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Sample records for level metapelitic rocks

  1. Trace element geochemistry of metapelitic rocks of the Medio Rio Doce, Minas Gerais region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sad, J.H.G.

    1983-01-01

    Representatives samples of schists and gneisses, which was metamorphosed in the sillimanite isograde, have been submited to spectrographic analyses for trace-elements. The concentrations and standart deviation (in ppm) are: Be:6,25 (3,6); Sc:29 (12); Ti:5714 (2102); V:111,5 (29); Cr:118 (78); Co:17 (11); Ni:44 (25); Cu:24 (22); Ga:30 (20); Sr:134 (70); Y:51 (21); Zr:241 (69); Nb:24 (9); Mo:4,4 (1,2); Sn:11,5 (6); Ba:601 (314); La:112 (27); Pb:54 (58). The statistic error in the determination of the average concentrations is less than 15% por Ti, V, Zr, Mo and La, between 15% and 25% for Be, Sc, Ni, Sr, Y, Nb, Sn and Ba. The error for Cr, Co and Ga is between 25% and 30%. Cu and Pb show error near 40%. The figures indicate slight variations in the original composition of the rocks, which seems to be typical of a graywacke geosinclin association. The results show a very large similarity with the world average for 'shales', in relation to Ba, Cr, Co, Nb, Ti, V, Zr. For La, Ga, Pb, Mo, Sn, Sc, Be and Y the results are quite greater, while for Cu, Ni and Sr are smaller. There is good positive correlation between Ba-La, Ba-Sr, Be-Mo, Be-Sn, Y-Nb, Ga-Sn, Ga-Ba and Ga-La. As the elements La, Ga, Mo, etc. show hight values in relation to the known concentration levels in pelitic rocks, and considering the correlation between them, we believe that a metasomatism process rock place in the region, with introduction of that elements, from intrusive granite rocks. (Author) [pt

  2. Deformation Mechanisms of Darreh Sary Metapelites, Sanandaj‒Sirjan Zone, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmati, O.; Tabatabaei Manesh, S. M.; Nadimi, A. R.

    2018-03-01

    The Darreh Sary metapelitic rocks are located in the northeast of Zagros orogenic belt and Sanandaj-Sirjan structural zone. The lithological composition of these rocks includes slate, phyllite, muscovitebiotite schist, garnet schist, staurolite-garnet schist and staurolite schist. The shale is the protolith of these metamorphic rocks, which was originated from the continental island arc tectonic setting and has been subjected to processes of Zagros orogeny. The deformation mechanisms in these rocks include bulging recrystallization (BLG), subgrain rotation recrystallization (SGR) and grain boundary migration recrystallization (GBM), which are considered as the key to estimate the deformation temperature of the rocks. The estimated ranges of deformation temperature and depth in these rocks show the temperatures of 275-375, 375-500, and >500°C and the depths of 10 to 17 km. The observed structures in these rocks such as faults, fractures and folds, often with the NW-SE direction coordinate with the structural trends of Zagros orogenic belt structures. The S-C mylonite fabrics is observed in these rocks with other microstructures such as mica fish, σ fabric and garnet deformation indicate the dextral shear deformation movements of study area. Based on the obtained results of this research, the stages of tectonic evolution of Darreh Sary area were developed.

  3. Predictive modelling of noise level generated during sawing of rocks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper presents an experimental and statistical study on noise level generated during of rock sawing by circular diamond sawblades. Influence of the operating variables and rock properties on the noise level are investigated and analysed. Statistical analyses are then employed and models are built for the prediction of ...

  4. Thermal characteristics of rocks for high-level waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimooka, Kenji; Ishizaki, Kanjiro; Okamoto, Masamichi; Kumata, Masahiro; Araki, Kunio; Amano, Hiroshi

    1980-12-01

    Heat released by the radioactive decay of high-level waste in an underground repository causes a long term thermal disturbance in the surrounding rock mass. Several rocks constituting geological formations in Japan were gathered and specific heat, thermal conductivity, thermal expansion coefficient and compressive strength were measured. Thermal analysis and chemical analysis were also carried out. It was found that volcanic rocks, i.e. Andesite and Basalt had the most favorable thermal characteristics up to around 1000 0 C and plutonic rock, i.e. Granite had also favorable characteristics under 573 0 C, transition temperature of quartz. Other igneous rocks, i.e. Rhyolite and Propylite had a problem of decomposition at around 500 0 C. Sedimentary rocks, i.e. Zeolite, Tuff, Sandstone and Diatomite were less favorable because of their decomposition, low thermal conductivity and large thermal expansion coefficient. (author)

  5. New SHRIMP U-Pb zircon ages of the metapelitic granulites from NW of Madurai, Southern India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, D.

    2010-01-01

    Zircon cathodoluminescent imaging and SHRIMP U-Pb dating were carried out for metapelitic rocks (sapphirine-hearing granulites and garnet-cordierite gneisses) from the NW of Madurai, Southern India. The cathodoluminescence images reveal the complex, inhomogeneous internal structure having irregular-shaped core and overgrowths. Zircon grains have obliterated oscillatory zoning. SHRIMP U-Pb chronological results yield ages of 550 ± 15 Ma and 530 ± 50 Ma as a time of metamorphic overprint, and the age of 2509 ± 12 Ma and 2509 ± 30 Ma corresponding to a timing of protolith formation for sapphirine-bearing granulites and garnet-cordierite gneisses respectively. Zircon ages reflect that continental crust in the NW of Madurai region resulted from the recycling of Archaean protolith of an igneous origin similar to the preserved crust in the southern part of Dharwar craton. The present SHRIMP U-Pb zircon ages are in close agreement with earlier published Nd isotopic data which suggest an extended precrustal history of their protoliths. The abraded zircon grains indicate multiple recycling and repeated metamorphism that has ultimately resulted in present day continental crust exposed in Madurai region. These SHRIMP U-Pb zircon ages from metapelitic UHT granulites are also significant to understanding the architecture of the SGT during the amalgamation of Gondwana in Neoproterozoic time. (author)

  6. An experimental investigation of Na incorporation in cordierite in low P/high T metapelites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropper, Peter; Wyhlidal, Stefan; Haefeker, Udo A.; Mirwald, Peter W.

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this experimental study was to investigate the incorporation of Na in cordierite in metapelites as a function of temperature and pressure using natural quartzphyllite rocks as starting materials. The experiments were performed in a hydrothermal apparatus as well as a piston-cylinder apparatus with two natural quartzphyllite samples, which represent the protolith rocks of the hornfelses from the Brixen Granite contact aureole near Franzensfeste. Sample W shows high muscovite contents (57 wt%) and only accessory plagioclase while sample SP5 has high plagioclase (16 wt%) and lower muscovite contents (20 vol%). The experiments were done dry at pressures of 0.15, 0.3 and 0.6 GPa in a temperature range of 550 °C to 780 °C. The Na content of the newly formed cordierites shows a systematic variation and decreases linearly with increasing temperatures and no influence of pressure and melting on the Na contents of cordierite was observed. The experiments also show that the difference in mineral assemblage considerably shifts the obtained Na contents of cordierite. The P-independent temperature correlations for both sets of experiments can be described with the linear relationships: T (°C) = (Na [apfu] - 0.4052)/(-0.000487); R2 = 0.96; (±20 °C, calibration W) and T (°C) = (Na [apfu] - 0.3671)/(-0.000383); R2 = 0.94; (±15 °C, calibration SP5). The difference between the two temperatures is large and the SP5 experiments yield temperatures that are up to 100 °C higher. This is not unexpected since theoretical phase relations in the system NMASH predict different Na contents depending on the buffering assemblage (plagioclase vs. paragonite). On the other hand these T differences could also reflect disequilibrium behaviour in the SP5 experiments. Detailed micro-Raman spectroscopic investigations reveal that cordierites from both experiments show disordered structures but the SP5 experiments show a much higher degree of Si-Al disorder and the elevated Na

  7. The Usability of Noise Level from Rock Cutting for the Prediction of Physico-Mechanical Properties of Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delibalta, M. S.; Kahraman, S.; Comakli, R.

    2015-11-01

    Because the indirect tests are easier and cheaper than the direct tests, the prediction of rock properties from the indirect testing methods is important especially for the preliminary investigations. In this study, the predictability of the physico-mechanical rock properties from the noise level measured during cutting rock with diamond saw was investigated. Noise measurement test, uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) test, Brazilian tensile strength (BTS) test, point load strength (Is) test, density test, and porosity test were carried out on 54 different rock types in the laboratory. The results were statistically analyzed to derive estimation equations. Strong correlations between the noise level and the mechanical rock properties were found. The relations follow power functions. Increasing rock strength increases the noise level. Density and porosity also correlated strongly with the noise level. The relations follow linear functions. Increasing density increases the noise level while increasing porosity decreases the noise level. The developed equations are valid for the rocks with a compressive strength below 150 MPa. Concluding remark is that the physico-mechanical rock properties can reliably be estimated from the noise level measured during cutting the rock with diamond saw.

  8. Selection of the host rock for high level radioactive waste repository in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Yuanxin; Wang Wenguang; Chen Zhangru

    2001-01-01

    The authors has briefly introduced the experiences of the host rock selection and the host rock types in other countries for high level radioactive waste repository. The potential host rocks in China are investigated. They include granite, tuff, clay, basalt, salt, and loess. The report has expounded the distributions, scale, thickness, mineral and chemical composition, construction, petrogenesis and the ages of the rock. The possibility of these rocks as the host rock has been studied. The six pieces of distribution map of potential rocks have been made up. Through the synthetical study, it is considered that granite as the host rock of high level radioactive waste repository is possible

  9. Microstructural record vs chemical and geochronological preservation in muscovite: implications for P-T-t estimates in deformed metapelites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airaghi, Laura; Lanari, Pierre; Warren, Clare J.; de Sigoyer, Julia; Guillot, Stéphane

    2017-04-01

    Pressure-temperature-deformation (P-T-ɛ) paths for metamorphic rocks commonly relies on the link between successive metamorphic assemblages and the microstructures. However, with increasing P-T conditions, metamorphic minerals in an early microstructure can re-equilibrate by changing their chemical composition. The direct link between deformation phases and mineral compositions for thermobarometry purposes can therefore be distorted. This study focuses on a series of garnet-biotite metapelites from the Longmen Shan (Sichuan, China) that preserve muscovite of different chemistry in distinct microstructures. To quantify the degree of re-equilibration of muscovite, a microstructural study was coupled with high-resolution chemical mapping. Then, the chemical evolution of muscovite (Si4+ and XMg) was modeled using Gibbs free energy minimization along a P-T loop previously constrained by phase equilibria calculations, semi-empirical and empirical thermobarometry. Our results show that the studied metapelites experienced a "typical" three stages metamorphic history: (1) heating and burial up to 11 kbar, 530˚ C, (2) minor decompression and heating up to 6 kbar, 580˚ C and (3) decompression and cooling down to 4-5 kbar, 380-450˚ C. However, muscovite has been partially or completely re-equilibrated during the three stages by idiomorphic replacement, although it is mainly observed in prograde microstructures preceding the pressure peak. The main factors controlling the degree of re-equilibration are the intensity of the deformation and the fluid availability during metamorphism. The P-T conditions of metamorphic assemblages thus reflect pulses of fluids release that enhanced mineral resorption and local replacement. The metamorphic peak (2) was dated by in situ 40Ar/39Ar on biotite porphyroblasts and by in situ (U-Pb)/Th laser ablation on allanite (REE-rich epidote) at 185±15 Ma. Muscovite grains preserved in prograde microstructures and partially re-equilibrated during

  10. A Rock Mechanics and Coupled Hydro mechanical Analysis of Geological Repository of High Level Nuclear Waste in Fractured Rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Kibok

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a few case studies on fractured hard rock based on geological data from Sweden, Korea is one of a few countries where crystalline rock is the most promising rock formation as a candidate site of geological repository of high level nuclear waste. Despite the progress made in the area of rock mechanics and coupled hydro mechanics, extensive site specific study on multiple candidate sites is essential in order to choose the optimal site. For many countries concerned about the safe isolation of nuclear wastes from the biosphere, disposal in a deep geological formation is considered an attractive option. In geological repository, thermal loading continuously disturbs the repository system in addition to disturbances a recent development in rock mechanics and coupled hydro mechanical study using DFN(Discrete Fracture Network) - DEM(Discrete Element Method) approach mainly applied in hard, crystalline rock containing numerous fracture which are main sources of deformation and groundwater flow

  11. Chronocoulometric determination of trace levels of uranium in rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantagallo, M.I.C.; Gutz, I.G.R.

    1990-01-01

    The chronocoulometric method for the determination of trace levels of uranium, based on the catalytic nitrate reduction was applied with real and synthetic samples. Reference materials with complex matrices like rocks were first solubilized by hot digestion under pressure in a PTFE bomb. When necessary, an adapted liquid-liquid extraction procedure was used for previous separation of interferents. The obtained results are in good agreement with the values obtained with other techniques such as X-ray fluorescence, mass spectrometry -isotope dilution and apithermal activation analysis. (author) [pt

  12. Retrograde mineral and fluid evolution in high-pressure metapelites (Schistes Lustres unit, Western Alps).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agard, Ph.; Goffe, B.; Touret, J.L.R.; Vidal, O.

    2000-01-01

    Fluid inclusions have been analysed in successive generations of syn-metamorphic segregations within low-grade, high-pressure, low-temperature (HP-LT) metapelites from the Western Alps. Fluid composition was then compared to mass transfer deduced from outcrop-scale retrograde mineral reactions. Two

  13. Surrounding rock stress analysis of underground high level waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wengang; Wang Ju; Wang Guangdi

    2006-01-01

    During decay of nuclear waste, enormous energy was released, which results in temperature change of surrounding rock of depository. Thermal stress was produced because thermal expansion of rock was controlled. Internal structure of surrounding rock was damaged and strength of rock was weakened. So, variation of stress was a dynamic process with the variation of temperature. BeiShan region of Gansu province was determined to be the depository field in the future, it is essential to make research on granite in this region. In the process of experiment, basic physical parameters of granite were analyzed preliminary with MTS. Long range temperature and stress filed was simulated considering the damage effect of surrounding rock, and rules of temperature and stress was achieved. (authors)

  14. Hydrological evaluation of five sedimentary rocks for high-level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomenick, T.F.; Kanehiro, B.Y.

    1986-01-01

    Utilizing performance criteria that are based upon siting guidelines issued by DOE for postclosure as well as preclosure conditions, a preliminary hydrologic evaluation and ranking is being conducted to determine the suitability of five sedimentary rocks as potential host rocks for a high-level radioactive waste repository. Based upon both quantitative and qualitative considerations, the hydrological ranking of the rocks in order of their potential as a host rock for the disposal of radioactive wastes would be shale, anhydrock, sandstone, chalk, and carbonates, with the first three rocks being significantly better than the remaining two types

  15. Water level fluctuations due to earth tides in a well pumping from slightly fractured crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marine, I.W.

    1975-01-01

    J At the Savannah River plant of the Atomic Energy Commission near Aiken, South Carolina, there are three distinct groundwater systems: the coastal plain sediments, the crystalline metamorphic rocks, and a buried Triassic basin. The coastal plain sediments include several Cretaceous and Tertiary granular aquifers and aquicludes, the total thickness being about 305 m. Below these sediments, water occurs in small fractures in crystalline metamorphic rock (hornblende schist and gneiss with lesser amounts of quartzite). Water level fluctuations due to earth tides are recorded in the crystalline metamorphic rock system and in the coastal plain sediments. No water level fluctuations due to earth tides have been observed in wells in the Triassic rock because of the very low permeability. The water level fluctuations due to earth tides in the crystalline rock are about 10 cm, and those in the sediments are about 1.8 cm. The use of water level fluctuations due to earth tides to calculate porosity appears to present practical difficulties both in the crystalline metamorphic rock system and in the coastal plain sediments. In a 1-yr pumping test on a well in the crystalline metamorphic rock the flow was controlled to within 0.1 percent of the total discharge, which was 0.94 1/s. The water level fluctuations due to earth tides in the pumping well were 10 cm, the same as when this well was not being pumped. (U.S.)

  16. Geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste and the role of rock engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugihara, Kozo

    2008-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) and its predecessors have been conducting an extensive geoscientific research program since the 1970's in order to contribute to the formation of a firm scientific and technological basis for the geological disposal of high level radioactive waste in Japan. As a part of this program, in situ experiments have been performed at the Tono Mine in soft sedimentary rocks and at the Kamaishi Mine in hard crystalline rocks. An experiment on excavation disturbance has been one of these experiments and has revealed the extent and properties of the excavation disturbed zone (EDZ) and the applicability of available measurement methods. It is suggested that mechanical excavation and controlled excavation have reduced excavation damage of the rock mass around a drift, although some improvements in the currently available methods for measuring and simulating the EDZ are essential to understand excavation disturbance in more detail. JAEA is now promoting two underground research laboratory projects in Japan; the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) project for crystalline rocks and the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (Horonobe URL) project for sedimentary rocks. From a rock mechanical point of view, the major interest in these projects will be paid to failure phenomenon deep underground, rock stress estimation at larger scales and long-term physical stability of underground structure. These projects are open for international collaboration. (author)

  17. Predictive modelling of noise level generated during sawing of rocks ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper presents an experimental and statistical study on noise level generated .... hardness were determined according to related ISRM (1981) suggested methods. Thin section ..... tistical Package for the Social Sciences). Additionally, the ...

  18. Geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Conceptual repository design in hard rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beale, H.; Griffin, J.R.; Davies, J.W.; Burton, W.R.

    1980-01-01

    The paper gives an interim report on UK studies on possible designs for a repository for vitrified high-level radioactive waste in crystalline rock. The properties of the waste are described and general technical considerations of consequences of disposal in the rock. As an illustration, two basic designs are described associated with pre-cooling in an intermediate store. Firstly, a 'wet repository' is outlined wherein canisters are sealed up closely in boreholes in the rock in regions of low groundwater movement. Secondly, a 'dry repository' above sea level is described where emplacement in tunnels is followed by a loose backfill containing activity absorbers. A connection to deep permeable strata maintains water levels below emplacement positions. Variants on the two basic schemes (tunnel emplacement in a wet repository and in situ cooling) are also assessed. It is concluded that all designs discussed produce a size of repository feasible for construction in the UK. Further, (1) a working figure of 100 0 C per maximum rock temperature is not exceeded, (2) no insuperable engineering problems have so far been found, though rock mechanics studies are at an early stage; (3) it is not possible to discount the escape of a few long-lived 'man-made' isotopes. A minute increment to natural activity in the biosphere may occur from traces of uranium and its decay chains; (4) at this stage, all the designs are still possible candidates for the construction of a UK repository. (author)

  19. Organic maturation levels, thermal history and hydrocarbon source rock potential of the Namurian rocks of the Clare Basin, Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodhue, Robbie; Clayton, Geoffrey [Trinity Coll., Dept. of Geology, Dublin (Ireland)

    1999-11-01

    Vitrinite reflectance data from two inland cored boreholes confirm high maturation levels throughout the onshore part of the Irish Clare Basin and suggest erosion of 2 to 4 km of late Carboniferous cover and elevated palaeogeothermal gradients in the Carboniferous section. The observed maturation gradients are fully consistent with the published hypothesis of a late Carboniferous/Permian 'superplume' beneath Pangaea but local vertical reversals in gradients also suggest a complex thermal regime probably involving advective heating. The uppermost Visean--lower Namurian Clare Shale is laterally extensive and up to 300 m thick. Although this unit is post-mature, TOC values of up to 15% suggest that it could have considerable hydrocarbon source rock potential in any less mature offshore parts of the basin. (Author)

  20. Metamorphic P-T conditions and CO2 influx history of medium-grade metapelites from Karakorum, Trans-Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachan, Himanshu K.; Santosh, M.; Prakash, Divya; Kharya, Aditya; Chandra Singh, P.; Rai, Santosh K.

    2016-07-01

    The medium grade metapelites of Pangong-Tso area in the trans-Himalayan region underwent sillimanite-grade metamorphism initiated during the Cretaceous, associated with the collision of the Kohistan arc and the Indian plate with Asia. This paper present results from a petrological and fluid inclusion study to understand the metamorphic P-T conditions and fluid history of these rocks. The calculated phase equilibria in the Na2O-CaO-K2O-FeO-MgO-MnO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O-TiO2 (NCKFMMnASHT) system suggest P-T conditions of 8 kbar and 650 °C for the peak metamorphic event. Primary fluid inclusions occur in staurolite and garnet, whereas quartz carries mostly secondary fluid inclusions. The trapped fluids in primary inclusions show initial melting temperatures in the range of -56.9 to -56.6 °C, suggesting nearly pure CO2 composition. The secondary fluids are of mixed carbonic-aqueous nature. The re-equilibrated inclusions show annular morphology as well as necking phenomena. The CO2 isochores for the primary inclusions indicate pressures of 6.1-6.7 kbar, suggesting that the CO2-rich fluids were trapped during post-peak exhumation of the rocks, or that synmetamorphic carbonic fluids underwent density reversal during isothermal decompression. The secondary CO2-H2O fluids must have been trapped during the late exhumation stage, as their isochores define further lower pressures of 4.8 kbar. The morphology of re-equilibrated fluid inclusions and the rapid decrease in pressure are consistent with a near-isothermal decompression trajectory following the peak metamorphism. The carbonic fluids were probably derived locally from decarbonation reactions of the associated carbonate rocks during metamorphism or from a deep-seated reservoir through Karakorum fault.

  1. Interpretation of zircon coronae textures from metapelitic granulites of the Ivrea–Verbano Zone, northern Italy: two-stage decomposition of Fe–Ti oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kovaleva

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we report the occurrence of zircon coronae textures in metapelitic granulites of the Ivrea–Verbano Zone. Unusual zircon textures are spatially associated with Fe–Ti oxides and occur as (1 vermicular-shaped aggregates 50–200 µm long and 5–20 µm thick and as (2 zircon coronae and fine-grained chains, hundreds of micrometers long and ≤ 1 µm thick, spatially associated with the larger zircon grains. Formation of such textures is a result of zircon precipitation during cooling after peak metamorphic conditions, which involved: (1 decomposition of Zr-rich ilmenite to Zr-bearing rutile, and formation of the vermicular-shaped zircon during retrograde metamorphism and hydration; and (2 recrystallization of Zr-bearing rutile to Zr-depleted rutile intergrown with quartz, and precipitation of the submicron-thick zircon coronae during further exhumation and cooling. We also observed hat-shaped grains that are composed of preexisting zircon overgrown by zircon coronae during stage (2. Formation of vermicular zircon (1 preceded ductile and brittle deformation of the host rock, as vermicular zircon is found both plastically and cataclastically deformed. Formation of thin zircon coronae (2 was coeval with, or immediately after, brittle deformation as coronae are found to fill fractures in the host rock. The latter is evidence of local, fluid-aided mobility of Zr. This study demonstrates that metamorphic zircon can nucleate and grow as a result of hydration reactions and mineral breakdown during cooling after granulite-facies metamorphism. Zircon coronae textures indicate metamorphic reactions in the host rock and establish the direction of the reaction front.

  2. Designing vertical shafts for mines with deepening and outlet of rock to the operating level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durov, Ye.M.

    1983-01-01

    Requirements for designing the cross sections of central shafts are examined, as well as those for determining the productivity of lifts and equipment of the shafts with a condition of use in a subsequent technological layout of their deepening with outlet of the rock to the operating level. Typical cross sections of skip and cellular shafts are given.

  3. Radionuclide transport in fractured rock: quantifying releases from final disposal of high level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira, Claudia S. da; Alvim, Antonio C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Crystalline rock has been considered as a potentially suitable matrix for high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository because it is found in very stable geological formations and may have very low permeability. In this study the adopted physical system consists of the rock matrix containing a discrete horizontal fracture in a water saturated porous rock and a system of vertical fractures as a lineament. The transport in the fractures - horizontal and vertical, is assumed to obey a relation convection-diffusion, while the molecular diffusion is considered dominant mechanism of transport in porous rock. In this model the decay chain is considered. We use a code in Fortran 90, where the partial differential equations that describe the movement of radionuclides were discretized by finite differences methods. We use the fully implicit method for temporal discretization schemes. The simulation was performed with relevant data of nuclides in spent fuel for performance assessment in a hypothetical repository, thus quantifying the radionuclides released into the host rock. (author)

  4. Detection of Cracking Levels in Brittle Rocks by Parametric Analysis of the Acoustic Emission Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradian, Zabihallah; Einstein, Herbert H.; Ballivy, Gerard

    2016-03-01

    Determination of the cracking levels during the crack propagation is one of the key challenges in the field of fracture mechanics of rocks. Acoustic emission (AE) is a technique that has been used to detect cracks as they occur across the specimen. Parametric analysis of AE signals and correlating these parameters (e.g., hits and energy) to stress-strain plots of rocks let us detect cracking levels properly. The number of AE hits is related to the number of cracks, and the AE energy is related to magnitude of the cracking event. For a full understanding of the fracture process in brittle rocks, prismatic specimens of granite containing pre-existing flaws have been tested in uniaxial compression tests, and their cracking process was monitored with both AE and high-speed video imaging. In this paper, the characteristics of the AE parameters and the evolution of cracking sequences are analyzed for every cracking level. Based on micro- and macro-crack damage, a classification of cracking levels is introduced. This classification contains eight stages (1) crack closure, (2) linear elastic deformation, (3) micro-crack initiation (white patch initiation), (4) micro-crack growth (stable crack growth), (5) micro-crack coalescence (macro-crack initiation), (6) macro-crack growth (unstable crack growth), (7) macro-crack coalescence and (8) failure.

  5. The geochemistry of high-level waste disposal in granitic rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, N.A.; Sargent, F.P.

    1984-01-01

    Under the auspices of the cooperative agreement between Euratom and Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd about radioactive waste management and disposal, a joint workshop was held on the topic of the geochemistry of high-level waste disposal in granitic rocks. The report covers (1) waste form leaching, (2) thermodynamics, (3) geochemical models, (4) the role of colloids, (5) sorption phenomena, (6) the linking of flow and geochemical models, (7) microbial activity

  6. "Sub-Surf Rocks"! An A-Level Resource Developed through an Industry-Education Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Hazel

    2012-01-01

    A free internet resource called "Sub-Surf Rocks"! was launched in 2010. Its aim is to use seismic data obtained by the oil industry for enhancing the teaching of structural and economic geology at A-level (ages 16-18) in the UK. Seismic data gives a unique insight into the sub-surface and the many high-quality images coupled with…

  7. Preliminary analysis of the potential for thermally-induced rock fracture around high-level waste containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratigan, J.L.

    1976-01-01

    The major results are: the development of parametric formulations relating the potential for thermally induced fracturing in the high-level radioactive waste repository concept to the elastic and thermal properties of the site rock and the depth of the excavation, and the recognition of a need to determine the actual ''failure envelope'' for any potential site rock in the laboratory and adjust the parametric relations appropriately. Analysis of five rock types indicated that none would experience elastic/brittle failure due to the thermal stresses induced by the introduction of a 5 kW heat source. However, the rock strengths and elastic properties are laboratory values and not in situ values

  8. Hydrogeology of the rock mass encountered at the 240 level of Canada's Underground Research Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozak, E.T.; Davison, C.C.

    1992-09-01

    The rock mass surrounding the 240 level of Canada's Underground Research Laboratory (URL) has been hydrogeologically characterized through observations made in the tunnel and room excavations and from a network of radiating low-dipping boreholes. The 240 level complex sits in a wedge of grey-to-pink granite between two important, low-dipping, hydraulically active fracture zones, known as Fracture Zone 2 (FZ2) and Fracture Zone 2.5 (FZ2.5), a splay of FZ2. There is no apparent seepage into the 240 level room and tunnel network from the surrounding rock mass except from a vertical fracture intersected by the Room 209 tunnel. Extensive hydraulic and geomechanical tests have been conducted in boreholes intersecting the Room 209 vertical fracture, and transmissivities were found to range from 10 -10 to 10 -6 m 2 /s. FZ2 and FZ2.5 occur at the 240 m depth approximately 10 m to the west and 100 m to the south respectively of the 240 level tunnel network. Hydraulic testing within packer-isolated boreholes intersecting these fracture zones showed that transmissivities ranged from 10 -7 to 10 -5 m 2 /s in FZ2, and 10 -9 to 10 -7 m 2 /s in FZ2.5. No naturally-occurring fractures were encountered east of the 240 level complex up to 300 m away. The rock mass to the north of the 240 level is dominated by the Room 209 vertical fracture, which tends to splay with distance and has been intersected 95 m from the Room 209 tunnel. (Author) (50 figs., 5 tabs., 10 refs.)

  9. Technique for estimating the sound power level radiated by pneumatic rock drills and the evaluation of a CSIR prototype rock drill with engineering noise controls

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kovalchik, PG

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available and the radiation patterns in octave and 1/3 octave bands. Overall sound power level is also determined. This paper also reports the results obtained by using this procedure to evaluate a SECO S215 standard production drill and a CSIR Miningtek prototype rock drill...

  10. Radionuclide Transport in Fractured Rock: Numerical Assessment for High Level Waste Repository

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Siqueira da Silveira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Deep and stable geological formations with low permeability have been considered for high level waste definitive repository. A common problem is the modeling of radionuclide migration in a fractured medium. Initially, we considered a system consisting of a rock matrix with a single planar fracture in water saturated porous rock. Transport in the fracture is assumed to obey an advection-diffusion equation, while molecular diffusion is considered the dominant mechanism of transport in porous matrix. The partial differential equations describing the movement of radionuclides were discretized by finite difference methods, namely, fully explicit, fully implicit, and Crank-Nicolson schemes. The convective term was discretized by the following numerical schemes: backward differences, centered differences, and forward differences. The model was validated using an analytical solution found in the literature. Finally, we carried out a simulation with relevant spent fuel nuclide data with a system consisting of a horizontal fracture and a vertical fracture for assessing the performance of a hypothetical repository inserted into the host rock. We have analysed the bentonite expanded performance at the beginning of fracture, the quantified radionuclide released from a borehole, and an estimated effective dose to an adult, obtained from ingestion of well water during one year.

  11. Demonstration of nuclide migration phenomena in rock on high level irradiation waste geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanazawa, Yasuo; Okuyama, Yasuko; Takahashi, Manabu

    1997-01-01

    We have studied on main three theme. From study of material movement in rock-groundwater system in the area of high concentration of irradiative elements, the results proved that minerals with Fe 3+ and clay mineral were very important as mineral held nuclide, the existence of pyrite suggested uranium nuclei enrichment and the latter reduced circumstances, and nuclei movement and accumulation could be estimated from oxidation-reduction potential, kinds of dissolved ions and activity ratio. By study of evaluation of permeability in deep rock fissure system, each measurement method of transmissivity in the Transient Pulse method, the Oscillation test and the Flow Pump method was established. The effect of principle stress, confining pressure, pore water pressure and axial pressure on transmissivity could be determined in the limited level of stress. By study of nuclide migration phenomena and change of rock depend on fissure system, the relation between the degree of change and fissure system was investigated and alternation mineral was identified and it's formation conditions estimated. (S.Y.)

  12. Water-level fluctuations due to Earth tides in a well pumping from slightly fractured crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marine, I.W.

    1975-01-01

    At the Savannah River plant of the Atomic Energy Commission near Aiken, South Carolina, there are three distinct groundwater systems: the coastal plain sediments, the crystalline metamorphic rocks, and a buried Triassic basin. The coastal plain sediments include several Cretaceous and Tertiary granular aquifers and aquicludes, the total thickness being about 305 m. Below these sediments, water occurs in small fractures in crystalline metamorphic rock (hornblende schist and gneiss with lesser amounts of quartzite). Water level fluctuations due to earth tides are recorded in the crystalline metamorphic rock system and in the coastal plain sediments. No water level fluctuations due to earth tides have been observed in wells in the Triassic rock because of the very low permeability. The water level fluctuations due to earth tides in the crystalline rock are about 10 cm, and those in the sediments are about 1.8 cm. The use of water level fluctuations due to earth tides to calculate porosity appears to present practical difficulties both in the crystalline metamorphic rock system and in the coastal plain sediments. In a 1-yr pumping test on a well in the crystalline metamorphic rock the flow was controlled to within 0.1 per cent of the total discharge, which was 0.94 l/s. The water level fluctuations due to earth tides in the pumping well were 10 cm, the same as when this well was not being pumped. (U.S.)

  13. Distribution coefficient of radionuclides on rocks for performance assessment of high-level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibutani, Tomoki; Shibata, Masahiro; Suyama, Tadahiro

    1999-11-01

    Distribution coefficients of radionuclides on rocks are selected for safety assessment in the 'Second Progress Report on Research and Development for the geological disposal of HLW in Japan (H12 Report)'. The categorized types of rock are granitic rocks (crystalline and acidic rocks), basaltic rocks (crystalline and basic rocks), psammitic rocks (neogene sedimentary (soft)), and tuffaceous-pelitic rocks (pre-neogene sedimentary rocks (hard)). The types of groundwater are FRHP (fresh reducing high-pH), FRLP (fresh reducing low-pH), SRHP (saline reducing high-pH), SRLP (saline reducing low-pH), MRNP (mixing reducing neutral-pH) and FOHP (fresh oxidizing high-pH) groundwater. The elements to be surveyed are Ni, Se, Zr, Nb, Tc, Pd, Sn, Cs, Sm, Pb, Ra, Ac, Th, Pa, U, Np, Pu, Am and Cm. Distribution coefficients are collected from literatures describing batch sorption experimental results, and are selected under consideration of conservativity. (author)

  14. A NEW INTERPRETATION FOR THE GARNET ZONING IN METAPELITIC ROCKS OF THE SILGARÁ FORMATION, SOUTHWESTERN SANTANDER MASSIF, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ríos Reyes Carlos Alberto

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A Barrovian sequence of the Silgará Formation at the southwestern Santander Massif, Colombian Andes, contains zoned garnets in which major and trace element zoning correlates with distribution of mineral inclusions, which may indicate that garnet growth rate varied through time and affected both composition and texture ofgarnets, although different garnet producing reactions have also played an important role in the chemical zoning of garent. However, a local metasomatism process associated to the action of late magmatic fluids associated to the emplacement of the Pescadero Pluton (external forcing mechanism would be also considered. In particular, Ca, Mn and Y zoning patterns in some garnets correspond with inclusion-rich vs. inclusion-free zones, althoughthe distribution of inclusions does not correlate with chemical zoning (i.e., the same inclusions are found in Ca-rich and Ca-poor zones of the garnet. There is a similar lack of correlation with accessory phases (apatite, monazite, xenotime, ilmenite or rutile. In a garnet from the garnet-staurolite zone, a high Mn core containsabundant and randomly oriented apatite, monazite and ilmenite inclusions, while a euhedral low Ca mantle zone is inclusion-free and the high Ca / low Mn rim zone contains apatite, monazite and ilmenite aligned parallel to the margins of the garnet. Inclusions in garnet can also represent mineral phases were not completely consumed during garnet growth. Association of garnet zoning trends and patterns with inclusion distribution may help differentiatebetween processes that identically affect major-element zoning but that produced variable textures in the garnet.

  15. GRAPHITIZATION OF METASEDIMENTARY ROCKS IN THE WESTERN KONYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin KURT

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The Paleozoic-Mesozoic metasedimentary rocks in the study area are metacarbonate, metachert, metapelite, metasandstone and metaconglomerate. Graphite layers are 1cm to 2m thick, extend laterally for tens of meters and are intercalated with metasedimentary rocks. Generally, the graphite is black in color, with a well developed cleavage which is concordant with the cleavage of the host rocks. In addition, the crystal and flake graphites formed in metasedimentary rocks are mostly aligned parallel to the cleavage planes. These metamorphic rocks are subjected to shearing and granulation providing structural control for the development of graphite. It was probably this phenomenon that first led to emphasize the relationship between graphite and metasedimentary rocks. Graphite mineralization has been controlled by bedding, microfractures and granulations. Briefly, the metamorphism has converted carbonaceous matter into graphite .

  16. High-level radioactive waste isolation by incorporation in silicate rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, L.L.; Cohen, J.J.; Lewis, A.E.; Braun, R.L.

    1978-01-01

    A number of technical possibilities for isolating high-level radioactive materials have been theoretically investigated at various times and places. Isolating such wastes deep underground to ensure long term removal from the biosphere is one such possibility. The present concept involves as a first step creating the necessary void space at considerable depth, say 2 to 5 km, in a very-low-permeability silicate medium such as shale. Waste in dry, calcined or vitrified form is then lowered into the void space, and the access hole or shaft sealed. Energy released by the radioactive decay raises the temperature to a point where the surrounding rock begins to melt. The waste is then dissolved in it. The extent of this melt region grows until the heat generated is balanced by conduction away from the molten zone. Resolidification then begins, and ends when the radioactive decay has progressed to the point that the temperature falls below the melting point of the rock-waste solution. Calculations are presented showing the growth and resolidification process. A nuclear explosion is one way of creating the void space. (author)

  17. Disposal of low- and intermediate-level solid radioactive wastes in rock cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This Guidebook summarizes the factors to be considered and the activities to be undertaken in the overall planning and development of a disposal system for solid or solidified low- and intermediate-level wastes in rock cavities. Aspects related to repository site selection, design, construction, operation, shutdown, surveillance, regulation and safety assessment are discussed here in general terms. They will be covered in greater technical detail in a separate document. This report considers the emplacement of wastes in categories II, III, IV and V, as defined in Table 3.1, in different kinds of cavities located at various depths from just below the surface to deep continental rock. The choice of the type of cavity and its depth and of the disposal site itself is related to the radiological protection requirements for the wastes concerned. The repositories considered include natural caves and abandoned mines as well as specially excavated cavities in various geological formations. Consideration is also given to hydrogeological, environmental and societal factors. The guidelines given in the report are made sufficiently general to cover a broad variety of different circumstances. Consequently, the practical application of these guidelines needs a case-by-case consideration which takes into account the local conditions, e.g. natural circumstances, the characteristics of the wastes and national and international regulations and practices

  18. Disposal of low- and intermediate-level solid radioactive wastes in rock cavities. A guidebook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    This Guidebook summarizes the factors to be considered and the activities to be undertaken in the overall planning and development of a disposal system for solid or solidified low- and intermediate-level wastes in rock cavities. Aspects related to repository site selection, design, construction, operation, shutdown, surveillance, regulation and safety assessment are discussed here in general terms. They will be covered in greater technical detail in a separate document. This report considers the emplacement of wastes in categories II, III, IV and V, as defined in Table 3.1, in different kinds of cavities located at various depths from just below the surface to deep continental rock. The choice of the type of cavity and its depth and of the disposal site itself is related to the radiological protection requirements for the wastes concerned. The repositories considered include natural caves and abandoned mines as well as specially excavated cavities in various geological formations. Consideration is also given to hydrogeological, environmental and societal factors. The guidelines given in the report are made sufficiently general to cover a broad variety of different circumstances. Consequently, the practical application of these guidelines needs a case-by-case consideration which takes into account the local conditions, e.g. natural circumstances, the characteristics of the wastes and national and international regulations and practices.

  19. Unsaturated flow and transport through fractured rock related to high-level waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D.D.; Rasmussen, T.C.

    1991-01-01

    Research results are summarized for a US Nuclear Regulatory Commission contract with the University of Arizona focusing on field and laboratory methods for characterizing unsaturated fluid flow and solute transport related to high-level radioactive waste repositories. Characterization activities are presented for the Apache Leap Tuff field site. The field site is located in unsaturated, fractured tuff in central Arizona. Hydraulic, pneumatic, and thermal characteristics of the tuff are summarized, along with methodologies employed to monitor and sample hydrologic and geochemical processes at the field site. Thermohydrologic experiments are reported which provide laboratory and field data related to the effects conditions and flow and transport in unsaturated, fractured rock. 29 refs., 17 figs., 21 tabs

  20. Designing vertical mine shafts under conditions of increasing shaft depth with rock hoisting to the operating mining level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durov, E.M.

    1983-05-01

    A system for shaft excavation in deep coal mines with mining depth exceeding 1,000 m is discussed. During mine sinking rocks are removed to the ground surface. When depth of a deep mine shaft is increased rocks are removed to the operating mining level, causing lower investment costs than the system with rock hoisting to the ground surface. The Yuzhgiproshakht design firm carries out investigations on the optimum methods for increasing shaft depth in coal mines. Coal mines with the following coal output are included in evaluations: 0.9, 1.2, 1.5, and 1.8 Mt/year. Mine shaft depth of 600, 800, 1000, 1200, 1400 and 1600 m is analyzed. Shaft depth is increased by 100, 200, 300 or 400 m. Shaft sinking rate ranges from 10 to 70 m/month. Effects of rock hoisting from the shaft bottom on the hoisting scheme in a mine shaft are analyzed. Position of hoisting bucket in relation to cages or skips moving in a shaft is investigated. Investigation results are given in 5 schemes. Analyses show that use of a shaft sinking system with rock hoisting to the ground surface during shaft excavation and with rock hoisting to the operating mining level during shaft depth increasing is economical when a shaft with skips is from 7 to 8 m in diameter or when a cage shaft is 6 m, 7 m or 8 m in diameter. Use of standardized shaft excavation systems is recommended. (In Russian)

  1. GEOCHEMISTRY OF ROCK UNITS AT THE POTENTIAL REPOSITORY LEVEL, YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterman, Z.E.; Cloke, P.L.

    2000-01-01

    The compositional variability of the phenocryst-poor member of the 12.8-million-year Topopah Spring Tuff at the potential repository level was assessed by duplicate analysis of 20 core samples from the cross drift at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Previous analyses of outcrop and core samples of the Topopah Spring Tuff showed that the phenocryst-poor rhyolite, which includes both lithophysal and nonlithophysal zones, is relatively uniform in composition. Analyses of rock samples from the cross drift, the first from the actual potential repository block, also indicate the chemical homogeneity of this unit excluding localized deposits of vapor-phase minerals and low-temperature calcite and opal in fractures, cavities, and faults, The possible influence of vapor-phase minerals and calcite and opal coatings on rock composition at a scale sufficiently large to incorporate these heterogeneously distributed deposits was evaluated and is considered to be relatively minor. Therefore, the composition of the phenocryst-poor member of the Topopah Spring Tuff is considered to be adequately represented by the analyses of samples from the cross drift. The mean composition as represented by the 10 most abundant oxides in weight percent or grams per hundred grams is: SiO 2 , 76.29; Al 2 O 3 , 12.55; FeO, 0.14; Fe 2 O 3 , 0.97; MgO, 0.13; CaO, 0.50; Na 2 O, 3.52; K 2 O, 4.83; TiO 2 , 0.11; and MnO, 0.07

  2. Thermal effects on clay rocks for deep disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Liang Zhang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Thermal effects on the Callovo-Oxfordian and Opalinus clay rocks for hosting high-level radioactive waste were comprehensively investigated with laboratory and in situ experiments under repository relevant conditions: (1 stresses covering the range from the initial lithostatic state to redistributed levels after excavation, (2 hydraulic drained and undrained boundaries, and (3 heating from ambient temperature up to 90 °C–120 °C and a subsequent cooling phase. The laboratory experiments were performed on normal-sized and large hollow cylindrical samples in various respects of thermal expansion and contraction, thermally-induced pore water pressure, temperature influences on deformation and strength, thermal impacts on swelling, fracture sealing and permeability. The laboratory results obtained from the samples are consistent with the in situ observations during heating experiments in the underground research laboratories at Bure and Mont-Terri. Even though the claystones showed significant responses to thermal loading, no negative effects on their favorable barrier properties were observed.

  3. 'Escher' Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Chemical Changes in 'Endurance' Rocks [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 This false-color image taken by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows a rock dubbed 'Escher' on the southwestern slopes of 'Endurance Crater.' Scientists believe the rock's fractures, which divide the surface into polygons, may have been formed by one of several processes. They may have been caused by the impact that created Endurance Crater, or they might have arisen when water leftover from the rock's formation dried up. A third possibility is that much later, after the rock was formed, and after the crater was created, the rock became wet once again, then dried up and developed cracks. Opportunity has spent the last 14 sols investigating Escher, specifically the target dubbed 'Kirchner,' and other similar rocks with its scientific instruments. This image was taken on sol 208 (Aug. 24, 2004) by the rover's panoramic camera, using the 750-, 530- and 430-nanometer filters. The graph above shows that rocks located deeper into 'Endurance Crater' are chemically altered to a greater degree than rocks located higher up. This chemical alteration is believed to result from exposure to water. Specifically, the graph compares ratios of chemicals between the deep rock dubbed 'Escher,' and the more shallow rock called 'Virginia,' before (red and blue lines) and after (green line) the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity drilled into the rocks. As the red and blue lines indicate, Escher's levels of chlorine relative to Virginia's went up, and sulfur down, before the rover dug a hole into the rocks. This implies that the surface of Escher has been chemically altered to a greater extent than the surface of Virginia. Scientists are still investigating the role water played in influencing this trend. These data were taken by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.

  4. Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory project. Rock mechanical investigations measurement of the rock strain and displacement during shaft excavation at GL.-200m level of research galley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Toru; Seno, Yasuhiro; Hikima, Ryoichi; Matsui, Hiroya

    2011-09-01

    In order to establish the scientific and technical basis for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is proceeding with the geoscientific research in the research galleries excavated at the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU). One of the scientific and technical objectives of this project is to understand the change of geological environment due to excavation of research galleries. The investigation described herein is the measurement of the rock strain / displacement while pre-excavation grouting or excavating of the shaft around the GL.-200m level of research gallery. A brief summary is presented as follows. 1) Apparent strain with pre-excavation grouting: Injection pressure during pre-excavation grouting could explain the observed strain. Maximum principal strain 'E1' (extension) was oriented to NS direction. The measured fracture system at the site includes a fracture set perpendicular to E1. We infer that these fracture expanded due to grout injection pressure. 2) Apparent strain during excavation of the shaft: Rock behavior of stress release was observed when the bottom of shaft passed by and lining of shaft was constructed. The observed strain was very small and almost same scale as the expected strain for elastic material. But the observed strain of radial direction was compression whereas the expected strain was extension. Therefore it was estimated that rock behavior was affected by cracks. 3) Applicability of the FBG sensors for in situ displacement measurement near the shaft: FBG sensors were stable and reliable in comparison to strain meters or inclinometers. There was no electrical equipment trouble nor large drift in measurements. FBG results can lead to understand bending mode of borehole. But we cannot specify the displacement direction from these data in some cases. (author)

  5. Creep in crystalline rock with application to high level nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eloranta, P.; Simonen, A.

    1992-06-01

    The time-dependent strength and deformation properties of hard crystalline rock are studied. Theoretical models defining the phenomena which can effect these properties are reviewed. The time- dependent deformation of the openings in the proposed nuclear waste repository is analysed. The most important factors affecting the subcritical crack growth in crystalline rock are the stress state, the chemical environment, temperature and microstructure of the rock. There are several theoretical models for the analysis of creep and cyclic fatigue: deformation diagrams, rheological models thermodynamic models, reaction rate models, stochastic models, damage models and time-dependent safety factor model. They are defective in describing the three-axial stress condition and strength criteria. In addition, the required parameters are often too difficult to determine with adequate accuracy. Therefore these models are seldom applied in practice. The effect of microcrack- driven creep on the stability of the work shaft, the emplacement tunnel and the capsulation hole of a proposed nuclear waste repository was studied using a numerical model developed by Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. According to the model, the microcrack driven creep progresses very slowly in good quality rock. Poor rock quality may accelerate the creep rate. The model is very sensitive to the properties of the rock and secondary stress state. The results show that creep causes no stability problems on excavations in good rock. The results overestimate the effect of the creep, because the analysis omitted the effect of support structures and backfilling

  6. Numerical Model of Fluid Flow through Heterogeneous Rock for High Level Radioactive Waste Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirai, M.; Chiba, R.; Takahashi, T.; Hashida, T.; Fomin, S.; Chugunov, V.; Niibori, Y.

    2007-01-01

    An international consensus has emerged that deep geological disposal on land is one of the most appropriate means for high level radioactive wastes (HLW). The fluid transport is slow and radioactive elements are dangerous, so it's impossible to experiment over thousands of years. Instead, numerical model in such natural barrier as fractured underground needs to be considered. Field observations reveal that the equation with fractional derivative is more appropriate for describing physical phenomena than the equation which is based on the Fick's law. Thus, non-Fickian diffusion into inhomogeneous underground appears to be important in the assessment of HLW disposal. A solute transport equation with fractional derivative has been suggested and discussed in literature. However, no attempts were made to apply this equation for modeling of HLW disposal with account for the radioactive decay. In this study, we suggest the use of a novel fractional advection-diffusion equation which accounts for the effect of radioactive disintegration and for interactions between major, macro pores and fractal micro pores. This model is fundamentally different from previous proposed model of HLW, particularly in utilizing fractional derivative. Breakthrough curves numerically obtained by the present model are presented for a variety of rock types with respect to some important nuclides. Results of the calculation showed that for longer distance our model tends to be more conservative than the conventional Fickian model, therefore our model can be said to be safer

  7. Retrievability of high-level nuclear waste from geologic repositories - Regulatory and rock mechanics/design considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanious, N.S.; Nataraja, M.S.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1987-01-01

    Retrievability of nuclear waste from high-level geologic repositories is one of the performance objectives identified in 10CFR60 (Code of Federal Regulations, 1985). 10CFR60.111 states that the geologic repository operations area shall be designed to preserve the option of waste retrieval. In designing the repository operations area, rock mechanics considerations play a major role especially in evaluating the feasibility of retrieval operations. This paper discusses generic considerations affecting retrievability as they relate to repository design, construction, and operation, with emphasis on regulatory and rock mechanics aspects

  8. Basic rock properties for the thermo-hydro-mechanical analysis of a high-level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jhin Wung; Kang, Chul Hyung

    1999-04-01

    Deep geological radioactive waste disposal is generally based on the isolation of the waste from the biosphere by multiple barriers. The host rock is one of these barriers which should provide a stable mechanical and chemical environment for the engineered barriers. In the evaluation of the safety of the high-level radioactive waste disposal systems, an important part of the safety analysis is an assessment of the coupling or interaction between thermal, hydrological, and mechanical effects. In order to do this assessment, adequate data on the characteristics of different host rocks are necessary. The properties of the rock and rock discontinuity are very complex and their values vary in a wide range. The accuracy of the result of the assessment depends on the values of these properties used. The present study is an attempt to bring together and condense data for the basic properties of various rock masses, which are needed in the thermo-hydro-mechanical analysis for the deep geological radioactive waste repository. The testing and measurement methods for these basic properties are also presented. Domestic data for deep geological media should be supplemented in the future, due to the insufficiency and the lack of accuracy of the data available at present. (author). 28 refs., 21 figs

  9. Basic rock properties for the thermo-hydro-mechanical analysis of a high-level radioactive waste repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jhin Wung; Kang, Chul Hyung

    1999-04-01

    Deep geological radioactive waste disposal is generally based on the isolation of the waste from the biosphere by multiple barriers. The host rock is one of these barriers which should provide a stable mechanical and chemical environment for the engineered barriers. In the evaluation of the safety of the high-level radioactive waste disposal systems, an important part of the safety analysis is an assessment of the coupling or interaction between thermal, hydrological, and mechanical effects. In order to do this assessment, adequate data on the characteristics of different host rocks are necessary. The properties of the rock and rock discontinuity are very complex and their values vary in a wide range. The accuracy of the result of the assessment depends on the values of these properties used. The present study is an attempt to bring together and condense data for the basic properties of various rock masses, which are needed in the thermo-hydro-mechanical analysis for the deep geological radioactive waste repository. The testing and measurement methods for these basic properties are also presented. Domestic data for deep geological media should be supplemented in the future, due to the insufficiency and the lack of accuracy of the data available at present. (author). 28 refs., 21 figs.

  10. Review of important rock mechanics studies required for underground high level nuclear waste repository program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, S.; Cho, W. J

    2007-01-15

    Disposal concept adapting room and pillar method, which is a confirmed technique in mining and tunnel construction for long time, has advantages at cost, safety, technical feasibility, flexibility, and international cooperation point of views. Then the important rock mechanics principals and in situ and laboratory tests for understanding the behavior of rock, buffer, and backfill as well as their interactions will be reviewed. The accurate understanding of them is important for developing a safe disposal concept and successful operation of underground repository for permanent disposal of radioactive wastes. First of all, In this study, current status of rock mechanics studies for HLW disposal in foreign countries such as Sweden, USA, Canada, Finland, Japan, and France were reviewed. After then the in situ and laboratory tests for site characterization were summarized. Furthermore, rock mechanics studies required during the whole procedure for the disposal project from repository design to the final closure will be reviewed systematically. This study will help for developing a disposal system including site selection, repository design, operation, maintenance, and closure of a repository in deep underground rock. By introducing the required rock mechanics tests at different stages, it would be helpful from the planning stage to the operation stage of a radioactive waste disposal project.

  11. Review of important rock mechanics studies required for underground high level nuclear waste repository program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, S.; Cho, W. J.

    2007-01-01

    Disposal concept adapting room and pillar method, which is a confirmed technique in mining and tunnel construction for long time, has advantages at cost, safety, technical feasibility, flexibility, and international cooperation point of views. Then the important rock mechanics principals and in situ and laboratory tests for understanding the behavior of rock, buffer, and backfill as well as their interactions will be reviewed. The accurate understanding of them is important for developing a safe disposal concept and successful operation of underground repository for permanent disposal of radioactive wastes. First of all, In this study, current status of rock mechanics studies for HLW disposal in foreign countries such as Sweden, USA, Canada, Finland, Japan, and France were reviewed. After then the in situ and laboratory tests for site characterization were summarized. Furthermore, rock mechanics studies required during the whole procedure for the disposal project from repository design to the final closure will be reviewed systematically. This study will help for developing a disposal system including site selection, repository design, operation, maintenance, and closure of a repository in deep underground rock. By introducing the required rock mechanics tests at different stages, it would be helpful from the planning stage to the operation stage of a radioactive waste disposal project

  12. Assessment of natural radioactivity levels in rocks and their relationships with the geological structure of Johor state, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnour, I A; Wagiran, H; Ibrahim, N; Hamzah, S; Elias, M S; Laili, Z; Omar, M

    2014-01-01

    The distribution of natural radionuclides ((238)U, (232)Th and (40)K) and their radiological hazard effect in rocks collected from the state of Johor, Malaysia were determined by gamma spectroscopy using a high-purity germanium detector. The highest values of (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K activity concentrations (67±6, 85±7 and 722±18 Bg kg(-1), respectively) were observed in the granite rock. The lowest concentrations of (238)U and (232)Th (2±0.1 Bq kg(-1) for (238)U and 2±0.1 Bq kg(-1) for (232)Th) were observed in gabbro rock. The lowest concentration of (40)K (45±2 Bq kg(-1)) was detected in sandstone. The radium equivalent activity concentrations for all rock samples investigated were lower than the internationally accepted value of 370 Bq kg(-1). The highest value of radium equivalent in the present study (239±17 Bq kg(-1)) was recorded in the area of granite belonging to an acid intrusive rock geological structure. The absorbed dose rate was found to range from 4 to 112 nGy h(-1). The effective dose ranged from 5 to 138 μSv h(-1). The internal and external hazard index values were given in results lower than unity. The purpose of this study is to provide information related to radioactivity background levels and the effects of radiation on residents in the study area under investigation. Moreover, the relationships between the radioactivity levels in the rocks within the geological structure of the studied area are discussed.

  13. Site-specific evaluation of safety issues for high-level waste disposal in crystalline rocks. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jobmann, M. (ed.) [DBE Technology GmbH, Peine (Germany)

    2016-03-31

    In the past, German research and development (R and D) activities regarding the disposal of radioactive waste, including spent nuclear fuel, focused mainly on domal rock salt because rock salt was the preferred host rock formation. In addition, generic R and D work regarding alternative host rocks (crystalline rocks and claystones) had been performed as well for a long time but with lower intensity. Around the year 2000, as a consequence of the moratorium on the Gorleben site, the Federal Government decided to have argillaceous rocks and crystalline rocks investigated in more detail. As Germany does not have any underground research and host rock characterization facilities, international cooperation received a high priority in the German R and D programme for high-level waste (HLW) disposal in order to increase the knowledge regarding alternative host rocks. Major cornerstones of the cooperation are joint projects and experiments conducted especially in underground research laboratories (URL) in crystalline rocks at the Grimsel Test Site (Switzerland) and the Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) Aespoe(Sweden) and in argillaceous rocks at the URL Mont Terri (Switzerland) and Bure (France). In 2001, the topic of radioactive waste disposal was integrated into the agreement between the former Russian Ministry of Atomic Energy (Minatom, now Rosatom) and the German Ministry of Labor (BMWA), now Ministry of Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi), on cooperation regarding R and D on the peaceful utilization of nuclear power (agreement on ''Wirtschaftlich-Technische Zusammenarbeit'' WTZ). The intention was to have a new and interesting opportunity for international R and D cooperation regarding HLW disposal in crystalline rocks and the unique possibility to perform site-specific work, to test the safety demonstration tools available, and to expand the knowledge to all aspects specific to these host rocks. Another motivation for joining this cooperation was the

  14. P-T-t metamorphic evolution of highly deformed metapelites from the Pinkie unit of western Svalbard using quartz-in-garnet barometry, trace element thermometry, P-T-X-M diagrams and monazite in-situ dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kośmińska, Karolina; Spear, Frank; Majka, Jarosław

    2017-04-01

    We present the results of quartz-in-garnet (QuiG) Raman barometry coupled with P-T-X-M diagrams, trace element thermometry, and monazite dating from metapelites of the Pinkie unit on Prins Karls Forland, western Svalbard. This unconventional approach, which combines traditional and novel thermobarometry techniques as well as dating results, provides the opportunity to decipher the pressure-temperature-time (P-T-t) metamorphic evolution of these highly deformed rocks, for which the P-T conditions could not have been obtained using traditional techniques. The Pinkie unit is comprised of Barrovian-type zones expressed by the following three mineral assemblages: Grt+St+Ms+Bt+Pl+Q, Grt+St+Ky+Ms+Bt+Pl+Q and Grt+Ky+Ms+Bt+Pl+Q. The metamorphic assemblages have been strongly affected by pervasive mylonitization. Two generations of garnet are present. Early garnet-I forms large (up to 2 mm) anhedral and inclusion-rich porphyroblasts that are strongly deformed with resorbed rims. Its composition varies from Alm81Grs5Prp11Sps3 in the core to Alm84Grs4Prp10Sps2 in the rim for a St-bearing sample. St-Ky bearing metapelites contain garnet-I, which is characterized by Alm88Grs2Prp8Sps2 in the core and Alm89Grs2Prp8Sps1 in the rim. In the Ky-bearing sample garnet-I composition is varying from Alm77Grs4Prp11Sps8 in the core to Alm83Grs4Prp9Sps4 in the rim. Garnet-II is characterized by small (up to 0.5 mm) euhedral grains that locally overgrows garnet-I. It contains very scarce inclusions, mostly quartz. Grt-II composition is very similar in all Pinkie unit samples and is characterized by Alm80Grs11Prp8Sps1(0). The measured maximum shift of the 464 cm-1 Raman band for quartz in garnet-I is 1.05 cm-1 for St-bearing samples, 1.80 cm-1 for St-Ky bearing rocks, and 2.10 cm-1 for Ky-bearing samples, respectively. The highest shift obtained for inclusions in garnet-II is 2.7 cm-1. Monazite-in-garnet thermometry combined with the QuiG yielded P-T conditions of garnet-I nucleation as

  15. Geotechnical modeling of high-level nuclear waste disposal by rock melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuze, F.E.

    1981-12-01

    A new strategy has been developed for the geotechnical modeling of nuclear waste disposal by rock melting (DRM). Three seeparate tasks were performed to reach this objective: a review of the four scenarios which have been proposed for DRM, to date; an evaluation of computer-based numerical models which could be used to analyze the mechanical, thermal, and hydraulic processes involved in DRM; and a critical review of rock mass properties which are relevant to the design and safety of waste disposal by rock melting. It is concluded that several geotechnical aspects of DRM can be studied realistically with current state-of-the-art model capabilities and knowledge of material properties. The next step in the feasibility study of DRM should be a best-estimate calculation of the four cavity-melt and canister-burial concepts. These new analyses will indicate the most critical areas for subsequent research

  16. Technology needs for selecting and evaluating high-level waste repository sites in crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    This report describes properties and processes that govern the performance of the geological barrier in a nuclear waste isolation system in crystalline rock and the state-of-the-art in the understanding of these properties and processes. Areas and topics that require further research and development as well as technology needs for investigating and selecting repository sites are presented. Experiences from the Swedish site selection program are discussed, and a general investigation strategy is presented for an area characterization phase of an exploratory program in crystalline rocks. 255 refs., 65 figs., 10 tabs

  17. Young Scientists Explore Rocks & Minerals. Book 11--Intermediate Level. A Good Apple Activity Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBruin, Jerry

    Designed to develop creativity in young learners, this book contains interdisciplinary activities which focus on the theme of rocks and minerals. Activity pages are provided that can serve as front and back covers of a student booklet and the suggested activities can be duplicated for insertion between the covers resulting in a booklet for each…

  18. National survey of crystalline rocks and recommendations of regions to be explored for high-level radioactive waste repository sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smedes, H.W.

    1983-04-01

    A reconnaissance of the geological literature on large regions of exposed crystalline rocks in the United States provides the basis for evaluating if any of those regions warrant further exploration toward identifying potential sites for development of a high-level radioactive waste repository. The reconnaissance does not serve as a detailed evaluation of regions or of any smaller subunits within the regions. Site performance criteria were selected and applied insofar as a national data base exists, and guidelines were adopted that relate the data to those criteria. The criteria include consideration of size, vertical movements, faulting, earthquakes, seismically induced ground motion, Quaternary volcanic rocks, mineral deposits, high-temperature convective ground-water systems, hydraulic gradients, and erosion. Brief summaries of each major region of exposed crystalline rock, and national maps of relevant data provided the means for applying the guidelines and for recommending regions for further study. It is concluded that there is a reasonable likelihood that geologically suitable repository sites exist in each of the major regions of crystalline rocks. The recommendation is made that further studies first be conducted of the Lake Superior, Northern Appalachian and Adirondack, and the Southern Appalachian Regions. It is believed that those regions could be explored more effectively and suitable sites probably could be found, characterized, verified, and licensed more readily there than in the other regions

  19. National survey of crystalline rocks and recommendations of regions to be explored for high-level radioactive waste repository sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smedes, H.W.

    1983-04-01

    A reconnaissance of the geological literature on large regions of exposed crystalline rocks in the United States provides the basis for evaluating if any of those regions warrant further exploration toward identifying potential sites for development of a high-level radioactive waste repository. The reconnaissance does not serve as a detailed evaluation of regions or of any smaller subunits within the regions. Site performance criteria were selected and applied insofar as a national data base exists, and guidelines were adopted that relate the data to those criteria. The criteria include consideration of size, vertical movements, faulting, earthquakes, seismically induced ground motion, Quaternary volcanic rocks, mineral deposits, high-temperature convective ground-water systems, hydraulic gradients, and erosion. Brief summaries of each major region of exposed crystalline rock, and national maps of relevant data provided the means for applying the guidelines and for recommending regions for further study. It is concluded that there is a reasonable likelihood that geologically suitable repository sites exist in each of the major regions of crystalline rocks. The recommendation is made that further studies first be conducted of the Lake Superior, Northern Appalachian and Adirondack, and the Southern Appalachian Regions. It is believed that those regions could be explored more effectively and suitable sites probably could be found, characterized, verified, and licensed more readily there than in the other regions.

  20. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Interpretation of conductive features at the -450 m level, Aespoe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markstroem, Ingemar; Bockgaard, Niklas; Hardenby, Carljohan; Hultgren, Peter

    2010-05-01

    The interpretation of conductive features at the -450 m described in this report concerns a part of the tunnel system of the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (Aespoe HRL). The result of the modelling work is presented as an RVS-model (Rock Visualization System). When drilling some bore holes for the Mini-Can Project in the NASA3384A niche at Aespoe HRL some highly transmissive structures were penetrated. This gave a pressure drop response particularly in the Micobe experiment area (the end of TASJ-tunnel) but also in some adjacent areas at the same level. To better understand the complex hydraulic conditions of this part of the tunnel system it was understood that a new interpretation of conductive features was needed. The length axis of the model volume runs along the TASA-tunnel from section 3/260-3/600 m (end of tunnel in the Prototype repository). Laterally the model volume reaches 80 m perpendicular to the length axis in both directions and vertically it reaches to the 350 m and 500 m level respectively. All major water-bearing structures recorded by previously performed geological mapping of the tunnels and drifts (TASF, TASI, TASJ, TASG, TASQ and TASA) at this level of the Aespoe HRL were considered and formed the base for the modelling work. Also some potentially water-bearing open fractures in the tunnels were taken into account. Structures considered as large are those that can be traced over most of a tunnel periphery. No particular concern has been taken about deformation zones unless they were water bearing or acted as hydraulic barriers. A total of 212 cored boreholes penetrated or were identified close to the model volume. 39 of these were intersected by the modelled structures. Various features such as open fractures, fractures identified by bore hole radar, RQD, water inflow etc. were used in the modelling work. A number of earlier RVS-models such as the Geomod, the APSE, the Prototype, the TRUE BS model etc. that have been created within or close to

  1. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Interpretation of conductive features at the -450 m level, Aespoe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markstroem, Ingemar; Bockgaard, Niklas (Golder Associates (Sweden)); Hardenby, Carljohan (Vattenfall Power Consultant, Stockholm (Sweden)); Hultgren, Peter (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden))

    2010-05-15

    The interpretation of conductive features at the -450 m described in this report concerns a part of the tunnel system of the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (Aespoe HRL). The result of the modelling work is presented as an RVS-model (Rock Visualization System). When drilling some bore holes for the Mini-Can Project in the NASA3384A niche at Aespoe HRL some highly transmissive structures were penetrated. This gave a pressure drop response particularly in the Micobe experiment area (the end of TASJ-tunnel) but also in some adjacent areas at the same level. To better understand the complex hydraulic conditions of this part of the tunnel system it was understood that a new interpretation of conductive features was needed. The length axis of the model volume runs along the TASA-tunnel from section 3/260-3/600 m (end of tunnel in the Prototype repository). Laterally the model volume reaches 80 m perpendicular to the length axis in both directions and vertically it reaches to the 350 m and 500 m level respectively. All major water-bearing structures recorded by previously performed geological mapping of the tunnels and drifts (TASF, TASI, TASJ, TASG, TASQ and TASA) at this level of the Aespoe HRL were considered and formed the base for the modelling work. Also some potentially water-bearing open fractures in the tunnels were taken into account. Structures considered as large are those that can be traced over most of a tunnel periphery. No particular concern has been taken about deformation zones unless they were water bearing or acted as hydraulic barriers. A total of 212 cored boreholes penetrated or were identified close to the model volume. 39 of these were intersected by the modelled structures. Various features such as open fractures, fractures identified by bore hole radar, RQD, water inflow etc. were used in the modelling work. A number of earlier RVS-models such as the Geomod, the APSE, the Prototype, the TRUE BS model etc. that have been created within or close to

  2. Basic investigation and analysis for preferred host rocks and natural analogue study area with reference to high level radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jeong Ryul; Park, J. K.; Hwang, D. H.; Lee, J. H.; Yun, H. S.; Kim, D. Y.; Park, H. S.; Koo, S. B.; Cho, J. D.; Kim, K. E. [Korea Inst. of Geology, Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    The purpose of this study is basic investigation and analysis for preferred host rocks and natural analogue study area to develope underground disposal technique of high level radioactive waste in future. The study has been done for the crystalline rocks(especially granitic rocks) with emphasis of abandoned metallic mines and uranium ore deposits, and for the geological structure study by using gravity and aeromagnetic data. 138 refs., 54 tabs., 130 figs. (author)

  3. Petrology of blueschist facies metamorphic rocks of the Meliata Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faryad Shah Wali

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Meliata blueschists originated from basalts, limestones, pelites, psammitic and amphibolite facies basement rocks. Compositionally, the metabasalts have a geochemical signature mostly indicative of a transitional arc-MORB origin, but some mafic rocks having affinity with within plate basalts also present. The mafic blueschists consist of blue amphibole, epidote and albite, rarely also garnet, Na-pyroxene and chloritoid. Apart from phengite and quartz the metapelites and metapsammites contain one or more of the minerals: chloritoid, paragonite, glaucophane, albite, chlorite, occasionally also Na-pyroxene and garnet. Amphibolite facies rocks contain relic garnet, plagioclase and hornblende, the latter two replaced by albite and blue amphibole, respectively. The zoning patterns of blue amphibole, garnet and chloritoid suggest their formation during prograde stage of metamorphism. P-T conditions of meta-morphism are estimated to be about 350-460 oC and 10-12 kbar.

  4. Mechanisms of hydrothermal alteration in a granitic rock. Consequences for high-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parneix, J.C.

    1987-06-01

    The study of hydrothermal alteration in the Auriat granitic rock (France, Massif-Central) has evidenced three main events: - a pervasive chloritisation of biotites in some parts of the drill-core, - an alteration localized around subvertical cracks and superimposed on previously chloritized or unaltered granite, - an alteration localized around subhorizontal cracks cross-cutting the preceding ones. The second type of alteration, produced by a geothermal system, gives the most interesting results to be applied to the nuclear radwaste disposal problem. Among primary minerals of granite, only biotite (or chlorite) and oligoclase are intensively altered. Therefore, the chemical composition of these minerals induces the nature of secondary parageneses. These, associated to the subvertical cracks network, indicate a thermal gradient of 150 C/Km. The geochemical code has allowed to corroborate that the thermal gradient was responsible for the occurrence of different parageneses with depth. Moreover, it was shown that the variable mineralogy around cracks was due to a thermal profile established at equilibrium between the rock and the fluid. Therefore, the extent of the alteration was proportional to the thermal power of the fluid. A dissolution and next a precipitation phase of new minerals characterize hydrothermal alteration, which is due to the thermal power emitted by radioactive waste and linked with the evolution of temperature during time. This alteration provokes two favourable events to storage: decrease of rock porosity and increase of sorption capacity [fr

  5. Proceedings of workshop 5: Flow and transport through unsaturated fractured rock -- related to high-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D.D.; Nicholson, T.J.

    1993-06-01

    The ''Workshop on Flow and Transport Through Unsaturated Fractured Rock Related to High-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal'' was cosponsored by the NRC, the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses, and the University of Arizona (UAZ) and was held in Tucson, Arizona, on January 7--10, 1991. The focus of this workshop, similar to the earlier four (the first being in 1982), related to hydrogeologic technical issues associated with possible disposal of commercial high-level nuclear waste (HLW) in a geologic repository within an unsaturated fractured rock system which coincides with the UAZ field studies on HLW disposal. The presentations and discussions centered on flow and transport processes and conditions, relevant parameters, as well as state-of-the-art measurement techniques, and modeling capabilities. The workshop consisted of: four half-day technical meetings, a one day field visit to the Apache Leap test site to review ongoing field studies that are examining site characterization techniques and developing data sets for model validation studies, and a final half-day session devoted to examining research needs related to modeling groundwater flow and radionuclide transport in unsaturated, fractured rock. These proceedings provide extended abstracts of the technical presentations and short summaries of the research group reports

  6. Mathematical modelling of radionuclide transport through fractured rock using numerical inversion of Laplace transforms: applications to INTRACOIN Level 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgkinson, D.P.; Lever, D.A.; England, T.H.

    1984-01-01

    A model for the transport of radionuclides through fractured rock has been developed and used to study a problem which forms part of Level 3 of the INTRACOIN project (the international exercise in which the results from various radionuclide-migration computer programs are compared). The model includes the effects of 1-D advection, dispersion, kinetic and/or equilibrium surface sorption, diffusion into the rock matrix with equilibrium bulk sorption and radioactive decay, and incorporates flexible input and output boundary conditions. It is evaluated by numerically inverting the analytical solution to the Laplace-transformed transport equations. Matrix diffusion was found to be the most important retardation mechanism for Np based on data reflecting the conditions at the Finnsjeeo site in east central Sweden. However, improved data and field testing are required to make the predictions of such models more reliable. (author)

  7. A survey of natural radiation levels in soils and rocks from Aliaga-Foca region in Izmir, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuesun cam, N.; Oezken, I.; Yaprak, G.

    2013-01-01

    The gamma spectroscopic analysis of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K has been carried out in surface soil samples collected from Aliaga-Foca industrial region. The rock samples as parent materials of the soils are also collected and analysed for relevant radionuclides in order to evaluate the natural radiation levels. In the present study, the mean activity concentrations and ranges of the related radionuclides in the soil samples from 60 sites distributed all over the region are as follows: 226 Ra is 38 (14-123) Bq kg -1 ; 232 Th, 63 (27-132) Bq kg -1 and 40 K , 633 (141-1666) Bq kg -1 . Meanwhile, the ranges of natural radionuclide activities in the rock samples characterising the region are 41-95 Bq kg -1 for 226 Ra, 10-122 Bq kg -1 for 232 Th and 264-1470 Bq kg -1 for 40 K , respectively. Based on the available data, the radiation hazard parameters associated with the surveyed soils/rocks are calculated and the results do not exceed the permissible recommended values except for soils originated from Foca rhyolites and tuffs. Furthermore, the collected data allowed for the mapping of the measured activities and corresponding gamma dose rates. (authors)

  8. A comparative study on seismic response of two unstable rock slopes within same tectonic setting but different activity level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinbrod, Ulrike; Burjánek, Jan; Hugentobler, Marc; Amann, Florian; Fäh, Donat

    2017-12-01

    In this study, the seismic response of two slope instabilities is investigated with seismic ambient vibration analysis. Two similar sites have been chosen: an active deep-seated slope instability at Cuolm da Vi and the geologically, structurally and morphologically similar, but presently not moving Alp Caschlè slope. Both slopes are located at the upper Vorderrheintal (Canton Graubünden, Switzerland). Ambient vibrations were recorded on both slopes and processed by time-frequency polarization and site-to-reference spectral ratio analysis. The data interpretation shows correlations between degree of disintegration of the rock mass and amplification. However, the ambient vibration analysis conducted, does not allow retrieving a resonance frequency that can be related to the total depth of the instability of Cuolm da Vi. Even though seismic waves can be hardly traced in rock instabilities containing open fractures, it was possible to retrieve a dispersion curve and a velocity profile from the array measurement at Cuolm da Vi due to the high level of disintegration of the rock material down to a depth of about 100 m. From the similar amplification pattern at the two sites, we expect a similar structure, indicating that also the slope at Alp Caschlè was active in the past in a similar manner as Cuolm da Vi. However, a smoother increase of amplification with frequency is observed at Alp Caschlè, which might indicate less disintegration of the rock mass in a particular depth range at this site, when comparing to Cuolm da Vi where a high level of disintegration is observed, resulting from the high activity at the slope. From the frequency-dependent amplification, we can distinguish between two parts within both instabilities, one part showing decreasing disintegration of the rock mass with increasing depth, for the other parts less-fractured blocks are observed. Since the block structures are found in the lower part of the instabilities, they might contribute to the

  9. Radiant energy dissipation during final storage of high-level radioactive waste in rock salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramthun, H.

    1981-08-01

    A final disposal concept is assumed where the high-active waste from 1400 t of uranium, remaining after conditioning, is solidified in borosilicate glass and distributed in 1.760 waste casks. These containers 1.2 m in height and 0.3 m in diameter are to be buried 10 years after the fuel is removed from the reactor in the 300 m deep boreholes of a salt dome. For this design the mean absorbed dose rates are calculated in the glass die (3.9 Gy/s), the steel mantle (0.26 Gy/s) and in the salt rock (0.12 Gy/s at a distance of 1 cm and 0.034 Gy/s at a distance of 9 cm from the container surface) valid at the beginning of disposal. The risk involved with these amounts of stored lattice energy is shortly discussed. (orig.) [de

  10. Repository for high level radioactive wastes in Brazil: the importance of geochemical (Micro thermometric) studies and fluid migration in potential host rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rios, Francisco Javier; Fuzikawa, Kazuo; Alves, James Vieira; Neves, Jose Marques Correia

    2003-01-01

    A detailed fluid inclusion study of host rocks, is of fundamental importance in the selection of geologically suitable areas for high level nuclear waste repository constructions (HLRW). The LIFM-CDTN is enabled to develop studies that confirm: the presence or not, of corrosive fluid in minerals from host rocks of the repository and the possible presence of micro fractures (and fluid leakage) when these rocks are submitted to high temperatures. These fluid geochemistry studies, with permeability determinations by means of pressurized air injection must be carried out in rocks hosting nuclear waste. Micro fracture determination is of vital importance since many naturally corrosive solutions, present in the mineral rocks, could flow out through these plans affecting the walls of the repository. (author)

  11. From chemical mapping to pressure temperature deformation micro-cartography: mineralogical evolution and mass transport in thermo-mechanic disequilibrium systems: application to meta-pelites and confinement nuclear waste materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, V. de

    2006-03-01

    The mineralogical composition of metamorphic rocks or industrial materials evolves when they are submitted to thermomechanical disequilibria, i.e. a spatial or temporal pressure and temperature evolution, or chemical disequilibria as variations in redox conditions, pH... For example, during low temperature metamorphic processes, rocks re-equilibrate only partially, and thus record locally thermodynamic equilibria increasing so the spatial chemical heterogeneities. Understanding the P-T evolution of such systems and deciphering modalities of their mineralogical transformation imply to recognize and characterize the size of these local 'paleo-equilibria', and so to have a spatial chemical information at least in 2 dimensions. In order to get this information, microprobe X-ray fluorescence maps have been used. Computer codes have been developed with Matlab to quantify these maps in view of thermo-barometric estimations. In this way, P-T maps of mineral crystallisation were produced using the multi-equilibria thermodynamic technique. Applications on two meta-pelites from the Sambagawa blue-schist belt (Japan) and from the Caledonian eclogitic zone in Spitsbergen, show that quantitative chemical maps are a powerful tool to retrieve the metamorphic history of rocks. From these chemical maps have been derived maps of P-T-time-redox-deformation that allow to characterize P-T conditions of minerals formation, and so, the P-T path of the sample, the oxidation state of iron in the chlorite phase. As a result, we underline the relation between deformation and crystallisation, and propose a relative chronology of minerals crystallisation and deformations. The Fe 3+ content map in chlorite calculated by thermodynamic has also been validated by a μ-XANES mapping at the iron K-edge measured at the ESRF (ID24) using an innovative method. Another application relates to an experimental study of clay materials, main components of an analogical model of a nuclear waste storage site

  12. The Rock Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Raman J.; Bushee, Jonathan

    1977-01-01

    Presents a rock cycle diagram suitable for use at the secondary or introductory college levels which separates rocks formed on and below the surface, includes organic materials, and separates products from processes. (SL)

  13. From chemical mapping to pressure temperature deformation micro-cartography: mineralogical evolution and mass transport in thermo-mechanic disequilibrium systems: application to meta-pelites and confinement nuclear waste materials; De l'imagerie chimique a la micro-cartographie Pression-Temperature-Deformation: evolution mineralogique et transport de matiere dans des systemes en desequilibre thermomecanique. Applications aux metapelites et aux materiaux de stockage de dechets radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, V. de

    2006-03-15

    The mineralogical composition of metamorphic rocks or industrial materials evolves when they are submitted to thermomechanical disequilibria, i.e. a spatial or temporal pressure and temperature evolution, or chemical disequilibria as variations in redox conditions, pH... For example, during low temperature metamorphic processes, rocks re-equilibrate only partially, and thus record locally thermodynamic equilibria increasing so the spatial chemical heterogeneities. Understanding the P-T evolution of such systems and deciphering modalities of their mineralogical transformation imply to recognize and characterize the size of these local 'paleo-equilibria', and so to have a spatial chemical information at least in 2 dimensions. In order to get this information, microprobe X-ray fluorescence maps have been used. Computer codes have been developed with Matlab to quantify these maps in view of thermo-barometric estimations. In this way, P-T maps of mineral crystallisation were produced using the multi-equilibria thermodynamic technique. Applications on two meta-pelites from the Sambagawa blue-schist belt (Japan) and from the Caledonian eclogitic zone in Spitsbergen, show that quantitative chemical maps are a powerful tool to retrieve the metamorphic history of rocks. From these chemical maps have been derived maps of P-T-time-redox-deformation that allow to characterize P-T conditions of minerals formation, and so, the P-T path of the sample, the oxidation state of iron in the chlorite phase. As a result, we underline the relation between deformation and crystallisation, and propose a relative chronology of minerals crystallisation and deformations. The Fe{sup 3+} content map in chlorite calculated by thermodynamic has also been validated by a {mu}-XANES mapping at the iron K-edge measured at the ESRF (ID24) using an innovative method. Another application relates to an experimental study of clay materials, main components of an analogical model of a nuclear

  14. Study on the locational criteria for submarine rock repositories of low and medium level radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, G H; Kang, W J; Kim, T J. and others [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-01-15

    Submarine repositories have significant advantages over their land counterparts locating close to the areas of daily human activities. Consequently, the construction of submarine repositories on the vast continental shelves around Korean seas is considered to be highly positive. In this context, the development of locational criteria primarily targeting the safety of submarine rock repositories is very important.The contents of the present study are: analyzing characteristics of marine environment: Search of potential hazards to, and environmental impact by, the submarine repositories; Investigation of the oceanographic, geochemical, ecological and sedimentological characteristics of estuaries and coastal seas. Locating potential hazards to submarine repositories by: Bibliographical search of accidents leading to the destruction of submarine structures by turbidity currents and other potentials; Review of turbidity currents. Consideration of environmental impact caused by submarine repositories: Logistics to minimize the environmental impacts in site selection; Removal and dispersion processes of radionuclides in sea water. Analyses of oceanographical characteristics of, and hazard potentials in, the Korean seas. Evaluation of the MOST 91-7 criteria for applicability to submarine repositories and the subsequent proposition of additional criteria.

  15. Study on the locational criteria for submarine rock repositories of low and medium level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, G. H.; Kang, W. J.; Kim, T. J. and others

    1992-01-01

    Submarine repositories have significant advantages over their land counterparts locating close to the areas of daily human activities. Consequently, the construction of submarine repositories on the vast continental shelves around Korean seas is considered to be highly positive. In this context, the development of locational criteria primarily targeting the safety of submarine rock repositories is very important.The contents of the present study are: analyzing characteristics of marine environment: Search of potential hazards to, and environmental impact by, the submarine repositories; Investigation of the oceanographic, geochemical, ecological and sedimentological characteristics of estuaries and coastal seas. Locating potential hazards to submarine repositories by: Bibliographical search of accidents leading to the destruction of submarine structures by turbidity currents and other potentials; Review of turbidity currents. Consideration of environmental impact caused by submarine repositories: Logistics to minimize the environmental impacts in site selection; Removal and dispersion processes of radionuclides in sea water. Analyses of oceanographical characteristics of, and hazard potentials in, the Korean seas. Evaluation of the MOST 91-7 criteria for applicability to submarine repositories and the subsequent proposition of additional criteria

  16. Evaluation of possible host rocks for China's high level radioactive waste repository and the progress in site characterization at the Beishan potential site in NW China's Gansu province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ju; Jin Yuanxin; Chen Zhangru; Chen Weiming; Wang Wenguang

    2000-01-01

    Evaluation of possible host rocks for China's high level radioactive waste repository is summarized in this paper. The distribution and characteristics of granite, tuff, clay stone, salt and loess in China are described, while maps showing the distribution of host rocks are presented. Because of the wide distribution, large scale, good heat conductivity and suitable mechanical properties, granite is considered as the most potential host rock. Some granite bodies distributed in NW China, SW China, South China and Inner Mongolia have been selected as potential areas. Detailed site characterization at Beishan area, Gansu Province NW China is in progress

  17. The emerald deposits of ultramafic rocks of Capoeirana and Belmont, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abreu Machado, G.; Schorscher, H.

    1998-01-01

    The emerald deposits of Capoeirana and Belmont, State of Minas Gerais (MG), Brazil, occur vithin an area comprising a deeply weathered Archean Metavulcano-Sedimentary Sequence (SVS) in tectonic contact with the Borrachudos Metagranitoids (GB) and Fluorite bearing Foliated Metagranitoids (MGF). The SVS is formed by intercalation s of ultramafic schists and amphibolites, basic to intermediate amphibolites, vulcanoclastic, metapelitic and calcsilicate schists and gneisses, banded iron formation and metacherts. The metaultramafic rocks include minor chromitite cumulates and occur at the base of the SVS. When metasomatized in the shear zones adjoining GB and MGF they host emerald mineralizations. (author)

  18. Analysing the breakthrough of rock 'n' roll (1930-1970) Multi-regime interaction and reconfiguration in the multi-level perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Geels, Frank W.

    2007-01-01

    The breakthrough of rock 'n' roll was part of broader transformations in the American music industry, involving changes in music instruments, music recording technology, audiences, radio programming and music styles. These transformations will be analysed as sociotechnical transition, using the multi-level perspective. One characteristic of the case is interactions between multiple regimes: radio and recording. Another characteristic is the presence of strong cultural components, with rock 'n...

  19. Source rock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakr F. Makky

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available West Beni Suef Concession is located at the western part of Beni Suef Basin which is a relatively under-explored basin and lies about 150 km south of Cairo. The major goal of this study is to evaluate the source rock by using different techniques as Rock-Eval pyrolysis, Vitrinite reflectance (%Ro, and well log data of some Cretaceous sequences including Abu Roash (E, F and G members, Kharita and Betty formations. The BasinMod 1D program is used in this study to construct the burial history and calculate the levels of thermal maturity of the Fayoum-1X well based on calibration of measured %Ro and Tmax against calculated %Ro model. The calculated Total Organic Carbon (TOC content from well log data compared with the measured TOC from the Rock-Eval pyrolysis in Fayoum-1X well is shown to match against the shale source rock but gives high values against the limestone source rock. For that, a new model is derived from well log data to calculate accurately the TOC content against the limestone source rock in the study area. The organic matter existing in Abu Roash (F member is fair to excellent and capable of generating a significant amount of hydrocarbons (oil prone produced from (mixed type I/II kerogen. The generation potential of kerogen in Abu Roash (E and G members and Betty formations is ranging from poor to fair, and generating hydrocarbons of oil and gas prone (mixed type II/III kerogen. Eventually, kerogen (type III of Kharita Formation has poor to very good generation potential and mainly produces gas. Thermal maturation of the measured %Ro, calculated %Ro model, Tmax and Production index (PI indicates that Abu Roash (F member exciting in the onset of oil generation, whereas Abu Roash (E and G members, Kharita and Betty formations entered the peak of oil generation.

  20. Analysis of the stability of underground high-level nuclear waste repository in discontinuous rock mass using 3DEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Sang Ki; Park, Jeong Hwa; Choi, Jong Won; Kang, Chul Hyung

    2001-03-01

    For the safe design of a high-level nuclear waste repository in deep location, it is necessary to confirm the stability of the underground excavations under the high overburden pressure and also to investigate the influence of discontinuities such as fault, fracture zone, and joints. In this study, computer simulations using 3DEC, which is a Distince Element (DEM) code, were carried out for determining important parameters on the stability of the disposal tunnel and deposition holes excavated in 500 m deep granite body. The development of plastic zone and stress and strain distributions were analyzed with various modelling conditions with variation on the parameters including joint numbers, tunnel size, joint properties, rock properties, and stress ratio. Furthermore, the influence of fracture zone, which is located around the underground excavations, on the stability of the excavation was investigated. In this study, the variation of stress and strain distribution due to the variation of fracture zone location, dip, and width was analyzed

  1. New constraints on the P–T path of HT/UHT metapelites from the Highland Complex of Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.L. Dharmapriya

    2017-11-01

    The pre-melting, original rock composition was calculated through stepwise re-integration of melt into the residual, XRF based composition, allowing the early prograde metamorphic evolution to be deduced from petrographical observations and pseudosections. The earliest recognizable stage occurred in the sillimanite field at around 575 °C at 4.5 kbar. Subsequent collision associated with Gondwana amalgamation led to crustal thickening along a P–T trajectory with an average dP/dT of ∼30 bar/°C in the kyanite field, up to ∼660 °C at 6.5 kbar, before crossing the wet-solidus at around 675 °C at 7.5 kbar. The highest pressure occurred at P > 10 kbar and T around 780 °C before prograde decompression associated with further heating. At 825 °C and 10.5 kbar, the rock re-entered into the sillimanite field. The temperature peaked at 900 °C at ca. 9–9.5 kbar. Subsequent near-isobaric cooling led to the growth of Grt4 and rutile at T ∼880 °C. Local pyrophyllite rims around sillimanite suggest a late stage of rehydration at T < 400 °C, which probably occurred after uplift to upper crustal levels. U–Pb dating of zircons by LA-ICPMS of the khondalite yielded two concordant 206Pb/238U age groups with mean values of 542 ± 2 Ma (MSWD = 0.24, Th/U = 0.01–0.03 and 514 ± 3 Ma (MSWD = 0.50, Th/U = 0.01–0.05 interpreted as peak metamorphism of the khondalite and subsequent melt crystallization during cooling.

  2. The Rho GTPase Effector ROCK Regulates Cyclin A, Cyclin D1, and p27Kip1 Levels by Distinct Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Croft, Daniel R.; Olson, Michael F.

    2006-01-01

    The members of the Rho GTPase family are well known for their regulation of actin cytoskeletal structures. In addition, they influence progression through the cell cycle. The RhoA and RhoC proteins regulate numerous effector proteins, with a central and vital signaling role mediated by the ROCK I and ROCK II serine/threonine kinases. The requirement for ROCK function in the proliferation of numerous cell types has been revealed by studies utilizing ROCK-selective inhibitors such as Y-27632. H...

  3. Igneous Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doe, Bruce R.

    “Igneous Rocks was written for undergraduate geology majors who have had a year of college-level chemistry and a course in mineralogy … and for beginning graduate students. Geologists working in industry, government, or academia should find this text useful as a guide to the technical literature up to 1981 and as an overview of topics with which they have not worked but which may have unanticipated pertinence to their own projects.” So starts the preface to this textbook.As one who works part time in research on igneous rocks, especially as they relate to mineral deposits, I have been looking for such a book with this avowed purpose in a field that has a choking richness of evolving terminology and a bewildering volume of interdisciplinary literature. In addition to the standard topics of igneous petrology, the book contains a chapter on the role of igneous activity in the genesis of mineral deposits, its value to geothermal energy, and the potential of igneous rocks as an environment for nuclear waste disposal. These topics are presented rather apologetically in the preface, but the author is to be applauded for including this chapter. The apology shows just how new these interests are to petrology. Recognition is finally coming that, for example, mineral deposits are not “sports of nature,” a view held even by many economic geologists as recently as the early 1960's; instead they are perfectly ordinary geochemical features formed by perfectly ordinary geologic processes. In fact, the mineral deposits and their attendant alteration zones probably have as much to tell us about igneous rocks as the igneous rocks have to tell us about mineral deposits.

  4. Microtectonic-assisted P-T determination on low-grade Alpine metamorphic rocks from the "Tisia Mega-Unit" of the Slavonian Mountains in Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balen, Dražen; Lihter, Iva; Massonne, Hans-Joachim

    2016-04-01

    The internal structure of the Tisia (Tisza) Mega-Unit in the Alpine-Carpathian-Dinaridic orogenic system encompasses large Alpine nappe systems brought to its present-day position by complex regional-scale movements. The Slavonian Mountains are part of the Bihor nappe system which is below the Codru and above the Mecsek nappe systems. The low-grade metamorphic schist unit of the Slavonian Mountains includes numerous rocks which were previously related to Precambrian and/or Lower Paleozoic orogeneses. However, recent studies (e.g. Balen, 2014, European Geosciences Union General Assembly, EGU 2014-6122) show that the metapelites of this unit should be attributed to the Alpine orogeny and the poorly known P-T conditions, which they experienced, should be refined. Although metapelites can be sensitive to changes of metamorphic conditions and, therefore, be suitable for the P-T estimation of metamorphic event(s), the extraction of mineral assemblages, being in equilibrium, and associated microtectonic data for particular low-grade metamorphic rocks is not straightforward. On the contrary, due to lack of suitable minerals and complex mictotectonic features, one can be faced with a severe problem concerning (dis)equilibrium. To avoid this, the observation scale in the research was set to the sub-mm level taking into account microtectonic positions of minerals. The investigated samples from the Slavonian Mountains are fine-grained schists consisting of chlorite (15-30 vol. %), white mica (15-25 vol. %), quartz (10-25 vol. %), feldspars (albite 10-15 vol. %; some K-feldspar), biotite (<5 vol. %), opaques (<5 vol. %), and accessory minerals (zircon, monazite, xenotime, apatite, chalcopyrite, pyrite, barite, parisite-(Ce), rutile). The schists show complex microtectonic fabric including well-developed foliations, pervasive folding, crenulation and cleavage. Foliations are defined by the preferred orientation of phyllosilicates and thin quartz and feldspar ribbons. Chlorite

  5. A preliminary study on the suitability of host rocks for deep geological disposal of high level radioactive waste in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chun Soo; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Kyung Su; Park, Byung Yun; Koh, Young Kown

    2000-02-01

    It is expected that the key issues are listed as the disposal concept, reference disposal system and other relevant technical development for the deep geological disposal of HLW in each country. First above all, however, the preferred host rocks should be suggested prior execution of these activities. And, it is desirable to be reviewed and proposed some host rocks representative its country. For the reviewing of host rocks in Korean peninsula, several issues were considered such as the long-term geological stability, fracture system, surface and groundwater system and geochemical characteristics in peninsula. The three rock types such as plutonic rocks, crystalline gneisses and massive volcanic rocks were suggested as the preferred host rocks for the R and D of HLW disposal based on the upper stated information. In the following stages, it is suggested that these preferred host rocks would be made an object of all relevant R and D activities for HLW disposal. And, many references for these geologic medium should be characterized and constructed various technical development for the Korean reference disposal system.

  6. A preliminary study on the suitability of host rocks for deep geological disposal of high level radioactive waste in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chun Soo; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Kyung Su; Park, Byung Yun; Koh, Young Kown

    2000-02-01

    It is expected that the key issues are listed as the disposal concept, reference disposal system and other relevant technical development for the deep geological disposal of HLW in each country. First above all, however, the preferred host rocks should be suggested prior execution of these activities. And, it is desirable to be reviewed and proposed some host rocks representative its country. For the reviewing of host rocks in Korean peninsula, several issues were considered such as the long-term geological stability, fracture system, surface and groundwater system and geochemical characteristics in peninsula. The three rock types such as plutonic rocks, crystalline gneisses and massive volcanic rocks were suggested as the preferred host rocks for the R and D of HLW disposal based on the upper stated information. In the following stages, it is suggested that these preferred host rocks would be made an object of all relevant R and D activities for HLW disposal. And, many references for these geologic medium should be characterized and constructed various technical development for the Korean reference disposal system

  7. DNA damage and micronuclei in parthenogenetic and bisexual Darevskia rock lizards from the areas with different levels of soil pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonyan, Anna; Hovhannisyan, Galina; Sargsyan, Anzhela; Arakelyan, Marine; Minasyan, Seyran; Aroutiounian, Rouben

    2018-06-15

    Natural species are widely used as indicator organisms to estimate of the impact of environmental pollution. Here we present the results of first study of a reliability of parthenogenetic Darevskia аrmeniaca and bisexual Darevskia raddei rock lizards as sentinels for monitoring of environmental genotoxicity. The comet assay and micronucleus test were applied to the lizards sampled in six areas in Armenia and Artsakh with different levels of soil contamination. The results obtained showed a clear relationship between the pollution level of lizards' habitats and the frequency of DNA damage in the comet assay. Low baseline frequency of micronuclei in D. аrmeniaca and D. raddei, however, makes this parameter ineffective for environmental genotoxicity evaluation. The parthenogenetic lizards D. аrmeniaca showed higher sensitivity toward genotoxic pollutions compared with bisexual D. raddei living in the same environment. The correlations between soil content of heavy metals Cr, Cu, Zn, Mo, Pb and DNA damage in D. аrmeniaca and between Cu, As, Mo, Pb and DNA damage in D. raddei were revealed. Overall, the lizards D. raddei and D. аrmeniaca appeared to be sensitive species in detecting soil pollution in natural environment. The application of the comet assay in Darevskia lizard species can be considered as a more appropriate method than a micronucleus test. The use of parthenogenetic lizards D. аrmeniaca as bioindicator will permit to assess the environmental genotoxicity independent of the genetic polymorphism of bisexual species. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Cataclastic rocks of the San Gabriel fault—an expression of deformation at deeper crustal levels in the San Andreas fault zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J. Lawford; Osborne, Robert H.; Palmer, Donald F.

    1983-10-01

    The San Gabriel fault, a deeply eroded late Oligocene to middle Pliocene precursor to the San Andreas, was chosen for petrologic study to provide information regarding intrafault material representative of deeper crustal levels. Cataclastic rocks exposed along the present trace of the San Andreas in this area are exclusively a variety of fault gouge that is essentially a rock flour with a quartz, feldspar, biotite, chlorite, amphibole, epidote, and Fe-Ti oxide mineralogy representing the milled-down equivalent of the original rock (Anderson and Osborne, 1979; Anderson et al., 1980). Likewise, fault gouge and associated breccia are common along the San Gabriel fault, but only where the zone of cataclasis is several tens of meters wide. At several localities, the zone is extremely narrow (several centimeters), and the cataclastic rock type is cataclasite, a dark, aphanitic, and highly comminuted and indurated rock. The cataclastic rocks along the San Gabriel fault exhibit more comminution than that observed for gouge along the San Andreas. The average grain diameter for the San Andreas gouge ranges from 0.01 to 0.06 mm. For the San Gabriel cataclastic rocks, it ranges from 0.0001 to 0.007 mm. Whereas the San Andreas gouge remains particulate to the smallest grain-size, the ultra-fine grain matrix of the San Gabriel cataclasite is composed of a mosaic of equidimensional, interlocking grains. The cataclastic rocks along the San Gabriel fault also show more mineralogiec changes compared to gouge from the San Andreas fault. At the expense of biotite, amphibole, and feldspar, there is some growth of new albite, chlorite, sericite, laumontite, analcime, mordenite (?), and calcite. The highest grade of metamorphism is laumontite-chlorite zone (zeolite facies). Mineral assemblages and constrained uplift rates allow temperature and depth estimates of 200 ± 30° C and 2-5 km, thus suggesting an approximate geothermal gradient of ~50°C/km. Such elevated temperatures imply a

  9. A review and synthesis of international proposals for the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes into crystalline rock formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-05-01

    Examination of the broad range of international concepts for the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes into crystalline rock formations has indicated that systems based upon solid waste units provide the greatest degree of engineering control and security. Three particular disposal concepts are considered worthy of detailed evaluation. In order of priority these are:-tunnel networks with 'in-floor' waste emplacement; matrix of vertical emplacement holes drilled from the surface; tunnel networks with 'in-room' waste emplacement. A review of the international literature has shown that at least ten countries have embarked upon study programmes, but only five have developed detailed conceptual design proposals. These are:- Canada, France, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Differing economic, environmental, historical and political circumstances have influenced the pattern of international studies and, to the uninitiated, these factors may obscure some of the relevant technical considerations. Nevertheless, a broad technical concensus is apparent in that all countries currently favour tunnel networks with 'in-floor' waste emplacement. The subject is discussed in detail. (author)

  10. In situ corrosion studies on selected high level waste packaging materials under simulated disposal conditions in rock salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smailos, E.; Schwarzkopf, W.; Koester, R.

    1988-01-01

    In order to qualify corrosion resistant materials for high level waste (HLW) packagings acting as a long-term barrier in a rock salt repository, the corrosion behavior of preselected materials is being investigated in laboratory-scale and in-situ experiments. This work reports about in-situ corrosion experiments on unalloyed steels, Ti 99.8-Pd, Hastelloy C4, and iron-base alloys, as nodular cast iron, Ni-Resist D4 and Si-cast iron, under simulated disposal conditions. The results of the investigations can be summarized as follows: (1) all materials investigated exhibited high resistance to corrosion under the conditions prevailing in the Brine Migration Test; (2) all materials and above all the materials with passivating oxide layers such as Ti 99.8-Pd and Hastelloy C4 which may corrode selectively already in the presence of minor amounts of brine had been resistant with respect to any type of local corrosion attack; the gamma-radiation of 3 · 10 2 Gy/h did not exert an influence on the corrosion behavior of the materials

  11. The long-term strength and deformation properties of crystalline rock in a high level nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuokko, T.

    1990-12-01

    The time-dependent phenomena which can affect the strength and deformation properties of hard crystal line rock are clarified. Suitable measuring methods for field conditions are also summarized. The significance of time is evaluated around a shaft in a high level nuclear waste repository. According to the investigation it is generally held that creep and cyclic fatigue are the most important phenomena. They arise from subcritical crack growth which is most affected by stress intensity, chemical environment, temperature, and microstructure. There are many theoretical models, which can be used to analyse creep and cyclic fatigue, but they are defective in describing the triaxial stress condition and strength criteria. Additionally, the required parameters are often too difficult to determine with adequate accuracy. The joint creep rate depends on the affecting stress regime, on the water conditions, and on the properties of filling material. The acoustic emission method is suited to observe long-term microcrack development in field conditions. The computer program developed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) is used to evaluate the time-dependent de-formation around a main shaft. According to the model the enlargement of the shaft radius by 30 cm takes millions of years. The possible reduction of shaft radius by 3 mm will happen during 200 years. The model is very sensitive to changes in stress state, in the uniaxial compressive strength, and in the stress corrosion index

  12. Application of Ga-Al discrimination plots in identification of high strength granitic host rocks for deep geological repository of high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajpai, R.K.; Narayan, P.K.; Trivedi, R.K.; Purohit, M.K.

    2010-01-01

    The permanent disposal of vitrified high level wastes and in some cases even spent fuel, is being planned in specifically designed and built deep geological repository located in the depth range of 500-600m in appropriate host rock at carefully selected sites. Such facilities are expected to provide very long term isolation and confinement to the disposed waste by means of long term mechanical stability of such structures that results from very high strength and homogeneity of the chosen rock, geochemical compatible environment around the disposed waste and general lack of groundwater. In Indian geological repository development programme, granites have been selected as target host rock and large scale characterization studies have been undertaken to develop database of mineralogy, petrology, geochemistry and rock mechanical characteristics. The paper proposes a new approach for demarcation of high strength homogeneous granite rocks from within an area of about 100 square kilometres wherein a cocktail of granites of different origins with varying rock mass characteristics co exists. The study area is characterised by the presence of A, S and I type granites toughly intermixed. The S type granites are derived from sedimentary parent material and therefore carry relics of parent fabric and at times undigested material with resultant reduction in their strength and increased inhomogeneity. On the other hand I type varieties are derived from igneous parents and are more homogeneous with sufficient strength. The A type granites are emplaced as molten mass in a complete non-tectonic setting with resultant homogeneous compositions, absence of tectonic fabric and very high strength. Besides they are silica rich with less vulnerability to alterations with time. Thus A type granites are most suited for construction of Deep Geological Repository. For developing a geochemical approach for establishing relation between chemical compositions and rock strength parameters, a

  13. Rock fragmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, W.S.; Green, S.J.; Hakala, W.W.; Hustrulid, W.A.; Maurer, W.C. (eds.)

    1976-01-01

    Experts in rock mechanics, mining, excavation, drilling, tunneling and use of underground space met to discuss the relative merits of a wide variety of rock fragmentation schemes. Information is presented on novel rock fracturing techniques; tunneling using electron beams, thermocorer, electric spark drills, water jets, and diamond drills; and rock fracturing research needs for mining and underground construction. (LCL)

  14. Rationale for geological isolation of high-level radioactive waste, and assessment of the suitability of crystalline rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smedes, H.W.

    1980-01-01

    This report summarizes the disposal objective to be met and the requisite geotechnical criteria to meet that objective; evaluates our present ability to determine whether certain criteria can be met and to predict whether they will continue to be met; discusses the consequences of failure to meet certain criteria; assesses what is known about how crystalline rocks meet those criteria; lists important gaps in our knowledge that presently preclude final assessment of suitability; and suggests priority research to fill those gaps. The report presents an elaboration of the above-stated behavior and suitability of crystalline rocks, and a rationale of site-selection in support of the recommended prompt and intensive study of granite and other crystalline rocks as potentially highly suitable candidate media for radioactive waste disposal. An overview is presented on what the rocks are, where they are, and what the critical attributes are of various crystalline-rock terranes in the conterminous United States. This is intended to provide a basis to aid in selecting, first regions, and then sites within those regions, as candidate repository sites

  15. Rock Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henn, Cynthia A.

    2004-01-01

    There are many interpretations for the symbols that are seen in rock art, but no decoding key has ever been discovered. This article describes one classroom's experiences with a lesson on rock art--making their rock art and developing their own personal symbols. This lesson allowed for creativity, while giving an opportunity for integration…

  16. Summary of northern Atlantic coastal plain hydrology and its relation to disposal of high-level radioactive waste in buried crystalline rock; a preliminary appraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, O.B.; Larson, J.D.; Davis, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    Interpretation of available hydrologic data suggests that some areas beneath the Coastal Plain in the States of Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, North Carolina, and Virginia might have some potential for the disposal of nuclear waste in crystalline rock that is buried beneath the Coastal Plain sediments. The areas of major interest occur where the top of the basement rock lies between 1,000 and 4,000 feet below sea level, the aquifer(s) immediately above the basement rock are saturated with saline water, confining material overlies the saline water bearing aquifer(s), and groundwater flow in the saline water aquifer(s) can be established. Preliminary data on (1) the distribution and thickness of the lowermost aquifers and confining beds, (2) the distribution of hydraulic conductivity in the lowermost aquifers, (3) estimated hydraulic heads and inferred direction of lateral groundwater flow for 1980, and (4) the distribution of saline water and brine, indicate eastern parts of the study area relatively best meet most of the criteria proposed for sediments that would overlie any potential buried crystalline-rock disposal site.

  17. Accumulated energy determination in salts rocks irradiated by means of thermoluminescence techniques: application to the high level radioactive wastes repositories analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dies, J.; Ortega. J.; Tarrasa. F.; Cuevas, C.

    1995-01-01

    The report summarizes the study carried out to develop the radiation effects on salt rocks in order to repository the high level radioactive wastes. The study is structured into 3 main aspects: 1.- Analysis of irradiation experiences in Haw project of Pet ten reactor. 2.- Irradiation of salt sample of CESAR industrial irradiator. 3.- Correlation study between the accumulated energy, termoluminescence answer and the defect concentration

  18. Climax Granite, Nevada Test Site, as a host for a rock mechanics test facility related to the geologic disposal of high level nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuze, F.E.

    1981-02-01

    This document discusses the potential of the Climax pluton, at the Nevada Test Site, as the host for a granite mechanics test facility related to the geologic disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The Climax granitic pluton has been the site of three nuclear weapons effects tests: Hard Hat, Tiny Tot, and Piledriver. Geologic exploration and mapping of the granite body were performed at the occasion of these tests. Currently, it is the site Spent Fuel Test (SFT-C) conducted in the vicinity of and at the same depth as that of the Piledriver drifts. Significant exploration, mapping, and rock mechanics work have been performed and continue at this Piledriver level - the 1400 (ft) level - in the context of SFT-C. Based on our technical discussions, and on the review of the significant geological and rock mechanics work already achieved in the Climax pluton, based also on the ongoing work and the existing access and support, it is concluded that the Climax site offers great opportunities for a rock mechanics test facility. It is not claimed, however, that Climax is the only possible site or the best possible site, since no case has been made for another granite test facility in the United States. 12 figures, 3 tables

  19. Thermobarometry and electron-microprobe Th-U-Pb monazite dating in garnet metapelites from the Capelinha Formation, Aracuai Orogen, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queiroga, Glaucia Nascimento; Martins, Maximiliano de Souza; Castro, Marco Paulo de; Jordt-Evangelista, Hanna; Silva, Ana Lucia da, E-mail: glauciaqueiroga@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: maximilianomartins@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: marco_pcastro@yahoo.com, E-mail: hanna@degeo.ufop.br, E-mail: alucia.silva@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (UFOP), Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil). Escola de Minas. Departamento de Geologia; Pedrosa-Soares, Antonio Carlos, E-mail: pedrosa@igc.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Instituto de Geociencias. Departamento de Geologia; Schulz, Bernhard, E-mail: bernhard.schulz@mineral.tu-freiberg.de [TU Bergakademie - Institute of Mineralogy, Freiberg - Saxony (Germany)

    2016-01-15

    The Capelinha Formation (Macaubas Group) consists of a lower quartzitic unit with metamafic intercalations and an upper metapelitic sequence. It occurs in a complex tectono-metamorphic sector of the Aracuai orogen, where post-collisional collapse-related structures superimposed collisional structures. The garnet-bearing assemblages started crystallization in the collisional deformation stage that formed the main regional foliation around 570 Ma. Garnet porphyroblasts display a well developed growth zonation of Fe-Mg-Ca-Mn and show, from core to rim, increasing almandine and pyrope contents in contrast with decreasing grossular and spessartine contents. Mineral relations and microstructures provide criteria for local equilibria and a structurally controlled application of geothermobarometry based on cation exchange and net transfer reactions. The P-T values calculated from cores to rims of garnets, aligned along clockwise trends, resulted in increasing temperatures (from 500 deg C up to 620 deg C) under decompression conditions (from 8.0 kbar to 4.5 kbar). The Th-UPb dating of homogeneous monazites by electron microprobe revealed a recrystallization period at around 490 - 480 Ma. These ages can be related to the tectono-thermal event associated with the gravitational collapse, constraining the youngest time limit for metamorphic processes in the Aracuai orogen. (author)

  20. An integrated approach to isotopic study of crystalline rock for a high-level waste repository: Area phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, L.A.

    1986-01-01

    An integrated approach to assessing isotopic systems in crystalline rock is planned for area phase studies. This approach combines radiogenic isotope systems with petrography in order to characterize potential crystalline repository media. The coeval use of selected isotope systems will minimize the limitations of each method and provide intensive parameters yielding data on alteration timing, secondary mineral formation, temperature history, and radionuclide species migration. Isotope systems will be selected in order to measure differences in sensitivity to thermal disturbances and mobility due to fluid interaction. Comparative evaluation of isotope pair behavior may be used in combination with mineral versus whole-rock dates to provide data on heating and mobilization of alkali elements, lanthanides, and gases, caused by future introduction of waste

  1. Shaft sealing concepts for high-level radioactive waste repositories based on the host-rock options rock salt and clay stone; Schachtverschlusskonzepte fuer zukuenftige Endlager fuer hochradioaktive Abfaelle fuer die Wirtsgesteinsoptionen Steinsalz und Ton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudla, Wolfram; Gruner, Matthias [TU Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Erdbau und Spezialtiefbau; Herold, Philipp; Jobmann, Michael [DBE Technology GmbH, Peine (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Unlike the shaft barriers used for the dry preservation of former mine workings and underground storage sites, shaft seals designed for radioactive-waste repositories must also fulfil additional requirements associated with the design diversity of the sealing system. This diversity makes use of the simple redundancy principle in order to prevent the proliferation of defects. In practice this means combining several sealing elements made from different materials or from materials with different properties. The R and D project, Shaft sealing systems for final repositories for high-level radioactive waste (ELSA) - phase 2: concept design for shaft seals and testing of the functional elements of shaft seals', which was funded by the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi), set out to investigate potential sealing elements for the two host-rock options rock salt and mudstone. This paper combines the text that the authors presented at the First International Freiberg Shaft Colloquium held at the Freiberg University of Mining and Technology on 01.10.2014 with a presentation on the sealing elements that were investigated as part of the R and D project.

  2. Phase equilibria modelling and zircon dating for Precambrian metapelites from Xinghuadukou Group in Lvlin Forest of Erguna Massif, NE China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiulei; Zheng, Changqing; Tajcmanova, Lucie; Zhong, Xin; Xu, Xuechun; Han, Xiaomeng; Wang, Zhaoyuan

    2017-04-01

    Xinghuadukou Group, the basement metamorphic complex of Erguna Massif in NE China, is considered to be Mesoproterozoic with Sm-Nd age of 1157±32 Ma. However, the new zircon data from these metamorphic supracrustal rocks in Lvlin Forest show that they formed in Neoproterozoic with the age of 800 Ma. Old zircon age with 2.5 Ga, 2.0 Ga and 1.8 Ga, indicate that the Erguna Massif had an affinity to both Columbia and Rodinia continents. Furthermore, we also present 500 Ma metamorphic age in micashists and 500 Ma age of adjacent granitoids that might have thermally influenced its surrounding. No detailed studies have been undertaken on the metamorphic evolution of the Xinghuadukou Complex. The typical paragneissic mineral assemblage of garnet sillimanite mica schist is Grt+Sil+Bt+Mus+Qtz±Kfs. (Zhou et al., 2011) proposed that the Xinghuadukou Complex appears to have undergone similar granulite facies metamorphic conditions based on the similarity of mineral assemblages to the Mashan Complex in the Jiamusi Massif, NE China. However, the new phase equilibria modelling result shows that these rocks are high amphibolite facies product with 650℃. We can easily find K-feldspar formed by partial melting due to the consuming of muscovite. Also the remaining muscovite is directly connected with a fluid channel in thin sections which indicate that the remaining muscovite formed from retrograde with the existence of fluid. The zoned garnet has low MgO and high CaO content in rims and high MgO and low CaO content in core. It seems that this garnet has high pressure and low temperature (HP-LT) in rims and low pressure and high temperature (LP-HT) in core which would point to an anti-clockwise metamorphic evolution. Zhou, J.B., Wilde, S.A., Zhang, X.Z., Zhao, G.C., Liu, F.L., Qiao, D.W., Ren, S.M. and Liu, J.H., 2011b. A> 1300km late Pan-African metamorphic belt in NE China: new evidence from the Xing'an block and its tectonic implications. Tectonophysics, 509(3): 280-292.

  3. Assessment of natural and anthropogenic radioactivity levels in rocks and soils in the environments of Juban town in Yemen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-mageed, A.I.; El-Kamel, A.H.; Abbady, A.; Harb, S.; Youssef, A.M.M.; Saleh, I.I.

    2011-01-01

    The natural radioactivities of 40 K, 226 Ra, and 232 Th and the fallout of 137 Cs in rock and soil samples collected around Juban town in Yemen (south west of Asia) were measured. Concentrations of radionuclides in samples were determined by gamma-ray spectrometer using HPGe detector with specially designed shield. The average radioactivity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th, and 40 K were determined expressed in Bq/kg. The results show that these radionuclides were present in concentrations of (53.6±4, 127±6.7, and 1742.8±62 Bq/kg), (55±4, 121±6.6, and 2341±78 Bq/kg), (212.8±8.7, 109 ±5.5, and 32.4±4.7 Bq/kg), and (32.1±3, 22.3±2.9 and 190.9±15 Bq/kg) for granite, gneiss, siltstone, and sandstone rocks, respectively. For soil the corresponding values were 44.4±4.5, 58.2±5.1, and 822.7±31 Bq/kg. Low deposits of 137 Cs were noted in investigation area, where the activity concentrations ranged from 0.1±0.1 to 23.2±1.2 Bq/kg. Also the radiological hazard of the natural radionuclides content, radium equivalent activity, total dose rates, external hazard index, and gamma activity concentration index of the (rocks/soils) samples in the area under consideration were calculated. The data were discussed and compared with those given in the literature.

  4. Assessment of natural and anthropogenic radioactivity levels in rocks and soils in the environments of Juban town in Yemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd El-mageed, A.I., E-mail: mageed39@yahoo.co [Department of Physics, Faculty of science, Assiut University (Egypt); El-Kamel, A.H. [Department of Physics, Faculty of science, Assiut University (Egypt); Abbady, A.; Harb, S.; Youssef, A.M.M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, South Valley University (Egypt); Saleh, I.I. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Education-Toor Albaha, University of Aden (Yemen)

    2011-06-15

    The natural radioactivities of {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra, and {sup 232}Th and the fallout of {sup 137}Cs in rock and soil samples collected around Juban town in Yemen (south west of Asia) were measured. Concentrations of radionuclides in samples were determined by gamma-ray spectrometer using HPGe detector with specially designed shield. The average radioactivity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, and {sup 40}K were determined expressed in Bq/kg. The results show that these radionuclides were present in concentrations of (53.6{+-}4, 127{+-}6.7, and 1742.8{+-}62 Bq/kg), (55{+-}4, 121{+-}6.6, and 2341{+-}78 Bq/kg), (212.8{+-}8.7, 109 {+-}5.5, and 32.4{+-}4.7 Bq/kg), and (32.1{+-}3, 22.3{+-}2.9 and 190.9{+-}15 Bq/kg) for granite, gneiss, siltstone, and sandstone rocks, respectively. For soil the corresponding values were 44.4{+-}4.5, 58.2{+-}5.1, and 822.7{+-}31 Bq/kg. Low deposits of {sup 137}Cs were noted in investigation area, where the activity concentrations ranged from 0.1{+-}0.1 to 23.2{+-}1.2 Bq/kg. Also the radiological hazard of the natural radionuclides content, radium equivalent activity, total dose rates, external hazard index, and gamma activity concentration index of the (rocks/soils) samples in the area under consideration were calculated. The data were discussed and compared with those given in the literature.

  5. Recreating Rocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posth, Nicole R

    2008-01-01

    Nicole Posth and colleagues spent a month touring South African rock formations in their quest to understand the origin of ancient iron and silicate layers.......Nicole Posth and colleagues spent a month touring South African rock formations in their quest to understand the origin of ancient iron and silicate layers....

  6. Structural control and correlation of uranium distribution and mineralogy of meta-pelites in Ogcheon terrain, Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, B.S.; So, C.S.

    1980-01-01

    The rock units of Goesan area in the Ogcheon metamorphic terrain established on the basis of field criteria should be redefined into following sequence. Based on shear senses in secondary small structures which are usually observable in the investigated area, the stratigraphy can be lithologically divided into the lower pelite, pebbly mudstone, upper pelite, quartzite and psammite unit in ascending order. This conclusion is in discordance with a previous opinion; Munjuri formation and Guryongsan formation may be equivalent to upper pelite unit, Iwonri formation and Hwanggangri formation to pebbly mudstone. From this, it may be inferred that isoclinal overtuned folds repeatedly occur in the area. The uranium bearing coaly thin layers in upper pelite unit have relatively broad exposures in Deogpyeongri block of Goesan area along culmination zone in the central part of the investigated area. It is believed that structural feature in the block recognized complexly refolded synform plunging to southwest. Mineralogical and radiometric studies were made on 135 representative samples from the Ogcheon Group of Korea. The mineralogy of all black slate samples is qualitatively similar but quantitatively different. The uranium distribution in the studied area show approximately log normal. Uranium in the black slates of the Ogcheon Group was deposited together under same physico-chemical environmental conditions. The chemical and geological factors that controlled the abundance of organic carbon and iron oxides also controlled the uranium content. The relationship of the major components to uranium can be expressed by the following regression equation: Log(Ux10 4 +1)=1.70999-0.00367(quartz)-0.00512(micas)-0.00930(other silicates)+0.01911(iron oxides)-0.03389(other opaques)+0.02062(organic carbon). (author)

  7. Corrosion testing of selected packaging materials for disposal of high-level waste glass in rock salt formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smailos, E.; Schwarzkopf, W.; Koester, R.; Fiehn, B.; Halm, G.

    1990-05-01

    In previous corrosion studies performed in salt brines, unalloyed steels, Ti 99.8-Pd and Hastelloy C4 have proved to be the most promising materials for long-term resistant packagings to be used in heat-generating waste (vitrified HLW, spent fuel) disposal in rock-salt formations. To characterise the corrosion behaviour of these materials in more detail, further in-depth laboratory-scale and in-situ corrosion studies have been performed in the present study. Besides the above-mentioned materials, also some in-situ investigations of the iron-base materials Ni-Resist D2 and D4, cast iron and Si-cast iron have been carried out in order to complete the results available to date. (orig.) [de

  8. Assessment of natural and anthropogenic radioactivity levels in rocks and soils in the environs of Juban town in Yemen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-mageed, A.I.; El-Kamel, A.H.; Abbady, A.; Harb, S.; Youssef, A.M.M.; Saleh, I.I.

    2011-01-01

    The natural radioactivity of 40 K, 226 Ra, 232 Th and the fallout of 137 Cs in rocks and soils samples collected around Juban town in Yemen (south west of Asia) were measured. Concentrations of radionuclides in samples were determined by gamma-ray spectrometer using HPGe detector with specially designed shield. The average radioactivity concentration of 226 Ra, 232 Th, and 40 K were determined expressed in Bq/Kg. The results show that these radionuclides were present in concentrations of (53.6±4 Bq/kg, 127±6.7 Bq/kg and 1742.8±62 Bq/kg), (55±4 Bq/kg, 121±6.6 Bq/kg and 2341±78 Bq/kg), (212.8±8.7 Bq/kg, 109 ±5.5 Bq/kg and 32.4±4.7 Bq/kg) and (32.1±3 Bq/kg, 22.3±2.9 and 190.9±15 Bq/kg) for granite, gneiss, siltstone and sandstone rocks respectively. For soil the corresponding values were 44.4±4.5 Bq/kg, 58.2±5.1 Bq/kg and 822.7±31 Bq/kg. Low deposits of 137Cs were noted in investigation area, where the activity concentrations ranged from 0.1±0.1 Bq/kg to 23.2±1.2 Bq/kg. The data were discussed and compared with those given in the literature

  9. Art Rocks with Rock Art!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickett, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses rock art which was the very first "art." Rock art, such as the images created on the stone surfaces of the caves of Lascaux and Altimira, is the true origin of the canvas, paintbrush, and painting media. For there, within caverns deep in the earth, the first artists mixed animal fat, urine, and saliva with powdered minerals…

  10. Petrology and geochemistry of the ~2.9 Ga Itilliarsuk banded iron formation and associated supracrustal rocks, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Rasmus; Frei, Robert; Stendal, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    unconformably on a basement of tonalite–trondhjemite–granodiorite (TTG) lithologies. Felsic metagreywackes, meta-semipelites and thinly bedded ferruginous shales were identified intercalated with the Itilliarsuk BIF. Other associated rocks include metapelites, acidic metavolcanics and metagabbroic sills.......29. The associated supracrustal rocks in the study area have significantly higher, positive ɛNd(i) values. The 143Nd/144Nd in the Itilliarsuk BIF, therefore, contrasts world BIFs by exhibiting radiogenic, positive ɛNd(i) values in shallow seawaters where the REY's were controlled by a local, depleted continental...... crust, whereas the negative ɛNd(i) values found in the iron-rich layers suggest that the submarine hydrothermal source was influenced by an enriched mantle, possibly an older subcontinental lithospheric segment. The felsic metagreywackes are immature, first-cycle (SiO2/Al2O3 ∼ 4.4, [La/Yb >> 1]CHON...

  11. Rock Physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2017-01-01

    Rock physics is the discipline linking petrophysical properties as derived from borehole data to surface based geophysical exploration data. It can involve interpretation of both elastic wave propagation and electrical conductivity, but in this chapter focus is on elasticity. Rock physics is based...... on continuum mechanics, and the theory of elasticity developed for statics becomes the key to petrophysical interpretation of velocity of elastic waves. In practice, rock physics involves interpretation of well logs including vertical seismic profiling (VSP) and analysis of core samples. The results...

  12. A two-step crushed lava rock filter unit for grey water treatment at household level in an urban slum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katukiza, A Y; Ronteltap, M; Niwagaba, C B; Kansiime, F; Lens, P N L

    2014-01-15

    Decentralised grey water treatment in urban slums using low-cost and robust technologies offers opportunities to minimise public health risks and to reduce environmental pollution caused by the highly polluted grey water i.e. with a COD and N concentration of 3000-6000 mg L(-1) and 30-40 mg L(-1), respectively. However, there has been very limited action research to reduce the pollution load from uncontrolled grey water discharge by households in urban slums. This study was therefore carried out to investigate the potential of a two-step filtration process to reduce the grey water pollution load in an urban slum using a crushed lava rock filter, to determine the main filter design and operation parameters and the effect of intermittent flow on the grey water effluent quality. A two-step crushed lava rock filter unit was designed and implemented for use by a household in the Bwaise III slum in Kampala city (Uganda). It was monitored at a varying hydraulic loading rate (HLR) of 0.5-1.1 m d(-1) as well as at a constant HLR of 0.39 m d(-1). The removal efficiencies of COD, TP and TKN were, respectively, 85.9%, 58% and 65.5% under a varying HLR and 90.5%, 59.5% and 69%, when operating at a constant HLR regime. In addition, the log removal of Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and total coliforms was, respectively, 3.8, 3.2 and 3.9 under the varying HLR and 3.9, 3.5 and 3.9 at a constant HLR. The results show that the use of a two-step filtration process as well as a lower constant HLR increased the pollutant removal efficiencies. Further research is needed to investigate the feasibility of adding a tertiary treatment step to increase the nutrients and microorganisms removal from grey water. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Methods and results of the investigation of the thermomechanical behaviour of rock salt with regard to the final disposal of high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieczorek, K.; Klarr, K.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the knowledge about thermal and mechanical behaviour of rock salt that has been accumulated by various R and D institutions in Germany from laboratory and in situ investigations. An important objective is to give a comprehensive overview of the investigation methods and instruments available and to discuss these methods and instruments with regard to their applicability and reliability for the investigation of the thermomechanical effects of high level radioactive waste emplacement in rock salt formations. The report is focused on the activities of the GSF-Institut fur Tieflagerung in the Asse mine regarding the disposal of high and intermediate level radioactive waste during the last decades. The design and the results of the most important in situ experiments are presented and discussed in detail. The results are compared to model calculations in order to evaluate the reliability of both the measurements and the calculation results. The relevance of the results for the situation in Spain is discussed in a separate chapter. As the investigations in Germany have been performed in domal salt, while the Spanish concept is based on waste disposal in bedded salt, significant differences in the thermomechanical behaviour cannot be excluded. The investigation methods, however, will be applicable. (Author)

  14. Rocking pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Rijkers, Ger T.; Rodriguez Gomez, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Ever since Chuck Berry coined the term “rocking pneumonia” in his 1956 song “Roll over Beethoven”, pneumonia has been mentioned frequently in modern blues and rock songs. We analyzed the lyrics of these songs to examine how various elements of pneumonia have been represented in popular music, specifically the cause of pneumonia, the risk groups, comorbidity (such as the boogie woogie flu), the clinical symptoms, and treatment and outcome. Up to this day, songwriters suggest that pneumonia is ...

  15. Safety evaluation of geological disposal concepts for low and medium-level wastes in rock-salt (Pacoma project)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prij, J.; Van Dalen, A.; Roodbergen, H.A.; Slagter, W.; Van Weers, A.W.; Zanstra, D.A.; Glasbergen, P.; Koester, H.W.; Lembrechts, J.F.; Nijhof-Pan, I.; Slot, A.F.M.

    1991-01-01

    In the framework of the Performance Assessment of Confinements for MLW and Alpha Waste (PACOMA) the disposal options dealing with rock-salt are studied by GSF and ECN (with subcontract to RIVM). The overall objectives of these studies are to develop and demonstrate procedures for the radiological safety assessment of a deep repository in salt formations. An essential objective is to show how far appropriate choices of the repository design parameters can improve the performances of the whole system. The research covers two waste inventories (the Dutch OPLA and the PACOMA reference inventory), two disposal techniques (conventional and solution mining) and three types of formations (salt dome, pillow and bedded salt). An important part of the research has been carried out in the socalled VEOS project within the framework of the Dutch OPLA study. The methodology used in the consequence analysis is a deterministic one. The models and calculation tools used to perform the consequence analysis are the codes: EMOS, METROPOL and BIOS. The results are expressed in terms of dose rates and doses to individuals as well as to groups. Detailed information with respect to the input data and the results obtained with the three codes is given in three annexes to this final report

  16. Grinding into Soft, Powdery Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This hole in a rock dubbed 'Clovis' is the deepest hole drilled so far in any rock on Mars. NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit captured this view with its microscopic imager on martian sol 217 (Aug. 12, 2004) after drilling 8.9 millimeters (0.35 inch) into the rock with its rock abrasion tool. The view is a mosaic of four frames taken by the microscopic imager. The hole is 4.5 centimeters (1.8 inches) in diameter. Clovis is key to a developing story about environmental change on Mars, not only because it is among the softest rocks encountered so far in Gusev Crater, but also because it contains mineral alterations that extend relatively deep beneath its surface. In fact, as evidenced by its fairly crumbly texture, it is possibly the most highly altered volcanic rock ever studied on Mars. Scientific analysis shows that the rock contains higher levels of the elements sulfur, chlorine, and bromine than are normally encountered in basaltic rocks, such as a rock dubbed 'Humphrey' that Spirit encountered two months after arriving on Mars. Humphrey showed elevated levels of sulfur, chlorine, and bromine only in the outermost 2 millimeters (less than 0.1 inch) of its surface. Clovis shows elevated levels of the same elements along with the associated softness of the rock within a borehole that is 4 times as deep. Scientists hope to compare Clovis to other, less-altered rocks in the vicinity to assess what sort of water-based processes altered the rock. Hypotheses include transport of sulfur, chlorine, and bromine in water vapor in volcanic gases; hydrothermal circulation (flow of volcanically heated water through rock); or saturation in a briny soup containing the same elements. In this image, very fine-grained material from the rock has clumped together by electrostatic attraction and fallen into the borehole. NASA/JPL/Cornell/USGS

  17. Comparison of the intermediate storage periods and areas required for final storage of high-level radioactive waste and spent fuel in various types of host rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Hoeppe, N.; Lerch, C.; Jobmann, M.; Filbert, W.

    2005-01-01

    The present new version of the German concept for radioactive waste and spent fuel management is based on the assumption that a repository for high-level waste and spent fuel will not be required until 2030. One reason frequently given for this date is the intermediate storage period of at least forty years to allow the very high initial heat generation to decay. However, calculations performed by the authors have shown that the minimum intermediate storage period for a repository in rock salt is only between four and nineteen years, depending on the final storage concept and the load of the waste package. In clay as a host rock, the minimum intermediate storage times were calculated to be between 31 and 142 years; the same time spans are expected to apply to final storage in magmatic rock, such as granite. The maximum permissible loads of a container holding spent fuel in salt are many times those in clay and granite, respectively. It was also seen that the area requirement for final storage of the same waste structures is roughly a factor of ten higher in clay than in salt. The differences between granite and salt are similar. The reasons for these grave differences, on the one hand, are the better thermal conductivity of salt and, on the other hand, the better heat tolerance of the crushed salt used as backfill material compared to that of bentonite used in the clay and granite concepts. While salt will allow temperatures of up to 200 C, the maximum temperature in bentonite is limited to 100 C. (orig.)

  18. Découverte et signification d'une paragenèse à ilménite zincifère dans les métapélites des Jebilet centrales (Maroc)Occurrence and significance of zincian ilmenite in low-pressure metapelites from central Jebilet (Morocco)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essaifi, Abderrahim; Ballèvre, Michel; Marignac, Christian; Capdevila, Ramon

    2001-10-01

    A zincian ilmenite paragenesis is found in metapelites from a contact metamorphic zone (central Jebilet, Morocco) induced by the emplacement of microgranitic intrusions. The zincian ilmenite is mainly preserved in syntectonic andalusite porphyroblasts. The growth of zincian ilmenite is related either to sphalerite breakdown during prograde metamorphism, or to the pervasive flow of a mineralizing fluid within the metapelites. The chlorine-rich fluid carried zinc and other metals leached in the microgranites, during its flow to discharge zones which were probably the Jebilet sulfide deposits.

  19. Site investigations, design, construction, operation, shutdown and surveillance of repositories for low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes in rock cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The report provides an overview and technical guidelines for considerations and for activities to be undertaken for safety assessment, site investigations, design, construction, operation, shutdown and surveillance of repositories for the disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes in rock cavities. A generalized sequence of investigations is introduced which proceeds through region and site selection to the stage where the site is confirmed by detailed geoscientific investigations as being suitable for a waste repository. The different procedures and somewhat specific investigative needs with respect to existing mines are dealt with separately. General design, as well as specific requirements with respect to the different stages of design and construction, are dealt with. A review of activities related to the operational and post-operational stages of repositories in rock cavities is presented. The report describes in general terms the procedures related to different stages of disposal operation; also the conditions for shutdown together with essential shutdown and sealing activities and the related safety assessment requirements. Guidance is also given on the surveillance programme which will allow for inspection, testing, maintenance and security of a disposal facility during the operational phase, as well as for the post-operational stage for periods determined as necessary by the national authorities

  20. A comparison study of single and double layer repositories for high level radioactive wastes within a saturated and discontinuous granitic rock mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jhin Wung; Choi, Jong Won; Bae, Dae Suk

    2004-02-01

    The present study is to analyze and compare a long term thermohydro mechanical interaction behavior of a single layer and a double layer repository for high level radioactive wastes within a saturated and discontinuous granitic rock mass, and then to contribute this understanding to the development of a Korean disposal concept. The model includes a saturated and discontinuous granitic rock mass, PWR spent nuclear fuel in a disposal canister surrounded by compacted bentonite inside a deposition hole, and mixed bentonite backfilled in the rest of the space within a repository cavern. It is assumed that two joint sets exist within the model. Joint set 1 includes joints of 56 .deg. dip angle, spaced at 20 m, and joint set 2 is in the perpendicular direction to joint set 1 and includes joints of .deg. dip angle, spaced at 20 m. The two dimensional distinct element code, UDEC is used for the analysis. To understand the joint behavior adjacent to the repository cavern, Barton-Bandis joint model is used. Effect of the decay heat from PWR spent fuels on the repository model has been analyzed, and a steady state flow algorithm is used for the hydraulic analysis

  1. Development of artificial soft rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishi, Kiyoshi

    1995-01-01

    When foundation base rocks are deeper than the level of installing structures or there exist weathered rocks and crushed rocks in a part of base rocks, often sound artificial base rocks are made by substituting the part with concrete. But in the construction of Kashiwazaki Kariwa Nuclear Power Station of Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc., the foundation base rocks consist of mudstone, and the stiffness of concrete is large as compared with the surrounding base rocks. As the quality of the substituting material, the nearly same stiffness as that of the surrounding soft rocks and long term stability are suitable, and the excellent workability and economical efficiency are required, therefore, artificial soft rocks were developed. As the substituting material, the soil mortar that can obtain the physical property values in stable form, which are similar to those of Nishiyama mudstone, was selected. The mechanism of its hardening and the long term stability, and the manufacturing plant are reported. As for its application to the base rocks of Kashiwazaki Kariwa Nuclear Power Station, the verification test at the site and the application to the base rocks for No. 7 plant reactor building and other places are described. (K.I.)

  2. Use of the mixture of clay and crushed rock as a backfill material for low and intermediate level radioactive waste repository. Appendix 10: Republic of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, W.J.; Lee, J.O.; Hahn, P.S.; Chun, K.S.

    2001-01-01

    At the time of the CRP, a repository for low and intermediate level radioactive wastes arising from nuclear power plant operation and radioisotope application in the Republic of Korea was to be constructed in the bedrock below ground surface. As the intermediate level waste cavern would contain the major part of radionuclide inventory in the cavern, the radionuclide release from the intermediate level waste cavern was therefore important from the viewpoint of disposal facility performance. The then current design concept suggested that the intermediate level waste would be emplaced into the compartment made of reinforced concrete, and the space between the concrete wall and cavern surface would be backfilled with a clay-based material. As compacted clay-based materials have a low hydraulic conductivity and the hydraulic gradient in a disposal cavern was expected to be relatively low, molecular diffusion was considered to be the principal mechanism by which radionuclides would migrate through the backfill. The mixture of calcium bentonite and crushed rock was being suggested as a candidate backfill material. This appendix summarises the KAERI research activities on the evaluation of hydraulic conductivity, radionuclide diffusion coefficient, and mechanical properties of the candidate clay-based backfill material for the intermediate level waste cavern

  3. In situ investigations on the impact of heat production and gamma radiation with regard to high-level radioactive waste disposal in rock salt formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothfuchs, T.

    1986-01-01

    Deep geological formations especially rock salt formations, are considered worldwide as suitable media for the final disposal of radioactive high-level waste (HLW). In the Federal Republic of Germany, the Institut fur Tieflagerung of the Gesellschaft fur Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH Munchen operates the Asse Salt Mine as a pilot facility for testing the behavior of an underground nuclear waste repository. The tests are performed using heat and radiation sources to simulate disposed HLW canisters. The measured data obtained since 1965 show that the thermomechanical response of the salt formation and the physical/chemical changes in the vicinity of disposal boreholes are not a serious concern and that their long-term consequences can be estimated based on theoretical considerations and in-situ investigations

  4. Tracing groundwater with low-level detections of halogenated VOCs in a fractured carbonate-rock aquifer, Leetown Science Center, West Virginia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Niel; Sibrell, Philip L.; Casile, Gerolamo C.; Busenberg, Eurybiades; Hunt, Andrew G.; Schlosser, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of low-level concentrations of halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and estimates of groundwater age interpreted from 3H/3He and SF6 data have led to an improved understanding of groundwater flow, water sources, and transit times in a karstic, fractured, carbonate-rock aquifer at the Leetown Science Center (LSC), West Virginia. The sum of the concentrations of a set of 16 predominant halogenated VOCs (TDVOC) determined by gas chromatography with electron-capture detector (GC–ECD) exceeded that possible for air–water equilibrium in 34 of the 47 samples (median TDVOC of 24,800 pg kg−1), indicating that nearly all the water sampled in the vicinity of the LSC has been affected by addition of halogenated VOCs from non-atmospheric source(s). Leakage from a landfill that was closed and sealed nearly 20 a prior to sampling was recognized and traced to areas east of the LSC using low-level detection of tetrachloroethene (PCE), methyl chloride (MeCl), methyl chloroform (MC), dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12), and cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cis-1,2-DCE). Chloroform (CHLF) was the predominant VOC in water from domestic wells surrounding the LSC, and was elevated in groundwater in and near the Fish Health Laboratory at the LSC, where a leak of chlorinated water occurred prior to 2006. The low-level concentrations of halogenated VOCs did not exceed human or aquatic-life health criteria, and were useful in providing an awareness of the intrinsic susceptibility of the fractured karstic groundwater system at the LSC to non-atmospheric anthropogenic inputs. The 3H/3He groundwater ages of spring discharge from the carbonate rocks showed transient behavior, with ages averaging about 2 a in 2004 following a wet climatic period (2003–2004), and ages in the range of 4–7 a in periods of more average precipitation (2008–2009). The SF6 and CFC-12 data indicate older water (model ages of 10s of years or more) in the low-permeability shale of the Martinsburg

  5. Far Field Sorption Data Bases for Performance Assessment of a High-Level Radioactive Waste Repository in an Undisturbed Opalinus Clay Host Rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradburry, M.; Baeyens, B.

    2003-08-01

    An Opalinus Clay formation in the Zuercher Weinland is under consideration by Nagra as a potential location for a high-level and long-Iived intermediate-level radioactive waste repository. Performance assessment studies will be performed for this site and the purpose of this report is to describe the procedures used to develop sorption data bases appropriate for an undisturbed Opalinus Clay host rock which are required for such safety analysis calculations. In tight, low water content argillaceous rock formations such as Opalinus Clay, there is uncertainty concerning the in situ pH/P CO 2 . In order to take this intrinsic uncertainty into account porewater chemistries were calculated for a reference case, pH = 7.24, and for two other pH values, 6.3 and 7.8. Sorption data bases are given for the three cases. The basis for the sorption data bases is 'in-house' sorption measurements for Cs(I), Sr(II), Ni(II), Eu(III), Sn(IV), Se(IV), Th(IV) and I(-I) carried out on Opalinus Clay samples from Mont Terri (Canton Jura) since at the time the experiments were performed no core samples from the Benken borehole (Zuercher Weinland) were available. The Opalinus Clay at Mont Terri and Benken are part of the same geological formation . Despite having directly measured data for the above key radionuclides, some of the required distribution ratios (Rd) used to generate the sorption data bases still came from the open literature. An important part of this report is concerned with describing the procedures whereby these selected literature Rd values were modified so as to apply to the Benken Opalinus Clay mineralogy and groundwater chemistries calculated at the three pH values given above. The resulting Rd values were then further modified using so-called Lab→Field transfer factors to produce sorption values which were appropriate to the in situ bulk rock for the selected range of water chemistry conditions. Finally, it is important to have some appreciation of the uncertainties

  6. Far Field Sorption Data Bases for Performance Assessment of a High-Level Radioactive Waste Repository in an Undisturbed Opalinus Clay Host Rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradburry, M.; Baeyens, B

    2003-08-01

    An Opalinus Clay formation in the Zuercher Weinland is under consideration by Nagra as a potential location for a high-level and long-Iived intermediate-level radioactive waste repository. Performance assessment studies will be performed for this site and the purpose of this report is to describe the procedures used to develop sorption data bases appropriate for an undisturbed Opalinus Clay host rock which are required for such safety analysis calculations. In tight, low water content argillaceous rock formations such as Opalinus Clay, there is uncertainty concerning the in situ pH/P{sub CO{sub 2}}. In order to take this intrinsic uncertainty into account porewater chemistries were calculated for a reference case, pH = 7.24, and for two other pH values, 6.3 and 7.8. Sorption data bases are given for the three cases. The basis for the sorption data bases is 'in-house' sorption measurements for Cs(I), Sr(II), Ni(II), Eu(III), Sn(IV), Se(IV), Th(IV) and I(-I) carried out on Opalinus Clay samples from Mont Terri (Canton Jura) since at the time the experiments were performed no core samples from the Benken borehole (Zuercher Weinland) were available. The Opalinus Clay at Mont Terri and Benken are part of the same geological formation . Despite having directly measured data for the above key radionuclides, some of the required distribution ratios (Rd) used to generate the sorption data bases still came from the open literature. An important part of this report is concerned with describing the procedures whereby these selected literature Rd values were modified so as to apply to the Benken Opalinus Clay mineralogy and groundwater chemistries calculated at the three pH values given above. The resulting Rd values were then further modified using so-called Lab{yields}Field transfer factors to produce sorption values which were appropriate to the in situ bulk rock for the selected range of water chemistry conditions. Finally, it is important to have some

  7. Intellektuaalne rock

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Briti laulja-helilooja ja näitleja Toyah Willcox ning Bill Rieflin ansamblist R.E.M. ja Pat Mastelotto King Krimsonist esinevad koos ansamblitega The Humans ja Tuner 25. okt. Tallinnas Rock Cafés ja 27. okt Tartu Jaani kirikus

  8. Rock mechanics for hard rock nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuze, F.E.

    1981-09-01

    The mined geologic burial of high level nuclear waste is now the favored option for disposal. The US National Waste Terminal Storage Program designed to achieve this disposal includes an extensive rock mechanics component related to the design of the wastes repositories. The plan currently considers five candidate rock types. This paper deals with the three hard rocks among them: basalt, granite, and tuff. Their behavior is governed by geological discontinuities. Salt and shale, which exhibit behavior closer to that of a continuum, are not considered here. This paper discusses both the generic rock mechanics R and D, which are required for repository design, as well as examples of projects related to hard rock waste storage. The examples include programs in basalt (Hanford/Washington), in granitic rocks (Climax/Nevada Test Site, Idaho Springs/Colorado, Pinawa/Canada, Oracle/Arizona, and Stripa/Sweden), and in tuff

  9. The disposal of high level radioactive waste in argillaceous host rocks identification of parameters, constraints and geological assessment priorities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horseman, S.T.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this report, commissioned by ENRESA, is to examine the characteristics, properties and responses of argillaceous media (clays and more indurated mudrocks) in some detail in order to identify the main parameters that will influence the radiological safety of a deep underground facility for the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) and to highlight possible constraints and other important issues relating to the construction, operation and performance of such a facility

  10. Investigation of uranium238, potassium40 and thorium232 level in soil and rock sample from North and South of Kurdofan state ( Western Sudan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, Alshfia Hashiem

    2015-04-01

    In this study 40 soil and rock samples were collected from eight locations (A.B.C.G) F present tow location, 500 grams of soil and rock sample was weighed and closed in plastic containers for weeks so to have secular equilibrium for uranium. Our goal of this study was estimate from North and South of Kurdofan state (Western Sudan). natural radioactivity concentrations in soil rock sample were measured by gamma-ray spectrometry using Nal (TI), calibration process carried out for gamma spectroscopy using MW652 as a reference source -Cs-137 and Co-60 with two energy levels. The concentration of K-40 in location A was found to be range (347.78-51,67)Bq/kg in locations B was found to be range (169,90-125,54)Bq/kg in location C was found to be range (152,14-34,47)Bq/kg in location D was found to be range ( 396. 26-49.90)Bq/kg in location E was found to be range ( 168.70-127.70)Bq/kg in location F was found to be range (432.5-200.1)Bq/kg and in location G was found to be range (684.41-347.86)Bq/kg. The concentration of U-238 in location A was found to be range (483.133-19.4) Bq/kg in location B was found to be range (50.24-24.94)Bq/kg in location C was found to be range ( 69.11-10.58) Bq/kg in location D was found to be range (52.50-15.06)Bq/kg in location E was found to be range (56.66-49.6)Bq/kg in location E was found to be range (56.66-49)Bq/kg in location F was found to be range (46.01-19.40)Bq/kg in location A was found to be range (3227.8-40)Bq/kg in location B was found to be range (88.62-40.04) Bq/Kg in location C was found to be range (119.05-14.04) Bq/kg in location D was found to be range (51.62-16.96)Bq/kg in location E was found to be range (43.89-39.84) Bq/kg in location F was found to be range ( 46.18-24.40)Bq/kg and in location G was found to be range (201.05-137.34)Bq/kg.(Author)

  11. Self-sealing of rock fractures. A possibility around the repositories of high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chigira, Masahiro; Nakata, Eiji

    1995-01-01

    To the goal of the safe geological disposal of high-level radioactive wastes (HLW), we must provide long-term confidence for the isolation of HLW in various ways. In particular, groundwater flow, the most likely transport media of radioactive nuclides from HLW, must be restricted around a repository for long time. For that purpose, grouting techniques using cement, bentonite, or other materials have been studied in many countries. In this paper we report the results of a series of experiments on silica precipitation behavior in a flow path with negative temperature gradients in granite and also describe a natural example of hydrothermal alteration of diatomite intruded by andesite. Based on these, we will discuss the possibility of self-sealing around HLW repository. (J.P.N.)

  12. White Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 19 April 2002) The Science 'White Rock' is the unofficial name for this unusual landform which was first observed during the Mariner 9 mission in the early 1970's. As later analysis of additional data sets would show, White Rock is neither white nor dense rock. Its apparent brightness arises from the fact that the material surrounding it is so dark. Images from the Mars Global Surveyor MOC camera revealed dark sand dunes surrounding White Rock and on the floor of the troughs within it. Some of these dunes are just apparent in the THEMIS image. Although there was speculation that the material composing White Rock could be salts from an ancient dry lakebed, spectral data from the MGS TES instrument did not support this claim. Instead, the White Rock deposit may be the erosional remnant of a previously more continuous occurrence of air fall sediments, either volcanic ash or windblown dust. The THEMIS image offers new evidence for the idea that the original deposit covered a larger area. Approximately 10 kilometers to the southeast of the main deposit are some tiny knobs of similarly bright material preserved on the floor of a small crater. Given that the eolian erosion of the main White Rock deposit has produced isolated knobs at its edges, it is reasonable to suspect that the more distant outliers are the remnants of a once continuous deposit that stretched at least to this location. The fact that so little remains of the larger deposit suggests that the material is very easily eroded and simply blows away. The Story Fingers of hard, white rock seem to jut out like icy daggers across a moody Martian surface, but appearances can be deceiving. These bright, jagged features are neither white, nor icy, nor even hard and rocky! So what are they, and why are they so different from the surrounding terrain? Scientists know that you can't always trust what your eyes see alone. You have to use other kinds of science instruments to measure things that our eyes can

  13. Transporting radioactive rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearce, G.

    1990-01-01

    The case is made for exempting geological specimens from the IAEA Regulations for Safer Transport of Radioactive Materials. It is pointed out that many mineral collectors in Devon and Cornwall may be unwittingly infringing these regulations by taking naturally radioactive rocks and specimens containing uranium ores. Even if these collectors are aware that these rocks are radioactive, and many are not, few have the necessary equipment to monitor the activity levels. If the transport regulations were to be enforced alarm could be generated and the regulations devalued in case of an accident. The danger from a spill of rock specimens is negligible compared with an accident involving industrial or medical radioactive substances yet would require similar special treatment. (UK)

  14. Water/rock interactions and mass transport within a thermal gradient Application to the confinement of high level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poinssot, Ch.; Ecole Normale Superieure, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses

    1998-01-01

    The initial stage of a high level nuclear waste disposal will be characterised by a large heat release within the near-field environment of the canisters. This heat flux caused by radioactive decay will lead to an increase of temperature and a subsequent thermal gradient between the 'hot' canisters and the 'cold'geological medium. In addition, this thermal gradient will decrease with time due to the heat decay although it could last hundred years. What will be the consequences of such a thermal field varying both on space and time for the alteration of the different constituents of the near field environment. In particular, what could be the effects on the radionuclides migration in the accidental case of an early breach of a canister during the thermal stage? This study brings significant answers to these questions in the light of a performance assessment study. This work is supported by a triple methodological approach involving experimental studies, modelling calculations and a natural analogues study. This complete work demonstrates that a thermal gradient leads to a large re-distribution of elements within the system: some elements are incorporated in the solid phases of the hot end (Si, Zr, Ca) whereas some others are in those of the cold end (Fe, Al, Zn). The confrontation of the results of very simple experiments with the results of a model built on equilibrium thermodynamics allow us to evidence the probable mechanisms causing this mass transport: out-of-equilibrium thermodiffusion processes coupled to irreversible precipitation. Moreover, the effects of the variation of temperatures with time is studied by the way of a natural system which underwent a similar temperature evolution as a disposal and which was initially rich in uranium: the Jurassic Alpine bauxites. In addition, part of the initial bauxite escaped this temperature transformations due to their incorporation in outer thrusting nappes. They are used as a reference. (author)

  15. Cs sorption to potential host rock of low-level radioactive waste repository in Taiwan: experiments and numerical fitting study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tsing-Hai; Chen, Chin-Lung; Ou, Lu-Yen; Wei, Yuan-Yaw; Chang, Fu-Lin; Teng, Shi-Ping

    2011-09-15

    A reliable performance assessment of radioactive waste repository depends on better knowledge of interactions between nuclides and geological substances. Numerical fitting of acquired experimental results by the surface complexation model enables us to interpret sorption behavior at molecular scale and thus to build a solid basis for simulation study. A lack of consensus on a standard set of assessment criteria (such as determination of sorption site concentration, reaction formula) during numerical fitting, on the other hand, makes lower case comparison between various studies difficult. In this study we explored the sorption of cesium to argillite by conducting experiments under different pH and solid/liquid ratio (s/l) with two specific initial Cs concentrations (100mg/L, 7.5 × 10(-4)mol/L and 0.01 mg/L, 7.5 × 10(-8)mol/L). After this, numerical fitting was performed, focusing on assessment criteria and their consequences. It was found that both ion exchange and electrostatic interactions governed Cs sorption on argillite. At higher initial Cs concentration the Cs sorption showed an increasing dependence on pH as the solid/liquid ratio was lowered. In contrast at trace Cs levels, the Cs sorption was neither s/l dependent nor pH sensitive. It is therefore proposed that ion exchange mechanism dominates Cs sorption when the concentration of surface sorption site exceeds that of Cs, whereas surface complexation is attributed to Cs uptake under alkaline environments. Numerical fitting was conducted using two different strategies to determine concentration of surface sorption sites: the clay model (based on the cation exchange capacity plus surface titration results) and the iron oxide model (where the concentration of sorption sites is proportional to the surface area of argillite). It was found that the clay model led to better fitting than the iron oxide model, which is attributed to more amenable sorption sites (two specific sorption sites along with larger site

  16. The nature of a deformation zone and fault rock related to a recent rockburst at Western Deep Levels Gold Mine, Witwatersrand Basin, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, R. A.; Reimold, W. U.; Charlesworth, E. G.; Ortlepp, W. D.

    2001-07-01

    In August 1998, a major deformation zone was exposed over several metres during mining operations on 87 Level (2463 m below surface) at Western Deep Levels Gold Mine, southwest of Johannesburg, providing a unique opportunity to study the products of a recent rockburst. This zone consists of three shear zones, with dip-slip displacements of up to 15 cm, that are oriented near-parallel to the advancing stope face. Jogs and a highly pulverised, cataclastic 'rock-flour' are developed on the displacement surfaces, and several sets of secondary extensional fractures occur on either side of the shear zones. A set of pinnate (feather) joints intersects the fault surfaces perpendicular to the slip vector. Microscopically, the shear zones consist of two pinnate joint sets that exhibit cataclastic joint fillings; quartz grains display intense intragranular fracturing. Secondary, intergranular extension fractures are associated with the pinnate joints. Extensional deformation is also the cause of the breccia fill of the pinnate joints. The initial deformation experienced by this zone is brittle and tensile, and is related to stresses induced by mining. This deformation has been masked by later changes in the stress field, which resulted in shearing. This deformation zone does not appear to be controlled by pre-existing geological features and, thus, represents a 'burst fracture', which is believed to be related to a seismic event of magnitude ML=2.1 recorded in July 1998, the epicentre of which was located to within 50 m of the study locality.

  17. Effect of competition program "Acrobatics" category "B-Class" at the level of technical preparedness of athletes in acrobatic rock and roll

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petro Kyzim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to define the level of technique of execution of acrobatic competition program «Acrobatics» elements a category «В-class» in acrobatic rock-and-roll. Material and Methods: the followings methods of research were used: theoretical analysis and generalization of information of the special scientific-methodical literature; photography, videosurvey, computer analysis, pedagogical supervision. The competition programs are analysed from 1 to a 6 place on World Cup of 2014 and 2015. Results: on the basis of evaluation scale of implementation of acrobatic directory of WRRC (version 2 entries, the evaluation results of technique of implementation of acrobatic competition program «Acrobatic» elements are got separately every sporting pair of skilled sportsmen of category of «В-сlass» of the World Cup final in Krakov 2014 (6 pair and World Cup final in Krakov 2015 (6 pair. Certainly dynamics of evaluation results of technique of execution of acrobatic competition program «Acrobatic» elements separately every sporting pair of skilled sportsmen of category of «В-сlass» in the World Cup final in Krakov 2015. Conclusions: including of acrobatic elements of enhanceable complication and combinations from two acrobatic elements and two rotations allowed substantially to promote the level of technical preparedness of participants of the World Cup final 2015 years

  18. Rock stresses (Grimsel rock laboratory)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahl, A.; Heusermann, S.; Braeuer, V.; Gloeggler, W.

    1989-01-01

    On the research and development project 'Rock Stress Measurements' the BGR has developed and tested several test devices and methods at GTS for use in boreholes at a depth of 200 m and has carried out rock mechanical and engineering geological investigations for the evaluation and interpretation of the stress measurements. The first time a computer for data processing was installed in the borehole together with the BGR-probe. Laboratory tests on hollow cylinders were made to study the stress-deformation behavior. To validate and to interprete the measurement results some test methods were modelled using the finite-element method. The dilatometer-tests yielded high values of Young's modulus, whereas laboratory tests showed lower values with a distinct deformation anisotropy. Stress measurements with the BGR-probe yielded horizontal stresses being higher than the theoretical overburden pressure and vertical stresses which agree well with the theoretical overburden pressure. These results are comparable to the results of the hydraulic fracturing tests, whereas stresses obtained with CSIR-triaxial cells are generally lower. The detailed geological mapping of the borehole indicated relationships between stress and geology. With regard to borehole depth different zones of rock structure joint frequency, joint orientation, and orientation of microfissures as well as stress magnitude, stress direction, and degree of deformation anisotropy could be distinguished. (orig./HP) [de

  19. Thermal Inertia of Rocks and Rock Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombek, M. P.; Jakosky, B. M.; Mellon, M. T.

    2001-01-01

    The effective thermal inertia of rock populations on Mars and Earth is derived from a model of effective inertia versus rock diameter. Results allow a parameterization of the effective rock inertia versus rock abundance and bulk and fine component inertia. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  20. Tourmaline occurrences within the Penamacor-Monsanto granitic pluton and host-rocks (Central Portugal): genetic implications of crystal-chemical and isotopic features

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, I. Ribeiro; Mourão, C.; Récio, C.; Guimarães, F.; Antunes, I. M.; Ramos, J. Farinha; Barriga, F. J. A. S.; Palmer, M. R.; Milton, J. A.

    2014-04-01

    Tourmalinization associated with peraluminous granitic intrusions in metapelitic host-rocks has been widely recorded in the Iberian Peninsula, given the importance of tourmaline as a tracer of granite magma evolution and potential indicator of Sn-W mineralizations. In the Penamacor-Monsanto granite pluton (Central Eastern Portugal, Central Iberian Zone), tourmaline occurs: (1) as accessory phase in two-mica granitic rocks, muscovite-granites and aplites, (2) in quartz (±mica)-tourmaline rocks (tourmalinites) in several exocontact locations, and (3) as a rare detrital phase in contact zone hornfels and metapelitic host-rocks. Electron microprobe and stable isotope (δ18O, δD, δ11B) data provide clear distinctions between tourmaline populations from these different settings: (a) schorl-oxyschorl tourmalines from granitic rocks have variable foititic component (X□ = 17-57 %) and Mg/(Mg + Fe) ratios (0.19-0.50 in two-mica granitic rocks, and 0.05-0.19 in the more differentiated muscovite-granite and aplites); granitic tourmalines have constant δ18O values (12.1 ± 0.1 ‰), with wider-ranging δD (-78.2 ± 4.7 ‰) and δ11B (-10.7 to -9.0 ‰) values; (b) vein/breccia oxyschorl [Mg/(Mg + Fe) = 0.31-0.44] results from late, B- and Fe-enriched magma-derived fluids and is characterized by δ18O = 12.4 ‰, δD = -29.5 ‰, and δ11B = -9.3 ‰, while replacement tourmalines have more dravitic compositions [Mg/(Mg + Fe) = 0.26-0.64], close to that of detrital tourmaline in the surrounding metapelitic rocks, and yield relatively constant δ18O values (13.1-13.3 ‰), though wider-ranging δD (-58.5 to -36.5 ‰) and δ11B (-10.2 to -8.8 ‰) values; and (c) detrital tourmaline in contact rocks and regional host metasediments is mainly dravite [Mg/(Mg + Fe) = 0.35-0.78] and oxydravite [Mg/(Mg + Fe) = 0.51-0.58], respectively. Boron contents of the granitic rocks are low (<650 ppm) compared to the minimum B contents normally required for tourmaline saturation in

  1. FEBEX project: full-scale engineered barriers experiment for a deep geological repository for high level radioactive waste in crystalline host rock. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberdi, J.; Barcala, J. M.; Campos, R.; Cuevas, A. M.; Fernandez, E.

    2000-01-01

    FEBEX has the multiple objective of demonstrating the feasibility of manufacturing, handling and constructing the engineered barriers and of developing codes for the thermo-hydro-mechanical and thermo-hydro-geochemical performance assessment of a deep geological repository for high level radioactive wastes. These objectives require integrated theoretical and experimental development work. The experimental work consists of three parts: an in situ test, a mock-up test and a series of laboratory tests. The experiments is based on the Spanish reference concept for crystalline rock, in which the waste capsules are placed horizontally in drifts surround by high density compacted bentonite blocks. In the two large-scale tests, the thermal effects of the wastes were simulated by means of heaters; hydration was natural in the in situ test and controlled in the mock-up test. The large-scale tests, with their monitoring systems, have been in operation for more than two years. the demonstration has been achieved in the in situ test and there are great expectation that numerical models sufficiently validated for the near-field performance assessment will be achieved. (Author)

  2. Deep ground water microbiology in Swedish granite rock and it's relevance for radio-nuclide migration from a Swedish high level nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, Karsten

    1989-03-01

    Data on numbers, species and activity of deep ground water microbial populations in Swedish granite rock have been collected. Specific studies are performed on radio-nuclid uptake on bacteria judge to be probable inhabitants in Swedish nuclear waste repositories. An integrated mobile field laboratory was used for water sampling and for the immediate counting and inoculation of the samples from boreholes at levels between 129 and 860 m. A sampler adapted for the collection of undisturbed samples for gas analysis was used to collect samples for bacterial enumerations and enrichments. The sampler can be opened and closed from the surface at the actual sampling depth. The samples can subsequently be brought to the surface without contact with air and with the pressure at the actual sampling depth. The number of bacteria were determined in samples from the gas sampler when this was possible. Else numbers are determined in the water that is pumped up to the field lab. The average total number of bacteria is 3 x 10 5 bacterial ml -1 . The number of bacteria possible to recover with plate count arrays from 0.10 to 21.9%. (author)

  3. FEBEX project: full-scale engineered barriers experiment for a deep geological repository for high level radioactive waste in crystalline host rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberid, J; Barcala, J M; Campos, R; Cuevas, A M; Fernandez, E [Ciemat. Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    FEBEX has the multiple objective of demonstrating the feasibility of manufacturing, handling and constructing the engineered barriers and of developing codes for the thermo-hydro-mechanical and thermo-hydro-geochemical performance assessment of a deep geological repository for high level radioactive wastes. These objectives require integrated theoretical and experimental development work. The experimental work consists of three parts: an in situ test, a mock-up test and a series of laboratory tests. The experiments is based on the Spanish reference concept for crystalline rock, in which the waste capsules are placed horizontally in drifts surround by high density compacted bentonite blocks. In the two large-scale tests, the thermal effects of the wastes were simulated by means of heaters; hydration was natural in the in situ test and controlled in the mock-up test. The large-scale tests, with their monitoring systems, have been in operation for more than two years. the demonstration has been achieved in the in situ test and there are great expectation that numerical models sufficiently validated for the near-field performance assessment will be achieved. (Author)

  4. An in-situ stimulation experiment in crystalline rock - assessment of induced seismicity levels during stimulation and related hazard for nearby infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gischig, Valentin; Broccardo, Marco; Amann, Florian; Jalali, Mohammadreza; Esposito, Simona; Krietsch, Hannes; Doetsch, Joseph; Madonna, Claudio; Wiemer, Stefan; Loew, Simon; Giardini, Domenico

    2016-04-01

    A decameter in-situ stimulation experiment is currently being performed at the Grimsel Test Site in Switzerland by the Swiss Competence Center for Energy Research - Supply of Electricity (SCCER-SoE). The underground research laboratory lies in crystalline rock at a depth of 480 m, and exhibits well-documented geology that is presenting some analogies with the crystalline basement targeted for the exploitation of deep geothermal energy resources in Switzerland. The goal is to perform a series of stimulation experiments spanning from hydraulic fracturing to controlled fault-slip experiments in an experimental volume approximately 30 m in diameter. The experiments will contribute to a better understanding of hydro-mechanical phenomena and induced seismicity associated with high-pressure fluid injections. Comprehensive monitoring during stimulation will include observation of injection rate and pressure, pressure propagation in the reservoir, permeability enhancement, 3D dislocation along the faults, rock mass deformation near the fault zone, as well as micro-seismicity. The experimental volume is surrounded by other in-situ experiments (at 50 to 500 m distance) and by infrastructure of the local hydropower company (at ~100 m to several kilometres distance). Although it is generally agreed among stakeholders related to the experiments that levels of induced seismicity may be low given the small total injection volumes of less than 1 m3, detailed analysis of the potential impact of the stimulation on other experiments and surrounding infrastructure is essential to ensure operational safety. In this contribution, we present a procedure how induced seismic hazard can be estimated for an experimental situation that is untypical for injection-induced seismicity in terms of injection volumes, injection depths and proximity to affected objects. Both, deterministic and probabilistic methods are employed to estimate that maximum possible and the maximum expected induced

  5. An investigation of rock fall and pore water pressure using LIDAR in Highway 63 rock cuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this research work is compare LIDAR scanning measurements of rock fall with the natural changes in groundwater level to determining the effect of water pressures (levels) on rock fall. To collect the information of rock cut volume chan...

  6. Water - rock interaction in different rock environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamminen, S.

    1995-01-01

    The study assesses the groundwater geochemistry and geological environment of 44 study sites for radioactive waste disposal. Initially, the study sites were divided by rock type into 5 groups: (1) acid - intermediate rocks, (2) mafic - ultramafic rocks, (3) gabbros, amphibolites and gneisses that contain calc-silicate (skarn) rocks, (4) carbonates and (5) sandstones. Separate assessments are made of acid - intermediate plutonic rocks and of a subgroup that comprises migmatites, granite and mica gneiss. These all belong to the group of acid - intermediate rocks. Within the mafic -ultramafic rock group, a subgroup that comprises mafic - ultramafic plutonic rocks, serpentinites, mafic - ultramafic volcanic rocks and volcanic - sedimentary schists is also evaluated separately. Bedrock groundwaters are classified by their concentration of total dissolved solids as fresh, brackish, saline, strongly saline and brine-class groundwaters. (75 refs., 24 figs., 3 tabs.)

  7. Rock disposal problems identified

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, R

    1978-06-01

    Mathematical models are the only way of examining the return of radioactivity from nuclear waste to the environment over long periods of time. Work in Britain has helped identify areas where more basic data is required, but initial results look very promising for final disposal of high level waste in hard rock repositories. A report by the National Radiological Protection Board of a recent study, is examined.

  8. A preliminary assessment of mineralogical criteria on the utility of argillaceous rocks and minerals for high-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopp, O.C.

    1986-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to review available data concerning the properties reported for shales and clay-rich rocks and clay minerals to determine whether such information could be instrumental in selecting the more favorable assemblages of clays for high-level waste repository purposes. Literature searches were conducted for reports dealing with the properties of these argillaceous materials. The properties that were obtained from appropriate references were recorded in an Appleworks Database. The data are divided into five major goups: chemical properties, general physical properties, hydrologic properties, mechanical properties, and thermal properties. The Database includes such information as the type of material, formation name, geological age, location, depth, test conditions, results, and reference(s). In general, noticeable correlations were not apparent when mineralogical information was compared with various properties using plots of the data for each individual property. The best correlations were obtained for chemical and certain mechanical and hydrologic properties. Thermal properties appear to be least influenced by clay mineral composition. An important reason for the inability to correlate mineralogical compositions with most properties was the lack of uniformity of test methods, test conditions, and even the units used for reporting the final data. There was very limited information concerning the mineralogical compositions of most of the shales tested. The potential exists for identifying the more suitable formations (or specific horizons within formations) using mineralogical data; however, in order to make such selections, it will be necessary to collect future data using standardized test methods and conditions. The mineralogical compositions of the samples tested need to be determined quantitatively rather than qualitatively

  9. Corrosion behaviour of selected high-level waste packaging materials under gamma irradiation and in-situ disposal conditions in rock salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smailos, E.; Schwarzkopf, W.; Koester, R.

    1988-07-01

    Corrosion studies performed until now on a number of materials have shown that unalloyed steels, Hastelloy C4 and Ti 99.8-Pd are the most promising materials for a long-term resistant packaging to be used in high-level waste (HLW) canister disposal in rock salt formations. To characterize their corrosion behaviour in more detail, additional studies have been performed. The influence has been examined which is exerted by the gamma dose rate (1 Gy/h to 100 Gy/h) on the corrosion of three preselected steels and Hastelloy C4 at 90 0 C in a salt brine (Q-brine) rich in MgCl 2 , i.e., conditions relevant to accident scenarios in a repository. In addition, in-situ corrosion experiments have been carried out in the Asse salt mine at elevated temperatures (120 0 C to 210 0 C) in the absence and in the presence of a gamma radiation field of 3 x 10 2 Gy/h, within the framework of the German/US Brine Migration Test. Under the test conditions the gamma radiation did not exert a significant influence on the corrosion of the steels investigated, whereas Hastelloy C4, exposed to dose rates of 10 Gy/h and 100 Gy/h, underwent pitting and crevice corrosion (20 μm/a at the maximum).The low amounts of migrated salt brine (140 ml after 900 days) in the in-situ- experiment did not produce noticeable corrosion of the materials. (orig./RB) [de

  10. CERN Rocks

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The 15th CERN Hardronic Festival took place on 17 July on the terrace of Rest 3 (Prévessin). Over 1000 people, from CERN and other International Organizations, came to enjoy the warm summer night, and to watch the best of the World's High Energy music. Jazz, rock, pop, country, metal, blues, funk and punk blasted out from 9 bands from the CERN Musiclub and Jazz club, alternating on two stages in a non-stop show.  The night reached its hottest point when The Canettes Blues Band got everybody dancing to sixties R&B tunes (pictured). Meanwhile, the bars and food vans were working at full capacity, under the expert management of the CERN Softball club, who were at the same time running a Softball tournament in the adjacent "Higgs Field". The Hardronic Festival is the main yearly CERN music event, and it is organized with the support of the Staff Association and the CERN Administration.

  11. Analysing the breakthrough of rock 'n' roll (1930-1970) : multi-regime interaction and reconfiguration in the multi-level perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geels, F.W.

    2007-01-01

    The breakthrough of rock ‘n’ roll was part of broader transformations in the American music industry, involving changes in music instruments, music recording technology, audiences, radio programming and music styles. These transformations will be analysed as sociotechnical transition, using the

  12. Study of mineral chemistry, thermobarometry and petrogenesis of migmatitic rocks of Hamedan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asghar Sepahi Gerow

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the Hamedan region, migmatitic rocks occur with various structures. In the Simin area (South Hamedan stromatic and in the Darreh-Omar (Toyserkan area ophtalmitic structures are abundant. Migmatites have been developed in a poly-metamorphic region. At least one regional metamorphism and two contact metamorphism by mafic and felsic intrusions occurred in the area. It seems that in the Darreh-Omar area contact metamorphism of mafic body leading to migmatization, But in the Simin area previous regional metamorphism and development of shear zones followed by contact metamorphism by felsic body. Therefore, in some areas, such as the Simin area, the migmatization may have occurred in more than one stage. These are consistent with recent geochronological studies of the Alvand plutonic body and surrounding metamorphic rocks. Index minerals of metapelites such as garnet (almandine, biotite (siderophyllite, staurolite, andalusite, sillimanite, kyanite, fibrolite, cordierite, plagioclase (andesine and spinel (hercynite are existing in these rocks. Field geology, petrographic and geochemical evidences suggest that different generations of staurolite, biotite and cordierite exist in metamorphic rocks of different grades in the Hamadan area. These minerals sometimes have been formed by progressive reactions and some other times from retrogressive reactions. A number of these phases have been formed at the peak of metamorphism and some others in later time. Based on thermometric cation-exchange method of garnet-biotite pair, using different calibrations, the obtained temperature using first-generation of biotites is 655 °C and temperature range of 529 °C for second-generation biotites. Cordierite-garnet thermometry indicates a temperature of 637 °C for related migmatitic rocks. In barometry with GPBQ system, calculated pressure for first-generation biotite is estimated to be about 3.9 kbar and for the second-generation biotite around 3.6 kbar.

  13. Rollerjaw Rock Crusher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Gregory; Brown, Kyle; Fuerstenau, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The rollerjaw rock crusher melds the concepts of jaw crushing and roll crushing long employed in the mining and rock-crushing industries. Rollerjaw rock crushers have been proposed for inclusion in geological exploration missions on Mars, where they would be used to pulverize rock samples into powders in the tens of micrometer particle size range required for analysis by scientific instruments.

  14. Diffusion in the matrix of granitic rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birgersson, L.; Neretnieks, I.

    1982-07-01

    A migration experiment in the rock matrix is presented. The experiment has been carried out in undisturbed rock, that is rock under its natural stress environment. Since the experiment was performed at the 360 m-level (in the Stripa mine), the rock had nearly the same conditions as the rock surrounding a nuclear waste storage. The results show that all three tracers (Uranine, Cr-EDTA and I - ) have passed the disturbed zone from the injection hole and migrated into undisturbed rock. At the distance of 11 cm from the injection hole 5-10 percent of the injection concentration was found. The results also indicate that the tracer have passed through fissure filling material. These results indicate that it is possible for tracers (and therefore radionuclides) to migrate from a fissure, through fissure filling material, and into the undisturbed rock matrix. (Authors)

  15. Chronic Treatment with Ang-(1-7 Reverses Abnormal Reactivity in the Corpus Cavernosum and Normalizes Diabetes-Induced Changes in the Protein Levels of ACE, ACE2, ROCK1, ROCK2 and Omega-Hydroxylase in a Rat Model of Type 1 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariam H. M. Yousif

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiotensin-(1-7 [Ang-(1-7] may have beneficial effects in diabetes mellitus-induced erectile dysfunction (DMIED but its molecular actions in the diabetic corpus cavernosum (CC are not known. We characterized the effects of diabetes and/or chronic in vivo administration of Ang-(1-7 on vascular reactivity in the rat corpus cavernosum (CC and on protein expression levels of potential downstream effectors of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE, ACE2, Rho kinases 1 and 2 (ROCK1 and ROCK2, and omega-hydroxylase, the cytochrome-P450 enzyme that metabolizes arachidonic acid to form the vasoconstrictor, 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid. Streptozotocin-treated rats were chronicically administered Ang-(1-7 with or without A779, a Mas receptor antagonist, during weeks 4 to 6 of diabetes. Ang-(1-7 reversed diabetes-induced abnormal reactivity to vasoactive agents (endothelin-1, phenylepherine, and carbachol in the CC without correcting hyperglycemia. Six weeks of diabetes led to elevated ACE, ROCK1, ROCK 2, and omega-hydroxylase and a concomitant decrease in ACE2 protein expression levels that were normalized by Ang-(1-7 treatment but not upon coadministration of A779. These data are supportive of the notion that the beneficial effects of Ang-(1-7 in DMIED involve counterregulation of diabetes-induced changes in ACE, ACE2, Rho kinases, and omega-hydroxylase proteins in the diabetic CC via a Mas receptor-dependent mechanism.

  16. Near Field sorption Data Bases for Compacted MX-80 Bentonite for Performance Assessment of a High-Level Radioactive Waste Repository in Opalinus Clay Host Rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, M.; Baeyens, B

    2003-08-01

    Bentonites of various types and compacted forms are being investigated in many countries as backfill materials in high-level radioactive waste disposal concepts. Nagra is currently considering an Opalinus clay (OPA) formation in the Zuercher Weinland as a potential location for a high-level radioactive waste repository. A compacted MX-80 bentonite is foreseen as a potential backfill material. Performance assessment studies will be performed for this site and one of the requirements for such an assessment are sorption data bases (SDB) for the bentonite near-field. The purpose of this report is to describe the procedures used to develop the SDB. One of the pre-requisites for developing a SDB is a water chemistry for the compacted bentonite porewater. For a number of reasons mentioned in the report, and discussed in more detail elsewhere, this is not a straightforward task. There are considerable uncertainties associated with the major ion concentrations and in particular with the system pH and Eh. The MX-80 SDB was developed for a reference bentonite porewater (pH = 7.25) which was calculated using the reference OPA porewater. In addition, two further SDBs are presented for porewaters calculated at pH values of 6.9 and 7.9 corresponding to lower and upper bound values calculated for the range of groundwater compositions anticipated for the OPA host rock. 'In house' sorption isotherm data were measured for Cs(I), Ni(II), Eu(III), Th(IV), Se(IV) and 1(-1) on the 'as received' MX-80 material equilibrated with a simulated porewater composition. Complementary 'in house' sorption edge and isotherm measurements on conditioned Na/Ca montmorillonites were also available for many of these radionuclides. These data formed the core of the SDB. Nevertheless, some of the required sorption data still had to be obtained from the open literature. An important part of this report is concerned with describing selection procedures and the modifications

  17. Study of the raw materials used in the manufacture of ceramics in Fran Ali (Oued Laou, Marruecos); Estudio de materiales usados en la fabricacion de las ceramicas de Fran Ali (Oued Laou, Marruecos)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrios Neira, J.; Martin de la Cruz, J. C.; Montealegre Contreras, L.

    2012-11-01

    The thermal behaviour, mineralogy, texture and micro-structure of the original rocks used as raw materials in the manufacture of ceramics of the potter community in Fran Ali (Oued Laou, Tetouan, Morocco) were studied. The original rocks of the alteration deposit are metapelites and altered philites from the Units Malaguide-Gomaride in the Baetic-Rifian mountain system. The techniques used by local potters and the water used to prepare the ceramic bodies were also studied. Original rocks are metapelites or filadios and raw materials belong to levels caused by exogenous or supergene alteration (quartz-illite and chlorite type clays). The ceramics studied by microscopy exhibit anisotropy. (Author) 15 refs.

  18. Rocks Can Wow? Yes, Rocks Can Wow!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardman, Sally; Luke, Sue

    2016-01-01

    Rocks and fossils appear in the National Curriculum of England science programmes of study for children in year 3 (ages 7-8). A frequently asked question is "How do you make the classification of rocks engaging?" In response to this request from a school, a set of interactive activities was designed and organised by tutors and students…

  19. Studies of thermal and radiation effects on water-rock systems related to envisaged isolation of high level radioactive wastes in crystalline formations of the Ukrainian shield (Ukraine)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litovchenko, A.; Kalinichenko, E.; Ivanitsky, V.; Bagmut, M.; Plastinina, M.; Zlobenko, B.

    2000-01-01

    In this work there are presented the general data on the study of thermal and radiation effects in minerals separated from rocks of the Ukrainian shield. These minerals (quartz, feldspar, amphiboles, apatite, biotite, kaolinite, etc.), exposed by doses 10 4 , 10 6 , 10 8 Gy by Co 60 source, were studied by a complex of physical methods. Special attention was given to the study of radiation defects formation (electron-hole paramagnetic centres, OH- groups destruction, changes in a charge state of ions) in a mineral structure. The mentioned radiation defects were used in the extrapolation method. The connection between structural peculiarities of minerals (containing uranium and thorium) and processes of their metamyctization are considered. It is demonstrated that the minerals, which have large channels or interlayer spaces in their structure, as a rule, are not metamyct. Using the spectroscopic methods of the extrapolation it is shown that the crystalline massifs, which do not have detectable amounts of hydroxyl containing minerals (biotite, amphibole, etc.) and ions Fe 2- , are perspective for long-lived radioactive wastes (RAW) dumping. As it follows from obtained results, the rocks, containing minerals with OH- groups and gas-liquid inclusions, should be considered as the 'mineral-water' system. (author)

  20. A Review of the Decommissioning Plan and Cost Estimate for the Studsvik Rock Facility (AM) for the Storage of Low and Intermediate Level Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varley, Geoff

    2004-03-01

    The AM facility is a storage facility for packaged wastes that have been conditioned at the Studsvik site. It is located inside a rock mass on the Studsvik industrial site. The task of the facility is to store the wastes on an interim basis before dispatch to a repository. The waste packages sentenced for storage in AM include: Low-level waste (LLW) packages that do not need any special protection against ionising radiation; Intermediate-level waste (ILW) packages that must be handled with a protective shield and using remote controlled equipment. In all cases the waste packages delivered to AM do not have any surface radioactive contamination. To date no release of contamination has been known to occur. The AM decommissioning cost estimate prepared for SVAFO addresses a Main Case (all wastes removed) and an Alternate Case (in which the scope of removal of equipment is unclear). The cost estimates for the Main Case and the Alternate case are MSEK 16.8 and MSEK 10.0 respectively. The overall program, comprising preparation, dismantling and concluding work, is projected to take 24 months. There are a number of aspects of the program that are not clear in the AB SVAFO report. For example, the assumed route for the disposition of wastes generated in dismantling process equipment and building materials is unclear. In addition, the detailed schedule of program items (Section A items in cost estimate) is somewhat confusing with the possibility that several cost elements have been omitted. AM normalised unit costs for selected, individual decommissioning activities have been derived and compared with relevant benchmark data from other recent decommissioning cost estimate analyses performed for SKI. Taking into account that there is very good access at AM, the results of these analyses give some comfort that the AM equipment dismantling estimate is in the correct ballpark. Regarding resources needed for project planning and management, the AM ratio of man-hours to project

  1. Rock slope design guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    This Manual is intended to provide guidance for the design of rock cut slopes, rockfall catchment, and : rockfall controls. Recommendations presented in this manual are based on research presented in Shakoor : and Admassu (2010) entitled Rock Slop...

  2. Rock Slope Design Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Based on the stratigraphy and the type of slope stability problems, the flat lying, Paleozoic age, sedimentary : rocks of Ohio were divided into three design units: 1) competent rock design unit consisting of sandstones, limestones, : and siltstones ...

  3. Seismic response of rock joints and jointed rock mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, A.; Hsiung, S.M.; Chowdhury, A.H.

    1996-06-01

    Long-term stability of emplacement drifts and potential near-field fluid flow resulting from coupled effects are among the concerns for safe disposal of high-level nuclear waste (HLW). A number of factors can induce drift instability or change the near-field flow patterns. Repetitive seismic loads from earthquakes and thermal loads generated by the decay of emplaced waste are two significant factors. One of two key technical uncertainties (KTU) that can potentially pose a high risk of noncompliance with the performance objectives of 10 CFR Part 60 is the prediction of thermal-mechanical (including repetitive seismic load) effects on stability of emplacement drifts and the engineered barrier system. The second KTU of concern is the prediction of thermal-mechanical-hydrological (including repetitive seismic load) effects on the host rock surrounding the engineered barrier system. The Rock Mechanics research project being conducted at the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA) is intended to address certain specific technical issues associated with these two KTUs. This research project has two major components: (i) seismic response of rock joints and a jointed rock mass and (ii) coupled thermal-mechanical-hydrological (TMH) response of a jointed rock mass surrounding the engineered barrier system (EBS). This final report summarizes the research activities concerned with the repetitive seismic load aspect of both these KTUs

  4. Thermally induced rock stress increment and rock reinforcement response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakala, M.; Stroem, J.; Nujiten, G.; Uotinen, L.; Siren, T.; Suikkanen, J.

    2014-07-01

    deformation zones is included. The main conclusion is that, despite deep reaching damage potential, in all the load cases studied the currently designed and used reinforcement types and configurations (rock bolts, shotcrete) are capable of handling the dead weight of the damaged rock should this occur, with damage occurring on the shotcrete liner. The long term safety and stability of the repository during its lifetime can be guaranteed by perceiving the reinforcement strategy in two stages. Firstly, by installing the rock reinforcement to sustain the initial stresses and short term increases from the start of deposition with a monitoring programme in place. Secondly, by installing additional reinforcement, if found necessary through monitoring and observation of the underground facilities. In this way, the effect of any time dependent rock stress increase affecting the reinforcement structures can be observed, in addition to creep based damage, thus providing a better level of safety than a single stage design. (orig.)

  5. Thermally induced rock stress increment and rock reinforcement response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakala, M. [KMS Hakala Oy, Nokia (Finland); Stroem, J.; Nujiten, G.; Uotinen, L. [Rockplan, Helsinki (Finland); Siren, T.; Suikkanen, J.

    2014-07-15

    brittle deformation zones is included. The main conclusion is that, despite deep reaching damage potential, in all the load cases studied the currently designed and used reinforcement types and configurations (rock bolts, shotcrete) are capable of handling the dead weight of the damaged rock should this occur, with damage occurring on the shotcrete liner. The long term safety and stability of the repository during its lifetime can be guaranteed by perceiving the reinforcement strategy in two stages. Firstly, by installing the rock reinforcement to sustain the initial stresses and short term increases from the start of deposition with a monitoring programme in place. Secondly, by installing additional reinforcement, if found necessary through monitoring and observation of the underground facilities. In this way, the effect of any time dependent rock stress increase affecting the reinforcement structures can be observed, in addition to creep based damage, thus providing a better level of safety than a single stage design. (orig.)

  6. Investigation of uranium 238 level in phosphate rock samples from kurun mountain Eastern Nuba Mountains in the State of Kordfan (western Sudan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagoub, N. H. M.

    2014-06-01

    The natural radionuclide content of 20 samples collected from Kurun Mountain, western Sudan, has been determined using gamma spectrometry. The data showed that ''2''3 8 U and its decay products were the principal contributors of radioactivity in phosphate deposits. The range of the activity concentration was measured in apatite phosphate rock samples was 378.03-1332.58 Bq/Kg with a mean value of 815.46 Bq/Kg and the data showed that most of samples concentrated in medial comparable with top and bottom of mountain. The distribution of samples indicated that the weathering effect and the rainfall may be the main reasons to enhance the mobility and solubility of uranium from top to bottom of mountain.(Author)

  7. Rock History and Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Éric

    2013-01-01

    Two ambitious works written by French-speaking scholars tackle rock music as a research object, from different but complementary perspectives. Both are a definite must-read for anyone interested in the contextualisation of rock music in western popular culture. In Une histoire musicale du rock (i.e. A Musical History of Rock), rock music is approached from the point of view of the people – musicians and industry – behind the music. Christophe Pirenne endeavours to examine that field from a m...

  8. Repository for high level radioactive wastes in Brazil: the importance of geochemical (Micro thermometric) studies and fluid migration in potential host rocks; Repositorios para rejeitos radioativos de alto nivel (RANR) no Brasil: a importancia de estudos geoquimicos (microtermometricos) e de migracao de fluidos em rochas potenciamente hospedeiras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rios, Francisco Javier; Fuzikawa, Kazuo; Alves, James Vieira; Neves, Jose Marques Correia [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN-CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Inclusoes Fluidas e Metalogenese]. E-mail: javier@cdtn.br

    2003-04-15

    A detailed fluid inclusion study of host rocks, is of fundamental importance in the selection of geologically suitable areas for high level nuclear waste repository constructions (HLRW). The LIFM-CDTN is enabled to develop studies that confirm: the presence or not, of corrosive fluid in minerals from host rocks of the repository and the possible presence of micro fractures (and fluid leakage) when these rocks are submitted to high temperatures. These fluid geochemistry studies, with permeability determinations by means of pressurized air injection must be carried out in rocks hosting nuclear waste. Micro fracture determination is of vital importance since many naturally corrosive solutions, present in the mineral rocks, could flow out through these plans affecting the walls of the repository. (author)

  9. Rocks under pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-05-01

    Physicists have used nuclear magnetic resonance to investigate the destructive effects of the crystallization of salt. Salt-weathering is one of the main causes of rock disintegration in nature, particularly in deserts, polar regions and along coastlines. However, it is also a very widespread cause of damage to man-made constructions. Bridges, for example, are attacked by de-icing salts, and cities such as Bahrain, Abu Dhabi and Adelaide are affected by rising damp from high ground-water levels. Indeed, many examples of cultural heritage, including the Islamic sites of Bokhara and Petra in Jordan and the Sphinx in Egypt, may ultimately be destroyed due to the effects of salt-weathering. Now Lourens Rijniers and colleagues at Eindhoven University in the Netherlands have developed a way to observe the solubility of various salts inside porous materials directly (Phys. Rev. Lett. 94 075503). (U.K.)

  10. Uranium deposits in granitic rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimori, R.K.; Ragland, P.C.; Rogers, J.J.W.; Greenberg, J.K.

    1977-01-01

    This report is a review of published data bearing on the geology and origin of uranium deposits in granitic, pegmatitic and migmatitic rocks with the aim of assisting in the development of predictive criteria for the search for similar deposits in the U.S. Efforts were concentrated on the so-called ''porphyry'' uranium deposits. Two types of uranium deposits are primarily considered: deposits in pegmatites and alaskites in gneiss terrains, and disseminations of uranium in high-level granites. In Chapter 1 of this report, the general data on the distribution of uranium in igneous and metamorphic rocks are reviewed. Chapter 2 contains some comments on the classification of uranium deposits associated with igneous rocks and a summary of the main features of the geology of uranium deposits in granites. General concepts of the behavior of uranium in granites during crustal evolution are reviewed in Chapter 3. Also included is a discussion of the relationship of uranium mineralization in granites to the general evolution of mobile belts, plus the influence of magmatic and post-magmatic processes on the distribution of uranium in igneous rocks and related ore deposits. Chapter 4 relates the results of experimental studies on the crystallization of granites to some of the geologic features of uranium deposits in pegmatites and alaskites in high-grade metamorphic terrains. Potential or favorable areas for igneous uranium deposits in the U.S.A. are delineated in Chapter 5. Data on the geology of specific uranium deposits in granitic rocks are contained in Appendix 1. A compilation of igneous rock formations containing greater than 10 ppM uranium is included in Appendix 2. Appendix 3 is a report on the results of a visit to the Roessing area. Appendix 4 is a report on a field excursion to eastern Canada

  11. Petrography, mineral chemistry of tourmaline, geochemistry and tectonic setting of Tertiary igneous rocks in Shurab area(west of Khusf), Southern Khorasan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gholami, A. A.; Mohammadi, S. S.; Zarrinkoub, M. H.

    2016-01-01

    Tertiary igneous rocks of Shurab area in eastern part of Lut block include pyroxene andesite, andesite, trachy andesite, quartz andesite, diorite, quartz diorite and porphyric quartz monzodiorite. Plagioclase, hornblende, pyroxene, biotite and quartz are common minerals and alkali feldspar, opaque, sphene, apatite, tourmaline and zircon exists as minor minerals. Propylitization, chloritization, silisification and tourmalinization are common alterations. Based on electron micro prob analysis, tourmaline in quartz monzodiorite is characterized by weakly chemical zoning, high Mg/Fe ratio from dravite type with alkaline nature that originated from Ca-poor metapelites and metapsammites. The studied rocks have low to medium-K calk-alkaline nature and their spider diagrams display enrichment in LILE such as Cs, Rb ,K , Sr and LREE and depletion in Nb,Ti and HREE that indicate their relation to subduction zone. Geochemical characteristics such as high Sr/Y and La/Yb ratios, high SiO_2 and no Eu anomaly are comparable to high-SiO_2 adakites. Shuorab adakitic rocks are likely originated from partial melting of the crust during delamination process.

  12. Search for Magnetic Monopoles in Polar Volcanic Rocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtz, K.; Milstead, D.; Hächler, H. -P.

    2013-01-01

    following the passage of igneous rock samples through a SQUID-based magnetometer. A total of 24.6 kg of rocks from various selected sites, among which 23.4 kg are mantle-derived rocks from the Arctic and Antarctic areas, was analyzed. No monopoles were found, and a 90% confidence level upper limit of 9.8 x...

  13. Oil source rocks in the Adiyaman area, southeast Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soylu, Cengiz

    In the Adiyaman area, southeast Turkey, two carbonate source rock units, the Karababa-A Member and the Karabogaz Formation, are identified. The maturity levels of the source rock units increase towards the north and the west. Both the Karababa-A Member and the Karabogaz Formation are good to excellent oil-source rocks with widespread "kitchen areas".

  14. Permeability Evolution and Rock Brittle Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Sun Qiang; Xue Lei; Zhu Shuyun

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports an experimental study of the evolution of permeability during rock brittle failure and a theoretical analysis of rock critical stress level. It is assumed that the rock is a strain-softening medium whose strength can be described by Weibull’s distribution. Based on the two-dimensional renormalization group theory, it is found that the stress level λ c (the ratio of the stress at the critical point to the peak stress) depends mainly on the homogeneity index or shape paramete...

  15. Rock Cycle Roulette.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Stan M.; Palmer, Courtney

    2000-01-01

    Introduces an activity on the rock cycle. Sets 11 stages representing the transitions of an earth material in the rock cycle. Builds six-sided die for each station, and students move to the stations depending on the rolling side of the die. Evaluates students by discussing several questions in the classroom. Provides instructional information for…

  16. Respirable dust measured downwind during rock dust application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, M L; Organiscak, J; Klima, S; Perera, I E

    2017-05-01

    The Pittsburgh Mining Research Division of the U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted underground evaluations in an attempt to quantify respirable rock dust generation when using untreated rock dust and rock dust treated with an anticaking additive. Using personal dust monitors, these evaluations measured respirable rock dust levels arising from a flinger-type application of rock dust on rib and roof surfaces. Rock dust with a majority of the respirable component removed was also applied in NIOSH's Bruceton Experimental Mine using a bantam duster. The respirable dust measurements obtained downwind from both of these tests are presented and discussed. This testing did not measure miners' exposure to respirable coal mine dust under acceptable mining practices, but indicates the need for effective continuous administrative controls to be exercised when rock dusting to minimize the measured amount of rock dust in the sampling device.

  17. Brushed Target on Rock 'Champagne' in Gusev Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this microscopic image of a target called 'Bubbles' on a rock called 'Champagne' after using its rock abrasion tool to brush away a coating of dust. The circular brushed area is about 5 centimeters (2 inches) across. This rock is different from rocks out on the plains of Gusev Crater but is similar to other rocks in this area of the 'Columbia Hills' in that it has higher levels of phosphorus. Plagioclase, a mineral commonly found in igneous rocks, is also present in these rocks, according to analysis with the minature thermal emission spectrometer. By using the alpha particle X-ray spectrometer to collect data over multiple martian days, or sols, scientists are also beginning to get measurements of trace elements in these rocks. Spirit took the images that are combined into this mosaic on sol 354 (Dec. 30, 2004).

  18. Rock engineering in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    Contains a large collection of short articles concerned with tunnels and underground caverns and their construction and use. The articles are grouped under the following headings: use of the subsurface space; water supply; waste water services; energy management (includes articles on power stations, district heating and oil storage and an article on coal storage); multipurpose tunnels; waste disposal; transport; shelters; sporting and recreational amenities located in rock caverns; storage facilities; industrial, laboratory, and service facilities; rock foundations; tourism and culture; utilization of rock masses; research on the disposal of nuclear waste; training and research in the field of rock engineering; site investigation techniques; design of structures in rock; construction; the environment and occupational safety; modern equipment technology; underground space in Helsinki.

  19. Níveis de radioatividade natural decorrente do radônio no complexo rochoso da Serra de São Vicente, SP Levels of natural radon-radioactivity in the São Vicente, SP, rock massif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Lima Marques

    2006-06-01

    ground waters; between 68 and 610 Bq/m³ in dwellings; from 0.41 to 3.46 kBq/m³ in soils and from 0.72 to 5.85 kBq/m³ inside rock cavities of the São Vicente rock massif. CONCLUSION: In some dwellings and in most of ground water samples, the radon concentration values found in this study have exceeded the maximum levels proposed by international agencies. Thus, intervention actions are recommended for radon dissipation in dwellings and during consumption water collection.

  20. Rock Physical Interpretation of the Relationship between Dynamic and Static Young's Moduli of Sedimentary Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, T.

    2017-12-01

    The static Young's modulus (deformability) of a rock is indispensable for designing and constructing tunnels, dams and underground caverns in civil engineering. Static Young's modulus which is an elastic modulus at large strain level is usually obtained with the laboratory tests of rock cores sampled in boreholes drilled in a rock mass. A deformability model of the entire rock mass is then built by extrapolating the measurements based on a rock mass classification obtained in geological site characterization. However, model-building using data obtained from a limited number of boreholes in the rock mass, especially a complex rock mass, may cause problems in the accuracy and reliability of the model. On the other hand, dynamic Young's modulus which is the modulus at small strain level can be obtained from seismic velocity. If dynamic Young's modulus can be rationally converted to static one, a seismic velocity model by the seismic method can be effectively used to build a deformability model of the rock mass. In this study, we have, therefore, developed a rock physics model (Mavko et al., 2009) to estimate static Young's modulus from dynamic one for sedimentary rocks. The rock physics model has been generally applied to seismic properties at small strain level. In the proposed model, however, the sandy shale model, one of rock physics models, is extended for modeling the static Young's modulus at large strain level by incorporating the mixture of frictional and frictionless grain contacts into the Hertz-Mindlin model. The proposed model is verified through its application to the dynamic Young's moduli derived from well log velocities and static Young's moduli measured in the tri-axial compression tests of rock cores sampled in the same borehole as the logs were acquired. This application proves that the proposed rock physics model can be possibly used to estimate static Young's modulus (deformability) which is required in many types of civil engineering applications

  1. Zircon ages in granulite facies rocks: decoupling from geochemistry above 850 °C?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Barbara E.; Regis, Daniele; Engi, Martin

    2018-03-01

    Granulite facies rocks frequently show a large spread in their zircon ages, the interpretation of which raises questions: Has the isotopic system been disturbed? By what process(es) and conditions did the alteration occur? Can the dates be regarded as real ages, reflecting several growth episodes? Furthermore, under some circumstances of (ultra-)high-temperature metamorphism, decoupling of zircon U-Pb dates from their trace element geochemistry has been reported. Understanding these processes is crucial to help interpret such dates in the context of the P-T history. Our study presents evidence for decoupling in zircon from the highest grade metapelites (> 850 °C) taken along a continuous high-temperature metamorphic field gradient in the Ivrea Zone (NW Italy). These rocks represent a well-characterised segment of Permian lower continental crust with a protracted high-temperature history. Cathodoluminescence images reveal that zircons in the mid-amphibolite facies preserve mainly detrital cores with narrow overgrowths. In the upper amphibolite and granulite facies, preserved detrital cores decrease and metamorphic zircon increases in quantity. Across all samples we document a sequence of four rim generations based on textures. U-Pb dates, Th/U ratios and Ti-in-zircon concentrations show an essentially continuous evolution with increasing metamorphic grade, except in the samples from the granulite facies, which display significant scatter in age and chemistry. We associate the observed decoupling of zircon systematics in high-grade non-metamict zircon with disturbance processes related to differences in behaviour of non-formula elements (i.e. Pb, Th, U, Ti) at high-temperature conditions, notably differences in compatibility within the crystal structure.

  2. Separated by sand, fused by dropping water: habitat barriers and fluctuating water levels steer the evolution of rock-dwelling cichlid populations in Lake Tanganyika.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koblmüller, Stephan; Salzburger, Walter; Obermüller, Beate; Eigner, Eva; Sturmbauer, Christian; Sefc, Kristina M

    2011-06-01

    The conditions of phenotypic and genetic population differentiation allow inferences about the evolution, preservation and loss of biological diversity. In Lake Tanganyika, water level fluctuations are assumed to have had a major impact on the evolution of stenotopic littoral species, though this hypothesis has not been specifically examined so far. The present study investigates whether subtly differentiated colour patterns of adjacent Tropheus moorii populations are maintained in isolation or in the face of continuous gene flow, and whether the presumed influence of water level fluctuations on lacustrine cichlids can be demonstrated in the small-scale population structure of the strictly stenotopic, littoral Tropheus. Distinct population differentiation was found even across short geographic distances and minor habitat barriers. Population splitting chronology and demographic histories comply with our expectation of old and rather stable populations on steeper sloping shore, and more recently established populations in a shallower region. Moreover, population expansions seem to coincide with lake level rises in the wake of Late Pleistocene megadroughts ~100 KYA. The imprint of hydrologic events on current population structure in the absence of ongoing gene flow suggests that phenotypic differentiation among proximate Tropheus populations evolves and persists in genetic isolation. Sporadic gene flow is effected by lake level fluctuations following climate changes and controlled by the persistence of habitat barriers during lake level changes. Since similar demographic patterns were previously reported for Lake Malawi cichlids, our data furthermore strengthen the hypothesis that major climatic events synchronized facets of cichlid evolution across the East African Great Lakes. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 2. Characterization of low permeable and fractured sediments and rocks in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Schack Pedersen, S.A.; Binderup, M.; Laier, T.

    2011-01-01

    The low and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe (the nuclear reactor buildings plus different types of material from the research periods) and radioactive waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. In Denmark, many different kinds of fine-grained sediments and crystalline rocks occur from the ground surface down to 300 meters depth. Therefore, the possible geological situations include sediments and rocks of different composition and age. These situations are geographical distributed over large areas of Denmark. These sediments and rocks are shortly described based on existing information and include five different major types of sediments and rocks: 1: Crystalline granite and gneiss of Bornholm (because these rock types are host for waste disposals in many other countries). 2: Sandstone and shale from Bornholm (as these sediments are rela- tively homogeneous although they have fracture permeability). 3: Chalk and limestone (because these sediments may act as low permeable seals, but in most areas they act as groundwater reservoirs). 4: Fine-grained Tertiary clay deposits (as these sediments have a low permeability, are widely distributed and can reach large thicknesses). 5: Quaternary glacial, interglacial and Holocene clay deposits. These sediments are distributed all over Denmark. Following the descriptions of the geologic deposits, the areas below (including several possible locations for waste disposal sites) are selected for further investigation. The Precambrian basement rocks of Bornholm could be host rocks for the disposal. The rock types for further evaluation will be: Hammer Granite, Vang Granite, Roenne Granite, Bornholm gneiss, Paradisbakke Migmatite and Alminding Granite. In the Roskilde Fjord area around Risoe, a combination of Paleocene clays, meltwater clay and clayey till could be interesting. The area is partly included in the OSD area in North Sjaelland but

  4. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 2. Characterization of low permeable and fractured sediments and rocks in Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Schack Pedersen, S.A.; Binderup, M.; Laier, T.

    2011-07-01

    The low and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe (the nuclear reactor buildings plus different types of material from the research periods) and radioactive waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. In Denmark, many different kinds of fine-grained sediments and crystalline rocks occur from the ground surface down to 300 meters depth. Therefore, the possible geological situations include sediments and rocks of different composition and age. These situations are geographical distributed over large areas of Denmark. These sediments and rocks are shortly described based on existing information and include five different major types of sediments and rocks: 1: Crystalline granite and gneiss of Bornholm (because these rock types are host for waste disposals in many other countries). 2: Sandstone and shale from Bornholm (as these sediments are rela- tively homogeneous although they have fracture permeability). 3: Chalk and limestone (because these sediments may act as low permeable seals, but in most areas they act as groundwater reservoirs). 4: Fine-grained Tertiary clay deposits (as these sediments have a low permeability, are widely distributed and can reach large thicknesses). 5: Quaternary glacial, interglacial and Holocene clay deposits. These sediments are distributed all over Denmark. Following the descriptions of the geologic deposits, the areas below (including several possible locations for waste disposal sites) are selected for further investigation. The Precambrian basement rocks of Bornholm could be host rocks for the disposal. The rock types for further evaluation will be: Hammer Granite, Vang Granite, Roenne Granite, Bornholm gneiss, Paradisbakke Migmatite and Alminding Granite. In the Roskilde Fjord area around Risoe, a combination of Paleocene clays, meltwater clay and clayey till could be interesting. The area is partly included in the OSD area in North Sjaelland but

  5. Heat production / host rock compatibility; Waermeentwicklung / Gesteinsvertraeglichkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meleshyn, A.; Weyand, T.; Bracke, G.; Kull, H.; Wieczorek, K.

    2016-05-15

    For the final high-level radioactive waste repository potential host rock formations are either rock salt or clays (Kristallin). Heat generating waste (decay heat of the radioactive materials) can be absorbed by the host rock. The effect of temperature increase on the thermal conductivity, the thermal expansion and the mechanical properties of salt, Kristallin, clays and argilliferous geotechnical barriers are described. Further issues of the report are the mineralogical behavior, phase transformations, hydrochemistry, microbial processes, gas formation, thermochemical processes and gas ingress. Recommendations for further research are summarized.

  6. Safe disposal of nuclear waste in rock formations - Geological conditions - What level of safety do we require and what can we attain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devell, L.

    1977-01-01

    Proceeding from the imprecise expressions 'completely safe', 'highest conceivable safety level' and 'highest possible safety level', the level of safety of the final disposal of radioactive wastes is discussed. The Scandinavian radiation protection authorities have established guidelines for the long-term collective radiation doses per MW(e)year, and already guidelines are becoming clear covering the whole nuclear power era. Aspects of risk analysis and cost-benefit analysis are also discussed. The concepts 'site multiplicity' and 'technical irreversibility' are introduced. Assuming that wastes are contained in glass, or in spent fuel rods, the potential risk indices as a function of time are presented. In the first 300 years Cs137 and Sr90 dominate. Threeafter Am241 until 3000 years, when Am243 and Pu239 take over. In the long term Ra226 becomes significant also. After 1000 years however, the potential risk is no greater than that of uranium ore, when accessibility becomes the dominant consideration. Factors which could lead to dispersal of the wastes are listed, and finally a rough calculation of the activity reaching a well from leaching of activities from glass in a ground water flow is presented. (JIW)

  7. Nuclear power in rock. Principal report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-06-01

    In September 1975 the Swedish Government directed the Swedish State Power Board to study the question of rock-siting nuclear power plants. The study accounted for in this report aims at clarifying the advantages and disadvantages of siting a nuclear power plant in rock, compared to siting on ground level, considering reactor safety, war protection and sabotage. The need for nuclear power production during war situations and the closing down of nuclear power plants after terminated operation are also dealt with. (author)

  8. Underground large scale test facility for rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundaram, P.N.

    1981-01-01

    This brief note discusses two advantages of locating the facility for testing rock specimens of large dimensions in an underground space. Such an environment can be made to contribute part of the enormous axial load and stiffness requirements needed to get complete stress-strain behavior. The high pressure vessel may also be located below the floor level since the lateral confinement afforded by the rock mass may help to reduce the thickness of the vessel

  9. Eos Chaos Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    11 January 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows light-toned, layered rock outcrops in Eos Chaos, located near the east end of the Valles Marineris trough system. The outcrops occur in the form of a distinct, circular butte (upper half of image) and a high slope (lower half of image). The rocks might be sedimentary rocks, similar to those found elsewhere exposed in the Valles Marineris system and the chaotic terrain to the east of the region. Location near: 12.9oS, 49.5oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Southern Summer

  10. Kimberley rock art dating project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, G.L.; Morwood, M.

    1997-01-01

    The art's additional value, unequalled by traditionally recognised artefacts, is its permanent pictorial documentation presenting a 'window' into the otherwise intangible elements of perceptions, vision and mind of pre-historic cultures. Unfortunately it's potential in establishing Kimberley archaeological 'big picture' still remains largely unrecognised. Some of findings of the Kimberley Rock Art Dating Project, using AMS and optical stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating techniques, are outlined. It is estimated that these findings will encourage involvement by a greater diversity of specialist disciplines to tie findings into levels of this art sequence as a primary reference point. The sequence represents a sound basis for selecting specific defined images for targeting detailed studies by a range of dating technique. This effectively removes the undesirable ad hoc sampling of 'apparently old paintings'; a process which must unavoidably remain the case with researchers working on most global bodies of rock art

  11. THM-coupled modeling of selected processes in argillaceous rock relevant to rock mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czaikowski, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Scientific investigations in European countries other than Germany concentrate not only on granite formations (Switzerland, Sweden) but also on argillaceous rock formations (France, Switzerland, Belgium) to assess their suitability as host and barrier rock for the final storage of radioactive waste. In Germany, rock salt has been under thorough study as a host rock over the past few decades. According to a study by the German Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources, however, not only salt deposits but also argillaceous rock deposits are available at relevant depths and of extensions in space which make final storage of high-level radioactive waste basically possible in Germany. Equally qualified findings about the suitability/unsuitability of non-saline rock formations require fundamental studies to be conducted nationally because of the comparatively low level of knowledge. The article presents basic analyses of coupled mechanical and hydraulic properties of argillaceous rock formations as host rock for a repository. The interaction of various processes is explained on the basis of knowledge derived from laboratory studies, and open problems are deduced. For modeling coupled processes, a simplified analytical computation method is proposed and compared with the results of numerical simulations, and the limits to its application are outlined. (orig.)

  12. Rock properties data base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, R.; Gorski, B.; Gyenge, M.

    1991-03-01

    As mining companies proceed deeper and into areas whose stability is threatened by high and complex stress fields, the science of rock mechanics becomes invaluable in designing underground mine strata control programs. CANMET's Mining Research Laboratories division has compiled a summary of pre- and post-failure mechanical properties of rock types which were tested to provide design data. The 'Rock Properties Data Base' presents the results of these tests, and includes many rock types typical of Canadian mine environments. The data base also contains 'm' and 's' values determined using Hoek and Brown's failure criteria for both pre- and post-failure conditions. 7 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs., 1 append.

  13. Eclogite facies rocks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carswell, D. A

    1990-01-01

    ... of eclogite evolution and genesis. The authors present a thorough treatment of the stability relations and geochemistry of these rocks, their intimate association with continental plate collision zones and suture zones...

  14. Rock kinoekraanil / Katrin Rajasaare

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rajasaare, Katrin

    2008-01-01

    7.-11. juulini kinos Sõprus toimuval filminädalal "Rock On Screen" ekraanile jõudvatest rockmuusikuid portreteerivatest filmidest "Lou Reed's Berlin", "The Future Is Unwritten: Joe Strummer", "Control: Joy Division", "Hurriganes", "Shlaager"

  15. Eclogite facies rocks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carswell, D. A

    1990-01-01

    .... This is the first volume to provide a coherent and comprehensive review of the conditions necessary for the formation of eclogites and eclogite facies rocks and assemblages, and a detailed account...

  16. Solid as a rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pincus, H.J.

    1984-01-01

    Recent technologic developments have required a more comprehensive approach to the behavior of rock mass or rock substance plus discontinuities than was adequate previously. This work considers the inherent problems in such operations as the storage of hot or cold fluids in caverns and aquifers, underground storage of nuclear waste, underground recovery of heat from hydrocarbon fuels, tertiary recovery of oil by thermal methods, rapid excavation of large openings at shallow to great depths and in hostile environments, and retrofitting of large structures built on or in rock. The standardization of methods for determining rock properties is essential to all of the activities described, for use not only in design and construction but also in site selection and post-construction monitoring. Development of such standards is seen as a multidisciplinary effort

  17. Rock Equity Holdings, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA is providing notice of an Administrative Penalty Assessment in the form of an Expedited Storm Water Settlement Agreement against Rock Equity Holdings, LLC, for alleged violations at The Cove at Kettlestone/98th Street Reconstruction located at 3015

  18. Pop & rock / Berk Vaher

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaher, Berk, 1975-

    2001-01-01

    Uute heliplaatide Redman "Malpractice", Brian Eno & Peter Schwalm "Popstars", Clawfinger "A Whole Lot of Nothing", Dario G "In Full Color", MLTR e. Michael Learns To Rock "Blue Night" lühitutvustused

  19. Basic rocks in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piirainen, T.; Gehoer, S.; Iljina, M.; Kaerki, A.; Paakkola, J.; Vuollo, J.

    1992-10-01

    Basic igneous rocks, containing less than 52% SiO 2 , constitute an important part of the Finnish Archaean and Proterozoic crust. In the Archaean crust exist two units which contain the majority of the basic rocks. The Arcaean basic rocks are metavolcanics and situated in the Greenstone Belts of Eastern Finland. They are divided into two units. The greenstones of the lower one are tholeiites, komatiites and basaltic komatiites. The upper consists of bimodal series of volcanics and the basic rocks of which are Fe-tholeiites, basaltic komatiites and komatiites. Proterozoic basic rocks are divided into seven groups according to their ages. The Proterozoic igneous activity started by the volominous basic magmatism 2.44 Ga ago. During this stage formed the layered intrusions and related dykes in the Northern Finland. 2.2 Ga old basic rocks are situated at the margins of Karelian formations. 2.1 Ga aged Fe-tholeiitic magmatic activity is widespread in Eastern and Northern Finland. The basic rocks of 1.97 Ga age group are met within the Karelian Schist Belts as obducted ophiolite complexes but they occur also as tholeiitic diabase dykes cutting the Karelian schists and Archean basement. The intrusions and the volcanics of the 1.9 Ga old basic igneous activity are mostly encountered around the Granitoid Complex of Central Finland. Subjotnian, 1.6 Ga aged tholeiitic diabases are situated around the Rapakivi massifs of Southern Finland, and postjotnian, 1.2 Ga diabases in Western Finland where they form dykes cutting Svecofennian rocks

  20. A system of nomenclature for rocks in Olkiluoto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattila, J.

    2006-06-01

    Due to international interest in the Finnish deep repository project at Olkiluoto (SW Finland) and the need for collaboration between scientists involved in site investigations for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel in other countries, a well-documented system of rock nomenclature is required, based on existing classification schemes and international recommendations. The BGS (British Geological Survey) rock classification scheme is the most comprehensive rock classification scheme and the basic principles behind it are utilised for the system of nomenclature for rocks in Olkiluoto. The BGS classification system is based on the use of descriptive names and a clear hierarchy, making it possible to classify rocks at different levels depending on the specific goals of the study, the level of available information, and the expertise of the user. Each rock type is assigned a root name, which is based on structural and textural characteristics or modal compositions of the rock and the root names are refined with qualifier terms as prefixes. Qualifier terms refer to the structure or modal composition of the rock. The bedrock at the Olkiluoto site consists of metamorphic and igneous rocks. The metamorphic rocks consist of migmatitic gneisses and (non-migmatitic) gneisses, which are further divided according to their structural characteristics and modal compositions, the former into stromatic, veined, diatexitic gneisses, the latter into mica, quartz, mafic and TGG gneisses. Igneous rocks consist of pegmatitic granites, K-feldspar porphyry and diabases. (orig.)

  1. Weathering of rock 'Ginger'

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    One of the more unusual rocks at the site is Ginger, located southeast of the lander. Parts of it have the reddest color of any material in view, whereas its rounded lobes are gray and relatively unweathered. These color differences are brought out in the inset, enhanced at the upper right. In the false color image at the lower right, the shape of the visible-wavelength spectrum (related to the abundance of weathered ferric iron minerals) is indicated by the hue of the rocks. Blue indicates relatively unweathered rocks. Typical soils and drift, which are heavily weathered, are shown in green and flesh tones. The very red color in the creases in the rock surface correspond to a crust of ferric minerals. The origin of the rock is uncertain; the ferric crust may have grown underneath the rock, or it may cement pebbles together into a conglomerate. Ginger will be a target of future super-resolution studies to better constrain its origin.Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  2. Rock shelter occupation during isotopic stage 5: level D of the site of Payre (Ardèche, France. Territorial organisation and intra-site activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moncel, Marie-Hélène

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results obtained from an interdisciplinary study of the level D archaeological assemblages from Payre (Ardèche, France. This site is dated to the final of OIS 6 and the beginning of OIS 5. The combined analysis of the lithic and faunal assemblages accumulated and their management “into” and “out of” the site gives a better understanding of the behaviour of the Neanderthal groups that inhabited it. This study has allowed us to correlate the territorial exploitation for game hunting and for raw material procurement, within the context of seasonal short term occupations probably during the end of autumn and the beginning of winter.  

    Este artículo presenta los resultados obtenidos a través del estudio multidisciplinar del registro arqueológico del nivel D del yacimiento de Payre (Ardèche, Francia datado entre el final del OIS 6 y el comienzo del OIS 5. El análisis conjunto de la industria lítica y de los restos óseos recuperados en el yacimiento y de la gestión de dichos recursos dentro y fuera de él, ha hecho posible la comprensión de los comportamientos humanos de los grupos neandertales que lo ocuparon. Dicho estudio nos ha permitido poner en relación el tipo de explotación del territorio de caza y de captación de materias primas, dentro del marco de ocupaciones estacionales de corta duración desarrolladas probablemente entre el final del otoño y el principio del invierno.  

  3. Rock bed heat accumulators. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riaz, M.

    1977-12-01

    The principal objectives of the research program on rock bed heat accumulators (or RBHA) are: (1) to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of storing large amounts of thermal energy (in the tens of MWt range) at high temperature (up to 500/sup 0/C) over extended periods of time (up to 6 months) using native earth or rock materials; (2) to conduct studies to establish the performance characteristics of large rock bed heat accumulators at various power and temperature levels compatible with thermal conversion systems; and (3) to assess the materials and environmental problems associated with the operation of such large heat accumulators. Results of the study indicate that rock bed heat accumulators for seasonal storage are both technically and economically feasible, and hence could be exploited in various applications in which storage plays an essential role such as solar power and total energy systems, district and cogeneration heating systems.

  4. Hierarchic Analysis Method to Evaluate Rock Burst Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Ji

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to reasonably evaluate the risk of rock bursts in mines, the factors impacting rock bursts and the existing grading criterion on the risk of rock bursts were studied. By building a model of hierarchic analysis method, the natural factors, technology factors, and management factors that influence rock bursts were analyzed and researched, which determined the degree of each factor’s influence (i.e., weight and comprehensive index. Then the grade of rock burst risk was assessed. The results showed that the assessment level generated by the model accurately reflected the actual risk degree of rock bursts in mines. The model improved the maneuverability and practicability of existing evaluation criteria and also enhanced the accuracy and science of rock burst risk assessment.

  5. Cecal bacterial communities in wild Japanese rock ptarmigans and captive Svalbard rock ptarmigans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushida, Kazunari; Segawa, Takahiro; Tsuchida, Sayaka; Murata, Koichi

    2016-02-01

    Preservation of indigenous gastrointestinal microbiota is deemed to be critical for successful captive breeding of endangered wild animals, yet its biology is poorly understood. Here, we investigated cecal bacterial communities in wild Japanese rock ptarmigans (Lagopus muta japonica) and compared them with those in Svalbard rock ptarmigans (L. m. hyperborea) in captivity. Ultra-deep sequencing of 16S rRNA gene indicated that the community structure of cecal microbiota in wild rock ptarmigans was remarkably different from that in captive Svalbard rock ptarmigans. Fundamental differences between bacterial communities in the two groups of birds were detected at the phylum level. Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Synergistetes were the major phyla detected in wild Japanese rock ptarmigans, whereas Firmicutes alone occupied more than 80% of abundance in captive Svalbard rock ptarmigans. Furthermore, unclassified genera of Coriobacteriaceae, Synergistaceae, Bacteroidaceae, Actinomycetaceae, Veillonellaceae and Clostridiales were the major taxa detected in wild individuals, whereas in zoo-reared birds, major genera were Ruminococcus, Blautia, Faecalibacterium and Akkermansia. Zoo-reared birds seemed to lack almost all rock ptarmigan-specific bacteria in their intestine, which may explain the relatively high rate of pathogenic infections affecting them. We show evidence that preservation and reconstitution of indigenous cecal microflora are critical for successful ex situ conservation and future re-introduction plan for the Japanese rock ptarmigan.

  6. Effects of elevated CO2 levels on eggs and larvae of a North Pacific flatfish (northern rock sole, Lepidopsetta polyxystra) from laboratory experiment studies from 2012-02-01 to 2013-09-30 (NCEI Accession 0136906)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains the results of a laboratory experiment study to understand the effect of ocean acidification on eggs and larvae of northern rock sole,...

  7. Geotechnical properties of rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, R.; Gorski, B.; Gyenge, M.

    1995-12-31

    The manual is a compilation of the geotechnical properties of many types of rock that are typical of Canadian mining environments. Included are values for density, porosity, compressive and shear wave velocity, uniaxial compressive strength, Young`s modulus, and Poisson`s ratio. The data base contains material constants that were determined using the Hoek and Brown failure criteria for both before and after failure conditions. 76 data sheets of rock properties in Canadian mines are included. 7 refs., 85 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Rock engineering applications, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, J.A.; Dusseault, M.B.

    1991-01-01

    This book demonstrates how to apply the theories and principles of rock engineering to actual engineering and construction tasks. It features insights on geology for mining and tunnelling applications. It is practical resource that focuses on the latest technological innovation and examines up-to-date procedures used by engineers for coping with complex rock conditions. The authors also discuss question related to underground space, from design approaches to underground housing and storage. And they cover the monitoring of storage caverns for liquid and gaseous products or toxic and radioactive wastes

  9. Smart Rocking Armour Units

    OpenAIRE

    Hofland, B.; Arefin, Syed Shamsil; van der Lem, Cock; van gent, Marcel

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes a method to measure the rocking motion of lab-scale armour units. Sensors as found in mobile phones are used. These sensors, data-storage and battery are all embedded in the model units, such that they can be applied without wires attached to them. The technique is applied to double-layer units in order to compare the results to the existing knowledge for this type of armour layers. In contrast to previous research, the gyroscope reading is used to determine the (rocking)...

  10. Rock Hellsinki, Marketing Research

    OpenAIRE

    Todd, Roosa; Jalkanen, Katariina

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a qualitative research about rock and heavy metal music tourism in the capital city of Finland, Helsinki. As Helsinki can be considered the city of contrasts, the silent nature city mixed with urban activities, it is important to also use the potential of the loud rock and heavy metal music contrasting the silence. Finland is known abroad for bands such as HIM, Nightwish, Korpiklaani and Children of Bodom so it would make sense to utilize these in the tourism sector as well. The...

  11. A Rock Retrospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, Terence J.

    1979-01-01

    The author offers an analysis of musical techniques found in the major rock trends of the 1960s. An annotated list of selected readings and a subject-indexed list of selected recordings are appended. This article is part of a theme issue on popular music. (Editor/SJL)

  12. Rock-hard coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Muller, M.

    2007-01-01

    Aircraft jet engines have to be able to withstand infernal conditions. Extreme heat and bitter cold tax coatings to the limit. Materials expert Dr Ir. Wim Sloof fits atoms together to develop rock-hard coatings. The latest invention in this field is known as ceramic matrix composites. Sloof has signed an agreement with a number of parties to investigate this material further.

  13. Fluids in metamorphic rocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Touret, J.L.R.

    2001-01-01

    Basic principles for the study of fluid inclusions in metamorphic rocks are reviewed and illustrated. A major problem relates to the number of inclusions, possibly formed on a wide range of P-T conditions, having also suffered, in most cases, extensive changes after initial trapping. The

  14. Rock-hard coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, M.

    2007-01-01

    Aircraft jet engines have to be able to withstand infernal conditions. Extreme heat and bitter cold tax coatings to the limit. Materials expert Dr Ir. Wim Sloof fits atoms together to develop rock-hard coatings. The latest invention in this field is known as ceramic matrix composites. Sloof has

  15. Northeast Church Rock Mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northeast Church Rock Mine, a former uranium mine 17 miles northeast of Gallup, NM in the Pinedale Chapter of the Navajo Nation. EPA is working with NNEPA to oversee cleanup work by United Nuclear Corporation, a company owned by General Electric (GE).

  16. Smart Rocking Armour Units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofland, B.; Arefin, Syed Shamsil; van der Lem, Cock; van gent, Marcel

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes a method to measure the rocking motion of lab-scale armour units. Sensors as found in mobile phones are used. These sensors, data-storage and battery are all embedded in the model units, such that they can be applied without wires attached to them. The technique is applied to

  17. Teaching the Rock Cycle with Ease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereki, Debra

    2000-01-01

    Describes a hands-on lesson for teaching high school students the concept of the rock cycle using sedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous rocks. Students use a rock cycle diagram to identify pairs of rocks. From the rock cycle, students explain on paper how their first rock became the second rock and vice versa. (PVD)

  18. Bioremediation in Fractured Rock: 2. Mobilization of Chloroethene Compounds from the Rock Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Allen M; Tiedeman, Claire R; Imbrigiotta, Thomas E; Goode, Daniel J; Hsieh, Paul A; Lacombe, Pierre J; DeFlaun, Mary F; Drew, Scott R; Curtis, Gary P

    2018-03-01

    A mass balance is formulated to evaluate the mobilization of chlorinated ethene compounds (CE) from the rock matrix of a fractured mudstone aquifer under pre- and postbioremediation conditions. The analysis relies on a sparse number of monitoring locations and is constrained by a detailed description of the groundwater flow regime. Groundwater flow modeling developed under the site characterization identified groundwater fluxes to formulate the CE mass balance in the rock volume exposed to the injected remediation amendments. Differences in the CE fluxes into and out of the rock volume identify the total CE mobilized from diffusion, desorption, and nonaqueous phase liquid dissolution under pre- and postinjection conditions. The initial CE mass in the rock matrix prior to remediation is estimated using analyses of CE in rock core. The CE mass mobilized per year under preinjection conditions is small relative to the total CE mass in the rock, indicating that current pump-and-treat and natural attenuation conditions are likely to require hundreds of years to achieve groundwater concentrations that meet regulatory guidelines. The postinjection CE mobilization rate increased by approximately an order of magnitude over the 5 years of monitoring after the amendment injection. This rate is likely to decrease and additional remediation applications over several decades would still be needed to reduce CE mass in the rock matrix to levels where groundwater concentrations in fractures achieve regulatory standards. © 2017, National Ground Water Association.

  19. Bioremediation in fractured rock: 2. Mobilization of chloroethene compounds from the rock matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Allen M.; Tiedeman, Claire; Imbrigiotta, Thomas; Goode, Daniel J.; Hsieh, Paul A.; Lacombe, Pierre; DeFlaun, Mary F.; Drew, Scott R.; Curtis, Gary P.

    2018-01-01

    A mass balance is formulated to evaluate the mobilization of chlorinated ethene compounds (CE) from the rock matrix of a fractured mudstone aquifer under pre- and postbioremediation conditions. The analysis relies on a sparse number of monitoring locations and is constrained by a detailed description of the groundwater flow regime. Groundwater flow modeling developed under the site characterization identified groundwater fluxes to formulate the CE mass balance in the rock volume exposed to the injected remediation amendments. Differences in the CE fluxes into and out of the rock volume identify the total CE mobilized from diffusion, desorption, and nonaqueous phase liquid dissolution under pre- and postinjection conditions. The initial CE mass in the rock matrix prior to remediation is estimated using analyses of CE in rock core. The CE mass mobilized per year under preinjection conditions is small relative to the total CE mass in the rock, indicating that current pump-and-treat and natural attenuation conditions are likely to require hundreds of years to achieve groundwater concentrations that meet regulatory guidelines. The postinjection CE mobilization rate increased by approximately an order of magnitude over the 5 years of monitoring after the amendment injection. This rate is likely to decrease and additional remediation applications over several decades would still be needed to reduce CE mass in the rock matrix to levels where groundwater concentrations in fractures achieve regulatory standards.

  20. For Those About to Rock : Naislaulajat rock-genressä

    OpenAIRE

    Herranen, Linda

    2015-01-01

    For those about to rock – naislaulajat rock-genressä antaa lukijalleen kokonaisvaltaisen käsityksen naisista rock-genressä: rockin historiasta, sukupuolittuneisuudesta, seksismistä, suomalaisten naislaulajien menestyksestä. Työn aineisto on koottu aihepiirin kirjallisuudesta ja alalla toimiville naislaulajille teetettyjen kyselyiden tuloksista. Lisäksi avaan omia kokemuksiani ja ajatuksiani, jotta näkökulma naisista rock-genressä tulisi esille mahdollisimman monipuolisesti. Ajatus aihees...

  1. Comparison of disposal concepts for rock salt and hard rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papp, R.

    1998-01-01

    The study was carried out in the period 1994-1996. The goals were to prepare a draft on spent fuel disposal in hard rock and additionally a comparison with existing disposal concepts for rock salt. A cask for direct disposal of spent fuel and a repository for hard rock including a safeguards concept were conceptually designed. The results of the study confirm, that the early German decision to employ rock salt was reasonable. (orig.)

  2. Elastic Rock Heterogeneity Controls Brittle Rock Failure during Hydraulic Fracturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenbruch, C.; Shapiro, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    For interpretation and inversion of microseismic data it is important to understand, which properties of the reservoir rock control the occurrence probability of brittle rock failure and associated seismicity during hydraulic stimulation. This is especially important, when inverting for key properties like permeability and fracture conductivity. Although it became accepted that seismic events are triggered by fluid flow and the resulting perturbation of the stress field in the reservoir rock, the magnitude of stress perturbations, capable of triggering failure in rocks, can be highly variable. The controlling physical mechanism of this variability is still under discussion. We compare the occurrence of microseismic events at the Cotton Valley gas field to elastic rock heterogeneity, obtained from measurements along the treatment wells. The heterogeneity is characterized by scale invariant fluctuations of elastic properties. We observe that the elastic heterogeneity of the rock formation controls the occurrence of brittle failure. In particular, we find that the density of events is increasing with the Brittleness Index (BI) of the rock, which is defined as a combination of Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio. We evaluate the physical meaning of the BI. By applying geomechanical investigations we characterize the influence of fluctuating elastic properties in rocks on the probability of brittle rock failure. Our analysis is based on the computation of stress fluctuations caused by elastic heterogeneity of rocks. We find that elastic rock heterogeneity causes stress fluctuations of significant magnitude. Moreover, the stress changes necessary to open and reactivate fractures in rocks are strongly related to fluctuations of elastic moduli. Our analysis gives a physical explanation to the observed relation between elastic heterogeneity of the rock formation and the occurrence of brittle failure during hydraulic reservoir stimulations. A crucial factor for understanding

  3. Phase equilibria and P-T-X(Fe-Mg relations involving Gl-St-Cd-Als-Bi-Mu-Oz-Kfs-H2O in medium-high grade metapelites (KFASH, KMASH and KFMASH sistems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez, F. J.

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available In different areas of the Hercynian in the Iberian Peninsula some reactions are repeatedly observed in pelites, these reactions are: Staurolite + muscovite + quartz = Biotite+ Al2SiO5+ H2O Garnet + muscovite = Al2SiO5+ biotite+ quartzBiotite + Al2SiO5 + quartz = Cordierite + K feldspar+Hp In order to examinate the P-T stability fields of these, and other similar reactions, aH the univariant equilibria in multisystems with Gt-Cd-St-Bi-Mu-Als-Qz-HP, Gt-St-Bi-Mu-Fk-AIs-QzHp and Cd-St-Bi-Mu-Fk-AIs-Qz-H2O in Kp-FeO-AI2O r SiO2-H2O (KFASH system have been calculated, and their corresponding P-T grids have been constructed. The expansion of these reactions into divariant surfaces through the P-T-X (Fe-Mg space was made by studying the assemblage Gt-Cd-St-Bi-Mu-Fk-AIs-Qz-HP in K2O-FeO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O (KFMASH with a Fe/Fe+Mg relationship Gt > St > Bi > Cd such as observed in most of natural pelites. A resultant grid was obtained by combining those obtained in the aboye systerns. This grid has been P-T located for PH20 = P19 near QFM buffer, and excess muscovite and quartz conditions Reaction slopes in this grid were calculated within different P-T surroundings from thermodynamic data as weH as by considering the existing experimental data. In addition to the stability fields of reactions the P-T-XFe-Mg theoric relations for three univariant and thirteen divariant reactions have been obtained. The grid confirms the imposibility of staurolite-K feldspar and Garnet-Cordierite-Muscovite coexistence, as weH as the extension of the stability fields for Garnet-Staurolite, Cordierite-Staurolite and Garnet-Cordierite assemblages in muscovite-poor metapelites.En rocas metapelíticas de diversas áreas en el Hercínico de la Península Ibérica se observan a menudo las siguientes reacciones: Estaurolita + moscovita + cuarzo = biotita + Al2SiO5+ H2OGranate + moscovita = Al2SiO5 + biotita ± cuarzo Biotita + Al2SiO5 + cuarzo = cordierita + feldespato pot

  4. Range sections as rock models for intensity rock scene segmentation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mkwelo, S

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents another approach to segmenting a scene of rocks on a conveyor belt for the purposes of measuring rock size. Rock size estimation instruments are used to monitor, optimize and control milling and crushing in the mining industry...

  5. Location-Related Differences in Weathering Behaviors and Populations of Culturable Rock-Weathering Bacteria Along a Hillside of a Rock Mountain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Wang, Rongrong; He, Linyan; Sheng, Xiafang

    2017-05-01

    Bacteria play important roles in rock weathering, elemental cycling, and soil formation. However, little is known about the weathering potential and population of bacteria inhabiting surfaces of rocks. In this study, we isolated bacteria from the top, middle, and bottom rock samples along a hillside of a rock (trachyte) mountain as well as adjacent soils and characterized rock-weathering behaviors and populations of the bacteria. Per gram of rock or surface soil, 10 6 -10 7 colony forming units were obtained and total 192 bacteria were isolated. Laboratory rock dissolution experiments indicated that the proportions of the highly effective Fe (ranging from 67 to 92 %), Al (ranging from 40 to 48 %), and Cu (ranging from 54 to 81 %) solubilizers were significantly higher in the top rock and soil samples, while the proportion of the highly effective Si (56 %) solubilizers was significantly higher in the middle rock samples. Furthermore, 78, 96, and 6 % of bacteria from the top rocks, soils, and middle rocks, respectively, significantly acidified the culture medium (pH bacteria (79 %) from the rocks were different to those from the soils and most of them (species level) have not been previously reported. Furthermore, location-specific rock-weathering bacterial populations were found and Bacillus species were the most (66 %) frequently isolated rock-weathering bacteria in the rocks based on cultivation methods. Notably, the top rocks and soils had the highest and lowest diversity of rock-weathering bacterial populations, respectively. The results suggested location-related differences in element (Si, Al, Fe, and Cu) releasing effectiveness and communities of rock-weathering bacteria along the hillside of the rock mountain.

  6. Soil/Rock Properties Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Soil/Rock Properties LaboratoryLocation: Spokane SiteThe Soil/Rock Properties Laboratory is contained in the soils bay, a 4,700 sq. ft. facility that provides space...

  7. The determination of maturity levels in source rocks of the La Luna Formation, Maracaibo Basin, Venezuela, based on convention geochemical parameters and asphaltenes; Determinacao do grau de maturacao em rochas geradoras de petroleo, formacao La Luna, Bacia de Maracaibo, Venezuela: parametros geoquimicos convencionais e asfaltenos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, L.P. de [Pontificia Universidade Catolica (PUC-RS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Centro de Excelencia em Pesquisas sobre o Armazenamento de Carbono; Franco, N. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia; Lopez, L.; Lo Monaco, S.; Escobar, G. [Universidad Central de Venezuela (UCV), Caracas (Venezuela); Kalkreuth, W. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Centro de Excelencia em Analises de Carvao e Rochas Geradoras de Petroleo

    2008-07-01

    The La Luna Formation, main source rock of the Maracaibo Basin was studied by conventional geochemical parameters, used to determine the maturity, and they were compared with the physic-chemical and molecular properties of the asphaltenes present in the bitumen of the rocks. Three wells were studied (A, B and C) with a total of 13 samples. Based on Rock-Eval results the organic matter in well A (455 deg C Tmax) shows a relatively high level of maturation (top of the oil window), whereas the organic matter in well B (435 - 436 deg C Tmax) is in the beginning of the oil window. Tmax values in well C (438 - 446 deg C) and well C suggest an intermediate maturity level. The biomarkers identified in well B and C show ratios indicating an equilibrium state in the maturity level. A good correlation was found comparing the conventional analytical data with the determination of maturity level obtained from the asphaltenes precipitated from the bitumen of the samples. With increased maturity levels the H1 NMR analysis showed enrichment in aromatic molecules in relation to aliphatic, due to the bitumen aromatization process. Similarly, the asphaltenes molecular weight has higher values in samples characterized by elevated maturity levels. This confirms earlier studies that showed that asphaltenes may be utilized as maturity parameter of organic matter. (author)

  8. Critical issues in soft rocks

    OpenAIRE

    Milton Assis Kanji

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses several efforts made to study and investigate soft rocks, as well as their physico-mechanical characteristics recognized up to now, the problems in their sampling and testing, and the possibility of its reproduction through artificially made soft rocks. The problems in utilizing current and widespread classification systems to some types of weak rocks are also discussed, as well as other problems related to them. Some examples of engineering works in soft rock or in soft ...

  9. Isotope shifting capacity of rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blattner, P.; Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, Lower Hutt

    1980-01-01

    Any oxygen isotope shifted rock volume exactly defines a past throughput of water. An expression is derived that relates the throughput of an open system to the isotope shift of reservoir rock and present-day output. The small isotope shift of Ngawha reservoir rock and the small, high delta oxygen-18 output are best accounted for by a magmatic water source

  10. Dynamic elastic moduli of rocks under pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schock, R N [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1970-05-01

    Elastic moduli are determined as a function of confining pressure to 10 kb on rocks in which Plowshare shots are to be fired. Numerical simulation codes require accurate information on the mechanical response of the rock medium to various stress levels in order to predict cavity dimensions. The theoretical treatment of small strains in an elastic medium relates the propagation velocity of compressional and shear waves to the elastic moduli. Velocity measurements can provide, as unique code input data, the rigidity modulus, Poisson' ratio and the shear wave velocity, as well as providing checks on independent determinations of the other moduli. Velocities are determined using pulsed electro-mechanical transducers and measuring the time-of-flight in the rock specimen. A resonant frequency of 1 MHz is used to insure that the wavelength exceeds the average grain dimension and is subject to bulk rock properties. Data obtained on a variety of rock types are presented and analyzed. These data are discussed in terms of their relationship to moduli measured by static methods as well as the effect of anisotropy, porosity, and fractures. In general, fractured rocks with incipient cracks show large increases in velocity and moduli in the first 1 to 2 kb of compression as a result of the closing of these voids. After this, the velocities increase much more slowly. Dynamic moduli for these rocks are often 10% higher than corresponding static moduli at low pressure, but this difference decreases as the voids are closed until the moduli agree within experimental error. The discrepancy at low pressure is a result of the elastic energy in the wave pulse being propagated around cracks, with little effect on propagation velocity averaged over the entire specimen. (author)

  11. Dynamic elastic moduli of rocks under pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schock, R.N.

    1970-01-01

    Elastic moduli are determined as a function of confining pressure to 10 kb on rocks in which Plowshare shots are to be fired. Numerical simulation codes require accurate information on the mechanical response of the rock medium to various stress levels in order to predict cavity dimensions. The theoretical treatment of small strains in an elastic medium relates the propagation velocity of compressional and shear waves to the elastic moduli. Velocity measurements can provide, as unique code input data, the rigidity modulus, Poisson' ratio and the shear wave velocity, as well as providing checks on independent determinations of the other moduli. Velocities are determined using pulsed electro-mechanical transducers and measuring the time-of-flight in the rock specimen. A resonant frequency of 1 MHz is used to insure that the wavelength exceeds the average grain dimension and is subject to bulk rock properties. Data obtained on a variety of rock types are presented and analyzed. These data are discussed in terms of their relationship to moduli measured by static methods as well as the effect of anisotropy, porosity, and fractures. In general, fractured rocks with incipient cracks show large increases in velocity and moduli in the first 1 to 2 kb of compression as a result of the closing of these voids. After this, the velocities increase much more slowly. Dynamic moduli for these rocks are often 10% higher than corresponding static moduli at low pressure, but this difference decreases as the voids are closed until the moduli agree within experimental error. The discrepancy at low pressure is a result of the elastic energy in the wave pulse being propagated around cracks, with little effect on propagation velocity averaged over the entire specimen. (author)

  12. Palynofacies characterization for hydrocarbon source rock ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    source rock potential of the Subathu Formation in the area. Petroleum geologists are well aware of the fact that the dispersed organic matter derived either from marine or non-marine sediments on reach- ing its maturation level over extended period of time contributes as source material for the produc- tion of hydrocarbons.

  13. Substoichiometric determination of uranium in phosphate rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, N; Hanzawa, K; Imura, H

    1986-01-01

    The substoichiometric isotope dilution analysis for U(VI) in a synergic extraction system of an excess amount of a chelating agent hexafluoroacetylacetone (HHFA) and a substoichiometric amount of U(VI) can be precisely extracted, and U down to ppm levels can be accurately determined by the present method. This method was applied to the analysis of a phosphate rock.

  14. Rock burst governance of working face under igneous rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zhenxing; Yu, Yue

    2017-01-01

    As a typical failure phenomenon, rock burst occurs in many mines. It can not only cause the working face to cease production, but also cause serious damage to production equipment, and even result in casualties. To explore how to govern rock burst of working face under igneous rock, the 10416 working face in some mine is taken as engineering background. The supports damaged extensively and rock burst took place when the working face advanced. This paper establishes the mechanical model and conducts theoretical analysis and calculation to predict the fracture and migration mechanism and energy release of the thick hard igneous rock above the working face, and to obtain the advancing distance of the working face when the igneous rock fractures and critical value of the energy when rock burst occurs. Based on the specific conditions of the mine, this paper put forward three kinds of governance measures, which are borehole pressure relief, coal seam water injection and blasting pressure relief.

  15. Uranium in alkaline rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, M.; Wollenberg, H.; Strisower, B.; Bowman, H.; Flexser, S.; Carmichael, I.

    1978-04-01

    Geologic and geochemical criteria were developed for the occurrence of economic uranium deposits in alkaline igneous rocks. A literature search, a limited chemical analytical program, and visits to three prominent alkaline-rock localities (Ilimaussaq, Greenland; Pocos de Caldas, Brazil; and Powderhorn, Colorado) were made to establish criteria to determine if a site had some uranium resource potential. From the literature, four alkaline-intrusive occurrences of differing character were identified as type-localities for uranium mineralization, and the important aspects of these localities were described. These characteristics were used to categorize and evaluate U.S. occurrences. The literature search disclosed 69 U.S. sites, encompassing nepheline syenite, alkaline granite, and carbonatite. It was possible to compare two-thirds of these sites to the type localities. A ranking system identified ten of the sites as most likely to have uranium resource potential

  16. Rock solidification method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakaya, Iwao; Murakami, Tadashi; Miyake, Takafumi; Funakoshi, Toshio; Inagaki, Yuzo; Hashimoto, Yasuhide.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To convert radioactive wastes into the final state for storage (artificial rocks) in a short period of time. Method: Radioactive burnable wastes such as spent papers, cloths and oils and activated carbons are burnt into ashes in a burning furnace, while radioactive liquid wastes such as liquid wastes of boric acid, exhausted cleaning water and decontaminating liquid wastes are powderized in a drying furnace or calcining furnace. These powders are joined with silicates as such as white clay, silica and glass powder and a liquid alkali such as NaOH or Ca(OH) 2 and transferred to a solidifying vessel. Then, the vessel is set to a hydrothermal reactor, heated and pressurized, then taken out about 20 min after and tightly sealed. In this way, radioactive wastes are converted through the hydrothermal reactions into aqueous rock stable for a long period of time to obtain solidification products insoluble to water and with an extremely low leaching rate. (Ikeda, J.)

  17. Uranium in alkaline rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, M.; Wollenberg, H.; Strisower, B.; Bowman, H.; Flexser, S.; Carmichael, I.

    1978-04-01

    Geologic and geochemical criteria were developed for the occurrence of economic uranium deposits in alkaline igneous rocks. A literature search, a limited chemical analytical program, and visits to three prominent alkaline-rock localities (Ilimaussaq, Greenland; Pocos de Caldas, Brazil; and Powderhorn, Colorado) were made to establish criteria to determine if a site had some uranium resource potential. From the literature, four alkaline-intrusive occurrences of differing character were identified as type-localities for uranium mineralization, and the important aspects of these localities were described. These characteristics were used to categorize and evaluate U.S. occurrences. The literature search disclosed 69 U.S. sites, encompassing nepheline syenite, alkaline granite, and carbonatite. It was possible to compare two-thirds of these sites to the type localities. A ranking system identified ten of the sites as most likely to have uranium resource potential.

  18. Rock and mineral magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    O’Reilly, W

    1984-01-01

    The past two decades have witnessed a revolution in the earth sciences. The quantitative, instrument-based measurements and physical models of. geophysics, together with advances in technology, have radically transformed the way in which the Earth, and especially its crust, is described. The study of the magnetism of the rocks of the Earth's crust has played a major part in this transformation. Rocks, or more specifically their constituent magnetic minerals, can be regarded as a measuring instrument provided by nature, which can be employed in the service of the earth sciences. Thus magnetic minerals are a recording magnetometer; a goniometer or protractor, recording the directions of flows, fields and forces; a clock; a recording thermometer; a position recorder; astrain gauge; an instrument for geo­ logical surveying; a tracer in climatology and hydrology; a tool in petrology. No instrument is linear, or free from noise and systematic errors, and the performance of nature's instrument must be assessed and ...

  19. Aram Chaos Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    8 September 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows outcrops of light-toned, sedimentary rock among darker-toned mesas in Aram Chaos. Dark, windblown megaripples -- large ripples -- are also present at this location. Location near: 3.0oN, 21.6oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Autumn

  20. Deformations of fractured rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephansson, O.

    1977-09-01

    Results of the DBM and FEM analysis in this study indicate that a suitable rock mass for repository of radioactive waste should be moderately jointed (about 1 joint/m 2 ) and surrounded by shear zones of the first order. This allowes for a gentle and flexible deformation under tectonic stresses and prevent the development of large cross-cutting failures in the repository area. (author)

  1. Physical modeling of rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheney, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    The problems of statisfying similarity between a physical model and the prototype in rock wherein fissures and cracks place a role in physical behavior is explored. The need for models of large physical dimensions is explained but also testing of models of the same prototype over a wide range of scales is needed to ascertain the influence of lack of similitude of particular parameters between prototype and model. A large capacity centrifuge would be useful in that respect

  2. Rock pushing and sampling under rocks on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, H.J.; Liebes, S.; Crouch, D.S.; Clark, L.V.

    1978-01-01

    Viking Lander 2 acquired samples on Mars from beneath two rocks, where living organisms and organic molecules would be protected from ultraviolet radiation. Selection of rocks to be moved was based on scientific and engineering considerations, including rock size, rock shape, burial depth, and location in a sample field. Rock locations and topography were established using the computerized interactive video-stereophotogrammetric system and plotted on vertical profiles and in plan view. Sampler commands were developed and tested on Earth using a full-size lander and surface mock-up. The use of power by the sampler motor correlates with rock movements, which were by plowing, skidding, and rolling. Provenance of the samples was determined by measurements and interpretation of pictures and positions of the sampler arm. Analytical results demonstrate that the samples were, in fact, from beneath the rocks. Results from the Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer of the Molecular Analysis experiment and the Gas Exchange instrument of the Biology experiment indicate that more adsorbed(?) water occurs in samples under rocks than in samples exposed to the sun. This is consistent with terrestrial arid environments, where more moisture occurs in near-surface soil un- der rocks than in surrounding soil because the net heat flow is toward the soil beneath the rock and the rock cap inhibits evaporation. Inorganic analyses show that samples of soil from under the rocks have significantly less iron than soil exposed to the sun. The scientific significance of analyses of samples under the rocks is only partly evaluated, but some facts are clear. Detectable quantities of martian organic molecules were not found in the sample from under a rock by the Molecular Analysis experiment. The Biology experiments did not find definitive evidence for Earth-like living organisms in their sample. Significant amounts of adsorbed water may be present in the martian regolith. The response of the soil

  3. The Rock Characterization Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, J.

    1994-01-01

    In 1989, UK Nirex began a programme of surface-based characterization of the geology and hydrogeology of a site at Sellafield to evaluate its suitability to host a deep repository for radioactive waste. The next major stage in site characterization will be the construction and operation of a Rock Characterization Facility (RCF). It will be designed to provide rock characterization information and scope for model validation to permit firmer assessment of long-term safety. It will also provide information needed to decide the detailed location, design and orientation of a repository and to inform repository construction methods. A three-phase programme is planned for the RCF. During each phase, testwork will steadily improve our geological, hydrogeological and geotechnical understanding of the site. The first phase will involve sinking two shafts. That will be preceded by the establishment of a network of monitoring boreholes to ensure that the impact of shaft sinking can be measured. This will provide valuable data for model validation. In phase two, initial galleries will be excavated, probably at a depth of 650 m below Ordnance datum, which will host a comprehensive suite of experiments. These galleries will be extended in phase three to permit access to most of the rock volume that would host the repository. (Author)

  4. Radon exhalation from granitic rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Claro, Flávia; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Corrêa, Janine N.; Mazer, Wellington; Narloch, Danielle Cristine; Martin, Aline Cristina; Denyak, Valeriy

    2017-01-01

    Naturally occurring radionuclides such as radon ( 222 Rn), its decay products and other elements from the radioactive series of uranium ( 238 U and 235 U) and thorium ( 232 Th) are an important source of human exposure to natural radioactivity. The worldwide evaluation of health radiobiological effects and risks from population exposure to natural radionuclides is a growing concern. About 50% of personal radiation annual dose is related to radionuclides such as radon ( 222 Rn), thoron ( 220 Rn), radium ( 226 Ra), thorium ( 232 Th) and potassium ( 40 K), which are present in modern materials commonly used in construction of dwellings and buildings. The radioactivity of marbles and granites is of big concern since under certain conditions the radioactivity levels of these materials can be hazardous to the population and require the implementation of mitigation procedures. Present survey of the 222 Rn and 220 Rn activity concentration liberated in the air was performed using commercialized Brazilian granite rocks at national market as well as exported to other countries. The 222 Rn and 220 Rn measurements were performed using the AlphaGUARD instant monitor and RAD7 detector, respectively. This study was performed at the Applied Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the Federal University of Technology – Paraná (UTFPR). Obtained results of radon concentration activity in air exhaled studied samples of granites varied from 3±1 Bq/m 3 to 2087±19 Bq/m 3 , which shows that some samples of granitic rocks represent rather elevated health risk the population. (author)

  5. Nitrogen in rock: Occurrences and biogeochemical implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, J.M.; Dahlgren, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the role of bedrock in global nitrogen cycling and potential for increased ecosystem sensitivity to human impacts in terrains with elevated background nitrogen concentrations. Nitrogen-bearing rocks are globally distributed and comprise a potentially large pool of nitrogen in nutrient cycling that is frequently neglected because of a lack of routine analytical methods for quantification. Nitrogen in rock originates as organically bound nitrogen associated with sediment, or in thermal waters representing a mixture of sedimentary, mantle, and meteoric sources of nitrogen. Rock nitrogen concentrations range from trace levels (>200 mg N kg -1) in granites to ecologically significant concentrations exceeding 1000 mg N kg -1 in some sedimentary and metasedimentary rocks. Nitrate deposits accumulated in arid and semi-arid regions are also a large potential pool. Nitrogen in rock has a potentially significant impact on localized nitrogen cycles. Elevated nitrogen concentrations in water and soil have been attributed to weathering of bedrock nitrogen. In some environments, nitrogen released from bedrock may contribute to nitrogen saturation of terrestrial ecosystems (more nitrogen available than required by biota). Nitrogen saturation results in leaching of nitrate to surface and groundwaters, and, where soils are formed from ammonium-rich bedrock, the oxidation of ammonium to nitrate may result in soil acidification, inhibiting revegetation in certain ecosystems. Collectively, studies presented in this article reveal that geologic nitrogen may be a large and reactive pool with potential for amplification of human impacts on nitrogen cycling in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems.

  6. Transient evoked otoacoustic emissions in rock musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høydal, Erik Harry; Lein Størmer, Carl Christian; Laukli, Einar; Stenklev, Niels Christian

    2017-09-01

    Our focus in this study was the assessment of transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) in a large group of rock musicians. A further objective was to analyse tinnitus among rock musicians as related to TEOAEs. The study was a cross-sectional survey of rock musicians selected at random. A control group was included at random for comparison. We recruited 111 musicians and a control group of 40 non-musicians. Testing was conducted by using clinical examination, pure tone audiometry, TEOAEs and a questionnaire. TEOAE SNR in the half-octave frequency band centred on 4 kHz was significantly lower bilaterally in musicians than controls. This effect was strongly predicted by age and pure-tone hearing threshold levels in the 3-6 kHz range. Bilateral hearing thresholds were significantly higher at 6 kHz in musicians. Twenty percent of the musicians had permanent tinnitus. There was no association between the TEOAE parameters and permanent tinnitus. Our results suggest an incipient hearing loss at 6 kHz in rock musicians. Loss of TEOAE SNR in the 4 kHz half-octave frequency band was observed, but it was related to higher mean 3-6 kHz hearing thresholds and age. A large proportion of rock musicians have permanent tinnitus.

  7. Rock in Rio: forever young

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Ferreira Freitas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to discuss the role of Rock in Rio: The Musical, as herald of megafestival Rock in Rio. Driven by the success that musicals have reached in Brazil, we believe that the design of this spectacle of music, dance and staging renews the brand of the rock festival, once it adds the force of young and healthy bodies to its concept. Moreover, the musical provides Rock in Rio with some distance from the controversal trilogy of sex, drugs and rock and roll, a strong mark of past festivals around the world. Thus, the musical expands the possibilities of growth for the brand.

  8. Hydrological characteristics of Japanese rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ijiri, Yuji; Sawada, Atsushi; Akahori, Kuniaki

    1999-11-01

    It is crucial to evaluate the hydrogeological characteristics of rock in Japan in order to assess the performance of geosphere. This report summarizes the hydrogeological characteristics of various rock types obtained from broad literature surveys and the fields experiments at the Kamaishi mine in northern Japan and at the Tono mine in central Japan. It is found that the hydraulic conductivity of rock mass ranges from 10 -9 m/s to 10 -8 m/s, whereas the hydraulic conductivity of fault zone ranges from 10 -9 m/s to 10 -3 m/s. It is also found that the hydraulic conductivity tends to decrease with depth. Therefore, the hydraulic conductivity of rock mass at the depth of a repository will be smaller than above values. From the investigations at outcrops and galleries throughout the country, fractures are observed as potential pathways in all rock types. All kinds of crystalline rocks and pre-Neogene sedimentary rocks are classified as fractured media where fracture flow is dominant. Among these rocks, granitic rock is considered the archetype fractured media. On the other hand, andesite, tuff and Neogene sedimentary rocks are considered as intermediate between fractured media and porous media where flow in fractures as well as in rock matrix are significant. (author)

  9. Hydrological and geochemical investigation on the volcanic rock and gneissic rock area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Yong Kwon; Jeong, Chan Ho; Ryu, Kun Seok; Kim, Byoung Yeop; Park, Hyung Kun; Yu, Sang Woo; Jang, Hyu Kun; Lee, Suk Chi; Choi, Ki Young; Jeon, Hyu Woong; Kim, Do Hyoung [Daejong University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-01-15

    The purpose of this study is to supply the basic data and optimum study site among volcanic rock area and gneissic rock area for high-level radioactive waste disposal. For this purpose, geological, hydrogeological and geochemical data from previously published literatures were collected and analyzed. In this study, we selected 36 volcanic rock sites and 26 gneissic sites as the candidate sites for high level radwaste disposal. Finally, for four sites(M-1, M-13, V-1 and V-13 sites) were selected as the study sites. The geochemical characteristics of groundwaters of each study site were statistically analyzed. The nitrate contamination and the sea water mixing will be important factors on the assessment of behaviour of radionuclides under groundwater environment. From the deep geothermal study, alkaline and sodium-bicarbonate chemical environment, and sea water mixing should be considered as the key factors for the deep disposal of high-level radioactive waste

  10. ROCK1 as a novel prognostic marker in vulvar cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akagi, Erica M; Lavorato-Rocha, André M; Maia, Beatriz de Melo

    2014-01-01

    infection, but most cases develop in women aged over 50 years through poorly understood genetic mechanisms. Rho-associated coiled-coil-containing protein kinase 1 (ROCK1) has been implicated in many cellular processes, but its function in vulvar cancer has never been examined. In this study, we aimed...... to determine the prognostic value of ROCK1 gene and protein analysis in vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (VSCC). METHODS: ROCK1 expression levels were measured in 16 vulvar tumour samples and adjacent normal tissue by qRT-PCR. Further, 96 VSCC samples were examined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) to confirm...... the involvement of ROCK1 in the disease. The molecular and pathological results were correlated with the clinical data of the patients. Sixteen fresh VSCC samples were analyzed by array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). RESULTS: In each pair of samples, ROCK1 levels were higher by qRT-PCR in normal...

  11. VIRTUAL HERITAGE ARCHIVES: BUILDING A CENTRALIZED AUSTRALIAN ROCK ART ARCHIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Haubt

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines use of multi-media in the curation, presentation and promotion of rock art. It discusses the construction of a centralised Australian rock art database and explores new technologies available for looking at rock art. In 2011, Prof. Taçon Chair in Rock Art Research and Director of PERAHU (Place, Evolution and Rock Art Heritage Unit called for a national rock art database raising awareness of the importance of preserving rock art as part of Australia's valuable Indigenous heritage (Taçon, 2011. Australia has over 100,000 rock art sites, important heritage places for Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians and a testament to over 10,000 years of human activity, including interactions with other peoples and the environment. Many of these sites have not been documented or recorded and are threatened by natural and cultural agents. It is becoming increasingly important to develop conservation models for the protection and preservation of sites. Indigenous cultural heritage is difficult to manage on a local government level due to complex human / time / environment relationships and the importance of intangible cultural heritage (SoE SEWPAC, 2011. Currently no centralised database system exists in Australia to curate, present and promote rock art.

  12. Rock stress investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahl, A.; Heusermann, St.; Braeuer, V.; Gloeggler, W.

    1989-04-01

    On the research project 'Rock Stress Mesurements' the BGR has developed and tested several methods for use in boreholes at a depth of 200 m. Indirect stress measurements using overcoring methods with BGR-probes and CSIR-triaxial cells as well as direct stress measurements using the hydraulic-fracturing method were made. To determine in-situ rock deformation behavior borehole deformation tests, using a BGR-dilatometer, were performed. Two types of the BGR-probe were applied: a four-component-probe to determine horizontal stresses and a five-component-probe to determine a quasi three-dimensional stress field. The first time a computer for data processing was installed in the borehole together with the BGR-probe. Laboratory tests on low cylinders were made to study the stress-deformation behavior. To validate and to interprete the measurement results some test methods were modelled using the finite-element method. The dilatometer-tests yielded high values of Young's modulus, whereas laboratory tests showed lower values with a distinct deformation anisotropy. Stress measurements with the BGR-probe yielded horizontal stresses being higher than the theoretical overburden pressure. These results are comparable to the results of the hydraulic fracturing tests, whereas stresses obtained with CSIR-triaxial cells are lower. The detailed geological mapping of the borehole indicated relationships between stress and geology. With regard to borehole depth different zones of rock structure joint frequency, joint orientation, and orientation of microfissures as well as stress magnitude, stress direction, and degree of deformation anisotropy could be distinguished. (author) 4 tabs., 76 figs., 31 refs

  13. Growing Pebbles and Conceptual Prisms - Understanding the Source of Student Misconceptions about Rock Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusnick, Judi

    2002-01-01

    Analyzes narrative essays--stories of rock formation--written by pre-service elementary school teachers. Reports startling misconceptions among preservice teachers on pebbles that grow, human involvement in rock formation, and sedimentary rocks forming as puddles as dry up, even though these students had completed a college level course on Earth…

  14. A smart rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressel, Phil

    2014-12-01

    This project was to design and build a protective weapon for a group of associations that believed in aliens and UFO's. They collected enough contributions from societies and individuals to be able to sponsor and totally fund the design, fabrication and testing of this equipment. The location of this facility is classified. It also eventually was redesigned by the Quartus Engineering Company for use at a major amusement park as a "shoot at targets facility." The challenge of this project was to design a "smart rock," namely an infrared bullet (the size of a gallon can of paint) that could be shot from the ground to intercept a UFO or any incoming suspicious item heading towards the earth. Some of the challenges to design this weapon were to feed cryogenic helium at 5 degrees Kelvin from an inair environment through a unique rotary coupling and air-vacuum seal while spinning the bullet at 1500 rpm and maintain its dynamic stability (wobble) about its spin axis to less than 10 micro-radians (2 arc seconds) while it operated in a vacuum. Precision optics monitored the dynamic motion of the "smart rock."

  15. Rock critics as 'Mouldy Modernists'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becky Shepherd

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary rock criticism appears to be firmly tied to the past. The specialist music press valorise rock music of the 1960s and 1970s, and new emerging artists are championed for their ‘retro’ sounding music by journalists who compare the sound of these new artists with those included in the established ‘canon’ of rock music. This article examines the narrative tropes of authenticity and nostalgia that frame the retrospective focus of this contemporary rock writing, and most significantly, the maintenance of the rock canon within contemporary popular culture. The article concludes by suggesting that while contemporary rock criticism is predominately characterised by nostalgia, this nostalgia is not simply a passive romanticism of the past. Rather, this nostalgia fuels a process of active recontextualisation within contemporary popular culture.

  16. Application of a routine moment tensor inversion capability in the development of a new design consideration for the stability of foundations of stabilising pillars in deep level gold mines and pillars in intermediate depth hard rock mines

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Linzer, LM

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available analysis of failure mechanisms, development of moment tensor inversion program and verification of the hybrid moment tensor inversion technique. Geomechanical and geotechnical analyses were undertaken to determine the rock mass condition of in situ... on the mine using the ISS software and then reprocessed using AURA, the seismogram processing analysis program written by CSIR Miningtek. It was found that the magnitudes computed using AURA were substantially larger than those computed using the ISS...

  17. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory Annual Report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-08-01

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory has been constructed as part of the preparations for the deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel in Sweden. The Tracer Retention Understanding Experiments are made to gain a better understanding of radionuclide retention in the rock and create confidence in the radionuclide transport models that are intended to be used in the licensing of a deep repository for spent fuel. The TRUE -1 experiment including tests with sorbing radioactive tracers in a single fracture over a distance of about 5 m has been completed. Diffusion and sorption in the rock matrix is the dominant retention mechanism over the time scales of the experiments. The main objective of the TRUE Block Scale Experiment is to increase understanding and our ability to predict tracer transport in a fracture network over spatial scales of 10 to 50 m. In total six boreholes have been drilled into the experimental volume located at the 450 m level. The Long-Term Diffusion Experiment is intended as a complement to the dynamic in-situ experiments and the laboratory experiments performed in the TRUE Programme. Diffusion from a fracture into the rock matrix will be studied in situ. The REX project focuses on the reduction of oxygen in a repository after closure due to reactions with rock minerals and microbial activity. Results show that oxygen is consumed within a few days both for the field and laboratory experiments. A new site for the CHEMLAB experiments was selected and prepared during 1999. All future experiment will be conducted in the J niche at 450 m depth. The Prototype Repository Test is focused on testing and demonstrating repository system function. A full-scale prototype including six deposition holes with canisters with electric heaters surrounded by highly compacted bentonite will be built and instrumented. Characterisation of the rock mass in the area of the Prototype repository is completed and the six deposition holes have been drilled. The Backfill and

  18. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory Annual Report 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-08-01

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory has been constructed as part of the preparations for the deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel in Sweden. The Tracer Retention Understanding Experiments are made to gain a better understanding of radionuclide retention in the rock and create confidence in the radionuclide transport models that are intended to be used in the licensing of a deep repository for spent fuel. The TRUE -1 experiment including tests with sorbing radioactive tracers in a single fracture over a distance of about 5 m has been completed. Diffusion and sorption in the rock matrix is the dominant retention mechanism over the time scales of the experiments. The main objective of the TRUE Block Scale Experiment is to increase understanding and our ability to predict tracer transport in a fracture network over spatial scales of 10 to 50 m. In total six boreholes have been drilled into the experimental volume located at the 450 m level. The Long-Term Diffusion Experiment is intended as a complement to the dynamic in-situ experiments and the laboratory experiments performed in the TRUE Programme. Diffusion from a fracture into the rock matrix will be studied in situ. The REX project focuses on the reduction of oxygen in a repository after closure due to reactions with rock minerals and microbial activity. Results show that oxygen is consumed within a few days both for the field and laboratory experiments. A new site for the CHEMLAB experiments was selected and prepared during 1999. All future experiment will be conducted in the J niche at 450 m depth. The Prototype Repository Test is focused on testing and demonstrating repository system function. A full-scale prototype including six deposition holes with canisters with electric heaters surrounded by highly compacted bentonite will be built and instrumented. Characterisation of the rock mass in the area of the Prototype repository is completed and the six deposition holes have been drilled. The Backfill and

  19. Theoretical study of rock mass investigation efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmen, Johan G.; Outters, Nils

    2002-05-01

    The study concerns a mathematical modelling of a fractured rock mass and its investigations by use of theoretical boreholes and rock surfaces, with the purpose of analysing the efficiency (precision) of such investigations and determine the amount of investigations necessary to obtain reliable estimations of the structural-geological parameters of the studied rock mass. The study is not about estimating suitable sample sizes to be used in site investigations.The purpose of the study is to analyse the amount of information necessary for deriving estimates of the geological parameters studied, within defined confidence intervals and confidence level In other words, how the confidence in models of the rock mass (considering a selected number of parameters) will change with amount of information collected form boreholes and surfaces. The study is limited to a selected number of geometrical structural-geological parameters: Fracture orientation: mean direction and dispersion (Fisher Kappa and SRI). Different measures of fracture density (P10, P21 and P32). Fracture trace-length and strike distributions as seen on horizontal windows. A numerical Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) was used for representation of a fractured rock mass. The DFN-model was primarily based on the properties of an actual fracture network investigated at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. The rock mass studied (DFN-model) contained three different fracture sets with different orientations and fracture densities. The rock unit studied was statistically homogeneous. The study includes a limited sensitivity analysis of the properties of the DFN-model. The study is a theoretical and computer-based comparison between samples of fracture properties of a theoretical rock unit and the known true properties of the same unit. The samples are derived from numerically generated boreholes and surfaces that intersect the DFN-network. Two different boreholes are analysed; a vertical borehole and a borehole that is

  20. Radon exhalation from granitic rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Claro, Flávia; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Corrêa, Janine N.; Mazer, Wellington; Narloch, Danielle Cristine; Martin, Aline Cristina [Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Denyak, Valeriy, E-mail: flaviadelclaro@gmail.com, E-mail: spaschuk@gmail.com, E-mail: janine_nicolosi@hotmail.com, E-mail: denyak@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisa Pelé Pequeno Príncipe (IPPP), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Naturally occurring radionuclides such as radon ({sup 222}Rn), its decay products and other elements from the radioactive series of uranium ({sup 238}U and {sup 235}U) and thorium ({sup 232}Th) are an important source of human exposure to natural radioactivity. The worldwide evaluation of health radiobiological effects and risks from population exposure to natural radionuclides is a growing concern. About 50% of personal radiation annual dose is related to radionuclides such as radon ({sup 222}Rn), thoron ({sup 220}Rn), radium ({sup 226}Ra), thorium ({sup 232}Th) and potassium ({sup 40}K), which are present in modern materials commonly used in construction of dwellings and buildings. The radioactivity of marbles and granites is of big concern since under certain conditions the radioactivity levels of these materials can be hazardous to the population and require the implementation of mitigation procedures. Present survey of the {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn activity concentration liberated in the air was performed using commercialized Brazilian granite rocks at national market as well as exported to other countries. The {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn measurements were performed using the AlphaGUARD instant monitor and RAD7 detector, respectively. This study was performed at the Applied Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the Federal University of Technology – Paraná (UTFPR). Obtained results of radon concentration activity in air exhaled studied samples of granites varied from 3±1 Bq/m{sup 3} to 2087±19 Bq/m{sup 3}, which shows that some samples of granitic rocks represent rather elevated health risk the population. (author)

  1. Rock.XML - Towards a library of rock physics models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Erling Hugo; Hauge, Ragnar; Ulvmoen, Marit; Johansen, Tor Arne; Drottning, Åsmund

    2016-08-01

    Rock physics modelling provides tools for correlating physical properties of rocks and their constituents to the geophysical observations we measure on a larger scale. Many different theoretical and empirical models exist, to cover the range of different types of rocks. However, upon reviewing these, we see that they are all built around a few main concepts. Based on this observation, we propose a format for digitally storing the specifications for rock physics models which we have named Rock.XML. It does not only contain data about the various constituents, but also the theories and how they are used to combine these building blocks to make a representative model for a particular rock. The format is based on the Extensible Markup Language XML, making it flexible enough to handle complex models as well as scalable towards extending it with new theories and models. This technology has great advantages as far as documenting and exchanging models in an unambiguous way between people and between software. Rock.XML can become a platform for creating a library of rock physics models; making them more accessible to everyone.

  2. Experimental Rock-on-Rock Abrasive Wear Under Aqueous Conditions: its Role in Subglacial Abrasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, E. H.; Lee, A. G.

    2003-12-01

    We have determined experimentally the rate of abrasive wear of rock on rock for a range of rock types as a function of normal stress and shear displacement. Unlike abrasive wear in fault zones, where wear products accumulate as a thickening gouge zone, in our experiments wear particles were removed by flowing water. The experiments are thus directly pertinent to one of the most important processes in subglacial erosion, and to some extent in river incision. Wear was produced between rotating discs machined from rock samples and measured from the progressive approach of the disc axes towards each other under various levels of normal load. Shear displacements of several km were produced. Optical and scanning electron microscopy were used to study the worn rock surfaces, and particle size distributions in wear products were characterized using a laser particle size analyzer. Rock types studied were sandstones of various porosities and cement characteristics, schists and a granite. In all cases abrasion rate decreased logarithmically with displacement by up to 2 orders of magnitude until a steady state was approached, but only after at least 1 km displacement. The more porous, less-well cemented rocks wore fastest. Amount of abrasion could be characterized quantitatively using an exponentially decaying plus a steady-state term. Wear rate increased non-linearly with normal contact stress, apparently to an asymptote defined by the unconfined compressive strength. Microstructural study showed that the well-cemented and/or lowest porosity rocks wore by progressive abrasion of grains without plucking, whereas whole grains were plucked out of weakly-cemented and/or more porous rocks. This difference in behavior was reflected in wear-product particle size distributions. Where whole-grain plucking was possible, wear products were dominated by particles of the original grain size rather than finer rock flour. Comparison of our results to glacier basal abrasive wear estimated

  3. Rock the Globe

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    Created in 2005, the Swiss rock band "Wind of Change" is now candidate for the Eurovision Song Contest 2011 with a new song " Night & Light " with the music video filmed at CERN.   With over 20 gigs under their belt and two albums already released, the five members of the band (Alex Büchi, vocals; Arthur Spierer, drums; David Gantner, bass; Romain Mage and Yannick Gaudy, guitar) continue to excite audiences. For their latest composition "Night & Light", the group filmed their music video in the Globe of Science and Innovation. Winning the Eurovision contest would be a springboard in their artistic career for these young musicians. The selection results will be available December 11, 2010.      

  4. Electrochemistry of lunar rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, D. J.; Haskin, L. A.

    1979-01-01

    Electrolysis of silicate melts has been shown to be an effective means of producing metals from common silicate materials. No fluxing agents need be added to the melts. From solution in melts of diopside (CaMgSi2O6) composition, the elements Si, Ti, Ni, and Fe have been reduced to their metallic states. Platinum is a satisfactory anode material, but other cathode materials are needed. Electrolysis of compositional analogs of lunar rocks initially produces iron metal at the cathode and oxygen gas at the anode. Utilizing mainly heat and electricity which are readily available from sunlight, direct electrolysis is capable of producing useful metals from common feedstocks without the need for expendable chemicals. This simple process and the products obtained from it deserve further study for use in materials processing in space.

  5. Mont Terri Project - Heater experiment : rock and bentonite thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) processes in the near field of a thermal source for development of deep underground high level radioactive waste repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goebel, I.; Alheid, H.-J.; Kaufhold, St.; Naumann, M.; Pletsch, Th.; Plischke, I.; Schnier, H.; Schuster, K.; Sprado, K. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Hannover (Germany); Meyer, T.; Miehe, R.; Wieczorek, K. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Braunschweig (Germany); Mayor, J.C. [Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radioactivos SA (ENRESA), Madrid (Spain); Garcia-Sineriz, J.; Rey, M. [Asociacion para la Investigacion y Desarollo Industrial de los Recursos Naturales (AITEMIN), Madrid (Spain); Alonso, E.; Lloret, A.; Munoz, J.J. [Centre Internacional de Metodos Numerics en Ingenyeria (CIMNE), Barcelona (Spain); Weber, H. [National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (Nagra), Wettingen (Switzerland); Ploetze, M. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule Zuerich, Institut fuer Geotechnik, Zuerich (Switzerland); Klubertanz, G. [Colenco Power Engineering Ltd, Baden (Switzerland); Ammon, Ch. [Rothpletz Lienhard und Cie AG, Aarau (Switzerland); Graf, A.; Nussbaum, Ch.; Zingg, A. [Goetechnical Institute Ltd, Saint-Ursanne (Switzerland); Bossart, P. [Federal Office of Topography (swisstopo), Wabern (Switzerland); Buehler, Ch.; Kech, M.; Trick, Th. [Solexperts AG, Moenchaltorf (Switzerland); Emmerich, K. [ITC-WGT, Karlsruhe (Germany); Fernandez, A. M. [Ciemat, Madrid (Spain)

    2007-07-01

    The long-term safety of underground permanent repositories for radioactive waste relies on a combination of several engineered and geological barriers. The interactions between a host rock formation of the type 'Opalinus Clay' and an engineered barrier of the type 'bentonite buffer' are observed in the Heater Experiment (HE) during a hydration and a heating phase. The objective of the experiment is an improved understanding of the coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) processes in a host rock-buffer system achieved by experimental observations as well as numerical modelling. The basic objectives are in detail: a) Long-term monitoring in the vicinity of the heater during hydration and heating; especially observation and study of coupled THM processes in the near field, i.e. continuous measurements of temperatures, pore pressures, displacements, electric conductivity, and analysis of the gases and water released into the rock by effect of heating; b) Determination of the properties of barrier and host rock done mainly by laboratory and in situ experiments, i.e. general mechanical and mineralogical properties, mechanical state in-situ, and changes induced by the experiment; c) Study of the interaction between host rock and bentonite buffer as well as validation and refinement of existing tools for modelling THM processes; d) Study of the behaviour and reliability of instrumentation and measuring techniques, i.e. inspection of sensors after dismantling the experimental setting. To achieve the objectives, the experiment was accompanied by an extensive programme of continuous monitoring, experimental investigations on-site as well as in laboratories, and numerical modelling of the coupled THM processes. Finally, the experiment was dismantled to provide laboratory specimens of post-heating buffer and host rock material. The continuous monitoring of the experiment by a multitude of sensors (for temperature, pore pressure, total pressure, relative

  6. Rock Art in Kurdistan Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Lahafian

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Kurdistan, with great potential and prehistoric resources, has numerous petroglyphs in different areas of the province. During the last 14 years of extensive field study, more than 30 sites of rock art have been identified and introduced by the author. In this article, we summarize these rock art areas in Iranian Kurdistan.

  7. Rockin' around the Rock Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frack, Susan; Blanchard, Scott Alan

    2005-01-01

    In this activity students will simulate how sedimentary rocks can be changed into metamorphic rocks by intense pressure. The materials needed are two small pieces of white bread, one piece of wheat bread, and one piece of a dark bread (such as pumpernickel or dark rye) per student, two pieces of waxed paper, scissors, a ruler, and heavy books.…

  8. 'Mister Badger' Pushing Mars Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Viking's soil sampler collector arm successfully pushed a rock on the surface of Mars during the afternoon of Friday, October 8. The irregular-shaped rock was pushed several inches by the Lander's collector arm, which displaced the rock to the left of its original position, leaving it cocked slightly upward. Photographs and other information verified the successful rock push. Photo at left shows the soil sampler's collector head pushing against the rock, named 'Mister Badger' by flight controllers. Photo at right shows the displaced rock and the depression whence it came. Part of the soil displacement was caused by the collector s backhoe. A soil sample will be taken from the site Monday night, October 11. It will then be delivered to Viking s organic chemistry instrument for a series of analyses during the next few weeks. The sample is being sought from beneath a rock because scientists believe that, if there are life forms on Mars, they may seek rocks as shelter from the Sun s intense ultraviolet radiation.

  9. Rock suitability classification RSC 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEwen, T. (ed.) [McEwen Consulting, Leicester (United Kingdom); Kapyaho, A. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Hella, P. [Saanio and Riekkola, Helsinki (Finland); Aro, S.; Kosunen, P.; Mattila, J.; Pere, T.

    2012-12-15

    This report presents Posiva's Rock Suitability Classification (RSC) system, developed for locating suitable rock volumes for repository design and construction. The RSC system comprises both the revised rock suitability criteria and the procedure for the suitability classification during the construction of the repository. The aim of the classification is to avoid such features of the host rock that may be detrimental to the favourable conditions within the repository, either initially or in the long term. This report also discusses the implications of applying the RSC system for the fulfilment of the regulatory requirements concerning the host rock as a natural barrier and the site's overall suitability for hosting a final repository of spent nuclear fuel.

  10. Rock suitability classification RSC 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEwen, T.; Kapyaho, A.; Hella, P.; Aro, S.; Kosunen, P.; Mattila, J.; Pere, T.

    2012-12-01

    This report presents Posiva's Rock Suitability Classification (RSC) system, developed for locating suitable rock volumes for repository design and construction. The RSC system comprises both the revised rock suitability criteria and the procedure for the suitability classification during the construction of the repository. The aim of the classification is to avoid such features of the host rock that may be detrimental to the favourable conditions within the repository, either initially or in the long term. This report also discusses the implications of applying the RSC system for the fulfilment of the regulatory requirements concerning the host rock as a natural barrier and the site's overall suitability for hosting a final repository of spent nuclear fuel

  11. Rock strength under explosive loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimer, N.; Proffer, W.

    1993-01-01

    This presentation emphasizes the importance of a detailed description of the nonlinear deviatoric (strength) response of the surrounding rock in the numerical simulation of underground nuclear explosion phenomenology to the late times needed for test ban monitoring applications. We will show how numerical simulations which match ground motion measurements in volcanic tuffs and in granite use the strength values obtained from laboratory measurements on small core samples of these rocks but also require much lower strength values after the ground motion has interacted with the rock. The underlying physical mechanisms for the implied strength reduction are not yet well understood, and in fact may depend on the particular rock type. However, constitutive models for shock damage and/or effective stress have been used successfully at S-Cubed in both the Geophysics Program (primarily for DARPA) and the Containment Support Program (for DNA) to simulate late time ground motions measured at NTS in many different rock types

  12. ROCK inhibitors in ocular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Halasz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Rho kinases (ROCKs have a crucial role in actin-cytoskeletal reorganization and thus are involved in broad aspects of cell motility, from smooth muscle contraction to neurite outgrowth. The first marketed ROCK inhibitor, called fasudil, has been used safely for treatment of cerebral vasospasm since 1995 in Japan. During the succeeding decades ROCK inhibitors have been applied in many pathological conditions from central nervous system disorders to cardiovascular disease as potential therapeutic agents or experimental tools to help understand the underlying (pathomechanisms. In 2014, a fasudil derivate named ripasudil was accepted for clinical use in glaucoma and ocular hypertension. Since ROCK kinases are widely expressed in ocular tissues, they have been implicated in the pathology of many ocular conditions such as corneal dysfunction, glaucoma, cataract, diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and retinal detachment. This paper aims to provide an overview of the most recent status/application of ROCK inhibitors in the field of eye disease.

  13. Constitutive relationships for elastic deformation of clay rock: Data Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, H.H.; Rutqvist, J.; Birkholzer, J.T.

    2011-01-01

    Geological repositories have been considered a feasible option worldwide for storing high-level nuclear waste. Clay rock is one of the rock types under consideration for such purposes, because of its favorable features to prevent radionuclide transport from the repository. Coupled hydromechanical processes have an important impact on the performance of a clay repository, and establishing constitutive relationships for modeling such processes are essential. In this study, we propose several constitutive relationships for elastic deformation in indurated clay rocks based on three recently developed concepts. First, when applying Hooke's law in clay rocks, true strain (rock volume change divided by the current rock volume), rather than engineering strain (rock volume change divided by unstressed rock volume), should be used, except when the degree of deformation is very small. In the latter case, the two strains will be practically identical. Second, because of its inherent heterogeneity, clay rock can be divided into two parts, a hard part and a soft part, with the hard part subject to a relatively small degree of deformation compared with the soft part. Third, for swelling rock like clay, effective stress needs to be generalized to include an additional term resulting from the swelling process. To evaluate our theoretical development, we analyze uniaxial test data for core samples of Opalinus clay and laboratory measurements of single fractures within macro-cracked Callovo-Oxfordian argillite samples subject to both confinement and water reduced swelling. The results from this evaluation indicate that our constitutive relationships can adequately represent the data and explain the related observations.

  14. Constitutive relationships for elastic deformation of clay rock: Data Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, H.H.; Rutqvist, J.; Birkholzer, J.T.

    2011-04-15

    Geological repositories have been considered a feasible option worldwide for storing high-level nuclear waste. Clay rock is one of the rock types under consideration for such purposes, because of its favorable features to prevent radionuclide transport from the repository. Coupled hydromechanical processes have an important impact on the performance of a clay repository, and establishing constitutive relationships for modeling such processes are essential. In this study, we propose several constitutive relationships for elastic deformation in indurated clay rocks based on three recently developed concepts. First, when applying Hooke's law in clay rocks, true strain (rock volume change divided by the current rock volume), rather than engineering strain (rock volume change divided by unstressed rock volume), should be used, except when the degree of deformation is very small. In the latter case, the two strains will be practically identical. Second, because of its inherent heterogeneity, clay rock can be divided into two parts, a hard part and a soft part, with the hard part subject to a relatively small degree of deformation compared with the soft part. Third, for swelling rock like clay, effective stress needs to be generalized to include an additional term resulting from the swelling process. To evaluate our theoretical development, we analyze uniaxial test data for core samples of Opalinus clay and laboratory measurements of single fractures within macro-cracked Callovo-Oxfordian argillite samples subject to both confinement and water reduced swelling. The results from this evaluation indicate that our constitutive relationships can adequately represent the data and explain the related observations.

  15. Resonant Column Tests and Nonlinear Elasticity in Simulated Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Resmi; Sitharam, T. G.

    2018-01-01

    Rocks are generally regarded as linearly elastic even though the manifestations of nonlinearity are prominent. The variations of elastic constants with varying strain levels and stress conditions, disagreement between static and dynamic moduli, etc., are some of the examples of nonlinear elasticity in rocks. The grain-to-grain contact, presence of pores and joints along with other compliant features induce the nonlinear behavior in rocks. The nonlinear elastic behavior of rocks is demonstrated through resonant column tests and numerical simulations in this paper. Resonant column tests on intact and jointed gypsum samples across varying strain levels have been performed in laboratory and using numerical simulations. The paper shows the application of resonant column apparatus to obtain the wave velocities of stiff samples at various strain levels under long wavelength condition, after performing checks and incorporating corrections to the obtained resonant frequencies. The numerical simulation and validation of the resonant column tests using distinct element method are presented. The stiffness reductions of testing samples under torsional and flexural vibrations with increasing strain levels have been analyzed. The nonlinear elastic behavior of rocks is reflected in the results, which is enhanced by the presence of joints. The significance of joint orientation and influence of joint spacing during wave propagation have also been assessed and presented using the numerical simulations. It has been found that rock joints also exhibit nonlinear behavior within the elastic limit.

  16. Engineering rock mass classification of the Olkiluoto investigation site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aeikaes, K. [ed.; Hagros, A.; Johansson, E. [Saanio and Riekkola Consulting Engineers, Helsinki (Finland)] [and others

    2000-06-01

    Olkiluoto in Eurajoki is being investigated as a possible site for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel from the Finnish nuclear power plants. The selection of the depth, placement and layout of the repository is affected by the constructability of the bedrock. The constructability, in turn, is influenced by several properties of the host rock, such as its Ethology, the extent of fracturing, its hydrogeological properties and rock engineering characteristics and also by the magnitude and orientation of the in situ stresses and the chemistry of the groundwater. The constructability can be evaluated by the application of a rock classification system in which the properties of the host rock are assessed against common rock engineering judgements associated with underground construction. These judgements are based partly on measurements of in situ stresses and the properties of the bedrock determined from rock samples, but an important aspect is also the practical experience which has been gained during underground excavation in similar conditions and rock types. The aim of the engineering rock mass classification was to determine suitable bedrock volumes for the construction of the repository and has used data from the site characterisation programme carried out at Olkiluoto, which consisted of both surface studies and borehole investigations. The classification specifies three categories of constructability - normal, demanding and very demanding. In addition, rock mass quality has also been classified according to the empirical Q-system to enable a comparison to be made. The rock mass parameters that determine the constructability of the bedrock at Olkiluoto depend primarily on the depth and the Ethology, as well as on whether construction takes place in intact or in fractured rock. The differences in the characteristics of intact rock within a single rock type have been shown to be small. The major lithological unit at Olkiluoto, the mica gneiss, lies in the

  17. They will rock you!

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2013-01-01

    On 30 September, CERN will be the venue for one of the most prestigious events of the year: the concert for the Bosons&More event, the Organization’s celebration of the remarkable performance of the LHC and all its technical systems, as well as the recent fundamental discoveries. Topping the bill will be the Orchestre de la Suisse Romande, the CERN Choir, the Zürcher Sing-Akademie and the Alan Parsons Live Project rock group, who have joined forces to create an unforgettable evening’s entertainment.   The Orchestre de la Suisse Romande, directed by Maestro Neeme Järvi, artistic and musical director of the OSR. (Image: Grégory Maillot). >>> From the Orchestre de la Suisse Romande… Henk Swinnen, General Manager of the Orchestre de la Suisse Romande (OSR), answers some questions for the CERN Bulletin, just a few days before the event. How did this project come about? When CERN invited us to take part in the B...

  18. Rock salt constitutive modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickell, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    The Serata model is the best operational model available today because it incorporates: (1) a yield function to demarcate between viscoelastic and viscoplastic behavior of rock salt; (2) a pressure and temperature dependence for yield stresses; and (3) a standard linear solid, which can be readily extended into the non-linear regime, to represent creep behavior. Its only deficiencies appear to be the lack of secondary creep behavior (a free dashpot) and some unsettling arbitrariness about the Poisson's ratio (ν → 0.5) argument for viscoplasticity. The Sandia/WIPP model will have good primary and secondary creep capability, but lacks the viscoplastic behavior. In some cases, estimated inelastic strains may be underpredicted. If a creep acceleration mechanism associated with brine inclusions is observed, this model may require extensive revision. Most of the other models available (SAI, RE-SPEC, etc.) are only useful for short-term calculations, because they employ temporal power law (t/sup n/) primary creep representations. These models are unsatisfactory because they cannot represent dual mechanisms with differing characteristic times. An approach based upon combined creep and plasticity is recommended in order to remove the remaining deficiency in the Serata model. DOE/Sandia/WIPP should be encouraged to move aggressively in this regard

  19. Research into basic rocks types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) has carried out research into basic rock types in Finland. The research programme has been implemented in parallel with the preliminary site investigations for radioactive waste disposal in 1991-1993. The program contained two main objectives: firstly, to study the properties of the basic rock types and compare those with the other rock types under the investigation; secondly, to carry out an inventory of rock formations consisting of basic rock types and suitable in question for final disposal. A study of environmental factors important to know regarding the final disposal was made of formations identified. In total 159 formations exceeding the size of 4 km 2 were identified in the inventory. Of these formations 97 were intrusive igneous rock types and 62 originally extrusive volcanic rock types. Deposits consisting of ore minerals, industrial minerals or building stones related to these formations were studied. Environmental factors like natural resources, protected areas or potential for restrictions in land use were also studied

  20. Rock discontinuity surface roughness variation with scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitenc, Maja; Kieffer, D. Scott; Khoshelham, Kourosh

    2017-04-01

    hypothesize that roughness can increase or decrease with the joint size, depending on the large scale roughness (or waviness), which is entering the roughness calculation once the discontinuity size increases. Therefore, our objective is to characterize roughness at various spatial scales, rather than at changing surface size. Firstly, the rock surface is interpolated into a grid on which a Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) is applied. The resulting surface components have different frequencies, or in other words, they have a certain physical scale depending on the decomposition level and input grid resolution. Secondly, the Grasselli Parameter is computed for the original and each decomposed surface. Finally, the relative roughness change is analyzed with respect to increasing roughness wavelength for four different rock samples. The scale variation depends on the sample itself and thus indicates its potential mechanical behavior. References: - Barton, N. and V. Choubey (1977). "The shear strength of rock joints in theory and practice." Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering 10(1): 1-54. - Grasselli, G. (2001). Shear strength of rock joints based on quantified surface description. École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne. Lausanne, EPFL. - Tatone, B. S. A. and G. Grasselli (2009). "A method to evaluate the three-dimensional roughness of fracture surfaces in brittle geomaterials." Review of Scientific Instruments 80(12) - Tatone, B. and G. Grasselli (2012). "An Investigation of Discontinuity Roughness Scale Dependency Using High-Resolution Surface Measurements." Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering: 1-25.

  1. Usage of Cable Bolts for Gateroad Maintenance in Soft Rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iurii Khalymendyk

    2014-01-01

    Originality/value: 1. There are no regulations and state standards in regard to cable bolt installation parameters in the mines of Ukraine, consequently the usage of cable bolts for gateroad maintenance required preliminary testing under geological conditions at the Western Donbass mines with soft enclosing rocks. 2. Combining levelling with observations using extensometers allowed for the detection of the rock layers' uniform sagging zone in the roof of the gateroad.

  2. Modeling the Rock Glacier Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R. S.; Anderson, L. S.

    2016-12-01

    Rock glaciers are common in many mountain ranges in which the ELA lies above the peaks. They represent some of the most identifiable components of today's cryosphere in these settings. Their oversteepened snouts pose often-overlooked hazards to travel in alpine terrain. Rock glaciers are supported by avalanches and by rockfall from steep headwalls. The winter's avalanche cone must be sufficiently thick not to melt entirely in the summer. The spatial distribution of rock glaciers reflects this dependence on avalanche sources; they are most common on lee sides of ridges where wind-blown snow augments the avalanche source. In the absence of rockfall, this would support a short, cirque glacier. Depending on the relationship between rockfall and avalanche patterns, "talus-derived" and "glacier-derived" rock glaciers are possible. Talus-derived: If the spatial distribution of rock delivery is similar to the avalanche pattern, the rock-ice mixture will travel an englacial path that is downward through the short accumulation zone before turning upward in the ablation zone. Advected debris is then delivered to the base of a growing surface debris layer that reduces the ice melt rate. The physics is identical to the debris-covered glacier case. Glacier-derived: If on the other hand rockfall from the headwall rolls beyond the avalanche cone, it is added directly to the ablation zone of the glacier. The avalanche accumulation zone then supports a pure ice core to the rock glacier. We have developed numerical models designed to capture the full range of glacier to debris-covered glacier to rock glacier behavior. The hundreds of meter lengths, tens of meters thicknesses, and meter per year speeds of rock glaciers are well described by the models. The model can capture both "talus-derived" and "glacier-derived" rock glaciers. We explore the dependence of glacier behavior on climate histories. As climate warms, a pure ice debris-covered glacier can transform to a much shorter rock

  3. Multiverso: Rock'n'Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, J. A.

    2012-05-01

    In the last few years, there have been several projects involving astronomy and classical music. But have a rock band ever appeared at a science conference or an astronomer at a rock concert? We present a project, Multiverso, in which we mix rock and astronomy, together with poetry and video art (Caballero, 2010). The project started in late 2009 and has already reached tens of thousands people in Spain through the release of an album, several concert-talks, television, radio, newspapers and the internet.

  4. Fault rocks and uranium mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong Hangshou.

    1991-01-01

    The types of fault rocks, microstructural characteristics of fault tectonite and their relationship with uranium mineralization in the uranium-productive granite area are discussed. According to the synthetic analysis on nature of stress, extent of crack and microstructural characteristics of fault rocks, they can be classified into five groups and sixteen subgroups. The author especially emphasizes the control of cataclasite group and fault breccia group over uranium mineralization in the uranium-productive granite area. It is considered that more effective study should be made on the macrostructure and microstructure of fault rocks. It is of an important practical significance in uranium exploration

  5. Test procedures for salt rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dusseault, M.B.

    1985-01-01

    Potash mining, salt mining, design of solution caverns in salt rocks, disposal of waste in salt repositories, and the use of granular halite backfill in underground salt rock mines are all mining activities which are practised or contemplated for the near future. Whatever the purpose, the need for high quality design parameters is evident. The authors have been testing salt rocks in the laboratory in a number of configurations for some time. Great care has been given to the quality of sample preparation and test methodology. This paper describes the methods, presents the elements of equipment design, and shows some typical results

  6. PRINCIPLE ROCK TYPES FOR RADIOACTIVE WASTE REPOSITORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibila Borojević Šostarić

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Underground geological storage of high- and intermediate/low radioactive waste is aimed to represent a barrier between the surface environment and potentially hazardous radioactive elements. Permeability, behavior against external stresses, chemical reacatibility and absorption are the key geological parameters for the geological storage of radioactive waste. Three principal rock types were discussed and applied to the Dinarides: (1 evaporites in general, (2 shale, and (3 crystalline basement rocks. (1 Within the Dinarides, evaporite formations are located within the central part of a Carbonate platform and are inappropriate for storage. Offshore evaporites are located within diapiric structures of the central and southern part of the Adriatic Sea and are covered by thick Mesozoic to Cenozoic clastic sediment. Under very specific circumstances they can be considered as potential site locations for further investigation for the storage of low/intermediate level radioactive wast e. (2 Thick flysch type formation of shale to phyllite rocks are exposed at the basement units of the Petrova and Trgovska gora regions whereas (3 crystalline magmatic to metamorphic basement is exposed at the Moslavačka Gora and Slavonian Mts. regions. For high-level radioactive waste, basement phyllites and granites may represent the only realistic potential option in the NW Dinarides.

  7. Big Rock Point severe accident management strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brogan, B.A.; Gabor, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    December 1994, the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) issued guidance relative to the formal industry position on Severe Accident Management (SAM) approved by the NEI Strategic Issues Advisory Committee on November 4, 1994. This paper summarizes how Big Rock Point (BRP) has and continues to address SAM strategies. The historical accounting portion of this presentation includes a description of how the following projects identified and defined the current Big Rock Point SAM strategies: the 1981 Level 3 Probabilistic Risk Assessment performance; the development of the Plant Specific Technical Guidelines from which the symptom oriented Emergency Operating Procedures (EOPs) were developed; the Control Room Design Review; and, the recent completion of the Individual Plant Evaluation (IPE). In addition to the historical presentation deliberation, this paper the present activities that continue to stress SAM strategies

  8. Fluid and rock interaction in permeable volcanic rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindley, J.I.

    1985-01-01

    Four types of interrelated changes -geochemical, mineralogic, isotopic, and physical - occur in Oligocene volcanic units of the Mogollon-Datil volcanic field, New Mexico. These changes resulted from the operation of a geothermal system that, through fluid-rock interaction, affected 5 rhyolite ash-flow tuffs and an intercalated basaltic andesite lava flow causing a potassium metasomatism type of alteration. (1) Previous studies have shown enrichment of rocks in K 2 O as much as 130% of their original values at the expense of Na 2 O and CaO with an accompanying increase in Rb and decreases in MgO and Sr. (2) X-ray diffraction results of this study show that phenocrystic plagioclase and groundmass feldspar have been replaced with pure potassium feldspar and quartz in altered rock. Phenocrystic potassium feldspar, biotite, and quartz are unaffected. Pyroxene in basaltic andesite is replaced by iron oxide. (3) delta 18 O increases for rhyolitic units from values of 8-10 permil, typical of unaltered rock, to 13-15 permil, typical of altered rock. Basaltic andesite, however, shows opposite behavior with a delta 18 of 9 permil in unaltered rock and 6 permit in altered. (4) Alteration results in a density decrease. SEM revealed that replacement of plagioclase by fine-grained quartz and potassium feldspar is not a volume for volume replacement. Secondary porosity is created in the volcanics by the chaotic arrangement of secondary crystals

  9. Recent advances in analysis and prediction of Rock Falls, Rock Slides, and Rock Avalanches using 3D point clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abellan, A.; Carrea, D.; Jaboyedoff, M.; Riquelme, A.; Tomas, R.; Royan, M. J.; Vilaplana, J. M.; Gauvin, N.

    2014-12-01

    The acquisition of dense terrain information using well-established 3D techniques (e.g. LiDAR, photogrammetry) and the use of new mobile platforms (e.g. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) together with the increasingly efficient post-processing workflows for image treatment (e.g. Structure From Motion) are opening up new possibilities for analysing, modeling and predicting rock slope failures. Examples of applications at different scales ranging from the monitoring of small changes at unprecedented level of detail (e.g. sub millimeter-scale deformation under lab-scale conditions) to the detection of slope deformation at regional scale. In this communication we will show the main accomplishments of the Swiss National Foundation project "Characterizing and analysing 3D temporal slope evolution" carried out at Risk Analysis group (Univ. of Lausanne) in close collaboration with the RISKNAT and INTERES groups (Univ. of Barcelona and Univ. of Alicante, respectively). We have recently developed a series of innovative approaches for rock slope analysis using 3D point clouds, some examples include: the development of semi-automatic methodologies for the identification and extraction of rock-slope features such as discontinuities, type of material, rockfalls occurrence and deformation. Moreover, we have been improving our knowledge in progressive rupture characterization thanks to several algorithms, some examples include the computing of 3D deformation, the use of filtering techniques on permanently based TLS, the use of rock slope failure analogies at different scales (laboratory simulations, monitoring at glacier's front, etc.), the modelling of the influence of external forces such as precipitation on the acceleration of the deformation rate, etc. We have also been interested on the analysis of rock slope deformation prior to the occurrence of fragmental rockfalls and the interaction of this deformation with the spatial location of future events. In spite of these recent advances

  10. Simulation of crack propagation in rock in plasma blasting technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikkurthi, V. R.; Tahiliani, K.; Chaturvedi, S.

    Plasma Blasting Technology (PBT) involves the production of a pulsed electrical discharge by inserting a blasting probe in a water-filled cavity drilled in a rock, which produces shocks or pressure waves in the water. These pulses then propagate into the rock, leading to fracture. In this paper, we present the results of two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations using the SHALE code to study crack propagation in rock. Three separate issues have been examined. Firstly, assuming that a constant pressure P is maintained in the cavity for a time τ , we have determined the P- τ curve that just cracks a given rock into at least two large-sized parts. This study shows that there exists an optimal pressure level for cracking a given rock-type and geometry. Secondly, we have varied the volume of water in which the initial energy E is deposited, which corresponds to different initial peak pressures Ppeak. We have determined the E- Ppeak curve that just breaks the rock into four large-sized parts. It is found that there must be an optimal Ppeak that lowers the energy consumption, but with acceptable probe damage. Thirdly, we have attempted to identify the dominant mechanism of rock fracture. We also highlight some numerical errors that must be kept in mind in such simulations.

  11. Rock mechanics and the economics of cut-and-fill mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almgren, G.

    1980-05-15

    The application of rock mechanics to mining has great economic potential. Factors such as loss of ore, rock-dilution, possibilities of machanization and rock support are all influenced by the degree of rock mechanics involvement. In particular loss of ore is limited by the correct dimensioning of pillars and remnants. Rock-dilution, depending upon caving, can in the same way be mastered by the right dimensions of stopes and pillars and of rock supporting. Possibilities of mechanization depend upon sizes of drifts and stopes, stope availabilities and access to the stopes, all depending upon a considered rock mechanic investigation. Also shut-downs in the stopes owing to caving can be affected in the same way. Consequences on the mining economy for cut-and-fil mining are illustrated concerning loss of ore, rock-dilution, mechanization levels and rock support. The biggest influence can be made on rock-dilution and mechanization. Under special circumstances loss of ore can be of the same magnitude, namely if the ore production per year is directly influenced by the loss of ore and can not be compensated by other mining activities. Rock support is of less economic importance compared with rock-dilution and mechanization, presupposed no less of ore-production.

  12. A rock characterisation facility consultative document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    This U.K. Nirex Ltd., consultative document describes a proposed underground rock characterisation facility, east of Sellafield, for conducting geophysical surveys as a basis for refining long-term safety analysis of an underground repository for intermediate-level and low-level radioactive wastes. Planning application will be submitted in 1993. The construction of shafts and galleries is described and the site's geologic, topographical, climatic and archaeological features discussed. The effects to the local environment and on local populations and other socio-economic factors are discussed. (UK)

  13. Beach rock from Goa Coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Setty, M.G.A.P.; Wagle, B.G.

    constituents of beach rock found along Goa coast is dealt with in detail. While discussing the various views on its origin, it is emphasized that the process of cementation is chiefly controlled by ground water evaporation, inorganic precipitation and optimum...

  14. The Chronology of Rock Art

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Such phases are tentatively ascribed to different archaeological cultures on the basis of the contextual availability, stylistic similarities and so on. Ethnographic analogies are also attempted in the dating of rock art .

  15. Chemical methods of rock analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jeffery, P. G; Hutchison, D

    1981-01-01

    A practical guide to the methods in general use for the complete analysis of silicate rock material and for the determination of all those elements present in major, minor or trace amounts in silicate...

  16. Heat production in granitic rocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artemieva, Irina; Thybo, Hans; Jakobsen, Kiki

    2017-01-01

    Granitic rocks play special role in the dynamics and evolution of the Earth and its thermal regime. First, their compositional variability, reflected in the distribution of concentrations of radiogenic elements, provides constraints on global differentiation processes and large scale planetary...... evolution, where emplacement of granites is considered a particularly important process for the formation of continental crust. Second, heat production by radioactive decay is among the main heat sources in the Earth. Therefore knowledge of heat production in granitic rocks is pivotal for thermal modelling...... of the continental lithosphere, given that most radiogenic elements are concentrated in granitic rocks of the upper continental crust whereas heat production in rocks of the lower crust and lithospheric mantle is negligible. We present and analyze a new global database GRANITE2017 (with about 500 entries...

  17. Defending dreamer’s rock

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, Günter U.

    2007-01-01

    Defending dreamer’s rock : Geschichte, Geschichtsbewusstsein und Geschichtskultur im Native drama der USA und Kanadas. - Trier : WVT Wiss. Verl. Trier, 2007. - 445 S. - (CDE - Studies ; 14). - Zugl.: Augsburg, Univ., Diss., 2006

  18. Predicting rock bursts in mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spall, H.

    1979-01-01

    In terms of lives lost, rock bursts in underground mines can be as hazardous as earthquakes on the surface. So it is not surprising that fo the last 40 years the U.S Bureau of Mines has been using seismic methods for detecting areas in underground mines where there is a high differential stress which could lead to structural instability of the rock mass being excavated.

  19. Rock mechanics stability at Olkiluoto, Haestholmen, Kivetty and Romuvaara

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, E.; Rautakorpi, J.

    2000-02-01

    Posiva Oy is studying the suitability of the Finnish bedrock for the geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel at four sites, Olkiluoto in Eurajoki, Haestholmen in Loviisa, Kivetty in Aeaenekoski and Romuvaara in Kuhmo. To enable the rock properties to be specified in great detail, the site-selection research programme has included rock mechanics investigations such as the measurement of in-situ rock stress and laboratory tests on rock samples. This report presents the results of the rock mechanics analyses performed on the main rock types at the Olkiluoto, Romuvaara, Kivetty and Haestholmen sites. The objective of this study was to assess the near-field stability of the final disposal tunnels and deposition holes at each of the investigation sites. Two empirical methods and a numerical method based on three-dimensional element code (3DEC) were used the analysis tools. A statistical approach was used to select the necessary input data and to specify the cases being analysed. The stability of the KBS-3 and MLH (Medium Long Hole) repository concepts during the pre-closure and post-closure phases was analysed. The repository depths investigated lay between 300 m and 700 m. The empirical methods are based on the study of the ratios between rock strength and the in-situ stress which could result in possible fracturing of the rock mass. Interpretation of the numerical analyses is based on the assumption of an elastic distribution of stress around the disposal tunnel and the deposition hole and the brittle rock strength criterion. The results obtained in this study indicate that in general, the rock mechanics conditions during the pre-closure and post-closure phases at each of the investigated sites remain good and stable between the studied depth levels, especially when the deposition rooms are oriented in a direction parallel to the major in-situ stress. If the disposal tunnels are orientated in a direction perpendicular to the major in-situ stress, the resultant

  20. Experimental Investigation of the Influence of Confining Stress on Hard Rock Fragmentation Using a Conical Pick

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xibing; Wang, Shaofeng; Wang, Shanyong

    2018-01-01

    High geostress is a prominent condition in deep excavations and affects the cuttability of deep hard rock. This study aims to determine the influence of confining stress on hard rock fragmentation as applied by a conical pick. Using a true triaxial test apparatus, static and coupled static and dynamic loadings from pick forces were applied to end faces of cubic rock specimens to break them under biaxial, uniaxial and stress-free confining stress conditions. The cuttability indices (peak pick force, insertion depth and disturbance duration), failure patterns and fragment sizes were measured and compared to estimate the effects of confining stress. The results show that the rock cuttabilities decreased in order from rock breakages under stress-free conditions to uniaxial confining stress and then to biaxial confining stress. Under biaxial confining stress, only flake-shaped fragments were stripped from the rock surfaces under the requirements of large pick forces or disturbance durations. As the level of uniaxial confining stress increased, the peak pick force and the insertion depth initially increased and then decreased, and the failure patterns varied from splitting to partial splitting and then to rock bursts with decreasing average fragment sizes. Rock bursts will occur under elastic compression via ultra-high uniaxial confining stresses. There are two critical uniaxial confining stress levels, namely stress values at which peak pick forces begin to decrease and improve rock cuttability, and those at which rock bursts initially occur and cutting safety decreases. In particular, hard rock is easiest to split safely and efficiently under stress-free conditions. Moreover, coupled static preloading and dynamic disturbance can increase the efficiency of rock fragmentation with increasing preloading levels and disturbance amplitudes. The concluding remarks confirm hard rock cuttability using conical pick, which can improve the applicability of mechanical excavation in

  1. Modeling of nuclear waste disposal by rock melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuze, F.E.

    1982-04-01

    Today, the favored option for disposal of high-level nuclear wastes is their burial in mined caverns. As an alternative, the concept of deep disposal by rock melting (DRM) also has received some attention. DRM entails the injection of waste, in a cavity or borehole, 2 to 3 kilometers down in the earth crust. Granitic rocks are the prime candidate medium. The high thermal loading initially will melt the rock surrounding the waste. Following resolidification, a rock/waste matrix is formed, which should provide isolation for many years. The complex thermal, mechanical, and hydraulic aspects of DRM can be studied best by means of numerical models. The models must accommodate the coupling of the physical processes involved, and the temperature dependency of the granite properties, some of which are subject to abrupt discontinuities, during α-β phase transition and melting. This paper outlines a strategy for such complex modeling

  2. Shear-flow coupling in non-planar rock joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makurat, A.; Barton, N.

    1985-01-01

    Crystalline rock masses are regarded as a possible host rock for permanent nuclear waste disposal. During the excavation of the required shafts and tunnels, the initial state of stress will be changed and cause a deformation of the rock mass and discontinuities. During the lifetime of the nuclear repository joint apertures may change due to thermally induced stress variations during the heating and cooling phase. As the conductivity of a joint is very sensitive to its aperture, fluid flow from and towards a repository, as well as the potential transport times of radionuclides are highly dependent on the deformability of the joints. Theoretical calculations of coupled flow in rock joints (Barton et al. 1984) predict an increase of conductivity of several orders of magnitude for the first few millimeters for shear displacement. The shear-dilation-conductivity coupling for two block sizes at two effective stress levels is shown

  3. Drill-back studies examine fractured, heated rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollenberg, H.A.; Flexser, S.; Myer, L.R.

    1990-01-01

    To investigate the effects of heating on the mineralogical, geochemical, and mechanical properties of rock by high-level radioactive waste, cores are being examined from holes penetrating locations where electric heaters simulated the presence of a waste canister, and from holes penetration natural hydrothermal systems. Results to date indicate the localized mobility and deposition of uranium in an open fracture in heated granitic rock, the mobility of U in a breccia zone in an active hydrothermal system in tuff, and the presence of U in relatively high concentration in fracture-lining material in tuff. Mechanical -- property studies indicate that differences in compressional- and shear-wave parameters between heated and less heated rock can be attributed to differences in the density of microcracks. Emphasis has shifted from initial studies of granitic rock at Stripa, Sweden to current investigations of welded tuff at the Nevada Test Site. 7 refs., 8 figs

  4. CAPILLARY BARRIERS IN UNSATURATED FRACTURED ROCKS OF YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Y.S.; Zhang, W.; Pan, L.; Hinds, J.; Bodvarsson, G.

    2000-01-01

    This work presents modeling studies investigating the effects of capillary barriers on fluid-flow and tracer-transport processes in the unsaturated zone of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, a potential site for storing high-level radioactive waste. These studies are designed to identify factors controlling the formation of capillary barriers and to estimate their effects on the extent of possible large-scale lateral flow in unsaturated fracture rocks. The modeling approach is based on a continuum formulation of coupled multiphase fluid and tracer transport through fractured porous rock. Flow processes in fractured porous rock are described using a dual-continuum concept. In addition, approximate analytical solutions are developed and used for assessing capillary-barrier effects in fractured rocks. This study indicates that under the current hydrogeologic conceptualization of Yucca Mountain, strong capillary-barrier effects exist for significantly diverting moisture flow

  5. No Reprieve for Tasmanian Rock Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter C. Sims

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The Australian State of Tasmania, at latitude 42 degrees south, became an island about 8,000 years ago when the sea rose to its present level, following the melting of polar and glacial ice that covered much of the land mass. After that time, the Tasmanian Aboriginal rock art developed independently of mainland Australia, with its form being basically linear with some naturalistic figures and a predominance of cupules. The petroglyphs with one lithophone site occur on various rock substrates varying in hardness from granite to sandstone. Many sites exist along the western coastline that borders the Southern Ocean where the landscape in some places has changed little since the arrival of Europeans in 1803. The significance of this Tasmanian Aboriginal cultural heritage along what is now known as the Tarkine Coast, named after an Aboriginal band that once inhabited this area, was recognised by the Australian Government in February 2013 when a 21,000 ha strip, 2 km wide, was inscribed on its National Heritage Register, being one of 98 special places listed in the country. However, politics and racism hamper its management. This paper is based on the results of 40 years of field recording of the Tasmanian Aboriginal rock art sites, many of which remain unpublished.

  6. Evaluation of Rock Bolt Support for Polish Hard Rock Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypkowski, Krzysztof

    2018-03-01

    The article presents different types of rock bolt support used in Polish ore mining. Individual point resin and expansion rock bolt support were characterized. The roof classes for zinc and lead and copper ore mines were presented. Furthermore, in the article laboratory tests of point resin rock bolt support in a geometric scale of 1:1 with minimal fixing length of 0.6 m were made. Static testing of point resin rock bolt support were carried out on a laboratory test facility of Department of Underground Mining which simulate mine conditions for Polish ore and hard coal mining. Laboratory tests of point resin bolts were carried out, especially for the ZGH Bolesław, zinc and lead "Olkusz - Pomorzany" mine. The primary aim of the research was to check whether at the anchoring point length of 0.6 m by means of one and a half resin cartridge, the type bolt "Olkusz - 20A" is able to overcome the load.The second purpose of the study was to obtain load - displacement characteristic with determination of the elastic and plastic range of the bolt. For the best simulation of mine conditions the station steel cylinders with an external diameter of 0.1 m and a length of 0.6 m with a core of rock from the roof of the underground excavations were used.

  7. 30 CFR 57.3461 - Rock bursts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rock bursts. 57.3461 Section 57.3461 Mineral...-Underground Only § 57.3461 Rock bursts. (a) Operators of mines which have experienced a rock burst shall— (1) Within twenty four hours report to the nearest MSHA office each rock burst which: (i) Causes persons to...

  8. Heat production rate from radioactive elements in igneous and metamorphic rocks in eastern desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbady, A G.E.; Arabi, A.M.; Abbay, A.

    2005-01-01

    Radioactive heat - production data of igneous and metamorphic rocks cropping out from the eastern desert are presented. Samples were analysed using low level gamma-ray spectrometer (HPGe) in the laboratory. A total of 205 rock samples were investigated, covering all major rock types of the area. The heat-production rate of igneous rocks ranges from 0.11 (basalt) to 9.53 Μ Wm-3 (granite). In metamorphic rocks it varies from 0.28 (serpentinite) to 0.91 (metagabroo) Μ W.m-3. The contribution due to U is about (51%), whereas that of Th (31%) and (18%) by K. The corresponding values in igneous rocks are 76%: 19%: 5%, respectively. The calculated values showed good agreement with global values expect in some areas contained granite rocks

  9. Hearing in nonprofessional pop/rock musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmuziger, Nicolas; Patscheke, Jochen; Probst, Rudolf

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hearing and subjective auditory symptoms in a group of nonprofessional pop/rock musicians who had experienced repeated exposures to intense sound levels during at least 5 yr of musical activity. An evaluation of both ears in 42 nonprofessional pop/rock musicians included pure-tone audiometry in the conventional and extended high-frequency range, the measurement of uncomfortable loudness levels, and an assessment of tinnitus and hypersensitivity to sound. Exclusion criteria were (a) the occurrence of acoustic trauma, (b) excessive noise exposure during occupational activities, (c) a history of recurrent otitis media, (d) previous ear surgery, (e) a fracture of the cranium, (f) ingestion of potentially ototoxic drugs, and (g) reported hearing difficulties within the immediate family. These audiometric results were then compared with a control group of 20 otologically normal young adults with no history of long-term noise exposure. After adjusting for age and gender, relative to ISO 7029, the mean hearing threshold in the frequency range of 3 to 8 kHz was 6 dB in the musicians and 1.5 dB in the control group. This difference was statistically significant (Mann-Whitney rank sum test, p rock musicians who had experienced repeated exposure to intense sound levels over at least 5 yr but with minimal impact on their lives. Moreover, hearing loss was minimal in the subjects who always used ear protection, being only 0.9 dB higher than the control group. In contrast, hearing loss was significantly more pronounced, at 6.7 dB higher than the control group, in those musicians who never used ear protection. Continued education about the risk to hearing and the benefits of the persistent use of ear protection is warranted for musicians who are exposed frequently to intense sound levels.

  10. Fine-grained sheet silicate rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, C.E.

    1977-09-01

    Considerable interest has been shown in the possibility of using shales as repositories for radioactive waste and a variety of other waste products, and it appears that over the next few years much money and effort will be expended to investigate and test a wide variety of shales. If shales are to be studied in detail by a large number of investigators, it is important that all concerned have the same concept of what constitutes a shale. The term shale and other terms for fine-grained rocks have been used for many years and have been continually redefined. Most definitions predate the development of modern instrumentation and are based on field observations and intuition; however, the main problem is the diversity of definitions. An attempt is made here to develop a simple, rational classification of fine-grained sediments, and it is hoped that this classification will eliminate some of the present ambiguity. In order that the classification be pertinent, mineral composition and textural data were compiled and evaluated. The data on unconsolidated and consolidated sediments were contrasted and the effects of burial diagenesis assessed. It was found necessary to introduce a new term, physil, to describe all sheet silicate minerals. In contrast to the term clay mineral, the term physil has no size connotation. A simple classification is proposed that is based on the percentage of physils and grain size. In Part II the fine-grained physil rocks are classified on the basis of physil type, non-physil minerals, and texture. Formations are listed which have the mineral and textural characteristics of the most important rock types volumetrically. Selected rock types, and the formations in which they can be found, are recommended for laboratory study to determine their suitability for the storage of high-level radioactive waste

  11. Current status of crushed rock and whole rock column studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vine, E.N.; Daniels, W.R.; Rundberg, R.S.; Thompson, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    Measurements on a large number of crushed rock columns of tuff, granite, and argillite are discussed. The isotopes 85 Sr, 137 Cs, 133 Ba, 141 Ce, 152 Eu, /sup 95m/Tc, and 233 U were used. Flow rates were varied from approx. 30 to approx. 30000 m/y. Other parameters studied include isotope concentration and atmosphere. The sorption ratios calculated were compared with batch sorption ratios on the same samples. Methods of studying the movement of radionuclides through whole rock cores are described. The problems associated with sealing the cores to prevent leaking along the exterior surface and one possible solution are discussed. The strontium sorption ratio obtained by elution of one solid tuff core is compared with the batch and crushed rock column sorption ratios

  12. Rock Pore Structure as Main Reason of Rock Deterioration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondrášik Martin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Crashed or dimensional rocks have been used as natural construction material, decoration stone or as material for artistic sculptures. Especially old historical towns not only in Slovakia have had experiences with use of stones for construction purposes for centuries. The whole buildings were made from dimensional stone, like sandstone, limestone or rhyolite. Pavements were made especially from basalt, andesite, rhyolite or granite. Also the most common modern construction material - concrete includes large amounts of crashed rock, especially limestone, dolostone and andesite.

  13. Fracture characteristics in Japanese rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ijiri, Yuji; Sawada, Atsushi; Akahori, Kuniaki

    1999-11-01

    It is crucial for the performance assessment of geosphere to evaluate the characteristics of fractures that can be dominant radionuclide migration pathways from a repository to biosphere. This report summarizes the characteristics of fractures obtained from broad literature surveys and the fields surveys at the Kamaishi mine in northern Japan and at outcrops and galleries throughout the country. The characteristics of fractures described in this report are fracture orientation, fracture shape, fracture frequency, fracture distribution in space, transmissivity of fracture, fracture aperture, fracture fillings, alteration halo along fracture, flow-wetted surface area in fracture, and the correlation among these characteristics. Since granitic rock is considered the archetype fractured media, a large amount of fracture data is available in literature. In addition, granitic rock has been treated as a potential host rock in many overseas programs, and has JNC performed a number of field observations and experiments in granodiorite at the Kamaishi mine. Therefore, the characteristics of fractures in granitic rock are qualitatively and quantitatively clarified to some extent in this report, while the characteristics of fractures in another rock types are not clarified. (author)

  14. Hot dry rock heat mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchane, D.V.

    1992-01-01

    Geothermal energy utilizing fluids from natural sources is currently exploited on a commercial scale at sites around the world. A much greater geothermal resource exists, however, in the form of hot rock at depth which is essentially dry. This hot dry rock (HDR) resource is found almost everywhere, but the depth at which usefully high temperatures are reached varies from place to place. The technology to mine the thermal energy from HDR has been under development for a number of years. Using techniques adapted from the petroleum industry, water is pumped at high pressure down an injection well to a region of usefully hot rock. The pressure forces open natural joints to form a reservoir consisting of a small amount of water dispensed in a large volume of hot rock. This reservoir is tapped by second well located at some distance from the first, and the heated water is brought to the surface where its thermal energy is extracted. The same water is then recirculated to mine more heat. Economic studies have indicated that it may be possible to produce electricity at competitive prices today in regions where hot rock is found relatively close to the surface

  15. On Sand or Rock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Norma E.

    Future teachers of English at the college level should initially be allowed to discuss and consider some of the important facts of this decade: the dwindling resources of our planet, overpopulation, hunger and disease, and the increase in global communication. They should be informed about the small number of job openings at present in the field…

  16. Used fuel disposition in crystalline rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hadgu, Teklu [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kalinina, Elena Arkadievna [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jerden, James L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Copple, Jacqueline M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Cruse, T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Ebert, W. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Buck, E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Eittman, R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tinnacher, R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Tournassat, Christophe. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Davis, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Viswanathan, H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chu, S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dittrich, T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hyman, F. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Karra, S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Makedonska, N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Reimus, P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Zavarin, Mavrik [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Joseph, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy, Office of Fuel Cycle Technology established the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) in fiscal year 2010 (FY10) to conduct the research and development (R&D) activities related to storage, transportation and disposal of used nuclear fuel and high level nuclear waste. The objective of the Crystalline Disposal R&D Work Package is to advance our understanding of long-term disposal of used fuel in crystalline rocks and to develop necessary experimental and computational capabilities to evaluate various disposal concepts in such media.

  17. Ship Grounding on Rock - I. Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    1997-01-01

    and transverse frames, floors and bulkheads. The expressions are derived by use of an energy method or a type of 'upper bound' method which rigorously takes into account the effects of large plastic deformations, friction and fracture. A high level of generality for the methodology has been obtained...... by postulating a global mode of deformation for the structure around the rock with one free parameter, the plate split angle, related to the shape of thedeformation mode. It is assumed that intersections between structural components stay intact during the entire deformation process so the resistance...

  18. Thermal expansion of granite rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephansson, O.

    1978-04-01

    The thermal expansion of rocks is strongly controlled by the thermal expansion of the minerals. The theoretical thermal expansion of the Stripa Granite is gound to be 21 . 10 -6 [deg C] -1 at 25 deg C and 38 . 10 -6 [deg C] -1 at 400 deg C. The difference in expansion for the rock forming minerals causes micro cracking at heating. The expansion due to micro cracks is found to be of the same order as the mineral expansion. Most of the micro cracks will close at pressures of the order of 10 - 20 MPa. The thermal expansion of a rock mass including the effect of joints is determined in the pilot heater test in the Stripa Mine

  19. Uranium endowments in phosphate rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulrich, Andrea E.; Schnug, Ewald; Prasser, Horst-Michael; Frossard, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    This study seeks to identify and specify the components that make up the prospects of U recovery from phosphate rock. A systems approach is taken. The assessment includes i) reviewing past recovery experience and lessons learned; ii) identifying factors that determine recovery; and iii) establishing a contemporary evaluation of U endowments in phosphate rock reserves, as well as the available and recoverable amounts from phosphate rock and phosphoric acid production. We find that in the past, recovery did not fulfill its potential and that the breakup of the Soviet Union worsened then-favorable recovery market conditions in the 1990s. We find that an estimated 5.7 million tU may be recoverable from phosphate rock reserves. In 2010, the recoverable tU from phosphate rock and phosphoric acid production may have been 15,000 tU and 11,000 tU, respectively. This could have filled the world U supply-demand gap for nuclear energy production. The results suggest that the U.S., Morocco, Tunisia, and Russia would be particularly well-suited to recover U, taking infrastructural considerations into account. We demonstrate future research needs, as well as sustainability orientations. We conclude that in order to promote investment and production, it seems necessary to establish long-term contracts at guaranteed prices, ensuring profitability for phosphoric acid producers. - Highlights: • We identify components that underlie the recovery of uranium from phosphate rock. • We estimate that 11,000 tU may have been recoverable from phosphoric acid in 2010. • Recovery is a resource conservation and environmental pollution control strategy. • To ensure investment in recovery technology, profitability needs to be secured

  20. Uranium endowments in phosphate rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulrich, Andrea E., E-mail: andrea.ulrich@env.ethz.ch [Institute for Environmental Decisions (IED), Natural and Social Science Interface, ETH Zurich Universitässtrasse 22, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Institute for Agricultural Sciences, Plant Nutrition, ETH Zurich, Eschikon 33, 8315 Lindau (Switzerland); Schnug, Ewald, E-mail: e.schnug@tu-braunschweig.de [Department of Life Sciences, Technical University of Braunschweig, Pockelsstraße 14, D-38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Prasser, Horst-Michael, E-mail: prasser@lke.mavt.ethz.ch [Institute of Energy Technology, Laboratory of Nuclear Energy Systems, ETH Zurich, Sonneggstrasse 3, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Frossard, Emmanuel, E-mail: emmanuel.frossard@usys.ethz.ch [Institute for Agricultural Sciences, Plant Nutrition, ETH Zurich, Eschikon 33, 8315 Lindau (Switzerland)

    2014-04-01

    This study seeks to identify and specify the components that make up the prospects of U recovery from phosphate rock. A systems approach is taken. The assessment includes i) reviewing past recovery experience and lessons learned; ii) identifying factors that determine recovery; and iii) establishing a contemporary evaluation of U endowments in phosphate rock reserves, as well as the available and recoverable amounts from phosphate rock and phosphoric acid production. We find that in the past, recovery did not fulfill its potential and that the breakup of the Soviet Union worsened then-favorable recovery market conditions in the 1990s. We find that an estimated 5.7 million tU may be recoverable from phosphate rock reserves. In 2010, the recoverable tU from phosphate rock and phosphoric acid production may have been 15,000 tU and 11,000 tU, respectively. This could have filled the world U supply-demand gap for nuclear energy production. The results suggest that the U.S., Morocco, Tunisia, and Russia would be particularly well-suited to recover U, taking infrastructural considerations into account. We demonstrate future research needs, as well as sustainability orientations. We conclude that in order to promote investment and production, it seems necessary to establish long-term contracts at guaranteed prices, ensuring profitability for phosphoric acid producers. - Highlights: • We identify components that underlie the recovery of uranium from phosphate rock. • We estimate that 11,000 tU may have been recoverable from phosphoric acid in 2010. • Recovery is a resource conservation and environmental pollution control strategy. • To ensure investment in recovery technology, profitability needs to be secured.

  1. Design of Rock Slope Reinforcement: An Himalayan Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Gaurav; Latha, Gali Madhavi

    2016-06-01

    The stability analysis of the two abutment slopes of a railway bridge proposed at about 359 m above the ground level, crossing a river and connecting two hill faces in the Himalayas, India, is presented. The bridge is located in a zone of high seismic activity. The rock slopes are composed of a heavily jointed rock mass and the spacing, dip and dip direction of joint sets are varying at different locations. Geological mapping was carried out to characterize all discontinuities present along the slopes. Laboratory and field investigations were conducted to assess the geotechnical properties of the intact rock, rock mass and joint infill. Stability analyses of these rock slopes were carried out using numerical programmes. Loads from the foundations resting on the slopes and seismic accelerations estimated from site-specific ground response analysis were considered. The proposed slope profile with several berms between successive foundations was simulated in the numerical model. An equivalent continuum approach with Hoek and Brown failure criterion was initially used in a finite element model to assess the global stability of the slope abutments. In the second stage, finite element analysis of rock slopes with all joint sets with their orientations, spacing and properties explicitly incorporated into the numerical model was taken up using continuum with joints approach. It was observed that the continuum with joints approach was able to capture the local failures in some of the slope sections, which were verified using wedge failure analysis and stereographic projections. Based on the slope deformations and failure patterns observed from the numerical analyses, rock anchors were designed to achieve the target factors of safety against failure while keeping the deformations within the permissible limits. Detailed design of rock anchors and comparison of the stability of slopes with and without reinforcement are presented.

  2. Evaluation of Rock Joint Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audy, Ondřej; Ficker, Tomáš

    2017-10-01

    A computer method for evaluation of rock joint coefficients is described and several applications are presented. The method is based on two absolute numerical indicators that are formed by means of the Fourier replicas of rock joint profiles. The first indicator quantifies the vertical depth of profiles and the second indicator classifies wavy character of profiles. The absolute indicators have replaced the formerly used relative indicators that showed some artificial behavior in some cases. This contribution is focused on practical computations testing the functionality of the newly introduced indicators.

  3. Ultrasonically assisted drilling of rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailova, N. V.; Onawumi, P. Y.; Roy, A.; Silberschmidt, V. V.

    2018-05-01

    Conventional drilling of rocks can generate significant damage in the drilled material; a material layer is often split off a back surface of a sample during drilling, negatively affecting its strength. To improve finish quality, ultrasonically assisted drilling (UAD) was employed in two rocks - sandstone and marble. Damage areas in both materials were reduced in UAD when compared to conventional drilling. Reductions in a thrust force and a torque reduction were observed only for UAD in marble; ultrasonic assistance in sandstone drilling did not result in improvements in this regard.

  4. Rock mechanics studies for SMES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haimson, B.C.

    1981-01-01

    Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) systems capable of storing thousands of MWh develop tremendous magnetically induced forces when charged. To prevent rutpure of the magnets these forces must be confined. Bedrock offers a practical and relatively inexpensive magnet containment structure. This paper examines the need for rock mechanics research in connection with the construction and use of SMES rock caverns; the unique problems related to housing superconducting magnets in bedrock; site investigations of granite, quartzite and dolomite deposits in Wisconsin; and cavern design requirements to assure cavern stability and limited deformation under the expected mechanical leads. Recommendations are made for siting SMES caverns

  5. Source rock potential of middle cretaceous rocks in Southwestern Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyman, T.S.; Palacas, J.G.; Tysdal, R.G.; Perry, W.J.; Pawlewicz, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    The middle Cretaceous in southwestern Montana is composed of a marine and nonmarine succession of predominantly clastic rocks that were deposited along the western margin of the Western Interior Seaway. In places, middle Cretaceous rocks contain appreciable total organic carbon (TOC), such as 5.59% for the Mowry Shale and 8.11% for the Frontier Formation in the Madison Range. Most samples, however, exhibit less than 1.0% TOC. The genetic or hydrocarbon potential (S1+S2) of all the samples analyzed, except one, yield less than 1 mg HC/g rock, strongly indicating poor potential for generating commercial amounts of hydrocarbons. Out of 51 samples analyzed, only one (a Thermopolis Shale sample from the Snowcrest Range) showed a moderate petroleum potential of 3.1 mg HC/g rock. Most of the middle Cretaceous samples are thermally immature to marginally mature, with vitrinite reflectance ranging from about 0.4 to 0.6% Ro. Maturity is high in the Pioneer Mountains, where vitrinite reflectance averages 3.4% Ro, and at Big Sky Montana, where vitrinite reflectance averages 2.5% Ro. At both localities, high Ro values are due to local heat sources, such as the Pioneer batholith in the Pioneer Mountains.

  6. Soft Rock Yields Clues to Mars' Past

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 This image taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows the rock outcrop dubbed 'Clovis.' The rock was discovered to be softer than other rocks studied so far at Gusev Crater after the rover easily ground a hole into it with its rock abrasion tool. Spirit's solar panels can be seen in the foreground. This image was taken by the rover's navigation camera on sol 205 (July 31, 2004). Elemental Trio Found in 'Clovis' Figure 1 above shows that the interior of the rock dubbed 'Clovis' contains higher concentrations of sulfur, bromine and chlorine than basaltic, or volcanic, rocks studied so far at Gusev Crater. The data were taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer after the rover dug into Clovis with its rock abrasion tool. The findings might indicate that this rock was chemically altered, and that fluids once flowed through the rock depositing these elements.

  7. Review on the prevailing methods for the prediction of potential rock burst / rock spalling in tunnels

    OpenAIRE

    Panthi, Krishna Kanta

    2017-01-01

    Rock burst / rock spalling is among the prevailing stability challenges, which can be met while tunneling through hard rock mass. Especially, this is very relevant for the mountainous country like Norway where hard rock is dominating and many road, railway and hydropower tunnels have to be aligned deep into the mountain with steep valley slope topography. Tunnels passing beneath deep rock cover (overburden), in general, are subjected to high in-situ stresses. If the rock mass is relatively un...

  8. Iodine and selenium migration through argillaceous rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frasca, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Deep argillaceous formations are considered as potential host rock for high-level radioactive waste repository. Based on safety assessment calculations, active selenium ( 79 Se) and iodine ( 129 I) from high level radioactive waste might be ones of the major dose contributors due to their longevity and their anionic character. However, because of their high sensitivity to redox condition, a special attention to the oxidation state of these elements is required. A comparative study on the diffusion properties of selenium and iodine through argillaceous rocks was realized with the aim to determine the effects of both the redox conditions and the mineralogy on the migration of these two elements. For these purposes, we have studied two argillaceous rocks: Toarcian argillite from Tournemire (France) and Opalinus clay (OPA) from the Mont-Terri (Switzerland). The study of the iodide migration allowed to confirm the control on the iodide retention of both oxidized pyrite and natural organic matter. A kinetic control of the iodide sorption is also suspected. We focus the selenium study on the more oxidized species, Se(IV) and Se(VI). The Se(IV) migration is strongly dependant from oxido-reduction processes. Indeed, the Se(IV) diffusion experiments through Tournemire argillite and OPA indicated a significant reduction associated to Fe(II). The Se(VI) study evidenced a behavior dependant from the initial concentration: at the highest concentration, no significant retention was observed while the retention is significant at the lowest concentration. Furthermore, spectroscopic analyses tend to show a low Se(VI) reduction at the Fe contact. However, biotic origin cannot be excluded. (author)

  9. Petrophysics at the rock matrix scale: hydraulic properties and petrographic interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoto, M.

    2003-01-01

    The main objective of this publication is to review, summarize and make comprehensive the hydraulic properties of rocks, at the rock matrix or in tact rock scale. Also to describe how to petrographically interpret those properties. For this purpose, the procedures for the characterization and visualisation of the rock-forming components and in special the water path-ways at that scale are explained. Further more, to establish a methodological approach for an appropriate petrographic interpretation of all the mentioned properties is intended. This Technical Report is applied to the geological solution for the final disposal of high level radioactive wastes. In any case, most of the aspects covered here are of scientific and technical interest for any researcher interested in the behaviour of water in rocks and vice versa, also in the potential fluid- rock interactions. The document is divided into six Chapters, mainly theoretical and methodological, and six Appen - dixes, more focussed to practical tests and procedures for rock characterization. Two significant rock types in high level radioactive waste, HLW, granites and clays, have been used for illustrating most of the examples here included. Under a wide geological perspective, it must be stated that in any geological scenario two different systems or scales coexist; the rock massif (with fractures of about m to km) and the rock matrix (with internal discontinuities such as fissures and cracks to the order of Fm to dm). Their different behaviour is considered in Chapter 1 as well as the specific role played by the rock matrix in the long- and short-term period. General considerations about physical properties of rocks and comparative advantages and disadvantages of the main candidate rocks for radioactive repositories are also included. (Author)

  10. Rock Art Paintings (Rock Inscriptions) At Gebel Abraq, South Eastern Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaghloul, E.A.; Yehia, M.A.; Elewa, H.H.

    2003-01-01

    This article presents rock art painting in an area located at the scarp face of Wadi Abraq (Latitude 230 28' N and Longitude 340 45' E). The site is a sandstone protruding ledge rising about 30m. above the ground level. The Gebel Abraq paintings depict a tropical fauna including Elephants, Giraffes, Cows and Ostrich denoting that the area was previously subjected to intensive rainfall during the last pluvial periods. The result was a savana type of land. During recent times, the climate became dry and the communities were forced to move to other areas wher natural springs are still flowing such as Ain Abraq and Bir Abu-Safa. The present founding of the prehistoric paintings (Graffiti) has revealed a mass of evidence that many of the concepts regarding Sahara rock art should be studied

  11. Simulation of rock deformation behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Я. И. Рудаев

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A task of simulating the deformation behavior of geomaterials under compression with account of over-extreme branch has been addressed. The physical nature of rock properties variability as initially inhomogeneous material is explained by superposition of deformation and structural transformations of evolutionary type within open nonequilibrium systems. Due to this the description of deformation and failure of rock is related to hierarchy of instabilities within the system being far from thermodynamic equilibrium. It is generally recognized, that the energy function of the current stress-strain state is a superposition of potential component and disturbance, which includes the imperfection parameter accounting for defects not only existing in the initial state, but also appearing under load. The equation of state has been obtained by minimizing the energy function by the order parameter. The imperfection parameter is expressed through the strength deterioration, which is viewed as the internal parameter of state. The evolution of strength deterioration has been studied with the help of Fokker – Planck equation, which steady form corresponds to rock statical stressing. Here the diffusion coefficient is assumed to be constant, while the function reflecting internal sliding and loosening of the geomaterials is assumed as an antigradient of elementary integration catastrophe. Thus the equation of state is supplemented with a correlation establishing relationship between parameters of imperfection and strength deterioration. While deformation process is identified with the change of dissipative media, coupled with irreversible structural fluctuations. Theoretical studies are proven with experimental data obtained by subjecting certain rock specimens to compression.

  12. Los abuelos de nuestro rock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobo Celnik

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Los Yetis. Una bomba atómica a go go. La historia de los abuelos de nuestro rock. Diego Londoño; Pulso & Letra Editores, Instituto para el Desarrollo de Antioquia, Instituto de Cultura y Patrimonio de Antioquia, 2014, 98 págs., fotografías.

  13. Gas migration in argillaceous rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, E. E.; Olivella, S.

    2007-01-01

    The intrinsic gas permeability of fractured argillaceous rocks depends on the current structure of micro-cracks and fissures of the rock. They are a consequence of the initial state and the subsequent deformations induced by stress and gas pressure changes. Stresses are also coupled with fluid pressures and, therefore, gas flow and mechanical behaviour are intensely coupled. Laboratory experiments, aimed at determining intrinsic permeability, show the relevant effect of volumetric deformations induced by isotropic, as well as deviatoric stress changes. The relevance, in practice, of the flow-mechanical coupling is illustrated by means of some results obtained during the performance of the drift scale test (DST) in fractured tuff in the Yucca Mountain facility. The technique of embedding discontinuities in continuum thermo-hydro-mechanical elements is capable of reproducing observed features of gas flow migration in clayey rocks. An example is described. It is believed that the developed approach provides a powerful computational procedure to handle complex gas phenomena in clayey rocks. (author)

  14. Radioactivities (dose rates) of rocks in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Hideharu; Minato, Susumu

    1995-01-01

    The radioactive distribution (radiation doses) of major rocks in Japan was monitored to clarify the factors influencing terrestrial gamma-ray absorbed dose rates. The rock samples were reduced to powder and analyzed by well-type NaI(Tl) scintillation detector and pulse height analyzer. Terrestrial gamma-ray dose rates were estimated in terms of gamma radiation dose rate 1 m above the ground. The radioactivity concentration was highest in acidic rock which contains much SiO 2 among igneous rock, followed by neutral rock, basic rock, and ultrabasic rock. The radioactive concentration was 30-40% lower in acidic and clastic rocks than those of the world average concentration. Higher radioactive concentration was observed in soils than the parent rocks of sedimentary rock and metamorphic rock. The gamma radiation dose rate was in proportion to the radioactive concentration of the rocks. To clarify the radioactive effect in the change course of rocks into soils, comparative measurement of outcrop and soil radioactive concentrations is important. (S.Y.)

  15. Aespoe hard rock laboratory. Annual report 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-06-01

    repository system, which are of importance for long-term safety. The Prototype Repository experiment is focused on testing and demonstrating repository system function in full scale, and consists of six deposition holes with canisters and electric heaters surrounded by highly compacted bentonite. The work during 2000 has focused on geoscientific characterisation and specially hydraulic properties and conditions of the rock. Preparatory work with design, purchase and manufacturing as well as rock work (slots for the two plugs) have been going on with the aim of preparing for start of installation during the second quarter of 2001. Equipment for installation of bentonite blocks and canisters were tested before start of installation in the Canister Retrieval Test. This test was completed in October and the heaters as well as the artificial saturation system was turned on immediately thereafter. The objectives of the Demonstration of Repository Technology are to develop, test, and demonstrate methodology and equipment for encapsulation and deposition of spent nuclear fuel. The demonstration of handling and deposition is made with the specially designed full scale prototype to a deposition machine at 420 m level. The Backfill and Plug Test includes tests of backfill materials and emplacement methods and a test of a full-scale plug. Half the test part is filled with a mixture of 30% bentonite and crushed granite rock. The other half is filled with crushed rock without addition of bentonite, except for the upper 100-200 mm, where a slot was filled with blocks of highly compacted bentonite/crushed rock mixture and bentonite pellets. The backfill and rock has been instrumented with about 230 transducers for measuring the thermo- hydro-mechanical processes. Water saturation has been going on the whole year and the saturation speed has been slower than expected due to a lower salt content in the water than expected. In order to increase the speed a water with a higher salt content can

  16. Analysis of volcano rocks by Moessbauer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitek, J.; Dekan, J.

    2012-01-01

    In this work we have analysed the basalt rock from Mount Ba tur volcano situated on the Island of Bali in Indonesia.We compared our results with composition of basalt rocks from some other places on the Earth. (authors)

  17. Regulation of ROCK Activity in Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgan-Fisher, Marie; Wewer, Ulla M; Yoneda, Atsuko

    2013-01-01

    , these findings demonstrate additional modes to regulate ROCK activity. This review describes the molecular mechanisms of ROCK activity regulation in cancer, with emphasis on ROCK isoform-specific regulation and interaction partners, and discusses the potential of ROCKs as therapeutic targets in cancer.......Cancer-associated changes in cellular behavior, such as modified cell-cell contact, increased migratory potential, and generation of cellular force, all require alteration of the cytoskeleton. Two homologous mammalian serine/threonine kinases, Rho-associated protein kinases (ROCK I and II), are key...... regulators of the actin cytoskeleton acting downstream of the small GTPase Rho. ROCK is associated with cancer progression, and ROCK protein expression is elevated in several types of cancer. ROCKs exist in a closed, inactive conformation under quiescent conditions, which is changed to an open, active...

  18. Rock Slope Design Criteria : Executive Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Based on the stratigraphy and the type of slope stability problems, the flat lying, Paleozoic age, sedimentary rocks of Ohio were divided into three design units: 1) competent rock design unit consisting of sandstones, limestones, and siltstones that...

  19. Rock glaciers, Central Andes, Argentina, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Primary rock glaciers are fed by avalanche chutes. At the El Salto rock glacier, surveys have been undertaken in order to determine the creep rate. Between 1981 and...

  20. Channelling of flow through fractures in rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourke, P.J.

    1987-05-01

    A method of mapping the channelling of flow in rock fractures formed by contacts between rock faces and of measuring the effective apertures of channels has been developed. Some typical results are given. (author)

  1. Epigenetic alterations of sedimentary rocks at deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarova, G.V.; Kondrat'eva, I.A.; Zelenova, O.I.

    1980-01-01

    Notions are explained, and technique for studying epigenetic alterations of sedimentary rocks at uranium deposits is described. Main types of epigenetic transformations and their mineralogic-geochemical characteristics are considered. Rock alterations, accompanying uranium mineralization, can be related to 2 types: oxidation and reduction. The main mineralogic-geochemical property of oxidation transformations is epigenetic limonitization. Stratal limonitization in primary grey-coloured terrigenic rocks and in epigenetically reduced (pyritized) rocks, as well as in rock, subjected to epigenetic gleying, are characterized. Reduction type of epigenetic transformations is subdivided into sulphidic and non-sulphidic (gley) subtypes. Sulphidic transformations in grey-coloured terrigenic rocks with organic substance of carbonic row, in rocks, containing organic substance of oil row, sulphide transformations of sedimentary rocks, as well as gley transformations, are considered

  2. THM-coupled modeling of selected processes in argillaceous rock relevant to rock mechanics; THM-Gekoppelte Modellierung ausgewaehlter gesteinsmechanisch relevanter Prozesse im Tongestein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czaikowski, Oliver [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Braunschweig (Germany). Repository Safety Research Div.

    2012-08-15

    Scientific investigations in European countries other than Germany concentrate not only on granite formations (Switzerland, Sweden) but also on argillaceous rock formations (France, Switzerland, Belgium) to assess their suitability as host and barrier rock for the final storage of radioactive waste. In Germany, rock salt has been under thorough study as a host rock over the past few decades. According to a study by the German Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources, however, not only salt deposits but also argillaceous rock deposits are available at relevant depths and of extensions in space which make final storage of high-level radioactive waste basically possible in Germany. Equally qualified findings about the suitability/unsuitability of non-saline rock formations require fundamental studies to be conducted nationally because of the comparatively low level of knowledge. The article presents basic analyses of coupled mechanical and hydraulic properties of argillaceous rock formations as host rock for a repository. The interaction of various processes is explained on the basis of knowledge derived from laboratory studies, and open problems are deduced. For modeling coupled processes, a simplified analytical computation method is proposed and compared with the results of numerical simulations, and the limits to its application are outlined. (orig.)

  3. Using CTX Image Features to Predict HiRISE-Equivalent Rock Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Navid; Huertas, Andres; McGuire, Patrick; Mayer, David; Ardvidson, Raymond

    2010-01-01

    Methods have been developed to quantitatively assess rock hazards at candidate landing sites with the aid of images from the HiRISE camera onboard NASA s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. HiRISE is able to resolve rocks as small as 1-m in diameter. Some sites of interest do not have adequate coverage with the highest resolution sensors and there is a need to infer relevant information (like site safety or underlying geomorphology). The proposed approach would make it possible to obtain rock density estimates at a level close to or equal to those obtained from high-resolution sensors where individual rocks are discernable.

  4. Sedimentary environments and hydrocarbon potential of cretaceous rocks of indus basin, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh, S.A.; Naseem, S.

    1999-01-01

    Cretaceous rocks of Indus Basin of Pakistan are dominated by clastics with subordinate limestone towards the top. These rocks represent shelf facies and were deposited in deltaic to reducing marine conditions at variable depths. Indications of a silled basin with restricted circulation are also present. Cretaceous fine clastics/carbonates have good source and reservoir qualities. Variable geothermal gradients in different parts of basin have placed these rocks at different maturity levels; i.e. from oil to condensate and to gas. The potential of these rocks has been proved by several oil and gas discoveries particularly in the Central and Southern provinces of Indus Basin. (author)

  5. Folding and Fracturing of Rocks: the background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, John G.

    2017-04-01

    This book was generated by structural geology teaching classes at Imperial College. I was appointed lecturer during 1957 and worked together with Dr Gilbert Wilson teaching basic structural geology at B.Sc level. I became convinced that the subject, being essentially based on geometric field observations, required a firm mathematical basis for its future development. In particular it seemed to me to require a very sound understanding of stress and strain. My field experience suggested that a knowledge of two- and three-demensional strain was critical in understanding natural tectonic processes. I found a rich confirmation for this in early publications of deformed fossils, oolitic limestones and spotted slates made by several geologists around the beginning of the 20th century (Sorby, Philips, Haughton, Harker) often using surprisingly sophisticated mathematical methods. These methods were discussed and elaborated in Folding and Fracturing of Rocks in a practical way. The geometric features of folds were related to folding mechanisms and the fold related small scale structures such as cleavage, schistosity and lineation explained in terms of rock strain. My work in the Scottish Highlands had shown just how repeated fold superposition could produce very complex geometric features, while further work in other localities suggested that such geometric complications are common in many orogenic zones. From the development of structural geological studies over the past decades it seems that the readers of this book have found many of the ideas set out are still of practical application. The mapping of these outcrop-scale structures should be emphasised in all field studies because they can be seen as ''fingerprints'' of regional scale tectonic processes. My own understanding of structural geology has been inspired by field work and I am of the opinion that future progress in understanding will be likewise based on careful observation and measurement of the features of

  6. Analysis of volcano rock from Canary islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitek, J.; Sedlackova, K.; Dekan, J.

    2013-01-01

    In this work we have analyzed the basalt rock from Lanzarote, which is the easternmost island of the Canary Islands lying in the Atlantic Ocean and has a volcanic origin. It was born through fiery eruptions and has solidified lava streams as well as extravagant rock formations. We compared our results with composition of basalt rocks from some other places on the Earth. Different iron oxides created on the volcanic rocks during their weathering on the Earth surface has been also analyzed. (authors)

  7. High-pressure mechanical instability in rocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byerlee, J D; Brace, W F

    1969-05-09

    At a confining pressure of a few kilobars, deformation of many sedimentary rocks, altered mafic rocks, porous volcanic rocks, and sand is ductile, in that instabilities leading to audible elastic shocks are absent. At pressures of 7 to 10 kilobars, however, unstable faulting and stick-slip in certain of these rocks was observed. This high pressure-low temperature instability might be responsible for earthquakes in deeply buried sedimentary or volcanic sequences.

  8. Rock Music's Place in the Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politis, John

    1983-01-01

    Discussion of the importance of rock music as an expression of aural culture includes its history, rock music today, and the development of a rock music collection in the library (placement of collection and books which aid in developing a collection of permanent value). Three references are included. (EJS)

  9. Rock-degrading endophytic bacteria in cacti

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Esther Puente; Ching Y. Li; Yoav Bashan

    2009-01-01

    A plant-bacterium association of the cardon cactus (Pachycereus pringlei) and endophytic bacteria promotes establishment of seedlings and growth on igneous rocks without soil. These bacteria weather several rock types and minerals, unbind significant amounts of useful minerals for plants from the rocks, fix in vitro N2. produce...

  10. Rock Art: Connecting to the Past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knipe, Marianne

    2001-01-01

    Presents an activity for fourth-grade students in which they learn about ancient art and create their own authentic-looking rock sculptures with pictograms, or painted images. Explains how the students create their own rocks and then paint a pictograph on the rocks with brown paint. (CMK)

  11. Biodiversity of Rock Varnish at Yungay, Atacama Desert, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlman, K.; Venkat, P.; La Duc, M.; Kuhlman, G.; McKay, C.

    2007-12-01

    Rock varnish is a very slow-growing nanostratigraphic coating consisting of approximately 70% clay and 30% iron and manganese oxides of fine-grained clay minerals rich in manganese and iron oxides, which forms on the surfaces of rocks in most semi-arid to hyper-arid climates. Rock varnish has even been postulated to exist on Mars based on surface imagery from several landed missions, and is considered a potential biomarker. However, the mechanism of varnish nucleation and growth remains unknown. Whether or not microbes are involved in the nucleation and growth of rock varnish, the detection of microbes using cultivation or cultivation- independent techniques has demonstrated that varnish provides a microhabitat for microbes. We hypothesized that rock varnish in the Mars-like Yungay region of the Atacama Desert may provide such a microhabitat for microbial life where none has been found to date in the surface soil (< 1 cm). The presence of microbes was investigated using adenosine triphosphate (ATP) assay techniques and culture-independent biomolecular methods. High levels of both total and intracellular ATP were associated with the rock varnish while negligible ATP was found in the surrounding surface soil, suggesting that viable organisms were present. Total DNA was extracted from ground varnish and surrounding surface soil and subjected to trifurcate polymerase chain reactions (PCR). No DNA was recovered from the soil. Amplicons were used to generate ribosomal DNA (rDNA) clone libraries, which suggest the presence of numerous phylogenetically distinct microorganisms in eight Eubacterial clades, Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Cytophaga-Flavobacterium- Bacteroides (CFB), Chloroflexi (green non-sulfur bacteria (GNS)), Gemmatimonadetes, Actinobacteria and Cyanobacteria. The diversity of bacteria found and presence of cyanobacteria suggests that rock varnish provides a niche environment for a cryptoendolithic microbial community where

  12. Microscopic study of rock for estimating long-term behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Yasuaki

    2002-03-01

    Micro-structure of rock plays a essential role for their long-term behavior. For elucidating long-term characteristics of granite we here present the followings: 1) Conforcal Laser Scanning Microscope (LSM) observation of joint surfaces of granite and Fourier analysis, 2) characterization of the mechanism of microcrack initiation and propagation observed by stereoscopic microscope under uniaxial/triaxial compression and relaxation tests, 3) observation of microcrack initiation and propagation by LSM under uniaxial compression, and 4) a viscoelastic homogenization theory to predict the long-term behavior of micro/macro-level stress for granite. Rock image processing and analysis become a fundamental procedure to determine rock surface discontinuities. But the complexity of rock surface discontinuities seems beyond the manual image processing method. In Chapter 2 a Conforcal Laser Scanning Microscope that can acquire three-dimensional images is introduced to observe the rock roughness of a discontinuity. Then, scanning three-dimensional images are changed its data form in order to adapt various image analysis programs, and granitic rock roughness of discontinuities are displayed by graphic images. For example, these datas are analyzed by Discrete Fourier Transformation (DFT) program and Inverse Discrete Fourier Transformation (IDFT) program. Microcrack generation and propagation play an essential role to predict the long-term behavior of rock. In Chapter 3 a progressive development of cracking in granite is revealed by using stereoscopic microscope under triaxial compression condition and by using LSM under uniaxial compression condition. With a viscoelastic theory applied in homogenization method, we can calculate macro behavior of medium influenced by its micro structure by analyse the long-term time-dependent behavior of granite under the same condition to the relaxation experiment. (author)

  13. Testing and modeling of cyclically loaded rock anchors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joar Tistel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Norwegian Public Roads Administration (NPRA is planning for an upgrade of the E39 highway route at the westcoast of Norway. Fixed links shall replace ferries at seven fjord crossings. Wide spans and large depths at the crossings combined with challenging subsea topography and environmental loads call for an extension of existing practice. A variety of bridge concepts are evaluated in the feasibility study. The structures will experience significant loads from deadweight, traffic and environment. Anchoring of these forces is thus one of the challenges met in the project. Large-size subsea rock anchors are considered a viable alternative. These can be used for anchoring of floating structures but also with the purpose of increasing capacity of fixed structures. This paper presents first a thorough study of factors affecting rock anchor bond capacity. Laboratory testing of rock anchors subjected to cyclic loading is thereafter presented. Finally, the paper presents a model predicting the capacity of a rock anchor segment, in terms of a ribbed bar, subjected to a cyclic load history. The research assumes a failure mode occurring in the interface between the rock anchor and the surrounding grout. The constitutive behavior of the bonding interface is investigated for anchors subjected to cyclic one-way tensile loads. The model utilizes the static bond capacity curve as a basis, defining the ultimate bond τbu and the slip s1 at τbu. A limited number of input parameters are required to apply the model. The model defines the bond-slip behavior with the belonging rock anchor capacity depending on the cyclic load level (τmax cy/τbu, the cyclic load ratio (R = τmin cy/τmax cy, and the number of load cycles (N. The constitutive model is intended to model short anchor lengths representing an incremental length of a complete rock anchor.

  14. Solute transport in fractured rock - applications to radionuclide waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neretnieks, I.

    1990-12-01

    Flow and solute transport in fractured rocks has been intensively studied in the last decade. The increased interest is mainly due to the plans in many countries to site repositories for high level nuclear waste in deep geologic formations. All investigated crystalline rocks have been found to be fractured and most of the water flows in the fractures and fracture zones. The water transports dissolved species and radionuclides. It is thus of interest to be able to understand and to do predictive modelling of the flowrate of water, the flowpaths and the residence times of the water and of the nuclides. The dissolved species including the nuclides will interact with the surrounding rock in different ways and will in many cases be strongly retarded relative to the water velocity. Ionic species may be ion exchanged or sorbed in the mineral surfaces. Charges and neutral species may diffuse into the stagnant waters in the rock matrix and thus be withdrawn from the mobile water. These effects will be strongly dependent on how much rock surface is in contact with the flowing water. It has been found in a set of field experiments and by other observations that not all fractures conduct water. Furthermore it is found that conductive fractures only conduct the water in a small part of the fracture in what is called channels or preferential flowpaths. This report summarizes the present concepts of water flow and solute transport in fractured rocks. The data needs for predictive modelling are discussed and both field and laboratory measurement which have been used to obtain data are described. Several large scale field experiments which have been specially designed to study flow and tracer transport in crystalline rocks are described. In many of the field experients new techniques have been developed and used. (81 refs.) (author)

  15. ROCK inhibitor prevents the dedifferentiation of human articular chondrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Emi; Furumatsu, Takayuki; Kanazawa, Tomoko; Tamura, Masanori; Ozaki, Toshifumi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► ROCK inhibitor stimulates chondrogenic gene expression of articular chondrocytes. ► ROCK inhibitor prevents the dedifferentiation of monolayer-cultured chondrocytes. ► ROCK inhibitor enhances the redifferentiation of cultured chondrocytes. ► ROCK inhibitor is useful for preparation of un-dedifferentiated chondrocytes. ► ROCK inhibitor may be a useful reagent for chondrocyte-based regeneration therapy. -- Abstract: Chondrocytes lose their chondrocytic phenotypes in vitro. The Rho family GTPase ROCK, involved in organizing the actin cytoskeleton, modulates the differentiation status of chondrocytic cells. However, the optimum method to prepare a large number of un-dedifferentiated chondrocytes is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of ROCK inhibitor (ROCKi) on the chondrogenic property of monolayer-cultured articular chondrocytes. Human articular chondrocytes were subcultured in the presence or absence of ROCKi (Y-27632). The expression of chondrocytic marker genes such as SOX9 and COL2A1 was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Cellular morphology and viability were evaluated. Chondrogenic redifferentiation potential was examined by a pellet culture procedure. The expression level of SOX9 and COL2A1 was higher in ROCKi-treated chondrocytes than in untreated cells. Chondrocyte morphology varied from a spreading form to a round shape in a ROCKi-dependent manner. In addition, ROCKi treatment stimulated the proliferation of chondrocytes. The deposition of safranin O-stained proteoglycans and type II collagen was highly detected in chondrogenic pellets derived from ROCKi-pretreated chondrocytes. Our results suggest that ROCKi prevents the dedifferentiation of monolayer-cultured chondrocytes, and may be a useful reagent to maintain chondrocytic phenotypes in vitro for chondrocyte-based regeneration therapy.

  16. ROCK inhibitor prevents the dedifferentiation of human articular chondrocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Emi [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Science of Functional Recovery and Reconstruction, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikatacho, Kitaku, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Furumatsu, Takayuki, E-mail: matino@md.okayama-u.ac.jp [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Science of Functional Recovery and Reconstruction, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikatacho, Kitaku, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Kanazawa, Tomoko; Tamura, Masanori; Ozaki, Toshifumi [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Science of Functional Recovery and Reconstruction, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikatacho, Kitaku, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan)

    2012-03-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ROCK inhibitor stimulates chondrogenic gene expression of articular chondrocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ROCK inhibitor prevents the dedifferentiation of monolayer-cultured chondrocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ROCK inhibitor enhances the redifferentiation of cultured chondrocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ROCK inhibitor is useful for preparation of un-dedifferentiated chondrocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ROCK inhibitor may be a useful reagent for chondrocyte-based regeneration therapy. -- Abstract: Chondrocytes lose their chondrocytic phenotypes in vitro. The Rho family GTPase ROCK, involved in organizing the actin cytoskeleton, modulates the differentiation status of chondrocytic cells. However, the optimum method to prepare a large number of un-dedifferentiated chondrocytes is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of ROCK inhibitor (ROCKi) on the chondrogenic property of monolayer-cultured articular chondrocytes. Human articular chondrocytes were subcultured in the presence or absence of ROCKi (Y-27632). The expression of chondrocytic marker genes such as SOX9 and COL2A1 was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Cellular morphology and viability were evaluated. Chondrogenic redifferentiation potential was examined by a pellet culture procedure. The expression level of SOX9 and COL2A1 was higher in ROCKi-treated chondrocytes than in untreated cells. Chondrocyte morphology varied from a spreading form to a round shape in a ROCKi-dependent manner. In addition, ROCKi treatment stimulated the proliferation of chondrocytes. The deposition of safranin O-stained proteoglycans and type II collagen was highly detected in chondrogenic pellets derived from ROCKi-pretreated chondrocytes. Our results suggest that ROCKi prevents the dedifferentiation of monolayer-cultured chondrocytes, and may be a useful reagent to maintain chondrocytic phenotypes in vitro for chondrocyte

  17. Geometrical and hydrogeological impact on the behaviour of deep-seated rock slides during reservoir impoundment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, Heidrun; Zangerl, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Given that there are still uncertainties regarding the deformation and failure mechanisms of deep-seated rock slides this study concentrates on key factors that influence the behaviour of rock slides in the surrounding of reservoirs. The focus is placed on the slope geometry, hydrogeology and kinematics. Based on numerous generic rock slide models the impacts of the (i) rock slide geometry, (ii) reservoir impoundment and level fluctuations, (iii) seepage and buoyancy forces and (iv) hydraulic conductivity of the rock slide mass and the basal shear zone are examined using limit equilibrium approaches. The geometry of many deep-seated rock slides in metamorphic rocks is often influenced by geological structures, e.g. fault zones, joints, foliation, bedding planes and others. With downslope displacement the rock slide undergoes a change in shape. Several observed rock slides in an advanced stage show a convex, bulge-like topography at the foot of the slope and a concave topography in the middle to upper part. Especially, the situation of the slope toe plays an important role for stability. A potentially critical situation can result from a partially submerged flat slope toe because the uplift due to water pressure destabilizes the rock slide. Furthermore, it is essential if the basal shear zone daylights at the foot of the slope or encounters alluvial or glacial deposits at the bottom of the valley, the latter having a buttressing effect. In this study generic rock slide models with a shear zone outcropping at the slope toe are established and systematically analysed using limit equilibrium calculations. Two different kinematic types are modelled: (i) a translational or planar and (ii) a rotational movement behaviour. Questions concerning the impact of buoyancy and pore pressure forces that develop during first time impoundment are of key interest. Given that an adverse effect on the rock slide stability is expected due to reservoir impoundment the extent of

  18. A new energy-absorbing bolt for rock support in high stress rock masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charlie Chunlin Li [Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) (Norway)

    2010-04-15

    An energy-absorbing rock support device, called a D bolt, has been recently developed to counteract both burst-prone and squeezing rock conditions that occur during underground excavation. The bolt is a smooth steel bar with a number of anchors along its length. The anchors are firmly fixed within a borehole using either cement grout or resin, while the smooth sections of the bolt between the anchors may freely deform in response to rock dilation. Failure of one section does not affect the reinforcement performance of the other sections. The bolt is designed to fully use both the strength and the deformation capacity of the bolt material along the entire length. The bolt has large load-bearing and deformation capacities. Static pull tests and dynamic drop tests show that the bolt length elongates by 14-20% at a load level equal to the strength of the bolt material, thereby absorbing a large amount of energy. The impact average load of a 20 mm D bolt is 200-230 kN, with only a small portion of the load transferred to the bolt plate. The cumulative dynamic energy absorption of the bolt is measured to be 47 kJ/m. D bolts were tested in three deep mines. Filed measurements show that D bolts are loaded less than rebar bolts. This paper presents the layout and principle of the D bolt, and corresponding results from static, dynamic, and field tests.

  19. Overview of OWI waste/rock interaction studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenks, G.H.

    1977-01-01

    A review is presented of office of waste isolation (OWI) programs which fall within the waste/rock categories. Discussions are included on salt repository design, thermal powers and radiation intensities, maximum temperatures and gamma doses, salt temperatures around high level waste cannisters, projects concerned with radiation and thermal effects, projects concerned with long term interactions, and waste isolation safety assessment tasks

  20. Zirconium determination in rocks by solid-phase spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brykina, G.D.; Lebedeva, G.G.; Agapova, G.F.; AN SSSR, Moscow

    1990-01-01

    A method was developed for determination of zirconium in rocks by solid-phase spectrophotometry using AV-17x8-Cl anion exchanger modified with xylenol orange. Relative standard deviation at the level of (2-4.9)x10 -3 % ZrO 2 was about 0.245

  1. Predation by West Coast rock lobsters (Jasus lalandit) on two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    opened black mussel to ensure that they were feeding. Each rock lobster was then starved for a further 24h to ensure equal starvation levels and complete clearance of the digestive tract. (Zoutendyk 1988). before each of the following experiments was performed. For all experiments described below, winkle measurements ...

  2. Mechanism of Rock Burst Occurrence in Specially Thick Coal Seam with Rock Parting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-chao; Jiang, Fu-xing; Meng, Xiang-jun; Wang, Xu-you; Zhu, Si-tao; Feng, Yu

    2016-05-01

    Specially thick coal seam with complex construction, such as rock parting and alternative soft and hard coal, is called specially thick coal seam with rock parting (STCSRP), which easily leads to rock burst during mining. Based on the stress distribution of rock parting zone, this study investigated the mechanism, engineering discriminant conditions, prevention methods, and risk evaluation method of rock burst occurrence in STCSRP through setting up a mechanical model. The main conclusions of this study are as follows. (1) When the mining face moves closer to the rock parting zone, the original non-uniform stress of the rock parting zone and the advancing stress of the mining face are combined to intensify gradually the shearing action of coal near the mining face. When the shearing action reaches a certain degree, rock burst easily occurs near the mining face. (2) Rock burst occurrence in STCSRP is positively associated with mining depth, advancing stress concentration factor of the mining face, thickness of rock parting, bursting liability of coal, thickness ratio of rock parting to coal seam, and difference of elastic modulus between rock parting and coal, whereas negatively associated with shear strength. (3) Technologies of large-diameter drilling, coal seam water injection, and deep hole blasting can reduce advancing stress concentration factor, thickness of rock parting, and difference of elastic modulus between rock parting and coal to lower the risk of rock burst in STCSRP. (4) The research result was applied to evaluate and control the risk of rock burst occurrence in STCSRP.

  3. ESR dating of fault rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hee Kwon

    2002-03-01

    Past movement on faults can be dated by measurement of the intensity of ESR signals in quartz. These signals are reset by local lattice deformation and local frictional heating on grain contacts at the time of fault movement. The ESR signals then trow back as a result of bombardment by ionizing radiation from surrounding rocks. The age is obtained from the ratio of the equivalent dose, needed to produce the observed signal, to the dose rate. Fine grains are more completely reset during faulting, and a plot of age vs grain size shows a plateau for grains below critical size : these grains are presumed to have been completely zeroed by the last fault activity. We carried out ESR dating of fault rocks collected from the Yangsan fault system. ESR dates from the this fault system range from 870 to 240 ka. Results of this research suggest that long-term cyclic fault activity continued into the pleistocene

  4. Radionuclide fixation mechanisms in rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, S.

    1991-01-01

    In the safety evaluation of the radioactive waste disposal in geological environment, the mass balance equation for radionuclide migration is given. The sorption of radionuclides by geological formations is conventionally represented by the retardation of the radionuclides as compared with water movement. In order to quantify the sorption of radionuclides by rocks and sediments, the distribution ratio is used. In order to study quantitatively the long term behavior of waste radionuclides in geological environment, besides the distribution ratio concept in short term, slower radionuclide retention reaction involving mineral transformation should be considered. The development of microspectroscopic method for long term reaction path modeling, the behavior of iron during granite and water interaction, the reduction precipitation of radionuclides, radionuclide migration pathways, and the representative scheme of radionuclide migration and fixation in rocks are discussed. (K.I.)

  5. ESR dating of fault rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hee Kwon [Kangwon National Univ., Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    Past movement on faults can be dated by measurement of the intensity of ESR signals in quartz. These signals are reset by local lattice deformation and local frictional heating on grain contacts at the time of fault movement. The ESR signals then trow back as a result of bombardment by ionizing radiation from surrounding rocks. The age is obtained from the ratio of the equivalent dose, needed to produce the observed signal, to the dose rate. Fine grains are more completely reset during faulting, and a plot of age vs grain size shows a plateau for grains below critical size : these grains are presumed to have been completely zeroed by the last fault activity. We carried out ESR dating of fault rocks collected from the Yangsan fault system. ESR dates from the this fault system range from 870 to 240 ka. Results of this research suggest that long-term cyclic fault activity continued into the pleistocene.

  6. WIPP air-intake shaft disturbed-rock zone study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dale, T.; Hurtado, L.D.

    1996-01-01

    The disturbed-rock zone surrounding the air-intake shaft at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site was investigated to determine the extent and the permeability of the disturbed-rock zone as a function of radial distance from the 6.1 m diameter shaft, at different elevations within the Salado. Gas- and brine-permeability tests were performed in the bedded halite of the Salado formation at two levels within the air-intake shaft. The gas- and brine-permeability test results demonstrated that the radial distance to an undisturbed formation permeability of 1 x 10 -21 m 2 was less than 3.0 m

  7. Determination of near field excavation disturbance in crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koopmans, R.; Hughes, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    The computerized dilatometer system has rapidly and economically provided deformation moduli of low and high modulus rock, determined the extent of excavation disturbance surrounding an underground opening and located open fracture within a rock mass. Results from both test sites indicate that the moduli obtained were influenced by the in situ tangential stress field. It has been shown that the near field excavation disturbance is kept to a minimum through the use of careful excavation techniques such as the tunnel boring machine. In turn, the in situ tangential stress levels and deformation moduli are maximized while the corresponding permeability is minimized

  8. Thallium and its contents in Remata carbonate rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondelová Marcela

    1996-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents at first the list of thallium own minerals and its isomorphic content in other minerals, especially in Slovakian ore deposits. This trace element was found in numerous dolomite-rock samples from Remata massif near Handlová. An interesting level of Tl content was analyzed in nonsilicified rocks; the highest content of Tl (and Ag are along the E – W line of disturbance. The presence of thallium in some limonitic aggregates in close Kremnica-gold deposit indicate any continuous relation. Some similarities to type gold deposits Carlin ( USA are discussed, even if no gold and discrete thallium phases were in Remata determined yet.

  9. Ozone generation by rock fracture: Earthquake early warning?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baragiola, Raul A.; Dukes, Catherine A.; Hedges, Dawn [Engineering Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States)

    2011-11-14

    We report the production of up to 10 ppm ozone during crushing and grinding of typical terrestrial crust rocks in air, O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} at atmospheric pressure, but not in helium or nitrogen. Ozone is formed by exoelectrons emitted by high electric fields, resulting from charge separation during fracture. The results suggest that ground level ozone produced by rock fracture, besides its potential health hazard, can be used for early warning in earthquakes and other catastrophes, such as landslides or land shifts in excavation tunnels and underground mines.

  10. Relative Permeability of Fractured Rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark D. Habana

    2002-06-30

    Contemporary understanding of multiphase flow through fractures is limited. Different studies using synthetic fractures and various fluids have yielded different relative permeability-saturation relations. This study aimed to extend the understanding of multiphase flow by conducting nitrogen-water relative permeability experiments on a naturally-fractured rock from The Geysers geothermal field. The steady-state approach was used. However, steady state was achieved only at the endpoint saturations. Several difficulties were encountered that are attributed to phase interference and changes in fracture aperture and surface roughness, along with fracture propagation/initiation. Absolute permeabilities were determined using nitrogen and water. The permeability values obtained change with the number of load cycles. Determining the absolute permeability of a core is especially important in a fractured rock. The rock may change as asperities are destroyed and fractures propagate or st rain harden as the net stresses vary. Pressure spikes occurred in water a solute permeability experiments. Conceptual models of an elastic fracture network can explain the pressure spike behavior. At the endpoint saturations the water relative permeabilities obtained are much less than the nitrogen gas relative permeabilities. Saturations were determined by weighing and by resistivity calculations. The resistivity-saturation relationship developed for the core gave saturation values that differ by 5% from the value determined by weighing. Further work is required to complete the relative permeability curve. The steady-state experimental approach encountered difficulties due to phase interference and fracture change. Steady state may not be reached until an impractical length of time. Thus, unsteady-state methods should be pursued. In unsteady-state experiments the challenge will be in quantifying rock fracture change in addition to fluid flow changes.

  11. Mineral and rock chemistry of Mata da Corda Kamafugitic Rocks (Minas Gerais State, Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albuquerque Sgarbi, Patricia B. de; Valenca, Joel G.

    1995-01-01

    The volcanic rocks of the Mata da Corda Formation (Upper Cretaceous) in Minas Gerais, Brazil, are mafic potassic to ultra potassic rocks of kamafugitic affinity containing essentially clinopyroxenes, perovskite, magnetite and occasionally olivine, phlogopite, melilite pseudomorphs and apatite. The felsic phases are kalsilite and/or leucite pseudomorphs. The rocks are classified as mafitites, leucitites and kalsilitites. The analysis of the available data of the rocks studied, based on the relevant aspects of the main proposals for the classification of alkaline mafic to ultramafic potassic rocks leads to the conclusion that Sahama's (1974) proposal to divide potassium rich alkaline rocks in two large families is the one to which the Mata da Corda rocks adapt best. According to this and the data in the literature on the mineralogy and mineral and rock chemistries of the other similar occurrences, these rocks may be interpreted as alkaline potassic to ultra potassic rocks of hamafugitic affinity. 11 figs., 5 tabs

  12. ESR dating of fault rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hee Kwon

    2003-02-01

    Past movement on faults can be dated by measurement of the intensity of ESR signals in quartz. These signals are reset by local lattice deformation and local frictional heating on grain contacts at the time of fault movement. The ESR signals then grow back as a result of bombardment by ionizing radiation from surrounding rocks. The age is obtained from the ratio of the equivalent dose, needed to produce the observed signal, to the dose rate. Fine grains are more completely reset during faulting, and a plot of age vs. grain size shows a plateau for grains below critical size; these grains are presumed to have been completely zeroed by the last fault activity. We carried out ESR dating of fault rocks collected near the Gori nuclear reactor. Most of the ESR signals of fault rocks collected from the basement are saturated. This indicates that the last movement of the faults had occurred before the Quaternary period. However, ESR dates from the Oyong fault zone range from 370 to 310 ka. Results of this research suggest that long-term cyclic fault activity of the Oyong fault zone continued into the Pleistocene

  13. ESR dating of fault rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hee Kwon [Kangwon National Univ., Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-02-15

    Past movement on faults can be dated by measurement of the intensity of ESR signals in quartz. These signals are reset by local lattice deformation and local frictional heating on grain contacts at the time of fault movement. The ESR signals then grow back as a result of bombardment by ionizing radiation from surrounding rocks. The age is obtained from the ratio of the equivalent dose, needed to produce the observed signal, to the dose rate. Fine grains are more completely reset during faulting, and a plot of age vs. grain size shows a plateau for grains below critical size; these grains are presumed to have been completely zeroed by the last fault activity. We carried out ESR dating of fault rocks collected near the Gori nuclear reactor. Most of the ESR signals of fault rocks collected from the basement are saturated. This indicates that the last movement of the faults had occurred before the Quaternary period. However, ESR dates from the Oyong fault zone range from 370 to 310 ka. Results of this research suggest that long-term cyclic fault activity of the Oyong fault zone continued into the Pleistocene.

  14. Source rock hydrocarbons. Present status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vially, R.; Maisonnier, G.; Rouaud, T.

    2013-01-01

    This report first presents the characteristics of conventional oil and gas system, and the classification of liquid and gaseous non conventional hydrocarbons, with the peculiar case of coal-bed methane. The authors then describe how source rock hydrocarbons are produced: production of shale oils and gases (horizontal drilling, hydraulic fracturing, exploitation) and of coal-bed methane and coal mine methane. In the next part, they address and discuss the environmental impact of source rock hydrocarbon production: installation footprint, water resource management, drilling fluids, fracturing fluids composition, toxicity and recycling, air pollution, induced seismicity, pollutions from other exploitation and production activities. They propose an overview of the exploitation and production of source rock gas, coal-bed gas and other non conventional gases in the world. They describe the current development and discuss their economic impacts: world oil context and trends in the USA, in Canada and other countries, impacts on the North American market, on the world oil industry, on refining industries, on the world oil balance. They analyse the economic impacts of non conventional gases: development potential, stakes for the world gas trade, consequence for gas prices, development opportunities for oil companies and for the transport sector, impact on CO 2 emissions, macro-economic impact in the case of the USA

  15. Diffusivity and electrical resistivity measurements in rock matrix around fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumpulainen, H.; Uusheimo, K.

    1989-12-01

    Microfracturing of rock matrix around permeable fractures was studied experimentally from drill core samples around major fractures. The methods used were diffusion measurements using a 36 Cl-tracer and electrical resistivity measurements. Rock samples were from the Romuvaara investigation site, the granite specimen around a partially filled carbonate fracture (KR4/333 m) and gneiss specimen around a slickenside fracture (KR1/645 m). A consistent difference of one to two orders of magnitude in the levels of the methods with regard to the effective diffusion coefficients for Cl - -ion was found, the electrical resistivity measurement giving higher values. On the basis of the diffusion measurements the diffusion porosities could be calculated but these remained one to two orders of magnitude lower than that expected for granitic rocks using the water saturation method. A possible reason for these differences could have been the low, in some cases 0.004 M NaC1-concentration in the diffusion experiments vs. the 1 M NaCl-concentration used in the electrical resistivity measurements. Due to the small number of specimens and cross sectional areas of only 2 cm 2 , rock inhomogeneity effects were significant making the interpretation of the results somewhat troublesome. Porosities on fracture surfaces seemed to be higher than in the deeper, more intact rock matrix

  16. Rock support of the L3 experimental hall complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laughton, C.

    1990-06-01

    The methods of excavation and support selected for the LEP works are discussed in this paper. The excavation of the halls and chambers in discrete passes, from the roof down, and their temporary support by patterned fully bonded rock bolts and shotcrete ensured that mass deformations were contained. When working in soft rock materials where discontinuity, elastic and possibly plastic deformations may each play an important role in the overall rock structure stability, it is of paramount importance to systematically monitor the behavior of the rock in-situ. The use of instrumentation to indicate location, direction, levels, and rate of movement is essential to ensure that a safe, efficient and economical mining operation can be undertaken, and that any remedial action will be taken at the appropriate time. The use of the New Austrian Tunneling support mechanisms allowed the engineer greater flexibility in handling local reinforcement of the rock structure if superficial or relatively deep-seated instability was encountered. However, in the case where second linings are to be accommodated and flexible support mechanisms used, care should be taken to foresee over-excavation in weaker zones to allow for larger displacements prior to the attainment of confinement-convergence equilibria. 4 refs., 7 figs

  17. Finite element simulations of two rock mechanics tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlke, H.J.; Lott, S.A.

    1986-04-01

    Rock mechanics tests are performed to determine in situ stress conditions and material properties of an underground rock mass. To design stable underground facilities for the permanent storage of high-level nuclear waste, determination of these properties and conditions is a necessary first step. However, before a test and its associated equipment can be designed, the engineer needs to know the range of expected values to be measured by the instruments. Sensitivity studies by means of finite element simulations are employed in this preliminary design phase to evaluate the pertinent parameters and their effects on the proposed measurements. The simulations, of two typical rock mechanics tests, the plate bearing test and the flat-jack test, by means of the finite element analysis, are described. The plate bearing test is used to determine the rock mass deformation modulus. The flat-jack test is used to determine the in situ stress conditions of the host rock. For the plate bearing test, two finite element models are used to simulate the classic problem of a load on an elastic half space and the actual problem of a plate bearing test in an underground tunnel of circular cross section. For the flat-jack simulation, a single finite element model is used to simulate both horizontal and vertical slots. Results will be compared to closed-form solutions available in the literature

  18. Safety management system during rock blasting at FRFCF construction site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayakumaran, C.; Kandasamy, S.; Satpathy, K.K.

    2016-01-01

    Blasting is an important activity during rock excavation to reach required depth for obtaining stability of the civil structure. For the construction of various Plant Buildings of Fast Reactor Fuel Cycle Facility (FRFCF), IGCAR at Kalpakkam, based on the geological survey it is required to reach a depth of 21.4 meters from existing ground level. This paper details about the procedures and precaution adopted during the rock blasting activities at FRFCF site. The volume of rock removed by blasting was 3 lakh cubic meters. The total number of blasting carried out was 304 using 105.73 tons of blasting material. The entire blasting work could be completed within 174 days without any incident. (author)

  19. Radiation effects in rock salt. A status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gies, H.; Hild, W.; Kuehle, T.; Moenig, J.

    1994-01-01

    Knowledge of the irradiation defects and the accompanying energy storage in rock salt resulting from the absorption of ionizing radiation emitted by vitrified high level radioactive waste (HLW) disposed off in geological rock salt formations in an important prerequisite for a realistic assessment of possible consequences. Based on a critical review of the scientific status this report attempts to evaluate whether the available database is satisfactory and sufficiently reliable for the performance of such an assessment. Apart from a brief description of the radiation-and temperature-conditions prevailing in a HLW-repository, a detailed presentation is given of both the interaction of radiation with rock salt and the theories and models developed for their quantification

  20. A Review on the British Rock Music

    OpenAIRE

    Hutapea, Alfian Hadi Pranata

    2011-01-01

    Music has an important role in people’s life. In people’s daily, music is often hearing of course and in people’s customs and traditions music is also be used. Music has many genres, one of them is rock music. Many people like rock music especially youngman because rock music has given a message in a song through enthusiasm expression. Rock music has many subgenres and each of subgenres have a distinctive feature. The developing of rock music is very wide in the world, especially in Great Bri...

  1. The physical principles of rock magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Stacey, Frank

    1974-01-01

    Developments in Solid Earth Geophysics 5: The Physical Principles of Rock Magnetism explores the physical principles of rock magnetism, with emphasis on the properties of finely divided magnetic materials. It discusses the origin and stability of rock magnetizations, the role of remanent magnetism in interpreting magnetic surveys, magnetic anisotropy as an indicator of rock fabric, and the relationship between piezomagnetic changes and seismic activity. Organized into 13 chapters, this volume discusses the properties of solids, magnetite and hematite grains, and rocks with magnetite grains

  2. Effects of explosions in hard rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuze, F.E.; Walton, O.R.; Maddix, D.M.; Shaffer, R.J.; Butkovich, T.R.

    1993-01-01

    This work relates to explosions in hard rocks (ex: basalt, granite, limestone...). Hard rock masses typically have a blocky structure created by the existence of geologic discontinuities such as bedding contacts, faults, and joints. At very high pressure - hundreds of kilobars and above - these discontinuities do not act separately, and the rock appears to be an equivalent continuous medium. At stress of a few tens of kilobars and below, the geologic discontinuities control the kinematics of the rock masses. Hence, the simulation of rock dynamics, anywhere but in the very-near source region, should account for those kinematics

  3. Lead isotope analyses of standard rock samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koide, Yoshiyuki; Nakamura, Eizo

    1990-01-01

    New results on lead isotope compositions of standard rock samples and their analytical procedures are reported. Bromide form anion exchange chromatography technique was adopted for the chemical separation lead from rock samples. The lead contamination during whole analytical procedure was low enough to determine lead isotope composition of common natural rocks. Silica-gel activator method was applied for emission of lead ions in the mass spectrometer. Using the data reduction of 'unfractionated ratios', we obtained good reproducibility, precision and accuracy on lead isotope compositions of NBS SRM. Here we present new reliable lead isotope compositions of GSJ standard rock samples and USGS standard rock, BCR-1. (author)

  4. Carbonate rock depositional models: A microfacies approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carozzi, A.V.

    1988-01-01

    Carbonate rocks contain more than 50% by weight carbonate minerals such as calcite, dolomite, and siderite. Understanding how these rocks form can lead to more efficient methods of petroleum exploration. Micofacies analysis techniques can be used as a method of predicting models of sedimentation for carbonate rocks. Micofacies in carbonate rocks can be seen clearly only in thin sections under a microscope. This section analysis of carbonate rocks is a tool that can be used to understand depositional environments, diagenetic evolution of carbonate rocks, and the formation of porosity and permeability in carbonate rocks. The use of micofacies analysis techniques is applied to understanding the origin and formation of carbonate ramps, carbonate platforms, and carbonate slopes and basins. This book will be of interest to students and professionals concerned with the disciplines of sedimentary petrology, sedimentology, petroleum geology, and palentology.

  5. ROCK I Has More Accurate Prognostic Value than MET in Predicting Patient Survival in Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Bharadwaj, Shruthi S; Guzman, Grace; Vishnubhotla, Ramana; Glover, Sarah C

    2015-06-01

    Colorectal cancer remains the second leading cause of death in the United States despite improvements in incidence rates and advancements in screening. The present study evaluated the prognostic value of two tumor markers, MET and ROCK I, which have been noted in other cancers to provide more accurate prognoses of patient outcomes than tumor staging alone. We constructed a tissue microarray from surgical specimens of adenocarcinomas from 108 colorectal cancer patients. Using immunohistochemistry, we examined the expression levels of tumor markers MET and ROCK I, with a pathologist blinded to patient identities and clinical outcomes providing the scoring of MET and ROCK I expression. We then used retrospective analysis of patients' survival data to provide correlations with expression levels of MET and ROCK I. Both MET and ROCK I were significantly over-expressed in colorectal cancer tissues, relative to the unaffected adjacent mucosa. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed that patients' 5-year survival was inversely correlated with levels of expression of ROCK I. In contrast, MET was less strongly correlated with five-year survival. ROCK I provides better efficacy in predicting patient outcomes, compared to either tumor staging or MET expression. As a result, ROCK I may provide a less invasive method of assessing patient prognoses and directing therapeutic interventions. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  6. Aespoe hard rock laboratory. Annual report 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    the repository system, which are of importance for long-term safety. The Prototype Repository experiment is focused on testing and demonstrating repository system function in full scale, and consists of six deposition holes with canisters and electric heaters surrounded by highly compacted bentonite. The work during 2000 has focused on geoscientific characterisation and specially hydraulic properties and conditions of the rock. Preparatory work with design, purchase and manufacturing as well as rock work (slots for the two plugs) have been going on with the aim of preparing for start of installation during the second quarter of 2001. Equipment for installation of bentonite blocks and canisters were tested before start of installation in the Canister Retrieval Test. This test was completed in October and the heaters as well as the artificial saturation system was turned on immediately thereafter. The objectives of the Demonstration of Repository Technology are to develop, test, and demonstrate methodology and equipment for encapsulation and deposition of spent nuclear fuel. The demonstration of handling and deposition is made with the specially designed full scale prototype to a deposition machine at 420 m level. The Backfill and Plug Test includes tests of backfill materials and emplacement methods and a test of a full-scale plug. Half the test part is filled with a mixture of 30% bentonite and crushed granite rock. The other half is filled with crushed rock without addition of bentonite, except for the upper 100-200 mm, where a slot was filled with blocks of highly compacted bentonite/crushed rock mixture and bentonite pellets. The backfill and rock has been instrumented with about 230 transducers for measuring the thermo- hydro-mechanical processes. Water saturation has been going on the whole year and the saturation speed has been slower than expected due to a lower salt content in the water than expected. In order to increase the speed a water with a higher salt

  7. Classification and Distribution of Mars Pathfinder Rocks Using Quantitative Morphologic Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yingst, R. A.; Biederman, K. L.; Monhead, A. M.; Haldemann, A. F. C.; Kowalczyk, M. R.

    2004-01-01

    The Mars Pathfinder (MPF) landing site was predicted to contain a broad sampling of rock types varying in mineralogical, physical, mechanical and geochemical characteristics. Although rocks have been divided into several spectral categories based on Imager for Mars Pathfinder visible/near-infrared spectra, it has not been fully determined which of these stem from intrinsic mineralogical differences between rocks or rock surfaces, and which result from factors such as physical or chemical weathering. This has made isolation of unique mineralogy's difficult. Efforts in isolating and classifying spectral units among MPF rocks and soils have met with varying degrees of success, and the current understanding is such that many factors influencing spectral signatures cannot be quantified to a sufficient level so they may be removed. The result is that fundamental questions regarding information needed to reveal the present and past interactions between the rocks and rock surfaces and the Martian environment remain unanswered. But it is possible to approach the issue of identifying distinct rock and rock surface types from a different angle.

  8. Proceedings of a technical session on rock mechanics ''Advance in laboratory sample testing''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Come, B.

    1984-01-01

    This report brings together a series of papers about rock mechanics. The meeting was divided into three sessions, which dealt with the three main types of rock formation currently considered in the CEC Programme: granite, clay and salt. Safe disposal of high-level radioactive waste involves the proper design of deep underground repositories. This necessitates an in-depth knowledge of the mechanical properties of the rock mass. The behaviour of the rock mass must be known both for the construction and the operation (heating effects) of the repository. Usually, the dominant factor for designing an underground structure is the fracturing of the rock mass. In the present case, the rock is chosen with a very low fracturing. Therefore, the mechanical properties of the formation are mainly those of the rock matrix. These properties are obtained, at least in a first exploratory step, by laboratory testing of rock samples obtained by core-drilling from surface. This aspect of rock characterization was thought to deserve a special technical meeting, in order to bring together most of the results obtained in this field by contracting partners of the CEC for the years 1980-82

  9. Hot Dry Rock; Geothermal Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1990-01-01

    The commercial utilization of geothermal energy forms the basis of the largest renewable energy industry in the world. More than 5000 Mw of electrical power are currently in production from approximately 210 plants and 10 000 Mw thermal are used in direct use processes. The majority of these systems are located in the well defined geothermal generally associated with crustal plate boundaries or hot spots. The essential requirements of high subsurface temperature with huge volumes of exploitable fluids, coupled to environmental and market factors, limit the choice of suitable sites significantly. The Hot Dry Rock (HDR) concept at any depth originally offered a dream of unlimited expansion for the geothermal industry by relaxing the location constraints by drilling deep enough to reach adequate temperatures. Now, after 20 years intensive work by international teams and expenditures of more than $250 million, it is vital to review the position of HDR in relation to the established geothermal industry. The HDR resource is merely a body of rock at elevated temperatures with insufficient fluids in place to enable the heat to be extracted without the need for injection wells. All of the major field experiments in HDR have shown that the natural fracture systems form the heat transfer surfaces and that it is these fractures that must be for geothermal systems producing from naturally fractured formations provide a basis for directing the forthcoming but, equally, they require accepting significant location constraints on HDR for the time being. This paper presents a model HDR system designed for commercial operations in the UK and uses production data from hydrothermal systems in Japan and the USA to demonstrate the reservoir performance requirements for viable operations. It is shown that these characteristics are not likely to be achieved in host rocks without stimulation processes. However, the long term goal of artificial geothermal systems developed by systematic

  10. Hydraulic testing in crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almen, K.E.; Andersson, J.E.; Carlsson, L.; Hansson, K.; Larsson, N.A.

    1986-12-01

    Swedish Geolocical Company (SGAB) conducted and carried out single-hole hydraulic testing in borehole Fi 6 in the Finnsjoen area of central Sweden. The purpose was to make a comprehensive evaluation of different methods applicable in crystalline rocks and to recommend methods for use in current and scheduled investigations in a range of low hydraulic conductivity rocks. A total of eight different methods of testing were compared using the same equipment. This equipment was thoroughly tested as regards the elasticity of the packers and change in volume of the test section. The use of a hydraulically operated down-hole valve enabled all the tests to be conducted. Twelve different 3-m long sections were tested. The hydraulic conductivity calculated ranged from about 5x10 -14 m/s to 1x10 -6 m/s. The methods used were water injection under constant head and then at a constant rate-of-flow, each of which was followed by a pressure fall-off period. Water loss, pressure pulse, slug and drill stem tests were also performed. Interpretation was carried out using standard transient evaluation methods for flow in porous media. The methods used showed themselves to be best suited to specific conductivity ranges. Among the less time-consuming methods, water loss, slug and drill stem tests usually gave somewhat higher hydraulic conductivity values but still comparable to those obtained using the more time-consuming tests. These latter tests, however, provided supplementary information on hydraulic and physical properties and flow conditions, together with hydraulic conductivity values representing a larger volume of rock. (orig./HP)

  11. Big Bang Day : Physics Rocks

    CERN Multimedia

    Brian Cox; John Barrowman; Eddie Izzard

    2008-01-01

    Is particle physics the new rock 'n' roll? The fundamental questions about the nature of the universe that particle physics hopes to answer have attracted the attention of some very high profile and unusual fans. Alan Alda, Ben Miller, Eddie Izzard, Dara O'Briain and John Barrowman all have interests in this branch of physics. Brian Cox - CERN physicist, and former member of 90's band D:Ream, tracks down some very well known celebrity enthusiasts and takes a light-hearted look at why this subject can appeal to all of us.

  12. ROCKS & MINERALS DETERMINATION AND ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20150204 Abaydulla Alimjan(Department of Chemistry and Environmental Sciences,Kashgar Teachers College,Kashgar 844006,China);Cheng Chunying Non-Metallic Element Composition Analysis of Non-Ferrous Metal Ores from Oytagh Town,Xinjiang(Rock and Mineral Analysis,ISSN0254-5357,CN11-2131/TD,33(1),2014,p.44-50,5illus.,4tables,28refs.)Key words:nonferrous metals ore,nonmetals,chemical analysis,thermogravimetric analysis Anions in non-ferrous ore materials

  13. Rock Goes to School on Screen: A Model for Teaching Non-"Learned" Musics Derived from the Films "School of Rock" (2003) and "Rock School" (2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Michael

    2007-01-01

    What can be learned from two films with "rock" and "school" in their titles, about rock in school and about music and schooling more broadly? "School of Rock" (2003), a "family comedy," and "Rock School" (2005), a documentary, provoke a range of questions, ideological and otherwise, surrounding the inclusion of rock in formal instructional…

  14. Waste-rock interactions in the immediate repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, G.J.

    1977-01-01

    The high level wastes (HLW's) to be placed underground in rock formations will contain significant amounts of radioactive decay heat for the first hundred-or-so years of isolation. Several physical-chemical changes analogous to natural geochemical processes can occur during this ''thermal period.'' The waste canister can act as a heat source and cause changes in the mineralogy and properties of the surrounding rocks. Geochemically, this is ''contact metamorphism.'' In the event that the canister is corroded and breached, chemical reactions can occur between the HLW, the surrounding rock and possibly the remains of the canister. In a dry repository which has not been backfilled (and thus pressurized) these interactions could be slow at best and with rates decreasing rapidly as the HLW cools. However, significant interactions can occur in years, months or even days under hydrothermal conditions. These conditions could be created by the combination of HLW heat, overburden pressure and water mobilized from the rocks or derived from groundwater intrusion. At the end of the thermal period these interaction products would constitute the actual HLW form (or ''source term'') subject to the low temperature leaching and migration processes under investigation in other laboratories. It is quite possible that these interaction product waste forms will have superior properties compared to the original HLW. Experimental programs initiated at Penn State during the last year aim at determining the nature of any chemical or mineralogical changes in, or interactions between, HLW solids and host rocks under various repository ambients. The accompanying figures describe the simulated HLW forms and the experimental approach and techniques. Studies with basalts as the repository rock are supported by Rockwell Hanford Operations and with shales by the Office of Waste Isolation

  15. Disposal of radioactive waste in Swedish crystalline rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greis Dahlberg, Christina; Wikberg, Peter

    2015-01-01

    SKB, Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company is tasked with managing Swedish nuclear and radioactive waste. Crystalline rock is the obvious alternative for deep geological disposal in Sweden. SKB is, since 1988, operating a near surface repository for short-lived low and intermediate-level waste, SFR. The waste in SFR comprises operational and decommissioning waste from nuclear plants, industrial waste, research-related waste and medical waste. Spent nuclear fuel is currently stored in an interim facility while waiting for a license to construct a deep geological repository. The Swedish long-lived low and intermediate-level waste consists mainly of BWR control rods, reactor internals and legacy waste from early research in the Swedish nuclear programs. The current plan is to dispose of this waste in a separate deep geological repository, SFL, sometimes after 2045. Understanding of the rock properties is the basis for the design of the repository concepts. Swedish crystalline rock is mechanical stable and suitable for underground constructions. The Spent Fuel Repository is planned at approximately 500 meters depth in the rock at the Forsmark site. The host rock will keep the spent fuel isolated from human and near-surface environment. The rock will also provide the stable chemical and hydraulic conditions that make it possible to select suitable technical barriers to support the containment provided by the rock. A very long lasting canister is necessary to avoid release and transport of radionuclides through water conducting fractures in the rock. A canister designed for the Swedish rock, consists of a tight, 5 cm thick corrosion barrier of copper and a load-bearing insert of cast iron. To restrict the water flow around the canister and by that prevent fast corrosion, a bentonite buffer will surround the canister. Secondary, the bentonite buffer will retard a potential release by its strong sorption of radionuclides. The SFR repository is situated in

  16. Disposal of radioactive waste in Swedish crystalline rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greis Dahlberg, Christina; Wikberg, Peter [Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-07-01

    SKB, Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company is tasked with managing Swedish nuclear and radioactive waste. Crystalline rock is the obvious alternative for deep geological disposal in Sweden. SKB is, since 1988, operating a near surface repository for short-lived low and intermediate-level waste, SFR. The waste in SFR comprises operational and decommissioning waste from nuclear plants, industrial waste, research-related waste and medical waste. Spent nuclear fuel is currently stored in an interim facility while waiting for a license to construct a deep geological repository. The Swedish long-lived low and intermediate-level waste consists mainly of BWR control rods, reactor internals and legacy waste from early research in the Swedish nuclear programs. The current plan is to dispose of this waste in a separate deep geological repository, SFL, sometimes after 2045. Understanding of the rock properties is the basis for the design of the repository concepts. Swedish crystalline rock is mechanical stable and suitable for underground constructions. The Spent Fuel Repository is planned at approximately 500 meters depth in the rock at the Forsmark site. The host rock will keep the spent fuel isolated from human and near-surface environment. The rock will also provide the stable chemical and hydraulic conditions that make it possible to select suitable technical barriers to support the containment provided by the rock. A very long lasting canister is necessary to avoid release and transport of radionuclides through water conducting fractures in the rock. A canister designed for the Swedish rock, consists of a tight, 5 cm thick corrosion barrier of copper and a load-bearing insert of cast iron. To restrict the water flow around the canister and by that prevent fast corrosion, a bentonite buffer will surround the canister. Secondary, the bentonite buffer will retard a potential release by its strong sorption of radionuclides. The SFR repository is situated in

  17. On selection of geological medium for disposal of high-level radwaste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min Maozhong

    1991-01-01

    The present paper briefly reviews the suitability of some rocks as geological disposal repositories of high-level radwaste (HLW). The suitable rocks for geological ogi disposal of HLW are rock salt (salt diapir, bedded salt), granite, argillaceous rocks, tuff, basalt, gabbro, diabase, anhydrite, marine sedimentary rocks etc., especially, rock salt, granite, and argillaceous rocks. The data of principal hydraulic properties, mechanical-physical properties for various rocks in typical environment which might be considered for disposal purposes are also given in this paper. These data give a reference to China's geological disposal of HLW in the future

  18. Hydraulic gradients in rock aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlblom, P.

    1992-05-01

    This report deals with fractured rock as a host for deposits of hazardous waste. In this context the rock, with its fractures containing moving groundwater, is called the geological barrier. The desired properties of the geological barrier are low permeability to water, low hydraulic gradients and ability to retain matter dissolved in the water. The hydraulic gradient together with the permeability and the porosity determines the migration velocity. Mathematical modelling of the migration involves calculation of the water flow and the hydrodynamic dispersion of the contaminant. The porous medium approach can be used to calculate mean flow velocities and hydrodynamic dispersion of a large number of fractures are connected, which means that a large volume have to be considered. It is assumed that the porous medium approach can be applied, and a number of idealized examples are shown. It is assumed that the groundwater table is replenished by percolation at a constant rate. One-dimensional analytical calculations show that zero hydraulic gradients may exist at relatively large distance from the coast. Two-dimensional numerical calculations show that it may be possible to find areas with low hydraulic gradients and flow velocities within blocks surrounded by areas with high hydraulic conductivity. (au)

  19. Laboratory characterization of rock joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsiung, S.M.; Kana, D.D.; Ahola, M.P.; Chowdhury, A.H.; Ghosh, A.

    1994-05-01

    A laboratory characterization of the Apache Leap tuff joints under cyclic pseudostatic and dynamic loads has been undertaken to obtain a better understanding of dynamic joint shear behavior and to generate a complete data set that can be used for validation of existing rock-joint models. Study has indicated that available methods for determining joint roughness coefficient (JRC) significantly underestimate the roughness coefficient of the Apache Leap tuff joints, that will lead to an underestimation of the joint shear strength. The results of the direct shear tests have indicated that both under cyclic pseudostatic and dynamic loadings the joint resistance upon reverse shearing is smaller than that of forward shearing and the joint dilation resulting from forward shearing recovers during reverse shearing. Within the range of variation of shearing velocity used in these tests, the shearing velocity effect on rock-joint behavior seems to be minor, and no noticeable effect on the peak joint shear strength and the joint shear strength for the reverse shearing is observed

  20. Aespoe hard rock laboratory Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The aim of the new Aespoe hard rock laboratory is to demonstrate state of the art of technology and evaluation methods before the start of actual construction work on the planned deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. The nine country OECD/NEA project in the Stripa mine in Sweden has been an excellent example of high quality international research co-operation. In Sweden the new Aespoe hard rock laboratory will gradually take over and finalize this work. SKB very much appreciates the continued international participation in Aespoe which is of great value for the quality efficiency, and confidence in this kind of work. We have invited a number of leading experts to this first international seminar to summarize the current state of a number of key questions. The contributions show the great progress that has taken place during the years. The results show that there is a solid scientific basis for using this knowledge on site specific preparation and work on actual repositories. (au)

  1. Rock glacier velocities, Selwyn Mountains, Yukon and NWT, Canada, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An average of 6 markers were surveyed on each of 15 rock glaciers, once each in 1983 and 1995 using a level (1983) and a theodolite (1995). Measurement error was on...

  2. Proceedings of the 3. Canada-US rock mechanics symposium and 20. Canadian rock mechanics symposium : rock engineering 2009 : rock engineering in difficult conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This conference provided a forum for geologists, mining operators and engineers to discuss the application of rock mechanics in engineering designs. Members of the scientific and engineering communities discussed challenges and interdisciplinary elements involved in rock engineering. New geological models and methods of characterizing rock masses and ground conditions in underground engineering projects were discussed along with excavation and mining methods. Papers presented at the conference discussed the role of rock mechanics in forensic engineering. Geophysics, geomechanics, and risk-based approaches to rock engineering designs were reviewed. Issues related to high pressure and high flow water conditions were discussed, and new rock physics models designed to enhance hydrocarbon recovery were presented. The conference featured 84 presentations, of which 9 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs.

  3. Chemical buffering capacity of clay rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaucaire, C.; Pearson, F.J.; Gautschi, A.

    2004-01-01

    The long-term performance of a nuclear waste repository is strongly dependent on the chemical properties of the host rock. The host rock establishes the chemical environment that determines such important performance attributes as radionuclide solubilities from the waste and the transport rates from the repository to the accessible environment. Clay-rich rocks are especially favourable host rocks because they provide a strong buffering capacity to resist chemical changes prompted either internally, by reactions of the waste itself and emplacement materials, or externally, by changes in the hydrologic systems surrounding the host rock. This paper will focus on three aspects of the stability of clay-rich host rocks: their ability to provide pCO 2 and redox buffering, and to resist chemical changes imposed by changes in regional hydrology and hydro-chemistry. (authors)

  4. Characterization of deep-seated rock masses by means of borehole investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-04-01

    Swedish State Power Board. The main objective of the programme was to test a method of measuring in-situ rock stresses in the deep, water-filled boreholes and to correlate measured rock stresses with the hydraulic and geological properties of the rock mass. The investigations consist of the following activities: - Coredrillin of two main boreholes with a depth of 500 m and 250 m respectively. - Rock stress measurements at 11 and 9 main levels in the boreholes respectively. At each level at least 3 complete measurements were made. - Logging of the cores with respect to rock type, fractures and fracture characteristics. - Water injection tests in the boreholes. The rock mass investigated is composed of a gneiss granite of Svecocarelian age (1500 Ma), with inclusions of younger pegmatites and greenstones of variable ages. The fracture density is as a mean 2 fractures per meter with a marked decrease in frequency with increased depth. The fractures are generally coated with calcite and chlorite as the dominating coating minerals. For the rock stress measurements, the method of Leeman and Hayes was chosen. The result show that there is a very high stress level in the rock mass, recordings of about 70 MPa were taken below a horizontal fracture zone at 320 m depth. In this lower rock masses the high stresses were also illustrated by intense disking of the hollow core which made measurements impossible in large sections of the boreholes. Water injection tests were performed, mainly as double-packer tests alon the entire boreholes. For the evaluation, both stationary and transient calculation theories were used and the results show a good agreement. The hyddraulic conductivities of the rock mass vary from below 10 -10 m/s up to 10 -7 m/s. The conductivity decreases with depth, though there are zones even at great depth with high conductivity. (Author)

  5. Radiation transport in statistically inhomogeneous rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukhminskij, B.E.

    1975-01-01

    A study has been made of radiation transfer in statistically inhomogeneous rocks. Account has been taken of the statistical character of rock composition through randomization of density. Formulas are summarized for sigma-distribution, homogeneous density, the Simpson and Cauchy distributions. Consideration is given to the statistics of mean square ranges in a medium, simulated by the jump Markov random function. A quantitative criterion of rock heterogeneity is proposed

  6. Response of rocks to large stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schock, R.N.

    1976-01-01

    To predict the dimensions and characteristics of impact- and explosion-induced craters, one must know the equation of state of the rocks in which the crater is formed. Recent experimental data shed light upon inelastic processes that influence the stress/strain behavior of rocks. We examine these data with a view to developing models that could be used in predicting cratering phenomena. New data is presented on the volume behavior of two dissimilar rocks subjected to tensile stresses

  7. Rock breaking methods to replace blasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Huisheng; Xie, Xinghua; Feng, Yuqing

    2018-03-01

    The method of breaking rock by blasting has a high efficiency and the cost is relatively low, but the associated vibration, flyrock, production of toxic gases since the 1970’s, the Western developed countries began to study the safety of breaking rock. This paper introduces different methods and their progress to safely break rock. Ideally, safe rock breaking would have little vibration, no fly stone, and no toxic gases, which can be widely used in municipal engineering, road excavation, high-risk mining, quarrying and complex environment.

  8. Hopi and Anasazi Alignments and Rock Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Bryan C.

    The interaction of light and shadow on ancestral Puebloan rock art, or rock art demarcating sunrise/set horizon points that align with culturally significant dates, has long been assumed to be evidence of "intentional construct" for marking time or event by the native creator. However, anthropological rock art research requires the scientific control of cultural time, element orientation and placement, structure, and association with other rock art elements. The evaluation of five exemplars challenges the oft-held assumption that "if the interaction occurs, it therefore supports intentional construct" and thereby conveys meaning to the native culture.

  9. Professional users handbook for rock bolting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stillborg, B.

    1986-01-01

    The paper is a practical handbook which reviews the basic principles of rock bolting and sets out the design considerations used for most types of rockbolts in current use. It discusses the characteristics of these bolts and gives information on installation procedures and the observations and measurement of rockbolt performance. Rockbolting is considered under the following chapter headings: review of typical rockbolt systems; rockbolt installation; testing of rockbolts; design considerations; design of rock reinforcement; monitoring; cost of rock bolting; and Atlas Lopco auxillary equipment for rock bolting. 45 refs.

  10. Tunnel Design by Rock Mass Classifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Engineering," revised second edition, Institution of Mining and Metallurgy, London, 1977, pp 113-115 and 150-192. 42. Selmer - Olsen , R., and Broch, E...to wall when a)/03 > 10, re- stability) ................ 10-5 0.66-0.33 0.5-2.0 duce oc and ot to L. Mild rock burst (massive 0.6 cc and 0.6 on rock ...5-2.5 0.33-0.16 5-10 where: 0 c = uncon-fined compression M. Heavy rock burst (massive strength, at = rock

  11. Igneous rocks formed by hypervelocity impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osinski, Gordon R.; Grieve, Richard A. F.; Bleacher, Jacob E.; Neish, Catherine D.; Pilles, Eric A.; Tornabene, Livio L.

    2018-03-01

    Igneous rocks are the primary building blocks of planetary crusts. Most igneous rocks originate via decompression melting and/or wet melting of protolith lithologies within planetary interiors and their classification and compositional, petrographic, and textural characteristics, are well-studied. As our exploration of the Solar System continues, so too does the inventory of intrusive and extrusive igneous rocks, settings, and processes. The results of planetary exploration have also clearly demonstrated that impact cratering is a ubiquitous geological process that has affected, and will continue to affect, all planetary objects with a solid surface, whether that be rock or ice. It is now recognized that the production of igneous rocks is a fundamental outcome of hypervelocity impact. The goal of this review is to provide an up-to-date synthesis of our knowledge and understanding of igneous rocks formed by hypervelocity impact. Following a brief overview of the basics of the impact process, we describe how and why melts are generated during impact events and how impact melting differs from endogenic igneous processes. While the process may differ, we show that the products of hypervelocity impact can share close similarities with volcanic and shallow intrusive igneous rocks of endogenic origin. Such impact melt rocks, as they are termed, can display lobate margins and cooling cracks, columnar joints and at the hand specimen and microscopic scale, such rocks can display mineral textures that are typical of volcanic rocks, such as quench crystallites, ophitic, porphyritic, as well as features such as vesicles, flow textures, and so on. Historically, these similarities led to the misidentification of some igneous rocks now known to be impact melt rocks as being of endogenic origin. This raises the question as to how to distinguish between an impact versus an endogenic origin for igneous-like rocks on other planetary bodies where fieldwork and sample analysis may not

  12. Regulation of ROCK Activity in Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan-Fisher, Marie; Wewer, Ulla M.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer-associated changes in cellular behavior, such as modified cell-cell contact, increased migratory potential, and generation of cellular force, all require alteration of the cytoskeleton. Two homologous mammalian serine/threonine kinases, Rho-associated protein kinases (ROCK I and II), are key regulators of the actin cytoskeleton acting downstream of the small GTPase Rho. ROCK is associated with cancer progression, and ROCK protein expression is elevated in several types of cancer. ROCKs exist in a closed, inactive conformation under quiescent conditions, which is changed to an open, active conformation by the direct binding of guanosine triphosphate (GTP)–loaded Rho. In recent years, a number of ROCK isoform-specific binding partners have been found to modulate the kinase activity through direct interactions with the catalytic domain or via altered cellular localization of the kinases. Thus, these findings demonstrate additional modes to regulate ROCK activity. This review describes the molecular mechanisms of ROCK activity regulation in cancer, with emphasis on ROCK isoform-specific regulation and interaction partners, and discusses the potential of ROCKs as therapeutic targets in cancer. PMID:23204112

  13. Remarks on some rock neutron parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czubek, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    A method to calculate the thermal neutron parameters (absorption cross-section, diffusion coefficient and diffusion length) of rocks is given. It is based on a proper energy averaging of cross-sections for all rock matrix and rock saturating liquid constituents. Special emphasis is given to the presence of hydrogen. The diffusion lengths in different lithologies in the function of the variable rock porosity have been calculated. An influence of the thermal neutron spectrum on the shape of the porosity calibration curves for the dual spacing neutron method is shown. This influence has been estimated on two porosity units, on average. (author)

  14. Sorption of radionuclides on hard rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.A.; Bourke, P.J.; Green, A.; Littleboy, A.K.

    1987-09-01

    Methods for measuring sorption on hard rocks, particularly of strontium, caesium, neptunium and americium on Darley Dale sandstone and Welsh slate have been investigated. The methods tried included batch tests with crushed rock and tests of simultaneous diffusion and convection with sorption on intact rock. High pressures (800m H 2 O) were used in the convective tests to pump water quickly through the rock samples and to measure high sorptivities in times shorter than those needed in the diffusive methods with intact samples. (author)

  15. Monitoring of Pre-Load on Rock Bolt Using Piezoceramic-Transducer Enabled Time Reversal Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Linsheng; Wang, Bo; Chen, Dongdong; Song, Gangbing

    2017-10-27

    Rock bolts ensure structural stability for tunnels and many other underground structures. The pre-load on a rock bolt plays an important role in the structural reinforcement and it is vital to monitor the pre-load status of rock bolts. In this paper, a rock bolt pre-load monitoring method based on the piezoceramic enabled time reversal method is proposed. A lead zirconate titanate (PZT) patch transducer, which works as an actuator to generate stress waves, is bonded onto the anchor plate of the rock bolt. A smart washer, which is fabricated by sandwiching a PZT patch between two metal rings, is installed between the hex nut and the anchor plate along the rock bolt. The smart washer functions as a sensor to detect the stress wave. With the increase of the pre-load values on the rock bolt, the effective contact surface area between the smart washer and the anchor plate, benefiting the stress wave propagation crossing the contact surface. With the help of time reversal technique, experimental results reveal that the magnitude of focused signal clearly increases with the increase of the pre-load on a rock bolt before the saturation which happens beyond a relatively high value of the pre-load. The proposed method provides an innovative and real time means to monitor the pre-load level of a rock bolt. By employing this method, the pre-load degradation process on a rock bolt can be clearly monitored. Please note that, currently, the proposed method applies to only new rock bolts, on which it is possible to install the PZT smart washer.

  16. Sorption data bases for generic Swiss argillaceous rock systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradbury, M. H.; Baeyens, B.; Thoenen, T.

    2010-09-01

    In Switzerland the site selection procedure for both high level waste (HLW) and low and intermediate level waste (L/ILW) repositories is specified by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy in the Sectoral Plan for Deep Geological Repositories. In the forthcoming stage 2 of this plan, potential sites will be identified within regions previously selected based on the presence of suitable host rocks, namely Opalinus Clay, 'Brauner Dogger', Effingen Member and Helvetic Marl. Preliminary safety analyses are an integral part of this procedure, and require, amongst other information, the radionuclide sorption properties of the host rock. This report describes a methodology to develop a Generic Rock Sorption Data Base (GR-SDB) for argillaceous rocks. The method will be used to compile specific SDBs for the above mentioned host rocks. Arguments are presented that the main factor influencing sorption on argillaceous rocks is the phyllosilicate mineral content. These minerals are particularly effective at binding metals to their surfaces by cation exchange and surface complexation. Generally, the magnitude of sorption is directly correlated with the phyllosilicate content (2:1 type clays: illite/smectite/illitesmectite mixed layers), and this parameter best reflects the sorption potential of a given mineral assembly. Consequently, sorption measurements on illite were preferably used as source data for the GR-SDB. The second component influencing radionuclide sorption is the porewater chemistry. In the present report, generic water compositions were extracted from the analytical ranges of deep ground waters in various sedimentary formations in Switzerland. In order to cover the range of ionic strength (I) and pH values of Swiss ground waters in argillaceous rocks, five types of generic water compositions were defined, combining low, intermediate and high values of ionic strength and pH. The GR-SDB for in situ conditions was derived using conversion factors (CF). As the name

  17. Heat production rate from radioactive elements in igneous and metamorphic rocks in Eastern Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbady, Adel G.E.; El-Arabi, A.M.; Abbady, A.

    2006-01-01

    Radioactive heat-production data of Igneous and Metamorphic outcrops in the Eastern Desert are presented. Samples were analysed using a low level gamma-ray spectrometer (HPGe) in the laboratory. A total of 205 rock samples were investigated, covering all major rock types of the area. The heat-production rate of igneous rocks ranges from 0.11 (basalt) to 9.53 μW m -3 (granite). In metamorphic rocks it varies from 0.28 (serpentinite ) to 0.91 μW m -3 (metagabbro). The contribution due to U is about 51%, as that from Th is 31% and 18% from K. The corresponding values in igneous rocks are 76%, 19% and 5%, respectively. The calculated values showed good agreement with global values except in some areas containing granites

  18. Petrography and geochemistry of rocks from the sor-rondane mountains, droning Maude land, eastern Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, S.S.; Shah, M.T.; Jan, M.Q.; Majid, M.

    1999-01-01

    Mamyu rock specimens, were collected from the sor-rondane mountains and Breid Bay area of Drojnning Maud land, eastern Antarctica, during the 2nd Pakistan Antarctic Expedition, 1992-93. Petrography and geochemical studies suggest that the rocks are essentially of igneous origin. The samples dredged from ocean bottom include olivine basalt, amygdaloidal volcanics, dacites and rhyodacites. A majority of these rocks are calc-alkaline and formed by the fraction of olivine, clinopyroxene and plagioclase +- titanomagnetite. Most of these rocks apparently formed in an island arc or continental margin set up. However, volcanics showing ocean floor basalt character are also present. A metamorphosed and deformed basement consisting of amphibolites, calc-silicate rocks and gneisses is intrude by under formed or only slightly deformed granites with a minor arkosic sandstone cover. The granites are chemically distinguished as I-type, originate at deeper crystal level by collisional/subduction related processes during organic environments. (author)

  19. Study of natural radioactivity in the rocks of Coorg District, Karnataka State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, M.M; KaliPrasad, C.S.; Narayana, Y.

    2016-01-01

    The paper deals with the study of natural radioactivity in the rocks of Coorg district, Karnataka state. The level of terrestrial radiation are related to the geological composition of the region, and to the concentration of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in rock. Rocks are used in various construction activities, which also have these natural radionuclides. Hence, a study was done to assess the concentration of these radionuclides in rock samples. Coorg lies along the eastern slopes of Western Ghats, which is in the south western side of Karnataka state. The rock samples were collected from different locations of Coorg. The samples were crushed, ovendried and sieved through 240µm sieve. The sieved samples were sealed in a plastic container of 300ml and stored for 30 days

  20. The analysis of pigments on rock surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fankhauser, B.; O'Connor, S.; Pittelkow, Y.

    1997-01-01

    A limestone slab of roof fall coated with a red pigment was recovered from a Rockshelter in the Napier Ranges of the Kimberley region, Western Australia. Next to the roof fall fragment in the same stratigraphic layer was a piece of ochre. Three questions were presented: (1) is the red substance an ochre? (2) is the piece of ochre identical to the red substance on the roof fall? and (3) are the layers of pigment on the top and bottom of the limestone slab the same? In addition, as an extension from these questions, a general method was developed for the in situ analysis of ochre pigments on substrates to determine likely compositions and ochre sources. The analysis of the red pigment presented an analytical problem because the substance was intimately associated with the rock slab and therefore the analysis had to be done in situ. Not only was the red layer thin, but on a micro level it was uneven. Energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDXA) penetrated the red layer, simultaneously analysing this layer and the rock substrate to different degrees depending upon the thickness of the red layer. Determining if the substance was actually ochre involved a comparison of elemental analyses between the background (slab) and background with red coating. Coatings of other ochres with known elemental concentrations on the same limestone background gave a comparison of the effect of simultaneously analysing a thin layer and background with different compositions. Three graphical methods useful for insitu analysis are demeonstrated. The find dates (around 40,000 BP) add to a growing body of data in support of the widespread use of ochre accompanying the earliest documented use of widely separated and environmentally diverse regions of Australia by Aboriginal people

  1. The analysis of pigments on rock surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fankhauser, B.; O`Connor, S. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia). Division of Archaeology and Natural History; Pittelkow, Y. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia). Coombs Computing Unit

    1997-12-31

    A limestone slab of roof fall coated with a red pigment was recovered from a Rockshelter in the Napier Ranges of the Kimberley region, Western Australia. Next to the roof fall fragment in the same stratigraphic layer was a piece of ochre. Three questions were presented: (1) is the red substance an ochre? (2) is the piece of ochre identical to the red substance on the roof fall? and (3) are the layers of pigment on the top and bottom of the limestone slab the same? In addition, as an extension from these questions, a general method was developed for the in situ analysis of ochre pigments on substrates to determine likely compositions and ochre sources. The analysis of the red pigment presented an analytical problem because the substance was intimately associated with the rock slab and therefore the analysis had to be done in situ. Not only was the red layer thin, but on a micro level it was uneven. Energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDXA) penetrated the red layer, simultaneously analysing this layer and the rock substrate to different degrees depending upon the thickness of the red layer. Determining if the substance was actually ochre involved a comparison of elemental analyses between the background (slab) and background with red coating. Coatings of other ochres with known elemental concentrations on the same limestone background gave a comparison of the effect of simultaneously analysing a thin layer and background with different compositions. Three graphical methods useful for insitu analysis are demeonstrated. The find dates (around 40,000 BP) add to a growing body of data in support of the widespread use of ochre accompanying the earliest documented use of widely separated and environmentally diverse regions of Australia by Aboriginal people.

  2. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Annual report 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-04-01

    The Aespoe HRL has been constructed as part of the preparations for the deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel in Sweden. Geoscientific investigations on Aespoe and nearby islands began 1986. Since then, bedrock conditions have been investigated by several deep boreholes. The Aespoe research village has been built and extensive underground construction work has been undertaken in parallel with comprehensive research. This has resulted in a thorough test of methods for investigation and evaluation of bedrock conditions for construction of a deep repository. The objective of the ZEDEX project is to compare the mechanical disturbance to the rock for excavation by tunnel boring and blasting. The results indicate that the role of the EDZ as a preferential pathway to radionuclide transport is limited to the damaged zone. The tracer retention understanding experiments are made to gain a better understanding of radionuclide retention in the rock and create confidence in the radionuclide transport models. During 1996 a series of tracer experiments in radially converging and dipole flow configuration have been performed. A special borehole probe has been designed for different kinds of retention experiments where data can be obtained representative for the in situ properties of groundwater at repository depth. The prototype repository test is focused on testing and demonstrating repository system function, and includes backfill and plug tests and demonstration of methods for deposition and retrieval of canisters in a new tunnel at the 420 m level. The long term tests of buffer material aim to validate models of buffer performance and at quantifying clay buffer alteration processes at adverse conditions. 80 refs, 53 figs, 16 tabs

  3. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Annual report 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    The Aespoe HRL has been constructed as part of the preparations for the deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel in Sweden. Geoscientific investigations on Aespoe and nearby islands began 1986. Since then, bedrock conditions have been investigated by several deep boreholes. The Aespoe research village has been built and extensive underground construction work has been undertaken in parallel with comprehensive research. This has resulted in a thorough test of methods for investigation and evaluation of bedrock conditions for construction of a deep repository. The objective of the ZEDEX project is to compare the mechanical disturbance to the rock for excavation by tunnel boring and blasting. The results indicate that the role of the EDZ as a preferential pathway to radionuclide transport is limited to the damaged zone. The tracer retention understanding experiments are made to gain a better understanding of radionuclide retention in the rock and create confidence in the radionuclide transport models. During 1996 a series of tracer experiments in radially converging and dipole flow configuration have been performed. A special borehole probe has been designed for different kinds of retention experiments where data can be obtained representative for the in situ properties of groundwater at repository depth. The prototype repository test is focused on testing and demonstrating repository system function, and includes backfill and plug tests and demonstration of methods for deposition and retrieval of canisters in a new tunnel at the 420 m level. The long term tests of buffer material aim to validate models of buffer performance and at quantifying clay buffer alteration processes at adverse conditions. 80 refs, 53 figs, 16 tabs.

  4. Light element geochemistry and spallogenesis in lunar rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Des Marais, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    The abundances and isotopic compositions of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur were measured in eleven lunar rocks. Samples were combusted sequentially at three temperatures to resolve terrestrial contamination from indigenous volatiles. Sulfur abundances in Apollo 16 highland rocks range from 73 to 1165 μg/g, whereas sulfur contents in Apollo 15 and 17 basalts range from 719 to 1455 μg/g and correlate with TiO 2 content. Lunar rocks as a group have a remarkably uniform sulfur isotopic composition, which may reflect the low oxygen fugacity of the basaltic magmas. Much of the range of reported delta 34 Ssub(CD) values is caused by systematic analytical discrepancies between laboratories. Lunar rocks very likely contain less than 0.1 μg/g of nitrogen. The measured spallogenic production rate, 4.1 x 10 -6 μg 15 N/g sample/m.y., agrees remarkably closely with previous estimates. An estimate which includes all available data is 3.7 x 10 -6 μg 15 N/g sample/m.y. Lunar basalts may contain no indigenous lunar carbon in excess of procedural blank levels. Highland rocks consistently release about 1 to 5 μg/g of carbon in excess of blank levels, but this carbon might either derive from ancient meteoritic debris or be a mineralogic product of terrestrial weathering. The average measured spallogenic 13 C production rate is 4.1 x 10 -6 μg 13 C/g sample/m.y. (author)

  5. Assessment of rock wool as support material for on-site sanitation: hydrodynamic and mechanical characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanko, Adrien; Laurent, Julien; Bois, Paul; Mosé, Robert; Wagner-Kocher, Christiane; Bahlouli, Nadia; Tiffay, Serge; Braun, Bouke; Provo kluit, Pieter-Willem

    2016-01-01

    This study proposes mechanical and hydrodynamic characterization of rock wool used as support material in compact filter. A double-pronged approach, based on experimental simulation of various physical states of this material was done. First of all a scanning electron microscopy observation allows to highlight the fibrous network structure, the fibres sizing distribution and the atomic absorption spectrum. The material was essentially lacunar with 97 ± 2% of void space. Static compression tests on variably saturated rock wool samples provide the fact that the strain/stress behaviours depend on both the sample conditioning and the saturation level. Results showed that water exerts plastifying effect on mechanical behaviour of rock wool. The load-displacement curves and drainage evolution under different water saturation levels allowed exhibiting hydraulic retention capacities under stress. Finally, several tracer experiments on rock wool column considering continuous and batch feeding flow regime allowed: (i) to determine the flow model for each test case and the implications for water dynamic in rock wool medium, (ii) to assess the rock wool double porosity and discuss its advantages for wastewater treatment, (iii) to analyse the benefits effect for water treatment when the high level of rock wool hydric retention was associated with the plug-flow effect, and (iv) to discuss the practical contributions for compact filter conception and management.

  6. Hydrogeomechanics for rock engineering: coupling subsurface hydrogeomechanical assessement and hydrogeotechnical mapping on fracturated rock masses

    OpenAIRE

    Meirinhos, João Miguel de Freitas

    2015-01-01

    The present work aims to achieve and further develop a hydrogeomechanical approach in Caldas da Cavaca hydromineral system rock mass (Aguiar da Beira, NW Portugal), and contribute to a better understanding of the hydrogeological conceptual site model. A collection of several data, namely geology, hydrogeology, rock and soil geotechnics, borehole hydraulics and hydrogeomechanics, was retrieved from three rock slopes (Lagoa, Amores and Cancela). To accomplish a comprehensive analysis and rock e...

  7. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Annual Report 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-06-01

    origin and age of matrix fluids, i.e. accessible pore water, in fissures and small-scale fractures and their possible influence on fluid chemistry in the bedrock. When the EC-project EQUIP, which concentrated on the formulation of a methodology for how to conduct a palaeo hydrogeological study, ended in 2000 there was a need for continued fracture mineral investigations and model testing of the obtained results and a new EC-project was initiated in the beginning of 2002. This project is called PADAMOT (Palaeo hydrogeological Data Analysis and Model Testing) and includes further developments of analytical techniques and modelling tools to interpret data, but also further research to investigate specific processes that might link climate and groundwater properties in low permeability rocks. The project Demonstration of repository technology provides a full-scale demonstration of canister deposition under radiation-shielded conditions and works with testing of canister and bentonite handling in full size deposition holes. The Prototype Repository project focuses on testing and demonstrating repository system function in full scale and is co-funded by the EC. The experiment comprises six full size canisters with electrical heaters surrounded by bentonite. The Backfill and Plug Test is a test of the hydraulic and mechanical function of different backfill materials, emplacement methods, and a full-scale plug. The 28 m long test region is located in the ZEDEX drift. The inner part of the drift is backfilled with a mixture of bentonite and crushed rock and the outer part is filled with crushed rock. The wetting of the backfill started late 1999 and the final step of increasing the water pressure in the mats to 500 kPa was taken in January 2002. The Canister Retrieval Test, located in the main test area at the 420 m level, is aiming at demonstrating the readiness for recovering of emplaced canisters also after the time when the bentonite is fully saturated. The Long Term Test of

  8. The Changes of P-fractions and Solubility of Phosphate Rock in Ultisol Treated by Organic Matter and Phosphate Rock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heru Bagus Pulunggono

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P is one of the essential elements for plant, however, its availability is mostly very low in acid soils. It is well documented that application of phosphate rock and organic matter are able to change the level of availability of P-form in acid soils. The objective of the research were to evaluate the changes of P-fractions ( resin-P, NaHCO3-Pi, and NaHCO3-Po and phosphate rock dissolution which were induced by application of organic matter (Imperata cylindrica, Pueraria javanica, dan Colopogonium mucunoides and phosphate rock in Utisol Lampung. The experiment was designed in a completely randomized design with three factors and three replications. The first factor was the types of organic matter (I. cylindrica, P. javanica, and C. mucunoides, the second factor was the rate of organic matter (0, 2.5, and 5%, and the third factor was the rate of phosphate rock (0, 40, and 80 mg P kg-1. The results showed that in the rate of 0 and 1% organic matter, the type of organic matter did not affect P-fraction of NaHCO3-Pi, but in the rate of 2.5 and 5%, NaHCO3-Pi due to application of P. javanica, and C. mucunoides higher than due to application of I. cylindrica. However, the increasing rate of organic matter increased NaHCO3-Pi. Then, P-fraction of Resin-Pi was affected by the type of organic matter, the rate of organic matter, and the rate of phosphate rock, respectively. P-fraction of resin-Pi due to application of P. javanica, and C. mucunoides was higher than due to application of I. cylindrica, but the effect of P. javanica, and C. mucunoides was not different. Increasing the rate of organic matter and phosphate rock increased P-fraction of resin-Pi and NaHCO3-Pi, but P-fraction of NaHCO3-Po was not affected by all treatments. Meanwhile, dissolution of phosphate rock was affected by the kind of organic matter and soil reaction. In the rate of 5% organic matter, dissolution of phosphate rock by application of I. cylindrica (70% was higher

  9. Abiogenic methanogenesis in crystalline rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lollar, B.S.; Frape, S.K. (Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)); Weise, S.M. (Institut fuer Hydrologie (G.S.F), Neuherberg (Germany)); Fritz, P. (UFZ, Umweltforschungszentrum, Leipzig-Halle (Germany)); Macko, S.A. (Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)); Welhan, J.A. (Idaho State Univ., Pacatello, ID (United States))

    1993-12-01

    Isotopically anomalous CH[sub 4]-rich gas deposits are found in mining sites on both the Canadian and Fennoscandian shields. With [delta][sup 13]C[sub CH4] values from -22.4 to -48.5% and [delta]D[sub CH4] values from -133 to -372%, these methane deposits cannot be accounted for by conventional processes for bacterial or thermogenic methanogenesis. Compositionally the gases are similar to other CH[sub 4]-rich gas occurrences found in Canadian and Fennoscandian shield rocks. However, the isotopically anomalous gases of this study are characterized by unexpectedly high concentrations of H[sub 2] gas, ranging from several volume percent up to 30 vol%. The H[sub 2] gases are consistently depleted in the heavy isotope, with [delta]D[sub H[sub 2

  10. Rho-GTPase effector ROCK phosphorylates cofilin in actin-meditated cytokinesis during mouse oocyte meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xing; Liu, Jun; Dai, Xiao-Xin; Liu, Hong-Lin; Cui, Xiang-Shun; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Wang, Zhen-Bo; Wang, Qiang; Sun, Shao-Chen

    2014-02-01

    During oocyte meiosis, a spindle forms in the central cytoplasm and migrates to the cortex. Subsequently, the oocyte extrudes a small body and forms a highly polarized egg; this process is regulated primarily by actin. ROCK is a Rho-GTPase effector that is involved in various cellular functions, such as stress fiber formation, cell migration, tumor cell invasion, and cell motility. In this study, we investigated possible roles for ROCK in mouse oocyte meiosis. ROCK was localized around spindles after germinal vesicle breakdown and was colocalized with cytoplasmic actin and mitochondria. Disrupting ROCK activity by RNAi or an inhibitor resulted in cell cycle progression and polar body extrusion failure. Time-lapse microscopy showed that this may have been due to spindle migration and cytokinesis defects, as chromosomes segregated but failed to extrude a polar body and then realigned. Actin expression at oocyte membranes and in cytoplasm was significantly decreased after these treatments. Actin caps were also disrupted, which was confirmed by a failure to form cortical granule-free domains. The mitochondrial distribution was also disrupted, which indicated that mitochondria were involved in the ROCK-mediated actin assembly. In addition, the phosphorylation levels of Cofilin, a downstream molecule of ROCK, decreased after disrupting ROCK activity. Thus, our results indicated that a ROCK-Cofilin-actin pathway regulated meiotic spindle migration and cytokinesis during mouse oocyte maturation.

  11. Avaliação do fosfato de rocha com baixo teor de flúor na alimentação de eqüinos em crescimento Evaluation of rock phosphate with low fluorine level in diets for growing horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Dal Secco de Oliveira

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available Utilizaram-se 18 potras com idade média de 11 meses e peso vivo médio de 250 kg, alimentadas com 3 dietas contendo fosfato bicálcico (FB; 50% de fosfato bicálcico mais 50% fosfato de rocha de Tapira (BT e fosfato de rocha de Tapira (FT, incorporados ao concentrado (1,5% do peso vivo/animal/dia e ao sal mineralizado (50 g/animal/dia. O nível médio de flúor nas dietas FB, BT e FT foi, respectivamente, de 53,0; 90,0 e 184,0 ppm. O consumo diferenciado de fluoreto nas diferentes dietas não acarretou efeitos sobre os parâmetros ganho de peso, perímetro torácico, perímetro do joelho e perímetro da canela. Os animais que receberam a dieta contendo exclusivamente fosfato de rocha apresentaram menor aumento de altura na cernelha (1,27cm quando comparados àqueles que receberam dietas contendo fosfato bicálcico (1,55 e 1,30cm.Eighteen fillies of Brasileiro de Hipismo breed with initial age between 9 and 12 months and 250kg of average weight were used in a complete block design, during a five-month trial to evaluate the use of three different inorganic phosphorus sources. The sources were dicalcium phosphate (FB, half and half dicalcium phosphate/Tapira rock phosphate mixture (BT and Tapira rock phosphate (FT. They were added to a basal concentrate, given at the rate of 1.5% of average body weight and to a mineralized salt, of which 50 g/animal was offered daily. The mean fluoride level (concentrate plus salt in diets FB, BT and FT was 53, 90 and 184 ppm respectively. The mean monthly withers height gain was 1.55 (FB, 1.30 (BT and 1.27cm (FT and there was a significant difference between FB and FT diets.

  12. Field determination of microgram quantities of niobium in rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, F.N.; Marranzino, A.P.

    1955-01-01

    A rapid, simple, and moderately accurate method was needed for the determination of traces of niobium in rocks. The method developed is based on the reaction of niobium(V) with thiocyanate ion in a 4M hydrochloric acid and 0.5M tartaric acid medium, after which the complex is extracted with ethyl ether. The proposed procedure is applicable to rocks containing from 50 to 2000 p.p.m. of niobium, and, with modifications, can be used on rocks containing larger amounts. Five determinations on two rocks containing 100 p.p.m. or less of niobium agree within 5 p.p.m. of the mean, and the confidence limits at the 95% level are, respectively, ??6 and ??4 p.p.m. The addition of acetone to the ether extract of the niobium thiocyanate inhibits the polymerization of the thiocyanate ion and stabilizes the solution for at least 20 hours. The proposed procedure permits the determination of 20 ?? of niobium in the presence of 1000 ?? of iron, titanium, or uranium; 500 ?? of vanadium; or 100 ?? of tungsten or molybdenum or both.

  13. Development of artificial soft rock. Jinko nangan zairyo no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishi, K.; Nishioka, T. (The Tokyo Electric Power Co. Inc., Tokyo (Japan)); Nojiri, Y.; Kurihara, H.; Fukazawa, E. (Kajima Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1990-09-15

    When a part of the ground is replaced with artificial materials in the construction of important structures on soft rock foundations, it is desirable for the artificial materials to have the rigidity equivalent to that of the surrounding ground and to be stable in the long term. The article reports a success in the development and utilization of artificial soft rocks satisfying the above conditions by using a raw material produced locally at the construction site. The soft rock aimed at was mudstone belonging to the Neocene period, and the artificial material of soil-mortal system is selected as the equivalent having the same physical properties. Improvements in selection of solidification agents and cohesive soil were especially contrived: taht is, a new material for solidification was developed by mixing blast-furnace cement and gypsum; and the mudstone on the site was used as the cohesive soil by slurrying it to adjust its grain size to homogeneous composition. The artificial soft rock resulting from the above contrivance showed excellent flow, self-leveling, and filling properties at the stage of fresh mortar, and the physical properties after hardning was very similar to those of the natural ground. The long-term stability was also confirmed by the tests on hydration reaction and environmental factors. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  14. A model of pyritic oxidation in waste rock dumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, G.B.; Ritchie, A.I.M.

    1983-01-01

    The oxidation of pyrite can lead to high acid levels and high concentrations of trace metals in the water that runs off and percolates through pyritic material. This is the situation at the abandoned uranium mine at Rum Jungle in the Northern Territory of Australia, where pyritic oxidation in the waste rock dumps resulting from open cut mining of the uranium orebody has led to pollution of the nearby East Branch of the Finniss River, with trace metals such as copper, manganese and zinc. Mathematical equations are formulated which describe a model of pyritic oxidation within a waste rock dump, where it is assumed that oxygen transport is the rate limiting step in the oxidation process and that oxygen is transported by gaseous diffusion through the pore space of the dump, followed by diffusion into oxidation sites within the particles that comprise the dump. The equations have been solved numerically assuming values for such parameters as porosity, sulphur density and oxygen diffusion coefficients which are applicable to the waste rock dumps at Rum Jungle. An approximate solution to the equations is also presented. Calculations of the heat source distribution and the total SO 4 production rate are presented for both single size particles and for a range of particle sizes in the dump. The usefulness of the approximate solution, and of calculations based on single size particles in the dump in assessing the effectiveness of strategies to reduce pollution from such waste rock dumps are discussed

  15. Computational Models of Rock Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Dave A.; Spiegelman, Marc

    2017-04-01

    Practitioners in computational geodynamics, as per many other branches of applied science, typically do not analyse the underlying PDE's being solved in order to establish the existence or uniqueness of solutions. Rather, such proofs are left to the mathematicians, and all too frequently these results lag far behind (in time) the applied research being conducted, are often unintelligible to the non-specialist, are buried in journals applied scientists simply do not read, or simply have not been proven. As practitioners, we are by definition pragmatic. Thus, rather than first analysing our PDE's, we first attempt to find approximate solutions by throwing all our computational methods and machinery at the given problem and hoping for the best. Typically this approach leads to a satisfactory outcome. Usually it is only if the numerical solutions "look odd" that we start delving deeper into the math. In this presentation I summarise our findings in relation to using pressure dependent (Drucker-Prager type) flow laws in a simplified model of continental extension in which the material is assumed to be an incompressible, highly viscous fluid. Such assumptions represent the current mainstream adopted in computational studies of mantle and lithosphere deformation within our community. In short, we conclude that for the parameter range of cohesion and friction angle relevant to studying rocks, the incompressibility constraint combined with a Drucker-Prager flow law can result in problems which have no solution. This is proven by a 1D analytic model and convincingly demonstrated by 2D numerical simulations. To date, we do not have a robust "fix" for this fundamental problem. The intent of this submission is to highlight the importance of simple analytic models, highlight some of the dangers / risks of interpreting numerical solutions without understanding the properties of the PDE we solved, and lastly to stimulate discussions to develop an improved computational model of

  16. Hydraulic conductivity of rock fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, R.W.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    1994-10-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada contains numerous geological units that are highly fractured. A clear understanding of the hydraulic conductivity of fractures has been identified as an important scientific problem that must be addressed during the site characterization process. The problem of the flow of a single-phase fluid through a rough-walled rock fracture is discussed within the context of rigorous fluid mechanics. The derivation of the cubic law is given as the solution to the Navier-Stokes equations for flow between smooth, parallel plates, the only fracture geometry that is amenable to exact treatment. The various geometric and kinetic conditions that are necessary in order for the Navier-Stokes equations to be replaced by the more tractable lubrication or Hele-Shaw equations are studied and quantified. Various analytical and numerical results are reviewed pertaining to the problem of relating the effective hydraulic aperture to the statistics of the aperture distribution. These studies all lead to the conclusion that the effective hydraulic aperture is always less than the mean aperture, by a factor that depends on the ratio of the mean value of the aperture to its standard deviation. The tortuosity effect caused by regions where the rock walls are in contact with each other is studied using the Hele-Shaw equations, leading to a simple correction factor that depends on the area fraction occupied by the contact regions. Finally, the predicted hydraulic apertures are compared to measured values for eight data sets from the literature for which aperture and conductivity data were available on the same fracture. It is found that reasonably accurate predictions of hydraulic conductivity can be made based solely on the first two moments of the aperture distribution function, and the proportion of contact area. 68 refs

  17. Geotechnical site assessment for underground radioactive waste disposal in rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, J.A.

    1986-05-01

    This report contains a state-of-the-art review of the geotechnical assessment of Land 3 and Land 4 repository sites (at 100 - 300 m depth in rock) for intermediate level radioactive waste disposal. The principles established are also valid for the disposal of low and high level waste in rock. The text summarizes the results of 21 DoE research contract reports, firstly 'in series' by providing a technical review of each report and then 'in parallel' by considering the current state of knowledge in the context of the subjects in an interaction matrix framework. 1214 references are cited. It is concluded that four further research projects are required for site assessment procedures to be developed or confirmed. These are coupled modelling, mechanical properties, water flow and establishment of 2 phase site assessment procedures. (author)

  18. Coupled heat and groundwater flow in porous rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rae, J.; Robinson, P.C.; Wickens, L.M.

    1983-01-01

    There are a number of technical areas where coupled heat and flow problems occur for water in porous rock. The area of most interest to the authors has been the possible disposal underground of high-level radioactive waste. High-level waste can emit enough heat to drive significant flows by buoyancy effects and groundwater flow is expected to be the chief transport process for solute leached from such a repository. The possible disposal of radioactive waste under the seabed raises many similar questions and needs similar techniques to find answers. Other areas where related questions arise are the storage and retrieval of hot water in underground reservoirs, the attempts to extract useful geothermal energy by pumping water into fracture systems in hot rock and in certain thermal techniques for persuading oil to flow in tight reservoirs. The authors address questions in a rather general way and give examples which lie more in the area of waste disposal

  19. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Annual Report 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-06-15

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL), in the Simpevarp area in the municipality of Oskarshamn constitutes an important part of SKB's work with the design and construction of a deep geological repository for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. One of the fundamental reasons behind SKB's decision to construct an underground laboratory was to create an opportunity for research, development and demonstration in a realistic and undisturbed rock environment down to repository depth. The underground part of the laboratory consists of a tunnel from the Simpevarp peninsula to the southern part of Aespoe where the tunnel continues in a spiral down to a depth of 460 m. Aespoe HRL has been in operation since 1995 and considerable international interest has been shown in its associated research, as well as in the development and demonstration tasks. Most of the research is focused on processes of importance for the long-term safety of a final repository for spent nuclear fuel. Demonstration addresses the performance of the engineered barriers and practical means of constructing and operating a repository for spent fuel. To meet the overall time schedule for SKB's RD and D work, the following stage goals were initially defined for the work at the Aespoe HRL: 1. Verify pre-investigation methods. Demonstrate that investigations on the ground surface and in boreholes provide sufficient data on essential safety-related properties of the rock at repository level. 2. Finalise detailed investigation methodology. Refine and verify the methods and the technology needed for characterisation of the rock in the detailed site investigations. 3. Test models for description of the barrier functions at natural conditions. Further develop, and at repository depth, test methods and models for description of groundwater flow, radionuclide migration and chemical conditions during operation of a repository and after closure. 4. Demonstrate technology for and function of important

  20. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Annual Report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL), in the Simpevarp area in the municipality of Oskarshamn constitutes an important part of SKB's work with the design and construction of a deep geological repository for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. One of the fundamental reasons behind SKB's decision to construct an underground laboratory was to create an opportunity for research, development and demonstration in a realistic and undisturbed rock environment down to repository depth. The underground part of the laboratory consists of a tunnel from the Simpevarp peninsula to the southern part of Aespoe where the tunnel continues in a spiral down to a depth of 460 m. Aespoe HRL has been in operation since 1995 and considerable international interest has been shown in its associated research, as well as in the development and demonstration tasks. Most of the research is focused on processes of importance for the long-term safety of a final repository for spent nuclear fuel. Demonstration addresses the performance of the engineered barriers and practical means of constructing and operating a repository for spent fuel. To meet the overall time schedule for SKB's RD and D work, the following stage goals were initially defined for the work at the Aespoe HRL: 1. Verify pre-investigation methods. Demonstrate that investigations on the ground surface and in boreholes provide sufficient data on essential safety-related properties of the rock at repository level. 2. Finalise detailed investigation methodology. Refine and verify the methods and the technology needed for characterisation of the rock in the detailed site investigations. 3. Test models for description of the barrier functions at natural conditions. Further develop, and at repository depth, test methods and models for description of groundwater flow, radionuclide migration and chemical conditions during operation of a repository and after closure. 4. Demonstrate technology for and function of important parts of the

  1. The History of Rock Art Research

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. The History of Rock Art Research. Rock art in South India was discovered as early as 1891.The earliest discovery of petroglyphs on the Koppagallu hill in Bellary district was made by Fred Fawcett (1892) who with the assistance of H.T.Knox and Robert Sewell ...

  2. Using Rock Music To Teach History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Paul Dennis

    1985-01-01

    A secondary history teacher describes how he uses rock and roll music to help students study and interpret modern American history. Besides being a lot of fun to teach, a rock unit makes students realize that even contemporary music has a place in history. (RM)

  3. A guide for rock identification. 4. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pape, H.

    1981-01-01

    The book is based on a practical course for students of geology, mineralogy, geography, and constructional engineering. It will also help interested laymen to identify rocks. Tables are presented which guide the reader in his analysis, so that he will quickly arrive at the name of a rock, the group to which it belongs, and some information on its characteristics and origin. (orig.) [de

  4. Rock Cycle. K-6 Science Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blueford, J. R.; And Others

    Rock Cycle is one of the units of a K-6 unified science curriculum program. The unit consists of four organizing sub-themes: (1) chemistry (introducing the topics of matter, elements, compounds, and chemical bonding); (2) characteristics (presenting hands-on activities with rocks and minerals); (3) minerals (emphasizing the aesthetic and economic…

  5. Phosphine from rocks: mechanically driven phosphate reduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glindemann, Dietmar; Edwards, Marc; Morgenstern, Peter

    2005-11-01

    Natural rock and mineral samples released trace amounts of phosphine during dissolution in mineral acid. An order of magnitude more phosphine (average 1982 ng PH3 kg rock and maximum 6673 ng PH3/kg rock) is released from pulverized rock samples (basalt, gneiss, granite, clay, quartzitic pebbles, or marble). Phosphine was correlated to hardness and mechanical pulverization energy of the rocks. The yield of PH3 ranged from 0 to 0.01% of the total P content of the dissolved rock. Strong circumstantial evidence was gathered for reduction of phosphate in the rock via mechanochemical or "tribochemical" weathering at quartz and calcite/marble inclusions. Artificial reproduction of this mechanism by rubbing quartz rods coated with apatite-phosphate to the point of visible triboluminescence, led to detection of more than 70 000 ng/kg PH3 in the apatite. This reaction pathway may be considered a mechano-chemical analogue of phosphate reduction from lightning or electrical discharges and may contribute to phosphine production via tectonic forces and processing of rocks.

  6. Cenozoic volcanic rocks of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, R.G.; Gregory, R.T.; Brown, G.F.

    2016-01-01

    The Cenozoic volcanic rocks of Saudi Arabia cover about 90,000 km2, one of the largest areas of alkali olivine basalt in the world. These volcanic rocks are in 13 separate fields near the eastern coast of the Red Sea and in the western Arabian Peninsula highlands from Syria southward to the Yemen Arab Republic.

  7. Expression Analysis of Interferon-Stimulated Gene 15 in the Rock Bream Oplegnathus fasciatus against Rock Bream Iridovirus (RSIV) Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung-Hee; Yang, In Jung; Kim, Woo-Jin; Park, Choul-Ji; Park, Jong-Won; Noh, Gyeong Eon; Lee, Seunghyung; Lee, Young Mee; Hwang, Hyung Kyu; Kim, Hyun Chul

    2017-12-01

    Interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) is known to interfere with viral replication and infection by limiting the viral infection of cells. Interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) interferes with viral replication and infectivity by limiting viral infection in cells. It also plays an important role in the immune response. In this study, tissue-specific expression of ISG15 in healthy rock bream samples and spatial and temporal expression analysis of rock bream ISG15 (RbISG15) were performed following rock bream iridovirus (RSIV) infection. RbISG15 expression was significantly higher in the eye, gill, intestine, kidney, liver, muscle, spleen, and stomach, but low in the brain. There were particularly high levels of expression in the liver and muscle. RbISG15 expression was also examined in several tissues and at various times following RSIV infection. ISG15 expression increased within 3 h in the whole body and decreased at 24 h after infection. In addition, temporal expression of several tissues following RSIV infection showed a similar pattern in the muscle, kidney, and spleen, increasing at 3 h and decreasing at 72 h. These results suggest that ISG15 plays an important role in the immune response of rock bream. Overall, this study characterizes the response of RbISG15 following RSIV infection.

  8. Sorption of cesium in intact rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puukko, E.

    2014-04-01

    The mass distribution coefficient K d is used in performance assessment (PA) to describe sorption of a radionuclide on rock. The R d is determined using crushed rock which causes uncertainty in converting the R d values to K d values for intact rock. This work describes a method to determine the equilibrium of sorption on intact rock. The rock types of the planned Olkiluoto waste disposal site were T-series mica gneiss (T-MGN), T-series tonalite granodiorite granite gneiss (T-TGG), P-series tonalite granodiorite granite gneiss (P-TGG) and pegmatitic granite (PGR). These rocks contain different amount of biotite which is the main sorbing mineral. The sorption of cesium on intact rock slices was studied by applying an electrical field to speed up migration of cesium into the rock. Cesium is in the solution as a noncomplex cation Cs + and it is sorbed by ion exchange. The tracer used in the experiments was 134 Cs. The experimental sorption on the intact rock is compared with values calculated using the in house cation exchange sorption model (HYRL model) in PHREEQC program. The observed sorption on T-MGN and T-TGG rocks was close to the calculated values. Two PGR samples were from a depth of 70 m and three samples were from a depth of 150 m. Cesium sorbed more than predicted on the two 70 m PGR samples. The sorption of Cs on the three 150 m PGR samples was small which was consistent with the calculations. The pegmatitic granite PGR has the smallest content of biotite of the four rock types. In the case of P-TGG rock the observed values of sorption were only half of the calculated values. Two kind of slices were cut from P-TGG drill core. The slices were against and to the direction of the foliation of the biotite rims. The sorption of cesium on P-TGG rock was same in both cases. The results indicated that there was no effect of the directions of the electric field and the foliation of biotite in the P-TGG rock. (orig.)

  9. Finding the right rocks on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargraves, R. B.; Knudsen, J. M.; Madsen, M. B.; Bertelsen, P.

    Locating a rock on the surface of Mars that bears unambiguous evidence of the existence—prior or present—of life on that planet is, understandably, the “Holy Grail” of NASAs sample return missions. Remote recognition of such a rock on Mars will not be easy. We do know, however, that present in the Martian crust—especially in the “Southern highlands”—is rock carrying strong natural remanent magnetization (NRM). Characterization of such magnetized rock has profound implications for adding to our knowledge about the origin and early evolution of the Martian interior, lithosphere, atmosphere, and possibly even Martian life forms [Ward and Brownlee, 2000]. Moreover, it should be possible to recognize such rocks by use of a simple magnetic compass mounted on a Rover.

  10. First Grinding of a Rock on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The round, shallow depression in this image resulted from history's first grinding of a rock on Mars. The rock abrasion tool on NASA's Spirit rover ground off the surface of a patch 45.5 millimeters (1.8 inches) in diameter on a rock called Adirondack during Spirit's 34th sol on Mars, Feb. 6, 2004. The hole is 2.65 millimeters (0.1 inch) deep, exposing fresh interior material of the rock for close inspection with the rover's microscopic imager and two spectrometers on the robotic arm. This image was taken by Spirit's panoramic camera, providing a quick visual check of the success of the grinding. The rock abrasion tools on both Mars Exploration Rovers were supplied by Honeybee Robotics, New York, N.Y.

  11. Disc cutter wear and rock texture in hard rock TBM tunneling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Yu; Tsusaka, Kimikazu; Tanimoto, Chikaosa; Nakagawa, Shigeo; Fujita, Naoya

    2008-01-01

    Disc cutter wear in TBM tunneling is caused by initial fragmentation of a solid rock face (the primary fragmentation) and fragmentation of residual rock pieces between a cutterhead and the face (the secondary fragmentation). In two projects through sedimentary and granitic rocks, the authors investigated the relationships between the rate of cutter wear caused by the primary fragmentation, point load index and the grain size and contents of abrasive minerals. As a result, it was found that the tensile strength and the mineral contents of rocks significantly influenced the cutter wear in both projects and thus it is necessary to take into account of rock type. (author)

  12. Alteration of submarine volcanic rocks in oxygenated Archean oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmoto, H.; Bevacqua, D.; Watanabe, Y.

    2009-12-01

    on other submarine volcanic rocks in Pilbara, Australia (~3.55 Ga to ~3.2 Ga in age) and the ~2.9 - 2.7 Ga submarine volcanic rocks in Ontario, Canada indicate that many of these rocks exhibit the same characteristics (1)-(8). Characteristics (4) was probably caused by the mixing of Ba-rich hydrothermal fluids and SO42--rich seawater; (5) and the abundance of hematite by reactions between ferrous-rich minerals and O2-rich seawater; (6) by reactions between ferrous-rich minerals and U-rich seawater; (7) by leaching of Cr from rocks by O2-rich seawater; and (8) by reactions with Ce-depleted oxidized seawater. These data suggest that the chemistry of ocean water, including the concentrations of major elements and many redox-sensitive elements/compounds (e.g., U, Ce, SO42-, and O2), has been basically the same since at least ~3.5 Ga, except for the higher ∑CO2 contents in Archean oceans. O2 contents of deep (>200 m) oceans would become zero when the atmospheric pO2 decreased to less than ~50% of the present level. Therefore, geochemical data on the Archean rocks further suggest that the atmospheric pO2 level, the fluxes of bio-essential elements to the oceans (e.g., K, PO43-, NO3-, Ba, Mo, W), and the biological productivity in the oceans, have been basically the same since at least ~3.5 Ga.

  13. Lignor process for acidic rock drainage treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, J M; Walsh, T

    2004-09-01

    The process using lignosulfonates for acidic rock drainage (ARD) treatment is referred to as the Lignor process. Lignosulfonates are waste by-products produced in the sulfite pulping process. The present study has shown lignosulfonates are able to protect lime from developing an external surface coating, and hence to favor its dissociation. Further, the addition of lignosulfonates to ARD solutions increased the dotting and settling rate of the formed sludge. The capability of lignosulfonates to form stable metal-lignin complexes makes them very useful in retaining metal ions and thus improving the long-term stability of the sludge against leaching. The Lignor process involves metal sorption with lignosulfonates, ARD neutralization by lime to about pH 7, pH adjustment with caustic soda to 9.4 - 9.6, air oxidation to lower the pH to a desired level, and addition of a minimum amount of FeCl3 for further removal of dissolved metals. The Lignor process removes all concerned metals (especially Al and Mn) from the ARD of the Britannia Mine (located at Britannia Beach, British Columbia, Canada) to a level lower than the limits of the B.C. Regulations. Compared with the high-density sludge (HDS) process, the Lignor process has many advantages, such as considerable savings in lime consumption, greatly reduced sludge volume, and improved sludge stability.

  14. Fragment Size Distribution of Blasted Rock Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jug, Jasmin; Strelec, Stjepan; Gazdek, Mario; Kavur, Boris

    2017-12-01

    Rock mass is a heterogeneous material, and the heterogeneity of rock causes sizes distribution of fragmented rocks in blasting. Prediction of blasted rock mass fragmentation has a significant role in the overall economics of opencast mines. Blasting as primary fragmentation can significantly decrease the cost of loading, transport, crushing and milling operations. Blast fragmentation chiefly depends on the specific blast design (geometry of blast holes drilling, the quantity and class of explosive, the blasting form, the timing and partition, etc.) and on the properties of the rock mass (including the uniaxial compressive strength, the rock mass elastic Young modulus, the rock discontinuity characteristics and the rock density). Prediction and processing of blasting results researchers can accomplish by a variety of existing software’s and models, one of them is the Kuz-Ram model, which is possibly the most widely used approach to estimating fragmentation from blasting. This paper shows the estimation of fragmentation using the "SB" program, which was created by the authors. Mentioned program includes the Kuz-Ram model. Models of fragmentation are confirmed and calibrated by comparing the estimated fragmentation with actual post-blast fragmentation from image processing techniques. In this study, the Kuz-Ram fragmentation model has been used for an open-pit limestone quarry in Dalmatia, southern Croatia. The resulting calibrated value of the rock factor enables the quality prognosis of fragmentation in further blasting works, with changed drilling geometry and blast design parameters. It also facilitates simulation in the program to optimize blasting works and get the desired fragmentations of the blasted rock mass.

  15. Permanganate diffusion and reaction in sedimentary rocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiuyuan; Dong, Hailiang; Towne, Rachael M; Fischer, Timothy B; Schaefer, Charles E

    2014-04-01

    In situ chemical oxidation using permanganate has frequently been used to treat chlorinated solvents in fractured bedrock aquifers. However, in systems where matrix back-diffusion is an important process, the ability of the oxidant to migrate and treat target contaminants within the rock matrix will likely determine the overall effectiveness of this remedial approach. In this study, a series of diffusion experiments were performed to measure the permanganate diffusion and reaction in four different types of sedimentary rocks (dark gray mudstone, light gray mudstone, red sandstone, and tan sandstone). Results showed that, within the experimental time frame (~2 months), oxidant migration into the rock was limited to distances less than 500 μm. The observed diffusivities for permanganate into the rock matrices ranged from 5.3 × 10(-13) to 1.3 × 10(-11) cm(2)/s. These values were reasonably predicted by accounting for both the rock oxidant demand and the effective diffusivity of the rock. Various Mn minerals formed as surface coatings from reduction of permanganate coupled with oxidation of total organic carbon (TOC), and the nature of the formed Mn minerals was dependent upon the rock type. Post-treatment tracer testing showed that these Mn mineral coatings had a negligible impact on diffusion through the rock. Overall, our results showed that the extent of permanganate diffusion and reaction depended on rock properties, including porosity, mineralogy, and organic carbon. These results have important implications for our understanding of long-term organic contaminant remediation in sedimentary rocks using permanganate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Measurements of thermal properties of rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumada, Toshiaki

    2001-02-01

    The report concerns the measurement of thermal conductivity and specific heat of supplied sedimental rock B and Funyu rock. The method of measurement of these properties was done with the method which was developed at 1997 and improved much in its accuracy by the present author et al. The porosity of sedimental rock B is 0.55, which is deduced from the density of rock (the porosity deduced from the difference between dry and water filled conditions is 0.42) and the shape and size of pores in rock are much different. Its thermal conductivity is 0.238 W/mK in dry and 1.152 W/mK in water filled conditions respectively, while the thermal conductivity of bentonite is 0.238 W/mK in dry and 1.152 W/mK in water saturated conditions. The difference of thermal conductivity between dry and water saturated conditions is little difference in sedimental rock B and bentonite at same porosity. The porosity of Funyu rock is 0.26 and the shape and size of pores in the rock are uniform. Its thermal conductivity is 0.914 W/mK in dry and 1.405 W/mK in water saturated conditions, while the thermal conductivity of bentonite is 0.606 W/mK in dry and 1.591 W/mK in water saturated conditions respectively. The correlation estimating thermal conductivity of rocks was derived based on Fricke correlation by presuming rocks as a suspension. (author)

  17. Characteristics of micro transfer paths and diffusion phenomena in the matrix of deep crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi, Masayuki; Sasao, Eiji; Hama, Katsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Matrix diffusion is one of the important phenomena for evaluating the safety of the geological disposal of high level waste because it has an effect of retarding mass transport in crystalline rocks. Previous studies indicated that the altered granitic rocks have high retardation functions due to the micropore formation associated with hydrothermal alteration; however, there has not been enough knowledge on the matrix diffusion in weakly unaltered rocks (macroscopically unaltered rocks). Since the macroscopically altered granitic rocks in Japan are likely to be affected by deuteric alteration due to hydrothermal flu resulting from crystallization of granitic magma, it is important to understand the effect of deuteric alteration on the matrix diffusion. Therefore, detailed observations were carried out to clarify the effects of deuteric alteration focused on the macroscopically unaltered granite sampled from 300 m and 500 m below ground levels at the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory, central Japan. The results provide that the micropores are selectively formed in plagioclases due to deuteric alteration and they have the potential of acting as matrix diffusion paths. This is indicating the possibility that deuteric alteration can retard the mass transport in crystalline rocks in Japan. That plays a significant role in enforcing the barrier function of crystalline rocks. (author)

  18. Chemical screening identifies ROCK as a target for recovering mitochondrial function in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyun Tae; Park, Joon Tae; Choi, Kobong; Choi, Hyo Jei Claudia; Jung, Chul Won; Kim, Gyu Ree; Lee, Young-Sam; Park, Sang Chul

    2017-06-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) constitutes a genetic disease wherein an aging phenotype manifests in childhood. Recent studies indicate that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play important roles in HGPS phenotype progression. Thus, pharmacological reduction in ROS levels has been proposed as a potentially effective treatment for patient with this disorder. In this study, we performed high-throughput screening to find compounds that could reduce ROS levels in HGPS fibroblasts and identified rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) inhibitor (Y-27632) as an effective agent. To elucidate the underlying mechanism of ROCK in regulating ROS levels, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen and discovered that ROCK1 interacts with Rac1b. ROCK activation phosphorylated Rac1b at Ser71 and increased ROS levels by facilitating the interaction between Rac1b and cytochrome c. Conversely, ROCK inactivation with Y-27632 abolished their interaction, concomitant with ROS reduction. Additionally, ROCK activation resulted in mitochondrial dysfunction, whereas ROCK inactivation with Y-27632 induced the recovery of mitochondrial function. Furthermore, a reduction in the frequency of abnormal nuclear morphology and DNA double-strand breaks was observed along with decreased ROS levels. Thus, our study reveals a novel mechanism through which alleviation of the HGPS phenotype is mediated by the recovery of mitochondrial function upon ROCK inactivation. © 2017 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Modeling fluid-rock interaction at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viani, B.E.; Bruton, C.J.

    1992-08-01

    Volcanic rocks at Yucca Mountain, Nevada aie being assessed for their suitability as a potential repository for high-level nuclear waste. Recent progress in modeling fluid-rock interactions, in particular the mineralogical and chemical changes that may accompany waste disposal at Yucca Mountain, will be reviewed in this publication. In Part 1 of this publication, ''Geochemical Modeling of Clinoptilolite-Water Interactions,'' solid-solution and cation-exchange models for the zeolite clinoptilolite are developed and compared to experimental and field observations. At Yucca Mountain, clinoptilolite which is found lining fractures and as a major component of zeolitized tuffs, is expected to play an important role in sequestering radionuclides that may escape from a potential nuclear waste repository. The solid-solution and ion-exchange models were evaluated by comparing predicted stabilities and exchangeable cation distributions of clinoptilolites with: (1) published binary exchange data; (2) compositions of coexisting clinoptilolites and formation waters at Yucca Mountain; (3) experimental sorption isotherms of Cs and Sr on zeolitized tuff, and (4) high temperature experimental data. Good agreement was found between predictions and expertmental data, especially for binary exchange and Cs and Sr sorption on clinoptilolite. Part 2 of this publication, ''Geochemical Simulation of Fluid-Rock Interactions at Yucca Mountain,'' describes preliminary numerical simulations of fluid-rock interactions at Yucca Mountain. The solid-solution model developed in the first part of the paper is used to evaluate the stability and composition of clinciptilolite and other minerals in the host rock under ambient conditions and after waste emplacement

  20. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Annual Report 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-06-01

    origin and age of matrix fluids, i.e. accessible pore water, in fissures and small-scale fractures and their possible influence on fluid chemistry in the bedrock. When the EC-project EQUIP, which concentrated on the formulation of a methodology for how to conduct a palaeo hydrogeological study, ended in 2000 there was a need for continued fracture mineral investigations and model testing of the obtained results and a new EC-project was initiated in the beginning of 2002. This project is called PADAMOT (Palaeo hydrogeological Data Analysis and Model Testing) and includes further developments of analytical techniques and modelling tools to interpret data, but also further research to investigate specific processes that might link climate and groundwater properties in low permeability rocks. The project Demonstration of repository technology provides a full-scale demonstration of canister deposition under radiation-shielded conditions and works with testing of canister and bentonite handling in full size deposition holes. The Prototype Repository project focuses on testing and demonstrating repository system function in full scale and is co-funded by the EC. The experiment comprises six full size canisters with electrical heaters surrounded by bentonite. The Backfill and Plug Test is a test of the hydraulic and mechanical function of different backfill materials, emplacement methods, and a full-scale plug. The 28 m long test region is located in the ZEDEX drift. The inner part of the drift is backfilled with a mixture of bentonite and crushed rock and the outer part is filled with crushed rock. The wetting of the backfill started late 1999 and the final step of increasing the water pressure in the mats to 500 kPa was taken in January 2002. The Canister Retrieval Test, located in the main test area at the 420 m level, is aiming at demonstrating the readiness for recovering of emplaced canisters also after the time when the bentonite is fully saturated. The Long Term Test of

  1. Studies about strength recovery and generalized relaxation behavior of rock (4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanada, Masanori; Kishi, Hirokazu; Hayashi, Katsuhiko; Takebe, Atsuji; Okubo, Seisuke

    2011-11-01

    Surrounding rock failure occurs due to the increasing stress with tunnel excavation and extent of the failure depends on rock strength and rock stress. The NATM (New Austrian Tunneling Method) assumes that supporting effects by shotcrete and rock bolt prevent rock failure maximizing the potential capability of rock mass. Recently, it was found that failed rock just behind tunnel support recovers its strength. This phenomenon should take into account in evaluation of tunnel stability and long-term mechanical behavior of rock mass after closure of a repository for high-level radioactive waste (HLW). Visco-elastic behavior of rock is frequently studied by creep testing, but creep occasionally occurs together with relaxation in-situ due to the effect of various supports and rock heterogeneity. Therefore generalized stress relaxation in which both load and displacement are controlled is proper to study such behavior under the complicated conditions. It is also important to understand rock behavior in tensile stress field which may be developed in the surrounding rock of deposition hole or tunnel by swelling of bentonite or volume expansion of overpack with corrosion after the repository closure. Cores sampled at 'Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory' has been tested to reveal the above-mentioned behavior. Quantitative evaluation and modeling of the rock behavior, however, have not been established mainly because of large scatter of data. As a factor of the large scatter of data, it was expected that the evaporation of moisture from the surface of the test piece influences the test outcome because it tested in the nature. In this study, strength recovery, generalized stress relaxation and two tensile strength tests were carried out using shale sampled in the Wakkanai-formation. As the results, recovery of failed rocks in strength and hydraulic conductivity were observed under a certain condition. We believe this result is very important for the stability evaluation

  2. Investigation on natural radioactive nuclide contents of rock products in Xi'an construction materials market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Chunlin; Han Feng; Shang Aiguo; Li Tiantuo; Guo Huiping; Yie Lichao; Li Guifang

    2001-01-01

    The author reports the investigation results on natural radioactive nuclide contents of rock products from Xi'an construction materials market. The products were classified according to the national standard. The results show that natural radioactive nuclide contents in sampled rock products are in normal radioactive background levels. The radio-activity ranges of 238 U, 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K are 2.7 - 181.8, 0.92 - 271.0, 0.63 - 148.0, 1.8 - 1245 Bq·kg -1 , respectively. According to the national standard (JC 518-93), the application of some rock products must be limited

  3. Application of electrical tomography to study the internal structure of rock glaciers in Altai

    OpenAIRE

    G. S. Dyakova; V. V. Olenchenko; O. V. Ostanin

    2017-01-01

    Internal structure of rock glaciers was investigated at two key sites in Altai by means of electric tomography. It had been found that the rock glaciers of the same type, located at different altitude levels, differ in electric resistances of ice nuclei and the degree of consolidation of the ice material inside of them. Typical characteristics of the ice core of a rock glacier in the high-mountain area are the following: electrical resistivity is about 1000–2000 kOhm∙m and a high degree of th...

  4. Development of rock segment for reduction of amount of cement use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tada, Hiroyuki; Kumasaka, Hiroo; Saito, Akira; Nakaya, Atsushi; Ishii, Takashi; Sanada, Masanori; Noguchi, Akira; Kishi, Hirokazu; Nakama, Shigeo; Fujita, Tomoo

    2013-01-01

    The authors have been developing methods for constructing tunnels using the minimum quantities of cement-type support materials in high-level radioactive waste disposal facilities and advancing research and development about the technical formation of rock segment using low alkali mortar. In this study, the mechanical characteristic values concerning the rock segment and backfill materials were examined. The stability analysis of drift supported by the rock segment and backfilling with gravel were performed. Technical formation and effectiveness of the support planned for further reduction in cement influence was confirmed from the study result. (author)

  5. Rock siting of nuclear power plants from a reactor safety standpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-11-01

    The study has aimed at surveying the advantages and disadvantages of a rock sited nuclear power plant from a reactor safety standpoint. The studies performed are almost entirely concentrated on the BWR alternative. The design of a nuclear power plant in rock judged most appropriate has been studied in greater detail, and a relatively extensive safety analysis has been made. It is found that the presented technical design of the rock sited alternative is sufficiently advanced to form a basis for further projecting treatment. The chosen technical design of the reactor plant demands a cavern with a 45-50 metre span. Caverns without strengthening efforts with such spans are used in mines, but have no previously been used for industrial plants. Studies of the stability of such caverns show that a safety level is attainable corresponding to the safety required for the other parts of the nuclear power plant. The conditions are that the rock is of high quality, that necessary strengthening measures are taken and that careful studies of the rock are made before and during the blasting, and also during operation of the plant. When locating a rock sited nuclear power plant, the same criteria must be considered as for an above ground plant, with additional stronger demands for rock quality. The presented rock sited nuclear power plant has been assessed to cost 20 % more in total construction costs than a corresponding above ground plant. The motivations for rock siting also depend on whether a condensing plant for only electricity production, or a plant for combined power production and district heating, is considered. The latter would under certain circumstances make rock siting look more attractive. (author)

  6. Investigation of trace uranium content in rock phosphate ore samples from Kurun-Uro area, Nuba Mountains, Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Abdel Majid Abdel Galil Mohammed

    1999-07-01

    This investigation was carried out mainly to test the trace uranium level content in rock phosphate, which was used as a low cost fertilizer. Two types of rock phosphate were examined, namely, Kurun and Uro rocks from Nuba Mountains in the Southern Kurdufan province, Sudan.This area has a high background natural radioactivity. Moreover, it contains a rock phosphate zone lying between J. Kurun and Uro. The work included analytical methods carried out for thr rock phosphate samples using spectrophotometric and X-ray fluorescence techniques. The results obtained were compared with the data from literature and they showed a good agreement.The data was statistically analyzed to compare the results by the two techniques. The results of uranium content determined by the two analytical methods were significantly similar.The instrumental analysis revealed that different. Uranium content in the rocks phosphate samples of Uro type was found to be 1.6 times higher than Kurun type. (Author)

  7. Rock stars for the day

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefania Pandolfi

    2015-01-01

    After a two-year hiatus, the CERN Hardronic Festival is back! On 8 August, ten CERN MusiClub bands will take to the stage for the popular event. As usual, the non-stop show will take place on the terrace of Restaurant 3 and will run until after midnight.   The Canettes Blues Band, part of the CERN MusiClub, performing live on the Music In The Park stage at the Montreux Jazz Festival, on 18 July 2013. A large range of musical styles will entertain the audience: from Irish folk, via 70s/80s/90s rock, to pop, blues and R&B. Alongside the music there will be activities for kids and food and drink stands. This year, the income from food sales will be donated to charity. The spirit that has characterised the festival ever since the first event in 1989 is that of a staff party. Any band who volunteers to play also helps to organise the event and set up the stage. “This is a really good thing because a festival that has been growing for many years requires a considerable amount of har...

  8. Tracer transport in fractured rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, C.F.; Tsang, Y.W.; Hale, F.V.

    1988-07-01

    Recent interest in the safety of toxic waste underground disposal and nuclear waste geologic repositories has motivated many studies of tracer transport in fractured media. Fractures occur in most geologic formations and introduce a high degree of heterogeneity. Within each fracture, the aperture is not constant in value but strongly varying. Thus for such media, tracer tends to flow through preferred flowpaths or channels within the fractures. Along each of these channels, the aperture is also strongly varying. A detailed analysis is carried out on a 2D single fracture with variable apertures and the flow through channels is demonstrated. The channels defined this way are not rigidly set pathways for tracer transport, but are the preferred flow paths in the sense of stream-tubes in the potential theory. It is shown that such variable-aperture channels can be characterized by an aperture probability distribution function, and not by the exact deterministic geometric locations. We also demonstrate that the 2D tracer transport in a fracture can be calculated by a model of a system of 1D channels characterized by this distribution function only. Due to the channeling character of tracer transport in fractured rock, random point measurements of tracer breakthrough curves may give results with a wide spread in value due to statistical fluctuations. The present paper suggests that such a wide spread can probably be greatly reduced by making line/areal (or multiple) measurements covering a few spatial correlation lengths. 13 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab

  9. EDZ and permeability in clayey rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levasseur, Severine; Collin, Frederic; Charlier, Robert; Besuelle, Pierre; Chambon, Rene; Viggiani, Cino

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Deep geological layers are being considered as potential host rocks for the high level radioactivity waste disposals. During drilling in host rocks, an excavated damaged zone - EDZ is created. The fluid transmissivity may be modified in this damaged zone. This paper deals with the permeability evolution in relation with diffuse and/or localized crack propagation in the material. We mainly focus on argillaceous rocks and on some underground laboratories: Mol URL in Boom clay, Bure URL in Callovo-Oxfordian clay and Mont-Terri URL in Opalinus clay. First, observations of damage around galleries are summarized. Structure of damage in localized zone or in fracture has been observed at underground gallery scale within the excavation damaged zone (EDZ). The first challenge for a correct understanding of all the processes occurring within the EDZ is the characterization at the laboratory scale of the damage and localization processes. The observation of the initiation and propagation of the localized zones needs for advanced techniques. X-ray tomography is a non-destructive imaging technique that allows quantification of internal features of an object in 3D. If mechanical loading of a specimen is applied inside a X-ray CT apparatus, successive 3D images at different loading steps show the evolution of the specimen. However, in general volumetric strain in a shear band is small compared to the shear strain and, unfortunately, in tomographic images grey level is mainly sensitive to the local mass density field. Such a limitation has been recently overcome by complementing X-ray tomography with 3D Volumetric Digital Image Correlation (V-DIC) which allows the determination of the full strain tensor field. Then it is possible to further explore the progression of localized deformation in the specimen. The second challenge is the robust modelling of the strain localized process. In fact, modelling the damage process with finite

  10. Rock cavern storage of spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Won Jin; Kim, Kyung Soo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Sang Ki [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    The rock cavern storage for spent fuel has been assessed to apply in Korea with reviewing the state of the art of the technologies for surface storage and rock cavern storage of spent fuel. The technical feasibility and economic aspects of the rock cavern storage of spent fuel were also analyzed. A considerable area of flat land isolated from the exterior are needed to meet the requirement for the site of the surface storage facilities. It may, however, not be easy to secure such areas in the mountainous region of Korea. Instead, the spent fuel storage facilities constructed in the rock cavern moderate their demands for the suitable site. As a result, the rock cavern storage is a promising alternative for the storage of spent fuel in the aspect of natural and social environments. The rock cavern storage of spent fuel has several advantages compared with the surface storage, and there is no significant difference on the viewpoint of economy between the two alternatives. In addition, no great technical difficulties are present to apply the rock cavern storage technologies to the storage of domestic spent fuel.

  11. Heating effects in Rio Blanco rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.W.; Bowen, D.W.; Rossler, P.E.

    1975-01-01

    Samples of ''sandstone'' from near the site of the upper Rio Blanco nuclear explosion were heated in the laboratory at temperatures between 600 and 900 0 C. The composition and amount of noncondensable (dry) gas released were measured and compared to the amount and composition of gas found underground following the explosion. The gas released from the rock heated in the laboratory contained approximately 80 percent CO 2 and 10 percent H 2 ; the balance was CO and CH 4 . With increasing temperature, the amounts of CO 2 , CO, and H 2 released increased. The composition of gas released by heating Rio Blanco rock in the laboratory is similar to the composition of gas found after the nuclear explosion except that it contains less natural gas (CH 4 , C 2 H 6 . . .). The amount of noncondensable gas released by heating the rock increases from approximately 0.1 mole/kg of rock at 600 0 C to 0.9 mole/kg at 900 0 C. Over 90 percent of the volatile components of the rock are released in less than 10 h at 900 0 C. A comparison of the amount of gas released by heating rock in the laboratory to the amount of gas released by the heat of the Rio Blanco nuclear explosion suggests that the explosion released the volatile material from about 0.42 mg of rock per joule of explosive energy (1700 to 1800 tonnes per kt). (auth)

  12. Discussion on the origin of sedimentary rock resistivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Gangjian

    2012-01-01

    Conduction current way of sedimentary rock sedimentary rock is caused by the internal structure of sedimentary rock sedimentary rock pore resistance depends on the salinity of pore water and clay content and distribution. Resistivity of sedimentary rock sedimentary rock major factor in mineral composition, water resistance, oil resistance. and sedimentary structures. In practice, we should give full attention to the difference between lithology and physical properties. (author)

  13. Stratigraphy of Slick Rock district and vicinity, San Miguel and Dolores Counties, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawe, Daniel R.; Simmons, George C.; Archbold, Norbert L.

    1968-01-01

    The Slick Rock district covers about 570 square miles in western San Miguel and Dolores Counties, in southwestern Colorado. It is at the south edge of the salt-anticline region of southwestern Colorado and southeastern Utah and of the Uravan mineral belt.Deposition of Paleozoic sedimentary rocks in the district and vicinity was principally controlled by development of the Paradox Basin, and of Mesozoic rocks by development of a depositional basin farther west. The Paleozoic rocks generally are thickest at the northeast side of the Paradox Basin in a northwest- trending trough which seems to be a wide graben in Precambrian igneous and metamorphic basement rocks; Mesozoic rocks generally thicken westward and southwestward from the district.Sedimentary rocks rest on a Precambrian basement consisting of a variety of rocks, including granite and amphibolite. The surface of the Precambrian rocks is irregular and generally more than 2,000 feet below sea level and 7,000-11,000 feet below the ground surface. In the northern part of the district the Precambrian surface plunges abruptly northeastward into the trough occupying the northeast side of the Paradox Basin, and in the southern part it sags in a narrow northeasterly oriented trough. Deepening of both troughs, or crustal deformation in their vicinity, influenced sedimentation during much of late Paleozoic and Mesozoic time.The maximum total thickness of sedimentary rocks underlying the district is 13,000 feet, and prior to extensive erosion in the late Tertiary and the Quaternary it may have been as much as about 18,000 feet. The lower 5,000 feet or more of the sequence of sedimentary rocks consists of arenaceous strata of early Paleozoic age overlain by dominantly marine carbonate rocks and evaporite beds interbedded with lesser amounts of clastic sediments of late Paleozoic age. Overlying these rocks is about 4,500 feet of terrestrial clastic sediments, dominantly sandstone with lesser amounts of shale, mudstone

  14. "Sleuthing through the Rock Cycle": An Online Guided Inquiry Tool for Middle and High School Geoscience Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schifman, Laura; Cardace, Dawn; Kortz, Karen; Saul, Karen; Gilfert, Amber; Veeger, Anne I.; Murray, Daniel P.

    2013-01-01

    The rock cycle is a key component of geoscience education at all levels. In this paper, we report on a new guided inquiry curricular module, "Sleuthing through the Rock Cycle," which has a blended online/offline constructivist design with comprehensive teaching notes and has been successful in pilot use in Rhode Island middle and high…

  15. The Usability of Rock-Like Materials for Numerical Studies on Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zengin, Enes; Abiddin Erguler, Zeynal

    2017-04-01

    The approaches of synthetic rock material and mass are widely used by many researchers for understanding the failure behavior of different rocks. In order to model the failure behavior of rock material, researchers take advantageous of different techniques and software. But, the majority of all these instruments are based on distinct element method (DEM). For modeling the failure behavior of rocks, and so to create a fundamental synthetic rock material model, it is required to perform related laboratory experiments for providing strength parameters. In modelling studies, model calibration processes are performed by using parameters of intact rocks such as porosity, grain size, modulus of elasticity and Poisson ratio. In some cases, it can be difficult or even impossible to acquire representative rock samples for laboratory experiments from heavily jointed rock masses and vuggy rocks. Considering this limitation, in this study, it was aimed to investigate the applicability of rock-like material (e.g. concrete) to understand and model the failure behavior of rock materials having complex inherent structures. For this purpose, concrete samples having a mixture of %65 cement dust and %35 water were utilized. Accordingly, intact concrete samples representing rocks were prepared in laboratory conditions and their physical properties such as porosity, pore size and density etc. were determined. In addition, to acquire the mechanical parameters of concrete samples, uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) tests were also performed by simultaneously measuring strain during testing. The measured physical and mechanical properties of these extracted concrete samples were used to create synthetic material and then uniaxial compressive tests were modeled and performed by using two dimensional discontinuum program known as Particle Flow Code (PFC2D). After modeling studies in PFC2D, approximately similar failure mechanism and testing results were achieved from both experimental and

  16. Look! It's Rock'n'roll!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindelof, Anja

    2007-01-01

    , and dates. Consult your library or click here for more information on citing sources. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Anja Mølle Lindelof. (2007). Look! it's rock'n'roll! how television participated in shaping the visual genre conventions of popular music...... to personal names, capitalization, and dates. Consult your library or click here for more information on citing sources. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Anja Mølle Lindelof. "Look! It's Rock'n'roll! How television participated in shaping the visual genre....... Pay special attention to personal names, capitalization, and dates. Consult your library or click here for more information on citing sources. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- TY - JOUR T1 - Look! It's Rock'n'roll! How television participated in shaping...

  17. Deep fracturation of granitic rock mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bles, J.L.; Blanchin, R.; Bonijoly, D.; Dutartre, P.; Feybesse, J.L.; Gros, Y.; Landry, J.; Martin, P.

    1986-01-01

    This documentary study realized with the financial support of the European Communities and the CEA aims at the utilization of available data for the understanding of the evolution of natural fractures in granitic rocks from the surface to deep underground, in various feasibility studies dealing with radioactive wastes disposal. The Mont Blanc road tunnel, the EDF Arc-Isere gallerie, the Auriat deep borehole and the Pyrenean rock mass of Bassies are studied. In this study are more particularly analyzed the relationship between small fractures and large faults, evolution with depth of fracture density and direction, consequences of rock decompression and relationship between fracturation and groundwater [fr

  18. Radon and rock bursts in deep mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulashevich, Yu.P.; Utkin, V.I.; Yurkov, A.K.; Nikolaev, V.V.

    1996-01-01

    Variation fields of radon concentration in time to ascertain stress-strain state of the North Ural bauxite mines have been studied. It is shown that dynamic changes in the stress-strain state of the rocks prior to the rock burst bring about variations in radon concentration in the observation wells. Depending on mutual positioning of the observation points and the rock burst epicenter, the above-mentioned variations differ in principle, reduction of radon concentration in the near zone and its increase in the far zone are observed [ru

  19. Laboratory measurements of rock thermal properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bording, Thue Sylvester; Balling, N.; Nielsen, S.B.

    The thermal properties of rocks are key elements in understanding and modelling the temperature field of the subsurface. Thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity can be measured in the laboratory if rock samples can be provided. We have introduced improvements to the divided bar and needle...... probe methods to be able to measure both thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity. The improvements we implement include, for both methods, a combination of fast numerical finite element forward modelling and a Markov Chain Monte Carlo inversion scheme for estimating rock thermal parameters...

  20. Acoustics in rock and pop music halls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Niels Werner; Thompson, Eric Robert; Gade, Anders Christian

    2007-01-01

    The existing body of literature regarding the acoustic design of concert halls has focused almost exclusively on classical music, although there are many more performances of rhythmic music, including rock and pop. Objective measurements were made of the acoustics of twenty rock music venues...... in Denmark and a questionnaire was used in a subjective assessment of those venues with professional rock musicians and sound engineers. Correlations between the objective and subjective results lead, among others, to a recommendation for reverberation time as a function of hall volume. Since the bass...

  1. Lead isotopes in archaean plutonic rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oversby, V.M.

    1978-01-01

    Archaean intrusive rocks have initial Pb isotopic compositions which show a varied and complex history for the source regions of the rocks. Even the oldest rocks from Greenland indicate heterogenous U and Pb distribution prior to 3800 m.y. ago. Source regions with μ values less than 7 must have played a significant role in the early history of the earth. By late Archaean time U/Pb ratios of source regions had increased substantially. Data from Australia and North America show distinct regional differences, both within and between continents. (Auth.)

  2. Rapid formation of rock armour for soil - rock fragment mixture during simulated rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poultney, E.; McGrath, G. S.; Hinz, C.

    2009-04-01

    Preventing erosion is an important issue in disturbed semi-arid and arid landscapes. This is in particular of highest importance for mining companies while undertaking land rehabilitation. An onsite investigation of the impact of surface rock fragments on erosion was conducted at Telfer goldmine in the Great Sandy Desert, Western Australia. The study site is a waste rock dump designed to mimic the concave slope of a natural mesa to both discourage erosion and blend in with its natural surroundings. Four treatments were used to construct the slope: two are topsoil mixed with rock fragments, and two are unmixed topsoil. A field study investigating erosion rills, particle size distribution, rock fragment coverage surface roughness and vegetation was carried out to determine changes down and across slope. The treatments constructed by mixing topsoil and rock fragments are more stable and show rock fragment distributions that more closely resemble patterns found on natural mesas surrounding Telfer. A controlled study using trays of topsoil mixed with rock fragment volumes of 50%, 60%, 70% and 80% were used to investigate how varying mixtures of rock fragments and topsoil erode using rainfall intensities between 20 and 100 mm h-1. Two runs of 25 minutes each were used to assess the temporal evolution of rock armouring. Surface coverage results converged for the 50%, 60% and 70% mixtures after the first run to coverage of about 90%, suggesting that fine sediment proportion does not affect rate and degree of rock armouring.

  3. Sliding rocks on Racetrack Playa, Death Valley National Park: first observation of rocks in motion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard D Norris

    Full Text Available The engraved trails of rocks on the nearly flat, dry mud surface of Racetrack Playa, Death Valley National Park, have excited speculation about the movement mechanism since the 1940s. Rock movement has been variously attributed to high winds, liquid water, ice, or ice flotation, but has not been previously observed in action. We recorded the first direct scientific observation of rock movements using GPS-instrumented rocks and photography, in conjunction with a weather station and time-lapse cameras. The largest observed rock movement involved > 60 rocks on December 20, 2013 and some instrumented rocks moved up to 224 m between December 2013 and January 2014 in multiple move events. In contrast with previous hypotheses of powerful winds or thick ice floating rocks off the playa surface, the process of rock movement that we have observed occurs when the thin, 3 to 6 mm, "windowpane" ice sheet covering the playa pool begins to melt in late morning sun and breaks up under light winds of -4-5 m/s. Floating ice panels 10 s of meters in size push multiple rocks at low speeds of 2-5 m/min. along trajectories determined by the direction and velocity of the wind as well as that of the water flowing under the ice.

  4. Innate immune responses against rock bream iridovirus (RBIV) infection in rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) following poly (I:C) administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Myung-Hwa; Jung, Sung-Ju

    2017-12-01

    Poly (I:C) showed promise as an immunoprotective agents in rock bream against rock bream iridovirus (RBIV) infection. In this study, we evaluated the time-dependent virus replication pattern and antiviral immune responses in RBIV-infected rock bream with and without poly (I:C) administration. In the poly (I:C)+virus-injected group, virus copy numbers were more than 18.9-, 24.0- and 479.2-fold lower than in the virus only injected group at 4 (4.73 × 10 4 and 8.95 × 10 5 /μl, respectively), 7 (3.67 × 10 5 and 8.81 × 10 6 /μl, respectively) and 10 days post infection (dpi) (1.26 × 10 5 and 6.02 × 10 7 /μl, respectively). Moreover, significantly high expression levels of TLR3 (8.6- and 7.7-fold, at 4 and 7 dpi, respectively) and IL1β (3.6-fold at 2 dpi) were observed in the poly (I:C)+virus-injected group, but the expression levels were not significantly in the virus-injected group. However, IL8 and TNFα expression levels showed no statistical significance in both groups. Mx, ISG15 and PKR were significantly highly expressed from 4 to 10 dpi in the virus-injected group. Nevertheless, in the poly (I:C)+virus-injected group, Mx and ISG15 expression were significantly expressed from 2 dpi. In summary, poly (I:C) administration in rock bream induces TLR3, IL1β, Mx and ISG15-mediated immune responses, which could be a critical factor for inhibition of virus replication. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of confinement on rock mass modulus: A synthetic rock mass modelling (SRM study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Vazaios

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to examine the influence of the applied confining stress on the rock mass modulus of moderately jointed rocks (well interlocked undisturbed rock mass with blocks formed by three or less intersecting joints. A synthetic rock mass modelling (SRM approach is employed to determine the mechanical properties of the rock mass. In this approach, the intact body of rock is represented by the discrete element method (DEM-Voronoi grains with the ability of simulating the initiation and propagation of microcracks within the intact part of the model. The geometry of the pre-existing joints is generated by employing discrete fracture network (DFN modelling based on field joint data collected from the Brockville Tunnel using LiDAR scanning. The geometrical characteristics of the simulated joints at a representative sample size are first validated against the field data, and then used to measure the rock quality designation (RQD, joint spacing, areal fracture intensity (P21, and block volumes. These geometrical quantities are used to quantitatively determine a representative range of the geological strength index (GSI. The results show that estimating the GSI using the RQD tends to make a closer estimate of the degree of blockiness that leads to GSI values corresponding to those obtained from direct visual observations of the rock mass conditions in the field. The use of joint spacing and block volume in order to quantify the GSI value range for the studied rock mass suggests a lower range compared to that evaluated in situ. Based on numerical modelling results and laboratory data of rock testing reported in the literature, a semi-empirical equation is proposed that relates the rock mass modulus to confinement as a function of the areal fracture intensity and joint stiffness. Keywords: Synthetic rock mass modelling (SRM, Discrete fracture network (DFN, Rock mass modulus, Geological strength index (GSI, Confinement

  6. The Magma Chamber Simulator: Modeling the Impact of Wall Rock Composition on Mafic Magmas during Assimilation-Fractional Crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creamer, J. B.; Spera, F. J.; Bohrson, W. A.; Ghiorso, M. S.

    2012-12-01

    Although stoichiometric titration is often used to model the process of concurrent Assimilation and Fractional Crystallization (AFC) within a compositionally evolving magma body, a more complete treatment of the problem involves simultaneous and self-consistent determination of stable phase relationships and separately evolving temperatures of both Magma (M) and Wall Rock (WR) that interact as a composite M-WR system. Here we present results of M-WR systems undergoing AFC forward modeled with the Magma Chamber Simulator (MCS), which uses the phase modeling capabilities of MELTS (Ghiorso & Sack 1995) as the thermodynamic basis. Simulations begin with one of a variety of mafic magmas (e.g. HAB, MORB, AOB) intruding a set mass of Wall Rock (e.g. lherzolite, gabbro, diorite, granite, metapelite), and heat is exchanged as the M-WR system proceeds towards thermal equilibrium. Depending on initial conditions, the early part of the evolution can involve closed system FC while the WR heats up. The WR behaves as a closed system until it is heated beyond the solidus to critical limit for melt fraction extraction (fc), ranging between 0.08 and 0.12 depending on WR characteristics including composition and, rheology and stress field. Once fc is exceeded, a portion of the anatectic liquid is assimilated into the Magma. The MCS simultaneously calculates mass and composition of the mineral assemblage (Magma cumulates and WR residue) and melt (anatectic and Magma) at each T along the equilibration trajectory. Sensible and latent heat lost or gained plus mass gained by the Magma are accounted for by the MCS via governing Energy Constrained- Recharge Assimilation Fractional Crystallization (EC-RAFC) equations. In a comparison of two representative MCS results, consider a granitic WR intruded by HAB melt (51 wt. % SiO2) at liquidus T in shallow crust (0.1 GPa) with a WR/M ratio of 1.25, fc of 0.1 and a QFM oxygen buffer. In the first example, the WR begins at a temperature of 100o

  7. Experimental investigation of creep behavior of clastic rock in Xiangjiaba Hydropower Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many fracture zones crossing the dam foundation of the Xiangjiaba Hydropower Project in southwestern China. Clastic rock is the main media of the fracture zone and has poor physical and mechanical properties. In order to investigate the creep behavior of clastic rock, triaxial creep tests were conducted using a rock servo-controlling rheological testing machine. The results show that the creep behavior of clastic rock is significant at a high level of deviatoric stress, and less time-dependent deformation occurs at high confining pressure. Based on the creep test results, the relationship between axial strain and time under different confining pressures was investigated, and the relationship between axial strain rate and deviatoric stress was also discussed. The strain rate increases rapidly, and the rock sample fails eventually under high deviatoric stress. Moreover, the creep failure mechanism under different confining pressures was analyzed. The main failure mechanism of clastic rock is plastic shear, accompanied by a significant compression and ductile dilatancy. On the other hand, with the determined parameters, the Burgers creep model was used to fit the creep curves. The results indicate that the Burgers model can exactly describe the creep behavior of clastic rock in the Xiangjiaba Hydropower Project.

  8. Rock mass modification around a nuclear waste repository in welded tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, M.G.; Brandshaug, T.; Brady, B.H.

    1989-08-01

    This report presents the results of numerical analyses to estimate the extent of rock mass modification resulting from the presence of a High Level Waste (HLW) repository. Changes in rock mass considered are stresses and joint deformations resulting from disposal room excavation and thermal efffects induced by the heat generated by nuclear waste. rock properties and site conditions are taken from the Site Characterization Plan Conceptual Design Report for the potential repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Analyses were conducted using boundary element and distinct element methods. Room-scale models and repository-scale models were investigated for up to 500 years after waste emplacement. Results of room-scale analyses based on the thermoelastic boundary element model indicate that a zone of modified rock develops around the disposal rooms for both vertical and horizontal waste emplacement. This zone is estimated to extend a distance of roughly two room diameters from the room surface. Results from the repository-scale model, which are based on the thermoelastic boundary element model and the distinct element model, indicate a zone with modified rock mass properties starting approximately 100 m above and below the repository, with a thickness of approximately 200 m above and 150 m below the repository. Slip-prone subhorizontal features are shown to have a substantial effect on rock mass response. The estimates of rock mass modification reflect uncertainties and simplifying assumptions in the models. 32 refs., 57 figs., 1 tab

  9. Biogenic Cracks in Porous Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmerle, A.; Hartung, J.; Hallatschek, O.; Goehring, L.; Herminghaus, S.

    2014-12-01

    Microorganisms growing on and inside porous rock may fracture it by various processes. Some of the mechanisms of biofouling and bioweathering are today identified and partially understood but most emphasis is on chemical weathering, while mechanical contributions have been neglected. However, as demonstrated by the perseverance of a seed germinating and cracking up a concrete block, the turgor pressure of living organisms can be very significant. Here, we present results of a systematic study of the effects of the mechanical forces of growing microbial populations on the weathering of porous media. We designed a model porous medium made of glass beads held together by polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), a curable polymer. The rheological properties of the porous medium, whose shape and size are tunable, can be controlled by the ratio of crosslinker to base used in the PDMS (see Fig. 1). Glass and PDMS being inert to most chemicals, we are able to focus on the mechanical processes of biodeterioration, excluding any chemical weathering. Inspired by recent measurements of the high pressure (~0.5 Mpa) exerted by a growing population of yeasts trapped in a microfluidic device, we show that yeast cells can be cultured homogeneously within porous medium until saturation of the porous space. We investigate then the effects of such an inner pressure on the mechanical properties of the sample. Using the same model system, we study also the complex interplay between biofilms and porous media. We focus in particular on the effects of pore size on the penetration of the biofilm within the porous sample, and on the resulting deformations of the matrix, opening new perspectives into the understanding of life in complex geometry. Figure 1. Left : cell culture growing in a model porous medium. The white spheres represent the grains, bonds are displayed in grey, and microbes in green. Right: microscopy picture of glass beads linked by PDMS bridges, scale bar: 100 μm.

  10. Wing rock suppression using forebody vortex control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, T. T.; Ong, L. Y.; Suarez, C. J.; Malcolm, G. N.

    1991-01-01

    Static and free-to-roll tests were conducted in a water tunnel with a configuration that consisted of a highly-slender forebody and 78-deg sweep delta wings. Flow visualization was performed and the roll angle histories were obtained. The fluid mechanisms governing the wing rock of this configuration were identified. Different means of suppressing wing rock by controlling the forebody vortices using small blowing jets were also explored. Steady blowing was found to be capable of suppressing wing rock, but significant vortex asymmetries had to be induced at the same time. On the other hand, alternating pulsed blowing on the left and right sides of the forebody was demonstrated to be potentially an effective means of suppressing wing rock and eliminating large asymmetric moments at high angles of attack.

  11. RELIABILITY OF TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS OF ROCK HAPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stepanov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The ways of increasing of exploitation reliability of dump trucks with the aim of increasing of effectiveness of exploitation of transportation systems of rock heaps at coal mines.

  12. Cretaceous rocks of the Western Interior basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molenaar, C.M.; Rice, D.D.

    1988-01-01

    The Cretaceous rocks of the conterminous United States are discussed in this chapter. Depositional facies and lithology are reviewed along with economic resources. The economic resources include coal, hydrocarbons, and uranium

  13. Mechanical dispersion in fractured crystalline rock systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafleur, D.W.; Raven, K.G.

    1986-12-01

    This report compiles and evaluates the hydrogeologic parameters describing the flow of groundwater and transport of solutes in fractured crystalline rocks. This report describes the processes of mechanical dispersion in fractured crystalline rocks, and compiles and evaluates the dispersion parameters determined from both laboratory and field tracer experiments. The compiled data show that extrapolation of the reliable test results performed over intermediate scales (10's of m and 10's to 100's of hours) to larger spatial and temporal scales required for performance assessment of a nuclear waste repository in crystalline rock is not justified. The reliable measures of longitudinal dispersivity of fractured crystalline rock are found to range between 0.4 and 7.8 m

  14. Dating oxalate minerals in rock surface deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watchman, A.

    2001-01-01

    Oxalate minerals are found associated with rocks, mineral coatings, micro-organisms, plants and animals. They are important in archaeology because they have been found intimately associated with organic binders in prehistoric paints. Oxalate minerals also accumulate in the coatings on rock shelter walls and fallen ceiling slabs where they form the natural backing supports for painting and opaque laminates covering engravings. Though the relationship between anthropogenic activity in a rock shelter and oxalate formation is often uncertain, the radiocarbon age of the oxalate may provide the only means for determining the antiquity of a rock painting or engraving. This paper examines the history of dating oxalate minerals at archaeological sites and provides insights into achieving reliable age estimates. (author). 37 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  15. ROCK GLACIERS IN THE KOLYMA HIGHLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Galanin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on remote mapping and field studies inGrand Rapids, Tumansky,Hasynsky,Del-Urechen Ridges as well as Dukchinsky and Kilgansky Mountain Massifs there were identified about 1160 landforms which morphologically are similar to the rock glaciers or they develop in close association with them. Besides tongue-shaped cirque rock glaciers originated due to ablation, a large number of lobate-shaped slope-associated rock glaciers were recognized. Significant quantity of such forms are developing within the active neotectonic areas, in zones of seismic-tectonic badland and in association with active earthquakes-controlling faults. Multiplication of regional data on volcanic-ash-chronology, lichenometry, Schmidt Hammer Test, pollen spectra and single radiocarbon data, most of the active rock glaciers were preliminary attributed to the Late Holocene.

  16. Rock glaciers, Prealps, Vaud, Switzerland, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The investigated area forms part of the western lobe of the Prealps (Swiss Prealps). The 25 identified fossil rock glaciers are found mainly in the Prealpes medianes...

  17. Mechanical properties of rock at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Naoto; Abe, Tohru; Wakabayashi, Naruki; Ishida, Tsuyoshi.

    1997-01-01

    The laboratory tests have been performed in order to investigate the effects of temperature up to 300degC and pressure up to 30 MPa on the mechanical properties of three types of rocks, Inada granite, Sanjoume andesite and Oya tuff. The experimental results indicated that the significant differences in temperature dependence of mechanical properties exist between the three rocks, because of the difference of the factors which determine the mechanical properties of the rocks. The effect of temperature on the mechanical properties for the rocks is lower than that of pressure and water content. Temperature dependence of the mechanical properties is reduced by increase in pressure in the range of pressure and temperature investigated in this paper. (author)

  18. Rho/ROCK signaling in regulation of corneal epithelial cell cycle progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Guerriero, Emily; Lathrop, Kira; SundarRaj, Nirmala

    2008-01-01

    The authors' previous study showed that the expression of a Rho-associated serine/threonine kinase (ROCK) is regulated during cell cycle progression in corneal epithelial cells. The present study was conducted to determine whether and how Rho/ROCK signaling regulates cell cycle progression. Rabbit corneal epithelial cells (RCECs) in culture were arrested in the G(0) phase of the cell cycle by serum deprivation and then allowed to re-enter the cell cycle in the presence or absence of the ROCK inhibitor (Y27632) in serum-supplemented medium. The number of cells in the S phase, the relative levels of specific cyclins and CDKs and their intracellular distribution, and the relative levels of mRNAs were determined by BrdU labeling, Western blot and immunocytochemical analyses, and real-time RT-PCR, respectively. ROCK inhibition delayed the progression of G(1) to S phase and led to a decrease in the number of RCECs entering the S phase between 12 and 24 hours from 31.5% +/- 4.5% to 8.1% +/- 2.6%. During the cell cycle progression, protein and mRNA levels of cyclin-D1 and -D3 and cyclin-dependent kinases CDK4 and CDK6 were significantly lower, whereas the protein levels of the CDK inhibitor p27(Kip1) were higher in ROCK-inhibited cells. Intracellular mRNA or protein levels of cyclin-E and protein levels of CDK2 were not significantly affected, but their nuclear translocation was delayed by ROCK inhibition. ROCK signaling is involved in cell cycle progression in RCECs, possibly by upregulation of cyclin-D1 and -D3 and CDK4, -6, and -2; nuclear translocation of CDK2 and cyclin-E; and downregulation of p27(Kip1).

  19. Pore-scale analysis of electrical properties in thinly bedded rock using digital rock physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Jianmeng; Zhao, Jianpeng; Liu, Xuefeng; Chen, Hui; Jiang, LiMing; Zhang, JinYan

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the electrical properties of laminated rock consist of macro-porous layers and micro-porous layers based on digital rock technology. Due to the bedding effect and anisotropy, traditional Archie equations cannot well describe the electrical behavior of laminated rock. The RI-Sw curve of laminated rock shows a nonlinear relationship. The RI-Sw curve can be divided into two linear segments with different saturation exponent. Laminated sand-shale sequences and laminated sands of different porosity or grain size will yield macroscopic electrical anisotropy. Numerical simulation and theoretical analysis lead to the conclusion that electrical anisotropy coefficient of laminated rock is a strong function of water saturation. The function curve can be divided into three segments by the turning point. Therefore, the electrical behavior of laminated rock should be considered in oil exploration and development. (paper)

  20. Evaluation of dynamic characteristics of hard rock based on numerical simulations of in situ rock tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagami, Yuya; Ikusada, Koji; Jiang, Yujing

    2009-01-01

    In situ rock tests of hard rock of conglomerate in which discontinuities in high angle are dominant were conducted. In this study, in order to confirm the validity of the test results and the test condition, and in order to elucidate the deformation behaviour and the mechanism of shear strength of the rock mass, the numerical simulations of the in situ rock tests by using distinct element method were performed. As a result, it was clarified that the behaviour of the rock mass strongly depends on both geometrical distribution of discontinuities and those mechanical properties. It is thought that a series of evaluation processes showed in this study contribute to improve the reliability of the dynamic characteristic evaluation of the rock mass. (author)