (16 low vision and 14 blind) aged between…

  2. One method of measure low activity level of α, β

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Shimin

    2003-01-01

    In this paper it is described that several method of measure low activity level of Alpha and Beta, and an circuit diagram for signal of Alpha and Beta to differentiate with method of wave shape identification. With the method, the signal of Beta did not interfere any signal to the count-way of Alpha. For adopted the technology the model JA-3502 of eight detectors of low background Alpha and Beta measuring instrument only have 2.65 x 10 -4 cpm/cm 2 background count rate at count-way of Alpha. Opposite the model FJ-2600 middle area low background Alpha and Beta measuring instrument have 1.27 x 10 -3 cpm/cm 2 background count rate at count-way of Alpha. The latter is 5 times of other

  3. Phagocytosis and production of reactive oxygen species by peripheral blood phagocytes in patients with different stages of alcohol-induced liver disease: effect of acute exposure to low ethanol concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr; Schäfer, C.; Paulus, S. B.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In rodents, the development of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) after chronic alcohol feeding was shown to depend on the activity of enzymes that are necessary for production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in phagocytes. The aim of this study was to determine the formation of ROS...... by resting and challenged phagocytes of patients with different stages of ALD in the presence of ethanol concentrations commonly found in the blood of alcohol abusers. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The release of ROS and the phagocytosis of bacteria by neutrophils and monocytes obtained from 60 patients, who were...... produced significantly more ROS than those of healthy controls. Basal values of ROS production from neutrophils correlated closely to markers of the severity of ALD. ROS formation was depressed dose-dependently by ethanol in the healthy controls but not in alcohol abusers. CONCLUSIONS: Changes in the ROS...

  4. Closure Plan for Active Low Level Burial Grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SKELLY, W.A.

    2000-11-16

    This plan has been prepared in response to direction from the U.S. Department of Energy. The purpose of the plan is to define approaches that will be implemented to ensure protection of the public and the environment when active Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBGs) at the Hanford Site are closed. Performance assessments for active burial grounds in the 200 East and West 200 Areas provide current estimates of potential environmental contamination and doses to the ''maximum exposed individual'' from burial ground operation and closure and compare dose estimates to performance objective dose limits for the facilities. This is an Operational Closure Plan. The intent of the guidance in DOE Order 435.1 is that this plan will be a living document, like the facility performance assessments, and will be revised periodically through the operational life of the LLBGs to reflect updated information on waste inventory. management practices, facility transition planning, schedule dates, assessments of post-closure performance, and environmental consequences. Out year dates identified in this plan are tentative. A Final Closure Plan will be prepared in the future when the timing and extent of closure-related activities for LLBGs can be established with greater certainty. After current operations at the LLBGs are concluded, this plan proposes transitioning of these facilities to the Environmental Restoration Program. This action will enable the Environmental Restoration Program to design and implement consistent and coordinated final remedial actions for active and inactive LLBGs. Active and inactive burial grounds in the 200 West and 200 East Areas are commingled. This plan describes approaches that will be implemented during Interim Closure, Final Closure, and Institutional Control Periods to prepare LLBGs for surface barriers, and the construction of barriers, as well as the scope of inspection, monitoring and maintenance practices that will be performed during

  5. Distress Levels among Parents of Active Duty Soldiers during Wartime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahar Bitton

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Military service is a highly stressful period both for the soldiers serving and for their parents. Surprisingly, parents’ experience has been mostly ignored in the research. This study’s goal is to shed light on the experience and distress levels of parents of active duty combat soldiers during Operation Protective Edge, a military operation carried out by the Israel Defense Forces during July and August of 2014.Methods: During the advanced stages of the operation, 69 parents of Israeli male combat soldiers (55 mothers and 14 fathers completed an online survey measuring symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD-Checklist-5 and distress (Brief Symptom Inventory-18. Participants were recruited using a convenience sample, by posting ads on the public Facebook pages of the researchers and of the groups dedicated to parents of Israeli soldiers.Results: Parents’ depression and anxiety symptom levels were higher than depression and anxiety symptom levels of the adult community norms in Israel. General distress rates of parents were similar to those presented by adults in southern Israel who were exposed for 7 years to the ongoing threat of daily rocket fire from Gaza, and higher than rates of a non-threatened Israeli population. Finally, 20.2% of the parents presented PTSD-like symptoms, a higher percentage than the probable PTSD diagnosis rates that were found in the general population in Israel during previous terror waves.Conclusion: This study provides preliminary evidence of soldiers’ parents’ distress and indicates the need for a better understanding of the impact of military service on soldiers’ parents.

  6. Levels of physical activity and predictors of mortality in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Maria Nyssen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the Body mass index, airway Obstruction, Dyspnea, andExercise capacity (BODE index scores and its individual components between COPD patients with and without severe physical inactivity, as well as to correlate the number of steps/day with scores of physical activity questionnaires, age, and the BODE index (including its components.METHODS: We included 30 patients, who were evaluated for body composition, pulmonary function (FEV1, perception of dyspnea (modified Medical Research Council scale, and exercise capacity (six-minute walk distance [6MWD]. The patients also completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ, short version, and the modified Baecke questionnaire (mBQ. The level of physical activity was assessed by the number of steps/day (as determined by pedometer, using the cut-off of 4,580 steps/day to form two groups: no severe physical inactivity (SPI− and severe physical inactivity (SPI+. We used the Mann-Whitney test or t-test, as well as Pearson's or Spearman's correlation tests, in the statistical analysis.RESULTS: In comparison with the SPI− group, the SPI+ group showed more advanced age, higher mBQ scores (leisure domain, lower 6MWD (in m and % of predicted, and lower IPAQ scores (metabolic equivalent-walk/week domain and total. The IPAQ scores showed weak correlations with steps/day (r = 0.399, age (r = −0.459, and 6MWD-in m (r = 0.446 and in % of predicted (r = 0.422.CONCLUSIONS: In our sample, the cut-off of 4,580 steps/day was not sensitive enough to identify differences between the groups when compared with the predictors of mortality. The IPAQ, short version score correlated with steps/day.

  7. Associations between Socio-Motivational Factors, Physical Education Activity Levels and Physical Activity Behavior among Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Weihong; Gao, Zan; Lodewyk, Ken

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between established socio-motivational factors and children's physical activity levels daily and during physical education classes. A total of 307 middle school students (149 boys, 158 girls) from a suburban public school in the Southern United States participated in this study. Participants completed…

  8. The zipper mechanism in phagocytosis: energetic requirements and variability in phagocytic cup shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dart Anna E

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phagocytosis is the fundamental cellular process by which eukaryotic cells bind and engulf particles by their cell membrane. Particle engulfment involves particle recognition by cell-surface receptors, signaling and remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton to guide the membrane around the particle in a zipper-like fashion. Despite the signaling complexity, phagocytosis also depends strongly on biophysical parameters, such as particle shape, and the need for actin-driven force generation remains poorly understood. Results Here, we propose a novel, three-dimensional and stochastic biophysical model of phagocytosis, and study the engulfment of particles of various sizes and shapes, including spiral and rod-shaped particles reminiscent of bacteria. Highly curved shapes are not taken up, in line with recent experimental results. Furthermore, we surprisingly find that even without actin-driven force generation, engulfment proceeds in a large regime of parameter values, albeit more slowly and with highly variable phagocytic cups. We experimentally confirm these predictions using fibroblasts, transfected with immunoreceptor FcγRIIa for engulfment of immunoglobulin G-opsonized particles. Specifically, we compare the wild-type receptor with a mutant receptor, unable to signal to the actin cytoskeleton. Based on the reconstruction of phagocytic cups from imaging data, we indeed show that cells are able to engulf small particles even without support from biological actin-driven processes. Conclusions This suggests that biochemical pathways render the evolutionary ancient process of phagocytic highly robust, allowing cells to engulf even very large particles. The particle-shape dependence of phagocytosis makes a systematic investigation of host-pathogen interactions and an efficient design of a vehicle for drug delivery possible.

  9. Enhanced alveolar monocytic phagocyte (macrophage) proliferation in tobacco and marijuana smokers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbers, R.G.; Evans, M.J.; Gong, H. Jr.; Tashkin, D.P. (Univ. of California-Los Angeles School of Medicine (USA))

    1991-05-01

    We tested the hypothesis that enhanced cell division accounted for the augmented numbers of monocytic phagocytes with characteristics attributed to alveolar macrophages (AM) found in the lungs of habitual tobacco (T) and marijuana (M) smokers. The monocytic phagocytes, that is, alveolar macrophages, were obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) from 12 nonsmoking subjects; 10 subjects who smoked T only (TS); 13 subjects who smoked M only (MS); and 6 smokers of both T and M (MTS). The replication of these cells was determined by measuring the incorporation of ({sup 3}H)thymidine into the DNA of dividing cells and visually counting 2,000 cells on autoradiographically prepared cytocentrifuge cell preparations. This study demonstrated that the number of ({sup 3}H)thymidine-labeled monocytic phagocytes with characteristics of alveolar macrophages from either TS or MS have a higher proliferative index compared to cells (macrophages) from nonsmokers, p less than 0.05 by one-way ANOVA. The total number of BAL macrophages that are in mitosis in TS (17.90 +/- 4.50 labeled AM x 10(3)/ml) or MTS (10.50 +/- 4.20 labeled AM x 10(3)/ml) are 18- and 10-fold greater, respectively, than the number obtained from nonsmokers (1.01 +/- 0.18 labeled AM x 10(3)/ml). Interestingly, the number of ({sup 3}H)thymidine-labeled macrophages from MS (2.90 +/- 0.66 labeled AM x 10(3)/ml) are also greater than the number obtained from nonsmokers, although this is not statistically significant. The stimulus augmenting alveolar macrophage replication is as yet unknown but may likely be found in the T or M smoke.

  10. Enhanced alveolar monocytic phagocyte (macrophage) proliferation in tobacco and marijuana smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbers, R.G.; Evans, M.J.; Gong, H. Jr.; Tashkin, D.P.

    1991-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that enhanced cell division accounted for the augmented numbers of monocytic phagocytes with characteristics attributed to alveolar macrophages (AM) found in the lungs of habitual tobacco (T) and marijuana (M) smokers. The monocytic phagocytes, that is, alveolar macrophages, were obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) from 12 nonsmoking subjects; 10 subjects who smoked T only (TS); 13 subjects who smoked M only (MS); and 6 smokers of both T and M (MTS). The replication of these cells was determined by measuring the incorporation of [ 3 H]thymidine into the DNA of dividing cells and visually counting 2,000 cells on autoradiographically prepared cytocentrifuge cell preparations. This study demonstrated that the number of [ 3 H]thymidine-labeled monocytic phagocytes with characteristics of alveolar macrophages from either TS or MS have a higher proliferative index compared to cells (macrophages) from nonsmokers, p less than 0.05 by one-way ANOVA. The total number of BAL macrophages that are in mitosis in TS (17.90 +/- 4.50 labeled AM x 10(3)/ml) or MTS (10.50 +/- 4.20 labeled AM x 10(3)/ml) are 18- and 10-fold greater, respectively, than the number obtained from nonsmokers (1.01 +/- 0.18 labeled AM x 10(3)/ml). Interestingly, the number of [ 3 H]thymidine-labeled macrophages from MS (2.90 +/- 0.66 labeled AM x 10(3)/ml) are also greater than the number obtained from nonsmokers, although this is not statistically significant. The stimulus augmenting alveolar macrophage replication is as yet unknown but may likely be found in the T or M smoke

  11. How much locomotive activity is needed for an active physical activity level: analysis of total step counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohkawara Kazunori

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although physical activity recommendations for public health have focused on locomotive activity such as walking and running, it is uncertain how much these activities contribute to overall physical activity level (PAL. The purpose of the present study was to determine the contribution of locomotive activity to PAL using total step counts measured in a calorimeter study. Methods PAL, calculated as total energy expenditure divided by basal metabolic rate, was evaluated in 11 adult men using three different conditions for 24-hour human calorimeter measurements: a low-activity day (L-day targeted at a low active level of PAL (1.45, and a high-frequency moderate activity day (M-day or a high-frequency vigorous activity day (V-day targeted at an active level of PAL (1.75. These subjects were permitted only light activities except prescribed activities. In a separate group of 41 adults, free-living PAL was evaluated using doubly-labeled water (DLW. In both experiments, step counts per day were also measured using an accelerometer. Results In the human calorimeter study, PAL and step counts were 1.42 ± 0.10 and 8,973 ± 543 steps/d (L-day, 1.82 ± 0.14 and 29,588 ± 1,126 steps/d (M-day, and 1.74 ± 0.15 and 23,755 ± 1,038 steps/d (V-day, respectively. In the DLW study, PAL and step counts were 1.73 ± 0.15 and 10,022 ± 2,605 steps/d, and there was no significant relationship between PAL and daily step counts. Conclusions These results indicate that an enormous number of steps are needed for an active level of PAL if individuals extend physical activity-induced energy expenditure by only locomotive activity. Therefore, non-locomotive activity such as household activity should also play a significant role in increasing PAL under free-living conditions.

  12. Evaluating the potential of gold, silver, and silica nanoparticles to saturate mononuclear phagocytic system tissues under repeat dosing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, James L; Tobin, Grainne A; Ingle, Taylor; Bancos, Simona; Stevens, David; Rouse, Rodney; Howard, Kristina E; Goodwin, David; Knapton, Alan; Li, Xiaohong; Shea, Katherine; Stewart, Sharron; Xu, Lin; Goering, Peter L; Zhang, Qin; Howard, Paul C; Collins, Jessie; Khan, Saeed; Sung, Kidon; Tyner, Katherine M

    2017-07-17

    As nanoparticles (NPs) become more prevalent in the pharmaceutical industry, questions have arisen from both industry and regulatory stakeholders about the long term effects of these materials. This study was designed to evaluate whether gold (10 nm), silver (50 nm), or silica (10 nm) nanoparticles administered intravenously to mice for up to 8 weeks at doses known to be sub-toxic (non-toxic at single acute or repeat dosing levels) and clinically relevant could produce significant bioaccumulation in liver and spleen macrophages. Repeated dosing with gold, silver, and silica nanoparticles did not saturate bioaccumulation in liver or spleen macrophages. While no toxicity was observed with gold and silver nanoparticles throughout the 8 week experiment, some effects including histopathological and serum chemistry changes were observed with silica nanoparticles starting at week 3. No major changes in the splenocyte population were observed during the study for any of the nanoparticles tested. The clinical impact of these changes is unclear but suggests that the mononuclear phagocytic system is able to handle repeated doses of nanoparticles.

  13. Anti-inflammatory actions of a taurine analogue, ethane β-sultam, in phagocytic cells, in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Roberta J; Lallemand, Frederic; de Witte, Philippe; Crichton, Robert R; Piette, Jacques; Tipton, Keith; Hemmings, Karl; Pitard, Arnaud; Page, Mike; Della Corte, Laura; Taylor, Deanna; Dexter, David

    2011-03-15

    The ability of a taurine prodrug, ethane β-sultam, to reduce cellular inflammation has been investigated, in vitro, in primary cultures of alveolar macrophages and an immortilised N9 microglial cell line and in vivo in an animal model of inflammation and control rats. Ethane β-sultam showed enhanced ability to reduce the inflammatory response in alveolar macrophages, as assayed by the lipopolysaccharide-stimulated-nitric oxide release, (LPS stimulated-NO), in comparison to taurine both in vitro (10 nM, 50 nM) and in vivo (0.15 mmol/kg/day by gavage). In addition, ethane β-sultam, (50, 100 and 1000 nM) significantly reduced LPS-stimulated glutamate release from N9 microglial cells to a greater extent than taurine. The anti-inflammatory response of taurine was shown to be mediated via stabilisation of IkBα. The use of a taurine prodrug as therapeutic agents, for the treatment of neurological conditions, such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease and alcoholic brain damage, where activated phagocytic cells contribute to the pathogenesis, may be of great potential. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Energy requirements and physical activity level of active elderly people in rural areas of cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Triana, M.; Porrata Maury, C.; Jimenez Acosta, S.; Gonzalez Perez, T.; Diaz, M.E.; Martin, I.; Sanchez, V.; Monterrey, P.

    1999-01-01

    Obesity and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) are common in the Third Age and increasing in Cuba. Among the life-style changes associated with increased prevalence of obesity and its related disorders, diet and activity patterns are prime candidates. The transition to this life-style model may induce a decrease in the energy needs. There is an urgent need for tools which have been validated for measuring diet and physical activity in nutritional studies in the developing world, but also a more urgent need for reference values for the total energy requirements of healthy elderly people. Regular physical activity reduces the likelihood to develop diseases that characterise the metabolic cardiovascular syndrome. Previous studies done in Havana showed values of physical activity level (PAL) which are lower than the reported for elderly subjects. Elderly people living in rural areas use to have physical activity levels which differ from the observed in urban areas. With the purpose of estimating the energy requirements, a group of 40 apparently healthy people older than 60 years of age living in a rural mountain community will be submitted to a medical, epidemiological, dietary, anthropometric and insulin resistance study. Physical activity will be determined by questionnaire and by the calculation of the PAL from the basal metabolic rate (BMR) and total energy expenditure (TEE) measured with the doubly-labelled water method (DLW). Associations with the prevalence of insulin resistance and obesity will be assessed. (author)

  15. [Immunologic indexes, enzyme status of lymphocytes and functional activity of blood neutrophils in children with infectious mononucleosis caused by Epstein-Barr virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtasova, L M; Tolstikova, A E; Savchenko, A A

    2013-01-01

    Explore the immunological parameters, levels of activity of NAD(P)-dependent dehydrogenases lymphocytes, interferon status parameters, phagocytic activity and chemiluminescence response of neutrophils in the blood of children in the acute phase of infectious mononucleosis caused by the Epstein-Barr virus. 65 children at the age of 4-6 years old with infectious mononucleosis caused by EBV in acute phase were observed. Such indexes as cell-mediated, humoral and interferon immunity, NAD(P)-depended dehydrogenases activity in blood lymphocyte, phagocytes activity, levels of spontaneous and induced chemiluminescence ofperipheral blood neutrophils were studied. Children with EVB-infection have immunophenotype spectrum changes and changes of enzymes status of blood lymphocytes against the increasing in leucocytes and the useful increasing in lymphocytes. The useful increasing in IgA, IgM, IgG contenting in serum blood were found. The decreasing of spontaneous production of IFN alpha and the decreasing of induced production of IFNalpha, IFNgamma were determined. The breach of phagocytes activity and chemiluminescent response of blood neutrophils were found. The children in the acute phase of infectious mononucleosis caused by the Epstein-Barr virus, there are changes in the immune status, changes the activity of NAD(P)-dependent dehydrogenases in blood lymphocytes, marked changes in functional and metabolic state of peripheral blood neutrophils.

  16. Quality assurance activities and proposals at the international level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davison, M.

    1985-01-01

    A number of international bodies have attempted to stimulate wider interest in Quality Assurance in X-ray departments. A major initiative has been taken by WHO with the publication of its recommendations in 1982 under the title Quality Assurance in Diagnostic Radiology, in which they indicated the action that should be taken at various national, professional and local levels. The recommendations of ICRP in Publication 26 point to the need for quality assurance programmes that will obtain optimum diagnostic information at minimum cost and minimum patient dose. ICRU have been considering the need for cost-effective quality assurance programmes and the specification of standards for image quality. The IEC and various manufacturers' organisations have begun to consider the part they can play in setting up quality control procedures. The most active group has been the ISRRT, which has arranged a series of seminars and workshops for radiographers in various parts of the world. Future needs for international support lie in the provision of training programmes, the publication of comparative statistical data and the development of image quality standards. (author)

  17. Effects of curricular activity on students' situational motivation and physical activity levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zan; Hannon, James C; Newton, Maria; Huang, Chaoqun

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine (a) the effects of three curricular activities on students'situational motivation (intrinsic motivation [IM], identified regulation [IR], external regulation, and amotivation [AM]) and physical activity (PA) levels, and (b) the predictive strength of situational motivation to PA levels. Four hundred twelve students in grades 7-9 participated in three activities (cardiovascular fitness, ultimate football, and Dance Dance Revolution [DDR]) in physical education. ActiGraph GT1M accelerometers were used to measure students' PA levels for three classes for each activity. Students also completed a Situational Motivation Scale (Guay, Vallerand, & Blanchard, 2000) at the end of each class. Multivariate analysis of variance revealed that students spent significantly higher percentages of time in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) in fitness and football classes than they did in DDR class. Students reported higher lM and IR toward fitness than DDR They also scored higher in IR toward fitness than football. In contrast, students displayed significantly lower AM toward fitness than football and DDR Hierarchical Linear Modeling revealed that IM was the only positive predictor for time in MVPA (p = .02), whereas AM was the negative predictor (p < .01). The findings are discussed in regard to the implications for educational practice.

  18. African Trypanosomiasis-Associated Anemia: The Contribution of the Interplay between Parasites and the Mononuclear Phagocyte System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Stijlemans

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available African trypanosomosis (AT is a chronically debilitating parasitic disease of medical and economic importance for the development of sub-Saharan Africa. The trypanosomes that cause this disease are extracellular protozoan parasites that have developed efficient immune escape mechanisms to manipulate the entire host immune response to allow parasite survival and transmission. During the early stage of infection, a profound pro-inflammatory type 1 activation of the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS, involving classically activated macrophages (i.e., M1, is required for initial parasite control. Yet, the persistence of this M1-type MPS activation in trypanosusceptible animals causes immunopathology with anemia as the most prominent pathological feature. By contrast, in trypanotolerant animals, there is an induction of IL-10 that promotes the induction of alternatively activated macrophages (M2 and collectively dampens tissue damage. A comparative gene expression analysis between M1 and M2 cells identified galectin-3 (Gal-3 and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF as novel M1-promoting factors, possibly acting synergistically and in concert with TNF-α during anemia development. While Gal-3 enhances erythrophagocytosis, MIF promotes both myeloid cell recruitment and iron retention within the MPS, thereby depriving iron for erythropoiesis. Hence, the enhanced erythrophagocytosis and suppressed erythropoiesis lead to anemia. Moreover, a thorough investigation using MIF-deficient mice revealed that the underlying mechanisms in AT-associated anemia development in trypanosusceptible and tolerant animals are quite distinct. In trypanosusceptible animals, anemia resembles anemia of inflammation, while in trypanotolerant animals’ hemodilution, mainly caused by hepatosplenomegaly, is an additional factor contributing to anemia. In this review, we give an overview of how trypanosome- and host-derived factors can contribute to trypanosomosis

  19. Dictyostelium discoideum as a novel host system to study the interaction between phagocytes and yeasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Koller

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum is a well-established model organism to study the interaction between bacteria and phagocytes. In contrast, research using D. discoideum as a host model for fungi is rare. We describe a comprehensive study, which uses D. discoideum as a host model system to investigate the interaction with apathogenic (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and pathogenic (Candida sp. yeast. We show that Dictyostelium can be co-cultivated with yeasts on solid media, offering a convenient test to study the interaction between fungi and phagocytes. We demonstrate that a number of D. discoideum mutants increase (atg1-, kil1-, kil2- or decrease (atg6- the ability of the amoebae to predate yeast cells. On the yeast side, growth characteristics, reduced phagocytosis rate, as well as known virulence factors of C. albicans (EFG1, CPH1, HGC1, ICL1 contribute to the resistance of yeast cells against predation by the amoebae. Investigating haploid C. albicans strains, we suggest using the amoebae plate test for screening purposes after random mutagenesis. Finally, we discuss the potential of our adapted amoebae plate test to use D. discoideum for risk assessment of yeast strains.

  20. The Phagocytic Function of Macrophage-Enforcing Innate Immunity and Tissue Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Hirayama

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Macrophages are effector cells of the innate immune system that phagocytose bacteria and secrete both pro-inflammatory and antimicrobial mediators. In addition, macrophages play an important role in eliminating diseased and damaged cells through their programmed cell death. Generally, macrophages ingest and degrade dead cells, debris, tumor cells, and foreign materials. They promote homeostasis by responding to internal and external changes within the body, not only as phagocytes, but also through trophic, regulatory, and repair functions. Recent studies demonstrated that macrophages differentiate from hematopoietic stem cell-derived monocytes and embryonic yolk sac macrophages. The latter mainly give rise to tissue macrophages. Macrophages exist in all vertebrate tissues and have dual functions in host protection and tissue injury, which are maintained at a fine balance. Tissue macrophages have heterogeneous phenotypes in different tissue environments. In this review, we focused on the phagocytic function of macrophage-enforcing innate immunity and tissue homeostasis for a better understanding of the role of tissue macrophages in several pathological conditions.

  1. Distinct innate immune phagocyte responses to Aspergillus fumigatus conidia and hyphae in zebrafish larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Benjamin P; Deng, Qing; Rood, Mary; Eickhoff, Jens C; Keller, Nancy P; Huttenlocher, Anna

    2014-10-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is the most common filamentous fungal pathogen of immunocompromised hosts, resulting in invasive aspergillosis (IA) and high mortality rates. Innate immunity is known to be the predominant host defense against A. fumigatus; however, innate phagocyte responses to A. fumigatus in an intact host and their contributions to host survival remain unclear. Here, we describe a larval zebrafish A. fumigatus infection model amenable to real-time imaging of host-fungal interactions in live animals. Following infection with A. fumigatus, innate phagocyte populations exhibit clear preferences for different fungal morphologies: macrophages rapidly phagocytose conidia and form aggregates around hyphae, while the neutrophil response is dependent upon the presence of hyphae. Depletion of macrophages rendered host larvae susceptible to invasive disease. Moreover, a zebrafish model of human leukocyte adhesion deficiency with impaired neutrophil function also resulted in invasive disease and impaired host survival. In contrast, macrophage-deficient but not neutrophil-deficient larvae exhibited attenuated disease following challenge with a less virulent (ΔlaeA) strain of A. fumigatus, which has defects in secondary metabolite production. Taking these results together, we have established a new vertebrate model for studying innate immune responses to A. fumigatus that reveals distinct roles for neutrophils and macrophages in mediating host defense against IA. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Extracellular requirements for the endocytosis of carcinogenic crystalline nickel sulfide particles by facultative phagocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heck, J.D.; Costa, M.

    1982-01-01

    Various culture medium components were examined for their effect upon the phagocytosis of carcinogenic crystalline and non-carcinogenic amorphous NiS by cultured fibroblastic cells using both a visual and radioactive assay for phagocytosis. Crystalline 63 NiS was phagocytosed by cells in a simple salts/glucose maintenance medium to an extent similar to that observed in complex culture medium fortified with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS), suggesting that serum proteins and other components in complex culture medium exert little influence upon the uptake of these heavy metal particles. Phagocytosis of crystalline NiS was shown to be highly dependent upon Ca 2+ since omission of Ca 2+ from the salts/glucose medium substantially reduced phagocytosis, while readdition of Ca 2+ stimulated uptake in a concentration-dependent manner. The uptake of the NiS particles was inhibited by trifluoperazine, a calmodulin antagonist, implicating intracellular Ca 2+ in this phagocytosis process. Since the opposite surface charge of crystalline and amorphous NiS has been related to their different phagocytic uptake by cells whose primary function is not phagocytosis (facultative phagocytes), these results show that the culture medium components do not modify the surface charge of these particles in a way that significantly influences their uptake. (Auth.)

  3. The physical activity levels among people living with human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    J.M. Frantz

    2014-02-13

    Feb 13, 2014 ... activities because they are often not motivated to exercise (Buch- holz & Purath ..... Physical Activity and Hypertension among University .... Endurance and Resistance Exercise on HIV Metabolic Abnormalities: A Pilot. Study.

  4. Physical activity level in pediatric population: A comprehensive review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physical activity (PA) is a key component in the maintenance and attainment of healthy, active, well-nourished and psycho-social well-being of a society. Hence, the reduction of sedentary lifestyle has featured in many countries as an important arm of policy designed to address childhood chronic diseases of lifestyle risk ...

  5. Physical activity level of school children of age 10-13 years

    OpenAIRE

    Ronghe, Dr. Rashmi N; Gotmare, Dr. Neha A; Kawishwar, Dr. Shraddha

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To assess physical activity level of school children of age 10-13 years.Objectives: To assess and grade physical activity level in children of age 10-13 years using Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children (PAQ-C) classified into: Light Physical activity; Moderate Physical activity; Moderate to vigorous Physical activity and High Physical activity.Methodology: This is Questionnaire based survey study which was conducted on 100 school going children of 10-13 years who were present on ...

  6. Circulating fibroblast activation protein activity and antigen levels correlate strongly when measured in liver disease and coronary heart disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.U. de Willige; Keane, F.M. (Fiona M.); Bowen, D.G. (David G.); J.J.M.C. Malfliet (Joyce); Zhang, H.E. (H. Emma); Maneck, B. (Bharvi); G. McCaughan (Geoff); F.W.G. Leebeek (Frank); D.C. Rijken (Dingeman); Gorrell, M.D. (Mark D.)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground and aim: Circulating fibroblast activation protein (cFAP) is a constitutively active enzyme expressed by activated fibroblasts that has both dipeptidyl peptidase and endopeptidase activities. We aimed to assess the correlation between cFAP activity and antigen levels and to

  7. 34 CFR 300.814 - Other State-level activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Preschool Grants for Children with Disabilities § 300.814 Other State-level..., language, and numeracy skills) in accordance with Part C of the Act to children with disabilities who are...

  8. The physical activity levels among people living with human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    J.M. Frantz

    2014-02-13

    Feb 13, 2014 ... Furthermore, the presence of obesity, dietary imbalances and sedentary ... activities/exercises in people living with HIV/AIDS while being treated with ..... Smoking in Dyslipidaemia in HIV-Infected Patients with Lipodystrophy.

  9. Physical Activity Level and Adiposity: Are they Associated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Keywords: Adiposity, Primary Dysmenorrhea, Physical Activity, Adolescence. Résumé. Les informations ... In addition, urinary frequency, irritability, nervous depression, abdominal .... years) was significantly higher than that of those without PD ...

  10. Influence of marital status on psysical activity levels among older adults.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pettee, K.K.; Brach, J.; Boudreau, R.; Colbert, L.H.; Harris, T.B.; Visser, M.; Richardson, C.; Newman, A.B.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of these analyses was to describe the levels and types of activity in relationship to current marital status among older adults and determine if the physical activity level of the husband was related to the physical activity level of his wife. Methods: Participants included 3075

  11. Intermediate levels of hippocampal activity appear optimal for associative memory formation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, X.; Qin, S.; Rijpkema, M.J.P.; Luo, J.; Fernandez, G.S.E.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is well established that hippocampal activity is positively related to effective associative memory formation. However, in biological systems often optimal levels of activity are contrasted by both sub- and supra-optimal levels. Sub-optimal levels of hippocampal activity are commonly

  12. Expanding the tools for identifying mononuclear phagocyte subsets in swine: Reagents to porcine CD11c and XCR1

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Deloizy, Ch.; Bouguyon, E.; Fossum, E.; Šebo, Peter; Osička, Radim; Bole, A.; Pierres, M.; Biacchesi, S.; Dalod, M.; Bogen, B.; Bertho, N.; Schwartz-Cornil, I.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 65, December 2016 (2016), s. 31-40 ISSN 0145-305X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-09157S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Mononuclear phagocytes * Dendritic cells * Pig model Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.218, year: 2016

  13. TNF alpha induces ABCA1 through NF-kappa B in macrophages and in phagocytes ingesting apoptotic cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbod-Giannone, Marie-Christine; Li, Yankun; Holleboom, Adriaan; Han, Seongah; Hsu, Li-Chung; Tabas, Ira; Tall, Alan R.

    2006-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) signaling in vascular cells can have antiatherogenic consequences, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. TNFa is released by free cholesterol loaded apoptotic macrophages, and the clearance of these cells by phagocytic

  14. Do not let death do us part: ‘find-me' signals in communication between dying cells and the phagocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, C B; Ravichandran, K S

    2016-01-01

    The turnover and clearance of cells is an essential process that is part of many physiological and pathological processes. Improper or deficient clearance of apoptotic cells can lead to excessive inflammation and autoimmune disease. The steps involved in cell clearance include: migration of the phagocyte toward the proximity of the dying cells, specific recognition and internalization of the dying cell, and degradation of the corpse. The ability of phagocytes to recognize and react to dying cells to perform efficient and immunologically silent engulfment has been well-characterized in vitro and in vivo. However, how apoptotic cells themselves initiate the corpse removal and also influence the cells within the neighboring environment during clearance was less understood. Recent exciting observations suggest that apoptotic cells can attract phagocytes through the regulated release of ‘find-me' signals. More recent studies also suggest that these find-me signals can have additional roles outside of phagocyte attraction to help orchestrate engulfment. This review will discuss our current understanding of the different find-me signals released by apoptotic cells, how they may be relevant in vivo, and their additional roles in facilitating engulfment. PMID:26891690

  15. USDOE activities in low-level radioactive waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vath, J.E.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes current research, development and demonstration (R, D and D) programs sponsored by the US Department of Energy in the area of low-level radioactive waste treatment. During the twelve month period ending September 30, 1981, 14 prime US Department of Energy contractors were involved with over 40 low-level radioactive waste disposal technology projects. Three specific projects or task areas have been selected for discussion to illustrate new and evolving technologies, and application of technology developed in other waste management areas to low-level waste treatment. The areas to be discussed include a microwave plasma torch incinerator, application of waste vitrification, and decontamination of metal waste by melting

  16. Are children's activity levels determined by their genes or environment? A systematic review of twin studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail Fisher

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Although genetic influences may be expressed when children have brief opportunities for autonomous activity, activity levels in daily-life are predominantly explained by environmental factors. Future research should aim to identify key environmental drivers of childhood activity.

  17. The types and levels of physical activity and sedentary behaviour of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Johanna C.W. De Vos

    Physical Activity, Sport and Recreation (PhASRec) Focus Area, North-West ... Conclusion: Strategies need to be implemented to raise the physical activity levels of Senior .... tematic review of the physical activity and nutritional status of.

  18. Online Activity Levels Are Related to Caffeine Dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, James G; Landhuis, C Erik; Shepherd, Daniel; Ogeil, Rowan P

    2016-05-01

    Online activity could serve in the future as behavioral markers of emotional states for computer systems (i.e., affective computing). Hence, this study considered relationships between self-reported stimulant use and online study patterns. Sixty-two undergraduate psychology students estimated their daily caffeine use, and this was related to study patterns as tracked by their use of a Learning Management System (Blackboard). Caffeine dependency was associated with less time spent online, lower rates of file access, and fewer online activities completed. Reduced breadth or depth of processing during work/study could be used as a behavioral marker of stimulant use.

  19. Activity levels of gamma-emitters in Brazil nuts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armelin, M. J.A.; Maihara, V.A.; Silva, P.S.C.; Saiki, M., E-mail: marmelin@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro do Reator de Pesquisas. Laboratorio de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica; Cozzolino, S.M.F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas

    2016-11-01

    Activity concentrations of the radionuclides {sup 137}Cs, {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra were determined in Brazil nuts acquired at points of sale between 2010 and 2013. Results indicated that the estimated annual effective radioactive dose due to ingestion of Brazil nuts is 27% of the annual dose limit of 1 mSv y{sup -1} for public exposure, according to the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). To estimate this dose the highest activity concentration obtained for each radionuclide was considered, assuming an annual consumption of 1.5 kg y{sup -1} per individual. (author)

  20. Activity levels of gamma-emitters in Brazil nuts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armelin, M. J.A.; Maihara, V.A.; Silva, P.S.C.; Saiki, M.; Cozzolino, S.M.F.

    2016-01-01

    Activity concentrations of the radionuclides 137 Cs, 40 K, 226 Ra and 228 Ra were determined in Brazil nuts acquired at points of sale between 2010 and 2013. Results indicated that the estimated annual effective radioactive dose due to ingestion of Brazil nuts is 27% of the annual dose limit of 1 mSv y -1 for public exposure, according to the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). To estimate this dose the highest activity concentration obtained for each radionuclide was considered, assuming an annual consumption of 1.5 kg y -1 per individual. (author)

  1. Use and activity levels on newly built bicycle playgrounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schipperijn, Jasper; Hansen, Christine Kier; Rask, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Increasing the use of urban green space (UGS) as well as increasing cycling could potentially help address the growing inactivity problem. Three bicycle playgrounds were designed based on a participatory process and afterwards constructed in the UGS along a cycle-route on the historic outer defence...... close to one of the sites. A future study involving objective before and after measures when a new bicycle playground is build will be needed to reveal if bicycle playgrounds can provide additional activity to its users, or ‘just’ a different type of activity, in a different location....

  2. Active Radiation Level Measurement on New Laboratory Instrument for Evaluating the Antibacterial Activity of Radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joh, Eunha; Park, Jang Guen

    2014-01-01

    A disc method has been widely used to measure the antibacterial effect of chemical agents. However, it is difficult to measure the antibacterial effect of radioisotopes using a disc method. A disc method is a method for diffusing a drug by placing the drug containing disc on the medium. In this method, radioisotopes are diffused on the medium and it is difficult to measure the exact effect by radiation. Thus, new laboratory equipment needs to evaluate the antibacterial activity by the radioisotopes. In this study, we measured the radiation level of radioisotopes on a new laboratory instrument using a MCNP. A disc method has been widely used to measure the antibacterial effect of chemical agents. This method uses a drug diffusion system for the measurement of anti-bacterial antibiotics. To measure the antimicrobial activity of a radioisotope, a new type of laboratory instrument is necessary to prevent the drug from spreading. The radioisotopes are used to diagnose and treat cancer. However, studies for anti-biotical use have not progressed. The radiation of radioisotopes has the effect of killing bacteria. Before this study proceeds further, it is necessary to be able to measure the antimicrobial activity of the radioisotope easily in the laboratory. However, in this study, it was possible to measure the antimicrobial activity of the radioisotope in the laboratory using a new laboratory instrument. We intend to start evaluation studies of the antibacterial activity of specific radioisotopes. In addition, it will be possible to develop research to overcome diseases caused by bacteria in the future

  3. Energy requirements and physical activity level of active elderly people in rural areas of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Triana, M; Aleman Mateo, H; Valencia Julleirat, M [Institute of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, Havana (Cuba); and others

    2002-07-01

    Obesity and NIDDM are common in the Third Age and increasing in Cuba. Among the life-style changes associated with increased prevalence of obesity and its related disorders, diet and activity patterns are prime candidates. The transition to this life-style model may induce a decrease in the energy needs. There is an urgent need for tools which have been validated for measuring diet and physical activity in nutritional studies in the developing world, but also a more urgent need for reference values for the total energy requirements of healthy elderly people. Regular physical activity reduces the likelihood to develop diseases that characterise the metabolic cardiovascular syndrome. With the purpose of estimating the energy requirements, a group of 48 elderly people aged 61-74 years living in a rural mountain community was submitted to a medical, epidemiological, dietary and biochemical study of the nutritional status. Glucose intolerance was diagnosed in 40% and arterial hypertension was present in 23 of them. Ten subjects without signs or symptoms of the metabolic cardiovascular syndrome were submitted to a measurement of the total energy expenditure by the doubly labelled water method. PAL values of 2.13 and 1. 77 were measured for men and women, values which were significantly higher that the recommended value of 1.51 for elderly subjects. The estimation of energy requirements by the energy intake or by the factorial method using the physical activity questionnaires generated values, which were 11% and 30% lower than the values obtained by the DLW-method The value of 1.51 x BMR for the estimation of the energy requirements of elderly subjects living in rural areas and submitted to higher levels of physical activity seems to be sub estimated. (author)

  4. Energy requirements and physical activity level of active elderly people in rural areas of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Triana, M.; Aleman Mateo, H.; Valencia Julleirat, M.

    2002-01-01

    Obesity and NIDDM are common in the Third Age and increasing in Cuba. Among the life-style changes associated with increased prevalence of obesity and its related disorders, diet and activity patterns are prime candidates. The transition to this life-style model may induce a decrease in the energy needs. There is an urgent need for tools which have been validated for measuring diet and physical activity in nutritional studies in the developing world, but also a more urgent need for reference values for the total energy requirements of healthy elderly people. Regular physical activity reduces the likelihood to develop diseases that characterise the metabolic cardiovascular syndrome. With the purpose of estimating the energy requirements, a group of 48 elderly people aged 61-74 years living in a rural mountain community was submitted to a medical, epidemiological, dietary and biochemical study of the nutritional status. Glucose intolerance was diagnosed in 40% and arterial hypertension was present in 23 of them. Ten subjects without signs or symptoms of the metabolic cardiovascular syndrome were submitted to a measurement of the total energy expenditure by the doubly labelled water method. PAL values of 2.13 and 1. 77 were measured for men and women, values which were significantly higher that the recommended value of 1.51 for elderly subjects. The estimation of energy requirements by the energy intake or by the factorial method using the physical activity questionnaires generated values, which were 11% and 30% lower than the values obtained by the DLW-method The value of 1.51 x BMR for the estimation of the energy requirements of elderly subjects living in rural areas and submitted to higher levels of physical activity seems to be sub estimated. (author)

  5. Energy requirements and physical activity level of active elderly people in rural areas of Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Triana, M.H.; Sanchez, V.; Basabe-Tuero, B.; Gonzalez-Calderin, S.; Diaz, M.E.; Aleman-Mateo, H.; Valencia-Julleirat, M.; Salazar, G.

    2002-01-01

    Obesity and NIDDM are common in the Third Age and increasing in Cuba. Among the life-style changes associated with increased prevalence of obesity and its related disorders, diet and activity patterns are prime candidates. The transition to this life-style model may induce a decrease in the energy needs. There is an urgent need for tools which have been validated for measuring diet and physical activity in nutritional studies in the developing world, but also a more urgent need for reference values for the total energy requirements of healthy elderly people. Regular physical activity reduces the likelihood to develop diseases that characterise the metabolic cardiovascular syndrome. With the purpose of estimating the energy requirements, a group of 48 elderly people aged 61-74 years living in a rural mountain community was submitted to a medical, epidemiological, dietary and biochemical study of the nutritional status. Glucose intolerance was diagnosed in 40% and arterial hypertension was present in 23 % of them. Ten subjects without signs or symptoms of the metabolic cardiovascular syndrome were submitted to a measurement of the total energy expenditure by the doubly labelled water method. PAL values of 2.13 and 1.77 were measured for men and women, values which were significantly higher that the recommended value of 1.51 for elderly subjects. The total energy expenditure: The estimation of energy requirements by the energy intake or by the factorial method using the physical activity questionnaires generated values, which were 11 % and 30% lower than the values obtained by the DLW-method. The value of 1.51 x BMR for the estimation of the energy requirements of elderly subjects living in rural areas and submitted to higher levels of physical activity seems to be sub estimated

  6. Active Radiation Level Measurement on New Laboratory Instrument for Evaluating the Antibacterial Activity of Radioisotope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joh, Eunha; Park, Jang Guen [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    A disc method has been widely used to measure the antibacterial effect of chemical agents. However, it is difficult to measure the antibacterial effect of radioisotopes using a disc method. A disc method is a method for diffusing a drug by placing the drug containing disc on the medium. In this method, radioisotopes are diffused on the medium and it is difficult to measure the exact effect by radiation. Thus, new laboratory equipment needs to evaluate the antibacterial activity by the radioisotopes. In this study, we measured the radiation level of radioisotopes on a new laboratory instrument using a MCNP. A disc method has been widely used to measure the antibacterial effect of chemical agents. This method uses a drug diffusion system for the measurement of anti-bacterial antibiotics. To measure the antimicrobial activity of a radioisotope, a new type of laboratory instrument is necessary to prevent the drug from spreading. The radioisotopes are used to diagnose and treat cancer. However, studies for anti-biotical use have not progressed. The radiation of radioisotopes has the effect of killing bacteria. Before this study proceeds further, it is necessary to be able to measure the antimicrobial activity of the radioisotope easily in the laboratory. However, in this study, it was possible to measure the antimicrobial activity of the radioisotope in the laboratory using a new laboratory instrument. We intend to start evaluation studies of the antibacterial activity of specific radioisotopes. In addition, it will be possible to develop research to overcome diseases caused by bacteria in the future.

  7. Functional Impairment of Mononuclear Phagocyte System by the Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Bohmwald

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS comprises of monocytes, macrophages (MΦ, and dendritic cells (DCs. MPS is part of the first line of immune defense against a wide range of pathogens, including viruses, such as the human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV. The hRSV is an enveloped virus that belongs to the Pneumoviridae family, Orthopneumovirus genus. This virus is the main etiological agent causing severe acute lower respiratory tract infection, especially in infants, children and the elderly. Human RSV can cause bronchiolitis and pneumonia and it has also been implicated in the development of recurrent wheezing and asthma. Monocytes, MΦ, and DCs significantly contribute to acute inflammation during hRSV-induced bronchiolitis and asthma exacerbation. Furthermore, these cells seem to be an important component for the association between hRSV and reactive airway disease. After hRSV infection, the first cells encountered by the virus are respiratory epithelial cells, alveolar macrophages (AMs, DCs, and monocytes in the airways. Because AMs constitute the predominant cell population at the alveolar space in healthy subjects, these cells work as major innate sentinels for the recognition of pathogens. Although adaptive immunity is crucial for viral clearance, AMs are required for the early immune response against hRSV, promoting viral clearance and controlling immunopathology. Furthermore, exposure to hRSV may affect the phagocytic and microbicidal capacity of monocytes and MΦs against other infectious agents. Finally, different studies have addressed the roles of different DC subsets during infection by hRSV. In this review article, we discuss the role of the lung MPS during hRSV infection and their involvement in the development of bronchiolitis.

  8. Corruption and Economic Activity: Micro Level Evidence from Rural Liberia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekman, G.; Bulte, E.H.; Nillesen, E.E.M.

    2013-01-01

    We study how corruption affects economic activities of households in rural Liberia. A proxy of corruption of community leaders is obtained by directly monitoring the diversion of inputs associated with a development project. We measure quantities of these inputs twice; before and after the chief

  9. Does regional disadvantage affect health-related sport and physical activity level? A multi-level analysis of individual behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicker, Pamela; Downward, Paul; Lera-López, Fernando

    2017-11-01

    This study examines the role of regional government quality in health-related participation in sport and physical activity among adults (18-64 years) in 28 European countries. The importance of the analysis rests in the relative autonomy that regional and local governments have over policy decisions connected with sport and physical activity. While existing studies have focussed on economic and infrastructural investment and expenditure, this research investigates the quality of regional governments across 208 regions within 28 European countries. The individual-level data stem from the 2013 Eurobarometer 80.2 (n = 18,675) and were combined with regional-level data from Eurostat. An individual's level of participation in sport and physical activity was measured by three variables reflecting whether an individual's activity level is below, meets, or exceeds the recommendations of the World Health Organization. The results of multi-level analyses reveal that regional government quality has a significant and positive association with individual participation in sport and physical activity at a level meeting or exceeding the guidelines. The impact is much larger than that of regional gross domestic product per capita, indicating that regional disadvantage in terms of political quality is more relevant than being disadvantaged in terms of economic wealth.

  10. Wastes Characterisation from Foundry Activities on European Level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andres, I.; Ruiz, C.; Ibanez, R.; Viguri, J.; Irabien, A.

    1999-01-01

    This work presents The results of the eco toxicological characterisation of 22 defined wastes from steel foundry activities. The wastes have been selected from three processes, steel mill (smelting). sand casting and cleaning and finishing of steel products,with the common characteristics of represent an important industrial activity in the area and generated the wastes considered in this study. The eco toxicological characterisation obtained applying the Spanish regulations on hazardous waste is compared to the hazardous attributions considered by the European Union in order to characterise a waste as hazardous (non hazardous). The results allow to conclude that a acceptable concordance between both methodologies is reached and remark the need to split the broad generic types of wastes given by the Spanish regulation (Eco toxic / non eco toxic) into clearly identifiable specific types of waste

  11. Effect of physical activity on anxiety levels in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Janik

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy is a very important period in a woman's life, but it is often associated not only with positive emotions, but also with negative emotions such as anxiety, stress or depression. Women most often fear birth and various medical complications during pregnancy. Very often their unpleasant experiences at the beginning such as nausea, fatigue and strong anxiety cause them to give up their physical activity. Numerous studies show that the physical activity of pregnant women has a positive impact on mother and child health. First and foremost, it is a powerful preventive agent in cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, but also has a beneficial effect on the well-being of future mothers, including lowering anxiety and lowering the incidence of postpartum depression. That is why it is so important to educate pregnant women what exercises are most beneficial for them.

  12. Ecological concerns following Superstorm Sandy: stressor level and recreational activity levels affect perceptions of ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna

    2015-06-01

    Coastal habitats are vulnerable to storms, and with increasing urbanization, sea level rise, and storm frequency, some urban populations are at risk. This study examined perceptions of respondents in coastal and central New Jersey to Superstorm Sandy , including: 1) concerns about ecological resources and effects (open-ended question), 2) information sources for ecology of the coast (open-ended), and 3) ratings of a list of ecological services as a function of demographics, location (coastal, central Jersey), stressor level (power outages, high winds, flooding) and recreational rates. "Wildlife" and "fish" were the ecological concerns mentioned most often, while beaches and dunes were most often mentioned for environmental concerns. Television, radio, and web/internet were sources trusted for ecological information. The data indicate 1) stressor level was a better predictor of ratings of ecological services than geographical location, but days engaged in recreation contributed the most to variations in ratings, 2) ecological services were rated the highest by respondents with the highest stressor levels, and by those from the coast, compared to others, 3) Caucasians rated ecological services higher than all others, and 4) recreational rates were highest for coastal respondents, and ratings for ecological services increased with recreational rates. Only 20 % of respondents listed specific ecological services as one of their three most important environmental concerns. These data will be useful for increasing preparedness, enhancing educational strategies for shore protection, and providing managers and public policy makers with data essential to developing resiliency strategies.

  13. Correlation between High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL) Level and Aerobic Activity Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    over a 40 day period for HDtJICholesteroll and Total Choleis- added with the "reverse" technique, This technique is only poai- tarot . The results are...Stand- tarot and Total Cholestero levels, it is beat that eet laoatr ard and a control Serum were each analyzed 10 times giving the * determinle its

  14. Different effect of two synthetic coumarin-stilbene hybrid compounds on phagocyte activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drábiková, K.; Perečko, T.; Nosál, R.; Račková, L.; Ambrožová, Gabriela; Lojek, Antonín; Šmidrkal, J.; Harmatha, Juraj; Jančinová, V.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 2 (2010), s. 73-78 ISSN 0172-780X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) MEB0810013 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA203/07/1227 Program:GA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : reactive species * phagocytosis * coumarin Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.621, year: 2010

  15. Neuroendocrine immune interaction in fish: differential regulation of phagocyte activity by neuroendocrine factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg-van Kemenade, B.M.L.; Ribeiro, C.M.S.; Chadzinska, M.K.

    2011-01-01

    Coping with physical, chemical and biological disturbances depends on an extensive repertoire of physiological, endocrinological and immunological responses. Fish provide intriguing models to study bi-directional interaction between the neuroendocrine and the immune systems. Macrophages and

  16. Effect of Massoia (Massoia aromatica Becc.) Bark on the Phagocytic Activity of Wistar Rat Macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Triana Hertiani; Agustinus Yuswanto; Sylvia Utami Tunjung Pratiwi; Harlyanti Muthma’innah Mashar

    2018-01-01

    The essential oil of Massoia (Massoia aromatica Becc., Lauraceae) bark is a potential immunomodulator in vitro. This study evaluated the potential immunomodulatory effects of Massoia bark infusion on the nonspecific immune response (phagocytosis) of Wistar rats. For the in vitro assay, macrophages were treated with the freeze-dried infusion at the concentrations of 2.5, 5, 10, 20, or 40 µg/mL media. For the in vivo assay, two-month-old male Wistar rats were divided into five groups. The...

  17. Macrophage phagocytic activity toward adhering staphylococci on cationic and patterned hydrogel coatings versus common biomaterials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Da Silva Domingues, Joana; Roest, Steven; Wang, Yi; van der Mei, Henny C.; Libera, Matthew; van Kooten, Theo G.; Busscher, Henk J.

    Biomaterial-associated-infection causes failure of biomaterial implants. Many new biomaterials have been evaluated for their ability to inhibit bacterial colonization and stimulate tissue-cell-integration, but neglect the role of immune cells. This paper compares macrophage phagocytosis of adhering

  18. System-level integration of active silicon photonic biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laplatine, L.; Al'Mrayat, O.; Luan, E.; Fang, C.; Rezaiezadeh, S.; Ratner, D. M.; Cheung, K.; Dattner, Y.; Chrostowski, L.

    2017-02-01

    Biosensors based on silicon photonic integrated circuits have attracted a growing interest in recent years. The use of sub-micron silicon waveguides to propagate near-infrared light allows for the drastic reduction of the optical system size, while increasing its complexity and sensitivity. Using silicon as the propagating medium also leverages the fabrication capabilities of CMOS foundries, which offer low-cost mass production. Researchers have deeply investigated photonic sensor devices, such as ring resonators, interferometers and photonic crystals, but the practical integration of silicon photonic biochips as part of a complete system has received less attention. Herein, we present a practical system-level architecture which can be employed to integrate the aforementioned photonic biosensors. We describe a system based on 1 mm2 dies that integrate germanium photodetectors and a single light coupling device. The die are embedded into a 16x16 mm2 epoxy package to enable microfluidic and electrical integration. First, we demonstrate a simple process to mimic Fan-Out Wafer-level-Packaging, which enables low-cost mass production. We then characterize the photodetectors in the photovoltaic mode, which exhibit high sensitivity at low optical power. Finally, we present a new grating coupler concept to relax the lateral alignment tolerance down to +/- 50 μm at 1-dB (80%) power penalty, which should permit non-experts to use the biochips in a"plug-and-play" style. The system-level integration demonstrated in this study paves the way towards the mass production of low-cost and highly sensitive biosensors, and can facilitate their wide adoption for biomedical and agro-environmental applications.

  19. Maxey Flats low-level waste disposal site closure activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haight, C.P.; Mills, D.; Razor, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    The Maxey Flats Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility in Fleming County, Kentucky is in the process of being closed. The facility opened for commercial business in the spring of 1963 and received approximately 4.75 million cubic feet of radioactive waste by the time it was closed in December of 1977. During fourteen years of operation approximately 2.5 million curies of by-product material, 240,000 kilograms of source material, and 430 kilograms of special nuclear material were disposed. The Commonwealth purchased the lease hold estate and rights in May 1978 from the operating company. This action was taken to stabilize the facility and prepare it for closure consisting of passive care and monitoring. To prepare the site for closure, a number of remedial activities had to be performed. The remediation activities implemented have included erosion control, surface drainage modifications, installation of a temporary plastic surface cover, leachate removal, analysis, treatment and evaporation, US DOE funded evaporator concentrates solidification project and their on-site disposal in an improved disposal trench with enhanced cover for use in a humid environment situated in a fractured geology, performance evaluation of a grout injection demonstration, USGS subsurface geologic investigation, development of conceptual closure designs, and finally being added to the US EPA National Priority List for remediation and closure under Superfund. 13 references, 3 figures

  20. Assessment of allowable transuranic activity levels for WIPP wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    This study provides a technical evaluation for the establishment of an upper limit on the transuranic content of waste packages to be received. To accomplish this, the predicted radiological performance of WIPP is compared to the radiological performance requirements applicable to WIPP. These performance requirements include radiation protection standards for both routine facility operations and credible operational accidents. These requirements are discussed in Chapter 2.0. From the margin between predicted performance and the performance requirements, the maximum allowable transuranic content of waste packages can then be inferred. Within the resulting compliance envelope, a waste acceptance criterion can be established that delineates the allowable level of transuranic radioactivity content for contact handled (CH) and remote handled (RH) waste packages. 13 refs., 8 tabs

  1. Analysis and prediction of daily physical activity level data using autoregressive integrated moving average models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Long, Xi; Pauws, S.C.; Pijl, M.; Lacroix, J.; Goris, A.H.C.; Aarts, R.M.

    2009-01-01

    Results are provided on predicting daily physical activity level (PAL) data from past data of participants of a physical activity lifestyle program aimed at promoting a healthier lifestyle consisting of more physical exercise. The PAL data quantifies the level of a person’s daily physical activity

  2. Physical activity levels and preferences of ethnically diverse visitors to Georgia State Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln Larson; Jason W. Whiting; Gary T. Green; Michael Bowker

    2014-01-01

    Parks provide many outdoor recreation opportunities that encourage physical activity and healthy lifestyles, and research has recently begun to explore the demographic, social, and environmental factors associated with park-based activity levels, particularly outside of urban areas. This study used a mixed methods approach to investigate physical activity levels and...

  3. Levels for the specific activity at disposing low-level contaminated municipal wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poschner, J.; Schaller, G.

    1993-12-01

    Using radioecological models, nuclide-specific ''basic values'' were established for the specific activity of radioactive contaminated waste. These basic values were determined in order to avoid dose equivalents of more than 10 μSv/a (de minimis concept) when disposing the waste in conventional waste deposits or burning it in incineration plants. The basic values vary within 16 orders of magnitude, ranging between 4.3E-02 Bq/g for Cm-250 and 2.2E+14 Bq/g for Po-212. About 82% of the basic values are between 1 Bq/g und 1000 Bq/g. The critical exposure for most of the radionuclides is that from direct radiation or inhalation at the slag-deposit. For 54% of the radionuclides the basic value for the specific activity of waste is lower at least by a factor of 10 than the 10 -4 -fold value per gram of the release limit (German Radiation Protection Ordinance). Appropriate nuclide-specific and dose-related limits were derived from these basic values. The respective limits are ranging between 1E-01 Bq/g and 1E+07 Bq/g. About 95% of the limits are between 1 Bq/g and 1000 Bq/g. (orig./HP) [de

  4. Levels for the specific activity at disposing low-level contaminated municipal wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poschner, J.; Schaller, G.

    1995-01-01

    Using radioecological models, nuclide specific values were calculated for the specific activity of low contaminated radioactive waste, which is disposed in conventional waste deposits or burned in incineration plants. The calculation of these values is based on a limit of 10 μSv effective dose in one year, i.e. effective dose possibly resulting from waste disposal or burning should not exceed a 'de-minimis'-value of some 10 μSv per year. The applied radioecological models describe exposure of the public by direct radiation, inhalation and ingestion for the operational period of a deposit or an incineration plant, but also cover post-operational scenarios, collecting and sorting of waste and road accidents of the waste-truck. Referring to the dose limit of 10 μSv/a, a value for the specific activity of waste was calculated for each scenario and each radionuclide considered. The smallest of these values for a radionuclide, the 'basic value' was rounded to a 'reference value'. For about 600 radionuclides reference values were derived. About 90% of the reference values are ranging between 1 and 1 000 Bq/g. For about 90% of the radionuclides direct radiation or inhalation at the deposit proved to be the critical path of exposure. (orig.) [de

  5. Physical activity level in Achilles tendinosis is associated with blood levels of pain-related factors: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagge, J; Gaida, J E; Danielson, P; Alfredson, H; Forsgren, S

    2011-12-01

    Physical activity affects the pain symptoms for Achilles tendinosis patients. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and their receptors have been detected in human Achilles tendon. This pilot study aimed to compare serum BDNF and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor I (sTNFRI) levels in Achilles tendinosis patients and healthy controls and to examine the influence of physical activity, and BMI and gender, on these levels. Physical activity was measured with a validated questionnaire, total physical activity being the parameter analyzed. Physical activity was strongly correlated with BDNF among tendinosis women [Spearman's rho (ρ)=0.90, Pwomen (ρ=-0.08, P=0.83), or among tendinosis and control men. Physical activity was significantly correlated with sTNFRI in the entire tendinosis group and among tendinosis men (ρ=0.65, P=0.01), but not in the entire control group or among control men (ρ=0.04, P=0.91). Thus, the physical activity pattern is related to the TNF and BDNF systems for tendinosis patients but not controls, the relationship being gender dependent. This is new information concerning the relationship between physical activity and Achilles tendinosis, which may be related to pain for the patients. This aspect should be further evaluated using larger patient materials. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. COMPARISON OF LEVELS OF SELF-ESTEEM BY SEX AND LEVEL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN TWO GROUPS OF SENIOR ADULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Rodríguez Méndez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to observe whether there are differences in the self-esteem score, depending on the level of physical activity (active-sedentary in a sample of senior adults. Twenty-six senior adults participated in the study with an average of 73 ± 9 years of age. The sedentary group (n = 12 belonged to the Santo Domingo Nursing Home in Heredia, Costa Rica, while the active group belonged to the project entitled Modulation of the Aging Process of the Movement for Life Program. Results: No significant differences were found in scores by level of physical activity (t = 0.931, p = 0.363; however, there were significant differences in self-esteem scores by gender (t = -2.255, p = 0.034. It was concluded that the level of physical activity does not affect self-esteem and that men’s level of self-esteem is higher than women’s.

  7. The contribution of former work-related activity levels to predict physical activity and sedentary time during early retirement: moderating role of educational level and physical functioning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delfien Van Dyck

    Full Text Available The transition to retirement introduces a decline in total physical activity and an increase in TV viewing time. Nonetheless, as more time becomes available, early retirement is an ideal stage to implement health interventions. Therefore, knowledge on specific determinants of physical activity and sedentary time is needed. Former work-related physical activity has been proposed as a potential determinant, but concrete evidence is lacking. The aim of this study was to examine if former work-related sitting, standing, walking or vigorous activities predict physical activity and sedentary time during early retirement. Additionally, moderating effects of educational level and physical functioning were examined.In total, 392 recently retired Belgian adults (>6 months, <5 years completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, the SF-36 Health Survey and a questionnaire on sociodemographics and former work-related activities. Generalized linear regression analyses were conducted in R. Moderating effects were examined by adding cross-products to the models.More former work-related sitting was predictive of more screen time during retirement. Lower levels of former work-related vigorous activities and higher levels of former work-related walking were associated with respectively more cycling for transport and more walking for transport during retirement. None of the predictors significantly explained passive transportation, cycling and walking for recreation, and leisure-time moderate-to-vigorous physical activity during retirement. Several moderating effects were found, but the direction of the interactions was not univocal.Former-work related behaviors are of limited importance to explain physical activity during early retirement, so future studies should focus on other individual, social and environmental determinants. Nonetheless, adults who previously had a sedentary job had higher levels of screen time during retirement, so this is an

  8. The contribution of former work-related activity levels to predict physical activity and sedentary time during early retirement: moderating role of educational level and physical functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyck, Delfien; Cardon, Greet; Deforche, Benedicte; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2015-01-01

    The transition to retirement introduces a decline in total physical activity and an increase in TV viewing time. Nonetheless, as more time becomes available, early retirement is an ideal stage to implement health interventions. Therefore, knowledge on specific determinants of physical activity and sedentary time is needed. Former work-related physical activity has been proposed as a potential determinant, but concrete evidence is lacking. The aim of this study was to examine if former work-related sitting, standing, walking or vigorous activities predict physical activity and sedentary time during early retirement. Additionally, moderating effects of educational level and physical functioning were examined. In total, 392 recently retired Belgian adults (>6 months, Physical Activity Questionnaire, the SF-36 Health Survey and a questionnaire on sociodemographics and former work-related activities. Generalized linear regression analyses were conducted in R. Moderating effects were examined by adding cross-products to the models. More former work-related sitting was predictive of more screen time during retirement. Lower levels of former work-related vigorous activities and higher levels of former work-related walking were associated with respectively more cycling for transport and more walking for transport during retirement. None of the predictors significantly explained passive transportation, cycling and walking for recreation, and leisure-time moderate-to-vigorous physical activity during retirement. Several moderating effects were found, but the direction of the interactions was not univocal. Former-work related behaviors are of limited importance to explain physical activity during early retirement, so future studies should focus on other individual, social and environmental determinants. Nonetheless, adults who previously had a sedentary job had higher levels of screen time during retirement, so this is an important subgroup to focus on during interventions

  9. Associations of Affective Responses During Free-Living Physical Activity and Future Physical Activity Levels: an Ecological Momentary Assessment Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yue; Chou, Chih-Ping; Huh, Jimi; Leventhal, Adam; Dunton, Genevieve

    2017-08-01

    Affective response during physical activity may influence motivation to perform future physical activity behavior. However, affective response during physical activity is often assessed under controlled laboratory conditions. The current study used ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to capture affective responses during free-living physical activity performed by adults, and determined whether these affective responses predict future moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) levels after 6 and 12 months. At baseline, electronic EMA surveys were randomly prompted across 4 days asking about current activities and affective states (e.g., happy, stressed, energetic, tired). Affective response during physical activity was operationalized as the level of positive or negative affect reported when concurrent physical activity (e.g., exercise or sports) was also reported. Data were available for 82 adults. Future levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were measured using accelerometers, worn for seven consecutive days at 6 and 12 months after the baseline assessment. Feeling more energetic during physical activity was associated with performing more minutes of daily MVPA after both 6 and 12 months. Feeling less negative affect during physical activity was associated with engaging in more daily MVPA minutes after 12 months only. This study demonstrated how EMA can be used to capture affective responses during free-living physical activity. Results found that feelings more energetic and less negative during physical activity were associated with more future physical activity, suggesting that positive emotional benefits may reinforce behavior.

  10. Low level beta-activity radiometer with compensation of the background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vankov, I [and others

    1996-12-31

    New type of the low level beta-activity scintillation detector system is developed. The procedure of finding the beta activity and the operation of the recording unit of the radiometer are considered. 3 refs.; 5 figs.

  11. 76 FR 24038 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request, 1660-NEW; Level 1...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ...] Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request, 1660-NEW; Level 1 Assessment and Level III Evaluations for the Center for Domestic Preparedness (CDP) AGENCY: Federal Emergency...; OMB No. 1660-NEW; FEMA Form 092-0-2, Level 1 Assessment Form; FEMA Form 092-0-2A, Level 3 Evaluation...

  12. 76 FR 52672 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request, Level 1...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ...-2011-0012] Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request, Level 1 Assessment and Level 3 Evaluations for the Center for Domestic Preparedness (CDP) AGENCY: Federal... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Collection of Information Title: Level 1 Assessment and Level 3 Evaluations for the...

  13. Potentiation of the generation of reactive oxidants by human phagocytes during exposure to benoxaprofen and ultraviolet radiation in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R.; Eftychis, H.A.

    1986-09-01

    The effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation on the spontaneous membrane-associated oxidative metabolism of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) and mononuclear leukocytes (MNL), co-incubated in the presence and absence of the non-steroidal, anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) benoxaprofen at various concentrations, were investigated in vitro. Assays of superoxide generation and luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence (CL) were used to detect the production of reactive oxidants by PMNL and MNL. The pro-oxidative effects of benoxaprofen and UV radiation alone and in combination are dependent on intact phagocyte membrane-associated oxidative metabolism. It is postulated that the pro-oxidative interactions which occur between human phagocytes, benoxaprofen and ultraviolet radiation cause the dermatological side-effects of benoxaprofen.

  14. Effect of ovarian hormones on the phagocytic response of ovariectomized mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganjam, V K; McLeod, C; Klesius, P H; Washburn, S M; Kwapien, R; Brown, B; Fazeli, M H

    1982-01-01

    The reaction between ovarian hormones and experimental uterine infection (Streptococcus zooepidemicus) was investigated in 3 groups, each containing 6 ovariectomized mares. Group 1 served as controls ('anoestrus'), Group 2 mares were injected with oestrogen ('oestrus') and Group 3 with progesterone ('dioestrus') over a period of 5 weeks. All mares received an intrauterine inoculation of the bacteria 1 week after the start of hormonal treatment, and the results of the challenge were examined by endometrial biopsy and swabs once weekly. At the end of Week 1 no bacteria were recovered from the mares in Group 2. Group 1 mares were free of bacteria at the end of Week 2 but all Group 3 mares remained infected at least for the total period examined. Streptococcal phagocytosis was quantitated by chemiluminescence. Before the challenge-inoculation, phagocytosis was not significantly different in the 3 groups of mares. Bacterial cultures were negative for all three groups. However, within 48 h after infection, there was a significant increase (P less than 0.01) in phagocytosis in Group 2 and a significant suppression (P less than 0.05) in Group 3 mares. Patterns of streptococcal clearance from the uterus closely paralleled the changes in the magnitude of chemiluminescence response. The results suggest that ovarian hormonal status can modulate the phagocytic response in episodes of streptococcal-induced endometritus in mares.

  15. Human Neutrophils Use Different Mechanisms To Kill Aspergillus fumigatus Conidia and Hyphae: Evidence from Phagocyte Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazendam, Roel P; van Hamme, John L; Tool, Anton T J; Hoogenboezem, Mark; van den Berg, J Merlijn; Prins, Jan M; Vitkov, Ljubomir; van de Veerdonk, Frank L; van den Berg, Timo K; Roos, Dirk; Kuijpers, Taco W

    2016-02-01

    Neutrophils are known to play a pivotal role in the host defense against Aspergillus infections. This is illustrated by the prevalence of Aspergillus infections in patients with neutropenia or phagocyte functional defects, such as chronic granulomatous disease. However, the mechanisms by which human neutrophils recognize and kill Aspergillus are poorly understood. In this work, we have studied in detail which neutrophil functions, including neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation, are involved in the killing of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia and hyphae, using neutrophils from patients with well-defined genetic immunodeficiencies. Recognition of conidia involves integrin CD11b/CD18 (and not dectin-1), which triggers a PI3K-dependent nonoxidative intracellular mechanism of killing. When the conidia escape from early killing and germinate, the extracellular destruction of the Aspergillus hyphae needs opsonization by Abs and involves predominantly recognition via Fcγ receptors, signaling via Syk, PI3K, and protein kinase C to trigger the production of toxic reactive oxygen metabolites by the NADPH oxidase and myeloperoxidase. A. fumigatus induces NET formation; however, NETs did not contribute to A. fumigatus killing. Thus, our findings reveal distinct killing mechanisms of Aspergillus conidia and hyphae by human neutrophils, leading to a comprehensive insight in the innate antifungal response. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  16. Effect of Clinoptilolite and Sepiolite Nanoclays on Human and Parasitic Highly Phagocytic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanis Toledano-Magaña

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoclays have potential applications in biomedicine raising the need to evaluate their toxicity in in vitro models as a first approach to its biocompatibility. In this study, in vitro toxicity of clinoptilolite and sepiolite nanoclays (NC was analyzed in highly phagocytic cultures of amoebas and human and mice macrophages. While amebic viability was significantly affected only by sepiolite NC at concentrations higher than 0.1 mg/mL, the effect on macrophage cultures was dependent on the origin of the cells. Macrophages derived from human peripheral blood monocytes were less affected in viability (25% decrease at 48 h, followed by the RAW 264.7 cell line (40%, and finally, macrophages derived from mice bone marrow monocytes (98%. Moreover, the cell line and mice macrophages die mainly by necrosis, whereas human macrophages exhibit increased apoptosis. Cytokine expression analysis in media of sepiolite NC treated cultures showed a proinflammatory profile (INFγ, IL-1α, IL-8, and IL-6, in contrast with clinoptilolite NC that induced lees cytokines with concomitant production of IL-10. The results show that sepiolite NC is more toxic to amoebas and macrophages than clinoptilolite NC, mostly in a time and dose-dependent manner. However, the effect of sepiolite NC was comparable with talc powder suggesting that both NC have low cytotoxicity in vitro.

  17. Caffeic acid and quercetin exert caspases-independent apoptotic effects on Leishmania major promastigotes, and reactivate the death of infected phagocytes derived from BALB/c mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radia Belkhelfa-Slimani

    2017-04-01

    Conclusions: The leishmanicidal effect of caffeic acid and quercetin on promastigotes and amastigotes, as well as reactivation of infected phagocytes apoptosis, suggested a potential therapeutic role against cutaneous leishmaniasis.

  18. Induction of heat-shock proteins and phagocytic function of chicken macrophage following in vitro heat exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, L.; Qureshi, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    The protein profiles and phagocytic ability of Sephadex-elicited chicken peritoneal macrophages were examined following heat-shock exposure. Macrophage cultures were exposed to various temperatures, time exposures and recovery periods. Densitometric analysis of SDS-PAGE autoradiographs revealed that heat-induced macrophages synthesized three major (23, 70 and 90 kD) heat-shock proteins (HSPs). The optimal temperature and time for induction of these HSPs was 45-46 degrees C for 1 h, with a variable recovery period for each HSP. Macrophages exposed to 45 degrees C for 30 and 60 min were significantly depressed in phagocytosis of uncoated sheep erythrocytes (SE) under 45 degrees C incubation conditions. However, phagocytosis of antibody-coated SE was not affected when compared to 41 degrees C control cultures. Macrophages allowed to recover at 41 degrees C following heat-shock exhibited no alterations in their phagocytic ability for either antibody-coated or uncoated SE. This study suggests that heat shock induces three major HSPs in chicken peritoneal macrophages in addition to maintaining their Fc-mediated phagocytic function while significantly depressing their nonspecific phagocytosis

  19. Misclassification of Physical Activity Level Due to Exclusion of Workplace Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boslaugh, Sarah E.; Kreuter, Matthew W.; Weaver, Nancy L.; Naleid, Kimberly S.; Brownson, Ross C.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the effect of including workplace physical activity in calculating the proportion of adults meeting Centers for Disease Control (CDC) guidelines for physical activity. Data on leisure-time and workplace activity were collected from 1,090 Black and White adults in St. Louis, MO. A series of assumptions were used to equate…

  20. DMPD: CR3 (CD11b, CD18): a phagocyte and NK cell membrane receptor with multipleligand specificities and functions. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ) (.html) (.csml) Show CR3 (CD11b, CD18): a phagocyte and NK cell membrane receptor with multipleligand specificities and function...d NK cell membrane receptor with multipleligand specificities and functions. Authors Ross GD, Vetvicka V. Pu...igand specificities and functions. Ross GD, Vetvicka V. Clin Exp Immunol. 1993 May;92(2):181-4. (.png) (.svg...8485905 CR3 (CD11b, CD18): a phagocyte and NK cell membrane receptor with multiplel

  1. Determination of activation level energy of nuclear isomers by calibration of microspectra of radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veres, A.; Pavlicsek, I.

    1980-01-01

    Nuclear isomers with unknown activation level were irradiated by calibrated radioactive sources. The integral cross sections were calculated for different energies of the sources. The activation energy was given by values coinciding with each other within the limits of error. The method made the determination of the unknown level of 1180+-10 keV of 195 Pt nucleus possible. (author)

  2. Levels of Engagement and Barriers to Physical Activity in a Population of Adults with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Andrew; Look, Roger

    2006-01-01

    This study examined levels of, and barriers to, physical activity in a population of 19 adults with learning disabilities living in community supported accommodation, using diary records and semi-structured interviews with staff. The levels of physical activity were higher in the sample population than previous figures for adults with learning…

  3. Physical activity levels and patterns of thirteen to fifteen year old ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is worldwide concern over the decline in physical activity (PA) levels among school children. The purpose of this study was to investigate the (PA) levels and PA patterns of thirteen to fifteen year old boys from different race groups in the North- West Province and to determine to what degree this physical activity profile ...

  4. Relationships among Physical Activity Levels, Psychomotor, Psychosocial, and Cognitive Development of Primary Education Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isler, Ayse Kin; Asci, F. Hulya; Kosar, S. Nazan

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the relationships of physical activity levels and psychomotor, psychosocial, and cognitive development among Turkish elementary school students. Student evaluations indicated that physical activity level was an important factor in determining student psychomotor development, but it was not important in determining psychosocial and…

  5. Correlation between the Physical Activity Level and Grade Point Averages of Faculty of Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imdat, Yarim

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to find the correlation that exists between physical activity level and grade point averages of faculty of education students. The subjects consist of 359 (172 females and 187 males) under graduate students To determine the physical activity levels of the students in this research, International Physical Activity…

  6. Level and determinants of physical activity among school adolescents in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Bergier

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The recognition of adolescents’ physical activity has become one of the serious challenges of the modern times, as a concern about the future health of societies. The major goal of the presented study was to discover the level of physical activity among Polish adolescents aged 16–18, and the factors which condition this level. The investigations were carried out in 2011, among 2,974 school adolescents from various locations in Poland – 1,790 girls (60.2%, and 1,184 boys (39.8%. As a study method, a short version of the IPAQ was applied. The results of the study indicated that a larger number of girls than boys show a low level of physical activity. With respect to activity among boys, higher values of intensive and moderate efforts are noted, while in girls, higher values of activities related to walking. It was confirmed that the level of physical activity does not depend on the place of residence. However, the number of physical exercise classes attended is a significant factor, both among boys and girls. It was also found that adolescents who more frequently lead a sedentary style of life are characterized by a lower level of total physical activity. Sedentary lifestyle (time spent sitting does not differ among the level of physical activity of girls and of boys, neither with respect to the scope of the total physical activity nor to its three levels (low, moderate, high.

  7. Intermediate levels of hippocampal activity appear optimal for associative memory formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is well established that hippocampal activity is positively related to effective associative memory formation. However, in biological systems often optimal levels of activity are contrasted by both sub- and supra-optimal levels. Sub-optimal levels of hippocampal activity are commonly attributed to unsuccessful memory formation, whereas the supra-optimal levels of hippocampal activity related to unsuccessful memory formation have been rarely studied. It is still unclear under what circumstances such supra-optimal levels of hippocampal activity occur. To clarify this issue, we aimed at creating a condition, in which supra-optimal hippocampal activity is associated with encoding failure. We assumed that such supra-optimal activity occurs when task-relevant information is embedded in task-irrelevant, distracting information, which can be considered as noise. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present fMRI study, we probed neural correlates of associative memory formation in a full-factorial design with associative memory (subsequently remembered versus forgotten and noise (induced by high versus low distraction as factors. Results showed that encoding failure was associated with supra-optimal activity in the high-distraction condition and with sub-optimal activity in the low distraction condition. Thus, we revealed evidence for a bell-shape function relating hippocampal activity with associative encoding success. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings indicate that intermediate levels of hippocampal activity are optimal while both too low and too high levels appear detrimental for associative memory formation. Supra-optimal levels of hippocampal activity seem to occur when task-irrelevant information is added to task-relevant signal. If such task-irrelevant noise is reduced adequately, hippocampal activity is lower and thus optimal for associative memory formation.

  8. A rapid method of predicting radiocaesium concentrations in sheep from activity levels in faeces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGee, E.J.; Synnott, H.J.; Colgan, P.A.; Keatinge, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    The use of faecal samples taken from sheep flocks as a means of predicting radiocaesium concentrations in live animals was studied. Radiocaesium levels in 1726 sheep from 29 flocks were measured using in vivo techniques and a single faecal sample taken from each flock was also analysed. A highly significant relationship was found to exist between mean flock activity and activity in the corresponding faecal samples. Least-square regression yielded a simple model for predicting mean flock radiocaesium concentrations based on activity levels in faecal samples. A similar analysis of flock maxima and activity levels in faeces provides an alternative model for predicting the expected within-flock maximum radiocaesium concentration. (Author)

  9. Validation of the human activity profile questionnaire as a measure of physical activity levels in older community-dwelling women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastone, Alessandra de Carvalho; Moreira, Bruno de Souza; Vieira, Renata Alvarenga; Kirkwood, Renata Noce; Dias, João Marcos Domingues; Dias, Rosângela Corrêa

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of the Human Activity Profile (HAP) by comparing scores with accelerometer data and by objectively testing its cutoff points. This study included 120 older women (age 60-90 years). Average daily time spent in sedentary, moderate, and hard activity; counts; number of steps; and energy expenditure were measured using an accelerometer. Spearman rank order correlations were used to evaluate the correlation between the HAP scores and accelerometer variables. Significant relationships were detected (rho = .47-.75, p < .001), indicating that the HAP estimates physical activity at a group level well; however, scatterplots showed individual errors. Receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to determine HAP cutoff points on the basis of physical activity level recommendations, and the cutoff points found were similar to the original HAP cutoff points. The HAP is a useful indicator of physical activity levels in older women.

  10. Attempting to be active: Self-efficacy and barrier limitation differentiate activity levels of working mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierc, Madelaine; Locke, Sean; Jung, Mary; Brawley, Lawrence

    2016-07-01

    Working mothers are less physically active than working women without children and mothers who do not work. The purpose of this study was to examine concurrent self-regulatory efficacy and barriers to physical activity in a sample of working mothers. Women completed a mixed-methods survey which included measures of physical activity, concurrent self-regulatory efficacy, and barriers. Sufficiently active women experienced significantly greater concurrent self-regulatory efficacy and significantly less barrier limitation and frequency. No significant group differences were found for age, domestic duties performed, and children's extracurricular activities. Thematic analysis of barriers revealed six themes of common and unique factors, including limited time and family activities. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura with decreased level of ADAMTS-13 activity and increased level of ADAMTS-13 inhibitor in an adolescent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Mi Yang

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP is a thrombotic microangiopathy characterized by endothelial cell damage, resulting in microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and various degrees of neurological and renal impairment caused by microvascular thrombi. It is rare in children and frequently follows a fatal course. TTP is divided into 2 types: one is inherited and associated with ADAMTS-13 gene mutations and the other is acquired and associated with anti-ADAMTS-13 autoantibodies. The measurement of ADAMTS-13 activity in plasma, identification of ADAMTS-13 circulating inhibitor, anti-ADAMTS-13 IgG, and ADAMTS-13 gene sequencing are crucial to the diagnosis of TTP. Plasma exchanges are the first-line treatment for acquired TTP, combined with steroids and immunosuppressive drugs. Here, we describe the case of an adolescent patient with TTP, confirmed by decreased level of ADAMTS-13 activity and an increased level of ADAMTS-13 inhibitor, who was successfully treated by plasma exchanges.

  12. Self-reported activity level and knee function in amateur football players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frobell, R B; Svensson, E; Göthrick, M

    2008-01-01

    ) amateur football players in 10 football clubs from each division below national level participated in the study. Self-reported Tegner Activity Scale, and the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) are the main outcome measures. Older age, female gender and lower level of competition (football...... is recommended. We suggest that self-reported Tegner Activity Scale scores should be adjusted for age, gender and level of competition. In amateur football players, KOOS scores do not need adjustment for age and gender....

  13. Objective assessment of levels and patterns of physical activity in preschool children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasholt, Martin; Chawes, Bo; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil

    2013-01-01

    Background:To study in detail levels and patterns of physical activity in preschool children and the effect of gender and body mass index on this activity.Methods:Two hundred and fifty-three children aged 5 years participating in the Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood (COPSAC20....... A high body mass index tended to be associated with lower levels of physical activity.Pediatric Research (2013); doi:10.1038/pr.2013.99....

  14. Physical activity levels and determinants of change in young adults: a longitudinal panel study

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmermann Erwin; Wanner Miriam; Zimmermann-Sloutskis Dorith; Martin Brian W

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background There is growing concern about physical inactivity in adolescents and young adults. Identifying determinants that are associated with low levels of physical activity and with changes in physical activity levels will help to develop specific prevention strategies. The present study describes the prevalence and potential determinants of physical activity behavior and behavior changes of young adults. The study is based on the Swiss Household Panel (SHP), a longitudinal study...

  15. Recommended level of physical activity and health-related quality of life among Japanese adults

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura Yoshio; Oka Koichiro; Shibata Ai; Muraoka Isao

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The benefits of a recommended level of physical activity on physiological health indicators such as morbidity and mortality are well-accepted, but less research has addressed whether or not the association between the recommended level of physical activity and a health-related quality of life (HRQOL) exists in the Japanese population. Thus, the present study examined whether the recommended physical activity would be associated with HRQOL in the general Japanese middle-age...

  16. Canadian population trends in leisure-time physical activity levels, 1981-1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Marny J; Katzmarzyk, Peter T

    2002-12-01

    Age, sex, geographic and temporal trends in leisure-time physical activity levels were examined using data from five national surveys conducted between 1981 and 1998. Physical activity energy expenditure (AEE) was higher among men compared to women, and in younger versus older adults. AEE increased from Eastern to Western Canada, with a significant temporal trend of increasing AEE. The prevalence of physical inactivity (expending importance of population-level physical activity surveillance and interventions.

  17. Impact of physical activity and fitness on the level of kinesiophobia in women of perimenopausal age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariola Saulicz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available To determine the impact of physical activity and fitness on the level of physical activity barriers (kinesiophobia in women of perimenopausal age, the study included 105 women between the ages of 48 and 58. A Baecke questionnaire was used to evaluate physical activity and a modified Fullerton test was used to evaluate the fitness level. The level of kinesiophobia was assessed using the Kinesiophobia Causes Scale questionnaire. A low level of habitual physical activity has a negative impact on the values of Biological Domain (r = –0.581, Psychological Domain (r = –0.451, and on the Kinesiophobia Cause Scale total score (r = –0.577. Lower physical activity expressed by a lower score in the Fullerton test also has a negative impact on the level of kinesiophobia. Upper body flexibility (r = –0.434 has the strongest influence on the Biological Domain, whereas upper body strength (r = –0.598 has the greatest impact on the Psychological Domain. A low level of upper body strength also has the greatest impact on the Kinesiophobia Cause Scale total score (r = –0.507. Low levels of physical activity and fitness in women of perimenopausal age favour kinesiophobic attitudes and thereby increase the level of barriers against undertaking physical activity.

  18. Alternative complement pathway and factor B activities in rats with altered blood levels of thyroid hormone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitencourt, C.S. [Departamento de Análises Clínicas, Toxicológicas e Bromatológicas, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Duarte, C.G.; Azzolini, A.E.C.S.; Assis-Pandochi, A.I. [Departamento de Física e Química, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2012-03-02

    Evaluating the activity of the complement system under conditions of altered thyroid hormone levels might help elucidate the role of complement in triggering autoimmune processes. Here, we investigated alternative pathway (AP) activity in male Wistar rats (180 ± 10 g) after altering their thyroid hormone levels by treatment with triiodothyronine (T3), propylthiouracil (PTU) or thyroidectomy. T3 and thyroxine (T4) levels were determined by chemiluminescence assays. Hemolytic assays were performed to evaluate the lytic activity of the AP. Factor B activity was evaluated using factor B-deficient serum. An anti-human factor B antibody was used to measure factor B levels in serum by radial immunodiffusion. T3 measurements in thyroidectomized animals or animals treated with PTU demonstrated a significant reduction in hormone levels compared to control. The results showed a reduction in AP lytic activity in rats treated with increasing amounts of T3 (1, 10, or 50 µg). Factor B activity was also decreased in the sera of hyperthyroid rats treated with 1 to 50 µg T3. Additionally, treating rats with 25 µg T3 significantly increased factor B levels in their sera (P < 0.01). In contrast, increased factor B concentration and activity (32%) were observed in hypothyroid rats. We conclude that alterations in thyroid hormone levels affect the activity of the AP and factor B, which may in turn affect the roles of AP and factor B in antibody production.

  19. Longitudinal Changes in Physical Activity Level, Body Mass Index, and Oxygen Uptake Among Norwegian Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pål Lagestad

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have investigated activity levels among adolescents, but no study has examined longitudinal changes in physical activity (PA level, body mass, and oxygen uptake among the same adolescents from the age of 14 to 19 years. The present study examined data from a research project that included a group of randomly selected students (N = 116 with objective measurements of PA (accelerometer data, self-reported PA level, and body mass and oxygen uptake during a 5-year period. The results show a significant decrease in the accelerometer-based PA level over time, from age 14 to 19. At 14 years of age, the minutes of moderate and/or vigorous PA was 66.7 min·day−1, but was less than half, at only 24.4 min·day−1, at 19 years of age. The self-reported activity data show a decrease in girls’ general activity level over time, while boys’ activity level during school breaks decreased strongly during the period: at age 14, 61% of the boys were classified as active, while at age 19, only 11% were physically active. Furthermore, body mass index increased during the period for both genders, while oxygen uptake decreased. Since both BMI and maximal oxygen uptake are important risk factors for future CVD, these findings point toward the importance of maintaining a high activity level during childhood and adolescence, in order to keep fit later in life.

  20. Alternative complement pathway and factor B activities in rats with altered blood levels of thyroid hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitencourt, C.S.; Duarte, C.G.; Azzolini, A.E.C.S.; Assis-Pandochi, A.I.

    2012-01-01

    Evaluating the activity of the complement system under conditions of altered thyroid hormone levels might help elucidate the role of complement in triggering autoimmune processes. Here, we investigated alternative pathway (AP) activity in male Wistar rats (180 ± 10 g) after altering their thyroid hormone levels by treatment with triiodothyronine (T3), propylthiouracil (PTU) or thyroidectomy. T3 and thyroxine (T4) levels were determined by chemiluminescence assays. Hemolytic assays were performed to evaluate the lytic activity of the AP. Factor B activity was evaluated using factor B-deficient serum. An anti-human factor B antibody was used to measure factor B levels in serum by radial immunodiffusion. T3 measurements in thyroidectomized animals or animals treated with PTU demonstrated a significant reduction in hormone levels compared to control. The results showed a reduction in AP lytic activity in rats treated with increasing amounts of T3 (1, 10, or 50 µg). Factor B activity was also decreased in the sera of hyperthyroid rats treated with 1 to 50 µg T3. Additionally, treating rats with 25 µg T3 significantly increased factor B levels in their sera (P < 0.01). In contrast, increased factor B concentration and activity (32%) were observed in hypothyroid rats. We conclude that alterations in thyroid hormone levels affect the activity of the AP and factor B, which may in turn affect the roles of AP and factor B in antibody production

  1. Biological/Genetic Regulation of Physical Activity Level: Consensus from GenBioPAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightfoot, J Timothy; DE Geus, Eco J C; Booth, Frank W; Bray, Molly S; DEN Hoed, Marcel; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kelly, Scott A; Pomp, Daniel; Saul, Michael C; Thomis, Martine A; Garland, Theodore; Bouchard, Claude

    2018-04-01

    Physical activity unquestionably maintains and improves health; however, physical activity levels globally are low and not rising despite all the resources devoted to this goal. Attention in both the research literature and the public policy domain has focused on social-behavioral factors; however, a growing body of literature suggests that biological determinants play a significant role in regulating physical activity levels. For instance, physical activity level, measured in various manners, has a genetic component in both humans and nonhuman animal models. This consensus article, developed as a result of an American College of Sports Medicine-sponsored round table, provides a brief review of the theoretical concepts and existing literature that supports a significant role of genetic and other biological factors in the regulation of physical activity. Future research on physical activity regulation should incorporate genetics and other biological determinants of physical activity instead of a sole reliance on social and other environmental determinants.

  2. Leisure activity associated with cognitive ability level, but not cognitive change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gow, Alan John; Avlund, Kirsten; Mortensen, Erik L

    2014-01-01

    Although activity participation is promoted as cognitively protective, critical questions of causality remain. In a cohort followed every 5 years from age 75 to 85 years, potential reciprocal associations between level and change in leisure activity participation and level and change in cognitive...... abilities were examined. Participants in the Glostrup 1914 Cohort, a longitudinal study of aging, completed standardized cognitive ability tests and reported their leisure activity participation (11 activities defined a leisure activity score) at ages 75, 80, and 85. Higher leisure activity was associated...... with higher cognitive ability (significant correlations ranged from 0.15 to 0.31, p cognitive ability declined significantly. Growth curve models, which provided latent variables for level of and 10-year change in both leisure activity...

  3. Comparison of fatal motor vehicle accidents at passive and active railway level crossings in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirkku Laapotti

    2016-07-01

    Active warning devices are effective in preventing accidents due to road user errors. Equipping the most dangerous passive level crossings with warning devices – low cost or conventional – would increase safety. Alternatively, some level crossings could be removed altogether. A minimum requirement is that the environmental factors at passive level crossings support safe crossing.

  4. Changes in physical activity levels following 12-week family intervention in Hispanic girls: Bounce study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pediatric obesity is a major health problem among Hispanic girls. Physical activity guidelines recommend that children engage in at least 60 min of moderate to vigorous activity daily. To examine the changes in physical activity level pre- and post-intervention. Hispanic girls in control (CG; N=26, ...

  5. Measuring the Actual Levels and Patterns of Physical Activity/Inactivity of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlayson, Janet; Turner, Angela; Granat, Malcolm H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Lack of regular physical activity is a significant risk to health. The aim of this study was to objectively measure the levels and patterns of activity of adults with intellectual disabilities, to inform the design of studies aimed at increasing activity and health in this population. Materials and Methods: Interviews were conducted…

  6. Physical activity parenting: A systematic review of questionnaires and their associations with child activity levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insufficient physical activity (PA) is considered a critical contributor to childhood overweight. Parents are a key in influencing their child's PA through various mechanisms of PA parenting, including support, restriction of PA, and facilitation of enrollment in PA classes or activities. However, s...

  7. Gender Disparity in Structured Physical Activity and Overall Activity Level in Adolescence: Evaluation of Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Data

    OpenAIRE

    Lenhart, Clare M.; Hanlon, Alexandra; Kang, Youjeong; Daly, Brian P.; Brown, Michael D.; Patterson, Freda

    2012-01-01

    Background. Adolescent girls are less likely to meet physical activity recommendations than boys. This study examined the relative contribution of structured physical activity opportunities including physical education (PE) class and sports teams to overall activity levels for girls and boys. Methods. Data from 591 9th–12th grade students who completed the 2009 Philadelphia Youth Risk Behavior Survey were examined. Logistic regression was used to estimate the relationship between PE and sport...

  8. Relationship between diet and physical activity level in adolescents from post-grammar schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitruk, Agnieszka; Kunicka, Izabela; Popławska, Helena; Hołub, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    Appropriate diet and physical activity are vital determinants of psychophysical development in children and adolescents. The aim of the study was to analyse an association between dietary habits and physical activity levels of adolescents from post-grammar schools. The study included 110 girls and 65 boys between 16 and 19 years of age from two post-grammar schools in Biała Podlaska in Poland. They were subjected to a diagnostic survey providing information on their diet (number of meals a day, their regularity, frequency of bread, dairy, meat, fish, sweet, fruit, vegetable and fast food consumption, preferred ways of food processing). Physical activity levels were determined with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire--Short Form (IPAQ-SF). Based on these data, the respondents were stratified to high, moderate and low physical activity groups. Due to small number of participants presenting with low physical activity levels, we did not include this group in further analyses. The significance of differences in the dietary habits of adolescents presenting with high and moderate physical activity levels was verified with the χ2 test. Most girls and boys presented with high levels of physical activity. However, we did not find an evident relationship between dietary habits and physical activity levels. Girls from high and moderate physical activity groups differed solely in terms of the number of daily meals, frequency of meat and sweet consumption, and significant intergroup differences observed among boys pertained to the frequencies of whole-wheat bread, meat and fast food consumption. The abovementioned food products were consumed more often by girls and boys presenting with high physical activity levels. The dietary mistakes observed in physically active adolescents from post-secondary schools justify intensification of their dietary education programs.

  9. Ultrastructural and immunohistochemical studies on Trichomonas vaginalis adhering to and phagocytizing genitourinary epithelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈文列; 陈金富; 钟秀容; 梁平; 林炜

    2004-01-01

    Background Trichomonas vaginalis (T. vaginalis) belongs to a common sexually transmitted disease pathogen causing genitourinary trichomoniasis in both sexes. We investigated the pathogenetic mechanism of genitourinary trichomoniasis.Methods Cultured T. vaginalis bodies were injected into the vaginas of rats, or incubated with genitourinary epithelial cells of female subjects, male subjects, and sperm. The ultrastructural and microscopic changes were observed via transmission and scanning electron microscopy and through microscopic histochemistry.Results Groups of T.vaginalis adhered to PAS positive columnar cells at the surface of stratified epithelium in the middle and upper portions of the vaginas. They also traversed under these cells. The parasites were shown to be PAS, cathepsin D, and actin positive, and they could release hydrolase into the cytoplasm of adhered epithelial cells. In the amebiform T.vaginalis, microfilaments were arranged into reticular formation. Similar phenomena were found during the interaction of T.vaginalis with host cells, both in vitro and in vivo. Usually several protozoa adhered to an epithelial cell and formed polymorphic pseudopodia or surface invaginations to surround and phagocytize the microvilli or other parts of the epithelial cytoplasm. Adhesion and phagocytosis of sperm by the protozoa occurred at 15-30 minutes of incubation. Digestion of sperm was found at 45-75 minutes and was complete at 90-105 minutes.Conclusions T.vaginalis tends to parasitize at the fornix of the vagina, because this is the site where columnar cells are rich in mucinogen granules and their microvilli are helpful for adhesion and nibbling. T.vaginalis possesses some invading and attacking abilities. Shape change, canalization, encystation, phagocytosis, digestion, the cell coat, cytoskeleton, and lysosome all play important roles in the process of adhesion. They have two methods of phagocytosis: nibbling and ingestion. Genitourinary epithelium may be

  10. Mononuclear phagocytes contribute to intestinal invasion and dissemination of Yersinia enterocolitica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drechsler-Hake, Doreen; Alamir, Hanin; Hahn, Julia; Günter, Manina; Wagner, Samuel; Schütz, Monika; Bohn, Erwin; Schenke-Layland, Katja; Pisano, Fabio; Dersch, Petra; Autenrieth, Ingo B; Autenrieth, Stella E

    2016-09-01

    Enteropathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica (Ye) enters the host via contaminated food. After colonisation of the small intestine Ye invades the Peyer's patches (PPs) via M cells and disseminates to the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs), spleen and liver. Whether Ye uses other invasion routes and which pathogenicity factors are required remains elusive. Oral infection of lymphotoxin-β-receptor deficient mice lacking PPs and MLNs with Ye revealed similar bacterial load in the spleen 1h post infection as wild-type mice, demonstrating a PP-independent dissemination route for Ye. Immunohistological analysis of the small intestine revealed Ye in close contact with mononuclear phagocytes (MPs), specifically CX3CR1(+) monocyte-derived cells (MCs) as well as CD103(+) dendritic cells (DCs). This finding was confirmed by flow cytometry and imaging flow cytometry analysis of lamina propria (LP) leukocytes showing CD103(+) DCs and MCs with intracellular Ye. Uptake of Ye by LP CD103(+) DCs and MCs was dependent on the pathogenicity factor invasin, whereas the adhesin YadA was dispensable as demonstrated by Ye deletion mutants. Furthermore, Ye were found exclusively associated with CD103(+) DCs in the MLNs from wild-type mice, but not from CCR7(-/-) mice, demonstrating a CCR7 dependent transport of Ye by CD103(+) DCs from LP to the MLNs. In contrast, dissemination of Ye to the spleen was dependent on MCs as significantly less Ye could be recovered from the spleen of CX3CR1(GFP/GFP) mice compared to wild-type mice. Altogether, MCs and CD103(+) DCs contribute to immediate invasion and dissemination of Ye. This together with data from other bacteria suggests MPs as general pathogenic entry site in the intestine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of ration level on immune functions in chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcorn, S.W.; Pascho, R.J.; Murray, A.L.; Shearer, K.D.

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between nutritional status and disease resistance in cultured salmonids can be affected by dietary manipulations. Careful attention to feeding levels may be important to avoid imbalances in nutrient levels that could ultimately impair a fish's ability to resist infectious microorganisms. In the current study, fish in three feed-level groups were fed an experimental diet either to satiation, 64% of satiation or 40% of satiation. A fourth group of fish were fed a commercial diet at the 64% of satiation level and served as controls. To evaluate certain indices of disease resistance in the test and control fish, a panel of assays was employed to measure humoral and cellular immune functions 30, 39 and 54 weeks after starting the dietary treatments. The panel included measures of blood hematocrit and leucocrit levels, plasma protein concentration and serum lysozyme and complement activity. Cellular analyses included differential blood leucocyte counts, NBT reduction and phagocytosis by pronephros macrophages and myeloperoxidase activity of pronephros neutrophils. No differences were observed in those indices between fish tested from the control-diet group (commercial diet fed at the 64% rate) and fish tested from the 64% feed-level group, except that fish fed the commercial diet had a greater concentration of plasma protein. Leucocrit values and plasma protein concentrations tended to increase among the experimental feed groups as the ration increased from 40% to satiation. More importantly, phagocytic activity by anterior kidney leucocytes was found to be inversely proportional to the feed level. Whereas the results of this study provide evidence that the salmonid immune system may be fairly robust with regard to available metabolic energy, the significant changes observed in phagocytic cell activity suggest that some cellular immune functions may be affected by the feed level.

  12. Distribution and activity levels of matrix metalloproteinase 2 and 9 in canine and feline osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhard, Christiane; Fuchs-Baumgartinger, Andrea; Razzazi-Fazeli, Ebrahim; Miller, Ingrid; Walter, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    Overexpression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) has been associated with increased tumor aggressiveness and metastasis dissemination. We investigated whether the contrasting metastatic behavior of feline and canine osteosarcoma is related to levels and activities of MMP2 and MMP9. Zymography and immunohistochemistry were used to determine expression levels of MMP2 and MMP9 in canine and feline osteosarcoma. Using immunohistochemistry, increased MMP9 levels were identified in most canine osteosarcomas, whereas cat samples more often displayed moderate levels. High levels of pro-MMP9, pro-MMP2, and active MMP2 were detected by gelatin zymography in both species, with significantly higher values for active MMP2 in canine osteosarcoma. These findings indicate that MMP2 is probably involved in canine and feline osteosarcoma and their expression and activity could be associated with the different metastatic behavior of canine and feline osteosarcoma.

  13. Bi-Level Decentralized Active Power Control for Large-Scale Wind Farm Cluster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shengli; Wu, Qiuwei; Guo, Yifei

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a bi-level decentralized active power control (DAPC) for a large-scale wind farm cluster, consisting of several wind farms for better active power dispatch. In the upper level, a distributed active power control scheme based on the distributed consensus is designed to achieve...... fair active power sharing among multiple wind farms, which generates the power reference for each wind farm. A distributed estimator is used to estimate the total available power of all wind farms. In the lower level, a centralized control scheme based on the Model Predictive Control (MPC) is proposed...... to regulate active power outputs of all wind turbines (WTs) within a wind farm, which reduces the fatigue loads of WTs while tracking the power reference obtained from the upper level control. A wind farm cluster with 8 wind farms and totally 160 WTs, was used to test the control performance of the proposed...

  14. Recommended level of physical activity and health-related quality of life among Japanese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakamura Yoshio

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The benefits of a recommended level of physical activity on physiological health indicators such as morbidity and mortality are well-accepted, but less research has addressed whether or not the association between the recommended level of physical activity and a health-related quality of life (HRQOL exists in the Japanese population. Thus, the present study examined whether the recommended physical activity would be associated with HRQOL in the general Japanese middle-aged population. Methods Data were obtained from 1211 male and female respondents (39.4 ± 10.9 year, mean ± SD from an Internet-based survey of registrants of an Internet research service. Physical activity level was estimated from the short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. HRQOL was assessed with the Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form-8 questionnaire (SF-8. Based on the current national guidelines for exercise in Japan, respondents were divided into a recommended group, an insufficient group, and an inactive group according to their estimated weekly physical activity level. Multivariate analyses of covariance were utilized. Results Across both genders, the recommended group had significantly higher physical functioning (PF scores than the inactive group (p Conclusion Individuals who attained the recommended level of physical activity had better scores on some dimensions of HRQOL than those who did not, suggesting that the recommended level of physical activity may be applicable not only to the physiological objective outcomes but also to some dimensions in both the physical and mental aspects of HRQOL.

  15. Relationship between self-reported dietary intake and physical activity levels among adolescents: The HELENA study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Donne Cinzia

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence suggests possible synergetic effects of multiple lifestyle behaviors on health risks like obesity and other health outcomes. Therefore it is important to investigate associations between dietary and physical activity behavior, the two most important lifestyle behaviors influencing our energy balance and body composition. The objective of the present study is to describe the relationship between energy, nutrient and food intake and the physical activity level among a large group of European adolescents. Methods The study comprised a total of 2176 adolescents (46.2% male from ten European cities participating in the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study. Dietary intake and physical activity were assessed using validated 24-h dietary recalls and self-reported questionnaires respectively. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVA were used to compare the energy and nutrient intake and the food consumption between groups of adolescents with different physical activity levels (1st to 3rd tertile. Results In both sexes no differences were found in energy intake between the levels of physical activity. The most active males showed a higher intake of polysaccharides, protein, water and vitamin C and a lower intake of saccharides compared to less active males. Females with the highest physical activity level consumed more polysaccharides compared to their least active peers. Male and female adolescents with the highest physical activity levels, consumed more fruit and milk products and less cheese compared to the least active adolescents. The most active males showed higher intakes of vegetables and meat, fish, eggs, meat substitutes and vegetarian products compared to the least active ones. The least active males reported the highest consumption of grain products and potatoes. Within the female group, significantly lower intakes of bread and cereal products and spreads were found for those reporting to

  16. Examining differences in physical activity levels by employment status and/or job activity level: Gender-specific comparisons between the United States and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Lydia; Berrigan, David; Van Domelen, Dane; Sjöström, Michael; Hagströmer, Maria

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between employment status and job activity level with physical activity (PA) and sedentary time, stratified by gender and country. Cross-sectional study design. Data from working age adults (18-65 years) from two cross-sectional studies, the Swedish 2001-2002 and 2007-2008 Attitude Behavior and Change Study (ABC; n=1165) and the 2003-2006 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES; n=4201), were stratified by employment status (employed and not employed) and job activity level (active, sedentary and mixed). PA in counts×min(-1) and time spent in sedentary, low and moderate or higher intensity were measured with accelerometers. Analyses were conducted in 2012-2013. In NHANES, the employed had significantly higher counts×min(-1) and spent more time in moderate or higher intensity PA than those not employed. In ABC, no significant differences were observed between employed and unemployed. Adults with active versus sedentary occupations had higher counts×min(-1) and less sedentary time in both the USA and Sweden and in both men and women. For example, counts×min(-1) were 20-40% greater in active versus sedentary jobs. Employment status is related to PA and sedentary time among men and women in the USA but not in Sweden. Among the employed, occupational PA is associated with total PA and sedentary time for both genders and in both countries. Comparisons of PA levels based on objective measurements can refine understanding of country differences in activity. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. All rights reserved.

  17. Physical activity levels of older adults receiving a home care service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Elissa; Lewin, Gill; Boldy, Duncan

    2013-04-01

    The 3 study objectives were to compare the activity levels of older people who had received a restorative home care service with those of people who had received "usual" home care, explore the predictors of physical activity in these 2 groups, and determine whether either group met the minimum recommended activity levels for their age group. A questionnaire was posted to 1,490 clients who had been referred for a home care service between 2006 and 2009. Older people who had received a restorative care service were more active than those who had received usual care (p = .049), but service group did not predict activity levels when other variables were adjusted for in a multiple regression. Younger individuals who were in better physical condition, with good mobility and no diagnosis of depression, were more likely to be active. Investigation of alternatives to the current exercise component of the restorative program is needed.

  18. Fitness levels and physical activity among class A drug users entering prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Jan; Butt, Christine; Dawes, Helen; Foster, Charlie; Neale, Joanne; Plugge, Emma; Wheeler, Carly; Wright, Nat

    2012-12-01

    Physical activity could benefit drug users' physiological and mental health. Previous research has suggested that physical activity levels change when drug users enter prison. Twenty-five class A drug users who were new to prison answered physical activity and drug use cross-sectional questionnaires, took a submaximal fitness test and wore a pedometer for 1 week. Participants' mean aerobic capacity was estimated as 49 mls O2/kg/min (±12 SD). Their mean self-reported walking distance outside of prison was 4.67 miles on an average day (±4.14 SD). Pedometer data suggest they walked a mean of 1.8 miles/day in prison. Many class A drug users entering prison had high levels of fitness and physical activity before admission, often gained from walking. Walking activity reduced when they entered prison, posing a challenge to maintaining healthy activity levels.

  19. Trapezius muscle activity increases during near work activity regardless of accommodation/vergence demand level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, H O; Zetterberg, C; Forsman, M

    2015-07-01

    To investigate if trapezius muscle activity increases over time during visually demanding near work. The vision task consisted of sustained focusing on a contrast-varying black and white Gabor grating. Sixty-six participants with a median age of 38 (range 19-47) fixated the grating from a distance of 65 cm (1.5 D) during four counterbalanced 7-min periods: binocularly through -3.5 D lenses, and monocularly through -3.5 D, 0 D and +3.5 D. Accommodation, heart rate variability and trapezius muscle activity were recorded in parallel. General estimating equation analyses showed that trapezius muscle activity increased significantly over time in all four lens conditions. A concurrent effect of accommodation response on trapezius muscle activity was observed with the minus lenses irrespective of whether incongruence between accommodation and convergence was present or not. Trapezius muscle activity increased significantly over time during the near work task. The increase in muscle activity over time may be caused by an increased need of mental effort and visual attention to maintain performance during the visual tasks to counteract mental fatigue.

  20. Physical activity levels and patterns of 11-14 year-old Turkish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kin-Isler, Ayse; Asci, F Hulya; Altintas, Atakan; Guven-Karahan, Bengu

    2009-01-01

    This study examined age and gender differences in physical activity levels and various physical activity patterns of 11-14-year-old Turkish adolescents and also determined if these differ between genders. Six hundred and fifty girls and 666 boys between the ages of 11 and 14 years constituted the sample of this study. Participants self-reported physical activity levels and patterns were determined by a Weekly Activity Checklist. A 2 x 4 (Gender x Age) MANOVA revealed overall significant main effect of gender and age on the physical activity level of adolescents; however, gender x age interaction effect was not significant. The findings indicated an interaction effect was not significant. The findings indicated an age-related decline in physical activity level, an increase in participation in low activities, and a decrease in participation in moderate and vigorous activities in 11-14-year-old Turkish adolescents. In addition it was found that boys were more active than girls and participated more in moderate and vigorous activities.

  1. White blood cell counts mediate the effects of physical activity on prostate-specific antigen levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Richart, Sarah M

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether white blood cell (WBC) level mediated the relationship between physical activity and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels. Data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used; 1,726 U.S. adult men (aged 40 years or older) provided complete data on the study variables. Participants wore an ActiGraph 7164 accelerometer for a 7-day period to measure their physical activity behavior, and PSA and WBC levels were obtained from a blood sample. After adjustments, results showed that moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was inversely associated with WBC count (b = - .03; 95% CI [ - 0.04, - 0.006; p = .01), and WBC count (b = .10; 95% CI [0.009, 0.18; p = .04) was positively associated with PSA. Both the Sobel (coef. = - .004, SE = .002; z = - 2.0; p = .03) and the Aroian (coef. = - .004, SE = .002; z = - 1.9; p = .03) tests demonstrated that WBC mediated the relationship between physical activity and PSA. Additionally, among 107 participants with prostate cancer, survivors engaging in more MVPA had lower levels of WBC (b = - .04; 95% CI [ - 0.09, - 0.0009; p = .04). Conclusion Physical activity may influence PSA levels through WBC modulation; however, future research is needed to determine the direction of causality. Additionally, prostate cancer survivors engaging in higher levels of MVPA had lower levels of WBC, underscoring the importance of promoting physical activity among prostate cancer survivors.

  2. Activation of β-adrenoceptor facilitates active avoidance learning through enhancement of glutamate levels in the hippocampal dentate gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Jing; Feng, Hao; Chen, Ling; Wang, Wei-Yao; Yue, Xue-Ling; Jin, Qing-Hua

    2017-10-18

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) is widely accepted as the best studied model for neurophysiological mechanisms that could underlie learning and memory formation. Despite a number of studies indicating that β-adrenoceptors in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) is involved in the modulation of learning and memory as well as LTP, few studies have used glutamate release as a visual indicator in awake animals to explore the role of β-adrenoceptors in learning-dependent LTP. Therefore, in the present study, the effects of propranolol (an antagonist of β-adrenoceptor) and isoproterenol (an agonist of β-adrenoceptor) on extracellular concentrations of glutamate and amplitudes of field excitatory postsynaptic potential were measured in the DG region during active avoidance learning in freely moving conscious rats. In the control group, the glutamate level in the DG was significantly increased during the acquisition of active avoidance behavior and returned to basal level following extinction training. In propranolol group, antagonism of β-adrenoceptors in the DG significantly reduced the change in glutamate level, and the acquisition of the active avoidance behavior was significantly inhibited. In contrast, the change in glutamate level was significantly enhanced by isoproterenol, and the acquisition of the active avoidance behavior was significantly accelerated. Furthermore, in all groups, the changes in glutamate level were accompanied by corresponding changes in field excitatory postsynaptic potential amplitude and active avoidance behavior. Our results suggest that activation of β-adrenoceptors in the hippocampal DG facilitates active avoidance learning by modulations of glutamate level and synaptic efficiency in rats.

  3. Serum vaspin levels are associated with physical activity or physical fitness in Japanese: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyatake, Nobuyuki; Wada, Jun; Nakatsuka, Atsuko; Sakano, Noriko; Teshigawara, Sanae; Miyachi, Motohiko; Tabata, Izumi; Numata, Takeyuki

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the link between serum vaspin levels and physical activity and/or physical fitness in Japanese. A total of 156 subjects (81 men and 75 women) was enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Serum vaspin levels, physical activity by uniaxial accelerometers, peak oxygen uptake, and metabolic risk parameters were evaluated. We also assessed anthropometric and body composition parameters. Serum vaspin levels were over the level of 10 ng/mL in 15 subjects (9.6 %: Vaspin High group). In Vaspin Low group (men and 67 women), serum vaspin levels were 0.12 ± 0.18 ng/mL in men and 0.39 ± 0.70 ng/mL in women. Peak oxygen uptake was significantly and positively correlated with serum vaspin levels even after adjusting for age, physical activity evaluated by Σ[metabolic equivalents × h per week (METs[Symbol: see text]h/w)], BMI, and other confounding factors in men. In turn, physical activity was significantly and positively correlated with serum vaspin levels even after adjusting for confounding factors in women. Serum vaspin levels were closely associated with physical fitness in men and physical activity in women independent of body composition in this Japanese cohort.

  4. Level of Physical Activity in Population Aged 16 to 65 Years in Rural Kerala, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslesh, O P; Mayamol, P; Suma, R K; Usha, K; Sheeba, G; Jayasree, A K

    2016-01-01

    Kerala is a state in India with a high prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. In order to control these diseases, the prevalence of modifiable risk factors such as low physical activity need to be studied. For this a cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the level of physical activity among 240 residents aged between 15 and 65 years in Kulappuram, a village in north Kerala. Low level of physical activity was seen in 65.8% of the study participants. The average duration of moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity per day in different domains such as work, travel, and recreation were 40.5, 10.1, and 12.7 minutes, respectively. The average duration of sedentary activities was 284.3 minutes per day. The level of physical activity was more among those engaged in unskilled work (adjusted odds ratio = 4.32; confidence interval = 1.38-13.51) and unmarried persons (adjusted odds ratio = 3.65; confidence interval = 1.25-10.65). No statistically significant difference in physical activity level was seen in different age, education, religious, and economic categories. The study concludes that the physical activity level was low in the study population. © 2015 APJPH.

  5. Does feedback on daily activity level from a Smart watch during inpatient stroke rehabilitation increase physical activity levels? Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yun; Steins, Dax; Sun, Shanbin; Li, Fei; Amor, James D; James, Christopher J; Xia, Zhidao; Dawes, Helen; Izadi, Hooshang; Cao, Yi; Wade, Derick T

    2018-03-09

    Practicing activities improves recovery after stroke, but many people in hospital do little activity. Feedback on activity using an accelerometer is a potential method to increase activity in hospital inpatients. This study's goal is to investigate the effect of feedback, enabled by a Smart watch, on daily physical activity levels during inpatient stroke rehabilitation and the short-term effects on simple functional activities, primarily mobility. A randomized controlled trial will be undertaken within the stroke rehabilitation wards of the Second Affiliated hospital of Anhui University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Hefei, China. The study participants will be stroke survivors who meet inclusion criteria for the study, primarily: able to participate, no more than 4 months after stroke and walking independently before stroke. Participants will all receive standard local rehabilitation and will be randomly assigned either to receive regular feedback about activity levels, relative to a daily goal tailored by the smart watch over five time periods throughout a working day, or to no feedback, but still wearing the Smart watch. The intervention will last up to 3 weeks, ending sooner if discharged. The data to be collected in all participants include measures of daily activity (Smart watch measure); mobility (Rivermead Mobility Index and 10-metre walking time); independence in personal care (Barthel Activities of Daily Living (ADL) Index); overall activities (the World Health Organization (WHO) Disability Assessment Scale, 12-item version); and quality of life (the Euro-Qol 5L5D). Data will be collected by assessors blinded to allocation of the intervention at baseline, 3 weeks or at discharge (whichever is the sooner); and a reduced data set will be collected at 12 weeks by telephone interview. The primary outcome will be change in daily accelerometer activity scores. Secondary outcomes are compliance and adherence to wearing the watch, and changes in mobility

  6. [Physical activity levels among Colombian adults: inequalities by gender and socioeconomic status].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Silvia; Lozano, Óscar; Ramírez, Andrea; Grijalba, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide studies show inequalities in physical activity levels related to socio-demographic characteristics. In Colombia, among the countries in Latin America with the highest inequality, the evidence related to inequalities in physical activity is limited. It is imperative to identify disparities in physical activity in the country, to guide the design of public policies aimed at promoting physical activity. 1) To estimate the prevalence and associated factors of meeting physical activity recommendations; 2) to assess inequalities by gender and socioeconomic status in meeting physical activity recommendations, and 3) to assess the trends in physical activity prevalence within a five-year period. A secondary analysis of data from the 2010 National Nutrition Survey was conducted. The sample included 27,243 adults. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to measure leisure time and transport domains. Socioeconomic status was measured by the Sisben level. Compared to men, women were less likely to meet physical activity recommendations in all domains. Compared to adults from high socioeconomic-status households, low socioeconomic-status adults had a lower prevalence of meeting physical activity recommendations during leisure time and the highest prevalence of using a bicycle for transport. The factors associated with meeting physical activity recommendations differed by gender and physical activity domain. Household and individual variables explained 13.6% of the inequalities observed by gender, and 23.2% of the inequalities by socioeconomic status. In a five-year period, the prevalence of physical activity in leisure time decreased, while the physical activity of walking for transport increased and biking for transport did not change. Future interventions to increase physical activity levels in Colombia must consider inequalities by gender and socioeconomic status. Of special concern is the low prevalence of meeting physical activity

  7. Disrupted epithelial/macrophage crosstalk via Spinster homologue 2-mediated S1P signaling may drive defective macrophage phagocytic function in COPD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai B Tran

    Full Text Available We have previously established a link between impaired phagocytic capacity and deregulated S1P signaling in alveolar macrophages from COPD subjects. We hypothesize that this defect may include a disruption of epithelial-macrophage crosstalk via Spns2-mediated intercellular S1P signaling.Primary alveolar macrophages and bronchial epithelial cells from COPD subjects and controls, cell lines, and a mouse model of chronic cigarette smoke exposure were studied. Cells were exposed to 10% cigarette smoke extract, or vehicle control. Spns2 expression and subcellular localization was studied by immunofluorescence, confocal microscopy and RT-PCR. Phagocytosis was assessed by flow-cytometry. Levels of intra- and extracellular S1P were measured by S1P [3H]-labeling.Spns2 expression was significantly increased (p<0.05 in alveolar macrophages from current-smokers/COPD patients (n = 5 compared to healthy nonsmokers (n = 8 and non-smoker lung transplant patients (n = 4. Consistent with this finding, cigarette smoke induced a significant increase in Spns2 expression in both human alveolar and THP-1 macrophages. In contrast, a remarkable Spns2 down-regulation was noted in response to cigarette smoke in 16HBE14o- cell line (p<0.001 in 3 experiments, primary nasal epithelial cells (p<0.01 in 2 experiments, and in smoke-exposed mice (p<0.001, n = 6 animals per group. Spns2 was localized to cilia in primary bronchial epithelial cells. In both macrophage and epithelial cell types, Spns2 was also found localized to cytoplasm and the nucleus, in line with a predicted bipartile Nuclear Localization Signal at the position aa282 of the human Spns2 sequence. In smoke-exposed mice, alveolar macrophage phagocytic function positively correlated with Spns2 protein expression in bronchial epithelial cells.Our data suggest that the epithelium may be the major source for extracellular S1P in the airway and that there is a possible disruption of epithelial/macrophage cross talk via

  8. The types and levels of physical activity and sedentary behaviour of Senior Phase learners in Potchefstroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna C.W. De Vos

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Strategies need to be implemented to raise the physical activity levels of Senior Phase learners, especially during weekdays, and to decrease sedentary behaviour. With this view in mind, recommendations are made for Physical Education teachers.

  9. Activity Level Assessment Using a Smart Cushion for People with a Sedentary Lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Congcong; Li, Wenfeng; Gravina, Raffaele; Cao, Jingjing; Li, Qimeng; Fortino, Giancarlo

    2017-10-03

    As a sedentary lifestyle leads to numerous health problems, it is important to keep constant motivation for a more active lifestyle. A large majority of the worldwide population, such as office workers, long journey vehicle drivers and wheelchair users, spends several hours every day in sedentary activities. The postures that sedentary lifestyle users assume during daily activities hide valuable information that can reveal their wellness and general health condition. Aiming at mining such underlying information, we developed a cushion-based system to assess their activity levels and recognize the activity from the information hidden in sitting postures. By placing the smart cushion on the chair, we can monitor users' postures and body swings, using the sensors deployed in the cushion. Specifically, we construct a body posture analysis model to recognize sitting behaviors. In addition, we provided a smart cushion that effectively combine pressure and inertial sensors. Finally, we propose a method to assess the activity levels based on the evaluation of the activity assessment index (AAI) in time sliding windows. Activity level assessment can be used to provide statistical results in a defined period and deliver recommendation exercise to the users. For practical implications and actual significance of results, we selected wheelchair users among the participants to our experiments. Features in terms of standard deviation and approximate entropy were compared to recognize the activities and activity levels. The results showed that, using the novel designed smart cushion and the standard deviation features, we are able to achieve an accuracy of (>89%) for activity recognition and (>98%) for activity level recognition.

  10. Leisure-time physical activity behavior: structured and unstructured choices according to sex, age, and level of physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Jorge; Esculcas, Carlos

    2002-01-01

    The main goals of this cross-sectional survey were (a) to describe the associations between sex, age, and physical activity behavior and (b) to describe the age and sex-related associations with the choice of structured (formal) and unstructured (nonformal) physical activity programs. At baseline, data were selected randomly from 1,013 students, from the 7th to the 12th grades. A response rate of 73% (n = 739) was obtained. Accordingly, the sample of this study consisted of 594 adolescents (304 females and 290 males) with mean age of 15.9 years (range 13-20). Physical activity was assessed by means of a questionnaire. A questionnaire about leisure activities was applied to the sample to define the nominal variable "nature of physical activity." The data showed that significantly more girls than boys (p < or = .001) belonged to the sedentary group (80.7% girls) and low activity group (64.5% girls). Boys more frequently belonged to the more active groups (92.1%; p < or = .001). The older participants were more engaged in formal physical activities, whereas the younger mostly chose informal ones whatever their level of physical activity. There were more significant differences in girls' physical activity groups (chi 2 = 20.663, p < or = .001) than in boys' (chi 2 = 7.662, p < or = .05). Furthermore, active girls chose more structured physical activities than their sedentary counterparts (18.8% vs. 83.3%). However, boys preferred unstructured activities regardless of physical activity group (83.7% vs. 58.5%; p < or = .05). It can be concluded that as age increased, organized sports activities became a relatively more important component of total weekly activity for both male and female participants.

  11. Low levels of physical activity in patients with severe mental illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyboe, Lene; Lund, H

    2013-01-01

    Background: Physical inactivity is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and Type 2 diabetes, both being highly prevalent in patients with severe mental illness. Though physical activity has become an important issue in psychiatric treatment and rehabilitation in the past decade......, systematic evaluations of physical activity level in psychiatric populations could be more disseminated. Aim: The primary aim of the study was to investigate the physical activity level of psychiatric patients in comparison with healthy controls. Methods: Patients with severe mental illness (n =47......) and a group of healthy controls (n =28) matched on sex and age reported their physical activity level using the Physical Activity Scale (PAS). PAS was administered as an interview in relation to patients and as a questionnaire in relation to healthy controls. Results: Patients had statistically significant...

  12. Cooking techniques improve the levels of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity in kale and red cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murador, Daniella Carisa; Mercadante, Adriana Zerlotti; de Rosso, Veridiana Vera

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of different home cooking techniques (boiling, steaming, and stir-frying) in kale and red cabbage, on the levels of bioactive compounds (carotenoids, anthocyanins and phenolic compounds) determined by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array and mass spectrometry detectors (HPLC-DAD-MS(n)), and on the antioxidant activity evaluated by ABTS, ORAC and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assays. The steaming technique resulted in a significant increase in phenolic content in kale (86.1%; pkale, steaming resulted in significant increases in antioxidant activity levels in all of the evaluation methods. In the red cabbage, boiling resulted in a significant increase in antioxidant activity using the ABTS assay but resulted in a significant decrease using the ORAC assay. According to the CAA assay, the stir-fried sample displayed the highest levels of antioxidant activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Induction of antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation level in ion-beam-bombarded rice seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semsang, Nuananong; Yu, LiangDeng

    2013-07-01

    Low-energy ion beam bombardment has been used to mutate a wide variety of plant species. To explore the indirect effects of low-energy ion beam on biological damage due to the free radical production in plant cells, the increase in antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation level was investigated in ion-bombarded rice seeds. Local rice seeds were bombarded with nitrogen or argon ion beams at energies of 29-60 keV and ion fluences of 1 × 1016 ions cm-2. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and lipid peroxidation level were assayed in the germinated rice seeds after ion bombardment. The results showed most of the enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation levels in both the argon and nitrogen bombarded samples were higher than those in the natural control. N-ion bombardment could induce higher levels of antioxidant enzyme activities in the rice samples than the Ar-ion bombardment. Additional effects due to the vacuum condition were found to affect activities of some antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation level. This study demonstrates that ion beam bombardment and vacuum condition could induce the antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation level which might be due to free radical production in the bombarded rice seeds.

  14. Resource Leveling Based on Backward Controlling Activity in Line of Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihui Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The line of balance method that provides continuous and uninterrupted use of resources is one of the best methods for repetitive project resource management. This paper develops a resource leveling algorithm based on the backward controlling activity in line of balance. The backward controlling activity is a kind of special activity, and if its duration is prolonged the project duration could be reduced. It brings two advantages to the resource leveling: both the resource allocated on the backward activity and the project duration are reduced. A resource leveling algorithm is presented which permits the number of crews of the backward controlling activity to be reduced until the terminal situation is reached, where the backward controlling activity does not exist or the number of crews cannot be reduced. That adjustment enables the productivity of all activities to be consistent. An illustrative pipeline project demonstrates the improvement in resource leveling. And this study designed a MATLAB program to execute the design algorithm. The proposed model could help practitioners to achieve the goals of both resource leveling and project duration reduction without increasing any resource.

  15. Correlates of physical activity level among hemodialysis patients in Selangor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, S W; Chan, Y M; Lim, T S

    2011-12-01

    There is mounting evidence demonstrating the importance of adequate physical activity to promote better well-being among hemodialysis patients. Available data pertaining to the levels of physical activity and its determinants among hemodialysis patients is, however, scarce in Malaysia. The objectives of this study are hence to determine the levels of physical activity and it associated factors among hemodialysis patients. A total of 70 subjects were recruited from three dialysis centres in Selangor. A face-to-face interview was conducted to obtain socio-demographic data and subjects' knowledge on dietary sources. Medical history, biochemical parameters and weight status were obtained from medical records. Physical activity level (PAL) was assessed using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ). A total of 81.4% and 18.6% of the respondents had low and moderate PALs, respectively. Thus, none of the respondents had high PAL. Serum creatinine, education level, personal income and knowledge score on potassium-related medical complications were factors found to correlate significantly with PAL. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that higher PAL was predicted by a lower knowledge score on dietary sodium source, higher education and higher serum creatinine. Despite consistent documentation of the potential positive impact of physical exercise on hemodialysis outcomes, the level of physical activity remains low among these patients. It is hoped that these findings can add to the existing body of knowledge and serve as a supporting document for the formulation of appropriate interventions to improve the status of physical activity among hemodialysis patients in Malaysia.

  16. The impact of gameful design on sedentary adults' motivation for physical activity and physical activity levels

    OpenAIRE

    Gummelt, Dominique

    2017-01-01

    Background: Gameful design has been shown to have the potential to increase motivation for and engagement with physical activity (PA). However, at present, there is a significant lack of well-designed frameworks identifying effective pathways to increase PA behaviour.Purpose: To design a rigorous, methodologically sound, theory-grounded framework for developing gamefully designed PA interventions.Methods: Intervention Mapping (IM) was used to develop the study protocol, consisting of three st...

  17. Matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) levels are increased in active acromegaly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karci, Alper Cagri; Canturk, Zeynep; Tarkun, Ilhan; Cetinarslan, Berrin

    2017-07-01

    During follow-up of acromegaly patients, there is a discordance rate of 30% between the measurements of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 levels. Further tests are required to determine disease activity in patients with discordant results. This study was planned to investigate an association of serum levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2, matrix metalloproteinase-9, and cathepsin B with disease activity in acromegaly patients. In this study, 64 acromegaly patients followed in our clinic were divided into two groups according to the 2010 consensus criteria for cure of acromegaly as patients with active disease (n = 24) and patients with controlled disease (n = 40). Serum matrix metalloproteinase-2, matrix metalloproteinase-9, and cathepsin B levels were measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. The mean serum matrix metalloproteinase-2 level was significantly higher in the active acromegaly patients than in the controlled acromegaly patients (150.1 ± 54.5 ng/mL vs. 100.2 ± 44.6 ng/mL; p matrix metalloproteinase-9 and cathepsin B levels (p = 0.205 and p = 0.598, respectively). Serum matrix metalloproteinase-2 levels of 118.3 ng/mL and higher had a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 77.5% in determining active disease. The risk of active acromegaly was 3.3 fold higher in the patients with a matrix metalloproteinase-2 level of >118.3 ng/mL than in the patients with a matrix metalloproteinase-2 level of matrix metalloproteinase-2 level is increased in the active acromegaly patients and a threshold value in determining active disease was defined for serum matrix metalloproteinase-2 level. This study is the first to compare acromegaly patients having active or controlled disease in terms of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 levels. The results need to be confirmed by a study that will be conducted in a larger patient group also including a healthy control group to demonstrate the

  18. Physical activity level, leisure activities and related quality of life 1 year after lumbar decompression or total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolving, Nanna; Obling, Kirstine H; Christensen, Finn B; Fonager, Kirsten

    2013-04-01

    Lumbar decompression surgery (LDS) and total hip arthroplasty (THA) are frequently performed in the elderly population, but very little is known about their subsequent physical capacity and participation in leisure activities. Despite similar demographics and comorbidities, it is questionable whether LDS patients achieve equally high levels of physical capacity and quality of life postoperatively as do THA patients. The aim was to compare the physical activity level, participation in leisure activities and related quality of life 1 year after an LDS and THA procedure. Data from 95 THA patients and 83 LDS patients were gathered from questionnaires on self-reported physical activity level, leisure activities and quality of life. LDS and THA patients reported equally moderate levels of physical activity. The median score was 42.3 METs/day (IQR 37.9; 47.7) for the LDS group and 41.0 METs/day (IQR 38.5; 48.5) for the THA group (p = 0.79). Weekly time consumption for leisure activities in the LDS group was a median of 420 min/week (IQR 210; 660) compared to a median of 480 min/week (IQR 240; 870) in the THA group (p = 0.16). Regarding quality of life, LDS patients reported significantly worse Euroqol Five Dimensions scores with a median value of 0.740 (IQR 0.68; 0.82) compared to THA patients' median of 0.824 (IQR 0.72; 1.0), p leisure activities, LDS patients did not achieve a quality of life comparable to that of THA patients 1 year postoperatively.

  19. Teaching Future Middle Level Educators to Craft Learning Activities That Enhance Young Adolescent Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Jason T.

    2016-01-01

    As social and academic forces begin to collide for young adolescents at the beginning of the middle level experience, students experience an unfortunate drop in their creativity. Appropriately trained middle level teachers have the potential to lessen this problem through the use of carefully selected open-ended learning activities that increase…

  20. Physical Education Lesson Content and Teacher Style and Elementary Students' Motivation and Physical Activity Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Heather E.; Stellino, Megan Babkes; Beets, Michael W.; Beighle, Aaron; Johnson, Christine E.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity levels among American children are increasing at an alarming rate, due in part to a lack of regular physical activity (PA). Physical education (PE) is one way to facilitate student PA. The overarching PA goal for physical educators is 50% PA for students. Self-determination theory suggests that PA levels in PE and a variety of other…

  1. Electromyography Activation Levels of the 3 Gluteus Medius Subdivisions During Manual Strength Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otten, Roald; Tol, Johannes L; Holmich, Per

    2015-01-01

    deficits and guide specific rehabilitation programs. However, the optimal positions for assessing the strength and activation of these subdivisions are unknown. OBJECTIVE: The first aim was to establish which strength-testing positions produce the highest surface electromyography (sEMG) activation levels...... of the individual GM subdivisions. The second aim was to evaluate differences in sEMG activation levels between the tested and contralateral (stabilizing) leg. METHOD: Twenty healthy physically active male subjects participated in this study. Muscle activity using sEMG was recorded for the GM subdivisions in 8......STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional. CONTEXT: Gluteus medius (GM) muscle dysfunction is associated with overuse injury. The GM is functionally composed of 3 separate subdivisions: anterior, middle, and posterior. Clinical assessment of the GM subdivisions is relevant to detect strength and activation...

  2. Physical activity level and fall risk among community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Sok Teng; Balaraman, Thirumalaya

    2017-07-01

    [Purpose] To find the physical activity level and fall risk among the community-dwelling Malaysian older adults and determine the correlation between them. [Subjects and Methods] A cross-sectional study was conducted in which, the physical activity level was evaluated using the Rapid Assessment of Physical Activity questionnaire and fall risk with Fall Risk Assessment Tool. Subjects recruited were 132 community-dwelling Malaysian older adults using the convenience sampling method. [Results] The majority of the participants were under the category of under-active regular light-activities and most of them reported low fall risk. The statistical analysis using Fisher's exact test did not show a significant correlation between physical activity level and fall risk. [Conclusion] The majority of community-dwelling Malaysian older adults are performing some form of physical activity and in low fall risk category. But this study did not find any significant correlation between physical activity level and fall risk among community-dwelling older adults in Malaysia.

  3. The types and levels of physical activity and sedentary behaviour of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: The adapted Children's Leisure Activities Study Survey (CLASS) questionnaire was used for determining the types and levels of physical activity and sedentary behaviour of 230 Grade 7 learners, from three schools in Potchefstroom. Data were analysed by means of the SAS statistics programme, and descriptive ...

  4. Applying Active Learning at the Graduate Level: Merger Issues at Newco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Bruce K.

    2002-01-01

    Suggests that active learning can benefit students in public relations and integrated communication courses at the graduate level. Describes how three active learning approaches--research and field work, student accountabilities for learning, and student reflection and reflexive exercises--were used in a graduate class project to help a Fortune 50…

  5. Self-Rated Activity Levels and Longevity: Evidence from a 20 Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullee, Mark A.; Coleman, Peter G.; Briggs, Roger S. J.; Stevenson, James E.; Turnbull, Joanne C.

    2008-01-01

    The study reports on factors predicting the longevity of 328 people over the age of 65 drawn from an English city and followed over 20 years. Both the reported activities score and the individual's comparative evaluation of their own level of activity independently reduced the risk of death, even when health and cognitive status were taken into…

  6. Biological/Genetic Regulation of Physical Activity Level : Consensus from GenBioPAC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lightfoot, J Timothy; De Geus, Eco J C; Booth, Frank W; Bray, Molly S; den Hoed, Marcel; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kelly, Scott A; Pomp, Daniel; Saul, Michael C; Thomis, Martine A; Garland, Theodore; Bouchard, Claude

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Physical activity unquestionably maintains and improves health; however, physical activity levels globally are low and not rising despite all the resources devoted to this goal. Attention in both the research literature and the public policy domain has focused on social-behavioral factors;

  7. Development of Speaking Skills through Activity Based Learning at the Elementary Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ul-Haq, Zahoor; Khurram, Bushra Ahmed; Bangash, Arshad Khan

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This paper discusses an effective instructional method called "activity based learning" that can be used to develop the speaking skills of students in the elementary school level. The present study was conducted to determine the effect of activity based learning on the development of the speaking skills of low and high achievers…

  8. Interaction between Salmonella typhimurium and phagocytic cells in pigs - Phagocytosis, oxidative burst and killing in polymorphonuclear leukocytes and monocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Ulla; Lind, Peter

    1999-01-01

    Interactions between Salmonella typhimurium and peripheral blood leucocytes from healthy, Salmonella-free pigs were investigated in vitro. Both granulocytes and monocytes phagocytized FITC-labelled heat-killed Salmonella bacteria as shown by flow cytometry. Phagocytosis in whole blood and isolated...... with the exhaustion of oxidative burst in non-adherent monocytes were performed by prestimulation with PMA, heat-killed Salmonella or buffer. Prestimulation with PMA led to a strong reduction in oxidative burst induced by living opsonized Salmonella bacteria, whereas prestimulation with heat-killed bacteria gave rise...

  9. Computer simulations and the use of radiolabelled sulphur colloid to measure the efficiency of the mononuclear phagocyte system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, A.H.; Rutishauser, S.C.B.; Williams, A.R.

    1985-01-01

    Techniques are described whereby the clearance of the radiolabelled blood borne colloid can be continuously and reproducibly measured non-invasively from the same animal in vivo or from the isolated perfused intact liver in vitro. Using these techniques, the rate of removal of radiolabelled sulphur colloid by the mononuclear phagocytes in vivo and in vitro was shown to be biexponential. The pattern of clearance of colloid and the factors contributing to this were analysed with the aid of a computer program which mimicked the in vitro liver perfusion. (Auth.)

  10. Distribution and activity levels of matrix metalloproteinase 2 and 9 in canine and feline osteosarcoma

    OpenAIRE

    Gebhard, Christiane; Fuchs-Baumgartinger, Andrea; Razzazi-Fazeli, Ebrahim; Miller, Ingrid; Walter, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    Overexpression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) has been associated with increased tumor aggressiveness and metastasis dissemination. We investigated whether the contrasting metastatic behavior of feline and canine osteosarcoma is related to levels and activities of MMP2 and MMP9. Zymography and immunohistochemistry were used to determine expression levels of MMP2 and MMP9 in canine and feline osteosarcoma. Using immunohistochemistry, increased MMP9 levels were identified in most canine os...

  11. Home and Work Physical Activity Environments: Associations with Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Physical Activity Level in French Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Michel Oppert

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the physical activity environment in the home and at work on cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF and objectively-measured physical activity has not been extensively studied. We recruited 147 women with a (mean ± SD age of 54 ± 7 years and without evidence of chronic disease. The physical activity environment was assessed by self-report (Assessing Levels of PHysical Activity or ALPHA questionnaire, CRF using a submaximal step test, usual physical activity using combined heart rate and accelerometry, as well as by a validated questionnaire (Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire. Summary scores of the home environment and the work environment derived from the ALPHA questionnaire were positively correlated with CRF after adjustment for age (r = 0.18, p = 0.03 and r = 0.28, p < 0.01, respectively. Women owning a bicycle or having a garden (which may prompt physical activity had higher CRF; those with a bicycle at home also had a higher physical activity energy expenditure. Similarly, women who had access to fitness equipment at work had higher CRF. In conclusion, these results provide new insights into potential environmental influences on physical capacity and physical activity that could inform the design of physical activity promotion strategies.

  12. Physical Activity Level and Physical Functionality in Nonagenarians Compared to Individuals Aged 60–74 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisard, Madlyn I.; Fabre, Jennifer M.; Russell, Ryan D.; King, Christina M.; DeLany, James P.; Wood, Robert H.; Ravussin, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Background Functional dependence and the risks of disability increase with age. The loss of independence is thought to be partially due to a decrease in physical activity. However, in populations, accurate measurement of physical activity is challenging and may not provide information on functional impairment. Methods This study therefore assessed physical functionality and physical activity level in a group of nonagenarians (11 men/11 women; 93 ± 1 years, 66.6 ± 2.4 kg, body mass index [BMI] = 24 ± 1 kg/m2) and a group of participants aged 60–74 years (17 men/15 women; 70 ± 1 years, 83.3 ± 3.0 kg, BMI = 29 ± 1 kg/m2) from the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study. Physical activity level was calculated from total energy expenditure (TEE) and resting metabolic rate (RMR). Physical functionality was assessed using the Reduced Continuous Scale Physical Functional Performance Test (CS-PFP10). Results Nonagenarians had lower absolute ( p < .001) and adjusted ( p < .007) TEE compared to participants aged 60–74 years which was attributed to a reduction in both RMR and physical activity level. Nonagenarians also had reduced functional performance ( p < .001) which was correlated with activity level (r = 0.68, p < .001). Conclusions When compared to individuals aged 60–74 years, 73% of the reduction in TEE in nonagenarians can be attributed to a reduction in physical activity level, the remaining being accounted for by a reduction in RMR. The reduced physical activity in nonagenarians is associated with less physical functionality. This study provides the first objective comparison of physical functionality and actual levels of physical activity in older individuals. PMID:17634327

  13. Disrupted epithelial/macrophage crosstalk via Spinster homologue 2-mediated S1P signaling may drive defective macrophage phagocytic function in COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Hai B; Jersmann, Hubertus; Truong, Tung Thanh; Hamon, Rhys; Roscioli, Eugene; Ween, Miranda; Pitman, Melissa R; Pitson, Stuart M; Hodge, Greg; Reynolds, Paul N; Hodge, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    We have previously established a link between impaired phagocytic capacity and deregulated S1P signaling in alveolar macrophages from COPD subjects. We hypothesize that this defect may include a disruption of epithelial-macrophage crosstalk via Spns2-mediated intercellular S1P signaling. Primary alveolar macrophages and bronchial epithelial cells from COPD subjects and controls, cell lines, and a mouse model of chronic cigarette smoke exposure were studied. Cells were exposed to 10% cigarette smoke extract, or vehicle control. Spns2 expression and subcellular localization was studied by immunofluorescence, confocal microscopy and RT-PCR. Phagocytosis was assessed by flow-cytometry. Levels of intra- and extracellular S1P were measured by S1P [3H]-labeling. Spns2 expression was significantly increased (pS1P in the airway and that there is a possible disruption of epithelial/macrophage cross talk via Spns2-mediated S1P signaling in COPD and in response to cigarette smoke exposure.

  14. Endocannabinoid and Mood Responses to Exercise in Adults with Varying Activity Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brellenthin, Angelique G; Crombie, Kevin M; Hillard, Cecilia J; Koltyn, Kelli F

    2017-08-01

    Acute aerobic exercise improves mood and activates the endocannabinoid (eCB) system in physically active individuals; however, both mood and eCB responses to exercise may vary based on habitual levels of physical activity. This study aimed to examine eCB and mood responses to prescribed and preferred exercises among individuals with low, moderate, and high levels of physical activity. Thirty-six healthy adults (21 ± 4 yr) were recruited from low (≤60 min moderate-vigorous physical activity [MVPA] per week), moderate (150-299 min MVPA per week), and high (≥300 MVPA per week) physical activity groups. Participants performed both prescribed (approximately 70%-75% max) and preferred (i.e., self-selected) aerobic exercise on separate days. Mood states and eCB concentrations were assessed before and after exercise conditions. Both preferred and prescribed exercise resulted in significant increases (P exercise elicited positive mood improvements compared with preexercise values, but changes in state anxiety, total mood disturbance, and confusion were greater in the preferred condition (P mood disturbance in the preferred condition (P mood or eCB outcomes. These results indicate that eCB and mood responses to exercise do not differ significantly between samples with varying physical activity levels. This study also demonstrates that in addition to prescribed exercise, preferred exercise activates the eCB system, and this activation may contribute to positive mood outcomes with exercise.

  15. Social and productive activities and health among partnered older adults: A couple-level analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Jack; Bolano, Danilo

    2018-04-16

    We theorize and test the health of older adults as a result of their activity engagement, as well as a product of their spouse's engagement. We draw on 15 waves of couple-level data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) Survey. Using responses of time engaged in nine different activities, we estimate Latent Class Models to describe activity profiles of partnered older adults. Given potential health selections into activity engagement, we lag older adults' activity engagement by one wave to examine its association with subsequent health. We then investigate associations between the lag of the spouse's activities with respondents' health, controlling for their own activity engagement at the previous wave. We find four activity profiles for men, and three for women. Respondents who were predominantly engaged in community activities generally report better subsequent health. Beyond their own activity engagement, for both older men and women, having a partner who was also community engaged associate with better subsequent health, though for older women, there were little differences between having a husband who was community engaged or inactive. Our findings highlight the value of considering activities of partnered older adults at the couple level. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Topoisomerase I as a Biomarker: Detection of Activity at the Single Molecule Level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proszek, Joanna; Roy, Amit; Jakobsen, Ann-Katrine

    2014-01-01

    in hTopI have been reported to result in CPT resistance. Therefore, hTOPI gene copy number, mRNA level, protein amount, and enzyme activity have been studied to explain differences in cellular response to CPT. We show that Rolling Circle Enhanced Enzyme Activity Detection (REEAD), allowing measurement...... of hTopI cleavage-religation activity at the single molecule level, may be used to detect posttranslational enzymatic differences influencing CPT response. These differences cannot be detected by analysis of hTopI gene copy number, mRNA amount, or protein amount, and only become apparent upon measuring...

  17. [PHYSICAL ACTIVITY LEVELS, PHYSICAL FITNESS AND SCREE TIME AMONG CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS FROM BOGOTÁ, COLOMBIA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Benavides, Daniel Humberto; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2015-11-01

    to investigate the association between objective measures of physical activity levels, physical fitness and screen time in Colombia children and adolescents from Bogota, Colombia. a sample of 149 healthy Colombian youth, children and adolescents (9-17.9 years old) participated in the study. Physical activity level was assessed over 7 days using an accelerometer. Weight, height, waist circumference, hip waist, subscapular/ triceps skinfold thicknesses and self-reported screen time (television/internet and videogame-viewing time) were measured. Aerobic capacity, handgrip strength, standing broad jump, vertical jump, speed/agility and flexibility were used as indicators of physical fitness. in girls with a high level of physical activity had favorable aerobic capacity (r = 0.366) and inverse relationship with subscapular/triceps skinfold thicknesses (r = -0.257) and (r = -0,237) p < 0.05, respectively. In boys, vigorous physical activity were associated with higher values of flexibility (r = 0.277) and aerobic capacity (r = 0.347), p < 0.05. Finally, the participants who watched 2 h or less of television per day showed 1.81 times (95%CI 1.401 to 2.672) that met physical activity guidelines. the healthy Colombian youth who reported moderate to vigorous objective measures of physical activity levels, presented higher levels in physical fitness especially in aerobic capacity and flexibility and lower values in subscapular/triceps skinfold thicknesses. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  18. FDG-PET imaging of lower extremity muscular activity during level walking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oi, Naoyuki; Iwaya, Tsutomu; Tobimatsu, Yoshiko; Fujimoto, Toshihiko; Itoh, Masatoshi; Yamaguchi, Keiichiro

    2003-01-01

    We analyzed muscular activity of the lower extremities during level walking using positron emission tomography (PET) with 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG). We examined 17 healthy male subjects; 11 were assigned to a walking group and 6 to a resting group. After 18 F-FDG injection, the walking group subjects walked at a free speed for 15 min. A whole-body image was then obtained by a PET camera, and the standardized uptake ratio (SUR) was computed for each muscle. The SUR for each muscle of the walking group was compared with that for the corresponding muscles in the resting group. The level of muscular activity of all the muscles we examined were higher during level walking than when resting. The activity of the lower leg muscles was higher than that of the thigh muscles during level walking. The muscular activity of the soleus was highest among all the muscles examined. Among the gluteal muscles, the muscular activity of the gluteus minimus was higher than that of the gluteus maximus and gluteus medius. The concurrent validity of measuring muscular activity of the lower extremity during level walking by the PET method using 18 F-FDG was demonstrated. (author)

  19. Indoor Levels of Formaldehyde and Other Pollutants and Relationship to Air Exchange Rates and Human Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huangfu, Y.; O'Keeffe, P.; Kirk, M.; Walden, V. P.; Lamb, B. K.; Jobson, B. T.

    2017-12-01

    This paper reports results on an indoor air quality study conducted on six homes in summer and winter, contrasting indoor and outdoor concentrations of O3, CO, CO2, NOx, PM2.5, and selected volatile organic hydrocarbons measured by PTR-MS. Data were collected as 1 minute averages. Air exchange rates of the homes were determined by CO2 tracer release. Smart home sensors, recording human activity level in various places in the home, and window and doors openings, were utilized to better understand the link between human activity and indoor air pollution. From our study, averaged air exchange rates of the homes ranged from 0.2 to 1.2 hour-1 and were greatly affected by the ventilation system type and window and door openings. In general, a negative correlation between air exchange rate and indoor VOCs levels was observed, with large variation of pollutant levels between the homes. For most of the VOCs measured in the house, including formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, summer levels were much higher than winter levels. In some homes formaldehyde levels displayed a time of day variation that was linked to changes in indoor temperature. During a wildfire period in the summer of 2015, outdoor levels of PM2.5, formaldehyde, and benzene dramatically increased, significantly impacting indoor levels due to infiltration. Human activities, such as cooking, can significantly change the levels of most of the compounds measured in the house and the levels can be significantly elevated for short periods of time, with peak levels can be several orders higher compared with typical levels. The data suggest that an outcome of state energy codes that require new homes to be energy efficient, and as a consequence built with lower air exchange rates, will be unacceptable levels of air toxics, notably formaldehyde.

  20. Use of a consumer market activity monitoring and feedback device improves exercise capacity and activity levels in COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, Brian; Kaljo, Indira; Donnelly, Seamas

    2014-01-01

    COPD is associated with a gradual decline in physical activity, which itself contributes to a worsening of the underlying condition. Strategies that improve physical activity levels are critical to halt this cycle. Wearable sensor based activity monitoring and persuasive feedback might offer a potential solution. However it is not clear just how much intervention might be needed in this regard - i.e. whether programmes need to be tailored specifically for the target clinical population or whether more simple activity monitoring and feedback solutions, such as that offered in consumer market devices, might be sufficient. This research was carried out to investigate the impact of 4 weeks of using an off the shelf consumer market activity monitoring and feedback application on measures of physical activity, exercise capacity, and health related quality of life in a population of 10 Stage I and II COPD patients. Results demonstrate a significant and positive effect on exercise capacity (measured using a 6-minute walk test) and activity levels (measured in terms of average number of steps per hour) yet no impact on health related quality of life (St Georges Respiratory Disease Questionnaire).

  1. Levels of occupational stress and stressful activities for nurses working in emergency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Ferreira da Fonseca

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to identify stress levels, areas and their activities identified as stressful by nurses working in the emergence in Manaus, AM, Brazil. It is an epidemiological, cross-sectional design, with 36 emergency nurses from December 2010 to January 2011. The Bianchi Stress Scale with 57 questions was used. The nurses were at risk for high levels of stress. The most stressful areas were the operation of the unit, conditions of work and personnel administration, and the most stressful activity was the request for equipment review and repair. The difference by Friedman test between the areas was significant (p <0.05, Dunn post-test significant (p <0.05 when compared by peers. The accumulation of management activities with the assistance activities can generate higher levels of stress, it is necessary to invest in improving the work environment and management support to minimize the stress experienced at work.

  2. Associations between the lower esophageal sphincter function and the level of physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waśko-Czopnik, Dorota; Jóźków, Paweł; Dunajska, Katarzyna; Mędraś, Marek; Paradowski, Leszek

    2013-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a very frequent and multifactorial disease. It has been found that GERD is associated with obesity, smoking, esophagitis, diet and lifestyle. Physical activity is among the factors involved in the occurrence of GERD. The aim of the study was to evaluate the associations between the different parameters of lower esophageal pressure (LES) and the level of everyday physical activity in patients with GERD. The authors examined 100 consecutive patients who underwent manometry and pH-metry because of symptoms suggesting GERD. Physical activity was assessed by means of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). In accordance with IPAQ categorical scoring, the authors divided the studied subjects into 3 groups according to their level of physical activity. The investigation comprised 59 men and 41 women, with the mean age 49 ± 14 years. The authors analyzed the relationships between the LES parameters (pressure, total LES length and HPZ length) and physical activity. The authors did not find any significant correlations between the studied parameters and the amount of physical activity. The authors also did not observe any association between the LES pressure and the level of physical activity. The subgroups distinguished on the basis of LESP did not differ as to the amount of everyday physical activity as well. Although most data indicates that intense exercise exacerbates GERD symptoms, the authors did not find any associations between LES parameters and physical activity. In view of the present results maintaining the recommended level of everyday physical activity does not interfere with the mechanisms of GERD.

  3. Induction of antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation level in ion-beam-bombarded rice seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semsang, Nuananong, E-mail: nsemsang@gmail.com [Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Yu, LiangDeng [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: ► Ion beam bombarded rice seeds in vacuum. ► Studied seed survival from the ion bombardment. ► Determined various antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation level. ► Discussed vacuum, ion species and ion energy effects. ► Attributed the changes to free radical formation due to ion bombardment. -- Abstract: Low-energy ion beam bombardment has been used to mutate a wide variety of plant species. To explore the indirect effects of low-energy ion beam on biological damage due to the free radical production in plant cells, the increase in antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation level was investigated in ion-bombarded rice seeds. Local rice seeds were bombarded with nitrogen or argon ion beams at energies of 29–60 keV and ion fluences of 1 × 10{sup 16} ions cm{sup −2}. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and lipid peroxidation level were assayed in the germinated rice seeds after ion bombardment. The results showed most of the enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation levels in both the argon and nitrogen bombarded samples were higher than those in the natural control. N-ion bombardment could induce higher levels of antioxidant enzyme activities in the rice samples than the Ar-ion bombardment. Additional effects due to the vacuum condition were found to affect activities of some antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation level. This study demonstrates that ion beam bombardment and vacuum condition could induce the antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation level which might be due to free radical production in the bombarded rice seeds.

  4. The Effects of Altered Membrane Cholesterol Levels on Sodium Pump Activity in Subclinical Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suparna Roy

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMetabolic dysfunctions characteristic of overt hypothyroidism (OH start at the early stage of subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH. Na+/K+-ATPase (the sodium pump is a transmembrane enzyme that plays a vital role in cellular activities in combination with membrane lipids. We evaluated the effects of early changes in thyroid hormone and membrane cholesterol on sodium pump activity in SCH and OH patients.MethodsIn 32 SCH patients, 35 OH patients, and 34 euthyroid patients, sodium pump activity and cholesterol levels in red blood cell membranes were measured. Serum thyroxine (T4 and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Differences in their mean values were analysed using post hoc analysis of variance. We assessed the dependence of the sodium pump on other metabolites by multiple regression analysis.ResultsSodium pump activity and membrane cholesterol were lower in both hypothyroid groups than in control group, OH group exhibiting lower values than SCH group. In SCH group, sodium pump activity showed a significant direct dependence on membrane cholesterol with an inverse relationship with serum TSH levels. In OH group, sodium pump activity depended directly on membrane cholesterol and serum T4 levels. No dependence on serum cholesterol was observed in either case.ConclusionDespite the presence of elevated serum cholesterol in hypothyroidism, membrane cholesterol contributed significantly to maintain sodium pump activity in the cells. A critical reduction in membrane cholesterol levels heralds compromised enzyme activity, even in the early stage of hypothyroidism, and this can be predicted by elevated TSH levels alone, without any evident clinical manifestations.

  5. Energy requirements and physical activity level of active elderly people in rural areas of Cuba. Highlights and achievements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Trianna, M.

    2002-01-01

    Physical activity levels (PALs) values of urban elderly of developed countries obtained by the DLW-method are usually higher than the recommendations of the Expert Committee on Energy and Protein. This underestimation should be more evident for the rural elderly

  6. Is the low level of physical activity a public policy issue?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalman Michal

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many studies and scientific evidence confirm a positive effect of physical activity on the quality of life and human health. Physical activity, which is also one of the key factors preventing mass non-communicable diseases, is decreasing in Europe, including the Czech Republic, both in children and adults. Serious health consequences for the population and economy of the countries are a reason for a discussion about including the low level of physical activity among public policy issues and a higher allocation of public sources into the area of physical activity promotion. OBJECTIVES: The main objective of the paper is to determine whether the low level of physical activity is a public policy issue. An issue that should by systematically addressed by national, regional as well as local policy. METHODS: Through the policy analysis approach we conducted a content analysis of 25 systematically selected foreign national strategies aimed at the issue of physical activity promotion. The data source was an internal database of the World Health Organization - the International Inventory of Documents on Physical Activity Promotion. The content analysis of the strategies was performed using the Atlas.ti software tool. RESULTS: During a content analysis of 25 foreign strategies a total of 411 text segments (quotations relating to the low level of physical activity were selected. These text segments showed five basic features of a public policy issue according to a conceptual framework developed by Bardach (2000 and Patton and Sawicky (1993 - 1 affects the lives of a significant number of people of a society; 2 is analysable; 3 can be solved through public policy tools; 4 the primary cause or problem can be defined; 5 cannot be solved easily and quickly. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that the low level of physical activity is a public policy issue that must be systematically addressed at national level.

  7. Physical Activity Levels During Acute Inpatient Admission After Hip Fracture are Very Low.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Sarah J; Arnold, Meaghan; Hua, Carol; Schenck, Amie; Batten, Sarah; Taylor, Nicholas F

    2015-09-01

    Hip fractures are very common in older adults and result in serious health consequences. Early mobilization post-surgical intervention for hip fractures is very important. The purpose of this study was to determine physical activity levels during an acute inpatient admission of patients after surgery for hip fracture. The observational study was completed on an orthopaedic ward in an acute general hospital. Twenty patients (18 women, mean age ± standard deviation, 79.1 ± 9.3 years) post-surgical intervention for a hip fracture were included. Physical activity levels were measured using an accelerometer to record the percentage of time spent in lying/sitting, standing and walking, number of steps taken and average energy expenditure. Physical activity levels were extremely low, with participants spending an average of 99% of the day either lying or sitting and a little more than 1% of the day either standing or walking (16 min). Participants took an average of 35.7 ± 80.4 steps per day. Patients received more physiotherapy intervention on weekdays compared with weekends. There was no significant difference in activity levels between weekdays to weekends. No measures of physical activity were associated with length of stay. A mild to moderate association (r = 0.26-0.41) was observed between the measures of physical activity and the amount of physiotherapy received during the weekdays. Physical activity levels during an acute inpatient admission surgery for hip fracture are very low. Patients may have difficulty completing basic activities of daily living post-discharge into the community. Physical activity should be optimized as early in the rehabilitation process as able. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Physical activity levels of economically disadvantaged women living in the Olympic city of Rio de Janeiro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa-Mast, Fabiana R; Reis, Arianne C; Sperandei, Sandro; Gurgel, Luilma A; Vieira, Marcelo C; Pühse, Uwe

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the physical activity patterns of women living in a low-income community located in close proximity to the 2016 Rio de Janeiro Olympic Park. Data (N = 140) were collected in June and July 2012 using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Findings indicated that the majority (54.8%) of participants reported high levels of physical activity. The domains that contributed the most to this pattern were occupational and household physical activity. Significantly, 88.1% of participants reported low physical activity levels during their leisure-time. In the transport-related domain, participants were relatively more active, but more than half of them (57%) spent less than 600 MET-minutes/week in this domain. The results highlighted the discrepancies between different physical activity domains. In addition, the findings also suggested that low-income women in our study engaged little in physical activity during their leisure time. Therefore, the proposed commitments found in the Rio de Janeiro Candidature File to host the 2016 Olympic Games to increase sport/physical activity participation within low-income communities in Rio de Janeiro need to be implemented effectively if this physical activity behavior during self-directed time is to be changed.

  9. Decreased plasma levels of soluble CD18 link leukocyte infiltration with disease activity in spondyloarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragstrup, Tue Wenzel; Jalilian, Babak; Hvid, Malene

    2014-01-01

    of arthritis patients to have anti-inflammatory functions. Here, we study the mechanisms for these alterations and their association with SpA disease activity. METHODS: Plasma levels of sCD18 in a study population with 84 SpA patients and matched healthy controls were analyzed with a time resolved......A patients compared with healthy volunteers (P levels in the HLA-B27-positive subgroup (P levels exhibited an inverse correlation with the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) (P level of morning...... immunoflourometric assay (TRIFMA). Binding of sCD18 to endothelial cells and fibroblast-like synovial cells (FLS) was studied with confocal microscopy. Shedding of CD18 from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was studied with flow cytometry and TRIFMA. RESULTS: Plasma levels of sCD18 were decreased in Sp...

  10. A 5-yr change in Norwegian 9-yr-olds' objectively assessed physical activity level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolle, Elin; Steene-Johannessen, Jostein; Klasson-Heggebø, Lena

    2009-01-01

    = 0.02 and girls and boys. Interactions were found between change in physical activity and SES. Although the mean physical activity level and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) among children from low-SES groups showed no change...... over time, an increase was seen among children from middle-SES groups. Moreover, in high-SES groups, an increase was observed for mean physical activity level (girls only) between study periods, whereas no change was seen for MVPA participation. CONCLUSIONS: Nine-year-old children living in Oslo......PURPOSE: To describe changes in objectively assessed physical activity by socioeconomic status (SES) between 1999-2000 and 2005 in 9-yr-old children living in Oslo, Norway. METHODS: Two cross-sectional studies were conducted in 1999-2000 and 2005. The participation rate was 70.9% in 1999...

  11. Educational Administrators’ Technological Leadership Efficacy and Perceptions towards Implementation Levels of Teaching and Learning Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih ULUKAYA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify the educational administrators’ technological leadership efficacy (TLE and perceptions towards implementation levels of teaching and learning activities (ITLA, and then to present the contribution of the TLE as a predictor of the ITLA. We collected data from 112 educational administrators who are working in Tokat. According to the results of this study, educational administrators’ TLE level was “adequate” for only Digital age learning culture, for the other factors and the total of the TLE levels were “intermediate” level. According to ITLA results, all the sub-factors and total of the scale were “strongly agree” level. The technological leadership efficacy and perceptions towards implementation levels of teaching and learning activities differ according to educational administrators’ age, school type and working in town/city. There is a positive, medium level and significant correlation between educational administrators’ total scores of the TLE and ITLA. A simple linear regression was calculated to predict administrators’ perceptions towards implementation levels of teaching and learning activities based on their technological leadership efficacy, and TLE explains only 29% of the variation in ITLA.

  12. LEVEL OF HABITUAL PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN 8-9 YEARS OLD SCHOOLCHILDREN FROM SPAIN AND INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Felipe López Sánchez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The level of physical activity of people is a very important issue internationally. The aim of this study was to analyze and compare the level of habitual physical activity in 8-9 years old schoolchildren from Spain and India. With this purpose, it was administered the questionnaire PACE (Physician-based Assessment and Counseling for Exercise in a sample of 85 schoolchildren (44 from Spain and 41 from India. The results showed that the sample studied does not do enough physical activity, according to the recommendations of the World Health Organization, as they do at least 60 minutes of physical activity; only an average of 3.13 days/week (SD=1.91. 8-year-old schoolchildren do more physical activity than 9-year-old schoolchildren in both countries; boys do more physical activity than girls in both countries; schoolchildren from India do more physical activity than schoolchildren from Spain. Therefore, it is concluded that the level of physical activity is insufficient, decreases slightly with the age and is higher in India.

  13. Can exergaming contribute to improving physical activity levels and health outcomes in children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Amanda J

    2009-08-01

    Physical inactivity among children is a serious public health problem. It has been suggested that high levels of screen time are contributory factors that encourage sedentary lifestyles in young people. As physical inactivity and obesity levels continue to rise in young people, it has been proposed that new-generation active computer- and video-console games (otherwise known as "exergaming") may offer the opportunity to contribute to young people's energy expenditure during their free time. Although studies have produced some encouraging results regarding the energy costs involved in playing active video-console games, the energy costs of playing the authentic versions of activity-based video games are substantially larger, highlighting that active gaming is no substitute for real sports and activities. A small number of exergaming activities engage children in moderate-intensity activity, but most do not. Only 3 very small trials have considered the effects of exergaming on physical activity levels and/or other health outcomes in children. Evidence from these trials has been mixed; positive trends for improvements in some health outcomes in the intervention groups were noted in 2 trials. No adequately powered randomized, controlled trial has been published to date, and no trial has assessed the long-term impact of exergaming on children's health. We now need high-quality randomized, controlled trials to evaluate the effectiveness and sustainability of exergaming, as well as its clinical relevance; until such studies take place, we should remain cautious about its ability to positively affect children's health.

  14. Lipidic profile and the level of physical activity of adolescent scholars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Canevari Dutra da Silva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the relationship between lipid profile and physical activity level of adolescent students in Rio Verde-GO, Brazil. Methods: A descriptive and cross-sectionalstudy, conducted in 2006, with a population comprised by 1,229 adolescent students of both genders, aged 15 to 17 years (X = 15.9 years, SD + 0.81, from public and private schools. The level of physical activity was assessed through the International PhysicalActivity Questionnaire (IPAQ. Later, 48 teenagers underwent a lipidogram (lipid profile. Lipid concentrations of total cholesterol (TC, HDL-c (high density lipoprotein and LDL (low density lipoprotein and triglycerides (TGL were determined and assessed according to cutoff points proposed by the III Brazilian Guidelines on dyslipidemias and Guideline of Atherosclerosis, Department of Atherosclerosis of Brazilian Society of Cardiology. Statisticalanalysis was performed by binomial test for proportions and Pearson’s correlation test, adopting p <0.05. Results: Applying IPAQ we found a percentage of 77.7% active adolescents and 22.3% of insufficiently active adolescents, with the highest percentage of active teens inmales (p = 0.0000. Adolescents of both sexes from public network were considered more active than teens from private schools. The lipid profile of the studied adolescents was within normal range. Conclusion: There was no relationship between physical activity level and lipid profile of the adolescents assessed.

  15. Moderate levels of activation lead to forgetting in the think/no-think paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detre, Greg J; Natarajan, Annamalai; Gershman, Samuel J; Norman, Kenneth A

    2013-10-01

    Using the think/no-think paradigm (Anderson & Green, 2001), researchers have found that suppressing retrieval of a memory (in the presence of a strong retrieval cue) can make it harder to retrieve that memory on a subsequent test. This effect has been replicated numerous times, but the size of the effect is highly variable. Also, it is unclear from a neural mechanistic standpoint why preventing recall of a memory now should impair your ability to recall that memory later. Here, we address both of these puzzles using the idea, derived from computational modeling and studies of synaptic plasticity, that the function relating memory activation to learning is U-shaped, such that moderate levels of memory activation lead to weakening of the memory and higher levels of activation lead to strengthening. According to this view, forgetting effects in the think/no-think paradigm occur when the suppressed item activates moderately during the suppression attempt, leading to weakening; the effect is variable because sometimes the suppressed item activates strongly (leading to strengthening) and sometimes it does not activate at all (in which case no learning takes place). To test this hypothesis, we ran a think/no-think experiment where participants learned word-picture pairs; we used pattern classifiers, applied to fMRI data, to measure how strongly the picture associates were activating when participants were trying not to retrieve these associates, and we used a novel Bayesian curve-fitting procedure to relate this covert neural measure of retrieval to performance on a later memory test. In keeping with our hypothesis, the curve-fitting procedure revealed a nonmonotonic relationship between memory activation (as measured by the classifier) and subsequent memory, whereby moderate levels of activation of the to-be-suppressed item led to diminished performance on the final memory test, and higher levels of activation led to enhanced performance on the final test. Copyright

  16. Decline in physical activity level in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Carmen L; Stratton, Kayla; Leisenring, Wendy L; Oeffinger, Kevin C; Nathan, Paul C; Wasilewski-Masker, Karen; Hudson, Melissa M; Castellino, Sharon M; Stovall, Marilyn; Armstrong, Gregory T; Brinkman, Tara M; Krull, Kevin R; Robison, Leslie L; Ness, Kirsten K

    2014-08-01

    We aimed to identify demographic and health-related predictors of declining physical activity levels over a four-year period among participants in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. Analyses included 7,287 ≥5-year childhood cancer survivors and 2,107 siblings who completed multiple follow-up questionnaires. Participants were classified as active if they met the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines for physical activity. Generalized linear models were used to compare participants whose physical activity levels declined from active to inactive over the study to those who remained active. In addition, selected chronic conditions (CTCAE v4.03 Grade 3 and 4) were evaluated as risk factors in an analysis limited to survivors only. The median age at last follow-up among survivors and siblings was 36 (range, 21-58) and 38 (range, 21-62) years, respectively. The rate of decline did not accelerate over time among survivors when compared with siblings. Factors that predicted declining activity included body mass index ≥30 kg/m(2) [RR = 1.32; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.19-1.46, P physical activity levels were associated with the presence of chronic musculoskeletal conditions (P = 0.034), but not with the presence of cardiac (P = 0.10), respiratory (P = 0.92), or neurologic conditions (P = 0.21). Interventions designed to maximize physical activity should target female, obese, and less educated survivors. Survivors with chronic musculoskeletal conditions should be monitored, counseled, and/or referred for physical therapy. Clinicians should be aware of low activity levels among subpopulations of childhood cancer survivors, which may heighten their risk for chronic illness. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. Physical Activity Level of Ambulatory Stroke Patients: Is it Related to Neuropsychological Factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersöz Hüseyinsinoğlu, Burcu; Kuran Aslan, Gökşen; Tarakci, Devrim; Razak Özdinçler, Arzu; Küçükoğlu, Hayriye; Baybaş, Sevim

    2017-06-01

    Physical inactivity is an important risk factor for stroke and stroke recurrence. There is insufficient knowledge about the physical activity (PA) level in stroke patients who are ambulatory in the subacute phase. Our aim was to compare the PA level between ambulatory stroke patients and a population of the same age and to investigate neuropsychological factors that could affect the PA level in the same stroke group. Eighty-five subacute stroke patients and 58 healthy subjects were included. Patients' demographic features, disease-related features, and comorbidities were recorded. The PA level was assessed by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Version and a pedometer (OMRON Walking style II). The Apathy Rating Scale was applied to determine the apathy level. Depression level was investigated by the Geriatric Depression Scale. The standardized Mini-mental State Examination was performed to assess the cognitive status. The PA level was significantly higher in the healthy group than in the stroke group (plevel of men was significantly higher than that of women (p=0.03). Participants who were classified as level 4 had a lower PA level than those who were classified as level 5 according to the Functional Ambulation Category. There was no relationship between the PA level and the apathy, cognitive, and depression levels in the stroke patients (p>0.05). Subacute stroke patients have a lower PA level than healthy subjects. This is not related to neuropsychological factors. The reasons for minor deficits related to ambulation should be researched further while developing strategies for increasing the PA level of subacute stroke patients.

  18. Automatic procedure go keep updated the activity levels for each radionuclide existing in a radioactivity laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Los Arcos, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    An automatic procedure to keep updated the activity levels each radionuclide existing in a radioactivity laboratory, and its classification according to the Spanish Regulations on Nuclear and Radioactive Establishments is described. This procedure takes into account the mixed composition of each source and whether it is sealed or the activity and mass variation due to extraction or evaporation in non-sealed sources. For a given date and time, the procedure prints out a complete listing of the activity of each radioactive source, the accumulated activity for each radionuclide, for each kind of radionuclide and the actual classification of the laboratory according to the legal regulations above mentioned. (Author)

  19. Comparative study of the base activity levels of the Spanish continental nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregorides de los Santos y Perez-Minguez, A.M.

    1980-01-01

    In this work the pre-operational activity levels of the sites of some Spanish nuclear power stations are discussed. These power stations are located near the Tagus and Ebro river basins. A report of the communities investigated is made. The total alpha and beta activity as well as the long half life activity has been researched there. The importance of this question is obvious for it gives a regional average of the base activity in the basins of these two big Spanish rivers [fr

  20. AN ASSOCIATION OF CYTOKINE LEVELS WITH DISEASE ACTIVITY, AUTOANTIBODY LEVELS, AND JOINT DESTRUCTIVE CHANGES IN EARLY RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Avdeeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess the association of cytokine profile measures with disease activity, autoantibody levels, and joint destructive changes in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA.Subjects and methods. Forty-five patients, including 35 women, with early RA were examined. Their median age was 53.5 [46; 59.5] years; the duration of the disease – 7.0 [4.0; 11.5] months; DAS28 – 5.8 [4.9; 6.4]; 91 and 96% of the patents were positive for rheumatoid factor (RF and anticyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies, respectively. Serum cytokine concentrations were estimated using the xMAP multiplex technology. The modified Sharp method was employed to quantify radiographic changes.Results and discussion. A group of 30 patients with high disease activity (DAS28 >5.1 had higher levels of interleukin (IL-6 (62.3 [36.1; 127.5] pg/ml and IP-10 (6367.8 [3682.7; 10691.3] pg/ml than 15 patients with moderate/low disease activity (DAS28 ≤5.1 (35.8 [13.4; 64.2] and 3222.6 [1881.0; 5671.9] pg/ml, respectively, p < 0.05. The patients highly positive for IgM RF had higher levels (pg/ml of proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-12, IL-15, interferon-γ, and tumor necrosis factor-α; the chemokine monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and the growth factors IL-7 and vascular endothelial growth factor (4.8 [2.8; 19.3], 23.0 [7.1; 55.8], 64.2 [41.6; 170.5], 52.2 [30.9; 126.9], 2.4 [0.2; 11.2], 210.8 [119.9; 584.2], 90.7 [42.7; 307/9], 57.5 [26.1; 93.8], 54.9 [37.1; 123.7], and 143.3 [70.6; 249.6] pg/ml than those who were negative/lowly positive for IgM RF (2.3 [1.9; 3.1], 4.9 [2.9; 16.8], 24.9 [20.4; 45.4], 25.6 [19.9; 57.1], 0.2 [0.01; 1.65], 94.4 [86.3; 138.9], 37.3 [23.6; 47.7], 20.9 [12.3; 33.9], 32.6 [28.1; 37.8], 74.2 [53.5; 147.6], respectively (p < 0.05.Conclusion. There are significant differences in cytokine profile measures in patients with early RA in relation to disease activity and serum autoantibody levels.

  1. Trastuzumab triggers phagocytic killing of high HER2 cancer cells in vitro and in vivo by interaction with Fcγ receptors on macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yun; Fan, Xuejun; Deng, Hui; Brezski, Randall J; Rycyzyn, Michael; Jordan, Robert E; Strohl, William R; Zou, Quanming; Zhang, Ningyan; An, Zhiqiang

    2015-05-01

    Trastuzumab has been used for the treatment of HER2-overexpressing breast cancer for more than a decade, but the mechanisms of action for the therapy are still being actively investigated. Ab-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity mediated by NK cells is well recognized as one of the key mechanisms of action for trastuzumab, but trastuzumab-mediated Ab-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP) has not been established. In this study, we demonstrate that macrophages, by way of phagocytic engulfment, can mediate ADCP and cancer cell killing in the presence of trastuzumab. Increased infiltration of macrophages in the tumor tissue was associated with enhanced efficacy of trastuzumab whereas depletion of macrophages resulted in reduced antitumor efficacy in mouse xenograft tumor models. Among the four mouse FcγRs, FcγRIV exhibits the strongest binding affinity to trastuzumab. Knockdown of FcγRIV in mouse macrophages reduced cancer cell killing and ADCP activity triggered by trastuzumab. Consistently, an upregulation of FcγRIV expression by IFN-γ triggered an increased ADCP activity by trastuzumab. In an analogous fashion, IFN-γ priming of human macrophages increased the expression of FcγRIII, the ortholog of murine FcγRIV, and increased trastuzumab-mediated cancer cell killing. Thus, in two independent systems, the results indicated that activation of macrophages in combination with trastuzumab can serve as a therapeutic strategy for treating high HER2 breast cancer by boosting ADCP killing of cancer cells. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  2. Endogenous testosterone levels are associated with neural activity in men with schizophrenia during facial emotion processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Ellen; Weickert, Cynthia Shannon; Lenroot, Rhoshel; Catts, Stanley V; Vercammen, Ans; White, Christopher; Gur, Raquel E; Weickert, Thomas W

    2015-06-01

    Growing evidence suggests that testosterone may play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia given that testosterone has been linked to cognition and negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Here, we determine the extent to which serum testosterone levels are related to neural activity in affective processing circuitry in men with schizophrenia. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure blood-oxygen-level-dependent signal changes as 32 healthy controls and 26 people with schizophrenia performed a facial emotion identification task. Whole brain analyses were performed to determine regions of differential activity between groups during processing of angry versus non-threatening faces. A follow-up ROI analysis using a regression model in a subset of 16 healthy men and 16 men with schizophrenia was used to determine the extent to which serum testosterone levels were related to neural activity. Healthy controls displayed significantly greater activation than people with schizophrenia in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). There was no significant difference in circulating testosterone levels between healthy men and men with schizophrenia. Regression analyses between activation in the IFG and circulating testosterone levels revealed a significant positive correlation in men with schizophrenia (r=.63, p=.01) and no significant relationship in healthy men. This study provides the first evidence that circulating serum testosterone levels are related to IFG activation during emotion face processing in men with schizophrenia but not in healthy men, which suggests that testosterone levels modulate neural processes relevant to facial emotion processing that may interfere with social functioning in men with schizophrenia. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. [Correlation between knowledge about the consequences of obesity and physical activity levels among university students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocampo-Mascaró, Javier; Silva-Salazar, Vera; da Costa-Bullón, A Daniel

    2015-12-02

    Obesity is a growing public health issue. One of the main strategies to prevent it is physical activity. To determine if a correlation exists between awareness of the consequences of obesity and physical activity level. A cross-sectional study performed on a group of 215 students was conducted in 2013 and 2014. Non-health related program students were selected by convenience sampling at a university in Lima, Peru. Their physical activity level was measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), and knowledge about the consequences of obesity was assessed using the Obesity Risk Knowledge-10 scale (ORK-10). Each student was also asked to record the source where they obtained whatever information they knew about the topic. The median age of the participants was 20 (interquartile range of 4; 22-18), and 63% of the participants were female. According to the IPAQ, 53.9% of the participants recorded high levels of physical activity, 35.4% recorded moderate levels, and 10.7%, recorded low levels. While a low correlation between the ORK-10 score and the amount of METs/minute/week spent was found (rs=0.06), it was not significant (p=0.38). We found that people who were informed by the media or by healthcare personnel achieved higher scores on the ORK-10 scale than those who used other sources of information (p<0,05). There is a very low correlation between the knowledge about the consequences of obesity and a person’s physical activity level. A multidisciplinary approach that includes all determinants of physical activity is necessary in order to attain changes in people’s behavior.

  4. Motility, ATP levels and metabolic enzyme activity of sperm from bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burness, Gary; Moyes, Christopher D; Montgomerie, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Male bluegill displays one of two life history tactics. Some males (termed "parentals") delay reproduction until ca. 7 years of age, at which time they build nests and actively courts females. Others mature precociously (sneakers) and obtain fertilizations by cuckolding parental males. In the current study, we studied the relations among sperm motility, ATP levels, and metabolic enzyme activity in parental and sneaker bluegill. In both reproductive tactics, sperm swimming speed and ATP levels declined in parallel over the first 60 s of motility. Although sneaker sperm initially had higher ATP levels than parental sperm, by approximately 30 s postactivation, no differences existed between tactics. No differences were noted between tactics in swimming speed, percent motility, or the activities of key metabolic enzymes, although sperm from parentals had a higher ratio of creatine phosphokinase (CPK) to citrate synthase (CS). In both tactics, with increasing CPK and CS activity, sperm ATP levels increased at 20 s postactivation, suggesting that capacities for phosphocreatine hydrolysis and aerobic metabolism may influence interindividual variation in rates of ATP depletion. Nonetheless, there was no relation between sperm ATP levels and either swimming speed or percent of sperm that were motile. This suggests that interindividual variation in ATP levels may not be the primary determinant of variation in sperm swimming performance in bluegill.

  5. The Influence of Red Fruit Oil on Creatin Kinase Level at Maximum Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apollo Sinaga, Fajar; Hotliber Purba, Pangondian

    2018-03-01

    Heavy physical activities can cause the oxidative stress which resulting in muscle damage with an indicator of elevated levels of Creatin Kinase (CK) enzyme. The oxidative stress can be prevented or reduced by antioxidant supplementation. One of natural resources which contain antioxidant is Red Fruit (Pandanus conoideus) Oil (RFO). This study aims to see the effect of Red Fruit Oil on Creatin Kinase (CK) level at maximum physical activity. This study is an experimental research by using the design of randomized control group pretest-posttest. This study was using 24 male mice divided into four groups, the control group was given aquadest, the treatment groups P1, P2, and P3 were given the RFO orally of 0.15 ml/kgBW, 0.3 ml/kgBW, and 0.6 ml/kgBW, respectively, for a month. The level of CK was checked for all groups at the beginning of study and after the maximum physical activity. The obtained data were then tested statistically by using t-test and ANOVA. The result shows the RFO supplementation during exercise decreased the CK level in P1, P2, and P3 groups with p<0.05, and the higher RFO dosage resulted in decreased CK level at p<0.05. The conclusion of this study is the Red Fruit Oil could decrease the level of CK at maximum physical activity.

  6. Regulation of myogenesis and skeletal muscle regeneration: effects of oxygen levels on satellite cell activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaillou, Thomas; Lanner, Johanna T

    2016-12-01

    Reduced oxygen (O 2 ) levels (hypoxia) are present during embryogenesis and exposure to altitude and in pathologic conditions. During embryogenesis, myogenic progenitor cells reside in a hypoxic microenvironment, which may regulate their activity. Satellite cells are myogenic progenitor cells localized in a local environment, suggesting that the O 2 level could affect their activity during muscle regeneration. In this review, we present the idea that O 2 levels regulate myogenesis and muscle regeneration, we elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying myogenesis and muscle regeneration in hypoxia and depict therapeutic strategies using changes in O 2 levels to promote muscle regeneration. Severe hypoxia (≤1% O 2 ) appears detrimental for myogenic differentiation in vitro, whereas a 3-6% O 2 level could promote myogenesis. Hypoxia impairs the regenerative capacity of injured muscles. Although it remains to be explored, hypoxia may contribute to the muscle damage observed in patients with pathologies associated with hypoxia (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and peripheral arterial disease). Hypoxia affects satellite cell activity and myogenesis through mechanisms dependent and independent of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α. Finally, hyperbaric oxygen therapy and transplantation of hypoxia-conditioned myoblasts are beneficial procedures to enhance muscle regeneration in animals. These therapies may be clinically relevant to treatment of patients with severe muscle damage.-Chaillou, T. Lanner, J. T. Regulation of myogenesis and skeletal muscle regeneration: effects of oxygen levels on satellite cell activity. © FASEB.

  7. Self-assessment analysis of health and physical activity level of military personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plavina L.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sport and physical activity is important and compulsory for military staff. They determine the execution of service duties and tasks. Respondents with low level of physical activity have difficulties achieving required fitness level and pass the annual physical tests. Staff officers aged 28 to 40 years completed questionnaires in 2009 (n=22, 2010 (n=30 and 2012 (n=39. Each questionnaire included twenty one questions which were then evaluated in points. The answers allowed us to collect information regarding their physical activity during service hours as well as after the working day. Questionnaires included also issues on harmful habits – sleep duration, smoking and use of alcohol; self-esteem of body mass as well. The respondents were divided into four groups according to the level of physical activity: low, moderate, good, high. The percentage of respondents with a high and good level of physical activity has increased from 22.7% to 68.9% during the analysed time period. Morning exercises and hardening (fitness procedures were not popular for military personnel. However, physical activities during the working hours have slightly increased: 31.8%, 43.3% and 48.9.3% respectively. In study years, it was found that respondents try to follow healthy eating habits and sleep regime. There is a slight decrease of respondents with obese and there is a slight increase of 22.7% to 27.6% of the respondents who are regular smokers .

  8. Effect of Physical Activity on Serum Homocysteine Levels in Obese and Overweight Women

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    R. Soori

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Recently, homocysteine has been noticed as the major pathogenesis factor of the cardiovascular diseases. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of physical activities on the serum homocysteine levels, as well as other cardiovascular risk factors in either obese or overweight women. Materials & Methods: In the controlled pretest-posttest semi-experimental study, 18 women referred to the Alzahra sport complexes in districts 3 and 4 of Tehran were studied in 2015. The subjects were selected via random sampling method and randomly divided into two groups; physical activity and control groups. And the intervention program was conducted in the former, while the latter received no intervention. The exercise protocol consisted of 10-week (5 sessions a week stretching exercises and aerobic activities (60 to 75% of the maximum heart beat. The serum homocystein level and lipids were measured both at the start and 48 hours after the exercises. Data was analyzed by SPSS 16 software using paired T and independent T tests. Findings: After the exercises, the mean serum homocysteine level in physical activity group significantly decreased than control group (p=0.001. Nevertheless, the difference between the lipid levels of physical activity and control groups was not significant (p>0.05. Conclusion: Reducing the serum homocysteine concentration, 10-week physical activity might also reduce the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases in either obese or overweight women.

  9. The Zebrafish as a New Model for the In Vivo Study of Shigella flexneri Interaction with Phagocytes and Bacterial Autophagy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostowy, Serge; Boucontet, Laurent; Mazon Moya, Maria J.; Sirianni, Andrea; Boudinot, Pierre; Hollinshead, Michael; Cossart, Pascale; Herbomel, Philippe; Levraud, Jean-Pierre; Colucci-Guyon, Emma

    2013-01-01

    Autophagy, an ancient and highly conserved intracellular degradation process, is viewed as a critical component of innate immunity because of its ability to deliver cytosolic bacteria to the lysosome. However, the role of bacterial autophagy in vivo remains poorly understood. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) has emerged as a vertebrate model for the study of infections because it is optically accessible at the larval stages when the innate immune system is already functional. Here, we have characterized the susceptibility of zebrafish larvae to Shigella flexneri, a paradigm for bacterial autophagy, and have used this model to study Shigella-phagocyte interactions in vivo. Depending on the dose, S. flexneri injected in zebrafish larvae were either cleared in a few days or resulted in a progressive and ultimately fatal infection. Using high resolution live imaging, we found that S. flexneri were rapidly engulfed by macrophages and neutrophils; moreover we discovered a scavenger role for neutrophils in eliminating infected dead macrophages and non-immune cell types that failed to control Shigella infection. We observed that intracellular S. flexneri could escape to the cytosol, induce septin caging and be targeted to autophagy in vivo. Depletion of p62 (sequestosome 1 or SQSTM1), an adaptor protein critical for bacterial autophagy in vitro, significantly increased bacterial burden and host susceptibility to infection. These results show the zebrafish larva as a new model for the study of S. flexneri interaction with phagocytes, and the manipulation of autophagy for anti-bacterial therapy in vivo. PMID:24039575

  10. The effect of loss of O-antigen ligase on phagocytic susceptibility of motile and non-motile Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirdjian, Sally; Schutz, Kristin; Wargo, Matthew J; Lam, Joseph S; Berwin, Brent

    2017-12-01

    The bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa undergoes adaptation and selection over the course of chronic respiratory tract infections which results in repeatedly-observed phenotypic changes that are proposed to enable its persistence. Two of the clinically significant P. aeruginosa phenotypic changes are loss of flagellar motility and modifications to LPS structure, including loss of O-antigen expression. The effect of loss of O-antigen, frequently described as conversion from smooth to rough LPS, and the combined effect of loss of motility and O-antigen on phagocytic susceptibility by immune cells remain unknown. To address this, we generated genetic deletion mutants of waaL, which encodes the O-antigen ligase responsible for linking O-antigen to lipid A-core oligosaccharide, in both motile and non-motile P. aeruginosa strains. With the use of these bacterial strains we provide the first demonstration that, despite a progressive selection for P. aeruginosa with rough LPS during chronic pulmonary infections, loss of the LPS O-antigen does not confer phagocytic resistance in vitro. However, use of the waaLmotABmotCD mutant revealed that loss of motility confers resistance to phagocytosis regardless of the smooth or rough LPS phenotype. These findings reveal how the O-antigen of P. aeruginosa can influence bacterial clearance during infection and expand our current knowledge about the impact of bacterial phenotypic changes during chronic infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Every day I'm rufflin': Calcium sensing and actin dynamics in the growth factor-independent membrane ruffling of professional phagocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlam, Daniel; Canton, Johnathan

    2017-04-03

    Professional phagocytes continuously extend dynamic, actin-driven membrane protrusions. These protrusions, often referred to as membrane ruffles, serve a critical role in the essential phagocyte processes of macropinocytosis and phagocytosis. Small GTPases, such as RAC1/2, spatially and temporally regulate membrane ruffle formation. We have recently shown that extracellular calcium regulates the elaboration of membrane ruffles primarily through the synthesis of phosphatidic acid (PtdOH) at the plasma membrane. RAC1/2 guanine nucleotide exchange factors harbouring polybasic stretches are recruited by PtdOH to sites of ruffle formation. Here we discuss our findings and offer perspectives on how the regulation of dynamic actin structures at the plasma membrane by small GTPases is a critical component of phagocyte function.

  12. Low Amount of Salinomycin Greatly Increases Akt Activation, but Reduces Activated p70S6K Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungpil Yoon

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study identified a novel salinomycin (Sal-sensitization mechanism in cancer cells. We analyzed the signal proteins Akt, Jnk, p38, Jak, and Erk1/2 in cancer cell lines that had arrested growth following low amounts of Sal treatment. We also tested the signal molecules PI3K, PDK1, GSK3β, p70S6K, mTOR, and PTEN to analyze the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. The results showed that Sal sensitization positively correlates with large reductions in p70S6K activation. Interestingly, Akt was the only signal protein to be significantly activated by Sal treatment. The Akt activation appeared to require the PI3K pathway as its activation was abolished by the PI3K inhibitors LY294002 and wortmannin. The Akt activation by Sal was conserved in the other cell lines analyzed, which originated from other organs. Both Akt activation and C-PARP production were proportionally increased with increased doses of Sal. In addition, the increased levels of pAkt were not reduced over the time course of the experiment. Co-treatment with Akt inhibitors sensitized the Sal-treated cancer cells. The results thereby suggest that Akt activation is increased in cells that survive Sal treatment and resist the cytotoxic effect of Sal. Taken together; these results indicate that Akt activation may promote the resistance of cancer cells to Sal.

  13. Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviors of Urban Chinese Children: Grade Level Prevalence and Academic Burden Associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xihe Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were (a to report grade level prevalence in physical activity and sedentary behaviors and (b to examine academic burden associations with these behaviors. School-aged children (n = 48,118 reported their physical activity, perception of physical activity sufficiency, factors for activity insufficiency, homework hours, and screen time in a typical week. Data were analyzed using general linear models and logistic regression models of Complex Samples. Prevalence results showed that children had lower physical activity and lower screen viewing time, but higher homework time during transition grades (6th, 9th, and 12th and high school years. Academic burden was cited as the primary reason for not having sufficient physical activity (76.6%. Compared to those citing academic burden, students who did not report academic burden were significantly more likely to meet physical activity guidelines (Odds Ratio (OR = 5.38, 95% CI = 4.74–6.11, but less likely to meet screen time guidelines (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.72–0.84, controlling for body mass index, gender, and grade level. Additionally, children who reported academic burdens had significantly longer average daily homework time than those who did not (p<0.01. Policy makers should promote physical activity and help children find a balance between homework and physical activity time particularly among the educational transition grades.

  14. The relationship between physical activity levels and pain in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limenis, Elizaveta; Grosbein, Haddas A; Feldman, Brian M

    2014-02-01

    Pain and reduced physical activity levels are common in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Currently, there is no consensus about the role of physical activity in managing pain in JIA. The purpose of our study was to assess the relationship between physical activity level and pain in children ages 11 to 18 years with JIA. A random sample of 50 patients with JIA were approached by mailed questionnaires. Physical activity was determined using the Physical Activity Questionnaire (PAQ). Pain measures included the Numerical Rating Scale (pain severity), SUPER-KIDZ body diagram (number of painful areas), and the Child Activities Limitations Inventory-21 (pain interference). Generalized linear models were used to assess the relationship between physical activity and pain, as well as the roles of sex and age. The response rate was 84%. Thirty-four respondents completed the questionnaire package. The median age was 15 years. The mean PAQ score was 2.16/5. Physical activity declines with increasing age in youth with JIA (r = 0.53, p = 0.0014). Lower physical activity is associated with greater pain interference (r = 0.39, p = 0.0217) and more severe pain (r = 0.35, p = 0.0422). Children with JIA report significantly less activity than healthy children based on PAQ scores, with physical activity declining throughout adolescence. Physical activity is inversely related to pain interference and severity in children with JIA. Our findings suggest that physical activity interventions may play an important role in the management of pain in JIA.

  15. Cytotoxic activities of amentoflavone against human breast and cervical cancers are mediated by increasing of PTEN expression levels due to peroxisomes proliferate-activated receptor {gamma} activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eunjung; Shin, Soyoung; Lee, Jeeyoung; Lee, So Jung; Kim, Jinkyoung; Yoon, Doyoung; Kim, Yangmee [Konkuk Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Eunrhan [Chosun Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-15

    Human peroxisomes proliferate-activated receptor gamma (hPPAR{gamma}) has been implicated in numerous pathologies, including obesity, diabetes, and cancer. Previously, we verified that amentoflavone is an activator of hPPAR{gamma} and probed the molecular basis of its action. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of action of amentoflavone in cancer cells and demonstrated that amentoflavone showed strong cytotoxicity against MCF-7 and HeLa cancer cell lines. We showed that hPPAR{gamma} expression in MCF-7 and HeLa cells is specifically stimulated by amentoflavone, and suggested that amentoflavone-induced cytotoxic activities are mediated by activation of hPPAR{gamma} in these two cancer cell lines. Moreover, amentoflavone increased PTEN levels in these two cancer cell lines, indicating that the cytotoxic activities of amentoflavone are mediated by increasing of PTEN expression levels due to hPPAR{gamma} activation.

  16. Preterm labor--modeling the uterine electrical activity from cellular level to surface recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rihana, S; Marque, C

    2008-01-01

    Uterine electrical activity is correlated to the appearance of uterine contractions. forceful contractions appear at the end of term. Therefore, understanding the genesis and the propagation of uterine electrical activity may provide an efficient tool to diagnose preterm labor. Moreover, the control of uterine excitability seems to have important consequences in the control of preterm labor. Modeling the electrical activity in uterine tissue is thus an important step in understanding physiological uterine contractile mechanisms and to permit uterine EMG simulation. Our model presented in this paper, incorporates ion channel models at the cell level, the reaction diffusion equations at the tissue level and the spatiotemporal integration at the uterine EMG reconstructed level. This model validates some key physiological observation hypotheses concerning uterine excitability and propagation.

  17. Soluble CD206 plasma levels in rheumatoid arthritis reflect decrease in disease activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heftdal, Line Dam; Stengaard-Pedersen, Kristian; Ørnbjerg, Lykke Midtbøll

    2017-01-01

    internalization and degradation. The soluble form has been suggested as a biomarker of M2A-macrophage activation. The aim of this study was to investigate sCD206 plasma levels in early RA patients initiating anti-TNFα treatment. Plasma levels of sCD206 were measured by ELISA in samples from 155 early RA patients...... from baseline after 6 months. In the ADA group, however, levels remained lower than baseline throughout the treatment period. In conclusion, initially, plasma sCD206 in early RA patients decreased in accordance with disease activity and initiation of DMARD treatment. Treatment with anti-TNFα preserved......Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterized by chronic joint inflammation and infiltration by activated macrophages. TNFα is a central mediator in this process. The mannose receptor, CD206, is a scavenger receptor expressed by M2A-macrophages and dendritic cells. It is involved in collagen...

  18. Trainability of muscular activity level during maximal voluntary co-contraction: comparison between bodybuilders and nonathletes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumiaki Maeo

    Full Text Available Antagonistic muscle pairs cannot be fully activated simultaneously, even with maximal effort, under conditions of voluntary co-contraction, and their muscular activity levels are always below those during agonist contraction with maximal voluntary effort (MVE. Whether the muscular activity level during the task has trainability remains unclear. The present study examined this issue by comparing the muscular activity level during maximal voluntary co-contraction for highly experienced bodybuilders, who frequently perform voluntary co-contraction in their training programs, with that for untrained individuals (nonathletes. The electromyograms (EMGs of biceps brachii and triceps brachii muscles during maximal voluntary co-contraction of elbow flexors and extensors were recorded in 11 male bodybuilders and 10 nonathletes, and normalized to the values obtained during the MVE of agonist contraction for each of the corresponding muscles (% EMGMVE. The involuntary coactivation level in antagonist muscle during the MVE of agonist contraction was also calculated. In both muscles, % EMGMVE values during the co-contraction task for bodybuilders were significantly higher (P<0.01 than those for nonathletes (biceps brachii: 66±14% in bodybuilders vs. 46±13% in nonathletes, triceps brachii: 74±16% vs. 57±9%. There was a significant positive correlation between a length of bodybuilding experience and muscular activity level during the co-contraction task (r = 0.653, P = 0.03. Involuntary antagonist coactivation level during MVE of agonist contraction was not different between the two groups. The current result indicates that long-term participation in voluntary co-contraction training progressively enhances muscular activity during maximal voluntary co-contraction.

  19. The influence of gemfibrozil on malondialdehyde level and paraoxonase 1 activity in wistar and fisher rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macan, Marija; Marija, Macan; Konjevoda, Paško; Paško, Konjevoda; Lovric, Jasna; Jasna, Lovrić; Koprivanac, Marijan; Marijan, Koprivanac; Kelava, Marta; Marta, Kelava; Vrkic, Nada; Nada, Vrkić; Bradamante, Vlasta; Vlasta, Bradamante

    2011-06-01

    There are diverse experimental data about the influence of gemfibrozil (GEM) on the production of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and antioxidant enzymes. We investigated the influence of GEM treatment on the production of malondialdehyde (MDA) level in tissues of normolipidaemic Wistar and Fisher rats which is an index of lipid peroxidation. Because serum paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is an important enzyme with specific protective function on metabolism of lipid peroxides, we examined the influence of GEM on PON1 activity in liver and serum. MDA level and enzyme activities were also determined 10 days after withdrawal of GEM treatment. The significantly increased levels of MDA in liver, kidney and heart of both rat strains were obtained after 3 weeks of GEM treatment. We propose two possibilities for the increase of MDA levels caused by GEM, induction of peroxisome proliferation and activities of enzymes that participated in occurrence of H(2)O(2) and possible reduction of enzyme activities including in H(2)O(2) metabolism. Ten days after withdrawal of GEM treatment, MDA levels in all tissue levels of both rat strains were less in comparison with GEM treatment. GEM caused a significant drop of PON1 activity in serum and liver of Fisher rats, and in liver of Wistar rats. We suggest that GEM, through induction of lipid peroxidation, caused the damage of hepatocytes with consequent reduction of PON1 synthesis. The increase in PON1 activity in serum and tissues of both rat strains 10 days after withdrawal of GEM treatment shows the fast recovery of enzyme synthesis. © 2011 The Authors. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology © 2011 Nordic Pharmacological Society.

  20. Trainability of Muscular Activity Level during Maximal Voluntary Co-Contraction: Comparison between Bodybuilders and Nonathletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeo, Sumiaki; Takahashi, Takumi; Takai, Yohei; Kanehisa, Hiroaki

    2013-01-01

    Antagonistic muscle pairs cannot be fully activated simultaneously, even with maximal effort, under conditions of voluntary co-contraction, and their muscular activity levels are always below those during agonist contraction with maximal voluntary effort (MVE). Whether the muscular activity level during the task has trainability remains unclear. The present study examined this issue by comparing the muscular activity level during maximal voluntary co-contraction for highly experienced bodybuilders, who frequently perform voluntary co-contraction in their training programs, with that for untrained individuals (nonathletes). The electromyograms (EMGs) of biceps brachii and triceps brachii muscles during maximal voluntary co-contraction of elbow flexors and extensors were recorded in 11 male bodybuilders and 10 nonathletes, and normalized to the values obtained during the MVE of agonist contraction for each of the corresponding muscles (% EMGMVE). The involuntary coactivation level in antagonist muscle during the MVE of agonist contraction was also calculated. In both muscles, % EMGMVE values during the co-contraction task for bodybuilders were significantly higher (Pbodybuilders vs. 46±13% in nonathletes, triceps brachii: 74±16% vs. 57±9%). There was a significant positive correlation between a length of bodybuilding experience and muscular activity level during the co-contraction task (r = 0.653, P = 0.03). Involuntary antagonist coactivation level during MVE of agonist contraction was not different between the two groups. The current result indicates that long-term participation in voluntary co-contraction training progressively enhances muscular activity during maximal voluntary co-contraction. PMID:24260233

  1. Level and intensity of objectively assessed physical activity among pregnant women from urban Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hjorth Mads F

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women in low-income countries are generally considered to have a high physical workload which is sustained during pregnancy. Although most previous studies have been based on questionnaires a recent meta-analysis of doubly labeled water data has raised questions about the actual amount of physical activity performed. In this study we report objectively assessed levels of physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular fitness among pregnant urban Ethiopian women, and their association with demographic characteristics and anthropometric measures. Methods Physical activity was measured for seven consecutive days in 304 women using a combined uniaxial accelerometer and heart rate sensor. Activity energy expenditure was determined using a group calibration in a branched equation model framework. Type and duration of activities were reported using a 24-hour physical activity recall and grip strength was assessed using a dynamometer. Results Median (interquartile-range, IQR activity energy expenditure was 31.1 (23.7-42.0 kJ/kg/day corresponding to a median (IQR physical activity level of 1.46 (1.39-1.58. Median (IQR time in sedentary, light, and moderate-to-vigorous intensity was 1100 (999–1175, 303 (223–374 and 40 (22–69 min/day, respectively. Mean (standard deviation sleeping heart rate was 73.6 (8.0 beats/min and grip strength was 21.6 (4.5 kg. Activity energy expenditure was 14% higher for every 10 cm2 difference in arm muscle area and 10% lower for every 10 cm2 difference in arm fat area and 10-week difference in gestational age. Conclusion The level and intensity of physical activity among pregnant women from urban Ethiopia is low compared to non-pregnant women from other low income countries as well as pregnant European women from high-income countries.

  2. Associations between neuromuscular function and levels of physical activity differ for boys and girls during puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudroff, Thorsten; Kelsey, Megan M; Melanson, Edward L; McQueen, Matthew B; Enoka, Roger M

    2013-08-01

    To compare the associations between neuromuscular performance and anthropometric characteristics with habitual levels of physical activity in boys and girls during the initial stages of puberty. In a cross-sectional study of 72 healthy children (39 boys and 33 girls) ranging in age from 8 to 14 years, sex differences in anthropometric and motor performance characteristics were compared at 3 Tanner stages (T1-T3). Outcome variables included dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry measurements of body composition, assessments of neuromuscular function, and levels of physical activity (steps/day) measured by accelerometry. Physical activity was lower in girls than boys at T2 and T3, but there was no sex difference at T1. Physical activity increased with Tanner stage for boys but did not differ between Tanner stages in girls. Physical activity at each Tanner stage was strongly associated (R(2) > 0.85) with neuromuscular characteristics for both boys and girls, but percentage of body fat also was associated with physical activity for T3 girls. The attenuated gains in neuromuscular function experienced by girls in early stages of puberty were strongly associated with lower levels of physical activity, whereas the increase in physical activity exhibited by boys was mostly related to increases in the strength and endurance of leg muscles. Because sedentary activity is a known contributor to the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes in youth, this study helps to identify possible contributors to decreases in physical activity in young girls and provides potential targets for early intervention. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. First results on enzymatic activities in two salt marsh soils under different hydromorphic level and vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Trasar-Cepeda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Salt-marsh soils are soils characterized by non-permanent hydric saturation that, depending on factors like duration of submersion periods, are dominated by different salt-tolerant plant species. The composition of microbial communities is an essential component in trophic dynamics and biogeochemical processes in salt marshes, and determines the level of enzymatic activities, which catalyze the conversion of complex molecules into simpler ones. Despite of this, the enzymatic activities in marsh-soils has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to analyze the enzymatic activities in two soil profiles of marsh-soils under different water saturation level and dominated by different plant species [Juncus maritimus Lam and Spartina maritima (Curtis Fernald (Sp]. In both soils, the enzymatic activities were much lower than the levels typically found in terrestrial ecosystems. The enzymatic activities were measured both in air-dried and in re-moistened and incubated soil samples. In air-dried samples, the enzymatic activities were higher in Juncus than in Spartina soil and tended to decrease with depth, being sharper the decrease in Juncus than in Spartina soil. Re-moistened and pre-incubated soils showed a general increase in all the enzymatic activities and throughout the whole soil profile, especially in Spartina soils. Hydrolase activities showed a strong and positive relationship with organic matter content both in air-dried and in re-moistened soil samples, higher in these latter. In general, oxidoreductase activities only showed this relationship in re-moistened soil samples. More studies, preferably using freshly collected soil samples, are needed to understand the relationship between enzymatic activities and these environmental conditions.

  4. An objective assessment of toddlers' physical activity and sedentary levels: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderloo, Leigh M; Tucker, Patricia

    2015-09-26

    Little evidence exists on the physical activity and sedentary time of Canadian toddlers; this study objectively measured such behaviors and compared participants' activity levels to national guidelines. Levels of screen-viewing among toddlers were also explored. Forty toddlers (mean age = 25.7 months) wore Actical accelerometers for seven consecutive days (15 s epoch). Parents/guardians completed a wear-time log and a demographic and screen-viewing questionnaire. Descriptive analyses were used to determine participants' levels of physical activity and sedentary time, to identify whether toddlers were meeting physical activity/sedentary guidelines, and to explore demographic variables. T-tests were used to assess whether toddlers' activity levels differed based on cut-points applied and various demographic and screen-related variables. Regression analyses were conducted to examine associations between toddlers' sedentary time and screen-viewing levels. Toddlers engaged in 37.27 (SD = 3.79) to 49.40 (SD = 3.29) mins/hr of sedentary time, 9.79 (SD = 2.90) to 18.78 (SD = 3.22) mins/hr of light-intensity physical activity (LPA), 0.82 (SD = 0.72) to 3.95 (SD = 1.93) mins/hr of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA), and 10.60 (SD =3.29) to 22.73 (SD = 3.97) mins/hr of total physical activity (TPA), based on the Trost et al. and the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) cut-points respectively; these rates were significantly different (p physical activity guidelines. No statistically significant differences in sedentary time or physical activity (all intensities) based on sex were reported (p sedentary behavior guidelines on weekdays and weekend days, respectively. The implications of this work suggest that a greater understanding of toddlers' activity patterns is needed; additional mechanisms of promoting active behaviors among this group should be explored.

  5. The maintenance of elevated active chlorine levels in the Antarctic lower stratosphere through HCl null cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Rolf; Grooß, Jens-Uwe; Mannan Zafar, Abdul; Robrecht, Sabine; Lehmann, Ralph

    2018-03-01

    The Antarctic ozone hole arises from ozone destruction driven by elevated levels of ozone destroying (active) chlorine in Antarctic spring. These elevated levels of active chlorine have to be formed first and then maintained throughout the period of ozone destruction. It is a matter of debate how this maintenance of active chlorine is brought about in Antarctic spring, when the rate of formation of HCl (considered to be the main chlorine deactivation mechanism in Antarctica) is extremely high. Here we show that in the heart of the ozone hole (16-18 km or 85-55 hPa, in the core of the vortex), high levels of active chlorine are maintained by effective chemical cycles (referred to as HCl null cycles hereafter). In these cycles, the formation of HCl is balanced by immediate reactivation, i.e. by immediate reformation of active chlorine. Under these conditions, polar stratospheric clouds sequester HNO3 and thereby cause NO2 concentrations to be low. These HCl null cycles allow active chlorine levels to be maintained in the Antarctic lower stratosphere and thus rapid ozone destruction to occur. For the observed almost complete activation of stratospheric chlorine in the lower stratosphere, the heterogeneous reaction HCl + HOCl is essential; the production of HOCl occurs via HO2 + ClO, with the HO2 resulting from CH2O photolysis. These results are important for assessing the impact of changes of the future stratospheric composition on the recovery of the ozone hole. Our simulations indicate that, in the lower stratosphere, future increased methane concentrations will not lead to enhanced chlorine deactivation (through the reaction CH4 + Cl → HCl + CH3) and that extreme ozone destruction to levels below ≈ 0.1 ppm will occur until mid-century.

  6. Effect of a physical activity intervention on suPAR levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Christopher; Polcwiartek, Christoffer; Andersen, Eivind

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a novel inflammatory marker, associated with lifestyle diseases and mortality risk. No studies have investigated whether physical activity may reduce suPAR levels using a randomized controlled design. DESIGN AND METHODS......: suPAR and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were determined in blood samples from a previous randomized controlled trial with Pakistani immigrants in Norway, 2008. The study included physically inactive men that were randomized to an intervention group (supervised group exercises) or a control group...... and followed for 5 months. A linear regression model was used and adjusted for age, inactivity level at baseline, and mean difference in CRP levels. RESULTS: Overall, 80 and 53 participants were included in the intervention and control group, respectively. Obesity and smoking were associated with higher su...

  7. Patterns of Fitbit Use and Activity Levels Throughout a Physical Activity Intervention: Exploratory Analysis from a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Sheri J; Nelson, Sandahl H; Weiner, Lauren S

    2018-02-05

    There has been a rapid increase in the use of technology-based activity trackers to promote behavior change. However, little is known about how individuals use these trackers on a day-to-day basis or how tracker use relates to increasing physical activity. The aims were to use minute level data collected from a Fitbit tracker throughout a physical activity intervention to examine patterns of Fitbit use and activity and their relationships with success in the intervention based on ActiGraph-measured moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Participants included 42 female breast cancer survivors randomized to the physical activity intervention arm of a 12-week randomized controlled trial. The Fitbit One was worn daily throughout the 12-week intervention. ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometer was worn for 7 days at baseline (prerandomization) and end of intervention (week 12). Self-reported frequency of looking at activity data on the Fitbit tracker and app or website was collected at week 12. Adherence to wearing the Fitbit was high and stable, with a mean of 88.13% of valid days over 12 weeks (SD 14.49%). Greater adherence to wearing the Fitbit was associated with greater increases in ActiGraph-measured MVPA (b interaction =0.35, PHartman, Sandahl H Nelson, Lauren S Weiner. Originally published in JMIR Mhealth and Uhealth (http://mhealth.jmir.org), 05.02.2018.

  8. [Effects of nitrogen application levels on yield and active composition content of Desmodium styracifolium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiamin; Yin, Xiaohong; Chen, Chaojun; Huang, Min; Peng, Fuyuan; Zhu, Xiaoqi

    2010-06-01

    To find out the optimal nitrogen application level of Desmodium styracifolium. A field experiment using randomized block design was carried out to study the effects of 5 nitrogen application levels (150, 187.5, 225.0, 262.5 and 300.0 kg x hm(-2)) on yield and active component content of D. styracifolium. Nitrogen application could increase the yield and contents of polysaccharide, total flavonoides and total saponins of D. styracifolium. However, the enhancing extent of the active component content and the yield were not always significant with the increase of nitrogen level. In which, the yield were not significantly different among the nitrogen application levels of 225.0, 262.5, 300.0 kg x hm(-2) the polysaccharide content was no significantly difference among the nitrogen application levels of 225.0, 262. 5 and 300.0 kg x hm(-2), the total flavonoides content under the nitrogen level of 300.0 kg x hm(-2) was significantly lower than that of 150.0 kg hm(-2) (P < 0.01), and the total saponins content under the nitrogen level of 300.0 kg x hm(-2) was no significant difference compared with that of 262.5 kg x hm(-2). The optimal nitrogen application level of D. styracifolium was 225.0-262.5 kg x hm(-2).

  9. A study on level of physical activity, depression, anxiety and stress symptoms among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajik, Esra; Abd Latiff, Latiffah; Adznam, Siti N; Awang, Hamidin; Yit Siew, Chin; Abu Bakar, Azrin S

    2017-10-01

    Inadequate physical activity has adverse health consequences among adolescents. Mental health problem can be developed by lack of physical activity however it is controversial. The current study aimed to examine the association between level of physical activity with depression, anxiety and stress symptoms among adolescents. A representative sample of 1747 adolescents (13-14 years) was randomly selected from 6 schools in a south part of Malaysia. Respondents were asked to fill consent form, and questionnaires including Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 and Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents. Majority of respondents (71.9%) was Malay and more than half of the adolescents had low physical activity. About 40% had depression symptoms, followed by anxiety symptoms (65.9%) and stress symptoms (38.5%). Level of physical activity was significantly associated with gender, anxiety and stress (P<0.001). There were no associations with race, religion and depression symptom. This study provides some evidence among school-going adolescents related to anxiety and stress symptoms and low physical activities. Further studies are needed to show the protection effects of higher physical activity for depression, anxiety and stress symptoms in adolescents.

  10. Comparison of doubly labeled water with respirometry at low- and high-activity levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westerterp, K.R.; Brouns, F.; Saris, W.H.; ten Hoor, F.

    1988-01-01

    In previous studies the doubly labeled water method for measuring energy expenditure in free-living humans has been validated against respirometry under sedentary conditions. In the present investigation, energy expenditure is measured simultaneously with doubly labeled water and respirometry at low- and high-activity levels. Over 6 days, five subjects were measured doing mainly sedentary activities like desk work; their average daily metabolic rate was 1.40 +/- 0.09 (SD) times sleeping metabolic rate. Four subjects were measured twice over 3.5 days, including 2 days with heavy bicycle ergometer work, resulting in an average daily metabolic rate of 2.61 +/- 0.25 (SD) times sleeping metabolic rate. At the low-activity level, energy expenditures from the doubly labeled water method were on the average 1.4 +/- 3.9% (SD) larger than those from respirometry. At the high-activity level, the doubly labeled water method yielded values that were 1.0 +/- 7.0% (SD) lower than those from respirometry. Results demonstrate the utility of the doubly labeled water method for the determination of energy expenditure in the range of activity levels in daily life

  11. Derivative activation analysis of phosphorus at ppb levels in water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arunachalam, J.; John, A.; Gangadharan, S.

    1991-01-01

    A neutron activation analysis procedure has been developed for the indirect determination of phosphorus as orthophosphate at ppb levels, via the formation of antimonyl phosphomolybdic acid. The complex is adsorbed on Sephadex G-25 resin and the antimony is estimated through NAA, allowing the determination of phosphorus. The procedure provides an easy method to adopt for the routine determination of phosphorus at ≥ 10 ng ml -1 levels with good precision, in water samples. (author) 6 refs.; 5 tabs

  12. Comparing Domain-Specific Physical Activity Efficacy Level between Turkish Adolescent Girls and Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çatikkas, Fatih

    2017-01-01

    The adolescence period is a very critical developmental period for personality, socializing and promotion of physical activity. In this regard, the aim of this study was to compare domain-specific physical activity efficacy level between adolescent boys and girls. A total of 219 girls (body weight: 57.50 ± 10.44 kg, height: 160.30 ± 7.40 cm, age…

  13. Potential low-level waste disposal limits for activation products from fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Peloquin, R.A.

    1983-09-01

    Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) scientists are involved in studies considering alternative construction materials for the first wall of commercial fusion reactors. To permit a comparison of radioactivity levels, both the level of activation and an acceptable limit for the radionuclides present must be known. Generic material composition guidelines can be developed using the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations governing the near-surface disposal of low-level radioactive wastes. These regulations consider wastes defined as containing source, special nuclear, or by-product materials arising from research, industrial, medical, and nuclear fuel-cycle activities. However, not all of the activation products produced in low-level wastes from fusion reactors are considered by the NRC in their regulations. The purpose of this report is to present potential low-level waste-disposal limits for ten radionuclides resulting from fusion reactor operations that are not considered in the NRC low-level waste regulations. These potential limits will be used by HEDL scientists to complete their generic material composition guidelines for the first wall of commercial fusion reactors

  14. Social, environmental and psychological factors associated with objective physical activity levels in the over 65s.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion E T McMurdo

    Full Text Available To assess physical activity levels objectively using accelerometers in community dwelling over 65 s and to examine associations with health, social, environmental and psychological factors.Cross sectional survey.17 general practices in Scotland, United Kingdom.Random sampling of over 65 s registered with the practices in four strata young-old (65-80 years, old-old (over 80 years, more affluent and less affluent groups.Accelerometry counts of activity per day. Associations between activity and Theory of Planned Behaviour variables, the physical environment, health, wellbeing and demographic variables were examined with multiple regression analysis and multilevel modelling.547 older people (mean (SD age 79(8 years, 54% female were analysed representing 94% of those surveyed. Accelerometry counts were highest in the affluent younger group, followed by the deprived younger group, with lowest levels in the deprived over 80 s group. Multiple regression analysis showed that lower age, higher perceived behavioural control, the physical function subscale of SF-36, and having someone nearby to turn to were all independently associated with higher physical activity levels (R(2 = 0.32. In addition, hours of sunshine were independently significantly associated with greater physical activity in a multilevel model.Other than age and hours of sunlight, the variables identified are modifiable, and provide a strong basis for the future development of novel multidimensional interventions aimed at increasing activity participation in later life.

  15. Cascading activation from lexical processing to letter-level processing in written word production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchwald, Adam; Falconer, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    Descriptions of language production have identified processes involved in producing language and the presence and type of interaction among those processes. In the case of spoken language production, consensus has emerged that there is interaction among lexical selection processes and phoneme-level processing. This issue has received less attention in written language production. In this paper, we present a novel analysis of the writing-to-dictation performance of an individual with acquired dysgraphia revealing cascading activation from lexical processing to letter-level processing. The individual produced frequent lexical-semantic errors (e.g., chipmunk → SQUIRREL) as well as letter errors (e.g., inhibit → INBHITI) and had a profile consistent with impairment affecting both lexical processing and letter-level processing. The presence of cascading activation is suggested by lower letter accuracy on words that are more weakly activated during lexical selection than on those that are more strongly activated. We operationalize weakly activated lexemes as those lexemes that are produced as lexical-semantic errors (e.g., lethal in deadly → LETAHL) compared to strongly activated lexemes where the intended target word (e.g., lethal) is the lexeme selected for production.

  16. Smoking, activity level and exercise test outcomes in a young population sample without cardiopulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vozoris, N T; O'donnell, D E

    2015-01-01

    Whether reduced activity level and exercise intolerance precede the clinical diagnosis of cardiopulmonary disorders in smokers is not known. We examined activity level and exercise test outcomes in a young population-based sample without overt cardiopulmonary disease, differentiating by smoking history. This was a multiyear cross-sectional study using United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data from 1999-2004. Self-reported activity level and incremental exercise treadmill testing were obtained on survey participants ages 20-49 years, excluding individuals with cardio-pulmonary disease. Three thousand seven hundred and one individuals completed exercise testing. Compared to never smokers, current smokers with >10 pack years reported significantly higher odds of little or no recreation, sport, or physical activity (adjusted OR 1.62; 95% CI 1.12-2.35). Mean perceived exertion ratings (Borg 6-20) at an estimated standardized workload were significantly greater among current smokers (18.3-18.6) compared to never (17.3) and former smokers (17.9) (psmoking abstinence was associated with significantly lower likelihood of low estimated peak oxygen uptake categorization (psmoking cessation, these results set the stage for future studies that examine mechanisms of activity restriction in young smokers and the utility of measures of activity restriction in the earlier diagnosis of smoking-related diseases.

  17. Caries-free subjects have high levels of urease and arginine deiminase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn REYES

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study investigated the relationship between urease and arginine deiminase system (ADS activities and dental caries through a cross-sectional study. Material and Methods: Urease and ADS activities were measured in saliva and plaque samples from 10 caries-free subjects and 13 caries-active. Urease activity was obtained from the ammonia produced by incubation of plaque and saliva samples in urea. ADS activity was obtained from the ammonia generated by the arginine-HCl and Tris-maleate buffer. Specific activity was defined as micromoles of ammonia per minute per milligram of protein. Shapiro-Wilk statistical test was used to analyze the distribution of the data, and Mann-Whitney test was used to determine the significance of the data. Results: The specific urease activity in saliva and plaque was significantly higher in individuals with low DMFT scores. ADS activity in saliva (6.050 vs 1.350, p=0.0154 and plaque (8.830 vs 1.210, p=0.025 was also higher in individuals with low DMFT scores. Conclusions: Caries-free subjects had a higher ammonia generation activity by urease and arginine deiminase system for both saliva and plaque samples than low caries-active subjects. High levels of alkali production in oral environment were related to caries-free subjects.

  18. The built environment and physical activity levels: the Harvard Alumni Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, I-Min; Ewing, Reid; Sesso, Howard D

    2009-10-01

    Physical activity is associated with better health, but many individuals are insufficiently active. Modifying the built environment may be an approach capable of influencing population-wide levels of physical activity, but few data exist from longitudinal studies that can minimize bias from active people choosing activity-friendly neighborhoods. This study aims to examine cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between the built environment and physical activity on a large scale. This study examined cross-sectional associations between urban sprawl (mapping addresses to corresponding counties) and physical activity (self-reported) among men throughout the U.S. in 1993 and in 1988, and longitudinal associations between changes in exposure to urban sprawl for movers and physical activity, 1988-1993. Included were 4997 men (mean age, 70 years) in the 1993 cross-sectional study; 4918 men in the 1988 cross-sectional study; and 3448 men in the longitudinal study, 1988-1993. Data were collected prospectively in 1988 and 1993, and analyses were performed in 2007-2008. In cross-sectional analyses, less sprawl was significantly associated with more walking OR, comparing least with most sprawling areas, for meeting physical activity recommendations by walking=1.38 [95% CI=1.09, 1.76] in 1993 and 1.53 [1.19, 1.96] in 1988). Less sprawl also was associated with lower prevalence of overweight (corresponding OR=0.79 [0.64, 0.98] in 1993 and 0.81 [0.66, 1.00] in 1988). However, longitudinal analyses assessing change did not show that decreasing sprawl was associated with increased physical activity or decreased BMI. These findings suggest that the cross-sectional results may reflect self-selection, rather than indicating that the built environment--as measured by urban sprawl--increases physical activity. However, the longitudinal findings were limited by small numbers of men changing residence and associated sprawl levels.

  19. Effectiveness of sensory processing strategies on activity level in inclusive preschool classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin CL

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Chien-Lin Lin,1,2 Yu-Fan Min,3 Li-Wei Chou,1,2,* Chin-Kai Lin,4,* 1Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan; 2School of Chinese Medicine, College of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan; 3Faith, Hope and Love, Center for Children and Adults With Disabilities, Taichung, Taiwan; 4Program of Early Intervention, Department of Early Childhood Education, National Taichung University of Education, Taichung, Taiwan*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of sensory processing strategies in improving the activity level of children with sensory integration dysfunction.Methods: The study used a matching-only pretest–posttest control group design, which requires random matching of sensory integration dysfunction to the corresponding intervention group (n = 18 and control group (n = 18. The intervention group comprised 3–6-year-old children who received an 8-week school-day intervention during implementation of the theme curriculum.Results: The 8-week treatment significantly reduced the activity level and foot-swinging episodes in children with sensory integration dysfunction, and obtained a medium-effect size. However, the level of improvement in the control group did not show any statistically significant change.Conclusion: Sensory processing strategies could improve activity levels in children with sensory integration dysfunction. However, this study was unable to exclude a developmental effect. The social validity results show that sensory processing strategies can be integrated into the theme curriculum and improve activity levels in children.Keywords: activity level, preschool inclusive classroom, sensory integration dysfunction, sensory processing strategy

  20. Physical Activity Level and Symptom Duration Are Not Associated After Concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, David R; Mannix, Rebekah C; Quinn, Bridget; Taylor, J Andrew; Tan, Can Ozan; Meehan, William P

    2016-04-01

    Physical rest after a concussion has been described as a key component in the management of the injury. Evidence supporting this recommendation, however, is limited. To examine the association between physical activity and symptom duration in a cohort of patients after a concussion. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. This study included 364 patients who were diagnosed with a concussion, were seen by a physician within 3 weeks of injury, and completed a questionnaire at the initial clinic visit. The questionnaire assessed the postconcussion symptom scale (PCSS) score, previous number of concussions, presence of the loss of consciousness or amnesia at the time of injury, and prior treatment for headaches. During each follow-up clinic visit, physical activity level was self-reported. A Cox proportional hazard model was constructed to determine the association between symptom duration, initial clinic visit responses, and self-reported physical activity level after the injury. Study participants ranged in age from 8 to 27 years (mean age, 15.0 years) and had sustained a mean of 0.8 prior concussions; 222 patients (61%) were male. On initial examination, the mean PCSS score was 34.7. The mean symptom duration was 48.9 days after the injury. Among the variables included in the model, initial PCSS score and female sex were independently associated with symptom duration, while physical activity level after the injury was not. For participants aged between 13 and 18 years, however, higher levels of physical activity after the injury were associated with a shorter symptom duration. Results from this study indicate that physical activity after the injury may not be universally detrimental to the recovery of concussion symptoms. © 2016 The Author(s).

  1. Neighborhood level health risk assessment of lead paint removal activities from elevated steel bridges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conway, R.F.; Cohen, J.T.; Bowers, T.

    1999-07-01

    The New York City Department of Transportation (NYCDOT) has adopted strict containment and monitoring procedures during paint removal activities on its bridges because of the increasing awareness about lead poisoning in children in urban environments and the potential risk of lead-based paint releases during those activities. NYCDOT owns nearly 800 bridges scattered throughout New York City. Before undertaking paint removal activities as part of its ongoing preventive maintenance and rehabilitation program, NYCDOT recently conducted an analysis to determine the public health risk posed to children living near them. The analysis the first of its kind to assess the actual public health risk potential during both routine operations and upset conditions, or accidental releases evaluated the total and incremental blood lead levels from paint removal activities on more than 5,000 children from 6 months to 6 years old. Increases in baseline blood lead levels were estimated using several models, including EPA's Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK) Model. This model estimates steady-state blood lead levels in children, reflecting exposure to lead in multiple media over an extended period of time. Increases in lead exposure from paint removal activities in the area surrounding the bridges was estimated using EPA's Industrial Source Complex (ISC3) model to calculate ambient air and deposition levels. Potential releases from the containment and ancillary equipment used in the paint removal process were modeled based on different release scenarios ranging from routine operations to complete failure of containment. To estimate the paint removal activities' contribution to long-term exterior dust lead levels (and its related interior component), a stochastic simulation model was developed for each block in the study area.

  2. Efficacy of interventions to improve physical activity levels in individuals with stroke: a systematic review protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Larissa Tavares; Martins, Júlia Caetano; Nadeau, Sylvie; Britto, Raquel Rodrigues; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci F; Faria, Christina D C M

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Stroke is a leading health problem worldwide and an important cause of disability. Stroke survivors show low levels of physical activity, and increases in physical activity levels may improve function and health status. Therefore, the aims are to identify which interventions that have been employed to increase physical activity levels with stroke survivors, to verify their efficacy and to identify the gaps in the literature. Methods and analysis A systematic review of randomised controlled trials that investigated the efficacy of interventions aiming at increasing physical activity levels of stroke survivors will be conducted. Electronic searches will be performed in the MEDLINE, Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), Excerpta Medica (EMBASE), Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS) and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SCIELO) databases. Hand searches of the reference lists of the included studies or relevant reviews will also be employed. Two independent reviewers will screen all the retrieved titles, abstracts and full texts. A third reviewer will be referred to solve any disagreements. The quality of the included studies will be assessed by the PEDro Rating Scale. This systematic review will also include a qualitative synthesis. Meta-analyses will be performed, if the studies are sufficiently homogeneous. This review will follow the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement. The quality of the evidence regarding physical activity will be assessed, according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE). Discussion This systematic review will provide information on which interventions are effective for increasing physical activity levels of stroke survivors. This evidence may be important for clinical decision-making and will allow the identification of gaps in the literature that may be useful for the definition of future research

  3. INTERACTION LEVEL OF SPEAKING ACTIVITIES IN A COURSEBOOK SERIES OF TEACHING TURKISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE

    OpenAIRE

    YAVUZ KIRIK, Muazzez

    2015-01-01

    Informed by the principles of communicative foreign language teaching, this study focuses on the interaction level of speaking activities in the coursebook series of ‘İstanbul- Yabancılar İçin Türkçe Ders Kitabı’. To this end, the study analyzed firstly the rate of two-way speech to one-way speech among speaking activities and then the characteristics of two-way activities were explored with a focus on their compatibility with the nature of real interaction as described in the relevant litera...

  4. Elementary physical education: A focus on fitness activities and smaller class sizes are associated with higher levels of physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandy Kirkham-King

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Optimizing physical activity during physical education is necessary for children to achieve daily physical activity recommendations. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among various contextual factors with accelerometer measured physical activity during elementary physical education. Data were collected during 2015–2016 from 281 students (1st–5th grade, 137 males, 144 females from a private school located in a metropolitan area of Utah in the U.S. Students wore accelerometers for 12 consecutive weeks at an accelerometer wear frequency of 3days per week during physical education. A multi-level general linear mixed effects model was employed to examine the relationship among various physical education contextual factors and percent of wear time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (%MVPA, accounting for clustering of observations within students and the clustering of students within classrooms. Explored contextual factors included grade level, lesson context, sex, and class size. Main effects and interactions among the factors were explored in the multi-level models. A two-way interaction of lesson context and class size on %MVPA was shown to be statistically significant. The greatest differences were found to be between fitness lessons using small class sizes compared to motor skill lessons using larger class sizes (β=14.8%, 95% C.I. 5.7%–23.9% p<0.001. Lessons that included a focus on fitness activities with class sizes that were <25 students associated with significantly higher %MVPA during elementary physical education. Keywords: Exercise, Physical education and training, Adolescents

  5. Physical activity level and medial temporal health in youth at ultra high-risk for psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Vijay A; Gupta, Tina; Orr, Joseph M; Pelletier-Baldelli, Andrea; Dean, Derek J; Lunsford-Avery, Jessica R; Smith, Ashley K; Robustelli, Briana L; Leopold, Daniel R; Millman, Zachary B

    2013-11-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that moderate to vigorous activity levels can affect quality of life, cognition, and brain structure in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. However, physical activity has not been systematically studied during the period immediately preceding the onset of psychosis. Given reports of exercise-based neurogenesis in schizophrenia, understanding naturalistic physical activity levels in the prodrome may provide valuable information for early intervention efforts. The present study examined 29 ultra high-risk (UHR) and 27 matched controls to determine relationships between physical activity level, brain structure (hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus), and symptoms. Participants were assessed with actigraphy for a 5-day period, MRI, and structured clinical interviews. UHR participants showed a greater percentage of time in sedentary behavior while healthy controls spent more time engaged in light to vigorous activity. There was a strong trend to suggest the UHR group showed less total physical activity. The UHR group exhibited smaller medial temporal volumes when compared with healthy controls. Total level of physical activity in the UHR group was moderately correlated with parahippocampal gyri bilaterally (right: r = .44, left: r = .55) and with occupational functioning (r = -.36; of negative symptom domain), but not positive symptomatology. Results suggest that inactivity is associated with medial temporal lobe health. Future studies are needed to determine if symptoms are driving inactivity, which in turn may be affecting the health of the parahippocampal structure and progression of illness. Although causality cannot be determined from the present design, these findings hold important implications for etiological conceptions and suggest promise for an experimental trial. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. [Functional status, self-rated health and level of physical activity of patients with osteoarthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Val Jiménez, Carmen Llanos; López-Torres Hidalgo, Jesús; García Atienza, Eva María; Navarro Ruiz, María Soledad; Hernández Cerón, Inmaculada; Moreno de la Rosa, Lorena

    2017-04-01

    To describe the functional status and self-rated health of patients with osteoarthritis (OA) in Primary Care, and checking their relationship with the level of physical activity and sociodemographic characteristics. Study of prevalence and cross association. Primary Care Clinics. Adult patients with a diagnosis of OA in any joint in their clinical records. Out of a total of 487 selected, 346 (71.0%) took part in the study. Functional capacity (WOMAC scale), self-rated quality of life (EuroQol- 5D questionnaire), physical activity (IPAQ questionnaire), number of affected joints, pain level, and sociodemographic characteristics. A mean score of 30.2 (SD: 20.8; CI 95% CI: 28.0 to 32.4) was obtained on the WOMAC scale, with pain, stiffness, and functional capacity scores of 6.5 (SD: 4.8), 1.9 (SD: 2.0), and 21.7 (SD: 15.7), respectively. The score showed a linear trend (P<.001) compared to the level of physical activity, being 41.1 (SD: 19.9) in inactive subjects, 24.3 (SD: 18.7) in subjects with moderate activity, and 22.3 (SD: 19.8) in subjects with intense activity. In the multiple linear regression, the score on the WOMAC scale, as well as that obtained in self-rated health status, maintained their association with physical activity level after adjusting for sociodemographic variables and the number of affected joints. In patients with OA, pain and functional capacity are the most affected dimensions. Functional status and self-rated health status are higher in active patients, regardless of the number of joints affected and their demographic characteristics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Mental health and levels of physical activity in children: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle Cerqueira da Silva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the regular practice of physical activity has been cited as a mental health protection factor during childhood and adulthood. However, few investigations were carried out on the associations between mental disorder and levels of physical activity in children. Objective: To analyze, by systematic review, the association the association between mental health and physical activity levels in children. Method: Search for articles published in the CAPES Journal Portal databases, LILACS, PubMed, SciELO and Scopus. We adopted the following inclusion criteria: original articles in English or Portuguese, performed with humans, with free full-text. We initially found a total of 2,467 articles, which were analyzed by titles, abstracts, followed by reading of the full article. We selected 05 papers for the final result. Results: The results of the articles show that more active children, participating in physical activity, had better mental health compared children who had no physical activities and were sedentary. Conclusion: Further studies are needed related to the mental health of children, addressing mainly the importance of practicing physical activity to treat and prevent mental illness and promote mental health of these individuals.

  8. Intake of Lutein-Rich Vegetables Is Associated with Higher Levels of Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Crichton

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Levels of physical inactivity, a major contributor to burden of disease, are high in many countries. Some preliminary research suggests that circulating lutein concentrations are associated with high levels of physical activity (PA. We aimed to assess whether the intake of lutein-containing foods, including vegetables and eggs, is associated with levels of PA in two studies conducted in different countries. Dietary data and PA data collected from participants in two cross-sectional studies: the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study (MSLS, conducted in Central New York, USA (n = 972, and the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg Study (ORISCAV-LUX (n = 1331 were analyzed. Higher intakes of lutein containing foods, including green leafy vegetables, were associated with higher levels of PA in both study sites. Increasing the consumption of lutein-rich foods may have the potential to impact positively on levels of PA. This needs to be further explored in randomized controlled trials.

  9. Potential to increase active commuting level in university area (Case study: Universitas Gadjah Mada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, M. K.

    2017-06-01

    In order to alleviate the negative impacts of motorized vehicle use as well as create sustainable environment within campus area, it is pivotal to encourage mode shifting among university students. Active transport modes such as walking, cycling, and using public transport can be considered as alternative modes. This paper tried to identify the potential to increase active commuting in UGM by understanding student’s travel behavior. ANOVA test was employed to identify the perceptions between students across residential zones toward motivators and barriers to actively commute. The findings were used to propose strategies for increasing active commuting level in UGM, which are: reducing barriers to actively commute, improving public transport services, improving walking and cycling facilities, and introducing programs to discourage motorized vehicle use.

  10. Investigating diet and physical activity in Malaysia: education and family history of diabetes relate to lower levels of physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Cai Lian; Bonn, Gregory; Yeoh, Si Han; Wong, Chee Piau

    2014-01-01

    The National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS, 2011), estimates that the number of Malaysian adults suffering from type 2 diabetes has increased from 8.3 to 31.2% since 1996. This study is a preliminary investigation of possible factors contributing to this epidemic. Knowledge of diabetes, health locus of control, diet and exercise habits, as well as family history, education level and other demographic factors to better understand the correlates of risky and healthy behaviors. This was done as part of a larger initiative to improve prevention efforts. Questionnaires were completed by 770 individuals from three Malaysian states: Selangor, Penang, and Terengganu. Findings showed that people with better health knowledge and those who have a family history of type 2 diabetes were more likely to have healthy diets. Also, health knowledge related to lower alcohol consumption. Participants with diabetic family members, however, also reported higher levels of stress. Counterintuitively, higher educational levels, higher internal locus of control, better health knowledge, as well as a family history of diabetes all correlated with lower levels of physical activity. Thus, it is suggested that, while increasing health knowledge will be important in addressing the type 2 diabetes epidemic in Malaysia, especially in relation to diet, other cultural factors, specifically norms related to exercise and physical activity, also need to be addressed if the spread of type 2 diabetes is to be addressed over the long term.

  11. Investigating diet and physical activity in Malaysia: Education and family history of diabetes relate to lower levels of physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Lian eTam

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS, 2011, estimates that the number of Malaysian adults suffering from type 2 diabetes has increased from 8.3% to 31.2% since 1996. This study is a preliminary investigation of possible factors contributing to this epidemic. Knowledge of diabetes, health locus of control, diet and exercise habits, as well as family history, education level and other demographic factors to better understand the correlates of risky and healthy behaviours. This was done as part of a larger initiative to improve prevention efforts. Questionnaires were completed by 770 individuals from three Malaysian states: Selangor, Penang, and Terengganu. Findings showed that people with better health knowledge and those who have a family history of type 2 diabetes were more likely to have healthy diets. Also, health knowledge related to lower alcohol consumption. Participants with diabetic family members, however, also reported higher levels of stress. Counterintuitively, higher educational levels, higher internal locus of control, better health knowledge, as well as a family history of diabetes all correlated with lower levels of physical activity. Thus, it is suggested that, while increasing health knowledge will be important in addressing the type 2 diabetes epidemic in Malaysia, especially in relation to diet, other cultural factors, specifically norms related to exercise and physical activity, also need to be addressed if the spread of type 2 diabetes is to be addressed over the long term.

  12. Examining individual, interpersonal, and environmental influences on children’s physical activity levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Wilk

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore individual-level socio-demographic factors and interpersonal-level factors related to social support, as well as the potential role of neighborhood and school environments that may influence the physical activity (PA levels of children (ages 9–11. Child and parent questionnaires included individual and interpersonal factors, and PA behaviour. Home postal codes were used to determine the neighbourhood the child resides within, as well as their geographic accessibility to recreation opportunities. The models were assessed using a series of cross-classified random-intercept multi-level regression models as children’s PA may be affected by both the school they attend and the neighbourhood in which they live. In the unadjusted model, PA varied significantly across school environments (γ = 0.023; CI: 0.003–0.043, but not across neighbourhoods (γ = 0.007; CI: -0.008 to 0.021. Boys were found to be more active compared to girls (b = 0.183; CI: 0.092–0.275, while the level of PA was lower for children whose fathers achieved post-secondary education (b = - 0.197; CI: -0.376 to 0.018 than for those whose parents completed only high school. The addition of the individual-level correlates did not have a substantial effect on level 2 variances and the level 2 variance associated with school environment remained statistically significant. At the interpersonal level, children’s perception of parental support (b = 0.117; CI: 0.091–0.143 and peer support (b = 0.111; CI: 0.079–0.142 were positively related to PA. The level 2 variance for the school environment became statistically non-significant when the interpersonal factors were added to the model. At the environmental level, geographic accessibility did not have a significant association with PA and they did not significantly affect level 1 or 2 variance. As many children do not accrue sufficient levels of PA, identifying modifiable determinants is

  13. Assessing causality in the association between child adiposity and physical activity levels: a Mendelian randomization analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca C Richmond

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cross-sectional studies have shown that objectively measured physical activity is associated with childhood adiposity, and a strong inverse dose-response association with body mass index (BMI has been found. However, few studies have explored the extent to which this association reflects reverse causation. We aimed to determine whether childhood adiposity causally influences levels of physical activity using genetic variants reliably associated with adiposity to estimate causal effects.The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children collected data on objectively assessed activity levels of 4,296 children at age 11 y with recorded BMI and genotypic data. We used 32 established genetic correlates of BMI combined in a weighted allelic score as an instrumental variable for adiposity to estimate the causal effect of adiposity on activity. In observational analysis, a 3.3 kg/m² (one standard deviation higher BMI was associated with 22.3 (95% CI, 17.0, 27.6 movement counts/min less total physical activity (p = 1.6×10⁻¹⁶, 2.6 (2.1, 3.1 min/d less moderate-to-vigorous-intensity activity (p = 3.7×10⁻²⁹, and 3.5 (1.5, 5.5 min/d more sedentary time (p = 5.0×10⁻⁴. In Mendelian randomization analyses, the same difference in BMI was associated with 32.4 (0.9, 63.9 movement counts/min less total physical activity (p = 0.04 (∼5.3% of the mean counts/minute, 2.8 (0.1, 5.5 min/d less moderate-to-vigorous-intensity activity (p = 0.04, and 13.2 (1.3, 25.2 min/d more sedentary time (p = 0.03. There was no strong evidence for a difference between variable estimates from observational estimates. Similar results were obtained using fat mass index. Low power and poor instrumentation of activity limited causal analysis of the influence of physical activity on BMI.Our results suggest that increased adiposity causes a reduction in physical activity in children and support research into the targeting of BMI in efforts to

  14. META-ANALYSIS OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY LEVEL ( PAL ) DATA FOR U.S. YOUTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper describes analytical research undertaken by EMRB staff to obtain age- and gender-specific distributions of Physical Activity Level (PAL) values for children measured in studies published between 1990-2004 in the clinical nutrition and exercise physiology literatures. ...

  15. The "Saltin-Grimby Physical Activity Level Scale" and its application to health research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimby, G; Börjesson, M; Jonsdottir, I H

    2015-01-01

    The use of a four-level questionnaire to assess leisure time physical activity (PA) and its validation is reviewed in this paper. This questionnaire was first published in 1968 and has then been used by more than 600 000 subjects, especially in different population studies in the Nordic countries...

  16. Decadal Cycles of Earth Rotation, Mean Sea Level and Climate, Excited by Solar Activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chapanov, Y.; Ron, Cyril; Vondrák, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 2 (2017), s. 241-250 ISSN 1214-9705 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-15943S Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : Earth rotation * solar activity * mean sea level Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography OBOR OECD: Physical geography Impact factor: 0.699, year: 2016

  17. Activity concentrations of K, Th, Ra and radiation exposure levels in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    Available online at http://www.academicjournals.org/AJEST ... average absorbed dose rate for the five quarries was found to be 541.4 nGyh-1 1m above the ground level while .... conversion factors for converting the activity concentrations of.

  18. Determining Intensity Levels of Selected Wii Fit Activities in College Aged Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieser, Joshua D.; Gao, Yong; Ransdell, Lynda; Simonson, Shawn

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the intensity of Nintendo Wii Fit games using indirect calorimetry. Twenty-five college students completed Wii Fit activity sessions at two difficulty levels within aerobics, strength, and yoga categories. Resting metabolic rate and exercise oxygen uptake were measured, and metabolic equivalents were…

  19. Functional level, physical activity and wellbeing in nursing home residents in three Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grönstedt, Helena; Hellström, Karin; Bergland, Astrid

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to describe physical and cognitive function and wellbeing among nursing home residents in three Nordic countries. A second aim was to compare groups of differing ages, levels of dependency in daily life activities (ADL), degree of fall-related self-efficacy, wellbeing...

  20. Activity Sets in Multi-Organizational Ecologies : A Project-Level Perspective on Sustainable Energy Innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrit Willem Ziggers; Kristina Manser; Bas Hillebrand; Paul Driessen; Josée Bloemer

    2014-01-01

    Complex innovations involve multi-organizational ecologies consisting of a myriad of different actors. This study investigates how innovation activities can be interpreted in the context of multi-organizational ecologies. Taking a project-level perspective, this study proposes a typology of four

  1. Physical activity and dietary fiber determine population body fat levels : The Seven Countries Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kromhout, D.; Bloemberg, B; Seidell, J. C.; Nissinen, A.; Menotti, A.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A global epidemic of obesity is developing. Current prevalence rates are about 20-25% in American adults and 15-20% in Europeans. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between population levels of physical activity, dietary fat, dietary fiber and indicators of body fat. DESIGN:

  2. Physical activity and dietary fiber determine population body fat levels : the Seven Countries Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kromhout, D.; Bloemberg, B; Seidell, J C; Nissinen, A.; Menotti, A.

    BACKGROUND: A global epidemic of obesity is developing. Current prevalence rates are about 20-25% in American adults and 15-20% in Europeans. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between population levels of physical activity, dietary fat, dietary fiber and indicators of body fat. DESIGN:

  3. Physical activity levels and health profiles of adult women living in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the physical activity levels and health profiles of adult women living in the Mmasechaba informal settlement in Gauteng. Apart from the questionnaire, anthropometric measurements were recorded and body mass index and waist-to-hip ratios were calculated. The results indicated that the incidence of ...

  4. Physical activity levels and motor skills of 5 th to 7 th grade students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The physical activity (PA) and motor skill levels (MS) (flexibility, balance, speed, sit-up, hand grip strength, standing long jump) were determined for 5th to 7th grade students from central schools in Nigde Province, Turkey according to age and gender and to investigate the relationships. PAL was determined by means of ...

  5. Non-occupational physical activity levels of shift workers compared with non-shift workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loef, Bette; Hulsegge, Gerben; Wendel-Vos, G C Wanda; Verschuren, W M Monique; Vermeulen, Roel C H; Bakker, Marije F.; van der Beek, Allard J.; Proper, Karin I

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Lack of physical activity (PA) has been hypothesised as an underlying mechanism in the adverse health effects of shift work. Therefore, our aim was to compare non-occupational PA levels between shift workers and non-shift workers. Furthermore, exposure-response relationships for

  6. Physical Activity Levels of Non-Overweight, Overweight, and Obese Children during Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathare, Neeti; Piche, Kelly; Nicosia, Andrea; Haskvitz, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine physical activity (PA) levels of young children classified by body mass index (BMI) (non-overweight, overweight, and obese) during physical education classes. Method: Participants included 82 children (45 boys, 37 girls; 7.5 ± 1.2 years). PA was determined by the number of steps measured with…

  7. Influence of disease activity on steroid hormone levels in peripheral blood of patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brink, H. R.; Blankenstein, M. A.; Koppeschaar, H. P.; Bijlsma, J. W.

    1993-01-01

    The steroid hormone status of 27 female patients (15 premenopausal and 12 postmenopausal) and 11 male patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) was investigated before and after a clinically significant deterioration in disease activity. In postmenopausal patients the serum level of cortisol decreased

  8. Participation in development activities at the local level : case studies from a Sri Lankan village

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frerks, G.E.

    1991-01-01

    This study is a sociological analysis of popular participation in local level development activities in Tegashena village in the Matara District, Sri Lanka. Social, economic, political and administrative factors that influence this process are identified.

    The study discusses how the

  9. Tipping Points? Curvilinear Associations between Activity Level and Mental Development in Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flom, Megan; Cohen, Madeleine; Saudino, Kimberly J.

    2017-01-01

    The Theory of Optimal Stimulation (Zentall & Zentall, "Psychological Bulletin," 94, 1983, 446) posits that the relation between activity level (AL) and cognitive performance follows an inverted U shape where midrange AL predicts better cognitive performance than AL at the extremes. We explored this by fitting linear and quadratic…

  10. Influence of a Parent Resource Manual on Physical Activity Levels of Children with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Barbara L.; Lieberman, Lauren J.

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of a parent resource manual on physical and sedentary activity levels of children with visual impairments. Children and youth with visual impairments, aged 9-23 years (7 girls, 11 boys), attended a 1-week summer sports camp in New York state. The authors found that 1 month after they provided the families of the…

  11. Systems Biology Graphical Notation: Activity Flow language Level 1 Version 1.2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Huaiyu; Schreiber, Falk; Moodie, Stuart; Czauderna, Tobias; Demir, Emek; Haw, Robin; Luna, Augustin; Le Novère, Nicolas; Sorokin, Anatoly; Villéger, Alice

    2015-09-04

    The Systems Biological Graphical Notation (SBGN) is an international community effort for standardized graphical representations of biological pathways and networks. The goal of SBGN is to provide unambiguous pathway and network maps for readers with different scientific backgrounds as well as to support efficient and accurate exchange of biological knowledge between different research communities, industry, and other players in systems biology. Three SBGN languages, Process Description (PD), Entity Relationship (ER) and Activity Flow (AF), allow for the representation of different aspects of biological and biochemical systems at different levels of detail. The SBGN Activity Flow language represents the influences of activities among various entities within a network. Unlike SBGN PD and ER that focus on the entities and their relationships with others, SBGN AF puts the emphasis on the functions (or activities) performed by the entities, and their effects to the functions of the same or other entities. The nodes (elements) describe the biological activities of the entities, such as protein kinase activity, binding activity or receptor activity, which can be easily mapped to Gene Ontology molecular function terms. The edges (connections) provide descriptions of relationships (or influences) between the activities, e.g., positive influence and negative influence. Among all three languages of SBGN, AF is the closest to signaling pathways in biological literature and textbooks, but its well-defined semantics offer a superior precision in expressing biological knowledge.

  12. Multimorbidity in Atlantic Canada and association with low levels of physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keats, Melanie R; Cui, Yunsong; DeClercq, Vanessa; Dummer, Trevor J B; Forbes, Cynthia; Grandy, Scott A; Hicks, Jason; Sweeney, Ellen; Yu, Zhijie Michael; Parker, Louise

    2017-12-01

    Owing to an aging population and medical advances, the anticipated growth and prevalence of multimorbidity has been recognized as a significant challenge and priority in health care settings. Although physical activity has been shown to play a vital role in the primary and secondary prevention of chronic disease, much less is known about the relationship between physical activity and multimorbidity. The objective of the present study was to examine the relationship between physical activity levels and multimorbidity in male and female adults after adjusting for key demographic, geographical, and lifestyle factors. The study drew data from a prospective cohort in Atlantic Canada (2009-2015). The sample included 18,709 participants between the ages of 35-69. Eighteen chronic diseases were identified. Physical activity levels were estimated based on the long form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Using logistic regression analysis, we found that multimorbid individuals were significantly more likely to be physically inactive (OR=1.26; 95% CI 1.10, 1.44) after adjusting for key sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics. Additional stratified analyses suggest that the magnitude of the effect between multimorbidity and physical activity was stronger for men (OR=1.41; 95% CI 1.12, 1.79) than women (OR=1.18; CI 1.00, 1.39) and those living in rural (OR=1.43; CI 1.10, 1.85) versus urban (OR=1.20; CI 1.02, 141) areas. Given the generally low levels of physical activity across populations and a growing prevalence of multimorbidity, there is a need for a prospective study to explore causal associations between physical activity, multimorbidity, and health outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Environmental noise levels affect the activity budget of the Florida manatee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miksis-Olds, Jennifer L.; Donaghay, Percy L.; Miller, James H.; Tyack, Peter L.

    2005-09-01

    Manatees inhabit coastal bays, lagoons, and estuaries because they are dependent on the aquatic vegetation that grows in shallow waters. Food requirements force manatees to occupy the same areas in which human activities are the greatest. Noise produced from human activities has the potential to affect these animals by eliciting responses ranging from mild behavioral changes to extreme aversion. This study quantifies the behavioral responses of manatees to both changing levels of ambient noise and transient noise sources. Results indicate that elevated environmental noise levels do affect the overall activity budget of this species. The proportion of time manatees spend feeding, milling, and traveling in critical habitats changed as a function of noise level. More time was spent in the directed, goal-oriented behaviors of feeding and traveling, while less time was spent milling when noise levels were highest. The animals also responded to the transient noise of approaching vessels with changes in behavioral state and movements out of the geographical area. This suggests that manatees detect and respond to changes in environmental noise levels. Whether these changes legally constitute harassment and produce biologically significant effects need to be addressed with hypothesis-driven experiments and long-term monitoring. [For Animal Bioacoustics Best Student Paper Award.

  14. THREATS OF NEW GENERATION ON PHYSICAL ACTIVITY LEVEL IN ALBANIAN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juel Jarani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The decline in physical activity levels of young children appears to be increased and combined with a high prevalence of obesity in Europe (Wang and Lim, 2012; Lobstein et al., 2004. With the ever-increasing interest in exploring the actual level of children’s physical activity in Albania, a study was carried out aiming to obtain the actual level on physical activity. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 9003 children aged 7-year-old to 15-year-old (4513 boys and 4490 girls. The PAQ-C questionnaire was validated in Albanian language and used to assess the current level of PA. Results: The results showed that 42.7% of children fell below the normal level of PA (inactivity. Data split by gender showed a higher percentage of inactivity among girls (49.6% compared to boys (36%. Finally, the results revealed a higher percentage of inactive children living in rural areas (49.2% compared to children in urban areas (45.4%. Discussion: In conclusion, the high percentage of inactive children poses a threat for increased obesity in Albanian children. Another concern emphasized the inactivity in rural areas due to the changes of their lifestyle and behavior. References: Lobstein T, Baur L, Uauy R and Isoiot (2004. Obes Rev, 5 (Suppl 1, 4–104. Wang Y and Lim H (2012. Int Rev Psychiatry, 24(3, 176–88.

  15. Depressed mood, usual activity level, and continued employment after starting dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutner, Nancy G; Zhang, Rebecca; Huang, Yijian; Johansen, Kirsten L

    2010-11-01

    When patients start dialysis, their employment rate declines and disability benefits are an option. With patient sociodemographic and clinical characteristics including disability income status controlled, we investigated the significance of depressed mood and usual activity level as predictors of patients' continued employment after dialysis start. Incident patients from 296 randomly selected dialysis clinics were surveyed in the Comprehensive Dialysis Study (CDS). Participants provided information about employment status, disability income status, education, depressive symptoms measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 (PHQ-2), and usual activity level/energy expenditure measured by the Human Activity Profile. Age, gender, race, insurance, diabetes, inability to ambulate or transfer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cardiovascular conditions, and hemoglobin and serum albumin values at treatment start were obtained from US Renal Data System files. Dialysis modality was defined at time of interview. Among 585 CDS participants who worked in the previous year, 191 (32.6%) continued working after dialysis start. On the basis of the PHQ-2 cutoff score ≥3, 12.1% of patients who remained employed had possible or probable depression, compared with 32.8% of patients who were no longer employed. In adjusted analyses, higher Human Activity Profile scores were associated with increased likelihood of continued employment, and there was a borderline association between lower PHQ-2 scores and continued employment. Screening and management of depressive symptoms and support for increased activity level may facilitate patients' opportunity for continued employment after dialysis start, along with generally improving their overall quality of life.

  16. Diet composition and activity level of at risk and metabolically healthy obese American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankinson, Arlene L; Daviglus, Martha L; Van Horn, Linda; Chan, Queenie; Brown, Ian; Holmes, Elaine; Elliott, Paul; Stamler, Jeremiah

    2013-03-01

    Obesity often clusters with other major cardiovascular disease risk factors, yet a subset of the obese appears to be protected from these risks. Two obesity phenotypes are described, (i) "metabolically healthy" obese, broadly defined as body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m(2) and favorable levels of blood pressure, lipids, and glucose; and (ii) "at risk" obese, BMI ≥ 30 with unfavorable levels of these risk factors. More than 30% of obese American adults are metabolically healthy. Diet and activity determinants of obesity phenotypes are unclear. We hypothesized that metabolically healthy obese have more favorable behavioral factors, including less adverse diet composition and higher activity levels than at risk obese in the multi-ethnic group of 775 obese American adults ages 40-59 years from the International Population Study on Macro/Micronutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP) cohort. In gender-stratified analyses, mean values for diet composition and activity behavior variables, adjusted for age, race, and education, were compared between metabolically healthy and at risk obese. Nearly one in five (149/775 or 19%) of obese American INTERMAP participants were classified as metabolically healthy obese. Diet composition and most activity behaviors were similar between obesity phenotypes, although metabolically healthy obese women reported higher sleep duration than at risk obese women. These results do not support hypotheses that diet composition and/or physical activity account for the absence of cardiometabolic abnormalities in metabolically healthy obese. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  17. Level of physical activity and accidental falls in elderly: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Passarella Brêtas

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze studies evaluating the association between the level of physical activity and the occurrence of accidental falls in the elderly. A systematic literature review of the LILACS and MEDLINE databases was conducted. As inclusion criteria, complete scientific articles investigating subjects older than 60 years, published in Portuguese, English or Spanish, were selected. Twenty-nine articles were retrieved, five from LILACS (1982 to 2007, two from MEDLINE (1966 to 1996, and 22 from MEDLINE (from 1997 to 2007. Ten (35% articles were selected based on the inclusion criteria and 19 (65% were excluded. A cross-sectional design was the most frequent type of study (60%. The studies identified suggest an association between the level of physical activity and factors related to the occurrence of falls such as functional disability, quality of life and independence to perform daily activities. Falls were found to restrict physical activity in some studies. In view of the heterogeneity of the studies in terms of methods and assessments, it was not possible to determine whether a better level of physical activity is able to decrease the incidence of falls in the elderly.

  18. Level of daily physical activity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients according to GOLD classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodó-Pin, Anna; Balañá, Ana; Molina, Lluís; Gea, Joaquim; Rodríguez, Diego A

    2017-02-09

    The Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD guideline) for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease does not adequately reflect the impact of the disease because does not take into account daily physical activity (DPA). Forty eight patients (12 in each GOLD group) were prospectively recruited. DPA was evaluated by accelerometer. Patients were classified into 3 levels of activity (very inactive, sedentary, active). No significant differences in levels of physical activity among GOLD groups (P=.361) were observed. The percentages of very inactive patients were 33% in group A, 42% in group B, 42% in group C and 59% in group D. In addition, high percentage of sedentary patients were observed through 4 groups, in group A (50%), B and C (42%, each), and group D (41%). COPD patients has very low levels of physical activity at all stages of GOLD classification even those defined as low impact (such as GOLD A). Is necessary to detect patients at risk who might benefit from specific interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Seasonal Variation in Objectively Assessed Physical Activity among Young Norwegian Talented Soccer Players: A Description of Daily Physical Activity Level

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    Stig A. Sæther, Nils P. Aspvik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available ‘Practise makes perfect’ is a well-known expression in most sports, including top-level soccer. However, a high training and match load increases the risk for injury, overtraining and burnout. With the use of accelerometers and a self-report questionnaire, the aim of this study was to describe talented players’ physical activity (PA level. Data were collected three times during the 2011 Norwegian Football season (March, June and October. The accelerometer output, counts·min–1 (counts per unit time registered, reports the daily PA-level for young talented soccer players. Results showed a stable PA-level across the season (March: 901.2 counts·min–1, June: 854.9 counts·min–1, October: 861.5 counts·min–1. Furthermore, comparison of five different training sessions across the season showed that the PA-level ranged from 2435.8 to 3745.4 counts·min–1. A one-way ANOVA showed no significant differences between the three measured weeks during the soccer season (p≤0.814. However, the training sessions in January had a significantly higher PA-level than those in June and October (p≤0.001. Based on these results, we discuss how potential implications of PA-level affect factors such as risk of injury, overtraining and burnout. We argue that player development must be seen as part of an overall picture in which club training and match load should be regarded as one of many variables influencing players’ PA-level.

  20. Investigation of environmental activity levels of bone-coal mining area in five provinces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Jida; Wu Zongmei; Kong Lingli; Shi Jinhua; Li Ying; Jiang Shan; Zhang Liang

    2005-01-01

    During 1991-1993, the activity levels of the bone-coal mines were investigated in Zhejiang, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi and Anhui Province, respectively, where the reserve of bone-coal is about 90% of our country's total reserve. The average of γ radiation dose rate level measured for bone-coal, bone-coal cinder (BCC) and bone-coal cinder brick (BCCB) in these provinces is about 500 nGy/h, 400 nGy/h and 700 nGy/h respectively, while that for fields, roads and houses made of BCCB in corresponding regions of these provinces is about 200 nGy/h, 260 nGy/h and 300 nGy/h respectively. It is shown that the environmental activity level of bone-coal mining area is about 3 times higher than the reference spots. (authors)

  1. Influence of Different Genotypes on Trypsin Inhibitor Levels and Activity in Soybeans

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    Viktor A. Nedovic

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the relationship between the two major trypsin inhibitors (TI in soybean, i.e., the Kunitz (KTI and Bowman-Birk (BBI trypsin inhibitors, as well as between them and the corresponding trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA. Twelve investigated soybean genotypes showed significant differences in TI levels and TIA. A very strong positive correlation was found between the levels of KTI and total BBI (r = 0.94, P < 0.05. No relationship was found between KTI, BBI or total TI and TIA. Based on this data, it appears that the levels of major TI in soybean are related. Understanding the relationship between trypsin inhibitors and their activities could be useful for further improvement of the health impacts of soy proteins.

  2. Soluble Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator Receptor Levels in Patients With Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jimmi; Røge, Rasmus; Pristed, Sofie Gry

    2015-01-01

    PAR) is a protein that can be measured in blood samples and reflects the levels of inflammatory activity. It has been associated with mortality and the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. METHODS: suPAR levels in patients with schizophrenia were compared to healthy controls from the Danish......BACKGROUND: The etiology of schizophrenia remains largely unknown but alterations in the immune system may be involved. In addition to the psychiatric symptoms, schizophrenia is also associated with up to 20 years reduction in life span. Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (su...... Blood Donor Study. SuPAR levels were dichotomized at >4.0 ng/ml, which is considered the threshold for low grade inflammation. A multiple logistic regression model was used and adjusted for age, sex, and current smoking. RESULTS: In total we included 1009 subjects, 105 cases with schizophrenia (10...

  3. The Effects of Physical Activity on Serum Visfatin Level: A Literature Review

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    Mohsen Ghanbarzadeh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Higher concentration of plasma visfatin in obese and diabetic subjects compared with their healthy counterparts shows visfatin relationship to obesity and overweight. This article reviewed the studies on contradictory and different notions regarding the role of physical activity in visfatin response following aerobic and resistance exercises. Recent reports on the impact of physical activity and exercise on visfatin concentration is contradictory. Some studies have identified that exercise can reduce visfatin concentration depending on the duration of physical activity and calorie expenditure, while others have not reported any changes in visfatin concentration. The present review indicated that a balanced diet, low in fat, and physical exercise (aerobic and aerobic-resistance exercises can reduce blood visfatin levels depending on the severity and duration, while resistance training alone exerts no significant effects on serum visfatin level.

  4. Detailed assessment of gene activation levels by multiple hypoxia-responsive elements under various hypoxic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Yasuto; Inubushi, Masayuki; Jin, Yong-Nan; Murai, Chika; Tsuji, Atsushi B; Hata, Hironobu; Kitagawa, Yoshimasa; Saga, Tsuneo

    2014-12-01

    HIF-1/HRE pathway is a promising target for the imaging and the treatment of intractable malignancy (HIF-1; hypoxia-inducible factor 1, HRE; hypoxia-responsive element). The purposes of our study are: (1) to assess the gene activation levels resulting from various numbers of HREs under various hypoxic conditions, (2) to evaluate the bidirectional activity of multiple HREs, and (3) to confirm whether multiple HREs can induce gene expression in vivo. Human colon carcinoma HCT116 cells were transiently transfected by the constructs containing a firefly luciferase reporter gene and various numbers (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12) of HREs (nHRE+, nHRE-). The relative luciferase activities were measured under various durations of hypoxia (6, 12, 18, and 24 h), O2 concentrations (1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 %), and various concentrations of deferoxamine mesylate (20, 40, 80, 160, and 320 µg/mL growth medium). The bidirectional gene activation levels by HREs were examined in the constructs (dual-luc-nHREs) containing firefly and Renilla luciferase reporter genes at each side of nHREs. Finally, to test whether the construct containing 12HRE and the NIS reporter gene (12HRE-NIS) can induce gene expression in vivo, SPECT imaging was performed in a mouse xenograft model. (1) gene activation levels by HREs tended to increase with increasing HRE copy number, but a saturation effect was observed in constructs with more than 6 or 8 copies of an HRE, (2) gene activation levels by HREs increased remarkably during 6-12 h of hypoxia, but not beyond 12 h, (3) gene activation levels by HREs decreased with increasing O2 concentrations, but could be detected even under mild hypoxia at 16 % O2, (4) the bidirectionally proportional activity of the HRE was confirmed regardless of the hypoxic severity, and (5) NIS expression driven by 12 tandem copies of an HRE in response to hypoxia could be visualized on in vivo SPECT imaging. The results of this study will help in the understanding and assessment of

  5. Seasonal Variation in Objectively Assessed Physical Activity among Young Norwegian Talented Soccer Players: A Description of Daily Physical Activity Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sæther, Stig A; Aspvik, Nils P

    2014-12-01

    'Practise makes perfect' is a well-known expression in most sports, including top-level soccer. However, a high training and match load increases the risk for injury, overtraining and burnout. With the use of accelerometers and a self-report questionnaire, the aim of this study was to describe talented players' physical activity (PA) level. Data were collected three times during the 2011 Norwegian Football season (March, June and October). The accelerometer output, counts·min(-1) (counts per unit time registered), reports the daily PA-level for young talented soccer players. Results showed a stable PA-level across the season (March: 901.2 counts·min(-1), June: 854.9 counts·min(-1), October: 861.5 counts·min(-1)). Furthermore, comparison of five different training sessions across the season showed that the PA-level ranged from 2435.8 to 3745.4 counts·min(-1). A one-way ANOVA showed no significant differences between the three measured weeks during the soccer season (p≤0.814). However, the training sessions in January had a significantly higher PA-level than those in June and October (p≤0.001). Based on these results, we discuss how potential implications of PA-level affect factors such as risk of injury, overtraining and burnout. We argue that player development must be seen as part of an overall picture in which club training and match load should be regarded as one of many variables influencing players' PA-level. Key pointsIt is well established that to achieve a high performance level in sport, one must implement a high training and match load in childhood and youth.With the use of accelerometers and a self-reported questionnaire, the aim of this study was to describe talented players' total physical activity (PA) load.These results indicate that young talented soccer players must overcome large doses of PA on a weekly basis, exposing them to a high risk of injury, overtraining and burnout.

  6. Evaluation of basal sex hormone levels for activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yu; Li, Juan; Yu, Yongguo; Yang, Peirong; Li, Huaiyuan; Shen, Yongnian; Huang, Xiaodong; Liu, Shijian

    2018-03-28

    This study aimed to identify the predictive value of basal sex hormone levels for activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in girls. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulation tests were performed and evaluated in a total of 1750 girls with development of secondary sex characteristics. Correlation analyses were conducted between basal sex hormones and peak luteinizing hormone (LH) levels ≥5 IU/L during the GnRH stimulation test. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for basal levels of LH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), LH/FSH, and estradiol (E2) before the GnRH stimulation test were plotted. The area under the curve (AUC) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were measured for each curve. The maximum AUC value was observed for basal LH levels (0.77, 95% CI: 0.74-0.79), followed by basal FSH levels (0.73, 95% CI: 0.70-0.75), the basal LH/FSH ratio (0.68, 95% CI: 0.65-0.71), and basal E2 levels (0.61, 95% CI: 0.59-0.64). The appropriate cutoff value of basal LH levels associated with a positive response of the GnRH stimulation test was 0.35 IU/L, with a sensitivity of 63.96% and specificity of 76.3% from the ROC curves when Youden's index showed the maximum value. When 100% of patients had peak LH levels ≥5 IU/L, basal LH values were >2.72 IU/L, but the specificity was only 5.45%. Increased basal LH levels are a significant predictor of a positive response during the GnRH stimulation test for assessing activation of the HPG axis in most girls with early pubertal signs.

  7. LEVEL OF HABITUAL PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND QUALITY OF LIFE OF WOMEN WITH FIBROMYALGIA

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    Manoela de Oliveira Nascimento Araújo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The syndrome of fibromyalgia (FM is a condition of chronic pain, general, difficult to treat and contributes to the decline of cardiorespiratory fitness and quality of life. This study aimed to analyze the association between physical activity and quality of life of women with FM. Was characterized as cross-sectional study and the population consisted 22 women with FM care in the city of Itabuna - BA. The diagnosis of fibromyalgia was according to criteria to American College of Rheumatology. The data collection instrument was established by the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Atividade física e qualidade de vida For data analysis, we used the procedure descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation, frequency and percentage and inferential (Chi-square test and Fisher's test, significance level of p≤0.05. The average age of respondents was 41.05 (SD = 6.543 years, ranging between 27 and 56 years. In general physical activity, 45.5% were considered physically active. By analyzing the dimensions of physical activity as a means transportation, only 31.8% are active and in the dimension of leisure, only 27.3%. The assessment of the level of quality of life of the subjects revealed that 72.7% had negative quality of life, while only 27.3% reported having a positive quality of life. The present study showed that fibromyalgia affects mainly women and that this syndrome interfere with the patients' quality of life.

  8. Low-level dosimetry based on activation analysis of badge film, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morikawa, Kaoru; Yamashita, Kazuya; Inamoto, Kazuo; Maeda, Masayuki; Sato, Takashi; Ono, Koichi.

    1988-01-01

    Underexposed badge film contains a minor quantity of silver which corresponds to the low radiation dose even after completion of the photographic densitometry ; however, it cannot be detected with a photographic densitometer. We intended to clarify the minor silver content based on radioactivation analysis with thermal neutrons at KUR (Kyoto University Research Reactor). The natural silver consists of two stable nuclides, i.e., 107 Ag and 109 Ag. These can be activated with irradiation of thermal neutrons to two radionuclides, i.e., 108 Ag and 110 Ag. In this paper, through the activation analysis of an underexposed badge film, methods of measurements are shown regarding both 108 Ag produced by the 107 Ag (n, γ) reaction and 110 Ag by the 109 Ag (n, γ). After underexposed badge films were irradiated with thermal neutrons, some gamma-rays emitted from the radionuclides in the activated films were measured with a high pure Ge detector or a NaI (Tl) scintillation detector. The following results were obtained: (1) several elements such as silver, iodine, gold, antimony, manganese and copper were detected by activation analyses of films exposed to low level 60 Co gamma-rays, (2) the exposure vs 108 Ag or 110 Ag activity curve was linear in the lower dose range of 60 Co gamma-rays. These data indicate that low level radiation doses, which is indeterminable by ordinary photographic densitometry, can be estimated by activation analysis of silver atoms in badge films. (author)

  9. Physical activity levels as a quantifier in police officers and cadets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Soroka

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the present study was to determine the physical activity levels of active duty police officers and police academy cadets in different life domains and intensities. These parameters were treated as potential quantifiers that could be used when assessing individuals preparing for work as future police officers. Material and Methods: The study recruited 153 active police officers and 176 cadets attending a police academy and administered a diagnostic survey, the long-form version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, while in the statistical analysis the Student's t-test for independent groups was applied. Results: It was determined that police officers present high physical activity levels within the work domain, which are developed from initial training at a police academy and then throughout their police career. Conclusions: Such data are important in the light of the role police officers play in public safety as well as the prominence of physical activity within a particular profession and how it can be targeted and tailored to their needs.

  10. Risk assessment and level of physical activity of students in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Grażyna Zuzda

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim . The aim of the study was to determine the risks of activity by using Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire (PAR-Q and describe the PA profile using the short-version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ-SF among selected groups of sport science students. Material and methods The study covered 99 students - 61 females aged 21.08 ± 1.43 and 38 males aged 21.24 ± 1.22 y. In order to asses and stratify the risk of PA the Polish short version of the IPAQ-SF was used. Results. The total level of physical activity of the male students was 3460.039±2502.207 MET- min/week and was higher than in the case of female students (3388,107±2204,290 MET- min/week. The dominant type physical activity of female and male students was intensive effort. Among 22 men and 39 women, risk factors for cardiac events, pulmonary and musculoskeletal injuries were reported. The relationship between PAR-Q results and the on the IPAQ-SF results was no statistically significant. Conclusions This study demonstrates that students achieve the level of physical activity recommended by experts for the prevention of chronic diseases. This research allows sports science students to understand their own health issues through self-assessments of personal risk factors for cardiac events, pulmonary and musculoskeletal injury.

  11. Upper Limb Muscle and Brain Activity in Light Assembly Task on Different Load Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadry, Hilma Raimona; Dawal, Siti Zawiah Md.; Taha, Zahari

    2010-10-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effect of load on upper limb muscles and brain activities in light assembly task. The task was conducted at two levels of load (Low and high). Surface electromyography (EMG) was used to measure upper limb muscle activities of twenty subjects. Electroencephalography (EEG) was simultaneously recorded with EMG to record brain activities from Fz, Pz, O1 and O2 channels. The EMG Mean Power Frequency (MPF) of the right brachioradialis and the left upper trapezius activities were higher on the high-load task compared to low-load task. The EMG MPF values also decrease as time increases, that reflects muscle fatigue. Mean power of the EEG alpha bands for the Fz-Pz channels were found to be higher on the high-load task compared to low-load task, while for the O1-O2 channels, they were higher on the low-load task than on the high-load task. These results indicated that the load levels effect the upper limb muscle and brain activities. The high-load task will increase muscle activities on the right brachioradialis and the left upper tapezius muscles, and will increase the awareness and motivation of the subjects. Whilst the low-load task can generate drowsiness earlier. It signified that the longer the time and the more heavy of the task, the subjects will be more fatigue physically and mentally.

  12. Depression and physical activity in a sample of nigerian adolescents: levels, relationships and predictors

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    Okafor Nkechi C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical inactivity is related to many morbidities but the evidence of its link with depression in adolescents needs further investigation in view of the existing conflicting reports. Methods The data for this cross-sectional study were collected from 1,100 Nigerian adolescents aged 12-17 years. Depressive symptomatology and physical activity were assessed using the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI and the Physical Activity Questionnaire-Adolescent version (PAQ-A respectively. Independent t tests, Pearson's Moment Correlation and Multi-level logistic regression analyses for individual and school area influences were carried out on the data at p Results The mean age of the participants was 15.20 ± 1.435 years. The prevalence of mild to moderate depression was 23.8%, definite depression was 5.7% and low physical activity was 53.8%. More severe depressive symptoms were linked with lower levels of physical activity (r = -0.82, p Conclusions A sizable burden of depression and low physical activity existed among the studied adolescents and these were linked to both individual and school factors. Future studies should examine the effects of physical activity among clinical samples of adolescents with depression.