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Sample records for level liquid effluents

  1. Flow proportional sampling of low level liquid effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colley, D.; Jenkins, R.

    1989-01-01

    A flow proportional sampler for use on low level radioactive liquid effluent has been developed for installation on all CEGB nuclear power stations. The sampler, operates by drawing effluent continuously from the main effluent pipeline, through a sampler loop and returning it to the pipeline. The effluent in this loop is sampled by taking small, frequent aliquots using a linear acting shuttle valve. The frequency of operation of this valve is controlled by a flowmeter installed in the effluent line; sampling rate being directly proportional to effluent flowrate. (author)

  2. Annual report on the effluent control of low level liquid water in Tokai Works. FY2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeishi, Minoru; Miyagawa, Naoto; Watanabe, Hitoshi

    2005-08-01

    This report was written about the effluent control of low level liquid waste in JNC Tokai Works Fiscal Year 2004, from 1st April 2004 to 31th March 2005. In this period, the quantities and concentrations of radioactivity in liquid waste from Tokai Works were under the discharge limits of 'Safety Regulations for the Tokai Reprocessing Plant' and regulations of government. (author)

  3. Liquid Effluent Retention Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) is located in the central part of the Hanford Site. LERF is permitted by the State of Washington and has three liquid...

  4. INEEL Liquid Effluent Inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Major, C.A.

    1997-06-01

    The INEEL contractors and their associated facilities are required to identify all liquid effluent discharges that may impact the environment at the INEEL. This liquid effluent information is then placed in the Liquid Effluent Inventory (LEI) database, which is maintained by the INEEL prime contractor. The purpose of the LEI is to identify and maintain a current listing of all liquid effluent discharge points and to identify which discharges are subject to federal, state, or local permitting or reporting requirements and DOE order requirements. Initial characterization, which represents most of the INEEL liquid effluents, has been performed, and additional characterization may be required in the future to meet regulations. LEI information is made available to persons responsible for or concerned with INEEL compliance with liquid effluent permitting or reporting requirements, such as the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, Wastewater Land Application, Storm Water Pollution Prevention, Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasures, and Industrial Wastewater Pretreatment. The State of Idaho Environmental Oversight and Monitoring Program also needs the information for tracking liquid effluent discharges at the INEEL. The information provides a baseline from which future liquid discharges can be identified, characterized, and regulated, if appropriate. The review covered new and removed buildings/structures, buildings/structures which most likely had new, relocated, or removed LEI discharge points, and at least 10% of the remaining discharge points.

  5. Monitoring of low-level radioactive liquid effluent in Tokai reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizutani, Tomoko; Koarashi, Jun; Takeishi, Minoru

    2009-01-01

    The Tokai reprocessing plant (TRP), the first reprocessing plant in Japan, has discharged low-level liquid wastes to the Pacific Ocean since the start of its operation in 1977. We have performed liquid effluent monitoring to realize an appropriate radioactive discharge control. Comparing simple and rapid analytical methods with labor-intensive radiochemical analyses demonstrated that the gross-alpha and gross-beta activities agreed well with the total activities of plutonium isotopes ( 238 Pu and 239+240 Pu) and major beta emitters (e.g., 90 Sr and 137 Cs), respectively. The records of the radioactive liquid discharge from the TRP showed that the normalized discharges of all nuclides, except for 3 H, were three or four orders of magnitude lower than those from the Sellafield and La Hague reprocessing plants. This was probably due to the installation of multistage evaporators in the liquid waste treatment process in 1980. The annual public doses for a hypothetical person were estimated to be less than 0.2 μSv y -1 from the aquatic pathway. Plutonium radioactivity ratios ( 238 Pu/ 239+240 Pu) of liquid effluents were determined to be 1.3-3.7, while those of the seabed sediment samples collected around the discharge point were 0.003-0.059, indicating no remarkable accumulation of plutonium in the regional aquatic environment. Thus, we concluded that there were no significant radiological effects on the public and the aquatic environment during the past 30-year operation of the TRP. (author)

  6. Liquid effluent at Dounreay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinclair, N.R.

    1995-01-01

    This short paper reviews the liquid effluent treatment at the Dounreay site. The significant reductions in volume and activity discharged from the site to the environment have been achieved over the many years of operation, and some of the techniques are highlighted. The Regulator interaction and the effect on the environment is discussed, while some of the requirements of the Regulator are presented. (author)

  7. Estimation of low level gross alpha activities in the radioactive effluent using liquid scintillation counting technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhade, Sonali P.D.; Johnson, Bella E.; Singh, Sanjay; Babu, D.A.R.

    2012-01-01

    A technique has been developed for simultaneous measurement of gross alpha and gross beta activity concentration in low level liquid effluent samples in presence of higher activity concentrations of tritium. For this purpose, alpha beta discriminating Pulse Shape Analysis Liquid Scintillation Counting (LSC) technique was used. Main advantages of this technique are easy sample preparation, rapid measurement and higher sensitivity. The calibration methodology for Quantulus1220 LSC based on PSA technique using 241 Am and 90 Sr/ 90 Y as alpha and beta standards respectively was described in detail. LSC technique was validated by measuring alpha and beta activity concentrations in test samples with known amount of 241 Am and 90 Sr/ 90 Y activities spiked in distilled water. The results obtained by LSC technique were compared with conventional planchet counting methods such as ZnS(Ag) and end window GM detectors. The gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations in spiked samples, obtained by LSC technique were found to be within ±5% of the reference values. (author)

  8. Liquid Effluents Program mission analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, S.S.

    1994-01-01

    Systems engineering is being used to identify work to cleanup the Hanford Site. The systems engineering process transforms an identified mission need into a set of performance parameters and a preferred system configuration. Mission analysis is the first step in the process. Mission analysis supports early decision-making by clearly defining the program objectives, and evaluating the feasibility and risks associated with achieving those objectives. The results of the mission analysis provide a consistent basis for subsequent systems engineering work. A mission analysis was performed earlier for the overall Hanford Site. This work was continued by a ''capstone'' team which developed a top-level functional analysis. Continuing in a top-down manner, systems engineering is now being applied at the program and project levels. A mission analysis was conducted for the Liquid Effluents Program. The results are described herein. This report identifies the initial conditions and acceptable final conditions, defines the programmatic and physical interfaces and sources of constraints, estimates the resources to carry out the mission, and establishes measures of success. The mission analysis reflects current program planning for the Liquid Effluents Program as described in Liquid Effluents FY 1995 Multi-Year Program Plan

  9. Liquid Effluent Retention Facility/Effluent Treatment Facility Hazards Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simiele, G.A.

    1994-01-01

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of Emergency Planning activities for the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and Effluent Treatment Facility the Hanford Site. The document represents an acceptable interpretation of the implementing guidance document for DOE ORDER 5500.3A. Through this document, the technical basis for the development of facility specific Emergency Action Levels and the Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated

  10. Waste Treatment Plant Liquid Effluent Treatability Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LUECK, K.J.

    2001-01-01

    Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI) provided a forecast of the radioactive, dangerous liquid effluents expected to be generated by the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). The forecast represents the liquid effluents generated from the processing of 25 distinct batches of tank waste through the WTP. The WTP liquid effluents will be stored, treated, and disposed of in the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) and the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Fluor Hanford, Inc. (FH) evaluated the treatability of the WTP liquid effluents in the LERFIETF. The evaluation was conducted by comparing the forecast to the LERFIETF treatability envelope, which provides information on the items that determine if a liquid effluent is acceptable for receipt and treatment at the LERFIETF. The WTP liquid effluent forecast is outside the current LERFlETF treatability envelope. There are several concerns that must be addressed before the WTP liquid effluents can be accepted at the LERFIETF

  11. Legal provisions governing liquid effluents radiological monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gans, I.; Ruehle, H.

    1985-01-01

    The KTA rule 1504 for radiological monitoring of liquid effluents from nuclear installations is explained. As there are no such rules published to date for establishments handling isotopes, some criteria are discussed which in the future ought to form part of a practical guide for liquid effluents monitoring in isotope handling installations. Monitoring measures described refer to liquid effluents from transfer containers, auxiliary cooling equipment, turbine buildings, main cooling installations, and waste air discharges from closed-circuit cooling systems. (DG) [de

  12. Suspended solids in liquid effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrath, J.J.

    1988-06-01

    An international literature review and telephone mail survey was conducted with respect to technical and regulatory aspects of suspended solids in radioactive liquid wastes from nuclear power stations. Results of the survey are summarized and show that suspended solids are an important component of some waste streams. The data available, while limited, show these solids to be associated largely with corrosion products. The solids are highly variable in quantity, size and composition. Filtration is commonly applied for their removal from liquid effluents and is effective. Complex interactions with receiving waters can result in physical/chemical changes of released radionuclides and these phenomena have been seen as reason for not applying regulatory controls based on suspended solids content. 340 refs

  13. Methanization of industrial liquid effluents; Methanisation des effluents industriels liquides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederic, S.; Lugardon, A. [Societe Naskeo Environnement, 92 - Levallois-Perret (France)

    2007-09-15

    In a first part, this work deals with the theoretical aspects of the methanization of the industrial effluents; the associated reactional processes are detailed. The second part presents the technological criteria for choosing the methanization process in terms of the characteristics of the effluent to be treated. Some of the methanization processes are presented with their respective advantages and disadvantages. At last, is described the implementation of an industrial methanization unit. The size and the main choices are detailed: the anaerobic reactor, the control, the valorization aspects of the biogas produced. Some examples of industrial developments illustrate the different used options. (O.M.)

  14. Methanization of industrial liquid effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frederic, S.; Lugardon, A.

    2007-01-01

    In a first part, this work deals with the theoretical aspects of the methanization of the industrial effluents; the associated reactional processes are detailed. The second part presents the technological criteria for choosing the methanization process in terms of the characteristics of the effluent to be treated. Some of the methanization processes are presented with their respective advantages and disadvantages. At last, is described the implementation of an industrial methanization unit. The size and the main choices are detailed: the anaerobic reactor, the control, the valorization aspects of the biogas produced. Some examples of industrial developments illustrate the different used options. (O.M.)

  15. Liquid effluent processing group. Activity details 1963

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1964-08-01

    This report first gives a quantitative overview of volumes of effluents of high activity, medium activity and low activity which passed through the department for effluent processing. It also makes the distinction between the shape or type of container of these effluents. A table indicates their origin and another indicates their destination. The β and α decontamination rates are determined, and the assessment of stored aqueous and organic effluents on the 31 December 1963 is given. The next part proposes an assessment of laboratory activities: control operations (input controls, control of processed effluent before discarding), controls related to processing (processing types, radiochemical and chemical dosing performed on effluent mixes before processing). Tables indicate the characteristics of medium activity effluents collected in 1963, the results of high activity liquid analysis, and Beryllium dosing results. A summary of ALEA processing, a table of the characteristics of stored oils and solvents are given. The third part reports data related to transport activities, and various works performed in the Saclay plant to improve exploitation conditions and results

  16. Recycling liquid effluents in a ceramic industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo Almeida, B.; Almeida, M.; Martins, S.; Alexandra Macarico, V.; Tomas da Fonseca, A.

    2016-01-01

    In this work is presented a study on the recycling of liquid effluents in a ceramic installation for sanitary industry. The effluents were characterized by X-ray diffraction and inductively coupled plasma to evaluate their compositions. It was also assessed the daily production rate. Several glaze-slurry mixtures were prepared and characterized according to procedures and equipment of the company's quality laboratory. The results show that for most of the properties, the tested mixtures exhibited acceptable performance. However, the pyro plasticity parameter is highly influenced by the glaze content and imposes the separation of glaze and slurry liquid effluents. In addition, it is necessary to invest on a storage plant, including tanks with constant stirring and a new pipeline structure to implement the reincorporation method on the slurry processing. (Author)

  17. Health physics challenges during decontamination for safe disposal of low level liquid effluent tank as inactive scrap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akila, R.; Sultan, Bajeer; Sarangapani, R.; Jose, M.T.

    2018-01-01

    The Low-level Liquid waste (LLW) generated during the regeneration of mixed bed column of KAMINI reactor is collected in the SS Delay Tanks located on the western side of RML building. It was proposed to dismantle and dispose the tank as solid waste. The tank weighs about 2 ton. An attempt was made to decontaminate the tank to levels below the exempt quantity so as to qualify it as scrap of unrestricted release. This is first time in IGCAR wherein a material used in a radioactive facility for storing LLW is being released as scrap of unrestricted release and this paper discusses about the same

  18. Alpha contaminated liquid effluent monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aparo, M.; Mattia, B.; Bianchini, E.; Frazzoli, F.V.

    1987-01-01

    The present report takes into consideration the possibility to carry out an in-line control of activity in liquid streams of fuel cycle nuclear plants, epecially for waste streams. The instrument developed for this purpose, has been characterized by means of static and dinamic measurements with Pu and Am bearing solutions. The results so far obtained show that the minimum detectable Pu amount is about .01mg/l and that it is possible to apply such a technique as alarm system able to detect the overcoming of a present threshold of actinides concentrations. The report also presents an approach to the spectra deconvolution in order to determine the amount of single isotopes

  19. 200 Area Liquid Effluent Facilities -- Quality assurance program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, L.

    1995-01-01

    This Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) describes the quality assurance and management controls used by the 200 Area Liquid Effluent Facilities (LEF) to perform its activities in accordance with DOE Order 5700.6C. The 200 Area LEF consists of the following facilities: Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF); Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF); Liquid Effluent Retention facility (LERF); and Truck Loading Facility -- (Project W291). The intent is to ensure that all activities such as collection of effluents, treatment, concentration of secondary wastes, verification, sampling and disposal of treated effluents and solids related with the LEF operations, conform to established requirements

  20. Removal of active species from liquid effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blake, N.J.; Ritchie, S.

    1992-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical assessments were made of recirculating liquid membrane technology applied to the removal of active species from liquid effluent. Caesium and strontium were extracted from neutral, aqueous liquor by di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate in odourless kerosine and subsequently stripped by nitric acid. Flowrates to the membrane modules influenced the extraction and stripping mass transfer coefficients (MTC) for caesium, but not strontium. The acid strength of the strip solution affected the stripping MTC. When both ions were co-processed, caesium transfer was retarded. Potassium cobalt ferrocyanide and polyantimonic acid were used as adsorbers for caesium and strontium respectively in the strip loop. Caesium was more quickly adsorbed than strontium. A scale-up assessment of a recirculating liquid membrane was performed and compared to SIXEP at Sellafield. (author)

  1. Liquid effluent retention facility dangerous waste permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    This appendix to the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application contains pumps, piping, leak detection systems, geomembranes, leachate collection systems, earthworks and floating cover systems

  2. Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System (LEMIS) System Construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, R.T.

    1994-01-01

    The liquid effluent sampling program is part of the effort to minimize adverse environmental impact during the cleanup operation at the Hanford Site. Of the 33 Phase I and Phase II liquid effluents, all streams actively discharged to the soil column will be sampled. The Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System (LEMIS) is being developed as the organized information repository facility in support of the liquid effluent monitoring requirements of the Tri-Party Agreement. It is necessary to provide an automated repository into which the results from liquid effluent sampling will be placed. This repository must provide for effective retention, review, and retrieval of selected sample data by authorized persons and organizations. This System Construction document is the aggregation of the DMR P+ methodology project management deliverables. Together they represent a description of the project and its plan through four Releases, corresponding to the definition and prioritization of requirements defined by the user

  3. WASTE TREATMENT PLANT (WTP) LIQUID EFFLUENT TREATABILITY EVALUATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LUECK, K.J.

    2004-01-01

    A forecast of the radioactive, dangerous liquid effluents expected to be produced by the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) was provided by Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI 2004). The forecast represents the liquid effluents generated from the processing of Tank Farm waste through the end-of-mission for the WTP. The WTP forecast is provided in the Appendices. The WTP liquid effluents will be stored, treated, and disposed of in the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) and the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Both facilities are located in the 200 East Area and are operated by Fluor Hanford, Inc. (FH) for the US. Department of Energy (DOE). The treatability of the WTP liquid effluents in the LERF/ETF was evaluated. The evaluation was conducted by comparing the forecast to the LERF/ETF treatability envelope (Aromi 1997), which provides information on the items which determine if a liquid effluent is acceptable for receipt and treatment at the LERF/ETF. The format of the evaluation corresponds directly to the outline of the treatability envelope document. Except where noted, the maximum annual average concentrations over the range of the 27 year forecast was evaluated against the treatability envelope. This is an acceptable approach because the volume capacity in the LERF Basin will equalize the minimum and maximum peaks. Background information on the LERF/ETF design basis is provided in the treatability envelope document

  4. Liquid effluent Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) implementation summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lueck, K.J.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes liquid effluent analytical data collected during the Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) Implementation Program, evaluates whether or not the sampling performed meets the requirements of the individual SAPs, compares the results to the WAC 173-200 Ground Water Quality Standards. Presented in the report are results from liquid effluent samples collected (1992-1994) from 18 of the 22 streams identified in the Consent Order (No. DE 91NM-177) requiring SAPs

  5. Waste analysis plan for the 200 area effluent treatment facility and liquid effluent retention facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballantyne, N.A.

    1995-01-01

    This waste analysis plan (WAP) has been prepared for startup of the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) and operation of the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF), which are located on the Hanford Facility, Richland, Washington. This WAP documents the methods used to obtain and analyze representative samples of dangerous waste managed in these units, and of the nondangerous treated effluent that is discharged to the State-Approved Land Disposal System (SALDS). Groundwater Monitoring at the SALDS will be addressed in a separate plan

  6. Improved technique for in situ measurement of radioactivity in liquid effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasundar, S.; Jose, M.T.; Ravi, T.; Sundaram, V.M.; Raghunath, V.M.

    1993-01-01

    As a pre-requisite for handling and disposal of radioactive liquid effluents, they should be categorized according to their chemical nature and the type and level of radioactivity. A continuous monitoring of these effluents is necessary to assess the discharged activity and to detect any unusually large increase in the activity level. It may also be required to assess the beta, gamma specific activities in the effluents independently instead of just combined beta-gamma activity as is generally done. (author). 1 ref., 2 tabs

  7. Proposed radioactive liquid effluent monitoring requirements at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jannik, G.T.; Carlton, W.H.; Blunt, B.C.

    1994-01-01

    Clear regulatory guidance exists for structuring a radiological air monitoring program, however, there is no parallel guidance for radiological liquid monitoring. For Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, there are no existing applicable federal regulations, DOE orders, or DOE guidance documents that specify at what levels continuous monitoring, continuous sampling, or periodic confirmatory measurements of radioactive liquid effluents must be made. In order to bridge this gap and to technically justify and document liquid effluent monitoring decisions at DOE's Savannah River Site, Westinghouse Savannah River Company has proposed that a graded, dose-based approach be established, in conjunction with limits on facility radionuclide inventories, to determine the monitoring and sampling criteria to be applied at each potential liquid radioactive effluent point. The graded approach would be similar to--and a conservative extension of--the existing, agreed-upon SRS/EPA-IV airborne effluent monitoring approach documented in WSRC's NESHAP Quality Assurance Project Plan. The limits on facility radionuclide inventories are based on--and are a conservative extension of--the 10 CFR 834, 10 CFR 20, and SCR 61-63 annual limits on discharges to sanitary sewers. Used in conjunction with each other, the recommended source category criteria levels and facility radionuclide inventories would allow for the best utilization of resources and provide consistent, technically justifiable determinations of radioactive liquid effluent monitoring requirements

  8. Systems engineering implementation plan for the liquid effluents services program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, S.S.

    1995-01-01

    A graded approach is being taken by the Liquid Effluents Services Program in implementing systems engineering because of the advanced state of the program. The approach is cost-effective and takes credit for related work already completed, yet retains the benefits of systems engineering. This plan describes how the Liquid Effluents Services Program will implement systems engineering so there is a common understanding. Systems engineering work to be performed and the products of that work are identified. The relation to the current planning process and integration with the sitewide systems engineering effort is described

  9. Disposal of Low-Activity Liquid Effluents by Dilution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bovard, P.; Candillon, C. [Atomic Energy Commission, Saclay (France)

    1960-07-01

    Nuclear centres are frequently faced with problems of disposal of sizeable quantities of low-activity liquid effluents. Under present conditions the most practicable solution seems to be to discharge them into a natural or artificial water system, so as to dilute them as much as possible and thus reduce their radioactive isotope content below the public health levels. This technique is employed by all nuclear centres in France, which use the following convenient outlets: Saclay: the artificial ponds made by Louis XIV to feed the great Versailles fountains; Fontenay-aux-Roses: the Paris sewer system; Grenoble: the river Isere; Marcoule: the river Rhone. Until 1957 the amount of waste was negligible. It is still very slight at the first three centres, only a few dozen millicuries a month. At Marcoule the activity of the effluents is somewhat greater, but the Rhone's rate of flow ensures a very low final content of radioactive elements. The increasing discharge of wastes into river systems calls for a close watch on changes in radioactivity in the environment (i.e. in air, water and soil), and especially on areas in which radioactive isotopes may accumulate. We have therefore made laboratory studies of the mechanics of radioactivity concentration, in order to improve our sampling methods and ascertain the movement of wastes.

  10. Hanford Facility dangerous waste permit application, liquid effluent retention facility and 200 area effluent treatment facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coenenberg, J.G.

    1997-08-15

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to 10 be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document 11 number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the 12 Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation 13 submitted for individual, `operating` treatment, storage, and/or disposal 14 units, such as the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 15 Treatment Facility (this document, DOE/RL-97-03). 16 17 Both the General Information and Unit-Specific portions of the Hanford 18 Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application address the content of the Part B 19 permit application guidance prepared by the Washington State Department of 20 Ecology (Ecology 1987 and 1996) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 21 (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information needs 22 defined by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments and revisions of 23 Washington Administrative Code 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington 24 State Department of Ecology alpha-numeric section identifiers from the permit 25 application guidance documentation (Ecology 1996) follow, in brackets, the 26 chapter headings and subheadings. A checklist indicating where information is 27 contained in the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 28 Treatment Facility permit application documentation, in relation to the 29 Washington State Department of Ecology guidance, is located in the Contents 30 Section. 31 32 Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in 33 nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units 34 (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Wherever 35 appropriate, the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 36 Treatment Facility permit application documentation makes cross-reference to 37 the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating

  11. Hanford Facility dangerous waste permit application, liquid effluent retention facility and 200 area effluent treatment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coenenberg, J.G.

    1997-01-01

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to 10 be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document 11 number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the 12 Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation 13 submitted for individual, 'operating' treatment, storage, and/or disposal 14 units, such as the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 15 Treatment Facility (this document, DOE/RL-97-03). 16 17 Both the General Information and Unit-Specific portions of the Hanford 18 Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application address the content of the Part B 19 permit application guidance prepared by the Washington State Department of 20 Ecology (Ecology 1987 and 1996) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 21 (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information needs 22 defined by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments and revisions of 23 Washington Administrative Code 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington 24 State Department of Ecology alpha-numeric section identifiers from the permit 25 application guidance documentation (Ecology 1996) follow, in brackets, the 26 chapter headings and subheadings. A checklist indicating where information is 27 contained in the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 28 Treatment Facility permit application documentation, in relation to the 29 Washington State Department of Ecology guidance, is located in the Contents 30 Section. 31 32 Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in 33 nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units 34 (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Wherever 35 appropriate, the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 36 Treatment Facility permit application documentation makes cross-reference to 37 the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating

  12. A risk-based approach to liquid effluent monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, L.C.

    1995-10-01

    DOE Order 5400.1 identifies six objectives of a liquid effluent monitoring program. A strategy is proposed that meets these objective in one of two ways: (1) by showing that effluent concentrations are below concentration limits set by permits or are below concentrations that could cause environmental problems or (2) by showing that concentrations in effluent have not changed from a period when treatment processes were in control and there were no unplanned releases. The intensity of liquid effluent monitoring should be graded to the importance of the source being monitored. This can be accomplished by determining the risk posed by the source. A definition of risk is presented that defines risk in terms of the statistical probability of exceeding a release limit and the time available to recover from an exceedance of a release limit. Three examples are presented that show this approach to grading an effluent monitoring program can be implemented at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and will reduce monitoring requirements.

  13. A risk-based approach to liquid effluent monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, L.C.

    1995-10-01

    DOE Order 5400.1 identifies six objectives of a liquid effluent monitoring program. A strategy is proposed that meets these objective in one of two ways: (1) by showing that effluent concentrations are below concentration limits set by permits or are below concentrations that could cause environmental problems or (2) by showing that concentrations in effluent have not changed from a period when treatment processes were in control and there were no unplanned releases. The intensity of liquid effluent monitoring should be graded to the importance of the source being monitored. This can be accomplished by determining the risk posed by the source. A definition of risk is presented that defines risk in terms of the statistical probability of exceeding a release limit and the time available to recover from an exceedance of a release limit. Three examples are presented that show this approach to grading an effluent monitoring program can be implemented at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and will reduce monitoring requirements

  14. PEP liquid level system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauritzen, T.; Sah, R.C.

    1981-03-01

    A liquid level system has been installed in the accelerator housing of the PEP storage ring. This instrument spans the entire 2.2 km circumference of the PEP project, and over one hundred readouts provide reference elevations which are used for the accurate alignment of accelerator components. The liquid level has proven to be extremely precise (+-0.10 mm) and quick to use, and it has contributed to the accurate alignment of PEP before beam turn-on. Since the liquid level readouts are rigidly attached to the accelerator housing, the liquid level has been a convenient means to monitor the settling of the accelerator housing

  15. Radiological characterization of liquid effluent hold up tank for generating data base for future decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapkal, Jyotsna A.; Singh, Pratap; Verma, Amit; Yadav, R.K.B.; Thakare, S.V.

    2018-01-01

    Operations at Radiological laboratory facilities are involved in fabrication of high activity radioactive sources like 60 Co, 192 1r and 137 Cs, handling of long lived radionuclides like 137 Cs/ 90 Sr, radiochemical processing and production of short-lived radioisotopes for medical diagnosis and treatment of patients. Typical liquid waste management feature at any Radiological Laboratory facility primarily consists of effluent tanks which store the liquid effluent wastes generated during radiochemical processing and fabrication of reactor produced radioisotopes. The liquid waste generated from various laboratories are collected to low level sump tanks from where it is transferred to hold up tanks. The liquid waste is transferred to centralized effluent treatment plant, analysis and characterization of the same is carried out. This paper explains the characterization study of samples drawn from the liquid effluent tank which would be helpful for planning for decontamination as well as for decommissioning and in management of radioactive wastes. In this study the crud deposited at the bottom of tank was collected for gamma spectrometry analysis. Radiation field was measured, at the bottom of the tank for correlating the activity present and the radiation field

  16. Optimizing Liquid Effluent Monitoring at a Large Nuclear Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Charissa J.; Johnson, V.G.; Barnett, Brent B.; Olson, Phillip M.

    2003-01-01

    Monitoring data for a centralized effluent treatment and disposal facility at the Hanford Site, a defense nuclear complex undergoing cleanup and decommissioning in southeast Washington State, was evaluated to optimize liquid effluent monitoring efficiency. Wastewater from several facilities is collected and discharged to the ground at a common disposal site. The discharged water infiltrates through 60 m of soil column to the groundwater, which eventually flows into the Columbia River, the second largest river in the contiguous United States. Protection of this important natural resource is the major objective of both cleanup and groundwater and effluent monitoring activities at the Hanford Site. Four years of effluent data were evaluated for this study. More frequent sampling was conducted during the first year of operation to assess temporal variability in analyte concentrations, to determine operational factors contributing to waste stream variability and to assess the probability of exceeding permit limits. Subsequently, the study was updated which included evaluation of the sampling and analysis regime. It was concluded that the probability of exceeding permit limits was one in a million under normal operating conditions, sampling frequency could be reduced, and several analytes could be eliminated, while indicators could be substituted for more expensive analyses. Findings were used by the state regulatory agency to modify monitoring requirements for a new discharge permit. The primary focus of this paper is on the statistical approaches and rationale that led to the successful permit modification and to a more cost-effective effluent monitoring program

  17. Inorganic ion exchangers. Application to liquid effluent processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dozol, M.

    1983-10-01

    Main inorganic ion exchangers used for radioactive liquid effluents presented in this report are: synthetic and natural zeolites, in titanium oxides, titanates, niobates, tantalates, zirconates, some insoluble salts of zirconium, molybdenum and tin, heteropolyacids and polyantimonic acid. Properties of these ion exchangers are described: structure, adsoption, radiation effects and thermal stability, application to waste processing, radioactive waste storage uranium and cesium 137 recovery are evoked [fr

  18. Tritium liquid effluents from the Krsko NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savli, S.; Krizman, M.; Nemec, T.; Cindro, M.; Stritar, A.; Vokal Nemec, B.; Janzekovic, H.

    2007-01-01

    In the past, 12-months' fuel cycles in the Krsko NPP had not caused any problems regarding compliance with its Technical Specifications and license limits on liquid tritium releases (20 TBq/year, 8 TBq/three months). The first 18-months' fuel cycle, which was introduced in 2004, required fuel with higher enrichment, higher boron concentration in the primary coolant and more fuel rods with burnable poisons. In 2005, the NPP operated without refueling outage for the whole year and produced the highest amount of energy so far. Due to these facts and a few unplanned shutdowns and power reductions, production of tritium and releases increased strongly in 2005. As a result, the Krsko NPP hardly succeeded to stay within regulatory limits on tritium releases. However, the three-months' limit was exceeded in the first quarter of 2006. On the basis of conclusions acquired from the SNSA's study and practice of other European countries the SNSA considerably increased the annual limit of permitted liquid tritium releases (from 20 TBq to 45 TBq) and abolished the three-months' limit. At the same time, the SNSA reduced the limit of fission and activation products by halves. (author)

  19. Removal of active species from liquid effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blake, N.J.; Ritchie, S.; Robinson, K.S.

    1990-08-01

    The extraction and stripping of a strontium feed solution at 1000ppm and pH 7 has been investigated using a recirculating liquid membrane system. Feed solution was circulated through the tube-side of a hollow fibre unit, contacting an extractant solution of 20% v/v di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate in odourless kerosine at the inner wall. The partition coefficient for this extraction was 56000. The extractant was then pumped to the shell-side of a second hollow fibre unit, containing the strip solution of nitric acid in the tube-side of the fibres. Strontium removal from the feed solution was virtually complete after one hour, but the stripping time scale was at least an order or magnitude longer. Flowrates of each phase did not appear to affect the overall mass transfer coefficients for extraction or stripping operations. The extraction coefficient based on the feed phase was estimated to be 3.9 x 10 -6 m s -1 . Stripping coefficients based on the strip phase were measured at 1.6 x 10 -9 and 2.2 x 10 -9 m s -1 for strip solutions of 0.1M and 1.0M nitric acid. These values compare reasonably well with published correlations. (author)

  20. Optimizing liquid effluent monitoring at a large nuclear complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Charissa J; Barnett, D Brent; Johnson, Vernon G; Olson, Phil M

    2003-12-01

    Effluent monitoring typically requires a large number of analytes and samples during the initial or startup phase of a facility. Once a baseline is established, the analyte list and sampling frequency may be reduced. Although there is a large body of literature relevant to the initial design, few, if any, published papers exist on updating established effluent monitoring programs. This paper statistically evaluates four years of baseline data to optimize the liquid effluent monitoring efficiency of a centralized waste treatment and disposal facility at a large defense nuclear complex. Specific objectives were to: (1) assess temporal variability in analyte concentrations, (2) determine operational factors contributing to waste stream variability, (3) assess the probability of exceeding permit limits, and (4) streamline the sampling and analysis regime. Results indicated that the probability of exceeding permit limits was one in a million under normal facility operating conditions, sampling frequency could be reduced, and several analytes could be eliminated. Furthermore, indicators such as gross alpha and gross beta measurements could be used in lieu of more expensive specific isotopic analyses (radium, cesium-137, and strontium-90) for routine monitoring. Study results were used by the state regulatory agency to modify monitoring requirements for a new discharge permit, resulting in an annual cost savings of US dollars 223,000. This case study demonstrates that statistical evaluation of effluent contaminant variability coupled with process knowledge can help plant managers and regulators streamline analyte lists and sampling frequencies based on detection history and environmental risk.

  1. The treatment of liquid effluents of reprocessing plants by a chemical process: French experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, N.; Taillard, D.

    1977-01-01

    The goal of radioactive effluent processing is to obtain a liquid with a residual activity level allowing disposal and a minimum amount of slurries. Insolubilization methods used in France are described to eliminate fission products in reprocessing plants effluents i.e. strontium, cesium, ruthenium and antimony; others radioelements are generally carried away with others precipitates. Evolution of the process is expressed in terms of reprocessing needs and improvements. Decontamination factors better than 100 are now possible with concentration factors between 30 and 50 [fr

  2. Liquid Effluent Monitoring Program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballinger, M.Y.

    1995-05-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting a program to monitor the waste water from PNL-operated research and development facilities on the Hanford Site. The purpose of the program is to collect data to assess administrative controls and to determine whether discharges to the process sewer meet sewer criteria. Samples have been collected on a regular basis from the major PNL facilities on the Hanford Site since March 1994. A broad range of analyses has been performed to determine the primary constituents in the liquid effluent. The sampling program is briefly summarized in the paper. Continuous monitoring of pH, conductivity, and flow also provides data on the liquid effluent streams. In addition to sampling and monitoring, the program is evaluating the dynamics of the waste stream with dye studies and is evaluating the use of newer technologies for potential deployment in future sampling/monitoring efforts. Information collected to date has been valuable in determining sources of constituents that may be higher than the Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) for the Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF). This facility treats the waste streams before discharge to the Columbia River

  3. Liquid level controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangus, J.D.; Redding, A.H.

    1975-01-01

    A system for maintaining two distinct sodium levels within the shell of a heat exchanger having a plurality of J-shaped modular tube bundles each enclosed in a separate shell which extends from a common base portion. A lower liquid level is maintained in the base portion and an upper liquid level is maintained in the shell enwrapping the long stem of the J-shaped tube bundles by utilizing standpipes with a notch at the lower end which decreases in open area the distance from the end of the stand pipe increases and a supply of inert gas fed at a constant rate to produce liquid levels, which will remain generally constant as the flow of liquid through the vessel varies

  4. Liquid metal level measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hale, J.C.; Leyland, K.S.

    1982-01-01

    A liquid metal level indicator is described which can be used to measure, in a stainless steel tank, the level of a nuclear reactor coolant such as sodium. The instrument, which is based on the eddy current induction effect, gives readings over substantially the full depth of the tank and indicates the sense of change of level. (U.K.)

  5. Liquid Level Sensing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korman, Valentin (Inventor); Wiley, John T. (Inventor); Duffell, Amanda G. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A liquid level sensing system includes waveguides disposed in a liquid and distributed along a path with a gap between adjacent waveguides. A source introduces electromagnetic energy into the waveguides at a first end of the path. A portion of the electromagnetic energy exits the waveguides at a second end of the path. A detector measures the portion of the electromagnetic energy exiting the second end of the path.

  6. Extraction of metals from liquid effluent using modified inorganic ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    Inorganic ion exchangers such as goethite, titanium (IV) oxide; silica and zeolites have been modified to examine the extraction of ruthenium; technetium and cobalt from liquid effluent. In addition, tin (IV) hydrogenphosphate and antimony hydrogenphosphate have been also examined in the modified and unmodified forms. It has been shown that some of the above reagents are able to remove the required metal ions from aqueous solution at the trace and mg L -1 levels. (author)

  7. Seminar on long term research into liquid effluent treatment,

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooper, E.W.

    1987-02-01

    A one-day Seminar on Long Term Research into Liquid Waste Treatment was held at Harwell on 30th January 1986. The Seminar was sponsored by the Department of the Environment and was attended by ninety-five delegates representing industry, universities, DoE, CEGB and the AEA. The purpose of the meeting was to provide an opportunity for people working in the field of liquid effluent treatment to obtain up-to-date information on the nature and status of research being carried out in the United Kingdom. Nine presentations on research activity described work being undertaken on ultrafiltration and associated techniques, electrical processes and ion exchange. The presenters were from BNF plc, CEGB, Imperial College, University of Salford, University of Reading and from Harwell. (author)

  8. Computer software configuration management plan for 200 East/West Liquid Effluent Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graf, F.A. Jr.

    1995-02-27

    This computer software management configuration plan covers the control of the software for the monitor and control system that operates the Effluent Treatment Facility and its associated truck load in station and some key aspects of the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility that stores condensate to be processed. Also controlled is the Treated Effluent Disposal System`s pumping stations and monitors waste generator flows in this system as well as the Phase Two Effluent Collection System.

  9. Computer software configuration management plan for 200 East/West Liquid Effluent Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, F.A. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    This computer software management configuration plan covers the control of the software for the monitor and control system that operates the Effluent Treatment Facility and its associated truck load in station and some key aspects of the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility that stores condensate to be processed. Also controlled is the Treated Effluent Disposal System's pumping stations and monitors waste generator flows in this system as well as the Phase Two Effluent Collection System

  10. Liquid level detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, A.P.; Pendleton, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    A device is described for locating the level of the liquid metal in a sodium cooled nuclear reactor by using a movable probe equipped to signal a phase change with null on arrival at the interface between two conductively differing media. (U.K.)

  11. 200 area liquid effluent facility quality assurance program plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, N.J.

    1995-01-01

    Direct revision of Supporting Document WHC-SD-LEF-QAPP-001, Rev. 0. 200 Area Liquid Effluent Facilities Quality Assurance Program Plan. Incorporates changes to references in tables. Revises test to incorporate WHC-SD-LEF-CSCM-001, Computer Software Configuration Management Plan for 200 East/West Liquid Effluent Facilities

  12. Environmental system applied to radioactive liquid effluent release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisti, Marcelo Bessa

    2009-01-01

    The current environmental administration considers the productive activity as an environmental system, defined as a group of processes, interactions, parameters and factors involved in the production. This mastering dissertation evaluated the release of the liquid radioactive effluents at Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), under a systemic environmental study. The study evaluated the source term at IPEN in the period from 2004 to 2008, making use of gamma-ray and alpha spectrometry, instrumental neutron activation analysis, liquid phase scintillation and atomic absorption spectrometry. The employed methodologies were verified using samples from the Intercomparison National Program - PNI/IRD and Reference Materials. The facilities that contributed the most in these releases were the Radiopharmaceutical Center (CR) and the Research Reactor Center (CRPq) with an average of 11,4% and 87,4%, respectively, relative to the present radioactive activity. The sewer system releases were within the radioactive protection regulations, showing the effectiveness of IPEN's Radioactive Effluents Monitoring Program. The concentration of the stable elements Ag, Cd, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn was determined in the liquid effluent in ali the samples from the storage tanks TR1 and CR in the period from 2004 to 2008 and in some of the samples of other IPEN's facilities in the period from 2004 to 2007. Among the analyzed effluents, two samples were higher than the stable elements discharge standards established in the state of Sao Paulo, one sample was higher than the required value of the element cadmium and the other higher than required value of the element zinco The storage tank TR1 discharge flow was estimated in 10,9 ± 0,9 m3 h -1 . The dilution factor at discharge point E1 was estimated using a radiotracers the isotopes 3 H, 137 CS, 60 Co, 54 Mn and 65 Zn, which are commonly released into IPEN's sewer system. The executed radiotracer study was carried out

  13. LIQUID EFFLUENT RETENTION FACILITY (LERF) BASIN 42 STUDIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DUNCAN JB

    2004-01-01

    This report documents laboratory results obtained under test plan RPP-21533 for samples submitted by the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) from the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) Basin 42 (Reference 1). The LERF Basin 42 contains process condensate (PC) from the 242-A Evaporator and landfill leachate. The ETF processes one PC campaign approximately every 12 to 18 months. A typical PC campaign volume can range from 1.5 to 2.5 million gallons. During the September 2003 ETF Basin 42 processing campaign, a recurring problem with 'gelatinous buildup' on the outlet filters from 60A-TK-I (surge tank) was observed (Figure 1). This buildup appeared on the filters after the contents of the surge tank were adjusted to a pH of between 5 and 6 using sulfuric acid. Biological activity in the PC feed was suspected to be the cause of the gelatinous material. Due to this buildup, the filters (10 (micro)m CUNO) required daily change out to maintain process throughput

  14. Biological treatment of the liquid effluents of a paper industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejia, Juan Felipe; Ramirez, Gladys Eugenia; Arias Zabala, Mario

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to determine the effect of the microorganisms Candida utilis and Candida tropicalis in the reduction of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the liquid effluents of a producing factory of paper kraft type, by means of fermentations made to pH of 5 and a 30 centigrade degrees during 6 days. The biological processing is preceded by a physicochemical process of directed acidulation to reduce pH of the effluent (liquor black) from its initial value, of approximately 13, to 5, in order to it is adapted for the growth of yeast. In this process, which forms precipitated, that is necessary to eliminate by centrifugation and filtration to facilitate the growth of the microorganisms, with is obtained one first removal of the COD of the order of 70 %. With the biological processing obtains for both yeasts a percentage of removal of 45 -50% of the COD surplus. The total removal of the COD, that is to say, obtained with the pre-cure and the fermentation it is of the order of 84% for the yeast. Additionally the possibility studied of implementing some complementary procedures to the biological processing, with a view to obtaining greater growth of yeast in the black liquor and thus obtaining additional reductions in the OCD of the same one

  15. LIQUID EFFLUENT RETENTION FACILITY (LERF) BASIN 42 STUDIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DUNCAN JB

    2004-10-29

    This report documents laboratory results obtained under test plan RPP-21533 for samples submitted by the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) from the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) Basin 42 (Reference 1). The LERF Basin 42 contains process condensate (PC) from the 242-A Evaporator and landfill leachate. The ETF processes one PC campaign approximately every 12 to 18 months. A typical PC campaign volume can range from 1.5 to 2.5 million gallons. During the September 2003 ETF Basin 42 processing campaign, a recurring problem with 'gelatinous buildup' on the outlet filters from 60A-TK-I (surge tank) was observed (Figure 1). This buildup appeared on the filters after the contents of the surge tank were adjusted to a pH of between 5 and 6 using sulfuric acid. Biological activity in the PC feed was suspected to be the cause of the gelatinous material. Due to this buildup, the filters (10 {micro}m CUNO) required daily change out to maintain process throughput.

  16. Dry washing: the solution for contaminated liquid effluent releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L'homme, D.; Trambouze, P.

    1998-01-01

    The release of wash water used for contaminated garments poses an ever-increasing problem on nuclear sites. Even though the radioactivity is low, it mixes with organic compounds, thus polluting a large quantity of liquid effluents. In many cases, several thousands of m 3 /year per nuclear site are produced, which at times represents more than 30% of the volume of total releases. The conventional dry cleaning process is not a viable option, given that repeated washing cause clothes to fade and the odors are rot removed completely. In order to eliminate releases, STMI has developed, after several years of research with the Technological University of Compiegne, France, a solvent dry washing process for garments used in the nuclear industry. (author)

  17. Assay of low-level plutonium effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsue, S.T.; Hsue, F.; Bowersox, D.F.

    1981-01-01

    In the plutonium recovery section at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, an effluent solution is generated that contains low plutonium concentration and relatively high americium concentration. Nondestructive assay of this solution is demonstrated by measuring the passive L x-rays following alpha decay. Preliminary results indicate that an average deviation of 30% between L x-ray and alpha counting can be achieved for plutonium concentrations above 10 mg/L and Am/Pu ratios of up to 3; for plutonium concentrations less than 10 mg/L, the average deviation is 40%. The sensitivity of the L x-ray assay is approx. 1 mg Pu/L

  18. Monitoring of released radioactive gaseous and liquid effluent at Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, M.; Keta, S.; Nagai, S.; Kano, M.; Ishihara, N.; Moriyama, T.; Ogaki, K.; Noda, K.

    2009-01-01

    Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP) Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant started its active tests with spent fuel at the end of March 2006. When spent fuels are sheared and dissolved, radioactive gaseous effluent and radioactive liquid effluent such as krypton-85, tritium, etc. are released into the environment. In order to limit the public dose as low as reasonably achievable in an efficient way, RRP removes radioactive material by evaporation, rinsing, filtering, etc., and then releases it through the main stack and the sea discharge pipeline that allow to make dispersion and dilution very efficiently. Also, concerning the radioactive gaseous and liquid effluent to be released into the environment, the target values of annual release have been defined in the Safety Rule based on the estimated annual release evaluated at the safety review of RRP. By monitoring the radioactive material in gaseous exhaust and liquid effluent RRP controls it not to exceed the target values. RRP reprocessed 430 tUpr of spent fuel during Active Test (March 2006 to October 2008). In this report, we report about: The outline of gaseous and liquid effluent monitoring. The amount of radioactive gaseous and liquid effluent during the active test. The performance of removal of radioactive materials in gaseous and liquid effluents. The impact on the public from radioactive effluents during the active test. (author)

  19. A system for destroying mixed and hazardous wastes with no gas or liquid effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camp, D.W.; Upadhye, R.S.

    1992-04-01

    We developed a conceptual design for a processing system in which the organic components of hazardous or mixed waste would be destroyed, while discharging virtually no gaseous or liquid effluents. Only solid products would be produced. For mixed waste feeds these could then be transported and disposed as low level waste. This system would oxidize the organics using any one of several destruction processes adapted to replace air with a mixture of O 2 and recycled CO 2 . Net production Of CO 2 , HC1, and H 2 O in the dosed recycle system would be scrubbed or reacted to solid products such as CaCO 3 , NaCl, and concrete. This no-effluent design may improve community acceptance of a waste destruction system

  20. Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System test plans releases 2.0 and 3.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guettler, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    The Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System (LEMIS) is being developed as the organized information repository facility in support of the liquid effluent monitoring requirements of the Tri-Party Agreement. It is necessary to provide an automated repository into which the results from liquid effluent sampling will be placed. This repository must provide for effective retention, review, and retrieval of selected sample data by authorized persons and organizations. This System Architecture document is the aggregation of the DMR P+ methodology project management deliverables. Together they represent a description of the project and its plan through four Releases, corresponding to the definition and prioritization of requirements defined by the user

  1. Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System (LEMIS) test plans release 1.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, R.T.

    1994-01-01

    The Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System (LEMIS) is being developed as the organized information repository facility in support of the liquid effluent monitoring requirements of the Tri-Party Agreement. It is necessary to provide an automated repository into which the results from liquid effluent sampling will be placed. This repository must provide for effective retention, review, and retrieval of selected sample data by authorized persons and organizations. This System Architecture document is the aggregation of the DMR P+ methodology project management deliverables. Together they represent a description of the project and its plan through four Releases, corresponding to the definition and prioritization of requirements defined by the user

  2. Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System test plans release 1.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, R.T.

    1994-01-01

    The Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System (LEMIS) is being developed as the organized information repository facility in support of the liquid effluent monitoring requirements of the Tri-Party Agreement. It is necessary to provide an automated repository into which the results from liquid effluent sampling will be placed. This repository must provide for effective retention, review, and retrieval of selected sample data by authorized persons and organizations. This System Architecture document is the aggregation of the DMR P+ methodology project management deliverables. Together they represent a description of the project and its plan through four Releases, corresponding to the definition and prioritization of requirements defined by the user

  3. Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System (LEMIS) test plans release 1.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, R.T.

    1994-01-01

    The Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System (LEMIS) is being developed as the organized information repository facility in support of the liquid effluent monitoring requirements of the Tri-Party Agreement. It is necessary to provide an automated repository into which the results from liquid effluent sampling will be placed. This repository must provide for effective retention, review, and retrieval of selected sample data by authorized persons and organizations. This System Architecture document is the aggregation of the DMR P+ methodology project management deliverables. Together they represent a description of the project and its plan through four Releases, corresponding to the definition and prioritization of requirements defined by the user

  4. The management plan of liquid effluent in Korean advanced light water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. H.; Lim, H. S.; Jeong, D. W.; Jeong, D. Y.

    2001-01-01

    Non-radioactive liquid effluent in Korean Advanced Light Water Reactor is transferred and treated in centralized waste treatment facility after the radioactivity in effluent is checked within power block. The liquid effluent from centralized waste treatment facility will be discharged by way of discharge canal in order to be in the sufficient condition. As a result of investigating the radiation monitoring design in accordance with 20 provisions by Korean Regulatory Authority, each effluent radiation monitoring with 20 provisions by Korean Regulatory Authority, each effluent radiation monitoring design satisfies the regulatory guideline. In relation to sampling and analyses, most systems satisfy the regulatory guideline except for some effluents from turbine building. And, though sampling and analyses are performed after radioactivity is monitored at each system in turbine building, these exceptions in turbine building effluents are expected to cause no significant problems because radioactivity is monitored by direct or indirect methods prior to release from turbine building. Integrated monitoring on liquid effluent from the centralized waste water treatment facility is not necessary because radiation monitoring, sampling and analyses on each system within power block are performed, and operational effectiveness compared with cost according to adding the radiation monitoring equipment is too low. So, whether the radiation monitoring in this effluent is reflected on design or not is planned to be determined through discussion with regulatory authority

  5. Derived release limits (DRL's) for airborne and liquid effluents from the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories during normal operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, J.F.

    1981-02-01

    Derived release limits (DRL's), based on regulatory dose limits, have been calculated for routine discharges of radioactivity in airborne and liquid effluents from the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories. Three types of sources of airborne effluents were considered: the NRX/NRU stack, the 61 m stack connected to the 99 Mo production facility, and a roof vent typical of those installed on several buildings on the site. Sources of liquid effluents to the Ottawa River were treated as a single source from the site as a whole. Various exposure pathways to workers on the site and to members of the public outside the site boundary were considered in the calculations. The DRL's represent upper limits for routine emissions of radioactivity from the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories to the surrounding environment. Actual releases are regulated by Administrative Levels, set lower than the DRL's, and are confirmed by monitoring. (author)

  6. Alternatives to disposal of Hanford Site liquid effluents to the soil column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinhardt, C.C.; Flyckt, D.L.; Wirsing, R.M.; Winterhalder, J.A.

    1987-04-01

    Alternative systems were selected for 28 effluent streams, based on the use of available technology and ability to eliminate the contaminated effluent or reduce contaminant levels to meet specified effluent disposal criteria and standards derived from DOE Orders and environmental statutes. This study determined that technically feasible alternative waste disposal systems are available. 6 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Screening for crude oil degrading bacteria in liquid organic waste (effluent samples)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akpe, A.R.

    2014-01-01

    The screening for crude oil degrading bacteria in some liquid organic wastes (cassava mill effluents, rubber effluents and oil palm mill effluents) was carried out. Hydrocarbon utilising bacteria were isolated on mineral salt agar using vapour phase technique. The samples yielded 20 bacterial isolates from 13 different genera. Cassava mill effluent and rubber effluent had the highest number (7), while oil palm effluent had the least number (6) of bacterial isolates. The isolates that had the highest occurrence (occurring in all samples) were Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. Of these 13 genera 9 were gram negative, while only 4 were gram positive. The total heterotrophic bacterial (THB) count and total hydrocarbon utilisers (THU) from all the effluent samples ranged from 3.0 * 10/sup 4/ to 6.0* 10/sup 7/ cfu/mL and 2.3 *10/sup 2/ to 4.2*10/sup 3/ cfu/mL, respectively. The counts of hydrocarbon utilisers were obviously lower than the heterotrophic counts, although the differences in counts were found to be statistically non-significant (P > 0.05). Rubber effluents and oil palm mill effluents had the highest number of hydrocarbon utilisers with three isolates each. The active hydrocarbon utilisers encountered in this study included Serratia marscescens, Bacillus cereus, P. aeruginosa, Enterobacter aerogenes and Bacillus subtilis. Presence of nutrients and crude oil degrading bacteria in these effluents suggests that these effluents can be used to enhance bioremediation through their use as biostimulation and bioaugmentation agents. (author)

  8. Liquid effluent retention facility final-status groundwater monitoring plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweeney, M.D.; Chou, C.J.; Bjornstad, B.N.

    1997-09-01

    The following sections describe the groundwater-monitoring program for the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF). The LERF is regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA). The LERF is included in the open-quotes Dangerous Waste Portion of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit for the Treatment, Storage, and Disposal of Dangerous Waste, Permit WA890008967close quotes, (referred to herein as the Permit) (Ecology 1994) and is subject to final-status requirements for groundwater monitoring (WAC 173-303-645). This document describes a RCRA/WAC groundwater detection-monitoring program for groundwater in the uppermost aquifer system at the LERF. This plan describes the LERF monitoring network, constituent list, sampling schedule, statistical methods, and sampling and analysis protocols that will be employed for the LERF. This plan will be used to meet the groundwater monitoring requirements from the time the LERF becomes part of the Permit and through the post-closure care period, until certification of final closure

  9. Chemical processing of liquid effluents in reprocessing plants: experience gained in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, N.; Pottier, P.; Taillard, D.

    1977-01-01

    The radionuclides present in radioactive liquid effluents are precipitated for two purposes, viz: 1) to reduce the radioactivity to a level at which the liquids may be discharged; 2) to concentrate the radioactive compounds in the smallest possible volume for storage. The scientific principles of the radionuclide precipitation process are reviewed in the first part, which covers the solubility product, adsorption onto the surface of the precipitates, co-precipitation by isomorphism, ion-exchange on precipitates, etc. The paper goes on to discuss flocculation techniques, flocculation monitoring (zeta potential etc.) and methods of separating the solid and liquid phases. The specific methods for precipitating the main radionuclides are then described, with special reference to Sr, Cs, Ru, Co and Sb. The synergism of certain methods of precipitation is also discussed. The main part of the paper concerns the application of chemical processes for purifying low and medium active effluents in the Marcoule and La Hague centres. Particular emphasis is placed on the development of the processes used and the improvement of performance. Lastly, the paper discusses the possibilities offered in final treatment in such a way as to determine the limits to the effectiveness of the chemical processes. (orig.) [de

  10. Metal concentration of liquid effluents and surroundings of a pharmaceutical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.I. Adeyeye

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Major and trace metals (Mg, Na, K, Ca, Fe, Zn, Cu, Sn, Al, Pb, As, Cr, Cd, Mn and Ti in liquid effluents, soil sediments and plant parts (roots and leaves from Tisco Nigeria Limited, Akure, were determined in both open effluent channel and closed direct tank. The plant in the open effluent channel was Pennisetum purpureum while the one around the direct tank was Chloris pilosa. The correlation coefficient (Cc of the metals in the open channel gave the values: soil sediments/water (0.61, roots/leaves (0.709; and (0.34, (0.91, respectively, in direct tank. F-test values showed that 67 % of the metals were significantly different (p < 0.05 among the samples. The soil sediments would serve as reservoir for all the metals determined. This was also the case for both plant roots with species variation. The plant leaves showed evidence of bioaccumulation of some metals. The high levels of Pb, As and Cd in the samples call for concern as environmental contaminants.

  11. Treatment option evaluation for liquid effluent secondary streams on the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holter, G.M.; Triplett, M.B.; Fow, C.L.; White, M.K.

    1988-08-01

    This study, conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), examines the range of secondary waste types and volumes likely to result from treatment of contaminated liquid effluents. Alternatives for treatment of these effluents were considered, taking into account the implementation of the ''best-available technology'' as assumed in current and ongoing engineering studies for treating the various liquid effluent waste streams. These treatment alternatives, and potential variations in the operating schedules for Hanford Site facilities generating contaminated liquid effluents, were evaluated to project an estimated range for the volume of each of the various secondary waste streams that are likely to be generated. The conclusions and recommendations were developed, based on these estimates. 23 refs., 34 figs., 16 tabs

  12. Approach to the problem of liquid effluents in petrochemical plants; Abordagem do problema efluentes liquidos em plantas petroquimicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rios, Cordelia Alves [PROMON Engenharia SA, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    It represents the typical example of petrochemical company that uses the responsible care. The company looks for solve the liquid effluent problems of its units at a complete view. First of all, they made a complete report of the environmental scenario through the operational conditions (it included the collect system, effluent treatment, etc.) and their connection with the environmental problems. In the following step was made the necessary changes to establish the effluents pollute level below the allowable levels and to avoid soil contamination. The company has made the modifications at the following systems:a closed system to collect and reprocess process drains; collect, transfer and retention of contaminated storm water; a stripper column and a solid removal system to treat contaminated water. (author) 2 figs.

  13. Approach to the problem of liquid effluents in petrochemical plants; Abordagem do problema efluentes liquidos em plantas petroquimicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rios, Cordelia Alves [PROMON Engenharia SA, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1992-12-31

    It represents the typical example of petrochemical company that uses the responsible care. The company looks for solve the liquid effluent problems of its units at a complete view. First of all, they made a complete report of the environmental scenario through the operational conditions (it included the collect system, effluent treatment, etc.) and their connection with the environmental problems. In the following step was made the necessary changes to establish the effluents pollute level below the allowable levels and to avoid soil contamination. The company has made the modifications at the following systems:a closed system to collect and reprocess process drains; collect, transfer and retention of contaminated storm water; a stripper column and a solid removal system to treat contaminated water. (author) 2 figs.

  14. Treatment of ORNL liquid low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.B.; Brown, C.H. Jr.; Fowler, V.L.; Robinson, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    Discontinuation of the hydrofracture disposal method at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has caused intensive efforts to reduce liquid waste generation. Improving the treatment of slightly radioactive liquid waste, called process waste, has reduced the volume of the resulting contaminated liquid radioactive waste effluent by 66%. Proposed processing improvements could eliminate the contaminated liquid effluent and reduce solid low-level waste by an additional one-third. The improved process meets stringent discharge limits for radionuclides. Discharge limits for radionuclides are expected to be enforced at the outfall of the treatment plant to a creek; currently, limits are enforced at the reservation boundary. Plant discharge is monitored according to the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit for ORNL. 1 ref., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Determination of statin drugs in hospital effluent with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and quantification by liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Ayrton F; Frank, Carla da S; Altissimo, Joseline; de Oliveira, Júlia A; da Silva, Daiane S; Reichert, Jaqueline F; Souza, Darliana M

    2017-08-24

    Statins are classified as being amongst the most prescribed agents for treating hypercholesterolaemia and preventing vascular diseases. In this study, a rapid and effective liquid chromatography method, assisted by diode array detection, was designed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of atorvastatin (ATO) and simvastatin (SIM) in hospital effluent samples. The solid phase extraction (SPE) of the analytes was optimized regarding sorbent material and pH, and the dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME), in terms of pH, ionic strength, type and volume of extractor/dispersor solvents. The performance of both extraction procedures was evaluated in terms of linearity, quantification limits, accuracy (recovery %), precision and matrix effects for each analyte. The methods proved to be linear in the concentration range considered; the quantification limits were 0.45 µg L -1 for ATO and 0.75 µg L -1 for SIM; the matrix effect was almost absent in both methods and the average recoveries remained between 81.5-90.0%; and the RSD values were <20%. The validated methods were applied to the quantification of the statins in real samples of hospital effluent; the concentrations ranged from 18.8 µg L -1 to 35.3 µg L -1 for ATO, and from 30.3 µg L -1 to 38.5 µg L -1 for SIM. Since the calculated risk quotient was ≤192, the occurrence of ATO and SIM in hospital effluent poses a potential serious risk to human health and the aquatic ecosystem.

  16. Elimination of slightly radioactive liquid effluent by dilution. Its consequences (1960); Elimination par dilution d'effluents liquides faiblement radioactifs. Leurs consequences (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bovard, P; Candillon, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    Nuclear centres often have to solve problems raised by the elimination of large volumes of slightly radioactive liquid effluent. As things stand at present, the method usually adopted consists in expelling this effluent into the main water system in order to dilute it to a maximum, and thus to lower its radioactive isotope concentration to below the norms imposed by the Public Health Service. This technique requires systematic checking of the water system and its dependences, and demands a thorough knowledge of adsorption and fixation processes. (author) [French] Les centres nucleaires ont frequemment a resoudre des problemes poses par l'elimination de volumes importants d'effluents liquides faiblement radioactifs. Dans l'etat actuel des choses, la solution la plus utilisee consiste a rejeter ces effluents dans le reseau hydrographique de maniere a les diluer au maximum et abaisser ainsi leurs teneurs en isotopes radioactifs au-dessous des normes imposees par la Sante Publique. Cette technique necessite un controle systematique du reseau et de ses dependances et demande une connaissance approfondie des processus d'adsorption et de fixation. (auteur)

  17. Method for the simultaneous determination of monoaromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in industrial effluents using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makoś, Patrycja; Fernandes, André; Boczkaj, Grzegorz

    2018-02-23

    We present a new method for simultaneous determination of 22 monoaromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in postoxidative effluents from the production of petroleum bitumen using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled to gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The eight extraction parameters including the type and volume of extraction and disperser solvent, pH, salting out effect, extraction, and centrifugation time were optimized. The low detection limit ranging from 0.36 to 28 μg/L, limit of quantitation (1.1-84 μg/L), good reproducibility, and wide linear ranges, as well as the recoveries ranging from 71.74 to 114.67% revealed that the new method allows the determination of aromatic hydrocarbons at low concentration levels in industrial effluents having a very complex composition. The developed method was applied to the determination of content of mono- and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in samples of raw postoxidative effluents in which 15 compounds were identified at concentrations ranging from 1.21 to 1017.0 μg/L as well as in effluents after chemical treatment. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Continuously tritium monitoring of the pipe of liquid effluents at the Cea Cadarache; Controle en continu du tritium de la conduite des effluents liquides du CEA Cadarache

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pira, Y

    2004-07-01

    This report is oriented toward the radiation protection of environment that is an essential component of radiation protection. It is necessary to detect any solid, liquid or gaseous abnormal release and to find its origin. The present study bears on a detection instrument in continuously to find tritium in liquid effluents of the Cea Cadarache. After having study the functioning principle of this device, an evaluation of its performances has been realised ( back noise, yield, detection limit) and to a checking in real conditions of utilization. (N.C.)

  19. Application of reverse osmosis to the treatment of liquid effluents produced by nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huet, Y.; Poulat, B.; Menjeaud, C.

    1989-01-01

    Radioactive liquid effluents generated during the operation of PWR nuclear power units are currently treated by two independent systems. The effluents from the reactor coolant system are recycled, unlike the others, which, after treatment, are released into the river or ocean that provides cooling water for the unit. The objective of the treatment of nonrecycled effluents is to separate from them as much of the radioactive particles that they contain as possible, so as to release into the environment a maximum volume of nonradioactive waste, and to be left with only a minimum volume of concentrated waste, containing most of the initial radioactivity, which must be loaded into casks for storage. Membrane-based filtration techniques, because they have excellent separation performances, can logically be used for this decontamination of the liquid effluents. Having developed its own reverse osmosis membrane, a possible application in a nuclear power plant, i.e., integration of a reverse osmosis unit into a radioactive liquid effluent treatment system is presented. (author)

  20. Assessment of Radioactive Liquid Effluents Release at IPEN-CNEN/SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bessa Nisti, Marcelo; Godoy dos Santos, Adir Janete

    2008-01-01

    A continuous effluent monitoring program has been established at IPEN's plant in order to allow an environmental impact assessment due to radioactive liquid effluent discharge to sanitary system. Representative samples of radioactive liquid effluents are analyzed by using high resolution gamma spectroscopy and instrumental neutron activation analysis, facing to Brazilian radioprotection regulatory rules. The results are consolidating yearly in the Institute source-term. In this paper, results of the source-term are presented, concerning to years 2004, 2005 and 2006. The total activity discharged was 8.5xl0 8 Bq, 5.7x10 8 Bq and 2.7xl0 8 Bq, respectively. As the release is strongly dependent on the total amount of the effluent and on the dilution factor, special attention is needed in order to obtain the correct value of that last one. The estimated inside plant dilution factor, considering the recent facilities and the reshaping of the sewerage system was 80, 180 and 130, for period of 2004, 2005 and 2006 discharged liquid radioactive effluent

  1. Liquid effluent FY 1996 program plan WBS 1.2.2.1. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Liquid Effluents Program supports the three Hanford Site mission components: (1) Clean up the site, (2) provide scientific and technological excellence to meet global needs, and (3) Partner in the economic diversification of the region. Nine Hanford Site objectives have been established for the Hanford Site programs to accomplish all three components of this mission.

  2. Liquid effluent FY 1996 program plan WBS 1.2.2.1. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The Liquid Effluents Program supports the three Hanford Site mission components: (1) Clean up the site, (2) provide scientific and technological excellence to meet global needs, and (3) Partner in the economic diversification of the region. Nine Hanford Site objectives have been established for the Hanford Site programs to accomplish all three components of this mission

  3. Fertilizer potential of liquid and solid effluent from thermophilic anaerobic digestion of poultry waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liedl, B E; Bombardiere, J; Chaffield, J M

    2006-01-01

    Thermophilic anaerobic treatment of poultry litter produces an effluent stream of digested materials that can be separated into solid and liquid fractions for use as a crop fertilizer. The majority of the phosphorus is partitioned into the solid fraction while the majority of the nitrogen is present in the liquid fraction in the form of ammonium. These materials were tested over six years as an alternative fertilizer for the production of vegetable, fruit, and grassland crops. Application of the solids as a field crop fertilizer for vegetables and blueberries resulted in lower yields than the other fertilizer treatments, but an increase in soil phosphorus over a four-year period. Application of the digested liquids on grass and vegetable plots resulted in similar or superior yields to plots treated with commercially available nitrogen fertilizers. Hydroponic production of lettuce using liquid effluent was comparable to a commercial hydroponic fertilizer regime; however, the effluent treatment for hydroponic tomato production required supplementation and conversion of ammonium to nitrate. While not a total fertilizer solution, our research shows the effectiveness of digested effluent as part of a nutrient management program which could turn a livestock residuals problem into a crop nutrient resource.

  4. Risk-Based Radioactive Liquid Effluent Monitoring Requirements at the U. S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jannik, G.T.

    2001-01-01

    For Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, clear regulatory guidance exists for structuring radiological air emissions monitoring programs. However, there are no parallel regulations for radiological liquid effluent monitoring programs. In order to bridge this gap and to technically justify liquid effluent monitoring decisions at DOE's Savannah River Site, a graded, risk-basked approach has been established to determine the monitoring and sampling criteria to be applied at each liquid discharge point

  5. Elimination of slightly radioactive liquid effluent by dilution. Its consequences (1960)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovard, P.; Candillon, C.

    1960-01-01

    Nuclear centres often have to solve problems raised by the elimination of large volumes of slightly radioactive liquid effluent. As things stand at present, the method usually adopted consists in expelling this effluent into the main water system in order to dilute it to a maximum, and thus to lower its radioactive isotope concentration to below the norms imposed by the Public Health Service. This technique requires systematic checking of the water system and its dependences, and demands a thorough knowledge of adsorption and fixation processes. (author) [fr

  6. 242-A Evaporator/Liquid Effluent Retention Facility data quality objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Bargen, B.H.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of data quality objectives (DQO) is to determine the most cost effective methods of gathering the essential data necessary to make decisions to support successful operation of the facility. The essential data is defined by such information as sample amount, sample location, required analyses, and how sampling and analyses are performed. Successful operation is defined as meeting the campaign objectives while operating within established requirements. This DQO document addresses that portion of the system from 242-A Evaporator candidate feed tanks through discharge of process condensate to the Liquid Effluent Retention of Facility (LERF). Later revisions will incorporate and integrate the entire system, including the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF)

  7. 242-A Evaporator/Liquid Effluent Retention Facility data quality objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Von Bargen, B.H.

    1994-09-29

    The purpose of data quality objectives (DQO) is to determine the most cost effective methods of gathering the essential data necessary to make decisions to support successful operation of the facility. The essential data is defined by such information as sample amount, sample location, required analyses, and how sampling and analyses are performed. Successful operation is defined as meeting the campaign objectives while operating within established requirements. This DQO document addresses that portion of the system from 242-A Evaporator candidate feed tanks through discharge of process condensate to the Liquid Effluent Retention of Facility (LERF). Later revisions will incorporate and integrate the entire system, including the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF).

  8. Radiotracer investigations on dispersion of low level effluents discharged into Mumbai Harbour Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, Noble; Mendhekar, G.N.; Singh, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Two radiotracer investigations (using radioactive 82 Br) were carried out near the CIRUS jetty in the Mumbai Harbour Bay (MHB) to evaluate the dilution and dispersion of low level liquid effluents discharged from the BARC Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP). The first experiment was conducted during an ebb tide while the second was conducted during a flood tide. In both the experiments, about 1.55Ci (57 GBq) of 82 Br was injected into one of the aeration tanks of the ETP. The labelled effluent was discharged into the bay and the movement of the plume in the coastal water was monitored using underwater γ-scintillation detectors. Contour map depicting the spread of the radioactive plume was prepared and dilution factors were estimated. The extent of spread of the tracer was comparatively higher during the ebb tide than in flood tide. A 2-D advection dispersion (analytical) model was used to obtain the system parameters D x and D y (for the ebb tide D x is ∼ 5 m 2 s -1 and D y : 0.7 m 2 s -1 ; for flood tide D x is 5 m 2 s -1 and D y : 0.15 m 2 s -1 ). (author)

  9. Criticality safety issues arising from the treatment of liquid effluent streams from the reprocessing of thermal oxide fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorne, P.R.; Farrington, L.M.

    1991-01-01

    The BNFL THORP plant will reprocess irradiated oxide fuel from thermal reactors to recover plutonium dioxide and uranium trioxide in a pure form. A consequence of the reprocessing is that several liquid effluent streams are produced which can contain residual fissile material. Generally, the treatment of these effluent streams is carried out in large vessels which are not geometrically favourable with regard to nuclear safety. This is possible because the concentration of fissile material in solution is far less than the safely subcritical infinite sea concentrations. The situation is complicated by the presence of precipitated solids in some vessels and crud layers in others. Experimental measurements have been used to characterise these solids in order to extend the usual safe limits, and to provide an acceptable operating regime. Based on the experimental characterisation of the solids, the neutronics computer codes WIMS and MONK have been used to determine the optimum possible conditions existing, and to determine the safe fissile mass limits for these systems. The limits which are derived have been used to provide alarm and trip levels for instrumentation which has been employed in a novel way. It has been shown that the plant can be operated successfully and remains acceptably safe taking into account the presence of solids in the liquid effluent streams. (author)

  10. Processing and monitoring liquid, radioactive effluents from the Wiederaufarbeitungsanlage Karlsruhe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoehlein, G.; Huppert, K.L.; Winter, M.

    1977-01-01

    The Wiederaufarbeitungsanlage Karlsruhe (WAK) serves as a demonstration plant for the processing of highly-irradiated uranous oxide. The high active waste concentrates find interim storage at the WAK until they are solidified at a later stage. In contrast to this, the slightly- and the medium-active liquid wastes are transported to the decontamination facility of the Nuclear Research Centre Karlsruhe, where they are immediately processed. These liquid wastes contain about 1 per thousand of the activity inventary of the fuel elements processed. Monitoring of the radioactive waste water of the WAK is carried out by the Nuclear Research Centre's department radiation protection and safety. (orig.) [de

  11. Study of radiation processes for purifying liquid effluent and the design of pilot plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kon'kov, N.G.; Buslaeva, S.P.; Osipov, V.B.; Panin, Yu.A.; Solodikhina, L.D.; Upadyshev, L.B.; Karpukhin, V.F.; Fajngol'd, Z.L.

    1975-01-01

    The possibilities of purifying liquid effluent containing dyestuffs and various organic and biological pollutants with an accelerated electron beam of energy up to 0.7 MeV are examined. A laboratory plant has been erected for the stationary, continuous irradiation - with bubbling of air - of artificial and natural industrial effluent containing organic pollutants in concentrations of up to 2g/litre and the 5 SKh dye in concentrations of up to 220 mg/litre. The results are discussed of the experimental irradiation of artificial mixtures consisting of distilled water, organic pollutants and dyestuffs, and also of natural industrial effluents from an enterprise where antibiotics are produced and from textile mills. The results of the studies indicate that the physicochemical characteristics of effluents are improved. On the basis of these studies pilot plants with electron accelerators are being designed for a daily throughput of 15 000 m 3 of effluent from the production of antibiotics. The electron accelerators are of the transformer type (EhLV-1) with an energy of up to 0.7 MeV and a power of up to 40 kW. In addition, units with a daily throughput of 200 m 3 are being designed for the breakdown of cyanides in effluent by 60 Co. Such a unit consists of three reactors with centro-axial irradiators and solid cast-iron biological shielding. The dose-rate can be measured over a wide range, thanks to the use of spherical source holders. The sources have a total activity of 62 kCi. Calculations of the cost of the radiation treatment of effluent demonstrate the economic feasibility of the method

  12. Bromide as chemical tracer to measure the liquid effluent flow at IPEN-CNEN/SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Douglas B.; Faustino, Mainara G.; Monteiro, Lucilena R.; Cotrim, Marycel E.B.; Pires, Maria Aparecida F.

    2013-01-01

    Due to recent changes in CONAMA Resolution 357, which occurred through the publication of Resolution 430, on May 13, 2011 that now set standards about the effluent release, IPEN-CNEN/SP initiated several actions to improve the Environmental Monitoring Program (PMA-Q) of stable chemical compounds. Besides various parameters (physical and chemical) established by CONAMA, the submission of an annual pollution inventory report became necessary. The liquid effluent flow measurement is required to implement this inventory. Thereby, this paper describes a study that uses bromide as a chemical tracer. This paper presents the results of 6 tracer releases in IPEN wastewater collection network between 2011 and 2012. Two tracer releases designs were performed: single pulse and continuous releases performed with 1 to 6 hours duration, done by using one single piston pump manufactured by DIONEX. After the release, one fraction of the effluent was collected every 15 minutes at IPEN effluent monitoring station. The tracer concentration in the effluent was analyzed by ion chromatography and flow was calculated considering the dilution in the system and pump flow set up for the release. The flow values were measured in 6 events were determined and evaluated as per Brazilian regulation requirements. Experimental designs to be implemented during 2013 monitoring were also discussed in this paper, contributing to legal compliance and to improve IPEN's Environmental Monitoring Program for stable chemical compounds (PMA-Q). (author)

  13. Rancho Seco liquid effluent pathway aquatic and terrestrial dietary survey report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eagle, R.J.; Wong, K.M.; Noshkin, V.E.

    1984-01-01

    This report is a detailed summary of a survey conducted to identify all environmental pathways that may lead to any potential radiological dose to individuals utilizing aquatic and terrestrial components possibly contaminated with radionuclides contained in the liquid effluents that have been routinely discharged since 1980 to Clay Creek from the Rancho Seco Nuclear Generating Station. All land users and identified residents who obtain food from the creeks or use the creek water for irrigation or recreation were interviewed. Site specific usage parameters for the consumption of different food products and for direct exposure to individuals at downstream locations were identified and are discussed in this report. These usage parameters will be used with appropriate radionuclide concentration data to estimate radiological dose to man from the identified liquid effluent pathways

  14. The treatment of liquid effluents from the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carley-Macauly, K.W.

    1983-01-01

    This paper reviews the sources, and principles of management, of radioactive liquid wastes in the nuclear industry. The selection of processes for their treatment is based on consideration of the solution chemistry and of the total system for active waste disposal which must ensure that the activity or radiation dose arriving in the biosphere is kept within acceptable limits. Treatment processes aim primarily at concentration of the active species into a small volume, as by evaporation, selective ion exchange or precipitation. These well established methods have counterparts or developments among the more novel means of separation, such as membrane processes. (author)

  15. Analysis of adaptability of radioactive liquid effluent discharge under normal condition of inland nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yueping; Zhang Bing; Chen Yang; Zhu Lingqing; Tao Yunliang; Shangguan Zhihong

    2011-01-01

    The discharge of radioactive liquid effluent from inland nuclear power plant under normal operation is an important part to be considered in environmental impact assessment. Requirements of newly revised and upcoming standards GB 6249 and GB 14587 are introduced in this paper. Through an example of an inland NPP siting in the preliminary feasibility study phase, the adaptability to the relevant regulations in the site selection is analyzed. Also, the concerned problems in the design of AP1000 units are addressed. (authors)

  16. Functional design criteria for project W-252, phase II liquid effluent treatment and disposal. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatch, C.E.

    1995-05-01

    This document is the Functional Design Criteria for Project W-252. Project W-252 provides the scope to provide BAT/AKART (best available technology...) to 200 Liquid Effluent Phase II streams (B-Plant). This revision (Rev. 2) incorporates a major descoping of the project. The descoping was done to reflect a combination of budget cutting measures allowed by a less stringent regulatory posture toward the Phase II streams

  17. Study of sample-detector assemblies for application to in-situ measurement of radioactivity in liquid effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendharkar, K.A.; Narayanan Kutty, K.; Krishnamony, S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the experimental investigations carried out on four different types of sample-detector assemblies with a view to determining their detection limits and relative merits for application to in-situ measurement of radioactivity in liquid effluents. The four systems studied were: (1) gamma detection using 11 cm x 8 cm NaI (Tl) scintillation detector inserted in the cavity of a specially designed stainless steel chamber of capacity 15 liters, (2) gamma detection using a metal-walled G.M. counter in a similar manner, (3) beta detection using twin thin-walled G.M. counters immersed in liquid, and (4) end window G.M. counter positioned above the liquid surface in a shallow tray. The design features of an in-line monitor employing a 11 cm x 8 cm NaI (Tl) detector used for the routine monitoring of beta gamma activity concentrations in the low level effluents of the Tarapur Fuel Processing Plant are described. (author). 1 tab

  18. Continuously tritium monitoring of the pipe of liquid effluents at the Cea Cadarache

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pira, Y.

    2004-01-01

    This report is oriented toward the radiation protection of environment that is an essential component of radiation protection. It is necessary to detect any solid, liquid or gaseous abnormal release and to find its origin. The present study bears on a detection instrument in continuously to find tritium in liquid effluents of the Cea Cadarache. After having study the functioning principle of this device, an evaluation of its performances has been realised ( back noise, yield, detection limit) and to a checking in real conditions of utilization. (N.C.)

  19. The use of supported liquid membranes in the treatment of mining effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebden, D.; Smit, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    The acid barren effluents from uranium extraction plants contain a number of dissolved metals although these are often only in trace concentrations. Whilst recovery of these minerals for economic gain has been considered in the past, the removal of some of these minerals is now even more desirable in view of environmental considerations. It is in this application that the supported liquid membrane system finds a model application, with its ability to treat large volumes of unclarified waters, with minimal solvent losses, and selectivity of ion removal. This paper presents current research into this supported liquid membrane application and reviews techniques and costs, in the light of present knowledge. (author)

  20. New decontamination processes for liquid effluents and solid materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faure, S.

    2008-01-01

    New decontamination processes are being studied in order to protect workers and to reduce strongly the quantity of secondary wastes produced. 2 decontamination processes for liquid nuclear wastes are under studies. First, the coprecipitation process whose improvement is based on a better control of the 2 coupled mechanisms involved in the process: the formation of adsorbent particles and the uptake of radionuclides. Secondly, the column process whose development focuses on new materials that can be used to absorb cesium in a reversible way. 3 new decontamination processes for solid materials are being developed. First, processes using drying gels are under investigation in order to treat materials like lead, aluminium, iron and stainless steel. Real decontamination of hot cells by drying gel process has been performed and a decontamination factor between 16 and 25 has been obtained on stainless steels. Secondly, new foam decontamination processes have been developed, they are based on the use of new foams stabilized by biodegradable non-ionic surfactants: alkyl-poly-glucosides and viscofiers or nano-particles. The aim is to increase the foam lifetime. Thirdly, new surfactants in solution decontamination processes have been studied, the aim is to decontaminate through degreasing by using acidic surfactants. The idea is to combine emulsification and wetting power. (A.C.)

  1. Best Available Technology (BAT) guidance for radiological liquid effluents at US Department of Energy Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallo, A. III; Peterson, H.T. Jr.; Ikenberry, T.A.; Baker, R.E.

    1993-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), in DOE Order 5400.5 (1990), directs operators of DOE facilities to apply the Best Available Technology (BAT) to control radiological liquid effluents from these facilities when specific conditions are present. DOE has published interim guidance to assist facility operators in knowing when a BAT analysis is needed and how such an analysis should be performed and documented. The purpose of the guidance is to provide a uniform basis in determining BAT throughout DOE and to assist in evaluating BAT determinations during programmatic audits. The BAT analysis process involves characterizing the effluent source; identifying and selecting candidate control technologies; evaluating the potential environmental, operational, resource, and economic impacts of the control technologies; developing an evaluation matrix for comparing the technologies; selecting the BAT; and documenting the evaluation process. The BAT analysis process provides a basis for consistent evaluation of liquid effluent releases, yet allows an individual site or facility the flexibility to address site-specific issues or concerns in the most appropriate manner

  2. Liquid level control system for vapour generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, G.

    1984-01-01

    A system for regulating the liquid level in a vapor generator, in which the incoming flow of feed liquid is regulated in response to the difference between the measured liquid level and a reference level, the difference between the exiting vapor mass flow rate and the incoming liquid mass flow rate, and a function of the measured incoming liquid temperature. The temperature function produces a gain value, which increases in response to decreasing incoming liquid temperature. The purpose of the temperature function is to stabilize the level control under transient conditions (e.g. sudden lose of load). (author)

  3. Control system of liquid effluents generated in treatment with I-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia M, T.; Ruiz C, M. A.; Angeles C, A.; Ramirez S, R.

    2015-09-01

    In recent years, nuclear medicine has developed greatly in our country and around the world. Techniques for both medical diagnosis and therapy have increased the use of radiopharmaceuticals, notably the I-131. In Mexico there are around 150 nuclear medicine establishments authorized by the Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias. Most of these establishments do not have an appropriate facility for the treatment of radioactive liquid effluents, to ensure compliance with the concentration limits established in the regulations. The Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) developed and implemented successfully, a control system of radioactive effluents (named SACEL) from a nuclear medicine facility. This system ensures an effective compliance with regulations and also better management and control of these radioactive effluents. Calculations and design of SACEL were made with respect to I-131, because is one of the most commonly used in radiotherapy and medical diagnostics, besides its half-life is greater in relation to other radionuclides. SACEL is comprised of four storage tanks and decay and a fifth tank for measuring the concentration of I-131 and later discharge to the drain; these tanks are connected to an automated system that controls the effluents passage. The calculation to determine the volume of the tanks was carried out according to the demand that has the hospital, to the maximum activity being poured in effluents and time required to decay. In this paper the design and installation of SACEL system, in addition to functioning as a facility that enables the Hospital meet the required standards is presented. Dose calculations performed with MCNPX and the methodology used in the calibration of the detection system is also presented. (Author)

  4. Sizewell nuclear power station: investigation of radiation exposure pathways from liquid effluents. Local habits survey 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, D.R.P.; Smith, B.D.

    1982-01-01

    A habits and consumption survey to review radiation exposure pathways due to liquid effluents released from the CEGB Sizewell site is described. It is relevant to both the Sizewell A and proposed Sizewell B nuclear power stations. The main objectives are to provide input data to a radiological assessment by means of identifying critical groups and to provide data for guidance in a review of environmental monitoring programmes. The way in which data for the different pathways should be combined in order to aid the subsequent radiological assessment is discussed. Recommendations are made for adjustments to the present monitoring programmes. (U.K.)

  5. Toxicity regulation of radioactive liquid waste effluent from CANDU stations - lessons from Ontario's MISA program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, D.W.

    2009-01-01

    Toxicity testing became an issue for Ontario's CANDU stations, when it was required under Ontario's MISA regulations for the Electricity Generation Sector. In initial tests, radioactive liquid waste (RLW) effluent was intermittently toxic to both rainbow trout and Daphnia. Significant differences in RLW toxicity were apparent among stations and contributing streams. Specific treatment systems were designed for three stations, with the fourth electing to use existing treatment systems. Stations now use a combination of chemical analysis and treatment to regulate RLW toxicity. Studies of Ontario CANDU stations provide a basis for minimizing costs and environmental effects of new nuclear stations. (author)

  6. Effects of oil sands effluent on cattail and clover: photosynthesis and the level of stress proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowe, A.U.; Han, B.; Kermode, A.R.; Bendell-Young, L.I.; Plant, A.L. [Simon Fraser University, Burnaby (Canada). Dept. of Biological Sciences

    2001-07-01

    The oil sands industry located in northeastern Alberta, Canada, generates large volumes of effluent characterized by a high level of dissolved ions and naphthenic acids. The dikes used to store the effluent seep, creating wetlands which are subsequently invaded by obligate wetland flora such as cattail (Typha latifolia L.). The appearance of these wetlands prompted the oil sands industry to consider wetlands as part of their reclamation strategy. However, to ensure long-term viability of such wetlands, the response of the flora to the industrial effluent needed to be determined. To this end, apparent photosynthesis (APS), the level of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBisCo) large subunit, dehydrin-related polypeptides, and protein disulphide isomerase (PDI) were evaluated in cattail and alsike clover plants (Trifolium hybridum L.) exposed to the oil sands effluent. APS measured in plants impacted by oil sands effluent was significantly higher than that of plants in the non-impacted off-site location. Among the on-site locations, plants growing in the natural wetlands site had higher APS compared to all other sites. The level of RuBisCo was not increased in cattail or clover growing in effluent-contaminated sites indicating that enhanced photosynthesis was not due to greater levels of this enzyme. Dehydrin-related polypeptides were detected only in the roots of cattail and were absent in clover. The polypeptide profile was altered in cattail exposed to oil sands effluent indicating that they were responding to an osmotic stress. The level of PDI was unaffected in the leaves of cattail regardless of the nature of the effluent to which they were exposed. Overall, the data indicate that cattail and clover are adapted to the oil sands effluent, although further studies are needed to assess their long-term ability to survive in the presence of this anthropogenic stress. (Author)

  7. Nuclide separation by hydrothermal treatment and ion exchange: a highly effective method for treatment of liquid effluents - 59217

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braehler, Georg; Rieck, Ronald; Avramenko, V.A.; Sergienko, V.I.; Antonov, E.A.

    2012-01-01

    Liquid low level radioactive effluents, when solidified in e.g. cement matrix, contribute to a significant extent to the waste amount to be disposed of in final repositories. Accordingly, since many years scientists and engineers investigate processes to remove the radioactive nuclides selectively from the effluents, to split the raw solution into two separate fractions: a large fraction with activity concentrations below the limits for free release; and a small fraction, containing the activity in concentrated form on e. g. ion exchanger materials (ion exchange has proven to be the most promising method for such 'nuclide separation'). The challenge to be taken up is: When (and this is most often the case) the effluent contains organic materials and complexing agents, the formation of e. g. the 60-Co-EDTA complex prohibits its fixation to the ion exchangers. Accordingly the complexing agent needs to be removed or destroyed. The Institute for Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences has applied the method of hydrothermal treatment (at elevated temperature and pressure, 200 deg. C, 200 bar), supported by Hydrogen Peroxide oxidation, to allow virtually complete removal of radioactive nuclides on inorganic ion exchangers. Pilot plants have been operated successfully in Russian power stations, and an operational plant has been designed. The method is being extended for an interesting and promising application: spent organic ion exchange resins, loaded up to the medium activity level, represent a serious disposal problem. With the hydrothermal process, in a process cycle, the activity can be stripped from the resins, the organic content is destroyed, and the activity is fixed on an inorganic absorber, well suited for final disposal. (authors)

  8. Determination of 232Th, 230Th and 228Th in liquid effluents from uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godoy, Jose Marcus de Oliveira

    1979-10-01

    A liquid scintillator αlpha spectrometer was built for the determination of Th- 228 , Th- 230 and Th- 232 in liquid effluents from Uranium mines and mills. The resolution of the αlpha spectrometer was found to be 200-300 KeV, when the scintillator was 8% T0P0, 0,77% scintimix-4 (91% PP0 and 9% Dimetil-P0P0P) and 10% of naphthalene in toluene. Aliquat-336 in xylene (30% v/v) was used to separate the thorium isotopes from other interfering radionuclides (U- 238 , U- 234 , Ra- 226 , Po- 210 ). Under the extraction experimental conditions, the detection limits were 1,2 pCi/1 for Th- 232 , 1,2 pCi/1 for Th- 230 and 0,9 pCi/1 for Th- 228 , for 1000 minutes of counting time. (author)

  9. Radioactive liquid effluent management - state of art and the role of membrane processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panicker, S.T.; Prabhakar, S.; Misra, B.M.; Ramani, M.P.S.

    1990-01-01

    This report reviews the conventional methods involving filtration, chemical precipitation, evaporation and ion exchange, employed for the treatment of low level radioactive effluents. The role of membrane processes, particularly reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration has been assessed with a view to increase the effectiveness of the existing methods. After overviewing the practices followed in major countries, a possible scheme has been proposed. (author). 66 refs., 4 tabs., figs

  10. Development of improved liquid radioactive effluents treatment technology by precipitation and ion exchange and the related analytical control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, M M; Mollah, A S; Alam, M K; Begum, A; Islam, S; Koddus, A [Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Savar, Dacca (Bangladesh)

    1997-02-01

    Chemical precipitation method for treatment of LLW and ILW by co-precipitation of caesium with nickel ferrocyanide was employed. High decontamination factors were observed in the pH range of 9 to {approx} 11. The percentage removals of {sup 137}Cs from 37 kBq, 370 kB and 3.4 MBq per litre of simulated effluents were {approx} 90%, 99.7% and 99.8% respectively. Liquid radioactive wastes generated from radioisotope production facilities of AERE, Savar were found to contain {sup 134}Cs and {sup 60}Co with the average activity levels of 13.23 kBq/L and 5.3 kBq/L, respectively. Test runs for removal of {sup 134}Cs from the wastes varied from {approx} 90% to 99%. The radioactive concentrates (sludges) were conditioned by cementation and safely stored in interim storage room. (author). 4 refs, 1 fig., 9 tabs.

  11. Development of improved liquid radioactive effluents treatment technology by precipitation and ion exchange and the related analytical control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M.M.; Mollah, A.S.; Alam, M.K.; Begum, A.; Islam, S.; Koddus, A.

    1997-01-01

    Chemical precipitation method for treatment of LLW and ILW by co-precipitation of caesium with nickel ferrocyanide was employed. High decontamination factors were observed in the pH range of 9 to ∼ 11. The percentage removals of 137 Cs from 37 kBq, 370 kB and 3.4 MBq per litre of simulated effluents were ∼ 90%, 99.7% and 99.8% respectively. Liquid radioactive wastes generated from radioisotope production facilities of AERE, Savar were found to contain 134 Cs and 60 Co with the average activity levels of 13.23 kBq/L and 5.3 kBq/L, respectively. Test runs for removal of 134 Cs from the wastes varied from ∼ 90% to 99%. The radioactive concentrates (sludges) were conditioned by cementation and safely stored in interim storage room. (author). 4 refs, 1 fig., 9 tabs

  12. Management of Discharge of Low Level Liquid Radioactive Waste Generated in Medical, Educational, Research and Industrial Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-15

    Although published information on management technologies suitable for radioactive effluents is readily available, smaller facilities such as hospitals, universities and research laboratories in some countries can benefit from more detailed guidance on identifying optimal arrangements for effectively managing their radioactive liquid effluents. A wide range of circumstances exist globally, given that the generation of radioactive liquid effluents may be regular or irregular, and the liquid effluents may be suitable for direct discharge to the environment, or may require a period of decay storage prior to discharge. Countries typically fit into one of the four following categories with respect to the status of their arrangements for the management of radioactive liquid effluents: (1) The country does not have sufficient technical, regulatory and organizational infrastructure to effectively manage its radioactive liquid effluents; (2) The country's technical infrastructure for effectively managing its radioactive liquid effluents is almost sufficient, but it is not supported by an acceptable level of regulatory and organizational capacity (e.g. legal infrastructure, administrative infrastructure); (3) The country has sufficient technical, regulatory and organizational capacity, but it is known that the application of the requirements for proper management of radioactive liquid effluents is, in many cases, not being carried out to the standard indicated by official reports; (4) The country has well developed and established regulatory and organizational capacity, which is complemented by an acceptable level of relevant technical infrastructure such that the radioactive liquid effluents can be properly managed. Facilities, as well as countries, in the first three categories will find information in this publication to assist their further development. Even countries that already have the necessary infrastructure to properly manage their liquid radioactive effluents may

  13. Management of Discharge of Low Level Liquid Radioactive Waste Generated in Medical, Educational, Research and Industrial Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-07-01

    Although published information on management technologies suitable for radioactive effluents is readily available, smaller facilities such as hospitals, universities and research laboratories in some countries can benefit from more detailed guidance on identifying optimal arrangements for effectively managing their radioactive liquid effluents. A wide range of circumstances exist globally, given that the generation of radioactive liquid effluents may be regular or irregular, and the liquid effluents may be suitable for direct discharge to the environment, or may require a period of decay storage prior to discharge. Countries typically fit into one of the four following categories with respect to the status of their arrangements for the management of radioactive liquid effluents: (1) The country does not have sufficient technical, regulatory and organizational infrastructure to effectively manage its radioactive liquid effluents; (2) The country's technical infrastructure for effectively managing its radioactive liquid effluents is almost sufficient, but it is not supported by an acceptable level of regulatory and organizational capacity (e.g. legal infrastructure, administrative infrastructure); (3) The country has sufficient technical, regulatory and organizational capacity, but it is known that the application of the requirements for proper management of radioactive liquid effluents is, in many cases, not being carried out to the standard indicated by official reports; (4) The country has well developed and established regulatory and organizational capacity, which is complemented by an acceptable level of relevant technical infrastructure such that the radioactive liquid effluents can be properly managed. Facilities, as well as countries, in the first three categories will find information in this publication to assist their further development. Even countries that already have the necessary infrastructure to properly manage their liquid radioactive effluents may

  14. Fluorescent optical liquid-level sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    2000-01-01

    An optical method of detecting a liquid level is presented that uses fluorescence radiation generated in an impurity-doped glass or plastic slab. In operation, the slab is inserted into the liquid and pump light is coupled into it so that the light is guided by the slab-air interface above the liquid and escapes into the liquid just below its surface. Since the fluorescence is generated only in that section of the slab above the liquid, the fluorescence power will monotonically decrease with increasing liquid level. Thus, a relationship can be established between any signal proportional to it and the liquid level. Because optical fibers link the pump source and the detector of fluorescence radiation to the sensor, no electrical connections are needed in or near the liquid. Their absence vastly decreases the hazard associated with placing a liquid-level sensor in a potentially explosive environment. A laboratory prototype, consisting of a methyl styrene slab doped with an organic dye, has been built and successfully tested in water. Its response to liquid level when pumped by a tunable argon-ion laser at 476, 488, and 496 nm, and by a blue LED, is presented and shown to be consistent with theory. The fluorescence spectra, optical efficiency, temperature, and other effects are also presented and discussed. (c) 2000 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers

  15. The determination of Pu-241 by liquid scintillation counting in liquid effluents of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godoy, J.M.; Schuettelkopf, H.; Pimpl, M.

    1983-04-01

    A procedure was developed to measure Pu-241 by liquid scintillation counting. Sample preparation was performed by electroplating of plutonium on stainless steel planchets. To correct the selfabsorption, the linear dependence of counting efficiency in the liquid scintillation counter from the resolution in the alpha spectrometer was used. Pu-238, Pu-239+240 and Pu-241 were measured in the liquid effluents of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center (KfK). The concentrations in monthly mixed samples ranged from 0.07 until 46 nCi Pu-238/m 3 , from 0.13 until 2.1 nCi Pu-239+240/m 3 and from 25 until 190 nCi Pu-241/m 3 . Between 5.4% and 41% of the plutonium content of the KfK waste water are released to the River Old Rhine. The values for the activity ratio Pu-238/Pu-239+240 are between 0.39 and 1.1 and for Pu-241/Pu-239+240 are between 11 and 300. The mean value for Pu-241/Pu-239+240 is 61. The dose exposure of the environmental population of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center caused by released Pu-241 is negligible low. (orig./HP) [de

  16. Methods of reducing liquid effluent from the OSU TRIGA MKII Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higginbotham, J.F.; Dodd, B.; Pratt, D.S.; Smith, S.; Anderson, T.V.

    1992-01-01

    In 1991, the OSU Radiation Center implemented a program to minimize the liquid effluent generated by the reactor facility. The goal of program is to become a 'zero' release facility with regards to routine liquid discharges. Only two liquid waste streams exist for the OSU reactor facility: discharges resulting from changing resin in the deminerializer and decontamination of equipment, primarily sample loading tubes. This paper describes a system which allows remote resin exchange to performed with the collection of all flush water. This water is then recycled for use as makeup for the primary water system. The service life of the resin is maximized by using a steam distillation unit as the source of makeup water to the deminerializer system instead of water coming directly from the City of Corvallis water supply. The second source of liquid waste water comes from the decontamination of the plastic loading tubes used to encapsulate samples. This process originally involved placing the tubes in a dishwasher and sending the discharge to a hold up tank. If the radionuclide concentrations in the tank were below the maximum permissible concentrations of 10CFR20 then it was released to the sanitary sewerage. This process was replaced in 1991 with a system which involved manual washing and rinsing of the tubes with the liquids being absorbed for disposal as solid waste. This paper will also describe the system which is being built to replace this process. It will use the dishwasher unit again but the liquid discharge will collected for absorption and disposal as solid waste. (author)

  17. Treatment of liquid effluent from uranium mines and mills. Report of a co-ordinated research project 1996-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-10-01

    Treatment and control of liquid effluents produced during uranium mining and milling operations is an integral part of environmental project management. Research has continued to add to the large body of science that has been built up around the treatment of radioactive and non-radioactive effluents to minimize their long-term environmental impact. The objective of the meetings on which this publication is based was to exchange information on active effluent treatment technologies that have application during operations and passive treatment techniques such as constructed wetlands and use of micro-organisms that are applicable during project reclamation and long-term care and maintenance. Papers describe effluent treatment case histories from active uranium mining and processing operations as well as effluent treatment research on both active and passive systems that have potential application under a wide range of operating and post-operational conditions including new information on high-density sludge from effluent neutralization (Australia), aerated manganese hydroxide for removal of radium (China), nanofiltration and macropore resins to treat mine water (Australia and China), in situ microbial treatment and permeable reactive walls for treatment of contaminated groundwater (Germany), construction of wetlands to treat mine water runoff (Australia and Germany), biogenic granules to remove 226 Ra from mill effluent (India), self-remediation of acidic in situ leach aquifers (Kazakhstan) and sorption characteristics of soil for self-remediation of contaminated groundwater (Hungary). These and other topics presented in this publication will be of interest to technical personnel who deal with day-to-day practical aspects of liquid effluent control and treatment at uranium production facilities worldwide

  18. Monitoring of the radioactive liquid effluents discharged from IPEN-CNEN/SP. Optimization of the procedures adopted

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, C.R.

    1990-01-01

    The main purpose of a radioactive liquid effluents monitoring of a nuclear installation is to determine the amount of radioactivity discharged to the environment, as well as, to verify if this activity is below the authorized discharge limits established by the competent authority. Although this control has been established on a routine basis since the beginning of operation of the nuclear installations available at IPEN, the growing of such facilities in the last years has implied in an increase in the number of samples to be analyzed. The aim of this work is, therefore, to optimize the procedures adopted in the Environmental Monitoring Division of IPEN-CNEN/SP for the activity measurement of the liquid effluents discharged to the environment. Since these effluents are discharged to Pinheiros river, which presents a high dilution factor, a study is also carried out in order to verify if the activity present can be measured by the equipment available. (author)

  19. Liquid level measurement in high level nuclear waste slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeks, G.E.; Heckendorn, F.M.; Postles, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    Accurate liquid level measurement has been a difficult problem to solve for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The nuclear waste sludge tends to plug or degrade most commercially available liquid-level measurement sensors. A liquid-level measurement system that meets demanding accuracy requirements for the DWPF has been developed. The system uses a pneumatic 1:1 pressure repeater as a sensor and a computerized error correction system. 2 figs

  20. Decree No 74-1181 of 31 December 1974 concerning liquid radioactive effluent releases from nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    This Decree prescribes the licensing procedure for the release of liquid wastes from nuclear installations as well as the technical supervision of such operations. It does not apply to the transport of radioactive effluents which is governed by the regulations on the transport of dangerous goods. (NEA) [fr

  1. Biotransformation of chromium (VI) in liquid effluents by resistant bacteria isolated from the Matanza-Riachuelo basin, in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Ana Julieta; Caimán, Carolina; Gorino, Natalia; Fortunato, María Susana; Radice, Marcela; Gómez, Carlos; Mujica, Carolina; Marquina, Lorena; Gallego, Alfredo; Korol, Sonia Edith

    2017-10-10

    The aims of this investigation were to evaluate the bacterial resistance to zinc, copper, chromium (VI) and lead in surface water streams from Buenos Aires, Argentina; to select a chromium-resistant strain able to remove the metal in batch process and to evaluate the potential of this strain to remove chromium (VI) in liquid effluents. Bacterial resistance to the metals was evaluated by determining the minimal inhibitory concentration. The kinetic of chromium (VI) removal by one of the resistant strains was studied in nutrient broth with 50 and 100 mg L -1 of the metal, as well as an effluent from an electroplating industry. High resistance to all the metals under study was observed in the bacterial communities of the Matanza-Riachuelo basin. A chromium-resistant strain was isolated and identified as Microbacterium sp. It was able to remove 50 and 100 mg L -1 of Cr (VI) in 36 and 66 h respectively, with efficiency higher than 99%. Experiments with liquid effluents showed the ability of the strain to transform 150 mg L -1 of the metal in 84 h, with efficiency higher than 99%. These results show the potential of this native strain for the treatment of liquid effluents that contain chromium (VI).

  2. Order of 24 July 1992 on the licensing of liquid radioactive effluent releases from the large nuclear installation called Atalante at the nuclear research centre in the Rhone valley on the Marcoule nuclear site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This Order fixes the annual authorized limits and procedures for the transfer from Atalante to the Cogema establishment also at Marcoule of the low-level liquid effluents for treatment. It also specifies the measures for their control and surveillance. (NEA)

  3. New treatment facility for low level process effluents at the Savannah River site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebra, M.A.; Bibler, J.P.; Johnston, B.S.; Kilpatrick, L.L.; Poy, F.L.; Wallace, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    A new facility, the F/H Effluent Treatment Facility (F/H ETF) is under construction at the Savannah River site. It will decontaminate process effluents containing low levels of radionuclides and hazardous chemicals prior to discharge to a surface stream. These effluents, which are currently discharged to seepage basins, originate in the chemical separations and high-level radioactive waste processing areas, known as F-Area and H-Area. The new facility will allow closure of the basins in order to meet the provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act by November 1988. A high degree of reliability is expected from this design as a result of extensive process development work that has been conducted at the Savannah River Laboratory. This work has included both bench scale testing of individual unit operations and pilot scale testing of an integrated facility, 150 to 285 L/min (40 to 75 gpm), that contains the major operations

  4. On-line liquid-effluent monitoring of sewage at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreicer, M.; Cate, J.L.; Rueppel, D.W.; Huntzinger, C.J.; Gonzalez, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    An automatic on line sewage effluent monitoring system has been developed. A representative fraction of the total waste stream leaving the site is monitored for pH, radiation, and metals as it passes through a detection assembly. This assembly consists of an industrial pH probe, NaI radiation detectors, and an x-ray fluorescence metal detector. A microprocessor collects, reduces and analyzes the data to determine if the levels are acceptable by established environmental limits. Currently, if preset levels are exceeded, a sample of the suspect sewage is automatically collected for further analysis, and an alarm is sent to a station where personnel can be alerted to respond on a 24-hour basis. Since at least four hours pass before LLNL effluent reaches the treatment plant, sufficient time is available to alert emergency personnel, evaluate the situation, and if necessary arrange for diversion of the material to emergency holding basins at the treatment plant. Information on the current system is presented, and progress is reported in developing an on-line tritium monitor as an addition to the assembly

  5. Radiation treatment of gaseous and liquid effluents for contaminant removal. Proceedings of a technical meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-12-01

    The Technical Meeting on Radiation Processing of Gaseous and Liquid Effluents conducted in Sofia, Bulgaria, 7-10 September 2004, discussed and evaluated issues related to the status and future trends in radiation application for environmental protection. Five experts from Bulgaria, India, the Republic of Korea, Poland, and the United States of America were invited to provide their experiences in this field. Twenty cost-free participants and observers - from Bulgaria, India, Lithuania, Poland and Ukraine -joined the meeting, and 15 papers in total were presented. Research and development in radiation processing of gaseous and liquid effluents is undertaken in three fields: electron beam flue gas treatment (SO x and NO x removal), wastewater purification and sewage sludge sterilization. Wastewater or sludge treatment and flue gas purification all differ from technological points of view, but they are common services and applications of environmental radiation technology applications, based mostly on electron accelerators. The technical meeting discussed new development in the field of radiation applications in environmental service, especially the status and prospects of radiation processing of gaseous and liquid effluents. Progress in the field of electron accelerators and gamma sources is crucial for routine application of the technology. Cost reduction and improvement of technical reliability are substantial especially for high power of accelerators and high activity of the sources needed for environmental applications. Environmental applications were carefully reviewed in accordance with the existing regulations and state of the art knowledge. The comparison with conventional commercial technologies was addressed as well. In flue gas treatment, applicability of the technology using different fossil fuels (coal, lignite, oil, etc.) was reviewed. The elaborated materials cover the technical and economical evaluation of the technologies. The possible applications of

  6. Non-contact optical Liquid Level Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiseleva, L. L.; Tevelev, L. V.; Shaimukhametov, R. R.

    2016-06-01

    Information about characteristics of the optical liquid level sensor are present. Sensors are used to control of the light level limit fluid - water, kerosene, alcohol, solutions, etc. Intrinsically safe, reliable and easy to use. The operating principle of the level sensor is an optoelectronic infrared device.

  7. Levels Of Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn And Cd, In Effluent From A Sewage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study reports the results of preliminary investigation of heavy metal levels-Ni, Cd, Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn; pH; temperature and electrical conductivity in effluents from a sewage treatment oxidation pond and its receiving stream. The heavy metal concentrations were determined with Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass ...

  8. The main rules regarding the management of solid waste and liquid effluent contaminated during use at nuclear medicine departments; Les principales regles de gestion des dechets solides et des effluents liquides contamines dans les services de medecine nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudouin, E. [Autorite de Surete Nucleaire, Direction des rayonnements ionisants et de la sante, 75 - Paris (France)

    2011-02-15

    This article describes the key requirements applicable to the management of contaminated medical waste and effluent from hospitals and health care centres, and more especially from nuclear medicine departments that use radionuclides for the purposes of diagnosis (in vivo or in vitro) or in patient treatment. It also presents the key management regulations, making a distinction between contaminated solid waste and contaminated liquid waste from such nuclear medicine departments. (author)

  9. Calculation of releases of radioactive materials in gaseous and liquid effluents from boiling water reactors (BWR-GALE Code)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangart, R.L.; Bell, L.G.; Boegli, J.S.; Burke, W.C.; Lee, J.Y.; Minns, J.L.; Stoddart, P.G.; Weller, R.A.; Collins, J.T.

    1978-12-01

    The calculational procedures described in the report reflect current NRC staff practice. The methods described will be used in the evaluation of applications for construction permits and operating licenses docketed after January 1, 1979, until this NUREG is revised as a result of additional staff review. The BWR-GALE (Boiling Water Reactor Gaseous and Liquid Effluents) Code is a computerized mathematical model for calculating the release of radioactive material in gaseous and liquid effluents from boiling water reactors (BWRs). The calculations are based on data generated from operating reactors, field tests, laboratory tests, and plant-specific design considerations incorporated to reduce the quantity of radioactive materials that may be released to the environment

  10. Derived release limits for radionuclides in airborne and liquid effluents for the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment and errata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemire, A.E.

    1989-08-01

    Radionuclides released to the environment may cause external and internal radiation exposure to man via a number of potential pathways. The resulting radiation dose due to such releases from any operating facility must be kept below dose limits specified in the regulations issued by the Atomic Energy Control Board of Canada. At the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment (WNRE), there is one primary source of liquid effluent to the Winnipeg River via the process water outfall. There are five sources of gaseous effluents: the WR-1 stack; the incinerator stack in the waste management area; the active laboratories building (including the hot cells); the Active-Liquid Waste Treatment Centre; and the compactor-baler in the Waste Management Area. This report presents the methodology and models used to calculate the maximum permissible release rates of radionuclides for each of these sources

  11. The main rules regarding the management of solid waste and liquid effluent contaminated during use at nuclear medicine departments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudouin, E.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the key requirements applicable to the management of contaminated medical waste and effluent from hospitals and health care centres, and more especially from nuclear medicine departments that use radionuclides for the purposes of diagnosis (in vivo or in vitro) or in patient treatment. It also presents the key management regulations, making a distinction between contaminated solid waste and contaminated liquid waste from such nuclear medicine departments. (author)

  12. Automated system of control of radioactive liquid effluents of patients submitted to therapy in hospitals of nuclear medicine (SACEL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz C, M.A.; Rivero G, T.; Celis del Angel, L.; Sainz M, E.; Molina, G.

    2006-01-01

    Different hospitals of nuclear medicine require of the technical attendance for the design, construction and instrumentation of an effluents retention system coming from the room dedicated to the medical application of iodine 131, with the one object of giving execution to the normative requirements of radiological protection, settled down in the General Regulation of Radiological Safety (RGSR) emitted by the CNSNS in November, 1988 and in the corresponding official standards. An automatic system of flow measurement, the activity concentration of the effluents to the drainage, the discharges control and the automated report it will allow the execution of the national regulations, also the elimination of unhealthy activities as the taking of samples, analysis of those same and the corresponding paperwork, its will allow that the SACEL is capable of to carry out registrations that are to consult in an automated way. The changes in the demands of the National Commission of Nuclear Safety and Safeguards in relation to the liberation of radioactive material in hospitals by medical treatments, it has created the necessity to develop a system that quantifies and dose the liquid effluents of people under thyroid treatment with iodine-131 to the drainage. The Automated System of Control of radioactive liquids effluents generated in Hospitals of Nuclear Medicine (SACEL) developed in the National Institute of Nuclear Research, it fulfills this regulation, besides improving the work conditions for the medical and technical personnel of the hospital in that are installed, since this system has the advantage of to be totally automated and to require of a minimum of attendance. The SACEL is an electro-hydraulic system of effluents control, based in the alternate operation of two decay deposits of the activity of the material contaminated with iodine-131. The system allows to take a registration of those volumes and liberated dose, besides being able to be monitoring in remote

  13. Radionuclide content of wastewater and solid waste from a low-level effluent treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhamat Omar; Zalina Laili; Nik Marzukee Nik Ibrahim; Mat Bakar Mahusin

    2010-01-01

    A study on radioactivity levels of wastewater and solid waste from a Low-level Effluent Treatment Plant has been carried out. The measurement of radionuclide concentration was carried out using gamma spectrometry. Natural and anthropogenic radionuclides were detected in solid radioactive waste recovered from the treatment plant. The presence of radionuclides in waste water varies depending on activities carried out in laboratories and facilities connected to the plant. (author)

  14. An assessment of the quality of liquid effluents from opaque beer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    driniev

    2005-01-01

    Jan 1, 2005 ... The effluent treatment plants in both plants were not only inadequate but also ... Keywords: industrial effluents, opaque beer-brewery, pollution load, quality, quantity ... to hydraulic overloading and corrosion of the sewer pipe system ... The two breweries studied in this paper produce African traditional.

  15. Comparison of different liquid anaerobic digestion effluents as inocula and nitrogen sources for solid-state batch anaerobic digestion of corn stover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Fuqing; Shi Jian; Lv Wen; Yu Zhongtang; Li Yebo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Compared methane production of solid AD inoculated with different effluents. ► Food waste effluent (FWE) had the largest population of acetoclastic methanogens. ► Solid AD inoculated with FWE produced the highest methane yield at F/E ratio of 4. ► Dairy waste effluent (DWE) was rich of cellulolytic and xylanolytic bacteria. ► Solid AD inoculated with DWE produced the highest methane yield at F/E ratio of 2. - Abstract: Effluents from three liquid anaerobic digesters, fed with municipal sewage sludge, food waste, or dairy waste, were evaluated as inocula and nitrogen sources for solid-state batch anaerobic digestion of corn stover in mesophilic reactors. Three feedstock-to-effluent (F/E) ratios (i.e., 2, 4, and 6) were tested for each effluent. At an F/E ratio of 2, the reactor inoculated by dairy waste effluent achieved the highest methane yield of 238.5 L/kgVS feed , while at an F/E ratio of 4, the reactor inoculated by food waste effluent achieved the highest methane yield of 199.6 L/kgVS feed . The microbial population and chemical composition of the three effluents were substantially different. Food waste effluent had the largest population of acetoclastic methanogens, while dairy waste effluent had the largest populations of cellulolytic and xylanolytic bacteria. Dairy waste also had the highest C/N ratio of 8.5 and the highest alkalinity of 19.3 g CaCO 3 /kg. The performance of solid-state batch anaerobic digestion reactors was closely related to the microbial status in the liquid anaerobic digestion effluents.

  16. Comparison of different liquid anaerobic digestion effluents as inocula and nitrogen sources for solid-state batch anaerobic digestion of corn stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Fuqing; Shi Jian [Department of Food, Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Ohio State University, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, 1680 Madison Ave., Wooster, OH 44691 (United States); Lv Wen; Yu Zhongtang [Department of Animal Sciences, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Li Yebo, E-mail: li.851@osu.edu [Department of Food, Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Ohio State University, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, 1680 Madison Ave., Wooster, OH 44691 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Compared methane production of solid AD inoculated with different effluents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Food waste effluent (FWE) had the largest population of acetoclastic methanogens. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solid AD inoculated with FWE produced the highest methane yield at F/E ratio of 4. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dairy waste effluent (DWE) was rich of cellulolytic and xylanolytic bacteria. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solid AD inoculated with DWE produced the highest methane yield at F/E ratio of 2. - Abstract: Effluents from three liquid anaerobic digesters, fed with municipal sewage sludge, food waste, or dairy waste, were evaluated as inocula and nitrogen sources for solid-state batch anaerobic digestion of corn stover in mesophilic reactors. Three feedstock-to-effluent (F/E) ratios (i.e., 2, 4, and 6) were tested for each effluent. At an F/E ratio of 2, the reactor inoculated by dairy waste effluent achieved the highest methane yield of 238.5 L/kgVS{sub feed}, while at an F/E ratio of 4, the reactor inoculated by food waste effluent achieved the highest methane yield of 199.6 L/kgVS{sub feed}. The microbial population and chemical composition of the three effluents were substantially different. Food waste effluent had the largest population of acetoclastic methanogens, while dairy waste effluent had the largest populations of cellulolytic and xylanolytic bacteria. Dairy waste also had the highest C/N ratio of 8.5 and the highest alkalinity of 19.3 g CaCO{sub 3}/kg. The performance of solid-state batch anaerobic digestion reactors was closely related to the microbial status in the liquid anaerobic digestion effluents.

  17. Applications of low level liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noakes, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    Low level liquid scintillation counting is reviewed in terms of its present use and capabilities for measuring low activity samples. New areas of application of the method are discussed with special interest directed to the food industry and environmental monitoring. Advantages offered in the use of a low background liquid scintillation counter for the nuclear power industry and nuclear navy are discussed. Attention is drawn to the need for commercial development of such instrumentation to enable wider use of the method. A user clientele is suggested as is the required technology to create such a counter

  18. Recovery of sludge from the treatment of liquid radioactive effluents by co-precipitation with calcium carbonate: laboratory study; Recuperation des boues de traitement des effluents radioactifs liquides par coprecipitation avec le carbonate de calcium: etude de laboratoire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patti, F.; Gailledreau, C.; Cohen, P.

    1961-02-24

    As during the treatment by co-precipitation with calcium carbonate of liquid radioactive residues, a partial decontamination can be obtained by simply agitating an already formed radioactive sludge with the effluent to be processed, the authors study whether it would be possible to first perform a co-precipitation with a lower dose of calcium carbonate and then to complete decontamination by agitating with an adequate quantity of sludge stored during preceding operations. The authors report the study of the influence of reactant quantity on the chemical treatment efficiency, of the evolution of the activity of a radioactive residual solution in contact with a precipitate, of the cleaner element, of a precipitate reuse, of the technological and economic aspects, and of another possibility of reduction of the precipitate volume [French] Dans le traitement par coprecipitation avec le carbonate de calcium des residus radioactifs liquides, une decontamination partielle peut etre obtenue en agitant simplement une boue radioactive deja formee avec l'effluent a traiter. En consequence, il pourrait etre possible d'effectuer d'abord une coprecipitation avec une dose plus faible de carbonate de calcium et de completer ensuite la decontamination en agitant le liquide avec une quantite convenable de boue stockee a partir d'operations precedentes. (auteurs)

  19. Method for the determination of carboxylic acids in industrial effluents using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction with injection port derivatization gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makoś, Patrycja; Fernandes, Andre; Boczkaj, Grzegorz

    2017-09-29

    The paper presents a new method for the determination of 15 carboxylic acids in samples of postoxidative effluents from the production of petroleum bitumens using ion-pair dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry with injection port derivatization. Several parameters related to the extraction and derivatization efficiency were optimized. Under optimized experimental conditions, the obtained limit of detection and quantification ranged from 0.0069 to 1.12μg/mL and 0.014 to 2.24μg/mL, respectively. The precision (RSD ranged 1.29-6.42%) and recovery (69.43-125.79%) were satisfactory. Nine carboxylic acids at concentrations ranging from 0.10μg/mL to 15.06μg/mL were determined in the raw wastewater and in samples of effluents treated by various oxidation methods. The studies revealed a substantial increase of concentration of benzoic acids, in samples of wastewater after treatment, which confirms the need of carboxylic acids monitoring during industrial effluent treatment processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Low and medium level liquid waste processing at the new La Hague reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandre, D.

    1986-05-01

    Reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels produces low and medium activity liquid wastes. These radioactive wastes are decontamined before release in environment. The new effluent processing plant, which is being built at La Hague, is briefly described. Radionuclides are removed from liquid wastes by coprecipitation. The effluent is released after decantation and filtration. Insoluble sludges are conditioned in bitumen [fr

  1. Soil plutonium and cesium in stream channels and banks of Los Alamos liquid effluent-receiving areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyhan, J.W.; White, G.C.; Trujillo, G.

    1982-01-01

    Stream channel sediments and adjacent bank soils found in three intermittent streams used for treated liquid effluent disposal at Los Alamos, New Mexico were sampled to determine the distribution of 238 Pu, sup(239,240)Pu and 137 Cs. Radionuclide concentrations and inventories were determined as functions of distance downstream from the waste outfall and from the center of the stream channel, soil sampling depth, stream channel-bank physiography, and the waste use history of each disposal area. Radionuclide concentrations in channel sediments were inversely related to distances up to 10 km downstream from the outfalls. For sites receiving appreciable waste effluent additions, contaminant concentrations in bank soils decreased with perpendicular distances greater than 0.38 m from the stream channel, and with stream bank sampling depths greater than 20-40 cm. Concentrations and total inventories of radionuclides in stream bank soils generally decreased as stream bank height increased. Inventory estimates of radionuclides in channel sediments exhibited coefficients of variation that ranged 0.41-2.6, reflecting the large variation in radionuclide concentrations at each site. Several interesting temporal relationships of these radionuclides in intermittent streams were gleaned from the varying waste use histories of the three effluent-receiving areas. Eleven years after liquid wastes were added to one canyon, the major radionuclide inventories were found in the stream bank soils, unlike most of the other currently-used receiving areas. A period of time greater than 6 yr seems to be required before the plutonium in liquid wastes currently added to the canyon is approximately equilibrated with the plutonium in the bank soils. These observations are discussed relative to waste management practices in these southwestern intermittent streams. (author)

  2. Soil plutonium and cesium in stream channels and banks of Los Alamos liquid effluent-receiving areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyhan, J W; White, G C; Trujillo, G

    1982-10-01

    Stream channel sediments and adjacent bank soils found in three intermittent streams used for treated liquid effluent disposal at Los Alamos, New Mexico were sampled to determine the distribution of 238Pu, 239,240Pu and 137Cs. Radionuclide concentrations and inventories were determined as functions of distance downstream from the waste outfall and from the center of the stream channel, soil sampling depth, stream channel-bank physiography, and the waste use history of each disposal area. Radionuclide concentrations in channel sediments were inversely related to distances up to 10 km downstream from the outfalls. For sites receiving appreciable waste effluent additions, contaminant concentrations in bank soils decreased with perpendicular distances greater than 0.38 m from the stream channel, and with stream bank sampling depths greater than 20-40 cm. Concentrations and total inventories of radionuclides in stream bank soils generally decreased as stream bank height increased. Inventory estimates of radionuclides in channel sediments exhibited coefficients of variation that ranged 0.41-2.6, reflecting the large variation in radionuclide concentrations at each site. Several interesting temporal relationships of these radionuclides in intermittent streams were gleaned from the varying waste use histories of the three effluent-receiving areas. Eleven yr after liquid wastes were added to one canyon, the major radionuclide inventories were found in the stream bank soils, unlike most of the other currently-used receiving areas. A period of time greater than 6 yr seems to be required before the plutonium in liquid wastes currently added to the canyon is approximately equilibrated with the plutonium in the bank soils. These observations are discussed relative to waste management practices in these southwestern intermittent streams.

  3. Safety evaluation of liquid radioactive effluents treatment system in a BWR reactor, through the LIQM03 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorrilla R, S.H.

    1978-01-01

    In this work we made a safety evaluation of the liquid radioactive effluents system in a plant using a BWR similar to that now installed in Laguna Verde. For that purpose, the computation program ORIGENwas modified, in order to keep up to date and adapt it to the PDP 10 computer, which is operating at the Computation Department of the Nuclear Center of Mexico, the code LIQM03 was the result of this modification. As usual in this work we dealt with problems which were solved opportunely, now we have at our disposal the code LIQM03 which will be in the future a very useful tool for this kind of evaluations. (author)

  4. Calculation of the annual radiation dose to the population in the vicinity of nuclear installations due to liquid effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gans, I.

    1991-01-01

    Since 1974, assessments of radiation exposure due to the emission of radioactive substances with liquid effluents have been done by the Institut fuer Wasser-, Boden- und Lufhygiene of the Federal Health Office and data have bee published in the annual reports in the series 'Umweltradioaktivitaet und Strahlenbelastung'. The paper explaines the radioecological models of ABG and AVV as far as they relate to the wastewater pathway, as well as the required modifications. Individual aspects of computation are explained referring to the dose calculations for 1989. (orig./DG) [de

  5. Evaluation code for the dose due to the discharges of liquid effluents of the Embalse nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Fabio O.; Boutet, Luis I.; Bruno, Hector A.; Gavini, Ricardo M.

    2004-01-01

    A new methodology is presented to assess the evaluation of the radiological impact to the population, due to the discharges to the environment of liquids effluents of Central Nuclear Embalse (CNE), located in the Province of Cordoba (Argentina). In order to carry out the dose evaluation, a code denominated EDDELIQ was developed, in this code the calculation of the radionuclides concentration in the water lake is made by means of a simple physical model of the type of complete mixture. The physical model is solved numerically by means of Runge Kutta method of second order. (author)

  6. Calculation of risk-based detection limits for radionuclides in the liquid effluents from Korean nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheong, Jae Hak

    2017-01-01

    In order to review if present detection limits of radionuclides in liquid effluent from nuclear power plants are effective enough to warrant compliance with regulatory discharge limits, a risk-based approach is developed to derive a new detection limit for each radionuclide based on radiological criteria. Equations and adjustment factors are also proposed to discriminate the validity of the detection limits for multiple radionuclides in the liquid effluent with or without consideration of the nuclide composition. From case studies to three nuclear power plants in Korea with actual operation data from 2006 to 2015, the present detection limits have turned out to be effective for Hanul Unit 1 but may not be sensitive enough for Kori Unit 1 (8 out of 14 radionuclides) and Wolsong Unit 1 (9 out of 42 radionuclides). However, it is shown that the present detection limits for the latter two nuclear power plants can be justified, if credit is given to the radionuclide composition. Otherwise, consideration should be given to adjustment of the present detection limits. The risk-based approach of this study can be used to determine the validity of established detection limits of a specific nuclear power plant. (author)

  7. Liquid low level waste management expert system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrada, J.J.; Abraham, T.J.; Jackson, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    An expert system has been developed as part of a new initiative for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) systems analysis program. This expert system will aid in prioritizing radioactive waste streams for treatment and disposal by evaluating the severity and treatability of the problem, as well as the final waste form. The objectives of the expert system development included: (1) collecting information on process treatment technologies for liquid low-level waste (LLLW) that can be incorporated in the knowledge base of the expert system, and (2) producing a prototype that suggests processes and disposal technologies for the ORNL LLLW system. 4 refs., 9 figs

  8. Low-level measurements by liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenhofer, F.

    1991-01-01

    Liquid scintillation counting has become a convenient tool for analysis of many beta- and alpha-emitters even in ultra low-level concentration ranges. Extremely low background is achieved in a commercially available counter by an active shielding and heavy lead shielding. Thus special time saving radiochemical separation processes could be designed. Extremely simple sample preparation techniques can be used. Counting time can be reduced and sample throughput enhanced. Also precision can be enhanced. From the author's research, several applications are discussed. They include: tritium in water without enrichment, tritium in urine (excretion analysis), carbon-14 in samples like alcohol or vinegar, Rn-222 in water and air, even gaseous Kr-85. A simple and fast method for Sr-90 in environmental samples and food has been developed and the Ra-226-concentration in water can be measured as low as 30 mBq/l without any chemical separation or enrichment. The instrument has been used successfully for screening purposes after the Chernobyl accident as well as for monitoring groundwater after a large scale contamination in Lower Austria. Using a 'gross-beta-measurement' effluents from a nuclear installation are monitored, clearly showing advantages over traditional methods. α-β-discrimination reduces the background for alpha emitters to practically zero. Examples from the determination of Ra-226 in water are shown

  9. Development of a surfactant liquid membrane extraction process for the cleansing of industrial aqueous effluents containing metallic cation traces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapaumbya Akaye, Guy-Roland

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop a process of surfactant liquid membrane extraction to purify industrial waste solution containing Cu(II), Fe(III), and Zn(II) (about 0,1 g/L). The extractant is the ammonium salt of Cyanex 306 and Aliquat 336. The first part of this work deals with the study of the liquid-liquid extraction of the metals. The efficiency of the extractant has been shown for the extraction of each metal alone and for Cu(II) and Zn(II) in the case of a mixture of the three metals. During this study we have observed that Fe(III) is reduced to Fe(II) (which is not extracted by the salt of Cyanex 301) in presence of Cu(II) and the quaternary ammonium salt (Aliquat 336). The optimisation of the experimental conditions for the discontinuous surfactant liquid membrane process led us to choose the following composition of the emulsion: 1,5 % of Cyanex 301 salt, 2,5 % of ECA 4360, dodecan. The internal phase is an aqueous solution containing 3,5 mol/L of NaOH and 0,5 mol/L tri-ethanolamin The residual concentration of Cu(II) and Zn(II) in the external phase is very low. In the case of iron, only 60 % are extracted because of the reduction phenomenon (10 % in liquid-liquid extraction). The realisation of the continuous process in pulsed column, after optimisation of hydrodynamics conditions, leads to similar results. In stationary conditions, we obtain a raffinate containing less than 0,5 mg/L of Cu(II) and Zn(II) and 36 mg/L of iron. The internal phase contains about 2 g/L of Cu(II) an Zn(II). We tried and minimize the reduction of Fe(III) in surfactant liquid membrane process. Less than 16 % of iron cannot be reduced. This leads to a purification of only 84 % In the basis of these results, processes of purification have been proposed for effluents of various composition. They enable to purify the effluent and besides to concentrate the pollutants about twenty times. (author) [fr

  10. Design, calculation and testing on mock-up of B(U) f type LR 56 packaging for radioactive liquid effluent transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belaud; Leconnetable; Daspet; Tombini; Tanguy

    1986-06-01

    Transport of radioactive acid liquid effluents are effected on tank truck inside nuclear center of the CEA. The cylindrical packaging type B(U) f has a capacity of 4,000l, a maximum permissible activity of 110 T Bq (3x10 4 Ci) and comprises a central element for liquid effluent containment to prevent contamination of environment and peripheral elements for mechanical, biological and thermal protection. This packaging is fixed on a trailer associated with a control box. Design and equipment of the packaging are studied for a maximum safety and in accordance with regulations [fr

  11. Public exposure due to radioactive liquid effluent discharges from Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas Nucleares/IPEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocca, Fatima F.D.

    1995-01-01

    The physical and social-economic characterization of aquatic environment influenced by IPEN was performed and possible exposure pathways were identified. The effective dose equivalent to the critical groups were estimated by using a mathematic model that simulate radionuclide transport through environment components, and dosimetric models that relate activity at environment components to public exposure. This study has concluded that there is not a single critical group that receives the highest dose equivalents from the source, but all the populational groups potentially exposed receive doses at the same level, and then all of them must be considered in a radiological assessment process. The results showed that the public exposure due to liquid discharges from IPEN remains bellow established dose limits. (author). 58 refs., 28 figs., 24 tabs

  12. Contribution to the study of maximum levels for liquid radioactive waste disposal into continental and sea water. Treatment of some typical samples; Contribution a l'etude des niveaux limites relatifs a des rejets d'effluents radioactifs liquides dans les eaux continentales et oceaniques. Traitement de quelques exemples types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bittel, R; Mancel, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires, departement de la protection sanitaire

    1968-10-01

    The most important carriers of radioactive contamination of man are the whole of foodstuffs and not only ingested water or inhaled air. That is the reason why, in accordance with the spirit of the recent recommendations of the ICRP, it is proposed to substitute the idea of maximum levels of contamination of water to the MPC. In the case of aquatic food chains (aquatic organisms and irrigated foodstuffs), the knowledge of the ingested quantities and of the concentration factors food/water permit to determinate these maximum levels, or to find out a linear relation between the maximum levels in the case of two primary carriers of contamination (continental and sea waters). The notion of critical food-consumption, critical radioelements and formula of waste disposal are considered in the same way, taking care to attach the greatest possible importance to local situations. (authors) [French] Les vecteurs essentiels de la contamination radioactive de l'homme sont les aliments dans leur ensemble, et non seulement l'eau ingeree ou l'air inhale. C'est pourquoi, en accord avec l'esprit des recentes recommandations de la C.I.P.R., il est propose de substituer aux CMA la notion de niveaux limites de contamination des eaux. Dans le cas des chaines alimentaires aquatiques (organismes aquatiques et aliments irrigues), la connaissance des quantites ingerees et celle des facteurs de concentration aliments/eau permettent de determiner ces niveaux limites dans le cas de deux vecteurs primaires de contamination (eaux continentales et eaux oceaniques). Les notions de regime alimentaire critique, de radioelement critique et de formule de rejets sont envisagees, dans le meme esprit, avec le souci de tenir compte le plus possible des situations locales. (auteurs)

  13. Functions and requirements document, WESF decoupling project, low-level liquid waste system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, J.H., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-27

    The Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) was constructed in 1974 to encapsulate and store cesium and strontium which were isolated at B Plant from underground storage tank waste. The WESF, Building 225-B, is attached physically to the west end of B Plant, Building 221-B, 200 East area. The WESF currently utilizes B Plant facilities for disposing liquid and solid waste streams. With the deactivation of B Plant, the WESF Decoupling Project will provide replacement systems allowing WESF to continue operations independently from B Plant. Four major systems have been identified to be replaced by the WESF Decoupling Project, including the following: Low Level Liquid Waste System, Solid Waste Handling System, Liquid Effluent Control System, and Deionized Water System.

  14. Comparison of six sewage effluents treated with different treatment technologies-Population level responses in the harpacticoid copepod Nitocra spinipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundstroem, Elin; Bjoerlenius, Berndt; Brinkmann, Markus; Hollert, Henner; Persson, Jan-Olov; Breitholtz, Magnus

    2010-01-01

    Since conventional treatment technologies may fail in removing many micro-pollutants, there is currently a focus on the potential of additional treatment technologies for improved sewage treatment. The aim of the present study was to evaluate six different effluents from Henriksdal Sewage Treatment Plant in Stockholm, Sweden. The effluents were; conventionally treated effluent (chemical phosphorous removal in combination with an activated sludge process, including biological nitrogen removal and a sand filter), with additional treatments individually added to the conventional treatment; active carbon filtration, ozonation at 5 mg l -1 , ozonation at 15 mg l -1 , ozonation at 5 mg l -1 + moving bed biofilm reactor and irradiation with ultraviolet radiation + hydrogen peroxide. The evaluation was done by characterizing and comparing the effluents using a Lefkovitch matrix model based on a life cycle test with the harpacticoid copepod Nitocra spinipes, combined with analysis of juvenile development and survival over time. The conventionally treated effluent resulted in the most negative effects, leading to the conclusion that all additional treatments in the present study created effluents with less negative impacts on the copepod populations. The ozone treatments with the low dose treatment in particular, resulted in the overall least negative effects. Moving bed biofilm reactor combined with ozone did not improve the quality of the effluent in the sense that slightly more negative effects on the population abundance were seen for this treatment technology compared to ozonation alone. The active carbon treatment had more negative effects than the ozone treatments, most of which could possibly be explained by removal of essential metal ions. The effluent which was treated with ultraviolet radiation + hydrogen peroxide resulted in few developmental and survival effects over time, but still showed negative effects on the population level. Matrix population modeling

  15. Comparison of six sewage effluents treated with different treatment technologies-Population level responses in the harpacticoid copepod Nitocra spinipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundstroem, Elin, E-mail: elin.lundstrom@itm.su.se [Stockholm University, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM), S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Bjoerlenius, Berndt [Stockholm Water Company, S-106 36 Stockholm (Sweden); Brinkmann, Markus; Hollert, Henner [RWTH Aachen University, Institute for Environmental Research, Department of Ecosystem Analysis, D-520 74 Aachen (Germany); Persson, Jan-Olov [Stockholm University, Department of Mathematics, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Breitholtz, Magnus [Stockholm University, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM), S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2010-03-01

    Since conventional treatment technologies may fail in removing many micro-pollutants, there is currently a focus on the potential of additional treatment technologies for improved sewage treatment. The aim of the present study was to evaluate six different effluents from Henriksdal Sewage Treatment Plant in Stockholm, Sweden. The effluents were; conventionally treated effluent (chemical phosphorous removal in combination with an activated sludge process, including biological nitrogen removal and a sand filter), with additional treatments individually added to the conventional treatment; active carbon filtration, ozonation at 5 mg l{sup -1}, ozonation at 15 mg l{sup -1}, ozonation at 5 mg l{sup -1} + moving bed biofilm reactor and irradiation with ultraviolet radiation + hydrogen peroxide. The evaluation was done by characterizing and comparing the effluents using a Lefkovitch matrix model based on a life cycle test with the harpacticoid copepod Nitocra spinipes, combined with analysis of juvenile development and survival over time. The conventionally treated effluent resulted in the most negative effects, leading to the conclusion that all additional treatments in the present study created effluents with less negative impacts on the copepod populations. The ozone treatments with the low dose treatment in particular, resulted in the overall least negative effects. Moving bed biofilm reactor combined with ozone did not improve the quality of the effluent in the sense that slightly more negative effects on the population abundance were seen for this treatment technology compared to ozonation alone. The active carbon treatment had more negative effects than the ozone treatments, most of which could possibly be explained by removal of essential metal ions. The effluent which was treated with ultraviolet radiation + hydrogen peroxide resulted in few developmental and survival effects over time, but still showed negative effects on the population level. Matrix population

  16. Comparison of six sewage effluents treated with different treatment technologies--population level responses in the harpacticoid copepod Nitocra spinipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundström, Elin; Björlenius, Berndt; Brinkmann, Markus; Hollert, Henner; Persson, Jan-Olov; Breitholtz, Magnus

    2010-03-01

    Since conventional treatment technologies may fail in removing many micro-pollutants, there is currently a focus on the potential of additional treatment technologies for improved sewage treatment. The aim of the present study was to evaluate six different effluents from Henriksdal Sewage Treatment Plant in Stockholm, Sweden. The effluents were; conventionally treated effluent (chemical phosphorous removal in combination with an activated sludge process, including biological nitrogen removal and a sand filter), with additional treatments individually added to the conventional treatment; active carbon filtration, ozonation at 5 mg l(-1), ozonation at 15 mg l(-1), ozonation at 5 mg l(-1)+moving bed biofilm reactor and irradiation with ultraviolet radiation+hydrogen peroxide. The evaluation was done by characterizing and comparing the effluents using a Lefkovitch matrix model based on a life cycle test with the harpacticoid copepod Nitocra spinipes, combined with analysis of juvenile development and survival over time. The conventionally treated effluent resulted in the most negative effects, leading to the conclusion that all additional treatments in the present study created effluents with less negative impacts on the copepod populations. The ozone treatments with the low dose treatment in particular, resulted in the overall least negative effects. Moving bed biofilm reactor combined with ozone did not improve the quality of the effluent in the sense that slightly more negative effects on the population abundance were seen for this treatment technology compared to ozonation alone. The active carbon treatment had more negative effects than the ozone treatments, most of which could possibly be explained by removal of essential metal ions. The effluent which was treated with ultraviolet radiation+hydrogen peroxide resulted in few developmental and survival effects over time, but still showed negative effects on the population level. Matrix population modeling proved a

  17. Comprehensive Two-dimensional Liquid Chromatography coupled to High Resolution Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry for Chemical Characterization of Sewage Treatment Plant Effluents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouyang, X.; Leonards, P.E.G.; Legler, J.; van der Oost, R.; de Boer, J.; Lamoree, M.H.

    2015-01-01

    For the first time a comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography (LC. ×. LC) system coupled with a high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer (HR-ToF MS) was developed and applied for analysis of emerging toxicants in wastewater effluent. The system was optimized and validated using

  18. Evaluation of genotoxicity of liquid effluents from gas washing systems by means of bioassay Trad-MCN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, Alessandra Carla Fattori Ergesse; Alves, Edenise Segala

    2007-01-01

    In the gas washing systems the gaseous emissions from a facility are forced through an absorbing liquid preventing pollutants to be dispersed into the atmosphere. In the Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo/Centro Experimental Aramar (CEA), the gas washing are used to control the emissions from the uranium enrichment facilities. Uranium. fluoride, ammonia and hydrogen fluoride are the main contaminants, all heavily toxic. Biological assays, using plants or other living organisms, have been used to assess genotoxic agents in the environment. Among the bioassays using plants, the Trad-MCN has been used extensively, as it allows the evaluation of liquid or gaseous contaminants. The species Tradescantia pallida (Rose) was exposed in a dynamic system to liquid effluents from CEA. A positive control was the exposure to formaldehyde 10% in water, known as a very toxic solution, and the negative control was the exposure to filtered air. The protocol established by Ma (1983) for hybrid clones and validated for the T. pallida by Guimaraes (2003) was used to perform the Trad-MCN assays. Only preparations containing early tetrads were scored. In that context, the present study objectifies to evaluate, by the Trad-MCN bioassay, the genotoxicity of the solution from the gas washing and, also, evaluate the efficiency of that system. The results obtained show that the T. pallida is a sensitive bioindicator for the pollutants tested and can be useful for in vitro environmental monitoring under controlled conditions. (author)

  19. Evaluation of genotoxicity of liquid effluents from gas washing systems by means of bioassay Trad-MCN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Alessandra Carla Fattori Ergesse [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), SP (Brazil). Div. de Monitoracao Ambiental], E-mail: alessandra@ctmsp.mar.mil.br; Alves, Edenise Segala [Instituto de Botanica de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Anatomia], E-mail: ealves@ibot.sp.gov.br

    2007-07-01

    In the gas washing systems the gaseous emissions from a facility are forced through an absorbing liquid preventing pollutants to be dispersed into the atmosphere. In the Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo/Centro Experimental Aramar (CEA), the gas washing are used to control the emissions from the uranium enrichment facilities. Uranium. fluoride, ammonia and hydrogen fluoride are the main contaminants, all heavily toxic. Biological assays, using plants or other living organisms, have been used to assess genotoxic agents in the environment. Among the bioassays using plants, the Trad-MCN has been used extensively, as it allows the evaluation of liquid or gaseous contaminants. The species Tradescantia pallida (Rose) was exposed in a dynamic system to liquid effluents from CEA. A positive control was the exposure to formaldehyde 10% in water, known as a very toxic solution, and the negative control was the exposure to filtered air. The protocol established by Ma (1983) for hybrid clones and validated for the T. pallida by Guimaraes (2003) was used to perform the Trad-MCN assays. Only preparations containing early tetrads were scored. In that context, the present study objectifies to evaluate, by the Trad-MCN bioassay, the genotoxicity of the solution from the gas washing and, also, evaluate the efficiency of that system. The results obtained show that the T. pallida is a sensitive bioindicator for the pollutants tested and can be useful for in vitro environmental monitoring under controlled conditions. (author)

  20. Analysis and study on generic models for use in assessing the impact of radioactive liquid effluent to the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Wenlin; Cao Jianzu; Fang Dong

    2008-01-01

    The assessment of the impact of discharges of radioactive substances into surface water under normal condition of nuclear facilities is an important part of the environmental impact analysis. Generic methods for assessing the impact of radioactive liquid effluent release into surface water provided by IAEA Safety Reports Series 19 are studied in this paper, and also an example calculation that assesses the impact of radioactive surface water discharge of HTR-PM ( High Temperature Air-cooled Reactor demonstration unit) in Anhui is presented in this paper to illustrate that a simplified but conservative assessment can be used for the purpose of screening proposed radioactive discharges. If the results meet the relevant requirements specified by the relevant regulatory authority, the further calculations are not needed. If they fails to meet the requirements, the more field data are to be sampled for calculations by more sophisticated mode or otherwise. (authors)

  1. Treatment of liquid effluents from uranium analytical method 'DAVIES & GRAY' by electrodialysis and electrodialysis reactive tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuniga Alvear, Karina Andrea

    2014-01-01

    This work describes the process which produces liquid waste coming from the chemical analysis laboratory of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission (CCHEN), from the analytical technique called 'Davies and Gray' and their further treatment, using electro dialysis (ED) and reactive electro dialysis (RED), in order to achieve lower uranium contents in solution. The contamination in water is a big problem, since there are many places in the world where is limited. For these reasons new treatments must be done, and the ion-selective membrane has opened a new path for these processes. The radioactive liquid waste have lots of other restrictions in their final disposal, which difficult even more the water recovery, because the law has very strict security margins with respect to these ones. In the case of liquid waste containing uranium, the concern increases, because being the uranium a radioactive element has it has to be lowered at its maximum, or eliminated directly, in order to avoid any kind of contamination. There exist national regulations and international recommendations. They have stipulated the correct management and disposal for radioactive waste. These can come from any uranium production process. In any of these, the liquid waste contains certain uranium content, which after the end of the process; the discarded waste must go through a conditioning and cleaning process for its afterward liberation or recycling. In this study, it was tested the electro dialysis as a radioactive waste treatment, only uranium containing waste coming from the chemical analysis laboratory in CCHEN. The electro dialysis process has a direct competition with other separation process, such as distillation, ionic exchange, and reverse osmosis, among others. The classic electro dialysis has been developed during the 50's, and until today, there has been different version, as inverse, reactive, reversible. The unidirectional and reactive electro dialysis will be the

  2. Instructions for 104-SX liquid level measurement field tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, R.H.

    1994-01-01

    This document provides detailed instructions for field testing a suggested solution of inserting a liner inside the 104-SX failed Liquid Observation Well to gain access for making temporary Liquid Level Measurement until a permanent solution has been provided

  3. Treatment of liquid effluents from an ammonia/urea/sulphur plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padula, R.C.; Amabal, S.P.

    1979-01-01

    The effluent treatment processes planned for a new 1500 ton/day urea, 1200 ton/day ammonia plant in Brazil, based on the two-stage reaction of ammonia and carbon dioxide to form urea and on the catalytic hydrogenation of nitrogen to ammonia, will include the steps of equalization, flocculation, flotation, nitrification, sedimentation, denitrification, rapid aeration, further settlement, filtration, and discharge to a river. Sludge will be chemically conditioned as needed, and will be thickened, filtered, and disposed of by land application. There will be considerable recycling of nutrients.

  4. Methodological studies for deriving release criteria for liquid effluents from medical installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, Jane; Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear; Rochedo, Elaine R.R.; Heilbron Filho, Paulo F.L.; Crispim, Verginia R.

    2009-01-01

    This work aims to develop a methodology for the assessment of clearance limits for the release of liquid waste arising from medical installations using radionuclides for medical diagnostic purposes in the town of Rio de Janeiro. The results will be used to assess the need to justify or to revise the current clearance values as specified in regulation CNEN-NE-6.05 - Radioactive Waste Management in Radioactive Facilities. The proposed methodology is based on the mathematical model recommended by the International Atomic Energy Agency, adapted to the observed release conditions in the study area. In order to turn the assessment as realistic as possible, two scenarios are simulated. The first scenario simulates the release to the sewage system with access to a sewer treatment stations. The second scenario simulates the releases without passing a treatment station, with direct outflow to surface water. Probabilistic assessments were performed using the Crystal Ball software. Distributions were than compared to current IAEA clearance criteria that include specific values for average and low probability scenarios. The results will be used to derive adequate clearance levels for radionuclides used in nuclear diagnostic medicine in Brazil according to the specific relevant release scenario. (author)

  5. Assessment of options for the treatment of Sizewell PWR liquid effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornby, J.; Allam, J.; Knibbs, R.H.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the origins of PWR liquid waste streams, their composition and rates of arising. Data has been collected from operational PWRs and estimates obtained for Sizewell B PWR liquid waste streams. Current liquid waste treatment practices are reviewed and assessments made of established and novel treatment techniques which could be applicable to Sizewell B. A short list of treatment options is given and recommendations are made relating to established treatment technologies suitable for Sizewell B and also to development work on more novel treatments which could lead to a reduction in waste disposal volumes. (author)

  6. Determination of trace amount of lead in industrial and municipal effluent water samples based on dispersive liquid-liquid extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirkhanloo, H. [Iranian Petroleum Industry Health Research Institute, Occupational and Environmental Health Research Center, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sedighi, K.; Mousavi, H. Z., E-mail: hzmousavi@semnan.ac.ir [Semnan University, College of Science, Department of Chemistry, Semnan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-10-01

    In this study, a simple, sensitive and accurate method was developed for the determination of lead ion by combining ionic liquid dispersive liquid-liquid extraction (Il-DLL E) with flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Tetraethyl thiuram disulfide (Tetd), acetone and 1-octyl-3m ethylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [(C{sub 8}MIM) (PF{sub 6})] were used as the chelating agent, dispersive and extraction solvent, respectively. Under the optimal conditions, the calibration graph was linear in the range of 5-190 μg L{sup -1} of lead and the detection limit was 0.8 μg L{sup -1} with a sample volume of 200 ml. The proposed method was validated by the analysis of one certified reference material and applied successfully to the determination of lead in real water samples. (Author)

  7. Determination of trace amount of lead in industrial and municipal effluent water samples based on dispersive liquid-liquid extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirkhanloo, H.; Sedighi, K.; Mousavi, H. Z.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a simple, sensitive and accurate method was developed for the determination of lead ion by combining ionic liquid dispersive liquid-liquid extraction (Il-DLL E) with flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Tetraethyl thiuram disulfide (Tetd), acetone and 1-octyl-3m ethylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [(C 8 MIM) (PF 6 )] were used as the chelating agent, dispersive and extraction solvent, respectively. Under the optimal conditions, the calibration graph was linear in the range of 5-190 μg L -1 of lead and the detection limit was 0.8 μg L -1 with a sample volume of 200 ml. The proposed method was validated by the analysis of one certified reference material and applied successfully to the determination of lead in real water samples. (Author)

  8. Vitrification of high-level liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varani, J.L.; Petraitis, E.J.; Vazquez, Antonio.

    1987-01-01

    High-level radioactive liquid wastes produced in the fuel elements reprocessing require, for their disposal, a preliminary treatment by which, through a series of engineering barriers, the dispersion into the biosphere is delayed by 10 000 years. Four groups of compounds are distinguished among a great variety of final products and methods of elaboration. From these, the borosilicate glasses were chosen. Vitrification experiences were made at a laboratory scale with simulated radioactive wastes, employing different compositions of borosilicate glass. The installations are described. A series of tests were carried out on four basic formulae using always the same methodology, consisting of a dry mixture of the vitreous matrix's products and a dry simulated mixture. Several quality tests of the glasses were made 1: Behaviour in leaching following the DIN 12 111 standard; 2: Mechanical resistance; parameters related with the facility of the different glasses for increasing their surface were studied; 3: Degree of devitrification: it is shown that devitrification turns the glasses containing radioactive wastes easily leachable. From all the glasses tested, the composition SiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , B 2 O 3 , Na 2 O, CaO shows the best retention characteristics. (M.E.L.) [es

  9. Comprehensive determination of macrolide antibiotics, their synthesis intermediates and transformation products in wastewater effluents and ambient waters by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senta, Ivan; Krizman-Matasic, Ivona; Terzic, Senka; Ahel, Marijan

    2017-08-04

    Macrolide antibiotics are a prominent group of emerging contaminants frequently found in wastewater effluents and wastewater-impacted aquatic environments. In this work, a novel analytical method for simultaneous determination of parent macrolide antibiotics (azithromycin, erythromycin, clarithromycin and roxithromycin), along with their synthesis intermediates, byproducts, metabolites and transformation products in wastewater and surface water was developed and validated. Samples were enriched using solid-phase extraction on Oasis HLB cartridges and analyzed by reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. The target macrolide compounds were separated on an ACE C18 PFP column and detected using multiple reaction monitoring in positive ionization polarity. The optimized method, which included an additional extract clean-up on strong anion-exchange cartridges (SAX), resulted in high recoveries and accuracies, low matrix effects and improved chromatographic separation of the target compounds, even in highly complex matrices, such as raw wastewater. The developed method was applied to the analysis of macrolide compounds in wastewater and river water samples from Croatia. In addition to parent antibiotics, several previously unreported macrolide transformation products and/or synthesis intermediates were detected in municipal wastewater, some of them reaching μg/L levels. Moreover, extremely high concentrations of macrolides up to mg/L level were found in pharmaceutical industry effluents, indicating possible importance of this source to the total loads into ambient waters. The results revealed a significant contribution of synthesis intermediates and transformation products to the overall mass balance of macrolides in the aquatic environment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Radioactivity measurement of the liquid effluents of two university hospital methodology, problems arising

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basse-Cathalinat, B.; Barthe, N.; Chatti, K.; Ducassou, D.

    2005-01-01

    The authors present methodology used to measure the radioactivity of the effluents at the output of two services of Nuclear medicine located in two Hospital complexes of the Area of Bordeaux. These measures are intended to answer at the requests of circular DGS/DHOS no 2001/323 of the Ministry for Employment and Solidarity. The selected method is more powerful since it is based on the use of a whole of spectrometry to very low background noise. These devices of measurements make it possible to take into account all the isotopes coming from a service of Nuclear medicine. The authors are conscious that of such measurements cannot be considered in all the services of Nuclear medicine. Other technical articles will specify simpler methods allowing a satisfactory management of the radioactive wastes. (author)

  11. French practice and trends in the treatment and conditioning of PWR liquid effluents and solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celeri, J.J.; Pottier, P.; Sousselier, Y.

    1982-01-01

    From the early stages of the development of the nuclear industry in France, it has been decided to avoid radioactive effluent release by treatment, conditioning and storage of the wastes. It was not possible, when choosing this option, to reach the optimum from the beginning for the whole management system. The selection of a treatment process requires a precise knowledge of the nature, the composition and the arisings of radioactive wastes and these data are only available when commercial size reactors are in operation. To solve this problem, a close collaboration has been developed between the nuclear station operators and the R and D laboratories in charge of studying new treatment methods. This cooperation is a fruitful permanent exchange giving precise data about the waste, results of treatment operation on the industrial units, allowing modification in the installations to improve their efficiency and sometimes, resulting in new trends for the research program

  12. 40 CFR 417.162 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Liquid Detergents Subcategory § 417.162 Effluent limitations guidelines... available (BPT): (a) For normal liquid detergent operations the following values pertain: Effluent...

  13. Estimative of dilution factor for radioactive liquid effluents employing the H-3 and Cs-137 radiotracers present as pollutant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisti, Marcelo Bessa; Santos, Adir Janete Godoy dos

    2011-01-01

    It was estimated the dilution factor for liquid effluents at the discharge points of the IPEN, Sao Paulo, Brazil, employing as radiotracers the radioisotope routinely liberated for the sewage of 'Cidade Universitaria Armando de Salles Oliveira' - CUASO 3 H and 137 Cs, not generating either monetary or environmental cost associated to the estimation. The 137 Cs was determined by gamma spectrometry and the 3 H was determined liquid phase scintillation. The results showed that the dilution factor varied according to the employed radiotracer in a crescent order of 3 H and 137 Cs according to the characteristics of each element. The average of dilution factors obtained at the first and second liberation day were 4.3 and 7.4 respectively for the 3 H and 6.2 and 13.9 for the 137 Cs. The ratio of dilution factors of calculated 3 H and 137 Cs were coherent with the ratio verified at the twelve hydrometers distributed by the IPEN campus. The dilution factors were estimated in operational and laboratory study, in a single controlled discharge of the TR1 tank

  14. Applications of hydrophobic Pt catalysts in separation of tritium from liquid effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionita, Gheorghe; Popescu, Irina; Stefanescu, Ioan; Varlam, Carmen

    2003-01-01

    Hydrophobic Pt catalysts were first prepared and used in deuterium or tritium separation while after their application was extended to chemical reactions occurring in liquid water or saturated humidity environments. Capillary condensing produced at the contact with liquid water or vapors engenders in classical hydrophilic catalysts a decrease in activity what makes them inefficient. Consequently, liquid water 'repealing' catalysts are to be used allowing, at the same time gaseous reactants and reaction products to diffuse to and fro the catalytic active centers. These catalysts were successfully applied in deuterium enrichment and tritium separation based on hydrogen- liquid water isotopic exchange at both pilot and industrial scale. High activity and a prolonged stability were demonstrated and checked in: - detritiation of the heavy water used as both moderator and coolant in CANDU type reactors; removing of tritium from light water recirculated in nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities; removal and recovery of tritium from atmosphere and tritium processing installations. Due to their incontestable advantages the use of these catalysts was recently extended to other chemical processes occurring in the presence of liquid water or in high humidity environment or else when water occurs as a reaction product, such as catalytic hydrogen - oxygen recombination at room temperature or removal of stable organic pollutants from waste waters

  15. The determination of Pu-241 by liquid scintillation counting in gaseous effluents of an incineration facility, FERAB, and the Karlsruhe Nuclear Reprocessing Plant, WAK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godoy, J.M.; Schuettelkopf, H.

    1983-03-01

    Although the concentration of Pu-241 in nuclear fuel to be reprocessed is high, there are only few results published about the emission of Pu-241 with gaseous and liquid effluents. Nearly no information is available, too, about the environmental contamination of nuclear installations by Pu-241. Therefore a procedure was developed to measure Pu-241 by liquid scintillation counting. Sample preparation was performed by electroplating of plutonium on stainless steel planchets. To correct the selfabsorption the linear dependence of counting efficiency in the liquid scintillation counter and the resolution in the α-spectrometer was used. (orig./HP) [de

  16. Radiation exposure rate and liquid level measurement inside a high level liquid waste (HLLW) storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sur, B.; Yue, S.; Thekkevarriam, A.

    2007-01-01

    An instrument based on an inexpensive, small silicon diode has been developed and used to measure, for the first time, the gamma radiation exposure rate profile inside a 6.4 mm diameter reentrant thermo-well tube, immersed in the highly radioactive liquid solution in an HLLW storage tank. The measurement agrees with previous calculations of exposure rate, and provides confirmation for safe and effective radiation work plans and material selection for investigations and remediation of the storage tank facility. The measured radiation exposure rate profile is also used to confirm that the position of tank internal structures have not changed because of aging and corrosion, and to obtain, within a few mm, the level of liquid inside the tank. (author)

  17. Study on radioactive release of gaseous and liquid effluents during normal operation of AP1000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Quan; Zhou Jing; Liu Yu

    2014-01-01

    The gaseous and liquid radioactive releases of pressurized water reactors plant during normal operation are an important content of environmental impact assessment and play a significant role in the design of nuclear power plant. According to the design characters of AP1OOO radioactive waste management system and the study on the calculation method and the release pathways, the calculation model of the gaseous and liquid radioactive releases during normal operation for AP1OOO are established. Base on the established calculation model and the design parameters of AP1000, the expected value of gaseous and liquid radioactive releases of AP1OOO is calculated. The results of calculation are compared with the limits in GB 6249-2011 and explain the adder that is included tu account for anticipated operational occurrences, providing a reference for environmental impact assessment of pressurized water reactor. (authors)

  18. Treatment of radioactive liquid effluents by reverse osmosis membranes: From lab-scale to pilot-scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combernoux, Nicolas; Schrive, Luc; Labed, Véronique; Wyart, Yvan; Carretier, Emilie; Moulin, Philippe

    2017-10-15

    The recent use of the reverse osmosis (RO) process at the damaged Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant generated a growing interest in the application of this process for decontamination purposes. This study focused on the development of a robust RO process for decontamination of two kinds of liquid effluents: a contaminated groundwater after a nuclear disaster and a contaminated seawater during a nuclear accident. The SW30 HR membrane was selected among other in this study due to higher retentions (96% for Cs and 98% for Sr) in a true groundwater. Significant fouling and scaling phenomenon, attributed to calcium and strontium precipitation, were evidenced in this work: this underscored the importance of the lab scale experiment in the process. Validation of the separation performances on trace radionuclides concentration was performed with similar retention around 96% between surrogates Cs (inactive) and 137 Cs (radioactive). The scale up to a 2.6 m 2 spiral wound membrane led to equivalent retentions (around 96% for Cs and 99% for Sr) but lower flux values: this underlined that the hydrodynamic parameters (flowrate/cross-flow velocity) should be optimized. This methodology was also applied on the reconstituted seawater effluent: retentions were slightly lower than for the groundwater and the same hydrodynamic effects were observed on the pilot scale. Then, ageing of the membrane through irradiation experiments were performed. Results showed that the membrane active layer composition influenced the membrane resistance towards γ irradiation: the SW30 HR membrane performances (retention and permeability) were better than the Osmonics SE at 1 MGy. Finally, to supplement the scale up approach, the irradiation of a spiral wound membrane revealed a limited effect on the permeability and retention. This indicated that irradiation conditions need to be controlled for a further development of the process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Use of macrophites for removal of Co e Zn in liquid effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Juliana de Almeida S.; Silva, Paulo Sergio Cardoso da Silva, E-mail: ju_aso@usp.br, E-mail: pscsilva@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    This study proposes the application of Eichhornia crassipes roots biomass to remove cobalt and zinc ions from solution, aiming its application to effluent treatment. The efficiency of adsorption and the percent of removal were checked as a function of pH and contact time. The plants, for biomass production, were collected at the Billings reservoir in São Bernardo do Campo, located in the Southeast of São Paulo Metropolitan Region. The biomass obtained was subjected to the chemical activation process by the treatment with HCl 0.1 molL{sup -1} in order to increase its surface area. The concentrations of cobalt and zinc, present in the adsorbent, before and after the adsorption experiments were determined by the instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) technique. Results showed that the pH of the solution must be adjusted after the addition of the biomass. The contact time for maximum removal of both ions is between 20 and 30 min. (author)

  20. BNFL Sellafield assessment of public radiation exposure due to liquid effluents from fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, G.J.

    1982-01-01

    Individual (critical group) doses resulting from liquid discharges from the British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL) Sellafield Works have been derived in a form normalised to unit radionuclide discharge rates. This has been done for the purpose of providing a basis for predicting doses in the event of nuclear fuel from a future Sizewell 'B' power station being reprocessed. These doses would have to be reviewed in the light of prevailing circumstances at the time when the actual discharges are known. (author)

  1. Method of processing low-level radioactive liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsunaga, Ichiro; Sugai, Hiroshi.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To effectively reduce the radioactivity density of low-level radioactive liquid wastes discharged from enriched uranium conversion processing steps or the likes. Method: Hydrazin is added to low-level radioactive liquid wastes, which are in contact with iron hydroxide-cation exchange resins prepared by processing strongly acidic-cation exchange resins with ferric chloride and aqueous ammonia to form hydrorizates of ferric ions in the resin. Hydrazine added herein may be any of hydrazine hydrate, hydrazine hydrochloride and hydranine sulfate. The preferred addition amount is more than 100 mg per one liter of the liquid wastes. If it is less than 100 mg, the reduction rate for the radioactivety density (procession liquid density/original liquid density) is decreased. This method enables to effectively reduce the radioactivity density of the low-level radioactive liquid wastes containing a trace amount of radioactive nucleides. (Yoshihara, H.)

  2. Impact assessment for the aquatic biota arising from discharges of radioactive liquid effluents into the marine environment - Angra dos Reis nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauria, D.C.; Peres, S.S.; Martins, S.F.

    2011-01-01

    The Piraquara de Fora Bay receives the liquid effluents from the two Brazilian nuclear power plants (NPPs): Angra I that has been operating since 1985 and Angra II that started operating in 2000. The monitoring data set obtained by IRD/CNEN for marine samples over a period of 25 years (from 1985 to 2010) were statistically evaluated. Despite the high presence of non detect observations, suitable statistical tests were applied to compare 60 Co levels in sediments between two periods of time and from different sampling locations. The natural dose and the dose derived from the NPPs routine radioactive releases on the marine biota were assessed by the Erica tool. The highest value of dose rate due to the naturally occurrence radionuclides was estimated to be around 0.6 μGy h -1 for phytoplankton, mainly due to internal dose contribution of 238 U, while fishes received the highest dose (value around 0.4 μGy h -1 ) due to the radionuclide discharges of the NPPs. Accordingly, the dose rates to the studied species (fish, crustacean, macroalgae, zooplankton and phytoplankton) were clearly below the Erica screening level of 10 μGy h -1 , indicating no significant radiological impact of NPPs on these species. (author)

  3. Treated Effluent Disposal Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Treated non-hazardous and non-radioactive liquid wastes are collected and then disposed of through the systems at the Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF). More...

  4. Regulating Effluents From India’s Textile Sector: New Commands and Compliance Monitoring for Zero Liquid Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Grönwall

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2016 large parts of India had experienced failing monsoons for two consecutive years. Textiles production was a natural target in the quest for solutions when re-distribution of water between sectors became imperative, and it seemed likely that the zero liquid discharge (ZLD approach would be mainstreamed nationwide. However, when amended standards for discharge of effluents were enacted it was without strict requirements for reuse of water in-house; the legislator chose to make ZLD applicable only to large units and refrained from making it mandatory. The carrying capacity of the environment in sensitive or otherwise critical areas may henceforth be taken into account by the executive, but the textile sector’s wastewater is not yet regarded the resource that a circular economy calls for. This paper examines the command-side of regulation by shedding light on the applicable law, the reform steps taken in 2014–16 and how judicial interventions influenced these. It also seeks to contribute to the understanding of enforcement control by discussing what role court-established committees are playing in implementation and monitoring of compliance, based on an in-depth case study of Tirupur, India’s ‘knit city’.

  5. LOFT liquid level transducer application techniques and measurement uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batt, D.L.; Biladeau, G.L.; Goodrich, L.D.; Nightingale, C.M.

    1979-01-01

    A conductivity sensitive liquid level transducer (LLT) has been designed and used successfully for determining whether steam or water is present in the Loss-of-Fluid Tests (LOFT) performed by EG and G Idaho, Inc., at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The presence of steam or water is determined by establishing a discriminator level which is set manually. A computer program establishes the presence or absence of water for each data point taken. In addition to liquid level, the LLT is used for reactor vessel mass and volume calculations. The uncertainty in the liquid level is essentially the spacing of the LLT electrodes

  6. Determination and behaviour of plutonium emitted with liquid effluents and exhaust air into the environment of the Nuclear Research Centre Karlsruhe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuettelkopf, H.; Pimpl, M.

    1986-01-01

    The plutonium concentrations in the surroundings of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Centre (KfK) are in the range of variation of the global plutonium contamination caused by fallout of atmospheric nuclear tests. Exclusively in the sediments of the Old River Rhine, which serves as main canal for the liquid effluents, higher plutonium concentrations could be detected. The dose exposure of the population living in the environment of the KfK caused by the measured plutonium concentrations is negligible low. From the Karlsruhe Reprocessing Plant (WAK) and the facilities needed to decontaminate radioactive wastes 0.48 GBq (13 mCi) plutonium alpha activity has been emitted within 11 years of operation until 1982 - 1/3 with the liquid effluents and 2/3 with the exhaust air. Following the pathway with the exhaust air, plutonium concentrations in the environment of the Karlsruhe Reprocessing Plant were measured in groundlevel air, in soil, in plants, in food and in animal tissues. Radioecological parameters like dispersion factors, deposition velocities, migration velocities in soil and transfer soil-to-plant were investigated. Following the pathway with the liquid effluents, plutonium concentrations were measured in surface waters, sediments, water plants, plankton and animals. Dilution and sedimentation behaviour were studied as well as the transfer water-to-plant and water-to-animals. (orig.) [de

  7. Liquid effluent/Hanford Environmental compliance FY 1995 Multi-Year Program Plan/Fiscal Year Work Plan, WBS 1.2.2.1 and 1.2.2.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This document details the program effort to eliminate the use of the soil column for liquid effluent treatment and to manage current and future liquid effluent streams at the Hanford Site, in a safe responsible cost effective and legally compliant mannger. This should be achieved through planning, public and stakeholder interaction, definition of requiremtns for generators, and provision of timely treatment, stroage, disposal capability, and waste minimization of waste streams.

  8. Liquid effluent/Hanford Environmental compliance FY 1995 Multi-Year Program Plan/Fiscal Year Work Plan, WBS 1.2.2.1 and 1.2.2.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This document details the program effort to eliminate the use of the soil column for liquid effluent treatment and to manage current and future liquid effluent streams at the Hanford Site, in a safe responsible cost effective and legally compliant mannger. This should be achieved through planning, public and stakeholder interaction, definition of requiremtns for generators, and provision of timely treatment, stroage, disposal capability, and waste minimization of waste streams

  9. Ultrasonic level indicator for liquids and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanngiesser, P.

    1976-01-01

    Ultrasonic level indicator for liquids where a piezo-element is used to reverse the piezoelectric effect may be applied in a more versatile way if the indicator is provided with a reflector. It becomes less susceptible to faults and may be used for all liquids, including liquid metals. The piezo-element may then be used at the same time as receiver for ultrasonic waves emitted previously and, in that case, echoed back by the refelctor. (UWI) [de

  10. 239Np application as tracer of 237Np in liquid effluents and nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diodati, Jorge M; Sartori, F.M.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper a technique to separate and measure 237 Np using 239 Np as a tracer, is presented. After the radiochemical separation, a liquid scintillation measurement with pulse decay discrimination and a γ measurement on the same vial is performed. The method also allows an electrodeposition for an α and γ measurement. The chemical recoveries obtained by LSC and γ spectrometry in vial are similar to those obtained by α and γ spectrometry on electroplated disc. The MDA is 0.08 Bq/l by α spectrometry and 0.22 Bq/l by LSC, with 2 σconfidence interval, and 93.7 % measurement efficiency and 98.0% chemical recovery. (author)

  11. Liquid hydrogen transfer pipes and level regulation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquet, M.; Prugne, P.; Roubeau, P.

    1961-01-01

    Describes: 1) Transfer pipes - Plunging rods in liquid hydrogen Dewars; transfer pipes: knee-joint system for quick and accurate positioning of plunging Dewar rods; system's rods: combined valve and rod; valves are activated either by a bulb pressure or by a solenoid automatically or hand controlled. The latter allows intermittent filling. 2) Level regulating systems: Level bulbs: accurate to 1 or 4 m; maximum and minimum level bulbs: automatic control of the liquid hydrogen valve. (author) [fr

  12. Light Path Model of Fiber Optic Liquid Level Sensor Considering Residual Liquid Film on the Wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijun Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The working principle of the refractive-type fiber optic liquid level sensor is analyzed in detail based on the light refraction principle. The optic path models are developed in consideration of common simplification and the residual liquid film on the glass tube wall. The calculating formulae for the model are derived, constraint conditions are obtained, influencing factors are discussed, and the scopes and skills of application are analyzed through instance simulations. The research results are useful in directing the correct usage of the fiber optic liquid level sensor, especially in special cases, such as those involving viscous liquid in the glass tube monitoring.

  13. Treatment of low level radioactive liquid waste containing appreciable concentration of TBP degraded products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valsala, T P; Sonavane, M S; Kore, S G; Sonar, N L; De, Vaishali; Raghavendra, Y; Chattopadyaya, S; Dani, U; Kulkarni, Y; Changrani, R D

    2011-11-30

    The acidic and alkaline low level radioactive liquid waste (LLW) generated during the concentration of high level radioactive liquid waste (HLW) prior to vitrification and ion exchange treatment of intermediate level radioactive liquid waste (ILW), respectively are decontaminated by chemical co-precipitation before discharge to the environment. LLW stream generated from the ion exchange treatment of ILW contained high concentrations of carbonates, tributyl phosphate (TBP) degraded products and problematic radio nuclides like (106)Ru and (99)Tc. Presence of TBP degraded products was interfering with the co-precipitation process. In view of this a modified chemical treatment scheme was formulated for the treatment of this waste stream. By mixing the acidic LLW and alkaline LLW, the carbonates in the alkaline LLW were destroyed and the TBP degraded products got separated as a layer at the top of the vessel. By making use of the modified co-precipitation process the effluent stream (1-2 μCi/L) became dischargeable to the environment after appropriate dilution. Based on the lab scale studies about 250 m(3) of LLW was treated in the plant. The higher activity of the TBP degraded products separated was due to short lived (90)Y isotope. The cement waste product prepared using the TBP degraded product was having good chemical durability and compressive strength. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The treatment of low level effluents by flocculation and settling at the Chooz nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petteau, J.L.; Roofthooft, R.

    1989-01-01

    At the Chooz plant, radioactive effluents were formerly treated by evaporation, but because throughput was low, another method was studied. After laboratory tests, a 500 L/h flocculation and settling pilot plant was constructed, followed later by a 5 m 3 /h installation. The main isotopes eliminated are caesium-134 and caesium-137. Flocculation with copper ferrocyanide reduces the total activity to less than 500 Bq/L. The installation described in the paper was commissioned in 1984 and has been in industrial operation since 1985, processing all types of effluent. The evaporator can be set aside for boric acid recovery. (author). 3 figs, 1 tab

  15. Application of functionalized calixarenes to the processing of radioactive effluents by supported liquid membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, Clement

    1994-01-01

    In a first part, this research thesis presents the general context of nuclear waste processing (nature of wastes to be processed, characteristics of the used method and products), and proposes an overview of results obtained during previous campaigns which were based on the use of the technique of supported liquid membranes, but with other types of extracting components. The second part focuses on the tracking of complexing and extractive properties of all functionalized calixarenes which had been synthesised by different research teams. Several experiments have been performed to determine the extraction efficiency and selectivity of these organic compounds with respect to the studied radio-elements. The third part reports the detailed study of a specific family of functionalized calixarenes for which two thermodynamic models of membrane transport described in the literature have been applied. Validity limits are discussed with respect to operation conditions. Some results are finally given on the caesium and actinide (neptunium, plutonium) decontamination of synthetic concentrates which simulate actual radioactive wastes [fr

  16. Biotic survey of Los Alamos radioactive liquid-effluent receiving areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miera, F.R. Jr.; Bostick, K.V.; Hakonson, T.E.; Nyhan, J.W.

    A preliminary study was completed of the vegetation and small mammal communities and associated climatology in three canyon liquid waste receiving areas at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. Data were gathered on plant and animal composition, distribution, and biomass, along with air temperature, humidity, and precipitation, as a function of elevation and where data were available with season. Initial studies of the understory vegetation in the spring of 1974 indicate grass species to be dominant at higher elevations, with forb species becoming dominant at lower elevations. Generally, the highest total mass estimates for standing green vegetation were obtained in the study sites located in the upper portions of the canyons where precipitation is greatest, and where the terrain and intermittent stream flow result in a wetter habitat. Fourteen species of small mammals were trapped or observed in canyon study areas during two trapping sessions of May--June 1974 and December 1974--February 1975. A greater number of species and the highest rodent biomass estimates in the spring were generally associated with the ponderosa pine/pinion--juniper woodland in the upper reaches of the canyons, and were lowest in the pinion--juniper woodland at the lower portions of the canyons. This trend was observed in only one of the canyons during the winter season. Climatological data gathered in the three canyons since 1973 are also presented to serve as a data base for future reference

  17. 40 CFR 417.83 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Liquid Soaps Subcategory § 417.83 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of...

  18. 40 CFR 417.82 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Liquid Soaps Subcategory § 417.82 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the...

  19. Electronic circuit provides automatic level control for liquid nitrogen traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turvy, R. R.

    1968-01-01

    Electronic circuit, based on the principle of increased thermistor resistance corresponding to decreases in temperature provides an automatic level control for liquid nitrogen cold traps. The electronically controlled apparatus is practically service-free, requiring only occasional reliability checks.

  20. Cement encapsulation of low-level waste liquids. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, M.N.; Houston, H.M.

    1999-01-01

    Pretreatment of liquid high-level radioactive waste at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) was essential to ensuring the success of high-level waste (HLW) vitrification. By chemically separating the HLW from liquid waste, it was possible to achieve a significant reduction in the volume of HLW to be vitrified. In addition, pretreatment made it possible to remove sulfates, which posed several processing problems, from the HLW before vitrification took place

  1. New Type Multielectrode Capacitance Sensor for Liquid Level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Y R [China University of Petroleum (Huadong), Qingdao (China); Shi, A P [Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao (China); Chen, G Q [Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao (China); Chang, Y Y [Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao (China); Hang, Z [Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao (China); Liu, B M [Binzhou University, Binzhou (China)

    2006-10-15

    This paper introduces the design of a new type multielectrode capacitance sensor for liquid level. The system regards electric field sensor MC33794 as the core and applies microcontroller MC9S12DJ128 to realize intelligent liquid level monitoring system, which overcomes the disadvantages of the traditional capacitance sensor, improves on the anti-jamming ability and the measurement precision and simplifies the system structure. Finally, the paper sums up the design of the system.

  2. Design of a treatment pilot by electro-coagulation and electro-flotation of high charged liquid effluents; Conception d'un pilote de traitement par electrocoagulation-electroflottation d'effluents liquides fortement charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cames, M.C.; Leclerc, J.P.; Valentin, G.; Sanchez-Calvo, L.; Lapicque, F. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS-ENSIC), Lab. des Sciences du Genie Chimique, 54 - Nancy (France); Rostan, A.; Muller, P. [Centre de Recherche pour l' Environnement, l' Energie et le Dechet, Vivendi Environnement, 78 - Limay (France)

    2001-07-01

    The possibilities of the electro-coagulation and electro-flotation process has been studied on many industrial effluents by cells. The results show that the process efficiency is conditioned by the effluent nature and the dissolved aluminium quantity, what ever the initial rate of Carbon Organic Total (COT). Other parameters as the current density and the circulation speed are not significant. (A.L.B.)

  3. Tritium effluent removal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamberger, P.H.; Gibbs, G.E.

    1978-01-01

    An air detritiation system has been developed and is in routine use for removing tritium and tritiated compounds from glovebox effluent streams before they are released to the atmosphere. The system is also used, in combination with temporary enclosures, to contain and decontaminate airborne releases resulting from the opening of tritium containment systems during maintenance and repair operations. This detritiation system, which services all the tritium handling areas at Mound Facility, has played an important role in reducing effluents and maintaining them at 2 percent of the level of 8 y ago. The system has a capacity of 1.7 m 3 /min and has operated around the clock for several years. A refrigerated in-line filtration system removes water, mercury, or pump oil and other organics from gaseous waste streams. The filtered waste stream is then heated and passed through two different types of oxidizing beds; the resulting tritiated water is collected on molecular sieve dryer beds. Liquids obtained from regenerating the dryers and from the refrigerated filtration system are collected and transferred to a waste solidification and packaging station. Component redundancy and by-pass capabilities ensure uninterrupted system operation during maintenance. When processing capacity is exceeded, an evacuated storage tank of 45 m 3 is automatically opened to the inlet side of the system. The gaseous effluent from the system is monitored for tritium content and recycled or released directly to the stack. The average release is less than 1 Ci/day. The tritium effluent can be reduced by isotopically swamping the tritium; this is accomplished by adding hydrogen prior to the oxidizer beds, or by adding water to the stream between the two final dryer beds

  4. Control system of liquid effluents generated in treatment with I-131; Sistema de control de efluentes liquidos generados en el tratamiento con I-131

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia M, T.; Ruiz C, M. A.; Angeles C, A.; Ramirez S, R., E-mail: teodoro.garcia@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    In recent years, nuclear medicine has developed greatly in our country and around the world. Techniques for both medical diagnosis and therapy have increased the use of radiopharmaceuticals, notably the I-131. In Mexico there are around 150 nuclear medicine establishments authorized by the Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias. Most of these establishments do not have an appropriate facility for the treatment of radioactive liquid effluents, to ensure compliance with the concentration limits established in the regulations. The Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) developed and implemented successfully, a control system of radioactive effluents (named SACEL) from a nuclear medicine facility. This system ensures an effective compliance with regulations and also better management and control of these radioactive effluents. Calculations and design of SACEL were made with respect to I-131, because is one of the most commonly used in radiotherapy and medical diagnostics, besides its half-life is greater in relation to other radionuclides. SACEL is comprised of four storage tanks and decay and a fifth tank for measuring the concentration of I-131 and later discharge to the drain; these tanks are connected to an automated system that controls the effluents passage. The calculation to determine the volume of the tanks was carried out according to the demand that has the hospital, to the maximum activity being poured in effluents and time required to decay. In this paper the design and installation of SACEL system, in addition to functioning as a facility that enables the Hospital meet the required standards is presented. Dose calculations performed with MCNPX and the methodology used in the calibration of the detection system is also presented. (Author)

  5. Impact evaluation of the liquid effluent disposal of the Duque de Caxias Refinery (REDUC) in fluvial waters and sediments, RJ, Brazil; Avaliacao do impacto do descarte de efluentes liquidos da Refinaria Duque de Caxias (REDUC) sobre aguas e sedimentos fluviais, RJ, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bidone, Edison Dausacker; Santelli, Ricardo Erthal; Cordeiro, Renato Campello [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Gamboa, Carla Maria; Camaz, Fernando Ribeiro; Jorge, Fabricio Goncalves [PETROBRAS/REDUC, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, RJ (Brazil). Refinaria de Duque de Caxias; Carvalho, Maria de Fatima B. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this work is to assess the contribution of the liquid effluents of the Duque de Caxias Refinery (REDUC) in the water and sediment contamination in the estuarine Iguacu-Sarapui system, a tributary of the Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Since 2002 is being conducted a quarterly monitoring of some parameters in water, river sediments and treated liquid effluent, such as: pH, suspended solids, total sedimented solids, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon, oil and grease (O and G), phenols, sulfide, ammonia, metals and metalloids (V, Cr, Pb, Ni, Cu, Cd, Zn, Hg, As, Se , Co, Fe, Mn), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, coprostanol and cholesterol (indicators of domestic wastes). The obtained results show that the effluents meet the legal standards and the treated liquid effluents from REDUC in the estuarine system have little or no impact on river water quality. The higher levels of contaminants detected in water and sediments samples are directly related to untreated domestic sewage from urban areas. (author)

  6. Operating safety requirements for the intermediate level liquid waste system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-07-01

    The operation of the Intermediate Level Liquid Waste (ILW) System, which is described in the Final Safety Analysis, consists of two types of operations, namely: (1) the operation of a tank farm which involves the storage and transportation through pipelines of various radioactive liquids; and (2) concentration of the radioactive liquids by evaporation including rejection of the decontaminated condensate to the Waste Treatment Plant and retention of the concentrate. The following safety requirements in regard to these operations are presented: safety limits and limiting control settings; limiting conditions for operation; and surveillance requirements. Staffing requirements, reporting requirements, and steps to be taken in the event of an abnormal occurrence are also described

  7. Treatment of low-level radioactive waste liquid by reverse osmosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckley, L.P.; Sen Gupta, S.K.; Slade, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    The processing of low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) liquids that result from operation of nuclear power plants with reverse osmosis systems is not common practice. A demonstration facility is operating at Chalk River Laboratories (of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited), processing much of the LLRW liquids generated at the site from a multitude of radioactive facilities, ranging from isotope production through decontamination operations and including chemical laboratory drains. The reverse osmosis system comprises two treatment steps--spiral wound reverse osmosis followed by tubular reverse osmosis--to achieve an average volume reduction factor of 30:1 and a removal efficiency in excess of 99% for most radioactive and chemical species. The separation allows the clean effluent to be discharged without further treatment. The concentrated waste stream of 3 wt% total solids is further processed to generate a solid product. The typical lifetimes of the membranes have been nearly 4000 hours, and replacement was required based on increased pressure drops and irreversible loss of permeate flux. Four years of operating experience with the reverse osmosis system, to demonstrate its practicality and to observe and record its efficiency, maintenance requirements and effectiveness, have proven it to be viable for volume reduction and concentration of LLRW liquids generated from nuclear-power-plant operations

  8. Reduction of the barium concentration presents in liquid effluents by mean of non-dispersive extraction in hollow fiber modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duperle Yaruro, Gladys; Pena, Dario Yesid; Escalante Hernandez, Humberto

    2008-01-01

    This work has been focused on the study of the viability of barium removal, present in a waste liquid phase, by means of non-dispersive extraction (NDE) in hollow fiber modules. An organic solution based on DEPHA (Bis-2-ethylhexyl phosphate) 30% (v/v), isopropilic alcohol 30% (v/v) and kerosene is used as selective extraction medium. For the extraction process was made a contactor with five hollow microporous propilenic fibers. A solution contained 100 ppm of BaCl 2 H 2 O, level concentration very equal as generated on the petroleum industrial wastes, is used as liquid phase. a efficiency of 95,25% is obtained when the NDE take place at pH = 9, and them 9 hours of process

  9. Radioactive effluent monitoring at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, O.D.

    1975-01-01

    The Effluent and Radiation Measurements Laboratory at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has recently upgraded capabilities in the field of monitoring and analysis of radioactive airborne and liquid effluents using the techniques of gamma-ray spectrometry. The techniques and equipment used include remotely-operated, computer-based Ge(Li) spectrometers which obtain data on a real-time basis. Permanent record files are maintained of both the effluent release values and the gamma-ray data from which the release values are calculated. Should values for release levels ever be challenged, the gamma-ray spectral information for any measurement can be recalled and analyzed as needed. Daily effluent release reports are provided to operating personnel which contributes to prompt correction of any operational problems. Monthly, quarterly, and annual reports are compiled which provide inventories of the radionuclides released. A description of the effluent monitoring, reporting and records system developed at INEL for this application will be presented

  10. Treatment of low- and intermediate-level liquid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This report aims at giving the reader details of the experience gained in the treatment of both low- and intermediate-level radioactive liquid wastes. The treatment comprises those operations to remove radioactivity from the wastes and those that change only its chemical composition, so as to permit its discharge. Considerable experience has been accumulated in the satisfactory treatment of such wastes. Although there are no universally accepted definitions for low- and intermediate-level liquid radioactive wastes, the IAEA classification (see section 3.2) is used in this report. The two categories differ from one another in the fact that for low-level liquids the actual radiation does not require shielding during normal handling of the wastes. Liquid wastes which are not considered in this report are those from mining and milling operations and the high-level liquid wastes resulting from fuel reprocessing. These are referred to in separate IAEA reports. Likewise, wastes from decommissioning operations are not within the scope of this report. Apart from the description of existing methods and facilities, this report is intended to provide advice to the reader for the selection of appropriate solutions to waste management problems. In addition, new and promising techniques which are either being investigated or being considered for the future are discussed

  11. Dynamic containment of gaseous effluents in the auxiliary buildings and reinjection of liquid effluents from these buildings back into the reactor building for 900 MWe PWRs under accident condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demoulin, F.; Collinet, J.; Nguyen, C.

    1987-04-01

    Examination of the lessons to be learned from the accident of the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant on 20 March 1979 led the French Safety Authorities and EDF (Electricite de France) to adopt a series of measures intended to improve the performance of the containment of French PWRs, especially in the event of accident. Among the measures adopted, two of them contribute to the upgrading of the containment of nuclear island buildings, by reducing radioactivity constraints inside these buildings and by limiting radioactive releases into the environment. These are: (1) dynamic containment of auxiliary buildings likely to be contaminated following an accident, (2) reinjection back into the reactor building of liquid effluents arising in the auxiliary buildings. In this paper we shall discuss, for each measure, the approach to the problem and describe the arrangements made to arrive at a satisfactory solution [fr

  12. Management of radioactive low level liquid, gaseous, and solid wastes in the 200 areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, A.T.

    1976-01-01

    The practices which are currently used for handling radioactive waste are outlined. These include burial of solid waste, scrubbing of off gas streams, and routing liquid effluents (mostly cooling water) to open ponds where the water percolates to the water table

  13. Commissioning of the XENON1T liquid level measurement system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geis, Christopher [Institut fuer Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, Mainz (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Two-phase xenon time projection chambers (TPCs) have been operated very successfully in direct detection experiments for dark matter. This kind of detector uses liquid xenon as the sensitive target and is operated in two-phase (liquid/gas) mode, where the liquid level needs to be monitored and controlled with sub-millimeter precision. We present the installation, commissioning and first measurement data of two kinds of level meters operated in the XENON1T TPC: short level meters are three-plated capacitors measuring the level of the liquid-gas interface with a measurement range h∼5 mm and a resolution of ΔC/h∼1 pF/mm. The long level meters are cylindrical double-walled capacitors, measuring the overall filling level of the XENON1T TPC at a measurement range of h=1.4 m and a resolution of ΔC/h∼0.1 pF/mm. Further, we present the design and programming of the readout electronic based on the UTI chip by Smartec, which allows to read all six levelmeters simultaneously.

  14. Continuous liquid level monitoring sensor system using fiber Bragg grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Dipankar; Kishore, Putha

    2014-01-01

    The design and packaging of simple, small, and low cost sensor heads, used for continuous liquid level measurement using uniformly thinned (etched) optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG) are proposed. The sensor system consists of only an FBG and a simple detection system. The sensitivity of sensor is found to be 23 pm/cm of water column pressure. A linear optical fiber edge filter is designed and developed for the conversion of Bragg wavelength shift to its equivalent intensity. The result shows that relative power measured by a photo detector is linearly proportional to the liquid level. The obtained sensitivity of the sensor is nearly -15 mV/cm.

  15. Ultrasonic level sensors for liquids under high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerwar, A. J.; Mazel, D. S.; Hodges, D. Y.

    1986-01-01

    An ultrasonic level sensor of novel design continuously measures the level of a liquid subjected to a high pressure (up to about 40 MPa), as is sometimes required for the effective transfer of the liquid. The sensor operates as a composite resonator fabricated from a standard high-pressure plug. A flat-bottom hole is machined into the plug along its center line. An ultrasonic transducer is bonded rigidly to the interior surface of the bottom wall, while the exterior surface is in contact with the liquid. Although the bottom wall is designed to satisfy the pressure code, it is still sufficiently thin to permit ready excitation of the axisymmetric plate modes of vibration. The liquid level is measured by a conventional pulse-echo technique. A prototype sensor was tested successfully in a 2300-l water vessel at pressures up to about 37 MPa. A spectral analysis of the transmitted pulse reveals that the flexural, extensional, thickness-shear, and radial plate modes are excited into vibration, but none of these appears to be significantly affected by the pressurization of the liquid.

  16. Development of Concentration and Calcination Technology For High Level Liquid Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pande, D.P.

    2006-01-01

    The concentrated medium and high-level liquid radio chemicals effluents contain nitric acid, water along with the dissolved chemicals including the nitrates of the radio nuclides. High level liquid waste contain mainly nitrates of cesium, strontium, cerium, zirconium, chromium, barium, calcium, cobalt, copper, pickle, iron etc. and other fission products. This concentrated solution requires further evaporation, dehydration, drying and decomposition in temperature range of 150 to 700 deg. C. The addition of the calcined solids in vitrification pot, instead of liquid feed, helps to avoid low temperature zone because the vaporization of the liquid and decomposition of nitrates do not take place inside the melter. In our work Differential and thermo gravimetric studies has been carried out in the various stages of thermal treatment including drying, dehydration and conversion to oxide forms. Experimental studies were done to characterize the chemicals present in high-level radioactive waste. A Rotary Ball Kiln Calciner was used for development of the process because this is amenable for continuous operation and moderately good heat transfer can be achieved inside the kiln. This also has minimum secondary waste and off gases generation. The Rotary Ball Kiln Calciner Demonstration facility system was designed and installed for the demonstration of calcination process. The Rotary Ball Kiln Calciner is a slowly rotating slightly inclined horizontal tube that is externally heated by means of electric resistance heating. The liquid feed is sprayed onto the moving bed of metal balls in a slowly rotating calciner by a peristaltic type-metering pump. The vaporization of the liquid occurs in the pre-calcination zone due to counter current flow of hot gases. The dehydration and denitration of the solids occurs in the calcination zone, which is externally heated by electrical furnace. The calcined powder is cooled in the post calcination portion. It has been demonstrated that the

  17. Palisades Nuclear Plant. Radioactive effluents and environmental monitoring sections to second annual operating report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    A total of 0.435 Ci of radioactive liquid effluent less tritium was released with 19.63 Ci of tritium. Both liquid and gaseous releases were within permissible limits. There were 8 Ci of solid wastes stored on the site as of 12/31/76. Data clearly shows there was no detectable increase in radioactivity levels in the environmental media that can be attributed to plant effluents. Monitoring reports are presented concerning fish, meteorology, noise, and cooling tower drift

  18. Effect of the tide on the diffusion of 3H in the liquid effluent discharged from Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jie; Zhang Chunlin; Pan Meng

    2006-01-01

    The tide field at the time of liquid effluent discharging from Daya Bay nuclear power station, and the average water speed at the monitoring points in west Daya Bay from the time of discharging to the time of sampling were calculated by ADI (Alternating Direction Implicit) method. By comparing analysis, the difference of 3 H diffusion between spring tide and neap tide (the expansion of 3 H within one day of spring tide is greater than that within one day of neap tide) was found. So, an equivalent diffusion time is introduced to modify the original model, and a better attenuation relation between the average 3 He concentration in west Daya Bay and the time since the liquid 3 H discharging is obtained. (authors)

  19. Glass-solidification method for high level radioactive liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Kazuhiro; Kometani, Masayuki; Sasage, Ken-ichi.

    1996-01-01

    High level liquid wastes are removed with precipitates mainly comprising Mo and Zr, thereafter, the high level liquid wastes are mixed with a glass raw material comprising a composition having a B 2 O 3 /SiO 2 ratio of not less than 0.41, a ZnO/Li 2 O ratio of not less than 1.00, and an Al 2 O 3 /Li 2 O ratio of not less than 2.58, and they are melted and solidified into glass-solidification products. The liquid waste content in the glass-solidification products can be increased up to about 45% by using the glass raw material having such a predetermined composition. In addition, deposition of a yellow phase does not occur, and a leaching rate identical with that in a conventional case can be maintained. (T.M.)

  20. Nuclear plant refurbishment calls for patience. [Construction of radioactive effluent plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henly, Anna

    1989-08-01

    All nuclear power plants produce a small quantity of liquid effluent from wash hand basins, showers and surface drains on the site. The effluent is termed low-level radioactive waste and under the 'Radioactive Substances Act' can be discharged into estuaries or the sea. Before a controlled discharge can be made the effluent has to be chemically treated and have any radioactive particulate matter removed. The replacing of the radioactive effluent plant at the Berkeley nuclear power station in the United Kingdom is described, with particular reference to the vigorous safety standards and quality assurance programme operated by the Central Electricity Generating Board. (author).

  1. A high Tc superconducting liquid nitrogen level sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, J. X.; Liu, H. K.; Dou, S. X.; Grantham, C.; Beer, J.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: The dramatic resistance change in the superconducting-normal transition temperature range enables a high T c superconductor to be considered for designing a liquid nitrogen level sensor. A (Bi,Pb) 2 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O 10+x Ag clad superconducting wire is selected and tested as a continuous liquid nitrogen level sensor to investigate the possibility for this application. The (Bi,Pb) 2 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O 10+x Ag clad superconducting wire has approximately 110 K critical temperature, with more flexible and stable properties compared with bulk shape ceramic high T c superconductors. The voltage drops across the sensor are tested with different immersion lengths in liquid nitrogen. The accuracy of the HTS sensor is analysed with its dR/dT in the superconducting-normal transition range. The voltage signal is sensitive to liquid nitrogen level change, and this signal can be optimized by controlling the transport current. The problems of the Ag clad superconductor are that the Ag sheath thermal conductivity is very high, and the sensor normal resistance is low. These are the main disadvantages for using such a wire as a continuous level sensor. However, a satisfactory accuracy can be achieved by control of the transport current. A different configuration of the wire sensor is also designed to avoid this thermal influence

  2. The NA62 Liquid Krypton Electromagnetic Calorimeter Level 0 Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00293812; Paoluzzi, Giovanni; Salamon, Andrea; Salina, Gaetano; Santovetti, Emanuele; Scarfi, Francesco M.; Bonaiuto, Vincenzo; Sargeni, Fausto

    2012-01-01

    The NA62 experiment at CERN SPS aims to measure the Branching Ratio of the very rare kaon decay K+ -> pi+ nu nubar collecting O(100) events with a 10% background to make a stringent test of the Standard Model. One of the main backgrounds to the proposed measurement is represented by the K+ -> pi+ pi0 decay. To suppress this background an efficient photo veto system is foreseen. In the 1-10 mrad angular region the NA48 high performance liquid krypton electromagnetic calorimeter is used. The design, implementation and current status of the Liquid Krypton Electromagnetic Calorimeter Level 0 Trigger are presented.

  3. The NA62 Liquid Krypton Electromagnetic Calorimeter Level 0 Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00646848; Fucci, Adolfo; Paoluzzi, Giovanni; Salamon, Andrea; Salina, Gaetano; Santovetti, Emanuele; Scarfi, Francesco M.; Sargeni, Fausto

    2011-01-01

    The NA62 experiment at CERN SPS aims to measure the Branching Ratio of the very rare kaon decay K+ -> pi+ nu nubar collecting O(100) events with a 10% background to make a stringent test of the Standard Model. One of the main backgrounds to the proposed measurement is represented by the K+ -> pi+ pi0 decay. To suppress this background an efficient photo veto system is foreseen. In the 1-10 mrad angular region the NA48 high performance liquid krypton electromagnetic calorimeter is used. The design, implementation and current status of the Liquid Krypton Electromagnetic Calorimeter Level 0 Trigger are presented.

  4. Applying tracer techniques to NPP liquid effluents for estimating the maximum concentration of soluble pollutants in a man-made canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varlam, Carmen; Stefanescu, Ioan; Varlam, Mihai; Raceanu, Mircea; Enache, Adrian; Faurescu, Ionut; Patrascu, Vasile; Bucur, Cristina

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The possibility of a contamination agent being accidentally or intentionally spilled upstream from a water supply is a constant concern to those diverting and using water from a channel. A method of rapidly estimating the travel-time or dispersion is needed for pollution control or warning system on channels where data are scarce. Travel-time and mixing of water within a stream are basic streamflow characteristics needed in order to predict the rate of movement and dilution of pollutants that could be introduced in the stream. In this study we propose using tritiated liquid effluents from CANDU type nuclear power plant as a tracer, to study hydrodynamics on Danube-Black Sea Canal. This canal is ideal for this kind of study, because wastewater evacuations occur occasionally due to technical operations of nuclear power plant. Tritiated water can be used to simulate the transport and dispersion of solutes in Danube-Black Sea Canal because they have the same physical characteristics as the water. Measured tracer-response curves produced from injection of a known amount of soluble tracer provide an efficient method of obtaining the necessary data. This method can estimate: (1) the rate of movement of a solute through the canal reach: (2) the rate of peak attenuation concentration of a conservative solute in time; and (3) the length of time required for the solute plume to pass a point in the canal. This paper presents the mixing length calculation for particular conditions (lateral branch of the canal, and lateral injection of wastewater from the nuclear power plant). A study of published experimentally-obtained formulas was used to determine proper mixing length. Simultaneous measurements in different locations of the canal confirm the beginning of the experiment. Another result used in a further experiment concerns the tritium level along the Danube-Black Sea Canal. We measured tritium activity concentration in water sampled along the Canal between July

  5. Decision no 2009-DC-0157 of the 15. of September 2009 by the Nuclear Safety Authority specifying the limits of releases in the environment of liquid and gaseous effluents of the base nuclear installation n. 29 operated by the CIS Bio International on the district of Saclay (Essonne department)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This document contains references to the different legal and official documents (codes, orders, minister's opinion, public surveys, administrative authorizations, local community opinion) at the root of this specification of limits related to releases in the environment of liquid and gaseous effluents of a base nuclear installation. Tables present the limits for radioactive liquid effluents (iodine, rare earths, and other beta and gamma emitters) and the maximum admitted concentrations for gaseous chemical effluents (SO 2 , H 2 S, VOCs)

  6. Acid fractionation for low level liquid waste cleanup and recycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gombert, D. II; McIntyre, C.V.; Mizia, R.E.; Schindler, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    At the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, low level liquid wastes containing small amounts of radionuclides are concentrated via a thermosyphon evaporator for calcination with high level waste, and the evaporator condensates are discharged with other plant wastewater to a percolation pond. Although all existing discharge guidelines are currently met, work has been done to reduce all waste water discharges to an absolute minimum. In this regard, a 15-tray acid fractionation column will be used to distill the mildly acidic evaporator condensates into concentrated nitric acid for recycle in the plant. The innocuous overheads from the fractionator having a pH greater than 2, are superheated and HEPA filtered for atmospheric discharge. Nonvolatile radionuclides are below detection limits. Recycle of the acid not only displaces fresh reagent, but reduces nitrate burden to the environment, and completely eliminates routine discharge of low level liquid wastes to the environment

  7. Filtration device for active effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerin, M.; Meunier, G.

    1994-01-01

    Among the various techniques relating to solid/liquid separations, filtration is currently utilized for treating radioactive effluents. After testing different equipments on various simulated effluents, the Valduc Center has decided to substitute a monoplate filter for a rotative diatomite precoated filter

  8. The radiation exposure of the UK population from liquid effluents discharged from civil nuclear installations in the UK in 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camplin, W.C.; Clark, M.J.; Delow, C.E.

    1982-04-01

    The collective effective dose equivalent commitment to the UK population from routine liquid discharges by civil nuclear establishments during 1978 has been estimated at 134 man Sv. The major pathway considered in the assessment was the consumption of seafoods, because most discharges were made directly to sea. Over 90% of this collective dose commitment will be delivered within a few years of the discharges, and caesium-137 from the nuclear fuel reprocessing facility at Windscale (now known as Sellafield) will have made the main contribution to this commitment. These discharges were primarily due to corrosion of nuclear fuel during storage at the reprocessing plant, and there is no simple relationship between the level of collective dose commitment and the amount of energy generated by nuclear means during 1978. (author)

  9. Low level radioactive liquid waste decontamination by electrochemical way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tronche, E.

    1994-10-01

    As part of the work on decontamination treatments for low level radioactive aqueous liquid wastes, the study of an electro-chemical process has been chosen by the C.E.A. at the Cadarache research centre. The first part of this report describes the main methods used for the decontamination of aqueous solutions. Then an electro-deposition process and an electro-dissolution process are compared on the basis of the decontamination results using genuine radioactive aqueous liquid waste. For ruthenium decontamination, the former process led to very high yields (99.9 percent eliminated). But the elimination of all the other radionuclides (antimony, strontium, cesium, alpha emitters) was only favoured by the latter process (90 percent eliminated). In order to decrease the total radioactivity level of the waste to be treated, we have optimized the electro-dissolution process. That is why the chemical composition of the dissolved anode has been investigated by a mixture experimental design. The radionuclides have been adsorbed on the precipitating products. The separation of the precipitates from the aqueous liquid enabled us to remove the major part of the initial activity. On the overall process some operations have been investigated to minimize waste embedding. Finally, a pilot device (laboratory scale) has been built and tested with genuine radioactive liquid waste. (author). 77 refs., 41 tabs., 55 figs., 4 appendixes

  10. Characterization of an acidification and equalization tank (AET operating as a primary treatment of swine liquid effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Motteran

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the potential of the acidification equalization tank (AET used as a primary treatment unit, treating the hog farming wastewater. The treatment system consisted of a degritter with a triangular-notch weir, for measuring the flow, a static sieve, and an acidification and equalization tank (AET, an anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR, an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB reactor, a settling tank, a greenhouse for fertirrigation and two infiltration ponds. The AET had a net capacity of 8,000 liters, internally covered with asphalt blanket, worked based on surface loading rates application. The unit operated continuously, with its flow varying from 0.1 to 10 L s-1. To determine the efficiency, the following parameters were measured: pH; COD; BOD; volatile and fixed solids; settleable solids; total, intermediate and partial alkalinity and total acidity. The COD removal varied from 5 to 20%. The average pH was 7.3 and the total, intermediate and partial alkalinity in the effluent, were 1919, 846, 1197 mg L-1, respectively. The total acidity in the effluent was 34 mg L-1. The influent and effluent total BOD and oil & grease concentrations were 3436 and 3443 mg L-1, and 415 and 668 mg L-1, respectively. It was found that the AET worked properly concerning the acidification, equalization and sedimentation processes, confirming low cost of implementation and easy operation, when compared to other traditional decanters.

  11. Evaluation of the dispersion of oil refinery liquid effluent; Avaliacao da dispersao de efluente liquido de refinaria de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariano, Adriano Pinto; Silva, Ariovaldo Jose da; Oliveira, Valdenilson Jose Alves de; Angelis, Dejanira de Franceschi de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Bioquimica e Microbiologia. Inst. de Biociencias], e-mail: adrianomariano@yahoo.com.br

    2010-07-15

    In this paper, two techniques to evaluate the dispersion of the effluent of an oil refinery are presented. Thus, the dispersion plume was characterized by field measurements of electrical conductivity and by computational simulation (Cormix simulator). An oil refinery whose effluent is discharged on the Atibaia river (Paulinia/SP) is taken as study case. The behavior of the effluent was evaluated until 1000 m after the discharge. The results show that the measurement of electrical conductivity is a suitable technique to evaluate the dispersion of oil refinery wastewaters, since they have high conductivity and for this reason there is a strong contrast between the values of the wastewater and the ambient background. Furthermore, other water quality parameters had a dispersion behavior similar to that shown by the conductivity. The dispersion plume generated by the computational simulator showed high concordance with the field data. In this manner, computational simulation can be a useful tool to evaluate the dispersion of discharges considering hypothetical scenarios, as well as to design the discharge channel. (author)

  12. Solidification of Simulated Liquid Effluents Originating From Sodium-Bearing Waste at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, FY-03 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. V. Raman; A. K. Herbst; B. A. Scholes; S. H. Hinckley; R. D. Colby

    2003-09-01

    In this report, the mechanism and methods of fixation of acidic waste effluents in grout form are explored. From the variations in the pH as a function of total solids addition to acidic waste effluent solutions, the stages of gellation, liquefaction, slurry formation and grout development are quantitatively revealed. Experimental results indicate the completion of these reaction steps to be significant for elimination of bleed liquid and for setting of the grout to a dimensionally stable and hardened solid within a reasonable period of about twenty eight days that is often observed in the cement and concrete industry. The reactions also suggest increases in the waste loading in the direction of decreasing acid molarity. Consequently, 1.0 molar SBW-180 waste is contained in higher quantity than the 2.8 molar SBW-189, given the same grout formulation for both effluents. The variations in the formulations involving components of slag, cement, waste and neutralizing agent are represented in the form of a ternary formulation map. The map in turn graphically reveals the relations among the various formulations and grout properties, and is useful in predicting the potential directions of waste loading in grouts with suitable properties such as slurry viscosity, Vicat hardness, and mechanical strength. A uniform formulation for the fixation of both SBW-180 and SBW-189 has emerged from the development of the formulation map. The boundaries for the processing regime on this map are 100 wt% cement to 50 wt% cement / 50 wt% slag, with waste loadings ranging from 55 wt% to 68 wt%. Within these compositional bounds all the three waste streams SBW-180, SBW-189 and Scrub solution are amenable to solidification. A large cost advantage is envisaged to stem from savings in labor, processing time, and processing methodology by adopting a uniform formulation concept for fixation of compositionally diverse waste streams. The experimental efforts contained in this report constitute the

  13. Monitoring PWR reactor vessel liquid level with SPNDs during LOCAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, J.P.

    1982-01-01

    Data from in-core self-powered neutron detectors taken during two nuclear loss-of-coolant accident simulations have been correlated with core moderator density changes. The detector current attenuation has been calculated during blowdown and reflood phases of the simulation. Based on these data, it is concluded that these detectors could be used to monitor reactor vessel liquid level during loss-of-coolant accidents in pressurized water reactors

  14. Treatment of low-level liquid radioactive wastes by electrodialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DelDebbio, J.A.; Donovan, R.I.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents the results of pilot plant studies on the use of electrodialysis (ED) for the removal of radioactive and chemical contaminants from acidic low-level radioactive wastes resulting from nuclear fuel reprocessing operations. Decontamination efficiencies are reported for strontium-90, cesium-137, iodine-129, ruthenium-106 and mercury. Data for contaminant adsorption on ED membranes and liquid waste volumes generated are also presented

  15. Reducing COD level on oily effluent by utilizing biosurfactant-producing bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Franco Carvalho Jacobucci

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Two bacteria isolated from crude oil contaminated soil, Pantoea agglomerans and Planococcus citreus, produced biosurfactants utilizing 1.5% of kerosene and olive oil as the sole carbon sources, respectively. The bacteria and the biosurfactants produced were introduced to oily effluent, arising from margarine and soap industry. Emulsification activities were determined by increases in the absorbance of the oil-in-water emulsions at 610 nm, whereas the water-in-oil emulsions were expressed as the height (cm of the emulsion layers formed. The 72 h incubation experiment resulted in a COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand reduction of 76% with Planococcus citreus strain and 70% with Pantoea agglomerans.The COD reduction with bacterial biosurfactants was over 50% in 24 h of incubation. The COD reduction showed that these strains and the surfactants produced could be used in bioremediation processes.Duas bactérias isoladas de solo contaminado com derivados de petróleo, Pantoea agglomerans e Planococcus citreus, produzem biosurfactantes utilizando respectivamente 1.5% de querosene e óleo de oliva como únicas fontes de carbono. As bactérias e os biosurfactantes produzidos foram adicionados a um efluente oleoso obtido de uma indústria nacional de sabão e margarina. As atividades de emulsificação foram determinadas pelo aumento da absorbância das emulsões óleo em água a 610 nm, enquanto que as emulsões do tipo água em óleo foram expressas em centímetros, pela altura do halo de espumas formado. A redução da demanda química de oxigênio (COD mostra que as linhagens e os biosurfactantes produzidos podem ser utilizados em processos de biorremediação.

  16. Disposal of Low-Activity Liquid Effluents by Dilution; Elimination par Dilution d'Effluents Liquides Faiblement Radioactifs; 0423 0414 0410 041b 0414 ; Eliminacion de Efluentes Liquidos de Baja Radiactividad por Dilucion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bovard, P.; Candillon, C. [Service de Controle des Radiations et de Genie Radioactif, Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France)

    1960-07-01

    From the results already obtained in France by monitoring radioactivity in the neighbourhood of nuclear plant, some conclusions may be drawn regarding the choice of disposal procedures. I. Results obtained In 1957 we started a progressive study of the effect exerted by nuclear plant. In order to establish the proportion due to the nuclear centres, the study comprises determination of the levels of natural radioactivity and artificial contamination. Examples related to reference areas are quoted. The greater part of artificial radioactivity is apparently due to radioactive fall-out; this is not surprising, considering the quantities of radioactive isotopes disposed of in France to date. Some laboratory tests have been made. These have helped to determine certain mechanisms, have increased our knowledge of site pollution, and have enabled us to improve our sampling methods. II. Laboratory tests These were concerned with 1. adsorption phenomena similar to those occurring in rivers and streams in the course of effluent dilution: fixation on finely-divided minerals, e.g. mica and quartz. Radioisotopes such as Sr{sup 9}'0, Cs{sup 137} and Y{sup 90} appear to behave very differently: under average disposal conditions Sr{sup 90} seems to be the least adsorbed; 2. soil and plant contamination, utilizing columns and cubes of soil in situ. We found it necessary to standardize our samples so as to facilitate further analysis and make the results comparable. III. Site selection and ways and means of disposal From this group of still incomplete results and studies we are attempting to educe certain principles to govern site selection. Once the site has been chosen, the experience gained enables natural conditions to be turned to account. (author) [French] Des resultats deja fournis par la surveillance en France, de la radioactivite aux alentours des installations nucleaires, il est possible de tirer certains enseignements quant au choix des processus de rejet. I. Resultats

  17. Order of the 10 january 2003 authorizing the national agency for the radioactive wastes management to follow the gaseous and liquid effluents release for the exploitation of the radioactive wastes storage center of the Manche

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This document, took out from the Official Journal, is the law text relative to the order of the 10 january 2003 authorizing the national agency for the radioactive wastes management to follow the gaseous and liquid effluents release for the exploitation of the radioactive wastes storage center of the Manche. (A.L.B.)

  18. On-line immunoaffinity column-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for trace analysis of diuron in wastewater treatment plant effluent sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiuli; Martens, Dieter; Krämer, Petra M; Kettrup, Antonius A; Liang, Xinmiao

    2006-11-10

    An on-line immunoaffinity column with liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (IAC-LC-MS/MS) method for the determination of diuron in water matrices was described. This method used a sol-gel immunoaffinity column (20 mm x 4 mm I.D.) for on-line sample cleanup and enrichment, a monolithic analytical column (100 mm x 4.6 mm I.D.) for separation, and a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer for quantitation. The major challenges for the on-line set-up were discussed. The optimized on-line protocol was emphasized by the fact that low limit of quantitation (LOQ) of 1.0 ng/L was achieved with only 2.5-mL sample. In addition, a satisfactory accuracy ( approximately 90% of recovery) and precision (effect, the on-line IAC-LC-MS/MS analysis method can reliably determine diuron in wastewater treatment plant effluent sample.

  19. Cryo magnetic separation adaptation to environment technologies: application to industrial effluents; Adaptation de la separation cryomagnetique aux technologies de l`environnement: application a l`epuration d`effluents liquides industriels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bureau, V

    1993-12-20

    Cryomagnetic separation adaptation to environment technologies application to industrial liquid effluents. The performance, obtained by superconducting high filed - high gradient magnetic separation, permitted to foresee the magnetic treatment of heavy metals in rinse waters, derived from the surface finishing industry. The paramagnetic ions, precipitated in basic media as hydroxides, present a very hydrated amorphous structure, which masks their subjacent magnetic properties. Coprecipitation of a `magnetic carrier`, jointly with the heavy metals, has been studied: ferric chloride forms in basic media, an hydrated iron oxide. Its structure is of the goethite type, and it stabilizes as hematite. The magnetic susceptibility of the obtained product is still weak and its crystalline structure is not enough affirmative to utilize magnetic filtration with efficiency. Mixture of ferrous sulphate and ferric chloride forms, in a basic media, an hydrated magnetite. Initial ideal ratio between divalent iron and trivalent iron, varies between 0,5 and 1,2. This mixture, coprecipitated with the heavy metals, permits to optimize the magnetic cleaning of the fluids in a high field - high gradient filter. (author)

  20. Order of the 10 january 2003 authorizing the national agency for the radioactive wastes management to follow the gaseous and liquid effluents release for the exploitation of the radioactive wastes storage center of the Manche; Arrete du 10 janvier 2003 autorisant l'Agence nationale pour la gestion des dechets radioactifs a poursuivre les rejets d'effluents gazeux et liquides pour l'exploitation du centre de stockage de dechets radioactifs de la Manche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-01-01

    This document, took out from the Official Journal, is the law text relative to the order of the 10 january 2003 authorizing the national agency for the radioactive wastes management to follow the gaseous and liquid effluents release for the exploitation of the radioactive wastes storage center of the Manche. (A.L.B.)

  1. Low level liquid scintillation analysis for environmental and biomedical quantitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessler, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    Over the past five years low level liquid scintillation counting has become increasing popular because of the large number of applications which can be performed using this technique. These applications include environmental monitoring ( 3 H, 90 Sr/ 90 Y, etc.), radiocarbon dating (for age determination to 50,000 years), food adulteration studies (alcohol and beverage industries), radon monitoring (air/water), nuclear power plant monitoring (low level 3 H) and metabolism studies (pharmaceutical research). These applications can be performed with either a dedicated low level LSC or using a standard liquid scintillation counter in conjunction with the new technique of time-resolved LSC (TR-LSC). This technique when used on a standard LSC reduces the instrument background without substantially effecting the background, thus increasing the performance (E 2 /B) of the LSC. Data will be presented for each of the applications mentioned above, comparing the standard LSC and the new TR-LSC techniques. The optimization of the samples for each of these applications will be explored in detail with experimental results. In conclusion, by using the TR-LSC technique in conjunction with a standard LSC the performance of the standard LSC can be increased substantially without dedicating the LSC to doing only low level samples

  2. Expert system for liquid low-level waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrada, J.J.

    1992-01-01

    An expert system prototype has been developed to support system analysis activities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for waste management tasks. This expert system will aid in prioritizing radioactive waste streams for treatment and disposal by evaluating the severity and treatability of the problem as well as the final waste form. The objectives of the expert system development included: (1) collecting information on process treatment technologies for liquid low-level waste (LLLW) that can be incorporated in the knowledge base of the expert system, and (2) producing a prototype that suggests processes and disposal technologies for the ORNL LLLW system. The concept under which the expert system has been designed is integration of knowledge. There are many sources of knowledge (data bases, text files, simulation programs, etc.) that an expert would regularly consult in order to solve a problem of liquid waste management. The expert would normally know how to extract the information from these different sources of knowledge. The general scope of this project would be to include as much pertinent information as possible within the boundaries of the expert system. As a result, the user, who may not be an expert in every aspect of liquid waste management, may be able to apply the content of the information to a specific waste problem. This paper gives the methodological steps to develop the expert system under this general framework

  3. Landau Levels of Majorana Fermions in a Spin Liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachel, Stephan; Fritz, Lars; Vojta, Matthias

    2016-04-22

    Majorana fermions, originally proposed as elementary particles acting as their own antiparticles, can be realized in condensed-matter systems as emergent quasiparticles, a situation often accompanied by topological order. Here we propose a physical system which realizes Landau levels-highly degenerate single-particle states usually resulting from an orbital magnetic field acting on charged particles-for Majorana fermions. This is achieved in a variant of a quantum spin system due to Kitaev which is distorted by triaxial strain. This strained Kitaev model displays a spin-liquid phase with charge-neutral Majorana-fermion excitations whose spectrum corresponds to that of Landau levels, here arising from a tailored pseudomagnetic field. We show that measuring the dynamic spin susceptibility reveals the Landau-level structure by a remarkable mechanism of probe-induced bound-state formation.

  4. Treatment options of low level liquid waste of ETP origin by synthetic zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, I.J.; Jain, Savita; Sathi Sasidharan, N.; Deshingkar, D.S.

    2001-08-01

    Mixture of synthetic zeolites, AR1, 4A and 13X of Indian origin were tested in a single fixed bed column operation for the treatment of low level liquid waste received at Effluents Treatment Plant (ETP) Trombay, under dynamic conditions. The mixed bed of zeolites was highly effective in decontaminating thousands of bed volumes of waste stream from radio cesium, radio strontium and gross beta gamma activity. High volume reduction factors, upwards of 10,000 are available in this process compared to less than 100 available with chemical precipitation process, currently followed. Containment of entrapped activity in zeolite bed was studied by solidifying them in Portland cement matrix as stable waste form. Incorporation of minerals like vermiculite as minor additive for improving the leaching characteristics of the final waste form was evaluated. Zeolite incorporated cement blocks were subjected to leach tests in distilled water for over 200 days to assess the incremental and cumulative leach rates of individual activity components. Leachability index of radio cesium and strontium were computed, which indicated the suitability of the matrix for safe shallow land burial. (author)

  5. A demonstration test of 4-group partitioning process with real high-level liquid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, Y.; Yamaguchi, I.; Fujiwara, T.; Koizumi, H.; Tachimori, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai-Mura, Ibaraki-Ken (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    The demonstration test of 4-Group Partitioning Process with concentrated real high-level liquid waste (HLLW) was carried out in the Partitioning Test Facility installed in a hot cell. More than 99.998% of Am and Cm were extracted from the HLLW with the organic solvent containing 0.5 M DIDPA - 0.1 M TBP, and more than 99.98% of Am and Cm were back-extracted with 4 M nitric acid. Np and Pu were extracted simultaneously, and more than 99.93% of Np and more than 99.98% of Pu were back-extracted with oxalic acid. In the denitration step for the separation of Tc and platinum group metals, more than 90% of Rh and more than 97% of Pd were precipitated. About half of Ru were remained in the de-nitrated solution, but the remaining Ru were quantitatively precipitated by neutralization of the de-nitrated solution to pH 6.7. In the adsorption step, both Sr and Cs were separated effectively. Decontamination factors for Cs and Sr were more than 10{sup 6} and 10{sup 4} respectively in all effluent samples. (authors)

  6. The treatment of effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wormser, G.; Rodier, J.; Robien, E. de; Fernandez, N.

    1964-01-01

    For several years the French Atomic Energy Commission has been studying with interest problems presented by radio-active effluents. Since high activities have not yet received a definite solution we will deal only, in this paper, with the achievements and research concerning low and medium activity effluents. In the field of the achievements, we may mention the various effluent treatment stations which have been built in France; a brief list will be given together with an outline of their main new features. Thus in particular the latest treatment stations put into operation (Grenoble, Fontenay-aux-Roses, Cadarache) will be presented. From all these recent achievements three subjects will be dealt with in more detail. 1 - The workshop for treating with bitumen the sludge obtained after concentration of radionuclides. 2 - The workshop for treating radioactive solid waste by incineration. 3 - A unit for concentrating radio-active liquid effluents by evaporation. In the field of research, several topics have been undertaken, a list will be given. In most cases the research concerns the concentration of radionuclides with a view to a practical and low cost storage, a concentration involving an efficient decontamination of the aqueous liquids in the best possible economic conditions. For improving the treatments leading to the concentration of nuclides, our research has naturally been concerned with perfecting the treatments used in France: coprecipitation and evaporation. In our work we have taken into account in particular two conditions laid down in the French Centres. 1 - A very strict sorting out of the effluents at their source in order to limit in each category the volume of liquid to be dealt with. 2 - The necessity for a very complete decontamination due to the high population density in our country. In the last past we present two original methods for treating liquid effluents. 1 - The use of ion-exchange resins for liquids containing relatively many salts. The

  7. Assessment of tolerant sunfish populations (Lepomis sp.) inhabiting selenium-laden coal ash effluents - 1. Hematological and population level assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohner, T.W.; Reash, R.J.; Willet, V.E.; Rose, L.A. [American Electrical Power Co., Columbus, OH (United States). Environmental Services Dept.

    2001-07-01

    Sunfish were collected from coal ash effluent-receiving streams and Ohio River watershed reference sites to assess the effects of exposure to low-level selenium concentrations. Selenium, copper, and arsenic concentrations were statistically higher in tissue samples from exposed fish than in reference fish. Leukopenia, lymphocytosis, and neutropenia were evident in exposed fish and were indicative of metal exposure and effect. White blood cell counts and percent lymphocyte values were significantly correlated with liver selenium concentrations. Plasma protein levels were significantly lower in exposed fish than in fish from the Ohio River, indicating that exposed fish may have been nutritionally stressed. Condition factors for fish from the ash pond-receiving streams were the same as, or lower than, those of fish from the reference sites. There was no evidence that the growth rate of fish in the receiving streams differed from that of fish in the reference streams. Despite liver selenium concentrations which exceeded reported toxicity thresholds and evidence of significant hematological changes, there were no significant differences in fish condition factors, liver-somatic indices, or length-weight regressions related to selenium.

  8. Cryogenic Liquid Level-Sensing using Fiber-Optic Strain Sensor (FOSS) Technology Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Armstrong innovators have developed a highly accurate method for measuring liquid levels using optical fibers. Unlike liquid level gauges that rely on discrete...

  9. Restoration of liquid effluent from oil palm agroindustry in Malaysia using UV/TiO2 and UV/ZnO photocatalytic systems: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Kim Hoong; Khan, Maksudur R; Ng, Yun Hau; Hossain, Sk Safdar; Cheng, Chin Kui

    2017-07-01

    In this study, we have employed a photocatalytic method to restore the liquid effluent from a palm oil mill in Malaysia. Specifically, the performance of both TiO 2 and ZnO was compared for the photocatalytic polishing of palm oil mill effluent (POME). The ZnO photocatalyst has irregular shape, bigger in particle size but smaller BET specific surface area (9.71 m 2 /g) compared to the spherical TiO 2 photocatalysts (11.34 m 2 /g). Both scavenging study and post-reaction FTIR analysis suggest that the degradation of organic pollutant in the TiO 2 system has occurred in the bulk solution. In contrast, it is necessary for organic pollutant to adsorb onto the surface of ZnO photocatalyst, before the degradation took place. In addition, the reactivity of both photocatalysts differed in terms of mechanisms, photocatalyst loading and also the density of photocatalysts. From the stability test, TiO 2 was found to offer higher stability, as no significant deterioration in activity was observed after three consecutive cycles. On the other hand, ZnO lost around 30% of its activity after the 1st-cycle of photoreaction. The pH studies showed that acidic environment did not improve the photocatalytic degradation of the POME, whilst in the basic environment, the reaction media became cloudy. In addition, longevity study also showed that the TiO 2 was a better photocatalyst compared to the ZnO (74.12%), with more than 80.0% organic removal after 22 h of UV irradiation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Performance of cellulose acetate membrane with different additives for palm oil mill effluent (POME) liquid waste treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprilia, N. A. S.; Fauzi; Azmi, N.; Najwan, N.; Amin, A.

    2018-03-01

    Performance of cellulose acetate membrane for treatment of POME liquid has studied with different additives. Cellulose acetate membranes were prepared with different additive ie formamide and polyethylene glycol and used acetone as solvent. The function of formamide and polyethylene glycol (PEG) is to increase the porosity of the membrane surface. Performance of the membrane were included SEM, FT-IR and coefficient permeability. Membrane performance has been performed for percent rejection of total suspended solid (TSS) and turbidity of POME liquid waste. Cellulose acetate with formamide shows an increased percentage of rejection in removing TSS and turbidity than cellulose acetate with PEG.

  11. Study of the extraction and the purification of americium and trivalent actinides contained in effluents with supported liquid membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillou, P.

    1990-12-01

    The supported liquid membrane technique is studied and developed for americium recovery from uranium or plutonium matrices and decontamination of liquid radioactive wastes. First tests on uranium-nickel solutions with a flat membrane showed the easiness of the operation and the efficiency of the process. Acid-resistant (10 N), interchangeable elements with hollow fibers, are developed and also a computerized automatic device. The different tests on americium solutions demonstrate the feasibility and the reliability of the system. Influence of various parameters on transfer kinetics is investigated

  12. Plant and soil modifications by continuous surface effluent application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tedesco, M.J.; Levien, R. [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. of Solos; Mohrdieck, F.G.; Rodrigues, N.R. [CORSAN-SITEL, Triunfo, RS (Brazil). Polo Petroquimico do Sul. Dept. de Operacao e Manutencao; Flores, A.I.P.

    1993-12-31

    In order to study the effects on soil and plants of the liquid effluent generated by a the Integrated Liquid Effluent Treatment System of a large Brazilian petrochemical complex, a field study was conducted in four areas which received the effluent and compared to control sites. This work presents some results of this study. 12 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  13. Plant and soil modifications by continuous surface effluent application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tedesco, M J; Levien, R [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. of Solos; Mohrdieck, F G; Rodrigues, N R [CORSAN-SITEL, Triunfo, RS (Brazil). Polo Petroquimico do Sul. Dept. de Operacao e Manutencao; Flores, A I.P.

    1994-12-31

    In order to study the effects on soil and plants of the liquid effluent generated by a the Integrated Liquid Effluent Treatment System of a large Brazilian petrochemical complex, a field study was conducted in four areas which received the effluent and compared to control sites. This work presents some results of this study. 12 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  14. Treatment and processing of the effluents and wastes (other than fuel) produced by a 900 MWe nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud

    1983-01-01

    Effluents produced by a 900 MWe power plant, are of three sorts: gaseous, liquid and solid. According to their nature, effluents are either released or stored for decaying before being released to the atmosphere. The non-contaminated reactor coolant effluents are purified (filtration, gas stripping) and treated by evaporation for reuse. Depending upon their radioactive level, liquid waste is either treated by evaporation or discharged after filtration. Solid waste issuing from previous treatments (concentrates, resins, filters) is processed in concrete drums using an encapsulation process. The concrete drum provides biological self-protection consistent with the national and international regulations pertaining to the transport of radioactive substance. Finally, the various low-level radioactive solid waste collected throughout the plant, is compacted into metal drums. Annual estimates of the quantity of effluents (gaseous, liquid) released in the environment and the number of drums (concrete, metal) produced by the plant figure in the conclusion

  15. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the N Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, D.J.; Brendel, D.F.; Shields, K.D.

    1991-11-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP- 0438. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan is the first annual report. It shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated as a minimum every three years. The primary purpose of the N Reactor Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan (FEMP), during standby, is to ensure that the radioactive effluents are properly monitored and evaluated for compliance with the applicable DOE orders and regulatory agencies at the federal, state, and local levels. A secondary purpose of the FEMP is to ensure that hazardous wastes are not released, in liquid effluents, to the environment even though the potential to do so is extremely low. The FEMP is to provide a monitoring system that collects representative samples in accordance with industry standards, performs analyses within stringent quality control (QC) requirements, and evaluates the data through the use of comparative analysis with the standards and acceptable environmental models

  16. Effluent Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effluent guidelines are national standards for wastewater discharges to surface waters and municipal sewage treatment plants. We issue the regulations for industrial categories based on the performance of treatment and control technologies.

  17. Automatic cryogenic liquid level controller is safe for use near combustible substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krejsa, M.

    1966-01-01

    Automatic mechanical liquid level controller that is independent of any external power sources is used with safety in the presence of combustibles. A gas filled capillary tube which leads from a pressurized chamber, is inserted into the cryogenic liquid reservoir and becomes a liquid level sensing element or probe.

  18. Automated system for the safe management of the radioactive wastes and liquid effluents in a Radiopharmaceutical an labelled compounds production center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amador B, Z.H.; Guerra V, R.

    2006-01-01

    The Center of Isotopes of the Republic of Cuba is a radioactive installation of first category that executes the administration of their radioactive waste under authorization of the National Regulatory Authority. The principles of the design and operation of the 'SADR' system for the safe administration of the radioactive waste and liquid effluents are presented. The Visual Basic 6 platform for the programming of the SADR is used and through of their schematic representation, the control flows and of data of the 7 modules that conform it are shown. For each module the functions are described and it presents an image of the corresponding interface. With the SADR its can be carried out the one registration and the upgrade of the inventory of radioactive waste, the planning of those disqualification operations, the annual consolidation of the volumes of waste generated and disqualified, the evaluation of specific and general indicators and the one tendencies analysis. The handling of the system through the intranet allows the enter of data from the operations place with the radioactive wastes. The results of the operation of the SADR show the utility of this work to elevate the efficiency of the administration of the radioactive wastes. (Author)

  19. Radiolytic gas formation in high-level liquid waste solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodda, B.-G.; Dix, Siegfried; Merz, E.R.

    1989-01-01

    High-level fission product waste solutions originating from the first-cycle raffinate stream of spent fast breeder reactor fuel reprocessing have been investigated gas chromatographically for their radiolytic and chemical gas production. The solutions showed considerable formation of hydrogen, carbon dioxide and dinitrogen oxide, whereas atmospheric oxygen was consumed completely within a short time. In particular, carbon dioxide resulted from the radiolytic degradation of entrained organic solvent. After nearly complete degradation of the organic solvent, the influence of hydrazine and nitrogen dioxide on hydrogen formation was investigated. Hydrazinium hydroxide led to the formation of dinitrogen oxide and nitrogen. After 60 d, the concentration of dinitrogen oxide had reduced to zero, whereas the amount of nitrogen formed had reached a maximum. This may be explained by simultaneous chemical and radiolytic reactions leading to the formation of dinitrogen oxide and nitrogen and photolytic fission of dinitrogen oxide. Addition of sodium nitrite resulted in the rapid formation of dinitrogen oxide. The rate of hydrogen production was not changed significantly after the addition of hydrazine or nitrite. The results indicate that under normal operating conditions no dangerous hydrogen radiolysis yields should develop in the course of reprocessing and high-level liquid waste tank storage. Organic entrainment may lead to enhanced radiolytic decomposition and thus to considerable hydrogen production rates and pressure build-up in closed systems. (author)

  20. Supercritical water oxidation test bed effluent treatment study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, C.M.

    1994-04-01

    This report presents effluent treatment options for a 50 h Supercritical Water Test Unit. Effluent compositions are calculated for eight simulated waste streams, using different assumed cases. Variations in effluent composition with different reactor designs and operating schemes are discussed. Requirements for final effluent compositions are briefly reviewed. A comparison is made of two general schemes. The first is one in which the effluent is cooled and effluent treatment is primarily done in the liquid phase. In the second scheme, most treatment is performed with the effluent in the gas phase. Several unit operations are also discussed, including neutralization, mercury removal, and evaporation

  1. Automated system of control of radioactive liquid effluents of patients submitted to therapy in hospitals of nuclear medicine (SACEL); Sistema automatizado de control de efluentes liquidos radiactivos de pacientes sometidos a terapia en hospitales de medicina nuclear (SACEL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz C, M A; Rivero G, T; Celis del Angel, L; Sainz M, E; Molina, G [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    Different hospitals of nuclear medicine require of the technical attendance for the design, construction and instrumentation of an effluents retention system coming from the room dedicated to the medical application of iodine 131, with the one object of giving execution to the normative requirements of radiological protection, settled down in the General Regulation of Radiological Safety (RGSR) emitted by the CNSNS in November, 1988 and in the corresponding official standards. An automatic system of flow measurement, the activity concentration of the effluents to the drainage, the discharges control and the automated report it will allow the execution of the national regulations, also the elimination of unhealthy activities as the taking of samples, analysis of those same and the corresponding paperwork, its will allow that the SACEL is capable of to carry out registrations that are to consult in an automated way. The changes in the demands of the National Commission of Nuclear Safety and Safeguards in relation to the liberation of radioactive material in hospitals by medical treatments, it has created the necessity to develop a system that quantifies and dose the liquid effluents of people under thyroid treatment with iodine-131 to the drainage. The Automated System of Control of radioactive liquids effluents generated in Hospitals of Nuclear Medicine (SACEL) developed in the National Institute of Nuclear Research, it fulfills this regulation, besides improving the work conditions for the medical and technical personnel of the hospital in that are installed, since this system has the advantage of to be totally automated and to require of a minimum of attendance. The SACEL is an electro-hydraulic system of effluents control, based in the alternate operation of two decay deposits of the activity of the material contaminated with iodine-131. The system allows to take a registration of those volumes and liberated dose, besides being able to be monitoring in remote

  2. Study of optimal transformation of liquid effluents resulting from the destruction of radioactive sodium by water into ultimate solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, G.; Camaro, S.; Fiquet, O.; Bernard, A.; Le Bescop, P.

    1997-01-01

    In the framework of sodium waste processing, it has been proposed to retain only processes that treat the sodium using water, thus generating the same by-products: hydrogen and sodium hydroxide. As the objective is to minimise radioactive liquid releases and as, moreover, the authorizations with respect to sodium salt releases are highly restrictive, several solutions have been envisaged for transforming the active sodium hydroxide coming from sodium destruction processes into ultimate solid wastes that can be stored on the surface in a storage site approved by the ANDRA (National Radioactive Waste Management Agency): the Aube Storage Site (CSA). Two processes have been considered and compared: immobilisation in concrete (cementation) and immobilisation in ceramic (ceramisation). These two processes are evaluated according to several criteria: the state of advancement of the process, the quantity of sodium hydroxide (and therefore of sodium) that can be treated per package. (author)

  3. A multi-level biological approach to evaluate impacts of a major municipal effluent in wild St. Lawrence River yellow perch (Perca flavescens)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houde, Magali, E-mail: magali.houde@ec.gc.ca [Centre Saint-Laurent, Environment Canada, 105 McGill Street, Montreal, QC H2Y 2E7 (Canada); Giraudo, Maeva, E-mail: maeva.giraudo@ec.gc.ca [Centre Saint-Laurent, Environment Canada, 105 McGill Street, Montreal, QC H2Y 2E7 (Canada); Douville, Mélanie, E-mail: melanie.douville@ec.gc.ca [Centre Saint-Laurent, Environment Canada, 105 McGill Street, Montreal, QC H2Y 2E7 (Canada); Bougas, Bérénice, E-mail: berenice.bougas.1@ulaval.ca [Institut de biologie intégrative et des systèmes, Université Laval, 1030, avenue de la Médecine, Québec, QC G1V 0A6 (Canada); Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, Centre Eau Terre Environnement, 490 de la Couronne, Québec, QC G1K 9A9 (Canada); Couture, Patrice, E-mail: patrice.couture@ete.inrs.ca [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, Centre Eau Terre Environnement, 490 de la Couronne, Québec, QC G1K 9A9 (Canada); De Silva, Amila O., E-mail: amila.desilva@ec.gc.ca [Canada Centre for Inland Waters, Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Road, P.O. Box 5050, Burlington, ON L7R 4A6 (Canada); Spencer, Christine, E-mail: christine.spencer@ec.gc.ca [Canada Centre for Inland Waters, Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Road, P.O. Box 5050, Burlington, ON L7R 4A6 (Canada); Lair, Stéphane, E-mail: stephane.lair@umontreal.ca [Centre québécois sur la santé des animaux sauvages, Université de Montréal, C.P. 5000, St-Hyacinthe, QC J2S 7C6 (Canada); and others

    2014-11-01

    The development of integrated ecotoxicological approaches is of great interest in the investigation of global concerns such as impacts of municipal wastewater effluents on aquatic ecosystems. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of a major wastewater municipal effluent on fish using a multi-level biological approach, from gene transcription and enzyme activities to histological changes. Yellow perch (Perca flavescens) were selected based on their wide distribution, their commercial and recreational importance, and the availability of a customized microarray. Yellow perch were sampled upstream of a major municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and 4 km and 10 km downstream from its point of discharge in the St. Lawrence River (Quebec, Canada). Concentrations of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and metals/trace elements in whole body homogenates were comparable to those from other industrialized regions of the world. Genomic results indicated that the transcription level of 177 genes was significantly different (p < 0.024) between exposed and non-exposed fish. Among these genes, 38 were found to be differentially transcribed at both downstream sites. Impacted genes were associated with biological processes and molecular functions such as immunity, detoxification, lipid metabolism/energy homeostasis (e.g., peroxisome proliferation), and retinol metabolism suggesting impact of WWTP on these systems. Moreover, antioxidant enzyme activities were more elevated in perch collected at the 4 km site. Biomarkers of lipid metabolism, biosynthetic activity, and aerobic capacities were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in fish residing near the outfall of the effluent. Histological examination of the liver indicated no differences between sites. Correlations between PFAS, PBDE, and metal/trace element tissue concentrations and markers of peroxisomal proliferation, oxidative stress, and retinoid metabolism were found

  4. Effluent standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geisler, G C [Pennsylvania State University (United States)

    1974-07-01

    At the conference there was a considerable interest in research reactor standards and effluent standards in particular. On the program, this is demonstrated by the panel discussion on effluents, the paper on argon 41 measured by Sims, and the summary paper by Ringle, et al. on the activities of ANS research reactor standards committee (ANS-15). As a result, a meeting was organized to discuss the proposed ANS standard on research reactor effluents (15.9). This was held on Tuesday evening, was attended by members of the ANS-15 committee who were present at the conference, participants in the panel discussion on the subject, and others interested. Out of this meeting came a number of excellent suggestions for changes which will increase the utility of the standard, and a strong recommendation that the effluent standard (15.9) be combined with the effluent monitoring standard. It is expected that these suggestions and recommendations will be incorporated and a revised draft issued for comment early this summer. (author)

  5. Concentration of High Level Radioactive Liquid Waste. Basic data acquisition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juvenelle, A.; Masson, M.; Garrido, M.H. [DEN/VRH/DRCP/SCPS/LPCP, BP 17171 - 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze Cedex (France)

    2008-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: In order to enhance its knowledge about the concentration of high level liquid waste (HLLW) from the nuclear fuel reprocessing process, a program of studies was defined by Cea. In a large field of acidity, it proposes to characterize the concentrated solution and the obtained precipitates versus the concentration factor. Four steps are considered: quantification of the salting-out effect on the concentrate acidity, acquisition of solubility data, precipitates characterisation versus the concentration factor through aging tests and concentration experimentation starting from simulated fission products solutions. The first results, reported here, connect the acidity of the concentrated solution to the concentration factor and allow us to precise the field of acidity (4 to 12 N) for the next experiments. In this field, solubility data of various elements (Ba, Sr, Zr...) are separately measured at room temperature, in nitric acid in a first time, then in the presence of various species present in medium (TBP, PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}). The reactions between these various elements are then investigated (formation of insoluble mixed compounds) by following the concentration cations in solution and characterising the precipitates. (authors)

  6. Return and Liquidity Relationships on Market and Accounting Levels in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Perobelli,Fernanda Finotti Cordeiro; Famá,Rubens; Sacramento,Luiz Claudio

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This article discusses profitability-liquidity relationships on accounting and market levels for 872 shares of publicly-traded Brazilian companies, observed between 1994 and 2013. On the market level, the assumption is that share liquidity is able to reduce some of the risks incurred by investors, making them more willing to pay a higher price for liquid shares, which would lower expected market returns. On the accounting level, the basic hypothesis argues that a firm's holding more ...

  7. USERDA effluent data collection and reporting program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elle, D.R.; Schoen, A.A.

    1978-01-01

    Effluent and environmental monitoring has been conducted at United States Energy Research and Development Administration (formerly United States Atomic Energy Commission) facilities and sites virtually since the inception of atomic energy research and development. In 1971, computer systems were developed that permitted storage of information and data characterizing each effluent and onsite discharge point and relevant information on sources, effluent treatment and control systems, and discharge data, and serve as ERDA's computer-based management information systems for compiling waste discharge control and monitoring data on radioactivity released as airborne or liquid effluents or liquid discharges to onsite retention basins at ERDA facilities. The information systems and associated data outputs have proved to be an effective internal management tool for identifying effluent control problem areas and for surveying an agencywide Radioactive Effluent Reduction Program. The trend data facilitate the detection of gradual changes in the effectiveness of waste treatment systems, and errors or oversights in monitoring and data handling. Other computer outputs are useful for identifying effluent release points that have significantly higher or lower concentrations or quantities in the discharge stream than were measured the previous year. The year-to-year trend reports and the extensive computer edit and error checks have improved the reliability of the reported effluent data. Adoption of a uniform, centralized reporting system has improved the understanding and credibility of effluent data, and has allowed management to evaluate the effectiveness of effluent control practices at ERDA facilities. (author)

  8. Partitioning of high level liquid waste: experiences in plant level adoption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manohar, Smitha; Kaushik, C.P.

    2016-01-01

    High Level Radioactive Wastes are presently vitrified in borosilicate matrices in all our back end facilities in our country. This is in accordance with internationally endorsed methodology for the safe management of high level radioactive wastes. Recent advancements in the field of partitioning technology in our group, has presented us with an opportunity to have a fresh perspective on management of high level liquid radioactive wastes streams, that emanate from reprocessing operations. This paper will highlight our experiences with respect to both partitioning studies and vitrification practices, with a focus on waste volume reduction for final disposal. Incorporation of this technique has led to the implementation of the concept of recovering wealth from waste, a marked decrease on the load of disposal in deep geological repositories and serve as a step towards the vision of transmutation of long lived radionuclides

  9. Selection of liquid-level monitoring method for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory inactive liquid low-level waste tanks, remedial investigation/feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    Several of the inactive liquid low-level waste (LLLW) tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory contain residual wastes in liquid or solid (sludge) form or both. A plan of action has been developed to ensure that potential environmental impacts from the waste remaining in the inactive LLLW tank systems are minimized. This document describes the evaluation and selection of a methodology for monitoring the level of the liquid in inactive LLLW tanks. Criteria are established for comparison of existing level monitoring and leak testing methods; a preferred method is selected and a decision methodology for monitoring the level of the liquid in the tanks is presented for implementation. The methodology selected can be used to continuously monitor the tanks pending disposition of the wastes for treatment and disposal. Tanks that are empty, are scheduled to be emptied in the near future, or have liquid contents that are very low risk to the environment were not considered to be candidates for installing level monitoring. Tanks requiring new monitoring equipment were provided with conductivity probes; tanks with existing level monitoring instrumentation were not modified. The resulting data will be analyzed to determine inactive LLLW tank liquid level trends as a function of time

  10. Application Of A Thin Film Evaporator System For Management Of Liquid High-Level Wastes At Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tedeschi, A.R.; Wilson, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    A modular, transportable evaporator system, using thin film evaporative technology, is planned for deployment at the Hanford radioactive waste storage tank complex. This technology, herein referred to as a wiped film evaporator (WFE), will be located at grade level above an underground storage tank to receive pumped liquids, concentrate the liquid stream from 1.1 specific gravity to approximately 1.4 and then return the concentrated solution back into the tank. Water is removed by evaporation at an internal heated drum surface exposed to high vacuum. The condensed water stream will be shipped to the site effluent treatment facility for final disposal. This operation provides significant risk mitigation to failure of the aging 242-A Evaporator facility; the only operating evaporative system at Hanford maximizing waste storage. This technology is being implemented through a development and deployment project by the tank farm operating contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), for the Office of River Protection/Department of Energy (ORP/DOE), through Columbia Energy and Environmental Services, Inc. (Columbia Energy). The project will finalize technology maturity and install a system at one of the double-shell tank farms. This paper discusses results of pre-project pilot-scale testing by Columbia Energy and ongoing technology maturation development scope through fiscal year 2012, including planned additional pilot-scale and full-scale simulant testing and operation with actual radioactive tank waste.

  11. APPLICATION OF A THIN FILM EVAPORATOR SYSTEM FOR MANAGEMENT OF LIQUID HIGH-LEVEL WASTES AT HANFORD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TEDESCHI AR; WILSON RA

    2010-01-14

    A modular, transportable evaporator system, using thin film evaporative technology, is planned for deployment at the Hanford radioactive waste storage tank complex. This technology, herein referred to as a wiped film evaporator (WFE), will be located at grade level above an underground storage tank to receive pumped liquids, concentrate the liquid stream from 1.1 specific gravity to approximately 1.4 and then return the concentrated solution back into the tank. Water is removed by evaporation at an internal heated drum surface exposed to high vacuum. The condensed water stream will be shipped to the site effluent treatment facility for final disposal. This operation provides significant risk mitigation to failure of the aging 242-A Evaporator facility; the only operating evaporative system at Hanford maximizing waste storage. This technology is being implemented through a development and deployment project by the tank farm operating contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), for the Office of River Protection/Department of Energy (ORP/DOE), through Columbia Energy & Environmental Services, Inc. (Columbia Energy). The project will finalize technology maturity and install a system at one of the double-shell tank farms. This paper discusses results of pre-project pilot-scale testing by Columbia Energy and ongoing technology maturation development scope through fiscal year 2012, including planned additional pilot-scale and full-scale simulant testing and operation with actual radioactive tank waste.

  12. Uptake by benthic algae of critical radionuclides to be released in the liquid effluent of the Angra dos Reis Nuclear Power Plant, R.J., Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, J.R.D.

    1982-06-01

    In vitro interaction of benthic algae from the Angra dos Reis region, R.J., Brazil, was studied with critical radionuclides to be released in the liquid effluent of CNAAA (unit I). 137 Cs- 60 Co - and 125 I uptake and loss by Sargassum filipendula, Padina Vickersiae and Acanthophora Spicifera were observed. Biological half-lives and bioaccumulation factors (B.F.) were estimated. Co and I uptake were fast (apparent equilibrium in 3 to 7 days). Cs uptake was slower (2 to 3 weeks). Loss followed an inverse pattern (fast for Cs, slow for Co and I). B.F. ranged from 10 1 for Cs, to 10 3 for I and 10 3 -10 4 for Co. Higher B.F. for Co and I were found for P. vickersiae (up to 1,4 X 10 4 ) an A. spicifera (up to 7 X 10 3 ) respectively. These species represent important potential media for the transference of Co-I-and-to a much lesser extent - Cs isotopes, through food-webs. They exhibited high capacity to compete with local sandy sediments for the retention of Co and I. High B.F., rapid uptake and moderate to long biological half-lives enable S. filipendula, P. vickersiae and A. specifera to be powerful aids in the monitoring of radioactive contamination by Co and I isotopes. Since the majority of marine organisms tends to exhibit Cs B.F. similars to those reported here, these algae may also be used as monitors for Cs isotopes, the low B.F. being compensated by their abundance, wide distribution and facility of collection. (M.A.) [pt

  13. Hepatic retinoid levels in seven fish species (teleosts) from a tropical coastal lagoon receiving effluents from iron-ore mining and processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Adriana A; van Hattum, Bert; Brouwer, Abraham

    2012-02-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the possible effects of Fe and trace element exposure on hepatic levels of retinoids in seven fish species. Concentrations of retinoids were measured in fish collected from a coastal lagoon in Brazil that receives effluents from an iron-ore mining and processing plant. Fish from nearby coastal lagoons were also included to assess possible differences related to chemical exposure. Results indicated considerable differences in hepatic retinoid composition among the various species investigated. The most striking differences were in retinol and derivative-specific profiles and in didehydro retinol and derivative-specific profiles. The Perciformes species Geophagus brasiliensis, Tilapia rendalli, Mugil liza, and Cichla ocellaris and the Characiforme Hoplias malabaricus were characterized as retinol and derivative-specific, while the Siluriformes species Hoplosternum littorale and Rhamdia quelen were didehydro retinol and derivative-specific fish species. A negative association was observed between Al, Pb, As, and Cd and hepatic didehydro retinoid levels. Fish with higher levels of hepatic Fe, Cu, and Zn showed unexpectedly significant positive correlations with increased hepatic retinol levels. This finding, associated with the positive relationships between retinol and retinyl palmitate with lipid peroxidation, may suggest that vitamin A is mobilized from other tissues to increase hepatic antioxidant levels for protection against oxidative damage. These data show significant but dissimilar associations between trace element exposure and hepatic retinoid levels in fish species exposed to iron-ore mining and processing effluents, without apparent major impacts on fish health and condition. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  14. Delisting petition for 300-M saltstone (treated F006 sludge) from the 300-M liquid effluent treatment facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-04-04

    This petition seeks exclusion for stabilized and solidified sludge material generated by treatment of wastewater from the 300-M aluminum forming and metal finishing processes. The waste contains both hazardous and radioactive components and is classified as a mixed waste. The objective of this petition is to demonstrate that the stabilized sludge material (saltstone), when properly disposed, will not exceed the health-based standards for the hazardous constituents. This petition contains sampling and analytical data which justify the request for exclusion. The results show that when the data are applied to the EPA Vertical and Horizontal Spread (VHS) Model, health-based standards for all hazardous waste constituents will not be exceeded during worst case operating and environmental conditions. Disposal of the stabilized sludge material in concrete vaults will meet the requirements pertaining to Waste Management Activities for Groundwater Protection at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, S.C. Documents set forth performance objectives and disposal options for low-level radioactive waste disposal. Concrete vaults specified for disposal of 300-M saltstone (treated F006 sludge) assure that these performance objectives will be met.

  15. Design, Development and Testing of a Semi Cylindrical Capacitive Sensor for Liquid Level Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagarika PAL

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper a low cost noncontact semi cylindrical capacitive type liquid level sensor has been designed, developed and tested. The semi cylindrical capacitive sensor consisting of two thin semi cylindrical metal plates separated by a gap distance and mounted around a non conducting storage tank, has been used to measure the liquid level in the tank. The measured capacitance variation with variation of liquid level is linear and obtained in the nano farad range which again has been converted into voltage variation by using proper signal conditioning circuit. Since the sensor is noncontact type it can be used for both conducting and non conducting type of liquid contained within a non conducting tank. For converting the capacitance variation in to voltage variation a series R-L-C resonating circuit has been used instead of conventional bridge circuit. Experimental results confirm the satisfactory performance of the sensor for liquid level measurement.

  16. Return and Liquidity Relationships on Market and Accounting Levels in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Finotti Cordeiro Perobelli

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This article discusses profitability-liquidity relationships on accounting and market levels for 872 shares of publicly-traded Brazilian companies, observed between 1994 and 2013. On the market level, the assumption is that share liquidity is able to reduce some of the risks incurred by investors, making them more willing to pay a higher price for liquid shares, which would lower expected market returns. On the accounting level, the basic hypothesis argues that a firm's holding more liquid assets is related to a conservative investment policy, possibly reducing accounting returns for shareholders. Under the assumption of financial constraint, however, more accounting liquidity would allow positive net present value investments to be carried out, increasing future accounting returns, which would positively affect market liquidity and share prices in an efficient market, resulting in a lower market risk/expected return premium. Under the assumption of no financial constraint, however, more accounting liquidity would only represent a carry cost, compromising future accounting returns, which would adversely affect market liquidity and share prices and result in a higher market risk/expected return premium. Among the hypotheses, the presence of a negative market liquidity premium was verified in Brazil, with shares that traded more exhibiting a higher expected market return. On the margins of the major theories on the subject, only two negative relationships between excess accounting liquidity and market liquidity and accounting return, supporting the carry cost assumption for financially unconstrained firms, were verified. In terms of this paper's contributions, there is the analysis, unprecedented in Brazil as far as is known, of the relationship between liquidity and return on market and accounting levels, considering the financial constraint hypothesis to which the firms are subject.

  17. Competition, liquidity and stability: international evidence at the bank and systemic levels

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Thi Ngoc My

    2017-01-01

    This thesis investigates the impact of market power on bank liquidity; the association between competition and systemic liquidity; and whether the associations between liquidity and stability at both bank- and systemic- levels are affected by competition. The first research question is explored in the context of 101 countries over 1996-2013 while the second and the third, which require listed banks, use a smaller sample of 32 nations during 2001-2013. The Panel Least Squares and the system Ge...

  18. A high recovery membrane process for purification of low-level radioactive liquid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Samadi, R. [Ontario Power Generation, Pickering, Ontario (Canada); Davloor, R.; Harper, B., E-mail: ram.davloor@brucepower.com [Bruce Power, Tiverton, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    An advanced Active Liquid Waste Treatment System (ALWTS) was designed placed in-service at the Bruce Nuclear Generating Station 'A' in 1999. As part of this unique system an innovative high recovery reverse osmosis system (ROS) was installed to concentrate the contaminants into a small retentate stream that can be processed on-site or sent off-site for disposal. The permeate is discharged to the lake. The overall permeate recovery of the system is greater than 98%. This patented system which saw its first commercial application at the station has now operated continuously for over thirteen years. It has enabled the ALWTS to consistently produce high quality effluent that exceeds environmental discharge limits. This paper discusses the high recovery membrane process its unique design features aimed at minimizing the volume of rejects its separation performance operating history. (author)

  19. A high recovery membrane process for purification of low-level radioactive liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Samadi, R.; Davloor, R.; Harper, B.

    2013-01-01

    An advanced Active Liquid Waste Treatment System (ALWTS) was designed placed in-service at the Bruce Nuclear Generating Station 'A' in 1999. As part of this unique system an innovative high recovery reverse osmosis system (ROS) was installed to concentrate the contaminants into a small retentate stream that can be processed on-site or sent off-site for disposal. The permeate is discharged to the lake. The overall permeate recovery of the system is greater than 98%. This patented system which saw its first commercial application at the station has now operated continuously for over thirteen years. It has enabled the ALWTS to consistently produce high quality effluent that exceeds environmental discharge limits. This paper discusses the high recovery membrane process its unique design features aimed at minimizing the volume of rejects its separation performance operating history. (author)

  20. Study on Calculation of Liquid Level And Storage of Tanks for LNG-fueled Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun; Wang, Guoqing; Liu, Chang

    2018-01-01

    As the ongoing development of the application of LNG as a clean energy in waterborne transport industry, the fleet scale of LNG-fueled vessels enlarged and the safety operation has attracted more attention in the industry. Especially the accurate detection of liquid level of LNG tanks is regarded as an important issue to ensure a safe and stable operation of LNG-fueled ships and a key parameter to keep the proper functioning of marine fuel storage system, supply system and safety control system. At present, detection of LNG tank liquid level mainly adopts differential pressure detection method. Liquid level condition could be found from the liquid level reference tables. However in practice, since LNG-fueled vessels are generally not in a stationary state, liquid state within the LNG tanks will constantly change, the detection of storage of tanks only by reference to the tables will cause deviation to some extent. By analyzing the temperature under different pressure, the effects of temperature change on density and volume integration calculation, a method of calculating the liquid level and storage of LNG tanks is put forward making the calculation of liquid level and actual storage of LNG tanks more accurately and providing a more reliable basis for the calculation of energy consumption level and operation economy for LNG-fueled vessels.

  1. Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamines in Electronic Cigarettes: Comparison between Liquid and Aerosol Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos E. Farsalinos

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although electronic cigarette (EC liquids contain low levels of tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs, studies evaluating the levels emitted to the aerosol are scarce. The purpose of this study was to compare the levels of TSNAs between liquids and generated aerosol. Methods: Three EC liquids were obtained from the market. An additional (spiked sample was prepared by adding known amounts of standard TSNAs solutions to one of the obtained liquids. N-nitrosonornicotine (NNN, N-nitrosoanatabine (NAT, N-nitrosoanabasine (NAB and 4-(methylnitrosamino1-(3-pyridyl-1-butanone (NNK were measured. Three 100-puff sets from each liquid were trapped in filter pads and were subsequently analyzed for the presence of TSNAs. The expected levels of TSNAs (calculated based on the liquid consumption were compared with the measured levels in the aerosol. Results: Only NAB was found at trace levels in two commercial liquids (1.2 and 2.3 ng/g, while the third contained 1.5 ng/g NAB and 7.7 ng/g NNN. The 100-puff sets resulted in 336–515 mg liquid consumption, with no TSNAs being detected in the aerosol. The spiked sample contained 42.0–53.9 ng/g of each of the TSNAs. All TSNAs were detected in the aerosol with the measured levels being statistically similar to the expected amounts. A significant correlation between expected and measured levels of TSNAs in the aerosol was found (r = 0.83, p < 0.001. Conclusion: The findings of this study show that exposure of EC users to TSNAs can be accurately assessed based on the levels present in the liquid, without the need to analyze the aerosol.

  2. High performance liquid-level sensor based on mPOFBG for aircraft applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marques, C. A. F.; Pospori, A.; Saez-Rodriguez, D.

    2015-01-01

    A high performance liquid-level sensor based on microstructured polymer optical fiber Bragg grating (mPOFBG) array sensors is reported in detail. The sensor sensitivity is found to be 98pm/cm of liquid, enhanced by more than a factor of 9 compared to a reported silica fiber-based sensor....

  3. Operability test procedure for the TK-900 effluent monitoring station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissenfels, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    This procedure will verify that the 221-B liquid effluent monitoring system, installed near the east end of the 6-in. chemical sewer header, functions as intended by design. TK-900B was installed near stairwell 3 in the 221-B electrical gallery by Project W-007H. The system is part of BAT/AKART for the BCE liquid effluent system

  4. Solvency and Liquidity Level Trade-off: Does it Exist in Croatian Banking Sector?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kundid Novokmet Ana

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We focus on 32 Croatian banks in the period 2002-2010 in order to investigate the solvency-liquidity nexus. Dynamic panel data analysis is applied on two basic models in which current liquidity ratio and equity to assets ratio are set as dependent variables, interchangeably, and other explanatory variables employed to capture the effect of bank size, profitability and asset quality as well as macroeconomic environment. We found two-way positive relationship between bank solvency and liquidity. However, bank size plays an important role in the capital and liquidity management, and trade-off between the solvency and liquidity level is found for the larger banks. Therefore, policymakers should take into consideration capital and liquidity interdependence, as well as the bank size effect when designing capital and liquidity requirements in order to downsize the regulatory burden for smaller banks, and increase them for larger banks. Namely, larger banks tend to minimize regulatory costs by avoiding simultaneous increase of liquidity and solvency. Small banks do exactly the opposite and stock both, capital and liquidity, what potentially makes their funds allocation sub-optimal, from their own as well as social point of view. Altogether, the paper contributes to scarce empirical evidence regarding bank solvency and liquidity interdependence, particularly when the post-transitional banking sectors are taken into consideration. It adds to knowledge on bank financial management in praxis, and bank managers and prudential authorities might find it relevant for their policies design and implementation.

  5. Low-level liquid waste decontamination by inorganic ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, D.O.; Lee, D.D.; Dillow, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    Improved processes are being developed to treat contaminated liquid wastes that have been and continue to be generated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The most serious contaminants are 137 Cs and 90 Sr, and certain inorganic ion-exchange material have given promising results. Nickel and cobalt hexacyanoferrate (II) compounds are extremely selective for cesium removal, with distribution coefficients in excess of 10 6 even in the presence of high cesium and moderate potassium concentrations. Sodium titanate is selective for strontium removal from solutions with high alkali metal concentrations, especially at high pH. These separations are so efficient that one or two stages of simple, batch separation can yield large DFs (∼10 4 ) while still generating small volumes of solid waste

  6. Low-level liquid waste decontamination by organic ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.D.; Campbell, D.O.; Dillow, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    Improved processes are being developed to treat contaminated liquid wastes that have been and continue to be generated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Promising results have been obtained for cesium removal with a new resorcinol-based organic resin developed at the Savannah River Site. In tests of cesium removal, it was superior to other available resins, such as Duolite CS-100, with the distribution coefficient being limited primarily by competition from potassium and nearly independent of the sodium concentration. The optimum pH was approximately 12.5 in high NaNO 3 concentrations (>2 M). A fairly low flow velocity was required to yield sharp breakthrough of the loaded cesium. The resin was much less effective for strontium removal, which was limited by competition from sodium. If both cesium and strontium must be removed, another resin column or a mixed bed with a chelating resin should be used

  7. 40 CFR 417.163 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Liquid Detergents Subcategory § 417.163 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree... subpart after application of the best available technology economically achievable: (a) For normal liquid...

  8. Separation of 99Tc from low level radioactive liquid waste using anion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonar, N.L.; Mittal, V.K.; Dhara, Amrita; Thakur, D.A.; Valsala, T.P.; Vishwaraj, I.

    2016-01-01

    Technetium-99 is one of the fission products with very high yield (∼6%) in thermal neutron induced fission of 235 U. 99 Tc exists as pertechnate ( 99 TcO 4 ) ion in reprocessing streams. The high solubility in water and high mobility of pertechnate ions, coupled with very high half life of 99 Tc (t1/2 = 2 × 105 y, âmax = 290 KeV) makes it a potential candidate for long term hazard to the environment. Major radionuclides present in the intermediate level waste (ILW) generated at reprocessing plant is conventionally treated by ion exchange method for removal of 137 Cs. The Low level effluent waste (LLW) from the IX column contains 99 Tc as a major isotope. Though the concentration of 99 Tc in the waste is in ppm level, the presence of molar level of competing nitrates makes its separation very difficult. Many efforts have been reported on selective separation of 99 Tc from various waste streams. In this paper, separation of 99 Tc from ion exchange column effluent waste stream using selected commercially available anion exchange resins has been detailed

  9. Order of 21 October 1988 withdrawing the licence for the release of liquid radioactive effluents by the Cattenom nuclear production centre (units 1 and 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Court of Justice of the European Communities decided on 22 September 1988 that the Commission of the European Communities had to be notified and give its opinion before the competent authorities of Member States authorised the release of radioactive effluents from a nuclear installation. In compliance with that judgment, this Order repeals an Order of 21 February 1986 licensing such release (NEA) [fr

  10. Six-year experiences in the operation of a low level liquid waste treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, S.-J.; Hwang, S.-L.; Tsai, C.-M.

    1980-01-01

    The operation of a low level liquid waste treatment plant is described. The plant is designed for the disposal of liquid waste produced primarily by a 40 MW Taiwan Research Reactor as well as a fuel fabrication plant for the CANDU type reactor and a radioisotopes production laboratory. The monthly volume treated is about 600-2500 ton of low level liquid waste. The activity levels are in the range of 10 -5 -10 -3 μCi/cm 3 . The continuous treatment system of the low level liquid waste treatment plant and the treatment data collected since 1973 are discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of continuous and batch processes are compared. In the continuous process, the efficiency of sludge treatment, vermiculite ion exchange and the adsorption of peat are investigated for further improvement. (H.K.)

  11. Development of a test system for high level liquid waste partitioning

    OpenAIRE

    Duan Wu H.; Chen Jing; Wang Jian C.; Wang Shu W.; Wang Xing H.

    2015-01-01

    The partitioning and transmutation strategy has increasingly attracted interest for the safe treatment and disposal of high level liquid waste, in which the partitioning of high level liquid waste is one of the critical technical issues. An improved total partitioning process, including a tri-alkylphosphine oxide process for the removal of actinides, a crown ether strontium extraction process for the removal of strontium, and a calixcrown ether cesium extra...

  12. Low-level flow counting of liquid chromatography column eluates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harding, N.G.L.; Farid, Y.; Stewart, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    The principal parameters which determine the operation of a high-resolution, high-sensitivity radioactive flow monitor are described: a) Sample preparation to ensure adequate recovery of radiolabelled sample, metabolites and internal standard. b) The instrument background count rate, when no sample or radiolabel is present in the flow cell, is a function of shielding and a reduction in noise obtained with a coincidence time below one microsecond. c) The minimum detectable amount of label depends upon the machine background, HPLC eluent and scintillator flow, whether or not packed flow cells are used, flow cell geometry, and the scintillator used. d) Three types of flow cell have been designed to cover the majority of HPLC and isotope applications. e) The performance of solid and liquid scintillators. It is shown that an instrument has been designed taking account of these parameters. The resulting design satisfies present high sensitivity counting requirements and maintains the resolution of current HPLC procedures when detection is by simultaneous flow radioassay and by optical methods. (orig.)

  13. Low-level liquid waste decontamination by ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, D.O.; Lee, D.D.; Dillow, T.A.

    1991-12-01

    Improved processes are being developed to treat contaminated liquid wastes that have been and continue to be generated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Both inorganic and organic ion-exchange methods have given promising results. Nickel and cobalt hexacyanoferrate(2) compounds are extremely selective for cesium removal, with distribution coefficients in excess of 10 6 and remarkable insensitivity to competition from sodium and potassium. They tend to lose effectiveness at pH > ∼11, but some formulations are useful for limited periods of time up to pH ∼13. Sodium titanate is selective for strontium removal at high pH. The separations are so efficient that simple batch processes can yield large decontamination factors while generating small volumes of solid waste. A resorcinol-based resin developed at the Savannah River Site gave superior cesium removal, compared with other organic ion exchangers; the distribution coefficient was limited primarily by competition from potassium and was nearly independent of sodium. The optimum pH was ∼12.5. It was much less effective for strontium removal, which was limited by competition from sodium. 8 refs., 6 figs., 9 tabs

  14. A Float Type Liquid Level Measuring System Using a Modified Inductive Transducer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samik MARICK

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Float type liquid level sensor is generally used as a very simple technique for local level indication and level switching. In the present paper a technique has been proposed to transmit the measured liquid level signal of a float type sensor at remote terminal using a modified differential inductance type electromechanical transducer. The theoretical characteristic equation of this transducer has been derived. A prototype unit of the transducer has been developed and fabricated and its performance characteristic has been experimentally determined. The experimental results are reported in the paper. From experimental data, a very good linear characteristic of the proposed level transducer has been observed.

  15. Risk comparison of different treatment and disposal strategies of high level liquid radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Dong

    1997-01-01

    The risk of different treatment and disposal strategies of high level liquid radioactive waste from spent fuel reprocessing is estimated and compared. The conclusions obtained are that risk difference from these strategies is very small and high level liquid waste can be reduced to middle and low level waste, if the decontamination factor for 99 Tc is large enough, which is the largest risk contributor in the high level radioactive waste from spent fuel reprocessing. It is also shown that the risk of high level radioactive waste could be reduced by the technical strategy of combining partitioning and transmutation

  16. Separation of aromatic precipitates from simulated high level radioactive waste by hydrolysis, evaporation and liquid-liquid extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, S.R.; Shah, H.B.; Carter, J.T.

    1991-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the SRS will be the United States' first facility to process High Level radioactive Waste (HLW) into a borosilicate glass matrix. The removal of aromatic precipitates by hydrolysis, evaporation and liquid-liquid extraction will be a key step in the processing of the HLW. This step, titled the Precipitate Hydrolysis Process, has been demonstrated by the Savannah River Laboratory with the Precipitate Hydrolysis Experimental Facility (PHEF). The mission of the PHEF is to demonstrate processing of simulated high level radioactive waste which contains tetraphenylborate precipitates and nitrite. Reduction of nitrite by hydroxylamine nitrate and hydrolysis of the tetraphenylborate by formic acid is discussed. Gaseous production, which is primarily benzene, nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide, has been quantified. Production of high-boiling organic compounds and the accumulation of these organic compounds within the process are addressed

  17. Design of a cement-based formulation for the conditioning of a NaNO3-rich intermediate-level long-lived radioactive effluent using a surrogate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppens, E.; Antonucci, P.; Cau dit Coumes, C.

    2015-01-01

    Since the immobilization of concentrates in a bituminous matrix has been abandoned in Belgium in the late nineties, CEA and ONDRAF/NIRAS recently started developing an alternative conditioning technique for a historic radioactive effluent, rich in NaNO 3 . Multiple ways of treatment - in the domain of homogeneous cementation - were tested on a non-radioactive simulant of this aqueous waste stream, but due to its very low pH (∼ 0), the solution has to be neutralized to a higher pH in order to make it more compatible with general hydraulic binders. Therefore the research started by looking for a suitable base (i.e. KOH, NaOH or Ca(OH) 2 ) to neutralize the stream. Due to the formation of a viscous gel in different pH-domains, the resulting neutralization curve was separated in multiple areas of interest, i.e. those areas resulting in a highly liquid, water-like product. Only in a next step the research focused on selecting a suitable hydraulic binder (e.g. OPC, blended cement (OPC / blast-furnace slag with high contents of slag), KOH-activated slag, Fondu calcium aluminate cement). In a third step, two final formulations were established taking into account the specifications for grout implementation at industrial scale and further management of the waste packages. (authors)

  18. Measurements of 222Rn and 226Ra Levels in environmental samples by using liquid scintillation counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moustafa, A.S.

    2004-01-01

    The advantageous of liquid scintillation counting technique for 6 Ra determination compared with other methods are the high counting efficiency and the easier sample preparation, with no need for sample pre-concentration. In this work, liquid scintillation counting system was used to measure 222 Rn and 226 Ra levels in environmental samples. The liquid scintillation cocktail was prepared in the laboratory and was found efficient for measuring 222 Rn. Soil, sediment and TENORM samples were dried, grind, sieved and added to hydrochloric acid, in a standard scintillation vial, preloaded with the liquid scintillation cocktail. By measuring 222 Rn levels in the prepared vials, at different intervals of time after preparation, 222 Rn and 226 Ra levels were determined

  19. Numerical simulation on stir system of jet ballast in high level liquid waste storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Yingchun

    2012-01-01

    The stir system of jet ballast in high level liquid waste storage tank was simulation object. Gas, liquid and solid were air, sodium nitrate liquor and titanium whitening, respectively. The mathematic model based on three-fluid model and the kinetic theory of particles was established for the stir system of jet ballast in high level liquid waste storage tank. The CFD commercial software was used for solving this model. The detail flow parameters as three phase velocity, pressure and phase loadings were gained. The calculated results agree with the experimental results, so they can well define the flow behavior in the tank. And this offers a basic method for the scale-up and optimization design of the stir system of jet ballast in high level liquid waste storage tank. (author)

  20. Optical Mass Gauging System for Measuring Liquid Levels in a Reduced Gravity Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullenberger, Ryan M.; Munoz, Wesley M.; Lyon, Matt P.; Vogel, Kenny; Yalin, Azer P.; Korman, Valentin; Polzin, Kurt A.

    2010-01-01

    A compact and rugged fiber-coupled liquid volume sensor designed for flight on a sounding rocket platform is presented. The sensor consists of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer capable of measuring the amount of liquid contained in a tank under any gravitational conditions, including a microgravity environment, by detecting small changes in the index of refraction of the gas contained within a sensing region. By monitoring changes in the interference fringe pattern as the system undergoes a small compression provided by a piston, the ullage volume of a tank can be directly measured allowing for a determination of the liquid volume. To demonstrate the technique, data are acquired using two tanks containing different volumes of liquid, which are representative of the levels of liquid in a tank at different time periods during a mission. The two tanks are independently exposed to the measurement apparatus, allowing for a determination of the liquid level in each. In a controlled, laboratory test of the unit, the system demonstrated a capability of measuring a liquid level in an individual tank of 10.53 mL with a 2% error. The overall random uncertainty for the flight system is higher than that one test, at +/- 1.5 mL.

  1. Denitration and chemical precipitation of medium level liquid wastes and conditioning of high level wastes from low level liquid wastes by a roll dryer and subsequent vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halaszovich, S.; Dix, S.; Harms, R.

    1987-01-01

    Medium level liquid waste (MAW) from the reprocessing need after being fixed in cement an additional shielding to meet required radiation limits for handling and transportation. Normally this shielding consists of concrete and its weight and volume is several times higher than that of the waste product itself. By means of caesium separation using nickel-potassium-hexacyanoferrate and after few years of interim storage waiting for the decay of Ruthenium and Antimony the activities will be reduced below permissible values. (13 MBq/l in waste solution for Cs, 28 MBq/l for Sb and 34 MBq/l for Ru). Below these limits there is no need for additional shielding after cementation in a 400 l drum. Experimental results show, that Caesium can be precipitated and separated effectively not only in laboratory but also in a larger scale under hot cell conditions. The process investigated in this work has been developed from the FIPS process for vitrification of highly radioactive fission product solutions. It consists of: denitration, precipitation, sludge separation, drying and melting

  2. Low level radioactive liquid waste treatment at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, R.A.; Lasher, L.C.

    1977-01-01

    A new Process Waste Treatment Plant has been constructed at ORNL. The wastes are processed through a precipitation-clarification step and then through an ion exchange step to remove the low-level activity in the waste before discharge into White Oak Creek

  3. Ichthyofauna community from Saco de Piraquara de Fora area by the influence of liquid effluents from the Almirante Alvaro Alberto Nuclear Power in Angra dos Reis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, A.F.V. de

    1995-01-01

    To verify if thermal and chemical effluents of Angra I Nuclear Power Plant are affecting the marine ictiofauna, Furnas Centrais Eletricas S.A. has implemented a monitoring program near the discharge area. Specific composition, frequency, specific relative abundance, specific diversity and others parameters are studied. The main target of this study is to check if the analyzed parametrers show any kind of impact on fish population. In this paper the results were presented. (author). 7 refs, 3 figs, 3 tabs

  4. Radiation protection at the RA reactor in 1984, Part III Removal of the liquid radioactive effluents for the needs of the RA reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandic, M.; Plecas, I.; Vukovic, Z.; Knezevic, Lj.; Jankovic, O.; Kostadinovic, A.; Mihailovic, B.

    1984-01-01

    Contaminated water originates from: hot cells, heavy water distillation device, storage pools for cooling and cutting of fuel elements, water biological shield of the reactor. During 1984, 400 liters of water contaminated by 60 Co was treated. Most recent measurements showed that the VR-1 pool contains 280 m 3 of effluents having specific activity of 3.3 10 4 Bq/ml, and VR-2 contains 30 m 3 with specific activity of 4 10 3 Bq/ml

  5. Programmable System-on-Chip (PSoC) Embedded Readout Designs for Liquid Helium Level Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parasakthi, C; Gireesan, K; Usha Rani, R; Sheela, O K; Janawadkar, M P

    2014-08-01

    This article reports the development of programmable system-on-chip (PSoC)-based embedded readout designs for liquid helium level sensors using resistive liquid vapor discriminators. The system has been built for the measurement of liquid helium level in a concave-bottomed, helmet-shaped, fiber-reinforced plastic cryostat for magnetoencephalography. This design incorporates three carbon resistors as cost-effective sensors, which are mounted at desired heights inside the cryostat and were used to infer the liquid helium level by measuring their temperature-dependent resistance. Localized electrical heating of the carbon resistors was used to discriminate whether the resistor is immersed in liquid helium or its vapor by exploiting the difference in the heat transfer rates in the two environments. This report describes a single PSoC chip for the design and development of a constant current source to drive the three carbon resistors, a multiplexer to route the sensor outputs to the analog-to-digital converter (ADC), a buffer to avoid loading of the sensors, an ADC for digitizing the data, and a display using liquid crystal display cum light-emitting diode modules. The level sensor readout designed with a single PSoC chip enables cost-effective and reliable measurement system design. © 2014 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  6. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the 325 Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Applied Chemistry Laboratory (325 Facility) houses radiochemistry research, radioanalytical service, radiochemical process development, and hazardous and mixed hazardous waste treatment activities. The laboratories and specialized facilities enable work ranging from that with nonradioactive materials to work with picogram to kilogram quantities of fissionable materials and up to megacurie quantities of other radionuclides. The special facilities include two shielded hot-cell areas that provide for process development or analytical chemistry work with highly radioactive materials, and a waste treatment facility for processing hazardous, mixed, low-level, and transuranic wastes generated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Radioactive material storage and usage occur throughout the facility and include a large number of isotopes. This material is in several forms, including solid, liquid, particulate, and gas. Some of these materials are also heated during testing which can produce vapors. The research activities have been assigned to the following activity designations: High-Level Hot Cell, Hazardous Waste Treatment Unit, Waste Form Development, Special Testing Projects, Chemical Process Development, Analytical Hot Cell, and Analytical Chemistry. The following summarizes the airborne and liquid effluents and the results of the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan (FEMP) determination for the facility. The complete monitoring plan includes characterization of effluent streams, monitoring/sampling design criteria, a description of the monitoring systems and sample analysis, and quality assurance requirements

  7. Environmental and Effluent Monitoring at ANSTO Sites, 2002-2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, E L; Ferris,; Markich, S J

    2004-10-01

    This report presents the results of environmental and effluent monitoring at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre (LHSTC) and the National Medical Cyclotron (NMC) from January 2002 to June 2003. Potential effective dose rates to the general public from airborne discharges from the LHSTC site were less than 0.01 mSv/year, well below the 1 mSv/year dose rate limit for long term exposure that is recommended by the Australian National Occupational Health and Safety Commission. The effective dose rates to hypothetical individuals potentially exposed to radiation in routine liquid effluent discharges from the LHSTC were recently calculated to be less than 0.001 mSv/year. This is much less than dose rates estimated for members of public potentially exposed to airborne emissions. The levels of tritium detected in roundwater and stormwater at the LHSTC were less than the Australian drinking water guidelines. The airborne and liquid effluent emissions from the NMC were below the ARPANSA-approved notification levels and NSW EPA limits, respectively. ANSTO's routine operations at the LHSTC and the NMC make only a very small addition to the natural background radiation dose experienced by members of the Australian public. (authors)

  8. Design and operation of off-gas cleaning systems at high level liquid waste conditioning facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The immobilization of high level liquid wastes from the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuels is of great interest and serious efforts are being undertaken to find a satisfactory technical solution. Volatilization of fission product elements during immobilization poses the potential for the release of radioactive substances to the environment and necessitates effective off-gas cleaning systems. This report describes typical off-gas cleaning systems used in the most advanced high level liquid waste immobilization plants and considers most of the equipment and components which can be used for the efficient retention of the aerosols and volatile contaminants. In the case of a nuclear facility consisting of several different facilities, release limits are generally prescribed for the nuclear facility as a whole. Since high level liquid waste conditioning (calcination, vitrification, etc.) facilities are usually located at fuel reprocessing sites (where the majority of the high level liquid wastes originates), the off-gas cleaning system should be designed so that the airborne radioactivity discharge of the whole site, including the emission of the waste conditioning facility, can be kept below the permitted limits. This report deals with the sources and composition of different kinds of high level liquid wastes and describes briefly the main high level liquid waste solidification processes examining the sources and characteristics of the off-gas contaminants to be retained by the off-gas cleaning system. The equipment and components of typical off-gas systems used in the most advanced (large pilot or industrial scale) high level liquid waste solidification plants are described. Safety considerations for the design and safe operation of the off-gas systems are discussed. 60 refs, 31 figs, 17 tabs

  9. Cross flow filtration of Oak Ridge National Laboratory liquid low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, V.L.; Hewitt, J.D.

    1989-12-01

    A new method for disposal of Oak Ridge National Laboratory liquid low-level radioactive waste is being developed as an alternative to hydrofracture. The acceptability of the final waste form rests in part on the presence or absence of transuranic (TRU) isotopes. Inertial cross flow filtration was used in this study to determine the potential of this method for separation of the TRU isotopes from the bulk liquid stored in the Melton Valley Storage Tanks. 7 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs

  10. Status of the NA62 liquid krypton electromagnetic calorimeter Level 0 trigger processor

    CERN Document Server

    Bonaiuto, V; Fucci, A; Paoluzzi, G; Salamon, A; Salina, G; Santovetti, E; Sargeni, F; Venditti, S

    2013-01-01

    The NA62 experiment at the CERN SPS aims to measure the Branching Ratio of the very rare kaon decay K(+)→π(+)νbar nu collecting O(100) events with a 10% background in two years of data taking. To reject the K(+)→π(+)π(0) background the NA48 liquid krypton calorimeter will be used in the 1-10 mrad angular region. The status of the Liquid Krypton Electromagnetic Calorimeter Level 0 Trigger is presented.

  11. RIBE at an inter-organismic level: A study on genotoxic effects in Daphnia magna exposed to waterborne uranium and a uranium mine effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, P; Lourenço, J; Carvalho, F P; Oliveira, J; Malta, M; Mendo, S; Pereira, R

    2018-05-01

    The induction of RIBE (Radiation Induced Bystander Effect) is a non-target effect of low radiation doses that has already been verified at an inter-organismic level in fish and small mammals. Although the theoretical impact in the field of environmental risk assessment (ERA) is possible, there is a gap of knowledge regarding this phenomenon in invertebrate groups and following environmentally relevant exposures. To understand if RIBE should be considered for ERA of radionuclide-rich wastewaters, we exposed Daphnia magna (uranium mine effluent for 48 h, and to a matching dose of waterborne uranium (55.3 μg L -1 ). Then the exposed organisms were placed (24 and 48 h) in a clean medium together with non-exposed neonates. The DNA damage observed for the non-exposed organisms was statistically significant after the 24 h cohabitation for both uranium (neonates p = 0.002; 5 d-old daphnids p = uranium mine effluent exposure (only for neonates p = 0.042). After 48 h cohabitation significant results were obtained only for uranium exposure (neonates p = 0.017; 5 d-old daphnids p = 0.013). Although there may be some variability associated to age and exposure duration, the significant DNA damage detected in non-exposed organisms clearly reveals the occurrence of RIBE in D. magna. The data obtained and here presented are a valuable contribution for the discussion about the relevance of RIBE for environmental risk assessment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. State-of-the-art for liquid-level measurements applied to in-vessel coolant level for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    The TMI-2 accident indicated that a direct indication of the liquid level in the reactor vessel would have told the operators that the core was being uncovered. This state-of-the-cost survey covered the following methods: heated thermocouple, differential pressure, ultrasonic, capacitance, microwave, time-domain reflectometry, and externally mounted radiation detectors

  13. Development of the liquid level meters for the PandaX dark matter detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Jie; Gong Haowei; Lin Qing; Ni Kaixuan; Wei Yuehuan; Xiao Mengjiao; Xiao Xiang; Zhao Li; Tan Andi

    2014-01-01

    The two-phase xenon detector is at the frontier of dark matter direct search. This kind of detector uses liquid xenon as the sensitive target and is operated in two-phase (liquid/gas) mode, where the liquid level needs to be monitored and controlled in sub-millimeter precision. In this paper, we present a detailed design and study of two kinds of level meters for the PandaX dark matter detector. The long level meter is used to monitor the overall liquid level while short level meters are used to monitor the inclination of the detector. These level meters are cylindrical capacitors that are custom-made from two concentric metal tubes. Their capacitance values are read out by a universal transducer interface chip and are recorded by the PandaX slow control system. We present the developments that lead to level meters with long-term stability and sub-millimeter precision. Fluctuations (standard deviations) of less than 0.02 mm for the short level meters and less than 0.2 mm for the long level meter were achieved during a few days of test operation. (authors)

  14. Automated Liquid-Level Control of a Nutrient Reservoir for a Hydroponic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Boris; Asumadu, Johnson A.; Dogan, Numan S.

    1997-01-01

    A microprocessor-based system for control of the liquid level of a nutrient reservoir for a plant hydroponic growing system has been developed. The system uses an ultrasonic transducer to sense the liquid level or height. A National Instruments' Multifunction Analog and Digital Input/Output PC Kit includes NI-DAQ DOS/Windows driver software for an IBM 486 personal computer. A Labview Full Development system for Windows is the graphical programming system being used. The system allows liquid level control to within 0.1 cm for all levels tried between 8 and 36 cm in the hydroponic system application. The detailed algorithms have been developed and a fully automated microprocessor based nutrient replenishment system has been described for this hydroponic system.

  15. Simulation of Water Level Fluctuations in a Hydraulic System Using a Coupled Liquid-Gas Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A model for simulating vertical water level fluctuations with coupled liquid and gas phases is presented. The Preissmann implicit scheme is used to linearize the governing equations for one-dimensional transient flow for both liquid and gas phases, and the linear system is solved using the chasing method. Some classical cases for single liquid and gas phase transients in pipelines and networks are studied to verify that the proposed methods are accurate and reliable. The implicit scheme is extended using a dynamic mesh to simulate the water level fluctuations in a U-tube and an open surge tank without consideration of the gas phase. Methods of coupling liquid and gas phases are presented and used for studying the transient process and interaction between the phases, for gas phase limited in a chamber and gas phase transported in a pipeline. In particular, two other simplified models, one neglecting the effect of the gas phase on the liquid phase and the other one coupling the liquid and gas phases asynchronously, are proposed. The numerical results indicate that the asynchronous model performs better, and are finally applied to a hydropower station with surge tanks and air shafts to simulate the water level fluctuations and air speed.

  16. Development of a test system for high level liquid waste partitioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duan Wu H.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The partitioning and transmutation strategy has increasingly attracted interest for the safe treatment and disposal of high level liquid waste, in which the partitioning of high level liquid waste is one of the critical technical issues. An improved total partitioning process, including a tri-alkylphosphine oxide process for the removal of actinides, a crown ether strontium extraction process for the removal of strontium, and a calixcrown ether cesium extraction process for the removal of cesium, has been developed to treat Chinese high level liquid waste. A test system containing 72-stage 10-mm-diam annular centrifugal contactors, a remote sampling system, a rotor speed acquisition-monitoring system, a feeding system, and a video camera-surveillance system was successfully developed to carry out the hot test for verifying the improved total partitioning process. The test system has been successfully used in a 160 hour hot test using genuine high level liquid waste. During the hot test, the test system was stable, which demonstrated it was reliable for the hot test of the high level liquid waste partitioning.

  17. Source terms for airborne effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomeke, J.O.; Perona, J.J.

    1976-01-01

    The origin and nature of fuel cycle wastes are discussed with regard to high-level wastes, cladding, noble gases, iodine, tritium, 14 C, low-level and intermediate-level transuranic wastes, non-transuranic wastes, and ore tailings. The current practice for gaseous effluent treatment is described for light water reactors and high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. Other topics discussed are projections of nuclear power generation; projected accumulation of gaseous wastes; the impact of nuclear fuel cycle centers; and global buildup of airborne effluents

  18. Effluent Information System (EIS) / Onsite Discharge Information System (ODIS): 1986 executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, T.

    1987-09-01

    Department of Energy (DOE) data base systems aid DOE-Headquarters and Field Offices in managing the radioactive air and liquid effluents from DOE facilities. Data on effluents released offsite are entered into effluent information system (EIS) and data on effluents discharged onsite and retained onsite are entered into Onsite Discharge Information System (ODIS). This document is a summary of information obtained from the CY 1986 effluent data received from all DOE and DOE contractor facilities and entered in the data bases. Data from previous years are also included. The summary consists of information for effluents released offsite, and information for effluents retained onsite

  19. Actinides and fission products partitioning from high level liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaura, Mitiko

    1999-01-01

    The presence of small amount of mixed actinides and long-lived heat generators fission products as 137 Cs and 90 Sr are the major problems for safety handling and disposal of high level nuclear wastes. In this work, actinides and fission products partitioning process, as an alternative process for waste treatment is proposed. First of all, ammonium phosphotungstate (PWA), a selective inorganic exchanger for cesium separation was chosen and a new procedure for synthesizing PWA into the organic resin was developed. An strong anionic resin loaded with tungstate or phosphotungstate anion enables the precipitation of PWA directly in the resinous structure by adding the ammonium nitrate in acid medium (R-PWA). Parameters as W/P ratio, pH, reactants, temperature and aging were studied. The R-PWA obtained by using phosphotungstate solution prepared with W/P=9.6, 9 hours digestion time at 94-106 deg C and 4 to 5 months aging time showed the best capacity for cesium retention. On the other hand, Sr separation was performed by technique of extraction chromatography, using DH18C6 impregnated on XAD7 resin as stationary phase. Sr is selectively extracted from acid solution and >99% was recovered from loaded column using distilled water as eluent. Concerning to actinides separations, two extraction chromatographic columns were used. In the first one, TBP(XAD7) column, U and Pu were extracted and its separations were carried-out using HNO 3 and hydroxylamine nitrate + HNO 3 as eluent. In the second one, CMP0-TBP(XAD7) column, the actinides were retained on the column and the separations were done by using (NH 4 ) 2 C 2 O 4 , DTPA, HNO 3 and HCl as eluent. The behavior of some fission products were also verified in both columns. Based on the obtained data, actinides and fission products Cs and Sr partitioning process, using TBP(XAD7) and CMP0-TBP(XAD7) columns for actinides separation, R-PWA column for cesium retention and DH18C6(XAD7) column for Sr isolation was performed

  20. Order of the 4 March 2014 on the homologation of the decision nr 2014-DC-4016 of the Nuclear Safety Authority of the 16 January 2014 defining the limits of releases in the environment of liquid and gaseous effluents by the basic nuclear installations nr 124, 125, 126 and 137 exploited by EDF-SA in Cattenom (Moselle district)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    This order issued by the French Ministry of ecology, sustainable development and energy is based on a decision taken by the ASN. It concerns the management of pollutions and of the impact of a nuclear installation on the environment: applicable limits of gaseous (notably carbon 14, tritium, rare gases, iodines), chemical, and liquid effluent release. Tables indicate the maximum concentrations

  1. CY-1981 effluent monitoring report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honkus, R.J.

    1982-05-01

    The effluent monitoring programs at ICPP for calendar year 1981 are summarized. During the year, five significant occurrences or unplanned releases occurred. These are briefly described and tabulated. In none of the instances were the applicable Radiation Concentration Guides (RCG's) exceeded. A graphic summary of the total airborne, liquid and solid releases during CY-1981 is presented. Liquid waste activity was higher than anticipated due to various processing factors throughout the year. Solid waste jumped dramatically in December due to shipment of end-prices from the EBR-II fuel which was processed during the Electrolytic campaign

  2. Trace analysis of 61 natural and synthetic progestins in river water and sewage effluents by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaoyan; Chang, Hong; Sun, Dezhi; Wang, Linxia; Wu, Fengchang

    2018-04-15

    A broad number of natural and synthetic progestins are widely used in human and veterinary therapies. Although progestins exhibit adverse effects in aquatic organisms, information about environmental occurrence and fate have been limited to several compounds, hampering the accuracy of risk assessments of the compounds. In this study, a selective and sensitive analytical method was established to simultaneously determine 19 natural and 42 synthetic progestins in environmental waters, and the synthetic progestins included 19-nortestosterone, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone and progesterone derivatives. All of the target compounds were effectively separated using an HSS T3 column, and the recoveries for effluent and river samples were 80-115% and 75-105%, respectively. The detection limits for the 61 analytes were in the range of 0.05-0.60 ng/L and 0.03-0.40 ng/L for the effluent and river samples, respectively. The developed method is applied to analyze the target progestogens in sewage effluent and river water samples from Beijing. The detected concentrations of natural progesterone metabolites (3α-hydroxy-5β-tetrahydroprogesterone) were up to 63 times higher than those of the parent compound. Of the three groups of synthetic progestins, the progesterone derivatives were detected for the first time and had the highest concentrations followed by the 19-nortestosterone and 17α-hydroxyprogesterone derivatives. In contrast to previous studies, the predominant derivative compounds of 19-nortestosterone were found to be 19-nortestosterone, gestodene and mifepristone, and those of 17α-hydroxyprogesterone were 6-epi-medroxy progesterone 17-acetate and melengestrol acetate. The toxicities and environmental risk of these emerging progestins deserves more attention in the future. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Fishes of Saco do Piraquara de Fora, in a discharge area of liquid effluents from Angra-1 Nuclear Power Plant (CNAAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Ademar Ferrari Vaz de; Santoro, Maria Dulce Novaes

    1996-01-01

    Because the thermal effluents, released from the Unit I condenser system, it was implanted, at discharge area (Saco Piraquara de Fora), a Marine Fauna and Flora Monitoring Program, been necton area part of this, to verify possible impact over fish population, quantitative and qualitative studies were performed. Trichiurus lipeturus and Diapterus rhombeus were chosen as indicators because the high frequencies and abundances. Besides this, Furnas implanted a Radiological Monitoring Program, where samples of fish were collected and analysed by gamma spectrometry, showing the presence of Cs-137 since the pre-operational period, caused by fall out process at the region, from nuclear weapons test at atmosphere. (author)

  4. Treatment of LL and ML liquid radwaste. The SGN experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tchemitcheff, E.; Roux, P.

    1993-01-01

    SGN (Societe Generale pour les Techniques Nouvells) with considerable know-how and thirty years of feed-back in industrial management of liquid effluents from the entire French nuclear industry, has accordingly completed many low- and medium-level liquid radwaste treatment, relying on two major industrially proven technologies: evaporation and chemical coprecipitation. The low level and medium level radwaste in France and evaluated

  5. Effluent treatment plant and decontamination centre, Trombay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaushik, C.P.; Agarwal, K.

    2017-01-01

    The Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, has a number of plants and laboratories, which generate Radioactive Liquid Waste and Protective Wears. Two facilities have been established in late 1960s to cater to this requirement. The Centre, on the average generates about 50,000 m"3 of active liquid effluents of varying specific activities. The Effluent Treatment Plant was setup to receive and process radioactive liquids generated by various facilities of BARC in Trombay. It also serves a single-point discharge facility to enable monitoring of radioactive effluents discharged from the Trombay site. About 120-150 Te of protective wears and inactive apparel are generated annually from various radioactive facilities and laboratories of BARC. In addition, contaminated fuel assembly components are generated by DHRUVA and formerly by CIRUS. These components require decontamination before its recycle to the fuel assembly process. The Decontamination Centre, setup in late 1960s, is mandated to carry out the above mentioned decontamination activities

  6. High sensitivity optical fiber liquid level sensor based on a compact MMF-HCF-FBG structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunshan; Zhang, Weigang; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Yanxin; Wang, Song; Yan, Tieyi

    2018-05-01

    An ultra-high sensitivity fiber liquid level sensor based on wavelength demodulation is proposed and demonstrated. The sensor is composed of a segment of multimode fiber and a large aperture hollow-core fiber assisted by a fiber Bragg grating (FBG). Interference occurs due to core mismatching and different modes with different effective refractive indices. The experimental results show that the liquid level sensitivity of the sensor is 1.145 nm mm‑1, and the linearity is up to 0.996. The dynamic temperature compensation of the sensor can be achieved by cascading an FBG. Considering the high sensitivity and compact structure of the sensor, it can be used for real-time intelligent monitoring of tiny changes in liquid level.

  7. Filtration of Oak Ridge National Laboratory simulated liquid low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, V.L.; Hewitt, J.D.

    1989-08-01

    A method for disposal of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW) is being developed in which the material will be solidified in cement and stored in an aboveground engineered storage facility. The acceptability of the final waste form rests in part on the presence or absence of transuranic isotopes. Filtration methods to remove transuranic isotopes from the bulk liquid stored in the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST) were investigated in this study. Initial batch studies using waste from MVST indicate that >99.9% of the transuranic isotopes can be removed from the bulk liquid by simple filtration. Bench-scale studies with a nonradioactive surrogate waste indicate that >99.5% of the suspended solids can be removed from the bulk liquid via inertial crossflow filtration. 4 refs., 3 figs., 11 tabs

  8. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry determination of total budesonide levels in dog plasma after inhalation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Seija; Melamies, Marika; Rajamäki, Minna; Vainio, Outi; Peltonen, Kimmo

    2012-01-01

    A sensitive and selective method to quantify budesonide in dog plasma samples was developed and fully validated. Liquid-liquid extraction was followed by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization. After reconstitution of the analytes in the mobile phase, samples were analysed by reversed-phase liquid chromatography with isocratic elution. d8-Budesonide was used as an internal standard, and characteristic transitions of d8-budesonide and budesonide were used for quantification. The method was validated with respect to selectivity, specificity, linearity, recovery, repeatability, reproducibility and limits of detection and quantification. The validated method was successfully applied to monitor the plasma levels of budesonide in dogs exposed to clinical doses of inhaled and intravenous drug.

  9. Environmental and effluent monitoring at Lucas Heights Research Laboratories, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, E.L.; Camilleri, A.; Loosz, T.; Farrar, Y.

    1995-12-01

    Results are presented of environmental and effluent monitoring conducted in the vicinity of the Lucas Heights Research Laboratories (LHRL) during 1994. All low level liquid and gaseous effluent discharges complied with existing discharge authorisations and relevant environmental regulations. Potential effective doses to the general public from controlled airborne discharges during this period, were estimated to be less than 0.015 mSv/year for receptor locations on the 1.6 km buffer zone boundary around HIFAR. This value represents 1.5 % of the 1 mSv/year dose limit for long term exposure that is recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council, and 5 % of the site dose constraint of 0.3 mSv/year adopted by ANSTO. 27 refs., 22 tabs., 6 figs

  10. Environmental and effluent monitoring at Lucas Heights Research Laboratories, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, E L; Camilleri, A; Loosz, T; Farrar, Y

    1995-12-01

    Results are presented of environmental and effluent monitoring conducted in the vicinity of the Lucas Heights Research Laboratories (LHRL) during 1994. All low level liquid and gaseous effluent discharges complied with existing discharge authorisations and relevant environmental regulations. Potential effective doses to the general public from controlled airborne discharges during this period, were estimated to be less than 0.015 mSv/year for receptor locations on the 1.6 km buffer zone boundary around HIFAR. This value represents 1.5 % of the 1 mSv/year dose limit for long term exposure that is recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council, and 5 % of the site dose constraint of 0.3 mSv/year adopted by ANSTO. 27 refs., 22 tabs., 6 figs.

  11. Research and Development of Solar Evaporation on Low Level Radioactive Liquid Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Hua

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Solar evaporation, which can save energy and obtain the higher decontamination factor, the larger treatment capability with the simpler designed and easy operation, was one of the general methods to treat low level radioactive liquid waste. However, the use of solar evaporation was limited because the facilities had to occupy the larger area and require sunshine for the longer duration, etc. Several cases form USA, Australian, India and South Korea were presented on R&D of solar evaporation to treat low level radioactive liquid waste.

  12. Solvent extraction in the treatment of acidic high-level liquid waste : where do we stand?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horwitz, E. P.; Schulz, W. W.

    1998-01-01

    During the last 15 years, a number of solvent extraction/recovery processes have been developed for the removal of the transuranic elements, 90 Sr and 137 Cs from acidic high-level liquid waste. These processes are based on the use of a variety of both acidic and neutral extractants. This chapter will present an overview and analysis of the various extractants and flowsheets developed to treat acidic high-level liquid waste streams. The advantages and disadvantages of each extractant along with comparisons of the individual systems are discussed

  13. Single uniform FBG for simultaneous measurement of liquid level and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, Xuewen; Sugden, Kate; Bennion, Ian

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we propose and demonstrate a novel scheme for simultaneous measurement of liquid level and temperature based on a simple uniform fiber Bragg grating (FBG) by monitoring both the short-wavelength-loss peaks and its Bragg resonance. The liquid level can be measured from the amplitude changes of the short-wavelength-loss peaks, while temperature can be measured from the wavelength shift of the Bragg resonance. Both theoretical simulation results and experimental results are presented. Such a scheme has some advantages including robustness, simplicity, flexibility in choosing sensitivity and simultaneous temperature measurement capability

  14. Radioactive clearance discharge of effluent from nuclear and radiation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xinhua; Xu Chunyan

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of the basic concepts of radiation safety management system exemption, exclusion and clearance, we expound that the general industrial gaseous and liquid effluent discharges are exempted or excluded, gaseous and liquid effluent discharged from nuclear and radiation facilities are clearance, and non-radioactive. The main purpose of this paper is to clarify the concepts, reach a consensus that the gaseous and liquid effluent discharged from nuclear and radiation facilities are non-radioactive and have no hazard to human health and natural environment. (authors)

  15. An investigation of core liquid level depression in small break loss-of-coolant accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, R.R.; Watkins, J.C.; Motley, F.E.; Stumpf, H.; Chen, Y.S.

    1991-08-01

    Core liquid level depression can result in partial core dryout and heatup early in a small break loss-of-coolant accident (SBLOCA) transient. Such behavior occurs when steam, trapped in the upper regions of the reactor primary system (between the loop seal and the core inventory), moves coolant out of the core region and uncovers the rod upper elevations. The net result is core liquid level depression. Core liquid level depression and subsequent core heatups are investigated using subscale data from the ROSA-IV Program's 1/48-scale Large Scale Test Facility (LSTF) and the 1/1705-scale Semiscale facility. Both facilities are Westinghouse-type, four-loop, pressurized water reactor simulators. The depression phenomena and factors which influence the minimum core level are described and illustrated using examples from the data. Analyses of the subject experiments, conducted using the TRAC-PF1/MOD1 (Version 12.7) thermal-hydraulic code, are also described and summarized. Finally, the response of a typical Westinghouse four-loop plant (RESAR-3S) was calculated to qualitatively study coal liquid level depression in a full-scale system. 31 refs., 37 figs., 6 tabs

  16. US and Russian innovative technologies to process low-level liquid radioactive wastes: The Murmansk initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyer, R.S.; Duffey, R.B.; Penzin, R.; Sorlie, A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper documents the status of the technical design for the upgrade and expansion to the existing Low-level Liquid Radioactive Waste (LLLRW) treatment facility in Murmansk, the Russian Federation. This facility, owned by the Ministry of Transportation and operated by the Russian company RTP Atomflot in Murmansk, Russia, has been used by the Murmansk Shipping Company (MSCo) to process low-level liquid radioactive waste generated by the operation of its civilian icebreaker fleet. The purpose of the new design is to enable Russia to permanently cease the disposal at sea of LLLRW in the Arctic, and to treat liquid waste and high saline solutions from both the Civil and North Navy Fleet operations and decommissioning activities. Innovative treatments are to be used in the plant which are discussed in this paper

  17. Handling and storage of high-level liquid wastes from reprocessing of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finsterwalder, L.

    1982-01-01

    The high level liquid wastes arise from the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuels, which are dissolved in aqueous acid solution, and the plutonium and unburned uranium removed in the chemical separation plant. The remaining solution, containing more than 99% of the dissolved fission products, together with impurities from cladding materials, corrosion products, traces of unseparated plutonium and uranium and most of the transuranic elements, constitutes the high-level waste. At present, these liquid wastes are usually concentrated by evaporation and stored as an aqueous nitric acid solution in high-integrity stainless-steel tanks. There is now world-wide agreement that, for the long term, these liquid wastes should be converted to solid form and much work is in progress to develop techniques for the solidification of these wastes. This paper considers the design requirements for such facilities and the experience gained during nearly 30 years of operation. (orig./RW)

  18. Exposure to Paper Mill Effluent at a Site in North Central Florida Elicits Molecular-Level Changes in Gene Expression Indicative of Progesterone and Androgen Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Brockmeier, Erica K.; Jayasinghe, B. Sumith; Pine, William E.; Wilkinson, Krystan A.; Denslow, Nancy D.

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are chemicals that negatively impact endocrine system function, with effluent from paper mills one example of this class of chemicals. In Florida, female Eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) have been observed with male secondary sexual characteristics at three paper mill-impacted sites, indicative of EDC exposure, and are still found at one site on the Fenholloway River. The potential impacts that paper mill effluent exposure has on the G. holbrooki...

  19. Advances in technologies for the treatment of low and intermediate level radioactive liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    In recent years the authorized maximum limits for radioactive discharges into the environment have been reduced considerably, and this, together with the requirement to minimize the volume of waste for storage or disposal and to declassify some wastes from intermediate to low level or to non-radioactive wastes, has initiated studies of ways in which improvements can be made to existing decontamination processes and also to the development of new processes. This work has led to the use of more specific precipitants and to the establishment of ion exchange treatment and evaporation techniques. Additionally, the use of combinations of some existing processes or of an existing process with a new technique such as membrane filtration is becoming current practice. New biotechnological, solvent extraction and electrochemical methods are being examined and have been proven at laboratory scale to be useful for radioactive liquid waste treatment. In this report an attempt has been made to review the current research and development of mature and advanced technologies for the treatment of low and intermediate level radioactive liquid wastes, both aqueous and non-aqueous. Non-aqueous radioactive liquid wastes or organic liquid wastes typically consist of oils, reprocessing solvents, scintillation liquids and organic cleaning products. A brief state of the art of existing processes and their application is followed by the review of advances in technologies, covering chemical, physical and biological processes. 213 refs, 33 figs, 3 tabs

  20. Temporary core liquid level depression during cold-leg small-break LOCA effect of break size and power level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Y.; Kumamaru, H.; Mimura, Y.; Kukita, Y.; Tasaka, K.

    1989-01-01

    Cold-leg small break LOCA experiments (0.5-10% break) were conducted at the large scale test facility (LSTF), a volumetrically-scaled (1/48) simulator of a PWR, of the ROSA-IV Program. When a break area was less than 2.5% of the scaled cold-leg flow area, the core liquid level was temporarily further depressed to the bottom elevation of the crossover leg during the loop seal clearing early in the transient only by the manometric pressure balance since no coolant remained in the upper portion of the primary system. When the break size was larger than 5%, the core liquid level was temporarily further depressed lower than the bottom elevation of the crossover leg during the loop seal clearing since coolant remained at the upper portion of the primary system; the steam generator (SG) U-tube upflow side and the SG inlet plenum, due to counter current flow limiting by updrafting steam while the coolant drained. The amount of coolant trapped there was dependent on the vapor velocity (core power); the larger the core power, the lower the minimum core liquid level. The RELAP5/MOD2 code reasonable predicted phenomena observed in the experiments. (orig./DG)

  1. A new interface weak-capacitance detection ASIC of capacitive liquid level sensor in the rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Liang; Qin, Yao; Liu, Xiao-Wei

    2017-11-01

    A new capacitive liquid level sensing interface weak-capacitance detection ASIC has been designed. This ASIC realized the detection of the output capacitance of the capacitive liquid level sensor, which converts the output capacitance of the capacitive liquid level sensor to voltage. The chip is fabricated in a standard 0.5μm CMOS process. The test results show that the linearity of capacitance detection of the ASIC is 0.05%, output noise is 3.7aF/Hz (when the capacitance which will be detected is 40 pF), the stability of capacitance detection is 7.4 × 10-5pF (1σ, 1h), the output zero position temperature coefficient is 4.5 uV/∘C. The test results prove that this interface ASIC can meet the requirement of high accuracy capacitance detection. Therefore, this interface ASIC can be applied in capacitive liquid level sensing and capacitive humidity sensing field.

  2. Recent developments in the extraction separation method for treatment of high-level liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao Rongzhou; Song Chongli; Zhu Yongjun

    2000-01-01

    A description and review of the recent developments in the extraction separation method for partitioning transuranium elements from high-level liquid waste (HLLW) is presented. The extraction separation processes such as TRUEX process, DIAMEX process, DIDPA process, CTH process, TRPO process are briefly discussed

  3. Handling and storage of high-level radioactive liquid wastes requiring cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The technology of high-level liquid wastes storage and experience in this field gained over the past 25 years are reviewed in this report. It considers the design requirements for storage facilities, describes the systems currently in use, together with essential accessories such as the transfer and off-gas cleaning systems, and examines the safety and environmental factors

  4. Ultrasonic instrument for continuous measurement of liquid levels in sodium systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehmer, L.S.

    1975-01-01

    An ultrasonic level measurement system which provides a continuous digital readout over a range of 3-180 inches, was tested in 500 0 F liquid sodium. The system proved to be accurate and reliable, required no initial warm-up period and experienced no long term drift. Modifications can extend the present operating temperatures to greater than 1200 0 F

  5. Laboratory simulation of high-level liquid waste evaporation and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, P.A.

    1978-01-01

    The reprocessing of nuclear fuel generates high-level liquid wastes (HLLW) which require interim storage pending solidification. Interim storage facilities are most efficient if the HLLW is evaporated prior to or during the storage period. Laboratory evaporation and storage studies with simulated waste slurries have yielded data which are applicable to the efficient design and economical operation of actual process equipment

  6. Determination of the plutonium contamination level in biological samples by liquid scintillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willemot, J.M.; Verry, M.; Lataillade, G.

    1989-01-01

    Usual radiochemical processes are unable to carry out without delay the very large number of analyses as required in plutonium toxicology studies. Liquid scintillation is the best method to quickly determine plutonium contamination levels in most various samples (bone, organs,...) [fr

  7. Removal of radiocesium from low level radioactive effluents by hexacyanoferrate loaded synthetic zeolite. Laboratory to pilot plant scale demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Dayamoy; Rao, Manjula A.; Khot, Shantinath A.; Shah, Jayesh G.; Banerjee, Kalyan [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Nuclear Recycle Group; Pawaskar, Chandrahas S.; Gangadharan, Anand; Rao, Shankar N.; Jain, Savita [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2017-06-01

    Present paper reports removal of radiocesium from low level waste using a modified sorbent (13X-CFC) prepared by in-situ precipitation of potassium copper hexacyanoferrate(II) inside the macropores of a synthetic zeolite. The Cs exchange isotherm of the sorbent is established and it found to follow Fruendlich absorption isotherm equation. It is varified that presence of hexacyanoferrate on zeolite facilitates rapid Cs uptake performance. This is further confirmed in laboratory scale column tests, wherein excellent Cs removal performance from low level waste simulant was observed even at higher flow rates (40 bed volumes per hour). The utility of the sorbent is established through successful demonstration in a pilot scale (50 L) trial with almost complete removal of {sup 137}Cs from more than 14,000 bed volumes of actual low level waste. The sorbent, owing to its low cost and excellent {sup 137}Cs removal performance, is expected to find application in treatment of very low active waste streams.

  8. Readiness Assessment Plan, Hanford 200 areas treated effluent disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulmer, F.J.

    1995-01-01

    This Readiness Assessment Plan documents Liquid Effluent Facilities review process used to establish the scope of review, documentation requirements, performance assessment, and plant readiness to begin operation of the Treated Effluent Disposal system in accordance with DOE-RLID-5480.31, Startup and Restart of Facilities Operational Readiness Review and Readiness Assessments

  9. Facility effluent monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleckler, B.P.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the facility effluent monitoring programs and provides an evaluation of effluent monitoring data. These evaluations are useful in assessing the effectiveness of effluent treatment and control systems, as well as management practices.

  10. Estimative of dilution factor for radioactive liquid effluents employing the H-3 and Cs-137 radiotracers present as pollutant; Estimativa do fator de diluicao para efluentes radioativos liquidos empregando os radiotracadores H-3 e Cs-137 presentes como poluentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nisti, Marcelo Bessa; Santos, Adir Janete Godoy dos, E-mail: mbnisti@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    It was estimated the dilution factor for liquid effluents at the discharge points of the IPEN, Sao Paulo, Brazil, employing as radiotracers the radioisotope routinely liberated for the sewage of 'Cidade Universitaria Armando de Salles Oliveira' - CUASO {sup 3}H and {sup 137}Cs, not generating either monetary or environmental cost associated to the estimation. The {sup 137}Cs was determined by gamma spectrometry and the {sup 3}H was determined liquid phase scintillation. The results showed that the dilution factor varied according to the employed radiotracer in a crescent order of {sup 3}H and {sup 137}Cs according to the characteristics of each element. The average of dilution factors obtained at the first and second liberation day were 4.3 and 7.4 respectively for the {sup 3}H and 6.2 and 13.9 for the {sup 137}Cs. The ratio of dilution factors of calculated {sup 3}H and {sup 137}Cs were coherent with the ratio verified at the twelve hydrometers distributed by the IPEN campus. The dilution factors were estimated in operational and laboratory study, in a single controlled discharge of the TR1 tank

  11. Liquid level measurement on coolant pipeline using Raman distributed temperature sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasinathan, M.; Sosamma, S.; Babu Rao, C.; Murali, N.; Jayakumar, T.

    2011-01-01

    Optical fibre based Raman Distributed Temperature Sensor (RDTS) has been widely used for temperature monitoring in oil pipe line, power cable and environmental monitoring. Recently it has gained importance in nuclear reactor owing to its advantages like continuous, distributed temperature monitoring and immunity from electromagnetic interference. It is important to monitor temperature based level measurement in sodium capacities and in coolant pipelines for Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR). This particular application is used for filling and draining sodium in storage tank of sodium circuits of Fast breeder reactor. There are different conventional methods to find out the sodium level in the storage tank of sodium cooled reactors. They are continuous level measurement and discontinuous level measurement. For continuous level measurement, mutual inductance type level probes are used. The disadvantage of using this method is it needs a temperature compensation circuit. For discontinuous level measurement, resistance type discontinuous level probe and mutual inductance type discontinuous level probe are used. In resistance type discontinuous level probe, each level needs a separate probe. To overcome these disadvantages, RDTS is used for level measurement based distributed temperature from optical fibre as sensor. The feasibility of using RDTS for measurement of temperature based level measurement sensor is studied using a specially designed test set-up and using hot water, instead of sodium. The test set-up consist of vertically erected Stainless Steel (SS) pipe of length 2m and diameter 10cm, with provision for filling and draining out the liquid. Bare graded index multimode fibre is laid straight along the length of the of the SS pipe. The SS pipe is filled with hot water at various levels. The hot water in the SS pipe is maintained at constant temperature by insulating the SS pipe. The temperature profile of the hot water at various levels is measured using RDTS. The

  12. Pilot-Scale Test Results Of A Thin Film Evaporator System For Management Of Liquid High-Level Wastes At The Hanford Site Washington USA -11364

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbett, J.E.; Tedesch, A.R.; Wilson, R.A.; Beck, T.H.; Larkin, J.

    2011-01-01

    A modular, transportable evaporator system, using thin film evaporative technology, is planned for deployment at the Hanford radioactive waste storage tank complex. This technology, herein referred to as a wiped film evaporator (WFE), will be located at grade level above an underground storage tank to receive pumped liquids, concentrate the liquid stream from 1.1 specific gravity to approximately 1.4 and then return the concentrated solution back into the tank. Water is removed by evaporation at an internal heated drum surface exposed to high vacuum. The condensed water stream will be shipped to the site effluent treatment facility for final disposal. This operation provides significant risk mitigation to failure of the aging 242-A Evaporator facility; the only operating evaporative system at Hanford maximizing waste storage. This technology is being implemented through a development and deployment project by the tank farm operating contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), for the Office of River Protection/Department of Energy (ORPIDOE), through Columbia Energy and Environmental Services, Inc. (Columbia Energy). The project will finalize technology maturity and install a system at one of the double-shell tank farms. This paper summarizes results of a pilot-scale test program conducted during calendar year 2010 as part of the ongoing technology maturation development scope for the WFE.

  13. PILOT-SCALE TEST RESULTS OF A THIN FILM EVAPORATOR SYSTEM FOR MANAGEMENT OF LIQUID HIGH-LEVEL WASTES AT THE HANFORD SITE WASHINGTON USA -11364

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CORBETT JE; TEDESCH AR; WILSON RA; BECK TH; LARKIN J

    2011-02-14

    A modular, transportable evaporator system, using thin film evaporative technology, is planned for deployment at the Hanford radioactive waste storage tank complex. This technology, herein referred to as a wiped film evaporator (WFE), will be located at grade level above an underground storage tank to receive pumped liquids, concentrate the liquid stream from 1.1 specific gravity to approximately 1.4 and then return the concentrated solution back into the tank. Water is removed by evaporation at an internal heated drum surface exposed to high vacuum. The condensed water stream will be shipped to the site effluent treatment facility for final disposal. This operation provides significant risk mitigation to failure of the aging 242-A Evaporator facility; the only operating evaporative system at Hanford maximizing waste storage. This technology is being implemented through a development and deployment project by the tank farm operating contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), for the Office of River Protection/Department of Energy (ORPIDOE), through Columbia Energy and Environmental Services, Inc. (Columbia Energy). The project will finalize technology maturity and install a system at one of the double-shell tank farms. This paper summarizes results of a pilot-scale test program conducted during calendar year 2010 as part of the ongoing technology maturation development scope for the WFE.

  14. Comparison of different methods for liquid level adjustment in tank prover calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, D A; Farias, E C; Gabriel, P C; Aquino, M H; Gomes, R S E; Aibe, V Y

    2015-01-01

    The adjustment of the liquid level during the calibration of tank provers with fixed volume is normally done by overfill but it can be done in different ways. In this article four level adjustment techniques are compared: plate, pipette, ruler and overfill adjustment. The adjustment methods using plate and pipette presented good agreement with the tank's nominal volume and lower uncertainty among the tested methods

  15. Phase behaviour of macromolecular liquid crystalline materials. Computational studies at the molecular level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stimson, Lorna M.

    2003-01-01

    Molecular simulations provide an increasingly useful insight into the static and dynamic characteristics of materials. In this thesis molecular simulations of macro-molecular liquid crystalline materials are reported. The first liquid crystalline material that has been investigated is a side chain liquid crystal polymer (SCLCP). In this study semi-atomistic molecular dynamics simulations have been conducted at a range of temperatures and an aligning potential has been applied to mimic the effect of a magnetic field. In cooling the SCLCP from an isotropic melt, microphase separation was observed yielding a domain structure. The application of a magnetic field to this structure aligns the domains producing a stable smectic mesophase. This is the first study in which mesophases have been observed using an off-lattice model of a SCLCP. The second material that has been investigated is a dendrimer with terminal mesogenic functionalization. Here, a multi-scale approach has been taken with Monte Carlo studies of a single dendrimer molecule in the gas phase at the atomistic level, semi-atomistic molecular dynamics of a single molecule in liquid crystalline solvents and a coarse-grained molecular dynamics study of the dendrimer in the bulk. The coarse-grained model has been developed and parameterized using the results of the atomistic and semi-atomistic work. The single molecule studies showed that the liquid crystalline dendrimer was able to change its structure by conformational changes in the flexible chains that link the mesogenic groups to the core. Structural change was seen under the application of a mean field ordering potential in the gas phase, and in the presence of liquid crystalline solvents. No liquid crystalline phases were observed for the bulk phase studies of the coarse-grained model. However, when the length of the mesogenic units was increased there was some evidence for microphase separation in these systems. (author)

  16. Removal of some Fission Products from Low Level Liquid Radioactive Waste by Chemical Precipitation liquid/Co-precipitation / Phosphate Coagulant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borai, E.H.; Attallah, M.F.; Hilal, M.A.; Abo-Aly, M.M.; Shehata, F.A.

    2008-01-01

    In Egypt radioactive waste has been generated from various uses of radioactive materials. Presence of cesium demonstrated a major problem from the removal point of view even by conventional and advanced technologies. Selective chemical precipitation has been oriented for removal of some fission products including 137 Cs from low level liquid radioactive waste (LLLRW). The aim of the present study was focused to investigate the effectiveness of various phosphate compounds that improved the precipitation process and hence the decontamination factor. The results showed that, maximum removal of 137 Cs reaching 46.4 % using di-sodium hydrogen phosphate as a selective coagulant. It was found that significant enhancement of co-precipitation of 137 Cs (62.5 %) was obtained due to presence of Nd 3+ in the LLLRW

  17. Stabilization and isolation of low-level liquid waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, S.J.; Gilbert, T.W.

    1987-01-01

    Rockwell Hanford Operations is developing and testing equipment for stabilization and isolation of low-level radioactive liquid waste disposal sites. Stabilization and isolation are accomplished by a dynamic consolidation and particulate grout injection system. System equipment components include: a mobile grout plant for transport, mixing, and pumping of particulate grout; a vibratory hammer/extractor for consolidation of waste, backfill, and for emplacement of the injector; dynamic consolidation/injector probe for introducing grout into fill material; and an open-void surface injector that uses surface or subsurface mechanical or pneumatic packers and displacement gas filtration for introducing grout into disposal structure access piping. Treatment of a liquid-waste disposal site yields a physically stable, cementitious monolith. Additional testing and modification of this equipment for other applications to liquid waste disposal sites is in progress

  18. Fiber optic liquid-level sensor using a long fiber Bragg grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricchiuti, Amelia L.; Barrera, David; Nonaka, Koji; Sales, Salvador

    2013-05-01

    A technique for liquid-level sensors based on a long fiber Bragg grating (FBG) is presented and experimentally demonstrated. The measurement system is based on the measurement of the central frequency distribution of the FBG based on time-frequency domain analysis. A short optical pulse is injected into a 10-cm long FBG mounted in a container. The back-reflected pulse is scanned by means of an oscilloscope. When part of the grating is immersed in a liquid having temperature higher than the surrounding ambient, the structure of the uniform grating is distorted and its time-frequency response changes. A spatial resolution of 2 mm, given by the input pulse duration, and a 10-cm long measurement range are achieved. Liquid-temperature sensing has also been implemented by scanning the spectral response of the FBG by means of a CW laser and an OSA.

  19. Optimum modellings of atmospheric diffusion of radioactive effluents and exposure doses in the accident consequence assessment (Level 3 PSA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byung Woo; Lee, Young Bok; Han, Moon Hee; Kim, Eun Han; Suh, Kyung Suk; Hwang, Won Tae

    1992-12-01

    Atmospheric diffusion and exposure strongly dependent on the environment were firstly considered in the full spectrum of accident consequence assessment to establish based on Korean conditions. An optimum weather category based on Korean climate and site-specific meteorology of Kori region was established by statistical analysis of measured data for 10 years. And a trajectory model was selected as the optimal one in the ACA by reviewing several existing diffusion models. Following aspects were considered in this selection as availability of meteorological data, ability to treat the change to wind direction, easy applicability of the model, and restriction of CPU time and core memory in current computers. Numerical integration method of our own was selected as the optimal dose assessment tool of external exposure. Unit dose rate was firstly computed with this method as the function of energy level of radionuclide, size of lattice, and distance between source and receptor, and then the results were rearranged as the data library for the rapid access to the ACA run. Dynamic ecosystem modelling has been done in order to estimate the seasonal variation of radioactivity for the assessment of ingestion exposure, considering Korean ingestion behavior, agricultural practice and the transportation. There is a lot of uncertainty in a countermeasure model due to the assumed values of parameters such as fraction of population with different shielding factor and driving speed. A new countermeasure model was developed using the concept of fuzzy set theory, since it provided the mathematical tools which could characterize the uncertainty involved in countermeasure modelling. (Author)

  20. POLAR ORGANIC CHEMICAL INTEGRATIVE SAMPLING AND LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY-ELECTROSPRAY/ION-TRAP MASS SPECTROMETRY FOR ASSESSING SELECTED PRESCRIPTION AND ILLICIT DRUGS IN TREATED SEWAGE EFFLUENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of the research presented in this paper is two-fold: (1) to demonstrate the 4 coupling of two state-of-the-art techniques: a time-weighted polar organic integrative sampler (POCIS) and micro-liquid chromatography-electrospray/ion trap mass spectrometry (u-LC-6 ES/ITMS...

  1. A mass conserving level set method for detailed numerical simulation of liquid atomization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Kun; Shao, Changxiao [State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Yang, Yue [State Key Laboratory of Turbulence and Complex Systems, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Fan, Jianren, E-mail: fanjr@zju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2015-10-01

    An improved mass conserving level set method for detailed numerical simulations of liquid atomization is developed to address the issue of mass loss in the existing level set method. This method introduces a mass remedy procedure based on the local curvature at the interface, and in principle, can ensure the absolute mass conservation of the liquid phase in the computational domain. Three benchmark cases, including Zalesak's disk, a drop deforming in a vortex field, and the binary drop head-on collision, are simulated to validate the present method, and the excellent agreement with exact solutions or experimental results is achieved. It is shown that the present method is able to capture the complex interface with second-order accuracy and negligible additional computational cost. The present method is then applied to study more complex flows, such as a drop impacting on a liquid film and the swirling liquid sheet atomization, which again, demonstrates the advantages of mass conservation and the capability to represent the interface accurately.

  2. Effluent and water treatment at AERE Harwell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, J.B.

    1977-01-01

    The treatment of liquid wastes at Harwell is based on two main principles: separation of surface water, domestic sewage, trade wastes and radioactive effluents at source, and a system of holding tanks which are sampled so that the appropriate treatment can be given to any batch. All discharges are subject to independent monitoring by the authorising departments and the Thames Water Inspectors. (author)

  3. Formation and filtration characteristics of solids generated in a high level liquid waste treatment process. Filtration characteristics of solids formed in simulated high level liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Y.; Kubota, M.

    1997-01-01

    The filtration characteristics of solids generated in a simulated high level liquid waste (HLLW) were experimentally examined, when the simulated HLLW was processed according to the ordinary way of actual HLLW treatment process. The filtration characteristics of solids depended on the particle size. The phosphomolybdic acid, which was very fine particle with about 0.1 μm diameter, made slurry a 'difficult-to-filter' slurry, if the phosphomolybdic acid content (wt%) to the whole solids in a slurry exceeded 50wt%. On the contrary, the zirconium compounds (zirconium molybdate and zirconium telluride) had positive effect on filtration characteristics because of their relatively large particle size of about 3 to 5 μm. When the zirconium compounds content was above 50 wt%, slurry became a 'easy-to-filter' slurry. A centrifugal sedimentation was discussed as a solid/liquid separation technique for very fine particles such as phosphomolybdic acid. The theoretical feed flow rate corresponded to 0.1 μm diameter particles was about 20 1/h at the centrifugal acceleration of about 8000 G. (author)

  4. A Novel Acoustic Liquid Level Determination Method for Coal Seam Gas Wells Based on Autocorrelation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximing Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In coal seam gas (CSG wells, water is periodically removed from the wellbore in order to keep the bottom-hole flowing pressure at low levels, facilitating the desorption of methane gas from the coal bed. In order to calculate gas flow rate and further optimize well performance, it is necessary to accurately monitor the liquid level in real-time. This paper presents a novel method based on autocorrelation function (ACF analysis for determining the liquid level in CSG wells under intense noise conditions. The method involves the calculation of the acoustic travel time in the annulus and processing the autocorrelation signal in order to extract the weak echo under high background noise. In contrast to previous works, the non-linear dependence of the acoustic velocity on temperature and pressure is taken into account. To locate the liquid level of a coal seam gas well the travel time is computed iteratively with the non-linear velocity model. Afterwards, the proposed method is validated using experimental laboratory investigations that have been developed for liquid level detection under two scenarios, representing the combination of low pressure, weak signal, and intense noise generated by gas flowing and leakage. By adopting an evaluation indicator called Crest Factor, the results have shown the superiority of the ACF-based method compared to Fourier filtering (FFT. In the two scenarios, the maximal measurement error from the proposed method was 0.34% and 0.50%, respectively. The latent periodic characteristic of the reflected signal can be extracted by the ACF-based method even when the noise is larger than 1.42 Pa, which is impossible for FFT-based de-noising. A case study focused on a specific CSG well is presented to illustrate the feasibility of the proposed approach, and also to demonstrate that signal processing with autocorrelation analysis can improve the sensitivity of the detection system.

  5. Simultaneous determination of several veterinary pharmaceuticals in effluents from urban, livestock and slaughterhouse wastewater treatment plants using a simple chromatographic method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavenati, Simone; Carvalho, Pedro N; Almeida, C Marisa R; Basto, M Clara P; Vasconcelos, M Teresa S D

    2012-01-01

    Minocycline, oxytetracycline, tetracycline, enrofloxacin and ceftiofur, commonly used veterinary pharmaceuticals, were searched in four urban, two livestock and two slaughterhouse effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in the north of Portugal. A simple method that includes solid-phase extraction followed with analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector was established and applied to the simultaneous determination of the five pharmaceuticals in WWTP effluents. This method, which is expeditious, inexpensive and available in most laboratories, showed to be useful for screening for problematic levels of drugs in WWTP effluents. It is known that several livestock and slaughterhouse effluents (pre-treated or treated) are discharged to the urban network before discharge into the environment. The presence of these drugs in such effluents can constitute a significant environmental problem that should be addressed, by the monitoring of these drugs and by implementation of methodologies that contribute to their decrease/elimination from wastewaters. Minocycline (≤6 μg L(-1)), oxytetracycline (≤7 μg L(-1)), tetracycline (≤6 μg L(-1)) and enrofloxacin (effluents. Detectable levels of enrofloxacin (effluents.

  6. A guide for preparing Hanford Site facility effluent monitoring plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickels, J.M.

    1992-06-01

    This document provides guidance on the format and content of effluent monitoring plans for facilities at the Hanford Site. The guidance provided in this document is designed to ensure compliance with US Department of Energy (DOE) Orders 5400.1 (DOE 1988a), 5400.3 (DOE 1989a), 5400.4 (DOE 1989b), 5400.5 (DOE 1990a), 5480.1 (DOE 1982), 5480.11 (DOE 1988b), and 5484.1 (DOE 1981). These require environmental monitoring plans for each site, facility, or process that uses, generates, releases, or manages significant pollutants of radioactive or hazardous materials. In support of DOE Orders 5400.5 (Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment) and 5400.1 (General Environmental Protection Program), the DOE Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (DOE 1991) should be used to establish elements of a radiological effluent monitoring program in the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan. Evaluation of facilities for compliance with the US Environmental Protection Agency Clean Air Act of 1977 requirements also is included in the airborne emissions section of the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans. Sampling Analysis Plans for Liquid Effluents, as required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement), also are included in the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans. The Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans shall include complete documentation of gaseous and liquid effluent sampling and monitoring systems

  7. Functions and Requirements for Automated Liquid Level Gauge Instruments in Single-Shell and Double-Shell Tank Farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CARPENTER, K.E.

    1999-01-01

    This functions and requirements document defines the baseline requirements and criteria for the design, purchase, fabrication, construction, installation, and operation of automated liquid level gauge instruments in the Tank Farms. This document is intended to become the technical baseline for current and future installation, operation and maintenance of automated liquid level gauges in single-shell and double-shell tank farms

  8. The incorporation of low and medium level radioactive wastes (solids and liquids) in cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, J.D.; Smith, D.L.G.

    1986-01-01

    The use of cement has been investigated for the immobilization of liquid and solid low and medium level radioactive waste. 220 litre mixing trials have demonstrated that the high temperatures generated during the setting of ordinary Portland cement/simulant waste mixes can be significantly reduced by the use of a blend of ground granulated blast furnace slag and ordinary Portland cement. Laboratory and 220 litre trials using simulant wastes showed that the blended cement gave an improvement in properties of the cemented waste product, e.g. stability and reduction in leach rates compared with ordinary Portland cement formulations. A range of 220 litre scale mixing systems for the incorporation of liquid and solid wastes in cement was investigated. The work has confirmed that cement-based processes can be used for the immobilization of most types of low and medium level waste

  9. Levels of endogenous regulatory factors in liquidators of consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liasko, L.I.; Souchkevitch, G.N.; Tsyb, A.F.

    1997-01-01

    Dynamics of endogenous regulatory factor levels was studied in liquidators of consequences of the Chernobyl accident (mean age - 42 years). Irradiation dose for 90% of examined individuals was within 100 mSv range. We observed a decreased level of synthesis of intracellular processes regulators (cAMP, cGMP) and biased ratio of arachidonic acid metabolites (TxB2, 6-Keto-PGF1α) in persons worked in the zone of accident at different time during the period of 1986-1988. The parameters measured were preserved even 4 years later and the changes apparently did not depend on the individual's age and work conditions. However they were most pronounced in liquidators of 1986 and in those who stayed in the Chernobyl accident zone for a long time. There was no evident connection between the dose and extent of the parameter alterations. (author)

  10. Development of a partitioning method for the management of high-level liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, M.; Dojiri, S.; Yamaguchi, I.; Morita, Y.; Yamagishi, I.; Kobayashi, T.; Tani, S.

    1989-01-01

    Fundamental studies especially focused on the separation of neptunium and technetium have been carried out to construct the advanced partitioning process of fractioning elements in a high-level liquid waste into four groups: transuranium elements, technetium-noble metals, strontium-cesium, and other elements. For the separation of neptunium by solvent extraction, DIDPA proved excellent for extracting Np(V), and its extraction rate was accelerated by hydrogen peroxide. Np(V) was found to be also separated quantitatively as precipitate with oxalic acid. For the separation of technetium, the denitration with formic acid was effective in precipitating it along with noble metals, and the adsorption with activated carbon was also effective for quantitative separation. Through these fundamental studies, the advanced partitioning process is presented as the candidate to be examined with an actual high-level liquid waste

  11. Design and development of effluent treatment plants for the Sellafield reprocessing factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howden, M.

    1989-01-01

    The reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel has been carried out at Sellafield since the early 1950s. The storage of fuel in water filled ponds prior to reprocessing and the reprocessing operation itself results in the generation of a number of radioactive liquid effluents. The highly active liquors are stored in stainless steel tanks and will, with the commissioning of the Windscale Vitrification Plant, be converted into glass for long term storage and disposal. The medium and low active liquors are, after appropriate treatment, discharged to sea well below the Authorised Limits which are set by the appropriate Regulatory Bodies. Since 1960 these have been the Department of the Environment and the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. Even though the discharges have been well below the limits set, BNFL have for many years adopted a policy of reducing the levels of activity still further. Considerable progress has already been made, by changing reprocessing operations regimes but more importantly by the development and construction of specialised effluent treatment plants. Further reductions are, however, planned. Two major effluent treatment plants form the main basis of BNFL's policy to reduce activity discharges from Sellafield. The first, the Site Ion Exchange Effluent Plant, to treat storage pond water was brought into operation in 1985. The second, the enhanced Actinide Removal Plant to treat medium and low active effluents, is programmed to operate in 1992. (author)

  12. Formation and filtration characteristics of solids generated in a high level liquid waste treatment process. Solids formation behavior from simulated high level liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Y.; Kubota, M.

    1997-01-01

    The solids formation behavior in a simulated high level liquid waste (HLLW) was experimentally examined, when the simulated HLLW was treated in the ordinary way of actual HLLW treatment process. Solids formation conditions and mechanism were closely discussed. The solids formation during a concentration step can be explained by considering the formation of zirconium phosphate, phosphomolybdic acid and precipitation of strontium and barium nitrates and their solubilities. For the solids formation during the denitration step, at least four courses were observed; formation of an undissolved material by a chemical reaction with each other of solute elements (zirconium, molybdenum, tellurium) precipitation by reduction (platinum group metals) formation of hydroxide or carbonate compounds (chromium, neodymium, iron, nickel, strontium, barium) and a physical adsorption to stable solid such as zirconium molybdate (nickel, strontium, barium). (author)

  13. Measurement of liquid level in a natural circulation circuit using an ultrasonic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, Amanda Cardozo; Su, Jian

    2017-01-01

    The measurement by an ultrasonic technique of the water level in the expansion tank of the Natural Circulation Circuit (NCC) of the Experimental Thermo-Hydraulic Laboratory of the Institute of Nuclear Engineering is presented. In the single-phase NCC operation the water level in the expansion tank is stable. However, during the two-phase operation, oscillations occur in the water level due to temperature and vacuum fraction variations. Thus, the development of a technique that allows the measurement of these oscillations, will allow an estimation of the variation of the vacuum fraction of the circuit over time. The experimental set - up was performed on a test bench, using an ultrasonic transducer. The ultrasonic technique used is pulse-echo, in which the same transducer is the transmitter and receiver of the signal. The transducer-shoe assembly is part of an ultrasonic system consisting of an ultrasonic signal generating plate, transducers and a computer (PC) with a program in LabView to control the system. The program is able to calculate the transit time that the ultrasonic signals take to cross the tank base wall, the layer (level) of liquid and return to the transducer. Knowing the speed of the ultrasound in the wall and in the liquid it is possible to calculate the thickness of the wall and the height of the liquid. Measurements were made by filling the tank with a known volume of water and under varying temperature conditions, from room temperature to 90 deg C. The liquid heights are determined and the volume of water calculated by measuring the temperature with a digital thermometer. The volumes measured were highly accurate when compared to the known volumes

  14. Removal of Aerosol Particles Generated from Vitrification Process for High-Level Liquid Wastes

    OpenAIRE

    加藤 功

    1990-01-01

    The vitrification technology has been developed for the high-level liquid waste (HLLW) from reprocessing nuclear spent fuel in PNC. The removal performance of the aerosol particles generated from the melting process was studied in a nonradioactive full-scale mock-up test facility (MTF). The off-gas treatment system consists of submerged bed scrubber (SBS), venturi scrubber, NOx absorber, high efficiency mist eliminater (HEME). Deoomtamination factors (DFs) were derived from the mass ratio of ...

  15. The storage of liquid high level waste at BNFL, Sellafield. Addendum to February 2000 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-08-01

    On 18 February 2000 the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) published a report on the work of its Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NIl) in regulating the storage of liquid high level waste at the BNFL Sellafield site. Within the report NIl gave two undertakings. One was to publish an addendum around 1 year later covering its assessment of the new safety case for the storage plant and the second was to publish a further addendum when progress had been made with options studies for reducing the stocks of liquid high level waste (HLW), also referred to as highly active liquor (HAL), to a buffer level. A progress report was published in February 2001 which included a summary of the assessment of the new safety case and NIl's regulatory action to enforce liquid HLW stock reductions. This addendum provides a more detailed update on the position reached based on consideration of BNFL's responses to the recommendations from the February 2000 HLW report since its publication. It embodies the two addenda referred to above integrated into a single document for publication

  16. Continuous liquid level detection based on two parallel plastic optical fibers in a helical structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingzi; Hou, Yulong; Zhang, Yanjun; Hu, Yanjun; Zhang, Liang; Gao, Xiaolong; Zhang, Huixin; Liu, Wenyi

    2018-02-01

    A simple and low-cost continuous liquid-level sensor based on two parallel plastic optical fibers (POFs) in a helical structure is presented. The change in the liquid level is determined by measuring the side-coupling power in the passive fiber. The side-coupling ratio is increased by just filling the gap between the two POFs with ultraviolet-curable optical cement, making the proposed sensor competitive. The experimental results show that the side-coupling power declines as the liquid level rises. The sensitivity and the measurement range are flexible and affected by the geometric parameters of the helical structure. A higher sensitivity of 0.0208 μW/mm is acquired for a smaller curvature radius of 5 mm, and the measurement range can be expanded to 120 mm by enlarging the screw pitch to 40 mm. In addition, the reversibility and temperature dependence are studied. The proposed sensor is a cost-effective solution offering the advantages of a simple fabrication process, good reversibility, and compensable temperature dependence.

  17. Immobilization of low and intermediate level radioactive liquid wastes using some industrial by-product materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sami, N.M.; EI-Dessouky, M.I.; Abou EI-Nour, F.H.; Abdel-Khalik, M.

    2006-01-01

    Immobilization of low and intermediate level.radioactive liquid wastes in different matrices: ordinary Portland cement and cement mixed with some industrial byproduct: by-pass kiln cement dust, blast furnace slag and ceramic sludge was studied. The effect of these industrial by-product materials on the compressive strength, water immersion, radiation effect and teachability were investigated. The obtained results showed that, these industrial by-product improve the cement pastes where they increase the compressive strength, decrease the leaching rate for radioactive cesium-137 and cobalt-60 ions through the solidified waste forms and increase resistance for y-radiation. It is found that, solidified waste forms of intermediate level liquid waste (ILLW) had high compressive strength values more than those obtained from low level liquid waste (LLLW). The compressive strength increased after immersion in different leachant for one and three months for samples with LLLW higher than those obtained for ILLW. The cumulative fractions released of cesium-137 and cobalt-60 of solidified waste forms of LLLW was lower than those obtained for ILLW

  18. Disposal of the radioactive effluents at the 'Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique'. Treatment leading to evacuation into a river; Probleme du rejet des residus radioactifs liquides au CEA. Traitements aboutissant a des rejets en riviere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duhamel,; Menoux,; Candillon, [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    The problems dealing with the treatment of the radioactive effluents at the 'Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique' have been studied in order to allow evacuation into a river - after treatment - with respect for the standards regarding radiation protection. 2) At Saclay where there is no possibility of evacuating the effluents, the liquids are directed towards Fontenay-aux-Roses by means of tank wagons. They are removed temporarily into the sewers and will be evacuated later on into the Seine. 3) ln Le Bouchet, the effluents coming from the Factory where urano-thorianite ore is treated will undergo a two stages treatment. The elimination of radium in the first phase facilitates decontamination in the second phase. 4) In Marcoule: a study of synthetic effluents of the Marcoule type is being carried on in order to perfect a selective elimination method of Sr{sup 90} and Cs{sup 137} by coprecipitation. 5) In the general case of the final evacuation into a river, the following problems have been studied: - pre-dilution of treated waters between the storing tanks and the river; - admission in the river; dilution in the river (preliminary study by means of a tracer); - evolution of the activity in the water of the river (adsorption by inert or living elements), contamination of the banks; - locating of the site; - isotopic dilution. 6) Circumstantial study of that last problem. 7) The quantity of a given product in water conditions the isotopic dilution of its radioactive isotopes. When the analysis shows the lack of an element, stable isotopes should be added in order to compensate it. 8) That method led to difficult analysis (specially as far as Sr{sup 90} is concerned), for the percentage of stable isotopes necessary to an important isotopic dilution is very low. 9) The standard regarding the quantity of Sr{sup 90} in drinking water is 8.10{sup -8} c/m{sup 3} or 4.10{sup -10} g/m{sup 3}. So a percentage of 40 {mu}g/litre of Sr is enough which is difficult to find out in

  19. Long-Period Fiber Grating Sensors for the Measurement of Liquid Level and Fluid-Flow Velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Neng; Luo, Ching-Ying

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the development and assessment of two types of Long Period Fiber Grating (LPFG)-based sensors including a mobile liquid level sensor and a reflective sensor for the measurement of liquid level and fluid-flow velocity. Shewhart control charts were used to assess the liquid level sensing capacity and reliability of the mobile CO2-laser engraved LPFG sensor. There were ten groups of different liquid level experiment and each group underwent ten repeated wavelength shift measurements. The results showed that all measurands were within the control limits; thus, this mobile sensor was reliable and exhibited at least 100-cm liquid level measurement capacity. In addition, a reflective sensor consisting of five LPFGs in series with a reflective end has been developed to evaluate the liquid level and fluid-flow velocity. These five LPFGs were fabricated by the electrical arc discharge method and the reflective end was coated with silver by Tollen's test. After each liquid level experiment was performed five times, the average values of the resonance wavelength shifts for LPFG Nos. 1–5 were in the range of 1.35–9.14 nm. The experimental findings showed that the reflective sensor could be used to automatically monitor five fixed liquid levels. This reflective sensor also exhibited at least 100-cm liquid level measurement capacity. The mechanism of the fluid-flow velocity sensor was based on analyzing the relationship among the optical power, time, and the LPFG's length. There were two types of fluid-flow velocity measurements: inflow and drainage processes. The differences between the LPFG-based fluid-flow velocities and the measured average fluid-flow velocities were found in the range of 8.7–12.6%. For the first time to our knowledge, we have demonstrated the feasibility of liquid level and fluid-flow velocity sensing with a reflective LPFG-based sensor without modifying LPFGs or coating chemical compounds. PMID:22666046

  20. Long-period fiber grating sensors for the measurement of liquid level and fluid-flow velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Neng; Luo, Ching-Ying

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the development and assessment of two types of Long Period Fiber Grating (LPFG)-based sensors including a mobile liquid level sensor and a reflective sensor for the measurement of liquid level and fluid-flow velocity. Shewhart control charts were used to assess the liquid level sensing capacity and reliability of the mobile CO(2)-laser engraved LPFG sensor. There were ten groups of different liquid level experiment and each group underwent ten repeated wavelength shift measurements. The results showed that all measurands were within the control limits; thus, this mobile sensor was reliable and exhibited at least 100-cm liquid level measurement capacity. In addition, a reflective sensor consisting of five LPFGs in series with a reflective end has been developed to evaluate the liquid level and fluid-flow velocity. These five LPFGs were fabricated by the electrical arc discharge method and the reflective end was coated with silver by Tollen's test. After each liquid level experiment was performed five times, the average values of the resonance wavelength shifts for LPFG Nos. 1-5 were in the range of 1.35-9.14 nm. The experimental findings showed that the reflective sensor could be used to automatically monitor five fixed liquid levels. This reflective sensor also exhibited at least 100-cm liquid level measurement capacity. The mechanism of the fluid-flow velocity sensor was based on analyzing the relationship among the optical power, time, and the LPFG's length. There were two types of fluid-flow velocity measurements: inflow and drainage processes. The differences between the LPFG-based fluid-flow velocities and the measured average fluid-flow velocities were found in the range of 8.7-12.6%. For the first time to our knowledge, we have demonstrated the feasibility of liquid level and fluid-flow velocity sensing with a reflective LPFG-based sensor without modifying LPFGs or coating chemical compounds.

  1. Decision no 2010-DC-0188 by the Nuclear Safety Authority on the 7. of July 2010 specifying to Electricite de France-Societe Anonyme (EDF-SA) the limits of releases in the environment of liquid and gaseous effluents for the operation of Flamanville 1 (IBN n 108), Flamanville 2 (INB n 109) and Flamanville 3 (INB n 167) reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This document contains references to the different legal and official documents (codes, orders, minister's opinion, public surveys, administrative authorizations, local community opinion) at the root of this specification of limits related to releases in the environment of liquid and gaseous effluents by the three Flamanville nuclear reactors operated by Electricite de France-Societe Anonyme (EDF-SA). Tables present the limits for different gaseous and liquid radioactive emissions (carbon 14, hydrogen 3, iodine, radioactive rare earths, and other beta and gamma emitters) from these different installations, but also the maximum admitted concentrations for gaseous chemical effluents (boric acid, hydrazine hydrate, morpholine, phosphates, nitrates, various metals, and so on). The limits for thermal releases are also specified

  2. Decision no 2009-DC-0158 of the 15. of September 2009 by the Nuclear Safety Authority specifying instructions related to modalities of water sampling and consumption, and of release in the environment of liquid and gaseous effluents from the base nuclear installation n. 29 operated by the CIS Bio International on the district of Saclay (Essonne department)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    After references to the different legal and official documents (codes, orders, minister's opinion, public surveys, administrative authorizations, local community opinion), this document specifies the instructions related to modalities of water sampling and consumption, and of release in the environment of liquid and gaseous effluents from the base nuclear installation operated by CIS Bio International in Saclay. These instructions and provisions concern the general means implemented by the operator, records, the control by authorities, the limits of water sampling and consumption, the water sampling process, the sampling works and their maintenance and control, the release of liquid, gaseous and radioactive effluents, their control and their transfer, the limit values for different compounds and species, the control of environment around the site, the information of authorities and of population

  3. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the 325 Radiochemical Processing Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shields, K.D.; Ballinger, M.Y.

    1999-03-01

    This Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan (FEMP) has been prepared for the 325 Building Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to meet the requirements in DOE Order 5400.1, ''General Environmental Protection Programs.'' This FEMP has been prepared for the RPL primarily because it has a ''major'' (potential to emit >0.1 mrem/yr) emission point for radionuclide air emissions according to the annual National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) assessment performed. This section summarizes the airborne and liquid effluents and the inventory based NESHAP assessment for the facility. The complete monitoring plan includes characterization of effluent streams, monitoring/sampling design criteria, a description of the monitoring systems and sample analysis, and quality assurance requirements. The RPL at PNNL houses radiochemistry research, radioanalytical service, radiochemical process development, and hazardous and radioactive mixed waste treatment activities. The laboratories and specialized facilities enable work ranging from that with nonradioactive materials to work with picogram to kilogram quantities of fissionable materials and up to megacurie quantities of other radionuclides. The special facilities within the building include two shielded hot-cell areas that provide for process development or analytical chemistry work with highly radioactive materials and a waste treatment facility for processing hazardous, mixed radioactive, low-level radioactive, and transuranic wastes generated by PNNL activities

  4. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the 325 Radiochemical Processing Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shields, K.D.; Ballinger, M.Y.

    1999-04-02

    This Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan (FEMP) has been prepared for the 325 Building Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to meet the requirements in DOE Order 5400.1, ''General Environmental Protection Programs.'' This FEMP has been prepared for the RPL primarily because it has a ''major'' (potential to emit >0.1 mrem/yr) emission point for radionuclide air emissions according to the annual National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) assessment performed. This section summarizes the airborne and liquid effluents and the inventory based NESHAP assessment for the facility. The complete monitoring plan includes characterization of effluent streams, monitoring/sampling design criteria, a description of the monitoring systems and sample analysis, and quality assurance requirements. The RPL at PNNL houses radiochemistry research, radioanalytical service, radiochemical process development, and hazardous and radioactive mixed waste treatment activities. The laboratories and specialized facilities enable work ranging from that with nonradioactive materials to work with picogram to kilogram quantities of fissionable materials and up to megacurie quantities of other radionuclides. The special facilities within the building include two shielded hot-cell areas that provide for process development or analytical chemistry work with highly radioactive materials and a waste treatment facility for processing hazardous, mixed radioactive, low-level radioactive, and transuranic wastes generated by PNNL activities.

  5. Level trend analysis summary report for Oak Ridge National Laboratory inactive liquid low-level waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory facilities have produced liquid low-level waste (LLLW) that is radioactive and/or hazardous. Storage tanks have been used to collect and store these wastes. Most of the collection system, including the tanks, is located below the ground surface. Many of the systems have been removed from service (i.e., are not inactive) but contain residual amounts of waste liquid and sludges. A plan of action has been developed by DOE to ensure that environmental impacts from the waste remaining in the inactive tanks system are minimized. The Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) does not require any type of testing or monitoring for the inactive LLLW tanks that are removed from service but does require waste characterization of tanks contents, risk characterization of tanks removed from service, and remediation of the inactive tanks and their contents. This report is form information only and is not required by the FFA. It includes a description of the methodology and results of level trend analyses for the Category D tanks listed in the FFA that currently belong to the Environmental Restoration Program

  6. Low level radioactive waste management and discharge policies in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oezdemir, T.; Oezdemir, C.; Uslu, I.

    2005-01-01

    The legal infrastructure in Turkey for the management of low-level radioactive waste covers the liquid, solid and gaseous wastes. Management of these radioactive wastes is briefly described in this paper. Moreover, delay and decay tank systems that are used to collect and store the low level radioactive wastes as a part of low-level radioactive effluent discharge policy are introduced. (author)

  7. Design and construction of the low-level liquid waste treatment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, M.N.; Mateer, W.E.; Metzler, G.H.; Reeves, S.R.; Rickettson, D.J.

    1989-03-01

    This report describes the design and construction of the Low-Level Liquid Waste Treatment System (LWTS). The LWTS is part of a system that will prepare High-Level Radioactive Waste for solidification in glass. This preparation includes removal of water and salts from the stored waste. The topics addressed are: the design objective to reuse the Process Building to contain LWTS, the special considerations that arise when building a new system inside a decontaminated facility, interface to existing plant systems, phased construction, and construction testing. 8 refs., 24 figs

  8. Decision no 2010-DC-0183 by the Nuclear Safety Authority on the 18. of May 2010 specifying instructions related to modalities of water sampling and consumption, and of release in the environment of liquid and gaseous effluents from the base nuclear installations no 46, no 74 and no 100 operated by Electricite de France-Societe Anonyme (EDF-SA) on the district of Saint-Laurent-Nouan (Loir-et-Cher department)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    After references to the different legal and official documents (codes, orders, minister's opinion, public surveys, administrative authorizations, local community opinion), this document specifies the instructions related to modalities of water sampling and consumption, and of release in the environment of liquid and gaseous effluents from some specific base nuclear installations. These instructions and provisions concern the general means implemented by the operator, records, the control by authorities, the limits of water sampling and consumption, the water sampling process, the sampling works and their maintenance and control, the release of liquid, gaseous and radioactive effluents, their control, and the information of authorities and of population

  9. Actinide partitioning from high level liquid waste using the Diamex process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madic, C.; Blanc, P.; Condamines, N.; Baron, P.; Berthon, L.; Nicol, C.; Pozo, C.; Lecomte, M.; Philippe, M.; Masson, M.; Hequet, C.

    1994-01-01

    The removal of long-lived radionuclides, which belong to the so-called minor actinides elements, neptunium, americium and curium, from the high level nuclear wastes separated during the reprocessing of the irradiated nuclear fuels in order to transmute them into short-lived nuclides, can substantially decrease the potential hazards associated with the management of these nuclear wastes. In order to separate minor actinides from high-level liquid wastes (HLLW), a liquid-liquid extraction process was considered, based on the use of diamide molecules, which display the property of being totally burnable, thus they do not generate secondary solid wastes. The main extracting properties of dimethyldibutyltetradecylmalonamide (DMDBTDMA), the diamide selected for the development of the DIAMEX process, are briefly described in this paper. Hot tests of the DIAMEX process (using DMDBTDMA) related to the treatment of an mixed oxide fuels (MOX) type HLLW, were successfully performed. The minor actinide decontamination factors of the HLLW obtained were encouraging. The main results of these tests are presented and discussed in this paper. (authors). 9 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs

  10. Intensity liquid level sensor based on multimode interference and fiber Bragg grating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Ricardo; Aristilde, Stenio; Osório, Jonas H; Cordeiro, Cristiano M B; Franco, Marcos A R; Bilro, Lúcia; Nogueira, Rogério N

    2016-01-01

    In this paper an intensity liquid level sensor based on a single-mode—no-core—single-mode (SMS) fiber structure together with a Bragg grating inscribed in the later single mode fiber is proposed. As the no-core fiber is sensitive to the external refractive index, the SMS spectral response will be shifted related to the length of no-core fiber that is immersed in a liquid. By positioning the FBG central wavelength at the spectral region of the SMS edge filter, it is possible to measure the liquid level using the reflected FBG peak power through an intensity-based approach. The sensor is also self-referenced using the peak power of another FBG that is placed before and far from the sensing part. The temperature error analysis was also studied revealing that the sensor can operate in environments where the temperature changes are minimal. The possibility to use a second setup that makes the whole device temperature insensitive is also discussed. (paper)

  11. Solidification of intermediate level liquid waste - ILLW, CEMEX waste form qualification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Andrea, V.; Guerra, M.; Pancotti, F.; Maio, V.

    2015-01-01

    In the Sogin EUREX Facility about 125 m 3 of intermediate level radioactive waste and about 113 m 3 of low level radioactive waste, produced during the re-processing of MTR and CANDU fuel, are stored. Solidification of these wastes is planned in order to fulfill the specific requirements established by the Safety Authority, taking into account the criteria set up in a Technical Guide on the issue of radioactive waste management. The design of a cementation plant (CEMEX) of all liquid radioactive wastes is currently ongoing. The process requires that the liquid waste is neutralized with NaOH (NaOH 19 M) and metered into 440 liter drum together with the cement, while the mixture is stirred by a lost paddle ('in drum mixing process'). The qualification of the Waste Form consists of all the activities demonstrating that the final cemented product has the minimum requirements (mechanical, chemical and physical characteristics) compliant with all the subsequent management phases: long-term interim storage, transport and long-term disposal of the waste. All tests performed to qualify the conditioning process for immobilizing first extraction cycle (MTR and CANDU) and second extraction cycle liquid wastes, gave results in compliance with the minimum requirements established for disposal

  12. Melton Valley liquid low-level radioactive waste storage tanks evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    The Melton Valley Liquid Low-Level Radioactive Waste Storage Tanks (MVSTs) store the evaporator concentrates from the Liquid Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLLW) System at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The eight stainless steel tanks contain approximately 375,000 gallons of liquid and sludge waste. These are some of the newer, better-designed tanks in the LLLW System. They have been evaluated and found by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation to comply with all Federal Facility Agreement requirements for double containment. The operations and maintenance aspects of the tanks were also reviewed by the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) in September 1994. This document also contains an assessment of the risk to the public and ORNL workers from a leak in one of the MVSTs. Two primary scenarios were investigated: (1) exposure of the public to radiation from drinking Clinch River water contaminated by leaked LLLW, and (2) exposure of on-site workers to radiation by inhaling air contaminated by leaked LLLW. The estimated frequency of a leak from one of the MVSTs is about 8 x 10 -4 events per year, or about once in 1200 years (with a 95% confidence level). If a leak were to occur, the dose to a worker from inhalation would be about 2.3 x 10 -1 mrem (with a 95% confidence level). The dose to a member of the public through the drinking water pathway is estimated to be about 7 x 10 -1 mrem (with a 95% confidence level). By comparison with EPA Safe Drinking Water regulations, the allowable lifetime radiation dose is about 300 mrem. Thus, a postulated LLLW leak from the MVSTs would not add appreciably to an individual's lifetime radiation dose

  13. Stabilization of liquid low-level and mixed wastes: a treatability study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, S.; Cheng, Yu-Cheng; Yellowhorse, L.; Peterson, P.

    1996-01-01

    A treatability study has been conducted on liquid low-level and mixed wastes using the stabilization agents Aquaset, Aquaset II, Aquaset II-H, Petroset, Petroset-H, and Petroset and Petroset II. A total of 40 different waste types with activities ranging from 10 -14 to 10 -4 curies/ml have been stabilized. Reported data for each waste include its chemical and radiological composition and the optimum composition or range of compositions (weight of agent/volume of waste) for each stabilization agent used. All wastes were successfully stabilized with one or more of the stabilization agents and all final waste forms passed the Paint Filter Liquids Test (EPA Method 9095)

  14. Molecular-level mechanisms of vibrational frequency shifts in a polar liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Christine M; Thompson, Ward H

    2011-06-16

    A molecular-level analysis of the origins of the vibrational frequency shifts of the CN stretching mode in neat liquid acetonitrile is presented. The frequency shifts and infrared spectrum are calculated using a perturbation theory approach within a molecular dynamics simulation and are in good agreement with measured values reported in the literature. The resulting instantaneous frequency of each nitrile group is decomposed into the contributions from each molecule in the liquid and by interaction type. This provides a detailed picture of the mechanisms of frequency shifts, including the number of surrounding molecules that contribute to the shift, the relationship between their position and relative contribution, and the roles of electrostatic and van der Waals interactions. These results provide insight into what information is contained in infrared (IR) and Raman spectra about the environment of the probed vibrational mode. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  15. Transition Temperatures of Thermotropic Liquid Crystals from the Local Binary Gray Level Cooccurrence Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sreehari Sastry

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method which combines the statistical analysis with texture structural analysis called Local Binary Gray Level Cooccurrence Matrix (LBGLCM to investigate the phase transition temperatures of thermotropic p,n-alkyloxy benzoic acid (nOBA, n=4,6,8,10 and 12 liquid crystals. Textures of the homeotropically aligned liquid crystal compounds are recorded as a function of temperature using polarizing optical microscope attached to the hot stage and high resolution camera. In this method, second-order statistical parameters (contrast, energy, homogeneity, and correlation are extracted from the LBGLCM of the textures. The changes associatedwiththe values of extracted parameters as a function of temperature are a helpful process to identify the phases and phase transition temperatures of the samples. Results obtained from this method have validity and are in good agreement with the literature.

  16. FY 1995 separation studies for liquid low-level waste treatment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostick, D.T.; Arnold, W.D.; Burgess, M.W.

    1995-01-01

    During FY 1995, studies were continued to develop improved methods for centralized treatment of liquid low-level waste (LLLW) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Focus in this reporting period was on (1) identifying the parameters that affect the selective removal of 90 Sr and 137 Cs, two of the principal radioactive contaminants expected in the waste; (2) validating the effectiveness of the treatment methods by testing an ac Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) supernate; (3) evaluating the optimum solid/liquid separation techniques for the waste; (4) identifying potential treatment methods for removal of technetium from LLLW; and (5) identifying potential methods for stabilizing the high-activity secondary solid wastes generated by the treatment

  17. Environmental and effluent monitoring at ANSTO sites, 2004-2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, Emmy L.; Loosz, Tom; Ferris, John M.; Harrison, Jennifer J.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents the results of ANSTO's environmental and effluent monitoring at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre (LHSTC) and the National Medical Cyclotron (NMC) sites, from July 2004 to June 2005. Effective doses to the critical group of members of the public potentially affected by routine airborne emissions from the LHSTC were less than 0.005 mSv/year. This estimated maximum potential dose is less than 24% of the ANSTO ALARA objective of 0.02 mSv/year, and much lower than the public dose limit of 1 mSv/year that is recommended by the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA). The effective doses to the critical group of members of the public potentially exposed to routine liquid effluent releases from the LHSTC have been realistically estimated as a quarter (or less) of the estimated doses to the critical group for airborne releases. The levels of tritium detected in groundwater and stormwater at the LHSTC were less than those set out in the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines. The airborne and liquid effluent emissions from the NMC were below both the ARPANSA-approved notification levels and Sydney Water limits for acceptance of trade wastewater to sewer. Results of environmental monitoring at both ANSTO sites confirm that the facilities continue to be operated well within regulatory limits. ANSTO's routine operations at the LHSTC and NMC make only a very small addition to the natural background radiation dose of ∼1.5 mSv/year experienced by members of the Australian public

  18. Development of Fe-based superconducting wires for liquid-hydrogen level sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, S.; Tsuchiya, Y.; Mawatari, Y.; Eisaki, H.; Nakano, A.; Yoshida, Y.

    2017-07-01

    We developed liquid-hydrogen (LH2) level sensors with Ba(Fe1-x Co x )2As2 superconducting wires (Co-Ba122 wires) as their detection elements. We fabricated Co-Ba122 wires with different Co concentrations x by using the powder-in-tube method. The superconducting transition temperatures of the wires were successfully controlled in the range of 20-25 K by changing x from 0.06 to 0.10. The resistance-temperature curves of the wires exhibited sharp superconducting transitions with widths of 0.5-1.0 K. In addition, we performed an operation test of the Co-Ba122 level sensors with LH2. Close correspondence between the output resistance and the actual LH2 level was observed for a sensor equipped with x = 0.09 wire, demonstrating that this sensor can accurately measure LH2 levels.

  19. Design and construction of an optical sensor for liquid level control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razani, M.; Golnabi, H.; Dabbaghian, M. H.; Dariani, R. S.; Vaziri, N.; Hojabri, A.

    2010-01-01

    Design and construction of an optical sensor for liquid level control is reported here. Operation of this sensor is based on the intensity modulation. The modulated light intensity is detected by total internal reflection in a prism. The variation of output intensity is measured by an optical detector and is monitored by a digital voltmeter. This optical fiber sensor is used for water level measurement in this experiment. For a white light source, the output voltage in the case of low water level is equal to 480 mV and when the water level reaches to prism reduced to 8 mV. Height measurement accuracy in this system is about ±1mm.

  20. Calibration of a liquid scintillation counter to assess tritium levels in various samples

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Haddad, M N; Abu-Jarad, F A

    1999-01-01

    An LKB-Wallac 1217 Liquid Scintillation Counter (LSC) was calibrated with a newly adopted cocktail. The LSC was then used to measure tritium levels in various samples to assess the compliance of tritium levels with the recommended international levels. The counter was calibrated to measure both biological and operational samples for personnel and for an accelerator facility at KFUPM. The biological samples include the bioassay (urine), saliva, and nasal tests. The operational samples of the light ion linear accelerator include target cooling water, organic oil, fomblin oil, and smear samples. Sets of standards, which simulate various samples, were fabricated using traceable certified tritium standards. The efficiency of the counter was obtained for each sample. The typical range of the efficiencies varied from 33% for smear samples down to 1.5% for organic oil samples. A quenching curve for each sample is presented. The minimum detectable activity for each sample was established. Typical tritium levels in bio...

  1. Method for removing and decolorizing aqueous waste effluents containing dissolved or dispersed organic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Case, F.N.; Ketchen, E.E.

    1975-01-01

    A method is provided for treating organic waste material dissolved or dispersed in an aqueous effluent, which comprises contacting the effluent with an inert particulate carbonaceous sorbent at an oxygen pressure up to 2000 psi, irradiating the resultant mixture with high energy radiation until a decolorized liquid is produced, and then separating the decolorized liquid

  2. Quality Assurance Program Plan for FFTF effluent controls. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seamans, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    This Quality Assurance Program Plan is specific to environmental related activities within the FFTF Property Protected Area. The activities include effluent monitoring and Low Level Waste Certification

  3. A sequential and fast method for low level of 226Ra , 228Ra, 210Pb e 210Po in mine effluents and uranium processing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taddei, M.H.T.; Taddei, J.F.A.C.

    2005-01-01

    Due to biological risk and long half lives, the radionuclides 228 Ra, 226 Ra, 210 Pb and 210 Po should be frequently monitored to check for any environmental contamination around mines and uranium plants. Currently, the methods used for the determination of these radionuclides take about thirty days to reach the radioactive equilibrium of the 210 Pb and 226 Ra daughter's. The evaluation of effluent discharges and leakage of deposits to water bodies in monitoring programs, require quick answers to implement corrective measures. Thereby fast determination methods must be implemented. This work presents a fast and sequential method to, in three days, determine accurately and sensitively, 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 210 Pb, 210 Po, in water and effluent samples

  4. Biochemical process of low level radioactive liquid simulation waste containing detergent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundari, Noor Anis; Putra, Sugili; Mukaromah, Umi

    2015-01-01

    Research of biochemical process of low level radioactive liquid waste containing detergent has been done. Thse organic liquid wastes are generated in nuclear facilities such as from laundry. The wastes that are cotegorized as hazard and poison materials are also radioactive. It must be treated properly by detoxification of the hazard and decontamination of the radionuclides to ensure that the disposal of the waste meets the requirement of standard quality of water. This research was intended to determine decontamination factor and separation efficiensies, its kinetics law, and to produce a supernatant that ensured the environmental quality standard. The radioactive element in the waste was thorium with activity of 5.10 −5 Ci/m 3 . The radioactive liquid waste which were generated in simulation plant contains detergents that was further processed by aerobic biochemical process using SGB 103 bacteria in a batch reactor equipped with aerators. Two different concentration of samples were processed and analyzed for 212 hours and 183 hours respectively at a room temperature. The product of this process is a liquid phase called as supernatant and solid phase material called sludge. The chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), suspended solid (SS), and its alpha activity were analyzed. The results show that the decontamination factor and the separation efficiency of the lower concentration samples are higher compared to the samples with high concentration. Regarding the decontamination factor, the result for 212 hours processing of waste with detergent concentration of 1.496 g/L was 3.496 times, whereas at the detergent concentration of 0.748 g/L was 15.305 times for 183 hours processing. In case of the separation efficiency, the results for both samples were 71.396% and 93.465% respectively. The Bacterial growth kinetics equation follow Monod’s model and the decreasing of COD and BOD were first order with the rate constant of 0.01 hour −1

  5. Biochemical process of low level radioactive liquid simulation waste containing detergent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundari, Noor Anis, E-mail: nooranis@batan.go.id; Putra, Sugili; Mukaromah, Umi [Sekolah Tinggi Teknologi Nuklir – Badan Tenaga Nuklir Nasional Jl. Babarsari P.O. BOX 6101 YKBB Yogyakarta 55281 Telp : (0274) 48085, 489716, Fax : (0274) 489715 (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    Research of biochemical process of low level radioactive liquid waste containing detergent has been done. Thse organic liquid wastes are generated in nuclear facilities such as from laundry. The wastes that are cotegorized as hazard and poison materials are also radioactive. It must be treated properly by detoxification of the hazard and decontamination of the radionuclides to ensure that the disposal of the waste meets the requirement of standard quality of water. This research was intended to determine decontamination factor and separation efficiensies, its kinetics law, and to produce a supernatant that ensured the environmental quality standard. The radioactive element in the waste was thorium with activity of 5.10{sup −5} Ci/m{sup 3}. The radioactive liquid waste which were generated in simulation plant contains detergents that was further processed by aerobic biochemical process using SGB 103 bacteria in a batch reactor equipped with aerators. Two different concentration of samples were processed and analyzed for 212 hours and 183 hours respectively at a room temperature. The product of this process is a liquid phase called as supernatant and solid phase material called sludge. The chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), suspended solid (SS), and its alpha activity were analyzed. The results show that the decontamination factor and the separation efficiency of the lower concentration samples are higher compared to the samples with high concentration. Regarding the decontamination factor, the result for 212 hours processing of waste with detergent concentration of 1.496 g/L was 3.496 times, whereas at the detergent concentration of 0.748 g/L was 15.305 times for 183 hours processing. In case of the separation efficiency, the results for both samples were 71.396% and 93.465% respectively. The Bacterial growth kinetics equation follow Monod’s model and the decreasing of COD and BOD were first order with the rate constant of 0

  6. Biochemical process of low level radioactive liquid simulation waste containing detergent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundari, Noor Anis; Putra, Sugili; Mukaromah, Umi

    2015-12-01

    Research of biochemical process of low level radioactive liquid waste containing detergent has been done. Thse organic liquid wastes are generated in nuclear facilities such as from laundry. The wastes that are cotegorized as hazard and poison materials are also radioactive. It must be treated properly by detoxification of the hazard and decontamination of the radionuclides to ensure that the disposal of the waste meets the requirement of standard quality of water. This research was intended to determine decontamination factor and separation efficiensies, its kinetics law, and to produce a supernatant that ensured the environmental quality standard. The radioactive element in the waste was thorium with activity of 5.10-5 Ci/m3. The radioactive liquid waste which were generated in simulation plant contains detergents that was further processed by aerobic biochemical process using SGB 103 bacteria in a batch reactor equipped with aerators. Two different concentration of samples were processed and analyzed for 212 hours and 183 hours respectively at a room temperature. The product of this process is a liquid phase called as supernatant and solid phase material called sludge. The chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), suspended solid (SS), and its alpha activity were analyzed. The results show that the decontamination factor and the separation efficiency of the lower concentration samples are higher compared to the samples with high concentration. Regarding the decontamination factor, the result for 212 hours processing of waste with detergent concentration of 1.496 g/L was 3.496 times, whereas at the detergent concentration of 0.748 g/L was 15.305 times for 183 hours processing. In case of the separation efficiency, the results for both samples were 71.396% and 93.465% respectively. The Bacterial growth kinetics equation follow Monod's model and the decreasing of COD and BOD were first order with the rate constant of 0.01 hour-1.

  7. A method for assay of special nuclear material in high level liquid waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkata Subramani, C.R.; Swaminathan, K.; Asuvathraman, R.; Kutty, K.V.G.

    2003-01-01

    The assay of special nuclear material in the high level liquid waste streams assumes importance as this is the first stage in the extraction cycle and considerable losses of plutonium could occur here. This stream contains all the fission products as also the minor actinides and hence normal nuclear techniques cannot be used without prior separation of the special nuclear material. This paper presents the preliminary results carried out using wavelength dispersive x-ray fluorescence as part of the developmental efforts to assay SNM in these streams by instrumental techniques. (author)

  8. Use of Eichornia crassipes for treatment of low level liquid radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hafez, N.; Ramadan, Y.S.; Hassanin, R.A.; Gafez, M.B. (Atomic Energy Authority, Hot Lab. Center, Cairo (Egypt))

    1993-01-01

    Radioactive and non-radioactive isotopes of cobalt, cerium and cesium were found to be accumulated inside Eichornia crassipes (the water hyacinth). The rate and extent of accumulation were dependent upon environmental parameters such as pH, temperature and interference by certain anions and cations. The accumulation rate of radioactive isotopes inside Eichornia crassipes, were more rapid than non-active ions. The results showed that accumulation of such metals inside the plant could be used successfully in the treatment of low-level liquid radioactive wastes. (author) 4 figs., 2 tabs., 15 refs.

  9. Use of Eichornia crassipes for treatment of low level liquid radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafez, N.; Ramadan, Y.S.; Hassanin, R.A.; Gafez, M.B.

    1993-01-01

    Radioactive and non-radioactive isotopes of cobalt, cerium and cesium were found to be accumulated inside Eichornia crassipes (the water hyacinth). The rate and extent of accumulation were dependent upon environmental parameters such as pH, temperature and interference by certain anions and cations. The accumulation rate of radioactive isotopes inside Eichornia crassipes, were more rapid than non-active ions. The results showed that accumulation of such metals inside the plant could be used successfully in the treatment of low-level liquid radioactive wastes. (author) 4 figs., 2 tabs., 15 refs

  10. Denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography mutation analysis in patients with reduced Protein S levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bathum, Lise; Münster, Anna-Marie; Nybo, Mads

    2008-01-01

    diagnosis and risk estimation. The aim was to design a high-throughput genetic analysis based on denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography to identify sequence variations in the gene coding for Protein S. PATIENTS: In total, 55 patients referred to the Section of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, Odense......BACKGROUND: Patients with congenital Protein S deficiency have increased risk of venous thromboembolism. However, Protein S levels show large intra-individual variation and the biochemical assays have low accuracy and a high interlaboratory variability. Genetic analysis might aid in a more precise......, giving a precise diagnosis and subsequently a better risk estimation....

  11. Development of an improved-contact liquid-level probe for pressurized reactor vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelsey, P.V. Jr.

    1982-09-01

    Electrical-conductivity-based probes for liquid level sensing show promise for pressurized water reactor environments, but have exhibited frequent bond failures at the ceramic/metal interfaces. A program to characterize and improve the interface behavior has been completed successfully, and has provided data for optimizing fabrication parameters, as well as general information on glass-to-metal bonding in a superalloy/silicate-glass system. The materials studied were Inconel X-750 and a barium silicate glass containing minor amounts of TiO 2 , CeO 2 , As 2 O 3 , Bi 2 O 3 , and Al 2 O 3

  12. Volatilization behavior of semivolatile elements in vitrification of high-level liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, Hiroshi; Kato, Koh; Takahashi, Takeshi

    1991-11-01

    The effect of temperature on the volatilization of ruthenium, technetium, and selenium was observed in calcination experiments with simulated high-level liquid waste. Technetium and selenium were more volatile as calcining temperature increased. Ruthenium was less volatile when temperature exceeded 300degC. More than 80% of ruthenium that volatilized from room temperature to 500degC occurred between 200 and 300degC. A small amount of ruthenium volatilized above 300degC as well as below 135degC. (author)

  13. Seismic scoping evaluation of high level liquid waste tank vaults at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, P.S.; Uldrich, E.D.; McGee, W.D.

    1991-01-01

    A seismic scoping evaluation of buried vaults enclosing high level liquid waste storage tanks at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant has been performed. The objective of this evaluation was to scope out which of the vaults could be demonstrated to be seismically adequate against the Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE). Using approximate analytical methods, earthquake experience data, and engineering judgement, this study determined that one vault configuration would be expected to meet ICPP seismic design criteria, one would not be considered seismically adequate against the SSE, and one could be shown to be seismically adequate against the SSE using nonlinear analysis

  14. Apparatus for controlling coolant level in a liquid-metal-cooled nuclear reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Robert D.

    1978-01-01

    A liquid-metal-cooled fast-breeder reactor which has a thermal liner spaced inwardly of the pressure vessel and includes means for passing bypass coolant through the annulus between the thermal liner and the pressure vessel to insulate the pressure vessel from hot outlet coolant includes control ports in the thermal liner a short distance below the normal operating coolant level in the reactor and an overflow nozzle in the pressure vessel below the control ports connected to an overflow line including a portion at an elevation such that overflow coolant flow is established when the coolant level in the reactor is above the top of the coolant ports. When no makeup coolant is added, bypass flow is inwardly through the control ports and there is no overflow; when makeup coolant is being added, coolant flow through the overflow line will maintain the coolant level.

  15. Apparatus for controlling coolant level in a liquid-metal-cooled nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.D.

    1978-01-01

    A liquid-metal-cooled fast-breeder reactor which has a thermal liner spaced inwardly of the pressure vessel and includes means for passing bypass coolant through the annulus between the thermal liner and the pressure vessel to insulate the pressure vessel from hot outlet coolant includes control ports in the thermal liner a short distance below the normal operating coolant level in the reactor and an overflow nozzle in the pressure vessel below the control ports connected to an overflow line including a portion at an elevation such that overflow coolant flow is established when the coolant level in the reactor is above the top of the coolant ports. When no makeup coolant is added, bypass flow is inwardly through the control ports and there is no overflow; when makeup coolant is being added, coolant flow through the overflow line will maintain the coolant level

  16. Studies on the feasibility of using crystalline silicotitanates for the separation of cesium-137 from fast reactor high-level liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatesan, K.A.; Sukumaran, V.; Antony, M.P.; Srinivasan, T.G.

    2009-01-01

    The commercially available crystalline silicotitanate inorganic ion xchanger, IONSIV IE-911, and its parent precursor, TAM-5, have been valuated for the removal of 137 Cs from nitric acid medium and simulated high-level liquid waste. The distribution coefficient (K d ) of cesium ecreased with increasing nitric acid concentration and at 3.0 M nitric acid, distribution coefficient of 1150 mL/g and 2600 mL/g were obtained for ONSIV IE-911 and TAM-5, respectively. Rapid uptake of cesium followed by the establishment of equilibrium occurring within three hours. Loading of cesium n ion exchangers increased with the increase in the concentration of cesium n aqueous phase and from Langmuir adsorption model the apparent capacity of cesium was 69 mg/g and 82 mg/g for IONSIV IE-911 and TAM-5, respectively. The performance of the sorbent under dynamic conditions was assessed by following breakthrough (BT) curve up to C/C o = 1, where C and C o are the concentrations of cesium in the effluent and feed, respectively. (author)

  17. Experimental Investigation of Liquid-Level Measuring Accuracy in a Low Pressure Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamson, D.J.

    1996-10-01

    Dip Tubes which are used for determining liquid level in many processes at SRS will be used to measure the liquid level of the Am/Cm solution in the Feed Tank at the MPPF. The Feed Tank operates under a vacuum, therefore the Dip Tubes will operate under a vacuum. Uncertainty in how accurate the Dip Tubes would perform in a vacuum environment led to testing. The Am/Cm Melter Liquid-Feed Tank measurement test was mocked-up per Figure 1. The Feed Tank was designed to simulate actual conditions in which the Dip Tubes would measure the differential pressure. The Feed Tank was made of Stainless Steel with a Lexan window to view inside the tank during testing. The Feed Tank was built per Drawing SRT-ETF-DD-96008, Revision A. The accuracy of the Dip Tubes was checked first by filling the Feed Tank at a flow rate of 3.5 L/min and venting it to the atmosphere. Figure 2 shows that the Dip Tubes were responsive and accurate when compared to the data from the measuring scale on the view window. Then tests were conducted with 23y Hg vacuum inside the tank and water flow rates of 3.9 L/min, 1.8 L/min, and 0.7 L/min being fed to the tank. The data from each test are depicted in Figure 3, Figure 4, and Figure 5, respectively. The Dip Tubes responded accurately for the three test with a maximum error range of +0.31y to -0.19y when compared to the measuring scale located next to the view window on the Feed Tank

  18. modelling effluent assimila modelling effluent assimilat modelling

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    G EFFLUENT ASSIMILATIVE CAPACITY OF IKPOBA RIVE. BENIN CITY, NIGERIA ... l purposes to communities rse such as ... treat in order for it to meet the aforeme of the communities. It is therefore i ..... Substituting and integrating yields the following equations ..... Purification Potentials of Small Tropical Urban. Stream: A ...

  19. On-Site Decontamination System for Liquid Low Level Radioactive Waste - 13010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OSMANLIOGLU, Ahmet Erdal [Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center, Kucukcekmece Istanbul (Turkey)

    2013-07-01

    This study is based on an evaluation of purification methods for liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW) by using natural zeolite. Generally the volume of liquid low-level waste is relatively large and the specific activity is rather low when compared to other radioactive waste types. In this study, a pilot scale column was used with natural zeolite as an ion exchanger media. Decontamination and minimization of LLLW especially at the generation site decrease operational cost in waste management operations. Portable pilot scale column was constructed for decontamination of LLW on site. Effect of temperature on the radionuclide adsorption of the zeolite was determined to optimize the waste solution temperature for the plant scale operations. In addition, effect of pH on the radionuclide uptake of the zeolite column was determined to optimize the waste solution pH for the plant scale operations. The advantages of this method used for the processing of LLLW are discussed in this paper. (authors)

  20. Evaporation studies on Oak Ridge National Laboratory liquid low-level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, V.L. [PAI Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Perona, J.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-03-01

    Evaporation studies were performed with Melton Valley storage tank liquid low-level radioactive waste concentrate and with surrogates (nonradioactive) to determine the feasibility of a proposed out-of-tank-evaporation project. Bench-scale tests indicated that volume reductions ranging from 30 to 55% could be attained. Vendor-site tests were conducted (with surrogate waste forms) using a bench-scale single-stage, low-pressure (subatmospheric), low-temperature (120 to 173{degree}F) evaporator similar to units in operation at several nuclear facilities. Vendor tests were successful; a 30% volume reduction was attained with no crystallization of solids and no foaming, as would be expected from a high pH solution. No fouling of the heat exchanger surfaces occurred during these tests. It is projected that 52,000 to 120,000 gal of water could be evaporated from the supernate stored in the Melton and Bethel Valley liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW) storage tanks with this type of evaporator.

  1. A Continuous Liquid-Level Sensor for Fuel Tanks Based on Surface Plasmon Resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio M. Pozo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A standard problem in large tanks at oil refineries and petrol stations is that water and fuel usually occupy the same tank. This is undesirable and causes problems such as corrosion in the tanks. Normally, the water level in tanks is unknown, with the problems that this entails. We propose herein a method based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR to detect in real time the interfaces in a tank which can simultaneously contain water, gasoline (or diesel and air. The plasmonic sensor is composed of a hemispherical glass prism, a magnesium fluoride layer, and a gold layer. We have optimized the structural parameters of the sensor from the theoretical modeling of the reflectance curve. The sensor detects water-fuel and fuel-air interfaces and measures the level of each liquid in real time. This sensor is recommended for inflammable liquids because inside the tank there are no electrical or electronic signals which could cause explosions. The sensor proposed has a sensitivity of between 1.2 and 3.5 RIU−1 and a resolution of between 5.7 × 10−4 and 16.5 × 10−4 RIU.

  2. Excitation of high energy levels under laser exposure of suspensions of nanoparticles in liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafeev, G.A. [Wave Research Center of A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute, 38, Vavilov Street, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)], E-mail: shafeev@kapella.gpi.ru; Simakin, A.V. [Wave Research Center of A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute, 38, Vavilov Street, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Bozon-Verduraz, F. [ITODYS, UMR CNRS 7086, Universite Paris 7-Denis Diderot, 2, place Jussieu, 75251 Paris cedex 05 (France); Robert, M. [Laboratoire d' Electrochimie Moleculaire, UMR CNRS 7591, Universite Paris 7 Denis Diderot, 2, place Jussieu, 75251 Paris cedex 05 (France)

    2007-12-15

    Laser exposure of suspensions of nanoparticles in liquids leads to excitation of high energy levels in both liquid and nanoparticle material. The emission spectrum of the colloidal solution under exposure of a suspension metallic nanoparticles in water to radiation of a Nd:YAG laser of a picosecond range of pulse duration is discussed. Excitation of nuclear energy levels and neutron release is experimentally studied on the model system of transmutation of Hg into Au that occurs under exposure of Hg nanodrops suspended in D{sub 2}O. The proposed mechanism involves: (i) emission of X-ray photons by Hg nanoparticles upon laser exposure, leading to neutron release from D{sub 2}O, (ii) initiation of Hg {yields} Au transmutation by the capture of neutrons. The effect of transmutation is more pronounced using {sup 196}Hg isotope instead of Hg of natural isotope composition. The influence of laser pulse duration on the degree of transmutation (from fs through ns range) is discussed.

  3. EU-wide monitoring survey on emerging polar organic contaminants in wastewater treatment plant effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, Robert; Carvalho, Raquel; António, Diana C; Comero, Sara; Locoro, Giovanni; Tavazzi, Simona; Paracchini, Bruno; Ghiani, Michela; Lettieri, Teresa; Blaha, Ludek; Jarosova, Barbora; Voorspoels, Stefan; Servaes, Kelly; Haglund, Peter; Fick, Jerker; Lindberg, Richard H; Schwesig, David; Gawlik, Bernd M

    2013-11-01

    In the year 2010, effluents from 90 European wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were analyzed for 156 polar organic chemical contaminants. The analyses were complemented by effect-based monitoring approaches aiming at estrogenicity and dioxin-like toxicity analyzed by in vitro reporter gene bioassays, and yeast and diatom culture acute toxicity optical bioassays. Analyses of organic substances were performed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) or liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) or gas chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS). Target microcontaminants were pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), veterinary (antibiotic) drugs, perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), organophosphate ester flame retardants, pesticides (and some metabolites), industrial chemicals such as benzotriazoles (corrosion inhibitors), iodinated x-ray contrast agents, and gadolinium magnetic resonance imaging agents; in addition biological endpoints were measured. The obtained results show the presence of 125 substances (80% of the target compounds) in European wastewater effluents, in concentrations ranging from low nanograms to milligrams per liter. These results allow for an estimation to be made of a European median level for the chemicals investigated in WWTP effluents. The most relevant compounds in the effluent waters with the highest median concentration levels were the artificial sweeteners acesulfame and sucralose, benzotriazoles (corrosion inhibitors), several organophosphate ester flame retardants and plasticizers (e.g. tris(2-chloroisopropyl)phosphate; TCPP), pharmaceutical compounds such as carbamazepine, tramadol, telmisartan, venlafaxine, irbesartan, fluconazole, oxazepam, fexofenadine, diclofenac, citalopram, codeine, bisoprolol, eprosartan, the antibiotics trimethoprim, ciprofloxacine, sulfamethoxazole, and clindamycine, the insect repellent N,N'-diethyltoluamide (DEET), the pesticides

  4. Rapid wide-scope screening of drugs of abuse, prescription drugs with potential for abuse and their metabolites in influent and effluent urban wastewater by ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, Felix; Bijlsma, Lubertus; Sancho, Juan V.; Diaz, Ramon; Ibanez, Maria

    2011-01-01

    This work illustrates the potential of hybrid quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOF MS) coupled to ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) to investigate the presence of drugs of abuse in wastewater. After solid-phase extraction with Oasis MCX cartridges, seventy-six illicit drugs, prescription drugs with potential for abuse, and metabolites were investigated in the samples by TOF MS using electrospray interface under positive ionization mode, with MS data acquired over an m/z range of 50-1000 Da. For 11 compounds, reference standards were available, and experimental data (e.g., retention time and fragmentation data) could be obtained, facilitating a more confident identification. The use of a QTOF instrument enabled the simultaneous application of two acquisition functions with different collision energies: a low energy (LE) function, where none or poor fragmentation took place, and a high energy (HE) function, where fragmentation in the collision cell was promoted. This approach, known as MS E , enabled the simultaneous acquisition of full-spectrum accurate mass data of both protonated molecules and fragment ions in a single injection, providing relevant information that facilitates the rapid detection and reliable identification of these emerging contaminants in the sample matrices analyzed. In addition, isomeric compounds, like the opiates, morphine and norcodeine, could be discriminated by their specific fragments observed in HE TOF MS spectra, without the need of reference standards. UHPLC-QTOF MS was proven to be a powerful and efficient technique for rapid wide-scope screening and identification of many relevant drugs in complex matrices, such as influent and effluent urban wastewater.

  5. Rapid wide-scope screening of drugs of abuse, prescription drugs with potential for abuse and their metabolites in influent and effluent urban wastewater by ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, Felix, E-mail: felix.hernandez@qfa.uji.es [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, University Jaume I, Avda. Sos Baynat s/n, E-12071 Castellon (Spain); Bijlsma, Lubertus, E-mail: bijlsma@guest.uji.es [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, University Jaume I, Avda. Sos Baynat s/n, E-12071 Castellon (Spain); Sancho, Juan V.; Diaz, Ramon; Ibanez, Maria [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, University Jaume I, Avda. Sos Baynat s/n, E-12071 Castellon (Spain)

    2011-01-17

    This work illustrates the potential of hybrid quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOF MS) coupled to ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) to investigate the presence of drugs of abuse in wastewater. After solid-phase extraction with Oasis MCX cartridges, seventy-six illicit drugs, prescription drugs with potential for abuse, and metabolites were investigated in the samples by TOF MS using electrospray interface under positive ionization mode, with MS data acquired over an m/z range of 50-1000 Da. For 11 compounds, reference standards were available, and experimental data (e.g., retention time and fragmentation data) could be obtained, facilitating a more confident identification. The use of a QTOF instrument enabled the simultaneous application of two acquisition functions with different collision energies: a low energy (LE) function, where none or poor fragmentation took place, and a high energy (HE) function, where fragmentation in the collision cell was promoted. This approach, known as MS{sup E}, enabled the simultaneous acquisition of full-spectrum accurate mass data of both protonated molecules and fragment ions in a single injection, providing relevant information that facilitates the rapid detection and reliable identification of these emerging contaminants in the sample matrices analyzed. In addition, isomeric compounds, like the opiates, morphine and norcodeine, could be discriminated by their specific fragments observed in HE TOF MS spectra, without the need of reference standards. UHPLC-QTOF MS was proven to be a powerful and efficient technique for rapid wide-scope screening and identification of many relevant drugs in complex matrices, such as influent and effluent urban wastewater.

  6. Seismic evaluation of existing liquid low level waste system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, C.R.; Holmes, R.M.; Kincaid, J.H.; Singhal, M.K.; Stockdale, B.I.; Walls, J.C.; Webb, D.S.

    1993-01-01

    The existing liquid low level waste (LLLW) system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is used to collect, neutralize, concentrate, and store the radioactive and toxic waste from various sources at the Laboratory. The waste solutions are discharged from source facilities to individual collection tanks, transferred by underground piping to an evaporator facility for concentration, and pumped through the underground piping to storage in underground tanks. The existing LLLW system was installed in the 1950s with several system additions up to the present. The worst-case accident postulated is an earthquake of sufficient magnitude to rupture the tanks and/or piping so as to damage the containment integrity to the surrounding soil and environment. The objective of an analysis of the system is to provide a level of confidence in the seismic resistance of the LLLW system to withstand the postulated earthquake

  7. Measurement of gross beta radioactivity in high-level liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Feng; Lin Cansheng; Zhang Xianzi; Chen Guoan; Zhang Chonghai

    1992-01-01

    Using beta plastic scintillation counter of low level background, gross beta radioactivity of twelve samples for high-level liquid waste is determined directly. Beta efficiency curves of plastic scintillation counter for four mass thickness are calibrated in advance. Determining gross beta radioactivity, gross efficiency of the scintillation counter for various energy beta ray is calculated via weighted mean method with the ratio of radioactivity for each nuclide. The ratio of radioactivity for nuclides which have gamma disintegration is determined in terms of the radioactivity measured by gamma spectrometer. The ratio of the radioactivity for 90 Sr which has purity beta disintegration is calculated in terms of half life time approximation. The ratio of the radioactivity for 147 Pm which also has purity disintegration is calculated by means of apparent cooling-time approximation. The uncertainty of results for the present work is about +-15%

  8. Solidification of low-level radioactive liquid waste using a cement-silicate process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grandlund, R.W.; Hayes, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    Extensive use has been made of silicate and Portland cement for the solidification of industrial waste and recently this method has been successfully used to solidify a variety of low level radioactive wastes. The types of wastes processed to date include fuel fabrication sludges, power reactor waste, decontamination solution, and university laboratory waste. The cement-silicate process produces a stable solid with a minimal increase in volume and the chemicals are relatively inexpensive and readily available. The method is adaptable to either batch or continuous processing and the equipment is simple. The solid has leaching characteristics similar to or better than plain Portland cement mixtures and the leaching can be further reduced by the use of ion-exchange additives. The cement-silicate process has been used to solidify waste containing high levels of boric acid, oils, and organic solvents. The experience of handling the various types of liquid waste with a cement-silicate system is described

  9. Detection of environmental radioactive contamination levels using a liquid-scintillation counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calisto, W.; Kun, A.; Campos, E.

    1981-01-01

    A high-efficiency LS-100 C liquid scintillation counter was used to detect low levels of environmental activity. Different concentrations of primary scintillator were tested and these established the most suitable values. Work was carried out at the same time to find conditions which would ensure a low background and high efficiency. To reduce the sample volume used, various types of chelating agents were utilized: 8-hydroxyquinoline (oxine), tannic acid, cupferron, dimethylglioxime and beta-naphthol. These were tested at pH levels of 1, 6 and 11. Measurements were performed by means of the Cerenkov effect using substances with differing refraction indices - 26% sodium chloride, water, glycerine, carbon bisulphide, nitrobenzene, benzyl alcohol and toluene. Finally, work was done on comparing spectra obtained by Cerenkov radiation and by 90 Sr and 90 Y beta radiation respectively. Clearly differentiated zones were obtained, thus making it possible to distinguish one isotope from another in an equilibrium solution. (author)

  10. Contaminant transport modelling in tidal influenced water body for low level liquid waste discharge out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Sanjay; Naidu, Velamala Simhadri

    2018-01-01

    Low level liquid waste is generated from nuclear reactor operation and reprocessing of spent fuel. This waste is discharged into the water body after removing bulk of its radioactivity. Dispersion of contaminant mainly depends on location of outfall and hydrodynamics of water body. For radiological impact assessment, in most of the analytical formulations, source term is taken as continuous release. However, this may not be always true as the water level is influenced by tidal movement and the selected outfall may come under intertidal zone in due course of the tidal cycle. To understand these phenomena, a case study has been carried out to evaluate hydrodynamic characteristics and dilution potential of outfall located in inter-tidal zone using numerical modelling

  11. Reduction of releases of radioactive effluents from light-water-power-reactors in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Y.; Itakura, T.; Kanai, T.

    1977-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Commission established the dose objectives to the population around the light-water-reactors in May, 1975, based on the ''ALAP'' concept. These values are respectively, 5 mrems per year for total body and 15 mrems per year for thyroid of an individual in the critical group in the environs, due to both gaseous and liquid effluents from LWRs in one site. The present paper describes the implications of the dose objective values, control measures which have been adopted to reduce releases of radioactive materials and related technical developments in Japan. The main control measures for reduction of radioactive gaseous effluents are an installation of a charcoal gas holdup system for decay of noble gases and a supply of clean steam for the gland seal of a turbine in BWR, and a storage tank system allowing decay of noble gases in PWR. For liquid effluents are taken measures to re-use them as the primary coolant. Consequently, the amounts of radioactivity released to the environment from any LWR during normal operation have been maintained under the level to meet the above dose objective values. For research reactors, reduction of release of effluents has also been carried out in a similar way to LWRs. In order to establish the techniques applicable for further reduction, studies are being made on the control measures to reduce leakage of radioiodine, an apparatus for removal of krypton, the treatment of laundry waste and measures to remove the crud in the primary coolant. Presentation is also made on the energy-integrated gas monitor for gaseous effluent and systems of measuring γ dose from radioactive cloud descriminating from natural background, which have been developed for effective monitoring thus reduced environmental dose

  12. FULL SCALE TESTING TECHNOLOGY MATURATION OF A THIN FILM EVAPORATOR FOR HIGH-LEVEL LIQUID WASTE MANAGEMENT AT HANFORD - 12125

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TEDESCHI AR; CORBETT JE; WILSON RA; LARKIN J

    2012-01-26

    Simulant testing of a full-scale thin-film evaporator system was conducted in 2011 for technology development at the Hanford tank farms. Test results met objectives of water removal rate, effluent quality, and operational evaluation. Dilute tank waste simulant, representing a typical double-shell tank supernatant liquid layer, was concentrated from a 1.1 specific gravity to approximately 1.5 using a 4.6 m{sup 2} (50 ft{sup 2}) heated transfer area Rototherm{reg_sign} evaporator from Artisan Industries. The condensed evaporator vapor stream was collected and sampled validating efficient separation of the water. An overall decontamination factor of 1.2E+06 was achieved demonstrating excellent retention of key radioactive species within the concentrated liquid stream. The evaporator system was supported by a modular steam supply, chiller, and control computer systems which would be typically implemented at the tank farms. Operation of these support systems demonstrated successful integration while identifying areas for efficiency improvement. Overall testing effort increased the maturation of this technology to support final deployment design and continued project implementation.

  13. A database system for the control of radioactive effluents generated by the IPEN-CNEN/SP installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maduar, M.F.

    1992-01-01

    A PC-compatible database system has been developed in order to optimize the control of liquid and gaseous effluents generated by the installations of IPEN-CNEN/SP. The system implements source-term generation, optimizes the discharge control of the effluents and allows several ways for the retrieval of data concerning to the effluents. (author)

  14. Nuclear reactor effluent monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minns, J.L.; Essig, T.H. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Radiological environmental monitoring and effluent monitoring at nuclear power plants is important both for normal operations, as well as in the event of an accident. During normal operations, environmental monitoring verifies the effectiveness of in-plant measures for controlling the release of radioactive materials in the plant. Following an accident, it would be an additional mechanism for estimating doses to members of the general public. This paper identifies the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulatory basis for requiring radiological environmental and effluent monitoring, licensee conditions for effluent and environmental monitoring, NRC independent oversight activities, and NRC`s program results.

  15. Nuclear reactor effluent monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minns, J.L.; Essig, T.H.

    1993-01-01

    Radiological environmental monitoring and effluent monitoring at nuclear power plants is important both for normal operations, as well as in the event of an accident. During normal operations, environmental monitoring verifies the effectiveness of in-plant measures for controlling the release of radioactive materials in the plant. Following an accident, it would be an additional mechanism for estimating doses to members of the general public. This paper identifies the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulatory basis for requiring radiological environmental and effluent monitoring, licensee conditions for effluent and environmental monitoring, NRC independent oversight activities, and NRC's program results

  16. Exposure to paper mill effluent at a site in North Central Florida elicits molecular-level changes in gene expression indicative of progesterone and androgen exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica K Brockmeier

    Full Text Available Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs are chemicals that negatively impact endocrine system function, with effluent from paper mills one example of this class of chemicals. In Florida, female Eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki have been observed with male secondary sexual characteristics at three paper mill-impacted sites, indicative of EDC exposure, and are still found at one site on the Fenholloway River. The potential impacts that paper mill effluent exposure has on the G. holbrooki endocrine system and the stream ecosystem are unknown. The objective of this study was to use gene expression analysis to determine if exposure to an androgen receptor agonist was occurring and to couple this analysis with in vitro assays to evaluate the presence of androgen and progesterone receptor active chemicals in the Fenholloway River. Focused gene expression analyses of masculinized G. holbrooki from downstream of the Fenholloway River paper mill were indicative of androgen exposure, while genes related to reproduction indicated potential progesterone exposure. Hepatic microarray analysis revealed an increase in the expression of metabolic genes in Fenholloway River fish, with similarities in genes and biological processes compared to G. holbrooki exposed to androgens. Water samples collected downstream of the paper mill and at a reference site indicated that progesterone and androgen receptor active chemicals were present at both sites, which corroborates previous chemical analyses. Results indicate that G. holbrooki downstream of the Fenholloway River paper mill are impacted by a mixture of both androgens and progesterones. This research provides data on the mechanisms of how paper mill effluents in Florida are acting as endocrine disruptors.

  17. An optical liquid level sensor based on core-offset fusion splicing method using polarization-maintaining fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Weimin; Chen, Debao; Shen, Changyu; Lu, Yanfang; Liu, Huanan; Wei, Jian

    2016-01-01

    A simple liquid level sensor using a small piece of hydrofluoric acid (HF) etched polarization maintaining fiber (PMF), with SMF-PMF-SMF fiber structure based on Mach- Zehnder interference (MZI) mechanism is proposed. The core-offset fusion splicing method induced cladding modes interfere with the core mode. Moreover, the changing liquid level would influence the optical path difference of the MZI since the effective refractive indices of the air and the liquid is different. Both the variations of the wavelength shifts and power intensity attenuation corresponding to the liquid level can be obtained with a sensitivity of 0.4956nm/mm and 0.2204dB/mm, respectively.

  18. Management of radioactive effluents from research Reactors and PHWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodke, S.B.; Surender Kumar; Sinha, P.K.; Budhwar, R.K.; Raj, Kanwar

    2006-01-01

    Indian nuclear power programme is mainly based on pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs). In addition we have research reactors namely Apsara, CIRUS, Dhruva at Trombay. The operation and maintenance activities of these reactors generate radioactive liquid waste. These wastes require effective management so that the release of radioactivity to the environment is well within the authorized limits. India is self reliant in the design, erection, commissioning and operation of effluent management system for nuclear reactors. Segregation at source based on nature of effluents and radioactivity content is the first and foremost step in the over all management of liquid effluents. The effluents from the power reactors contain mainly activation products like 3 H. It also contains fission products like 137 Cs. Containment of these radionuclide along with 60 Co, 90 Sr, 131 I plays an important part in liquid waste management. Treatment processes for decontamination of these radionuclide include chemical treatment, ion exchange, evaporation etc. Effluents after treatment are monitored and discharged to the nearby water body after filtration and dilution. The concentrates from the processes are conditioned in cement matrix and disposed in Near Surface Disposal Facilities (NSDFs) co-located at each site. Some times large quantity of effluents with higher radioactivity concentration may get generated from the abnormal operation such as failure of heat exchangers. These effluents are handled on a campaign basis for which adequate storage capacity is provided. The treatment is given taking into consideration the required decontamination factor (DF), capacities of available treatment process, discharge limits and the availability of the dilution water. Similarly large quantities of effluents may get generated during fuel clad failure incident in reactors. In such situation, as in CIRUS large volume of effluent containing higher radioactivity are generated and are managed by delay

  19. Long-Period Fiber Grating Sensors for the Measurement of Liquid Level and Fluid-Flow Velocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Neng Wang

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development and assessment of two types of Long Period Fiber Grating (LPFG-based sensors including a mobile liquid level sensor and a reflective sensor for the measurement of liquid level and fluid-flow velocity. Shewhart control charts were used to assess the liquid level sensing capacity and reliability of the mobile CO2-laser engraved LPFG sensor. There were ten groups of different liquid level experiment and each group underwent ten repeated wavelength shift measurements. The results showed that all measurands were within the control limits; thus, this mobile sensor was reliable and exhibited at least 100-cm liquid level measurement capacity. In addition, a reflective sensor consisting of five LPFGs in series with a reflective end has been developed to evaluate the liquid level and fluid-flow velocity. These five LPFGs were fabricated by the electrical arc discharge method and the reflective end was coated with silver by Tollen’s test. After each liquid level experiment was performed five times, the average values of the resonance wavelength shifts for LPFG Nos. 1–5 were in the range of 1.35–9.14 nm. The experimental findings showed that the reflective sensor could be used to automatically monitor five fixed liquid levels. This reflective sensor also exhibited at least 100-cm liquid level measurement capacity. The mechanism of the fluid-flow velocity sensor was based on analyzing the relationship among the optical power, time, and the LPFG’s length. There were two types of fluid-flow velocity measurements: inflow and drainage processes. The differences between the LPFG-based fluid-flow velocities and the measured average fluid-flow velocities were found in the range of 8.7–12.6%. For the first time to our knowledge, we have demonstrated the feasibility of liquid level and fluid-flow velocity sensing with a reflective LPFG-based sensor without modifying LPFGs or coating chemical compounds.

  20. Conditions for settling liquid levels by means of gamma-ray relay control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakabayashi, N [Kobe Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1976-03-01

    Using a control action which consists of infusion and exhaust at constant speeds and a neutral zone to maintain liquid levels within a given range, a gamma-ray source, a detector, and two relays at the upper and lower limits of the counting rate were provided. The optimum condition in this case is discussed and confirmed experimentally. Since a counting rate-meter has a time constant and its output is subject to the statistical fluctuation, the liquid level may overrun the opposite limit, move again after settling within the range, or drift far out of the range by a load before actuation of the relay. Formulas are derived providing the conditions such that these phenomena will not occur more frequently than a tolerant probability. These give the relations between the counting rates at the upper and lower limits, the time constant of the rate-meter, the multipliers of the standard deviations of the counting rates, the infusing and exhausting speeds, and the hysteresis widths of the limiting relays. Since it can be said that the first two of the five quantities should be smaller and the next two greater, the optimum condition can be determined from the formulas. When the infusing and exhausting speeds are the same and the hysteresis widths are equal, the formulas show that the optimum is a case where the ratio of the counting rates at the two limits, which is taken smaller than unity, is small, and where each hysteresis width is equal to 0.34 times the difference between the two counting rates, almost regardless of the value of their ratio. The above-mentioned deductions were examined in a system constructed with a backscattered gamma-ray type level gauge and a controller for infusion and exhaust of water. Its results almost agreed with those of the deductions when the multipliers of the standard deviations are substituted for by 2.

  1. British Nuclear Fuels plc's effluent plant services building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, L.

    1990-01-01

    The new Effluent Plant Services building (EPSB) on the Sellafield Nine Acre Site was built by Costain Engineering Limited for British Nuclear Fuels Limited. The EPSB is dedicated to a new generation of nuclear waste treatment plants, aimed at reducing discharges into the Irish Sea and other environmental impacts by removing actinides from liquid effluents and decontaminating waste solvents. This article describes the design, construction and operation of the plant. (UK)

  2. Genotoxicity of swine effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techio, V H; Stolberg, J; Kunz, A; Zanin, E; Perdomo, C C

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at the investigation of genotoxic effects of swine effluents from different stages of a treatment system for swine wastes through bioassay of stamen hairs and micronuclei in Tradescantia (clone BNL 4430). No significant differences (p≥0.05) regarding the genic mutations were found in the bioassay of stamen hairs, independently of the effluent analysed. For the genotoxicity test with micronuclei, the plants exposed to raw wastes, to sludge, and to effluent of the biodigester have presented higher rates of chromosomal damages (micronuclei), with significant differences in relation to the control group and other effluent of the waste treatment system (p≤0.05). The association between the chemical parameters and the genotoxicity data have shown that the variables COD and TKN have presented significant correlation (p≤0.05) with the number of mutagenic events in the tetrads.

  3. The emergency avoidance solidification campaign of liquid low-level waste at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myrick, T.E.; Helms, R.E.; Scanlan, T.F.; Schultz, R.M.; Scott, C.B.; Williams, L.C.; Homan, F.J.; Keigan, M.V.; Monk, T.H.; Morrow, R.W.; Van Hoesen, S.D.; du Mont, S.P.

    1992-01-01

    Since the beginning of nuclear research and development activities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in 1943, the generation, collection, treatment, storage, and disposal of the liquid low-level waste (LLLW) stream has been an integral part of ORNL's waste management operations. This waste stream, consisting principally of a high nitrate (4.5 molar), high pH (pH 13--14) mixture of reactor, hot cell, and research laboratory liquid radioactive wastes (<5 Ci/gal), has been treated and disposed of in a variety of ways over the years. Most recently, the hydrofracture technology had been used for deep-well disposal of a grout mix of LLLW, cement, fly ash, and other additives. In 1984, this disposal technique was discontinued due to regulatory permitting issues and the need for extensive facility modifications for future operations. With loss of this disposal capability and the continued generation of LLLW by ORNL research activities, the limited tank storage capacity was rapidly being depleted

  4. Studies on gelation of sodium silicate hydrosol for immobilization of high level liquid waste (HLLW).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel Raouf, M W [Hot Lab. Centre, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt); Sharaf El-deen, A N; El-Dessouky, M M [Military Technical College, Kobry El-Kobbah, Cairo (Egypt)

    1995-10-01

    Immobilization of the simulated high-level liquid waste (HLLW) was performed via the gelation with sodium silicate hydrosol at room temperature. The simulated waste in this study, was represented by the electrolytes of Li, Na, K, Cs, Co and Sr at different concentrations. Specific loading of the liquid waste with 0.6 M Mg (NO{sub 3})2 and tailoring with Al salts were tried during most of the gelation processes. Mineral acid (HCl or {sub 3}) were added during the gelation processes to achieve the gel point, especially when lower concentrations of the simulated waste were used. The obtained hydrogel were dried to obtain the solid gel form. The gelation processes were investigated in terms of the different factors that affected them, namely: temperature, pH, changes in the concentration of the initial hydrosol and the used electrolytes. The efficiency of the gelation processes was investigated from the ratio of the amount of simulated waste reacted (m mole) to the initial silicate used (m mole), i.e. X value. Lower X values were observed when using multi valent cations (higher polarizing power). A special effect of increasing the sorption of metal cations in the silica matrix was observed when Al{sup 3+} replaced Si{sup 4+} in the three-dimensional network structure of the matrix. 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. Application of PSD for low level alpha counting using liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamachari, G.; Vaze, P.K.; Iyer, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    In the liquid scintillator the light produced by alpha particles decays differently than those produced by electrons. Pulse shape discrimination (PSD) methods are employed to estimate low levels of alpha emitting radionuclides by reducing the background due to either beta or gamma events. An attempt is being made to develop a liquid scintillation counting sytem using a simple PSD circuit to achieve a background of 0.01 counts/min. The PSD circuit is based on measuring zero cross over points to differentiate particle types. The input signal is first differentiated by a delay line and subsequently by a RC circuit. The width of the initial part of the doubly differentiated pulse is different for alpha and beta pulses. This width is converted to amplitude by a time-to-amplitude converter (TAC). The higher amplitude pulses from the TAC are due to alpha particles and they are separated by an integral discriminator. The output from the integral discriminator opens a linear gate to record the pulse height spectrum. The figure of merit of the PSD circuit and background in the alpha energy channel have been worked out using different scintillator types. (author). 4 figs

  6. Update of the management strategy for Oak Ridge National Laboratory Liquid Low-Level Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, S.M.; Abraham, T.J.; DePaoli, S.M.; Walker, A.B.

    1995-04-01

    The strategy for management of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL) radioactively contaminated liquid waste was reviewed in 1991. The latest information available through the end of 1990 on waste characterization, regulations, US Department of Energy (DOE) budget guidance, and research and development programs was evaluated to determine how the strategy should be revised. Few changes are needed to update the strategy to reflect new waste characterization, research, and regulatory information. However, recent budget guidance from DOE indicates that minimum funding will not be sufficient to accomplish original objectives to upgrade the liquid low-level waste (LLLW) system to comply with the Federal Facilities Agreement, provide long-term LLLW treatment capability, and minimize environmental, safety, and health risks. Options are presented that might allow the ORNL LLLW system to continue operations temporarily, but they would significantly reduce its capabilities to handle emergency situations, provide treatment for new waste streams, and accommodate waste from the Environmental Restoration Program and from decontamination and decommissioning of surplus facilities. These options are also likely to increase worker radiation exposure, risk of environmental insult, and generation of solid waste for on-site and off-site disposal/storage beyond existing facility capacities. The strategy will be fully developed after receipt of additional guidance. The proposed budget limitations are too severe to allow ORNL to meet regulatory requirements or continue operations long term

  7. Status of the ORNL liquid low-level waste management upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, S.M.; Kent, T.E.; DePaoli, S.M.

    1995-08-01

    The strategy for management of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) radioactively contaminated liquid waste was reviewed. The latest information on waste characterization, regulations, US Department of Energy (DOE) budget guidance, and research and development programs was evaluated to determine how the strategy should be revised. Few changes are needed to update the strategy to reflect new waste characterization, research, and regulatory information. However, recent budget guidance from DOE indicates that minimum funding will not be sufficient to accomplish original objectives to upgrade the liquid low-level waste (LLLW) system to be in compliance with the Federal Facilities Agreement compliance, provide long-term LLLW treatment capability, and minimize Environmental Safety ampersand Health risks. Options are presented that might allow the ORNL LLLW system to continue operations temporarily but significantly reduce its capabilities to handle emergency situations, provide treatment for new waste streams, and accommodate waste from the Environmental Restoration Program and from decontamination and decommissioning of surplus facilities. These options are also likely to increase worker radiation exposure, risk of environmental insult, and generation of solid waste for on-site and off-site disposal/storage beyond existing facility capacities. The strategy will be fully developed after receiving additional guidance. The proposed budget limitations are too severe to allow ORNL to meet regulatory requirements or continue operations long term

  8. Evaporation of low-activity-level liquid waste at Tokai Reprocessing Plant, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nojima, Yasuo; Nemoto, Yuichi; Fukushima, Misao; Shibuya, Jun; Miyahara, Kenji

    1983-01-01

    The operation of Tokai reprocessing plant started in 1977. The determination of the decontamination factors (DF) of the evaporators for low activity level liquid waste (LALW) has been made through the operation. This paper deals with the examination of the first evaporator located at the LALW treatment plant. The operational principle and condition of the evaporator system are briefly explained. The effects of wire-mesh demisters and liquid properties on the decontamination factor were examined in this study. The results are summarized as follows: (1) The DF decreased with the increasing vapor mass velocity on account of entrainment. (2) The DF was able to be improved by using wire-mesh demisters when the vapor mass velocity was less than 2,500 kg/m 2 h. Practically, the most suitable vapor velocity for the evaporator was around 2,000 kg/m 2 h. (3) The DF in the evaporator for 137 Cs, 144 Ce, 90 Sr and 106 Ru was between 10 3 and 10 4 . Regarding 106 Ru, the DF in acid evaporation was less than that in alkaline evaporation. (Aoki, K.)

  9. Study of shrimp shell derivatives for treating of low-level radioactive liquid wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayeripour, S. [Tonkabon Islamic Azad Univ., Tonkabon (Iran, Islamic Republic of). College of the Environment; Malmasi, S. [North Tehran Islamic Azad Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). College of the Environment

    2006-07-01

    Chitin derivatives can be used to treat liquid wastes that include heavy metals of radionuclides. In this study, 4 types of chitin derivatives from shrimp shell waste were investigated for their potential in decontaminating and treating low-level radioactive liquid waste (LLW). The adsorption of caesium (Cs); cobalt (Co); and manganese (Mn) isotopes on chitin derivatives were investigated using a batch and column system with variations in diameter, pH, and length of treatment. Chitin derivatives included shrimp shells; de-mineralized shrimp shells; chitin extracted from shrimp shells; and chitosan extracted from shrimp shell waste. Three types of simulated solutions were prepared to study and compare adsorption performance: (1) a mono cationic solution consisting of stable isotopes; (2) a solution containing 3 stable cations; and (3) a simulated radioactive waste containing Cs-137, Co-60, and Mn-54. Results of the experiments showed that all 4 chitin derivatives were capable of adsorbing the isotopes. Despite its low pH, chitosan showed the highest adsorption efficiency. It was concluded that shrimps shells provided unreliable results under different operating conditions. The demineralized shells were suitable for removing Co from solutions. Row shells were not recommended as a suitable adsorbent for radionuclides removal. 14 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  10. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the 327 Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    The 327 Facility [Post-Irradiation Testing Laboratory] provides office and laboratory space for Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) scientific and engineering staff conducting multidisciplinary research in the areas of post-irradiated fuels and structural materials. The facility is designed to accommodate the use of radioactive and hazardous materials in the conduct of these activities. This report summarizes the airborne emissions and liquid effluents and the results of the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan (FEMP) determination for the facility. The complete monitoring plan includes characterization of effluent streams, monitoring/sampling design criteria, a description of the monitoring systems and sample analysis, and quality assurance requirements

  11. CONCAWE effluent speciation project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonards, P.; Comber, M.; Forbes, S.; Whale, G.; Den Haan, K.

    2010-09-15

    In preparation for the implementation of the EU REACH regulation, a project was undertaken to transfer the high-resolution analytical method for determining hydrocarbon blocks in petroleum products by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GCxGC) to a laboratory external to the petroleum industry (Institute for Environmental Studies (IVM) of the VU University of Amsterdam). The method was validated and used for the analysis of petroleum hydrocarbons extracted from refinery effluents. The report describes the technology transfer and the approaches used to demonstrate the successful transfer and application of the GCxGC methodology from analysing petroleum products to the quantitative determination of hydrocarbon blocks in refinery effluents. The report describes all the methods used for all the determinations on the effluent samples along with an overview of the results obtained which are presented in summary tables and graphs. These data have significantly improved CONCAWE's knowledge of what refineries emit in their effluents. A total of 111 Effluent Discharge Samples from 105 CONCAWE refineries in Europe were obtained in the period June 2008 to March 2009. These effluents were analysed for metals, standard effluent parameters (including COD, BOD), oil in water, BTEX and volatile organic compounds. The hydrocarbon speciation determinations and other hydrocarbon analyses are also reported. The individual refinery analytical results are included into this report, coded as per the CONCAWE system. These data will be, individually, communicated to companies and refineries. The report demonstrates that it is feasible to conduct a research programme to investigate the fate and effects of hydrocarbon blocks present in discharged refinery effluents.

  12. Characterization and consequences from CEA nuclear fuel cycle facilities effluents releases - 1995 up to 2007 period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Nelson Luiz Dias; Fonseca, Lizandra Pereira de Souza

    2009-01-01

    Discharges to the environment of airborne and/or liquid radioactive effluents from the normal operation of nuclear facilities can become a potential source of radiation exposure to humans. The highest exposed members of the public are defined as the critical group. The requirements for the control and monitoring of radioactive discharges to the environment and the degree of environmental monitoring required are linked to the assessed critical group dose. The assessed dose can be compared to dose constraint, which is a fraction of the annual effective dose to members of the public, as well as the level of exemption specified by the National Commission for Nuclear Energy (CNEN). Effluents releases from the Centro Experimental Aramar (CEA) facilities are registered and described at CEA Effluent Report, semestrally sent to CNEN. Basically, that report provides information related to the type and the quantity of chemical and radioactive substances released to the environment due the routine operation of CEA nuclear fuel cycle facilities (LEI - Isotopic Enrichment Laboratory, USIDE - Pilot Plant for Industrial Verification of Uranium Enrichment and LABMAT - Nuclear Materials Laboratory). CEA Annual Effluent Report includes assessment of the annual effective doses for members of the critical group for the CEA site. This work presents the characterization of the radioactive release source terms and a historical of the critical group annual doses from 1995 up to 2007. (author)

  13. The disposal of intermediate-level radioactive liquid waste by hydraulic fracturing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruilin, Chen; Hanchen, Zhou; Yuzhu, Gao; Wen, Qiao; Wentao, Wang [Beijing Inst. of Nuclear Engineering (China)

    1994-12-31

    The hydraulic fracturing process is characterized by combination of the treatment with the disposal of ILLW (intermediate-level liquid waste). It is of cement solidification in deep geology stratum. First of all, it is necessary to select a suitable disposal site with detailed information on geology and hydrogeology. The process has such advantages as simple, low cost, large capacity of disposal, safe and reliable in technology. It is an attractive process of ILLW. Since 1980`s, the research and the concept design of the hydraulic fracturing process have been initiated for disposal of ILLW. It is demonstrated by the field tests. The authors considered that the geological structure near Sichuan Nuclear Fuel Plant fits the disposal of ILLW by the hydraulic fracturing process.

  14. Separation and recovery of sodium nitrate from low-level radioactive liquid waste by electrodialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meguro, Yoshihiro; Kato, Atsushi; Watanabe, Yoko; Takahashi, Kuniaki

    2011-01-01

    An advanced method, in which electrodialysis separation of sodium nitrate and decomposition of nitrate ion are combined, has been developed to remove nitrate ion from low-level radioactive liquid wastes including nitrate salts of high concentration. In the electrodialysis separation, the sodium nitrate was recovered as nitric acid and sodium hydroxide. When they are reused, it is necessary to reduce the quantity of impurities getting mixed with them from the waste fluid as much as possible. In this study, therefore, a cation exchange membrane with permselectivity for sodium ion and an anion exchange membrane with permselectivity for monovalent anion were employed. Using these membranes sodium and nitrate ions were effectively removed form a sodium nitrate solution of high concentration. And also it was confirmed that sodium ion was successfully separated from cesium and strontium ions and that nitrate ion was separated from sulfate and phosphate ions. (author)

  15. Preliminary analysis of the ORNL Liquid Low-Level Waste system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraham, T.J.; DePaoli, S.M.; Robinson, S.M.; Walker, A.B.

    1994-08-01

    The objective of this report is to summarize the status of the Liquid Low-Level Waste (LLLW) Systems Analysis project. The focus of this project has been to collect and tabulate data concerning the LLLW system, analyze the current LLLW system operation, and develop the information necessary for the development of long-term treatment options for the LLLW generated at ORNL. The data used in this report were collected through a survey of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) literature, various letter reports, and a survey of all current LLLW generators. These data are also being compiled in a user friendly database for ORNL-wide distribution. The database will allow the quick retrieval of all information collected on the ORNL LLLW system and will greatly benefit any LLLW analysis effort. This report summarizes the results for the analyses performed to date on the LLLW system

  16. Contingency plan for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory liquid low-level waste system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DePaoli, S.M.; Ferrada, J.J.; Abraham, T.J.; Brown, C.H.; Lin, K.H.

    1989-12-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is one of the major Department of Energy (DOE) facilities that performs various research and development (R ampersand D) activities. Liquid low-level waste (LLLW) is generated in the course of this work. The primary objective of this task is to develop specific plans of action to be implemented, in the event that the storage space for the LLLW concentrate should approach the minimum value in the operational flexibility range or a problem should develop concerning storage space available for dilute LLLW. This report considers contingency plans/options in the light of six different scenarios, including ''normal operation'' and five others. Evaluation and prioritization of the options were carried out separately for each case. Brief discussions of these scenarios and contingency plans/options are presented. 20 refs., 14 figs., 14 tabs

  17. Hypothetical accidents at disposal facilities for high-level liquid radioactive wastes and pulps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabakchi, S.A.; Zagainov, V.A.; Lishnikov, A.A.; Nazin, E.R.

    1994-01-01

    Four accidents are postulated and analyzed for interim storage of high-level, liquid radioactive wastes at a fuel reprocessing facility. Normal waste storage operation is based on wastes stored in steel drums, partially buried in concrete canyons, and equipped with heat exchangers for cooling and ventilation systems for removal of explosive gases and vapors. The accident scenarios analyzed are: (1) shutdown of ventilation with open entrance and exit ventilation pipes, (2) shutdown of ventilation with closed entrance and exit ventilation pipes, (3) shutdown of the cooling system with normally functioning ventilation, and (4) simultaneous cooling and ventilation system failure (worst case). A mathematical model was developed and used to calculate radiation consequences of various accidents. Results are briefly presented for the worst case scenario and compared to an actual accident for model validation. 17 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  18. The disposal of intermediate-level radioactive liquid waste by hydraulic fracturing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Ruilin; Zhou Hanchen; Gao Yuzhu; Qiao Wen; Wang Wentao

    1993-01-01

    The hydraulic fracturing process is characterized by combination of the treatment with the disposal of ILLW (intermediate-level liquid waste). It is of cement solidification in deep geology stratum. First of all, it is necessary to select a suitable disposal site with detailed information on geology and hydrogeology. The process has such advantages as simple, low cost, large capacity of disposal, safe and reliable in technology. It is an attractive process of ILLW. Since 1980's, the research and the concept design of the hydraulic fracturing process have been initiated for disposal of ILLW. It is demonstrated by the field tests. The authors considered that the geological structure near Sichuan Nuclear Fuel Plant fits the disposal of ILLW by the hydraulic fracturing process

  19. Seismic analysis of the ICPP high level liquid waste tanks and vaults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uldrich, E.D.; Malik, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    Two buried, closely spaced, reinforced concrete vaults founded on base rock were evaluated for gravity and safe shutdown earthquake loads. These vaults enclose steel tanks used to store high level radioactive liquid waste. Detailed 3-dimensional finite element models were used for state-of-the-art structure-soil-structure interaction (SSSI) analyses. Three soil dynamic property profiles were used to address soil variability. Vault accelerations are not significantly affected by the variability of soil dynamic properties. Lower bound soil properties yield maximum member forces and moments. Demands on the side closer to the other vault due to horizontal motions are lower due to SSSI effects. Combined gravity and seismic demand on the vault force resisting system was calculated. The vaults were qualified, using member capacities based on current design codes

  20. Fundamental study on the extraction of transuranium elements from high-level liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Masumitsu; Morita, Yasuji; Tochiyama, Osamu; Inoue, Yasushi.

    1988-01-01

    A great many extractants have been studied for the separation of transuranium elements. The present study deals with the survey and classification of the extractants appearing in literature, bearing in mind the relationship between the molecular structure of extractants and their extractability for the transuranium elements from the standpoint of their selective separation from high-level liquid waste (HLW) generated from fuel reprocessing. The extractants surveyed were classified into six groups; unidentate neutral organophosphorus compounds, bidentate neutral organophosphorus compounds, acidic organophosphorus compounds, amines and ammonium salts, N,N-disubstituted amides and the other compounds. These extractants are not always applicable to the separation of transuranium elements from HLW because of their limitations in extractability and radiation durability. Only a limited number of extractants belonging to the bidentate neutral organophosphorus compounds and the acidic organophosphorus compounds are considered to be suitable for the present purpose. (author)

  1. Application of chitin and zeolite adsorbents for treatment of low level radioactive liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moattar, F.; Hayeripour, S.

    2004-01-01

    Two types of shrimp chitin derivatives and two types of Iranian natural zeolite derivates were studied for adsorption and treatment of low-level radioactive liquid waste. Chitin with lowers than 10% and chitosan with higher than 90% deacetylation factor were selected as neutral organic adsorbents. Natural clinoptilolite of Firuzkooh area and Na from derivates of it were selected as natural inorganic adsorbents. The static and dynamic ion exchange experimental results show that the ad adsorption efficiency depend on particle size, Ph, adsorbent type, deacetylation factor ( in chitin adsorbents) and cation type. The best Cs adsorption occurred in Na from clinoptilolite. Nevertheless chitin derivatives, particularly chitosan, are more efficient than zeolite adsorbents for removing of radionuclides such as 137 Cs, 54 Mn, 90 Sr and 60 Co. Adsorption performance was discussed and compared with each other

  2. Ultra Low Level Tritium Analysis Method Using a Liquid Scintillation Counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, S. J.; Kim, H. J.; Kim, H.; Lim, H. J.; Lee, M. W.; Jeong, D. H.; Kim, J. K.; Kang, Y. R. [Dongnam Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Nam, S. H. [Inje University, Gimhae, (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    To evaluate {sup 3}H concentration in the atmosphere more accurately compared to the conventional methods, the author of this paper intended to suggest more improved analytical methods and derived the elements which might occur during analysis or required improvements. The method suggested in this study is able to reduce the uncertainty and errors which may be existent in evaluating the {sup 3}H concentration of environmental sample s and thus will serve as the best solution in the technical and economic point of view. Liquid Scintillation Counter is the most widely used to analyze ultra-low level {sup 3}H by using CPM / DPM Counting Mode using external radiation source and Spectrum Plot Mode using internal radiation source. In CPM / DPM Counting Mode, multiple samples can be measured by single calibration despite its rather higher background whereas Spectrum Plot Mode requires more time and cost to analyze multiple samples despite its reliability to reduce the contribution of other radionuclides.

  3. An optimized approach towards the treatment of high level liquid waste in the nuclear cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maio, V.; Todd, T.; Law, J.; Roach, J.; Sabharwall, P.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: One key long-standing issue that must be overcome to realize the successful growth of nuclear power is an economical, politically acceptable, stakeholder-compatible, and technically feasible resolution pertaining to the safe treatment and disposal of high-level liquid radioactive waste (HLLW). In addition to spent nuclear reactor fuel, HLLW poses a unique challenge in regard to environmental and security concerns, since future scenarios for a next generation of domestic and commercialized nuclear fuel cycle infrastructures must include reprocessing - the primary source of HLLW-to ensure the cost effectiveness of nuclear power as well as mitigate any threats as related to proliferation. Past attempts to immobilize HLLW - generated by both the weapons complex and the commercial power sector-have been plagued by an inability to convince the public and some technical peer reviewers that any proposed geological disposal sites (e.g., Yucca Mountain) can accommodate and contain the HLLW for a period of geological time equivalent to ten fold the radiological half-life of the longest lived of the actinides remaining after reprocessing. The paper explores combined equipment and chemical processing approaches for advancing and economizing the immobilization of high level liquid waste to ensure its long term durability, its decoupling from the unknown behavior of the repository over long geological time periods, and its economical formulation as required for the nuclear fuel cycle of the future. One approach involves the investigation of crystalline based waste forms as opposed to the glass/amorphous based waste forms, and how recent developments in crystalline forms show promise in sequestering the long lived actinides for over tens of millions of years. Another approach -compatible with the first- involves the use of an alternative melter technology-the Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM)- to overcome the engineering material problems of Joule Heated Meters (JHM

  4. Liquid Metallic Hydrogen II. A Critical Assessment of Current and Primordial Helium Levels in the Sun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robitaille P.-M.

    2013-04-01

    lar winds which, though highly variable, provide a wealth of data. Evaluations of pr imordial helium levels based on 1 the spectroscopic study of H-II regions and 2 microwav e anisotropy data, re- main highly questionable. Current helium levels, both with in the stars (Robitaille J. C. and Robitaille P.-M. Liquid Metallic Hydrogen III. Interca lation and Lattice Exclusion versus Gravitational Settling, and Their Consequences Rel ative to Internal Structure, Surface Activity, and Solar Winds in the Sun. Progr. Phys. , 2013, v. 2, in press and the universe at large, appear to be overstated. A careful con sideration of available ob- servational data suggests that helium abundances are consi derably lower than currently believed.

  5. Arsenic precipitation from metallurgical effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro, P.; Vargas, C.; Araya, E.; Martin, I.; Alguacil, F. J.

    2004-01-01

    In the mining-metallurgical companies different liquid effluents are produced, which can contain a series of dissolved elements that are considered dangerous from an environmental point of view. One of these elements is the arsenic, especially in the state of oxidation +5 that can be precipitated as calcium or iron arsenate. To fulfil the environmental requests it should have in solution a content of arsenic lower than 0,5 mg/l and the obtained solid product should be very stable under the condition in which it will be stored. this work looks for the best conditions of arsenic precipitation, until achieving contents in solution lower than such mentioned concentration. Also, the stability of the precipitates was studied. (Author) 7 refs

  6. Decision no 2009-DC-0155 of the 15. of September 2009 by the Nuclear Safety Authority specifying the limits of releases in the environment of liquid and gaseous effluents of base nuclear installations n. 18, 35, 40, 49, 50, 72, 77 and 101 operated by the Atomic Energy Commissariat (CEA) in its Saclay Centre, located on the districts of Saclay, Saint-Aubin and Villiers-le-Bacle (Essonne department)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This document contains references to the different legal and official documents (codes, orders, minister's opinion, public surveys, administrative authorizations, local community opinion) at the root of this specification of limits related to releases in the environment of liquid and gaseous effluents of base nuclear installations of the Saclay Centre operated by the Atomic Energy Commissariat (CEA). Tables present the limits for different radioactive emissions (carbon 14, hydrogen 3, iodine, radioactive rare earths, and other alpha, beta and gamma emitters) from these different installations, but also the maximum admitted concentrations for gaseous chemical effluents (HCl, HF, NOx, CO, and so on), as well as limits for thermal releases

  7. Control of semivolatile radionuclides in gaseous effluents at nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    An up-to-date review is presented of the subject, combining the results of laboratory studies on control of the most important semivolatile radionuclides in gaseous effluents at nuclear facilities and the results of operating experience in that area. Ruthenium is the most significant semivolatile contaminant in gaseous effluents at nuclear facilities. Volatilization of ruthenium can be reduced by various means, in particular by adding reductants. Volatilized ruthenium can be retained by adsorbents such as silica gel and ferric-oxide-based materials. Decontamination factors in the order of 10 3 have been obtained with these adsorbents under optimum conditions. Volatilized ruthenium can also be removed by other equipment such as condensers and scrubbers. Experience with high-level liquid waste solidification plants has shown that, in general, ruthenium volatilization is in the order of 10% or more unless special treatment is undertaken. There is little experience with ruthenium adsorbers in plants. Silica gel seems to have performed best, with ruthenium decontamination factors of about 10 2 to 10 3 . However, feed-to-stack ruthenium decontamination factors of 10 9 or more have been obtained even without ruthenium adsorbers. Other semivolatiles are relatively insignificant under normal conditions because of a low level of volatilization potential or mass or activity in the inventory. Moreover, owing to particulate formation, they can be easily removed without specific equipment

  8. Investigation of prostaglandin levels in human milk after high performance liquid chromatography purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu-Wang, C.Y.; Neu, J.

    1986-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate five prostaglandins (PGs), i.e. PGE 2 , PGF/sub 2α/, 13-14-dihydro-15-keto-PGF/sub 2α/ (DHKF/sub 2α/), thromboxane B 2 (TXB 2 ) and 6-keto-PGF/sub 1α/), measured by (RIA) after C 18 Sep-Pak extraction and reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Two trials were performed. In each trial, 3-5 mature human milk samples were pooled, acidified and extracted for PGs. The separation of PGs by HPLC was achieved by using an isocratic solvent system of acetonitrile/water (pH 3.0) (32/68, V/V). The PG levels from the two trials were determined and averaged after monitoring the recoveries. The results indicate that PGE 2 and DHKF/sub 2α/ are the two major PGs found in extracted human milk. However, after HPLC purification, no predominant PG is found and the levels of all the five PGs are much lower compared to the extracted sample. Since the immunoreactive material was also detected in HPLC fractions not within the PG peak, low levels of PG found in human milk after HPLC is likely due to the purification step removing the bulk of nonspecific immunoreactive substances present in the sample

  9. Laboratory actinide partitioning: Whitlockite/liquid and influence of actinide concentration levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, T.M.; Jones, J.H.; Heuser, W.R.; Burnett, D.S.

    1983-01-01

    Fission and alpha track radiography techniques have been used to measure partition coefficients (D) at trace (ppm) concentration levels for the actinide elements Th, U, and Pu between synthetic whitlockite and coexisting 'haplobasaltic' silicate liquid at 1 bar pressure and 1250 deg C at oxygen fugacities from 10 sup(-8.5) and 10sup(-0.7) bars. Pu is much more readily incorporated into crystalline phases than is U or Th under reducing conditions, because Pu is primarily trivalent, whereas U and Th are tetravalent. Definitive valence state assignments cannot be made, but our best estimates of corrected partition coefficients for Pu +3 , Pu +4 , Th +4 , U +4 , and U +6 are given for whitlockites. The effect of changing pressure and liquidus temperature is relatively small, which probably reflects a weak temperature dependence for D (whitlockite) but possibly could be due to cancellation of opposing temperature and pressure effects. Comparison of experiments at trace U levels with those containing percent concentrations of UO 2 indicate that Si is involved in the substitution of U in whitlockite with U + 2Si Ca + 2P being the most likely mechanism. Dsub(U) is lower, 0.3 vs 0.5, at percent levels compared to 20 ppm. This is best explained by the effect of U on melt structure or by a decrease in the fraction of tetravalent U at high concentrations. (author)

  10. Facility effluent monitoring plan determinations for the 200 Area facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickels, J.M.

    1991-11-01

    The following facility effluent monitoring plan determinations document the evaluations conducted for the Westinghouse Hanford Company 200 Area facilities (chemical processing, waste management, 222-S Laboratory, and laundry) on the Hanford Site in south central Washington State. These evaluations determined the need for facility effluent monitoring plans for the 200 Area facilities. The facility effluent monitoring plan determinations have been prepared in accordance with A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438 (WHC 1991). The Plutonium/Uranium Extraction Plant and UO 3 facility effluent monitoring plan determinations were prepared by Los Alamos Technical Associates, Richland, Washington. The Plutonium Finishing Plant, Transuranic Waste Storage and Assay Facility, T Plant, Tank Farms, Low Level Burial Grounds, and 222-S Laboratory determinations were prepared by Science Applications International Corporation of Richland, Washington. The B Plant Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan Determination was prepared by ERCE Environmental Services of Richland, Washington

  11. Comparison of atomic-level and coarse-grained models for liquid hydrocarbons from molecular dynamics configurational entropy estimates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baron, R; de Vries, AH; Hunenberger, PH; van Gunsteren, WF

    2006-01-01

    Molecular liquids can be modeled at different levels of spatial resolution. In atomic-level (AL) models, all (heavy) atoms can be explicitly simulated. In coarse-grained (CG) models, particles (beads) that represent groups of covalently bound atoms are used as elementary units. Ideally, a CG model

  12. Determination of calibration factors for field measurements of liquid and gaseous activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jose, M.T.; Ravi, T.; Raghunath, V.M.

    1994-01-01

    While working out the procedures for calibration and activity estimation of 41 Ar gaseous effluent earlier, it was felt necessary to obtain similar factors for liquid and gas activity measurements for other energies also. The paper describes the work done towards this and the conversion factors and minimum detectable levels established. (author). 3 tabs., 1 ref

  13. Operational experience of gaseous effluent treatment at the Eurochemic reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osipenco, A.; Detilleux, E.

    1977-01-01

    The EUROCHEMIC fuel reprocessing plant applies the PUREX flow sheet. Two particular features of the plant influence gaseous and liquid effluents: chemical decanning and the ability to process a wide range of fuels, uranium metal or oxide, having an initial enrichment typical of power reactors (up to 5%) or material testing reactors (up to 93%). The ventilation circuits, treatment plant and monitoring equipment for gaseous releases are briefly described. No retention facilities for rare gases, tritium, or carbon-14 are provided. The releases are monitored for krypton-85, iodine-131, alpha and beta-gamma aerosols and tritium. Between 1966 and 1974 the plant processes about 200 tonnes of power reactor fuel, from which about 0.7 tonnes of plutonium and 1.5 tonnes of highly enriched uranium were separated. The most important points in the operation of the gas cleaning equipment are indicated: efficiency, operational reliability, incidents, etc.. Actual discharges as measured are compared with the limits set in the operation licence. Using the atmospheric diffusion coefficients, the dose commitment is estimated. The low level liquid effluents are passed, after neutralization, to the treatment plant of the Belgian nuclear center CEN/SCK. However, if the activity exceeds the limit set by the CEN/SCK, the effluents are concentrated by evaporation and stored on the EUROCHEMIC site. (orig.) [de

  14. Environmental and effluent monitoring at Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, E L; Loosz, T; Farrar, Y

    1998-11-01

    Results are presented of environmental and effluent monitoring conducted in the vicinity of the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre (LHSTC) during 1997. All low-level liquid and gaseous effluent discharges complied with existing discharge authorizations and relevant environmental regulations. Potential effective doses to the general public from controlled airborne discharges from HIFAR were estimated utilising the PC-Cream atmospheric dispersion and dosimetry code. The potential effective dose to the public was estimated to be less than 0.010 mSv/year for all receptor locations on the 1.6 km buffer zone boundary around the HIFAR research reactor. This value represents 1% of the 1 mSv/year dose limit for long term exposure that is recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council and 10% of the HIFAR dose constraint of 0.1 mSv/year 24 tabs., 7 figs.; Glossary; Appendices

  15. Environmental and effluent monitoring at Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, E.L.; Loosz, T.; Farrar, Y.

    1997-06-01

    Results are presented of environmental and effluent monitoring conducted in the vicinity of the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre during 1996. All low-level liquid and gaseous effluent discharges complied with existing discharge authorizations and relevant environmental regulations. Potential effective doses to the general public from controlled airborne discharges during this period, were estimated to be less than 0.010 mSv/year for receptor locations on the 1.6 km buffer zone boundary around HIFAR. This value represents 1% of the 1 mSv/year dose limit for long term exposure that is recommended by thr National Health and Medical Research Council and 3.3% of the site dose constraint of 0.3mSv/year adopted by ANSTO. Details of the environmental sample collection and analytical procedures are given in the appendices. (authors). 29 refs., 26 tabs., 6 figs.

  16. Environmental and effluent monitoring at Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, E.L.; Loosz, T.; Farrar, Y.

    1997-06-01

    Results are presented of environmental and effluent monitoring conducted in the vicinity of the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre during 1996. All low-level liquid and gaseous effluent discharges complied with existing discharge authorizations and relevant environmental regulations. Potential effective doses to the general public from controlled airborne discharges during this period, were estimated to be less than 0.010 mSv/year for receptor locations on the 1.6 km buffer zone boundary around HIFAR. This value represents 1% of the 1 mSv/year dose limit for long term exposure that is recommended by thr National Health and Medical Research Council and 3.3% of the site dose constraint of 0.3mSv/year adopted by ANSTO. Details of the environmental sample collection and analytical procedures are given in the appendices. (authors)

  17. Environmental and effluent monitoring at Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, E.L.; Loosz, T.; Farrar, Y

    1998-11-01

    Results are presented of environmental and effluent monitoring conducted in the vicinity of the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre (LHSTC) during 1997. All low-level liquid and gaseous effluent discharges complied with existing discharge authorizations and relevant environmental regulations. Potential effective doses to the general public from controlled airborne discharges from HIFAR were estimated utilising the PC-Cream atmospheric dispersion and dosimetry code. The potential effective dose to the public was estimated to be less than 0.010 mSv/year for all receptor locations on the 1.6 km buffer zone boundary around the HIFAR research reactor. This value represents 1% of the 1 mSv/year dose limit for long term exposure that is recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council and 10% of the HIFAR dose constraint of 0.1 mSv/year

  18. Control of effluents and environmental surveillance of the CEA centres. 1997 status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    The environmental quality in the vicinity of CEA facilities is a major concern of the safety policy of the CEA. The aim of this document is to inform the public about the gaseous and liquids radioactive effluents released by the CEA centres under the permission of the ministry. It provides a status of the effluents and of the radioactivity levels measured near the CEA centres in 1997, using air, water, vegetation and milk samples. A comparison is made with the measurements performed during the 1993-1996 period. The data presented comes from the regulatory registers transmitted to the agency for the protection against ionizing radiations (OPRI) which belongs to the ministry of health. (J.S.)

  19. Subsurface disposal of liquid low-level radioactive wastes at Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stow, S.H.; Haase, C.S.

    1986-01-01

    At Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) subsurface injection has been used to dispose of low-level liquid nuclear waste for the last two decades. The process consists of mixing liquid waste with cement and other additives to form a slurry that is injected under pressure through a cased well into a low-permeability shale at a depth of 300 m (1000 ft). The slurry spreads from the injection well along bedding plane fractures and forms solid grout sheets of up to 200 m (660 ft) in radius. Using this process, ORNL has disposed of over 1.5 x 10 6 Ci of activity; the principal nuclides are 90 Sr and 137 Cs. In 1982, a new injection facility was put into operation. Each injection, which lasts some two days, results in the emplacement of approximately 750,000 l (180,000 gal) of slurry. Disposal cost per liter is approximately $0.30, including capital costs of the facility. This subsurface disposal process is fundamentally different from other operations. Wastes are injected into a low-permeability aquitard, and the process is designed to isolate nuclides, preventing dispersion in groundwaters. The porosity into which wastes are injected is created by hydraulically fracturing the host formation along bedding planes. The site is in the structurally complex Valley and Ridge Province. The stratigraphy consists of lower Paleozoic rocks. Investigations are under way to determine the long-term hydrologic isolation of the injection zone and the geochemical impact of saline groundwater on nuclide mobility. Injections are monitored by gamma-ray logging of cased observation wells to determine grout sheet orientation after an injection. Recent monitoring work has involved the use of tiltmeters, surface uplift surveys, and seismic arrays. 26 refs., 7 figs

  20. Subsurface disposal of liquid low-level radioactive wastes at Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stow, S.H.; Haase, C.S.

    1986-01-01

    At Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) subsurface injection has been used to dispose of low-level liquid nuclear waste for the last two decades. The process consists of mixing liquid waste with cement and other additives to form a slurry that is injected under pressure through a cased well into a low-permeability shale at a depth of 300 m. The slurry spreads from the injection well along bedding plane fractures and forms solid grout sheets of up to 200 m in radius. Using this process, ORNL has disposed of over 1.5 x 10 6 Ci of activity; the principal nuclides are 90 Sr and 137 Cs. In 1982, a new injection facility was put into operation. Each injection, which lasts some two days, results in the emplacement of approximately 750,000 liters of slurry. Disposal cost per liter is about $0.30, including capital costs of the facility. This subsurface disposal process is fundamentally different from other operations. Wastes are injected into a low-permeability aquitard, and the process is designed to isolate nuclides, preventing dispersion in groundwaters. The porosity into which wastes are injected is created by hydraulically fracturing the host formation along bedding planes. Investigations are under way to determine the long-term hydrologic isolation of the injection zone and the geochemical impact of saline groundwater on nuclide mobility. Injections are monitored by gamma-ray logging of cased observation wells to determine grout sheet orientation after an injection. Recent monitoring work has involved the use of tiltmeters, surface uplift surveys, and seismic arrays. Recent regulatory constraints may cause permanent cessation of the operation. Federal and state statutes, written for other types of injection facilities, impact the ORNL facility. This disposal process, which may have great applicability for disposal of many wastes, including hazardous wastes, may not be developed for future use

  1. The Treatment of Low Level Radioactive Liquid Waste Containing Detergent by Biological Activated Sludge Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainus Salimin

    2002-01-01

    The treatment of low level radioactive liquid waste containing persil detergent from laundry operation of contaminated clothes by activated sludge process has been done, for alternative process replacing the existing treatment by evaporation. The detergent concentration in water solution from laundry operation is 14.96 g/l. After rinsing operation of clothes and mixing of laundry water solution with another liquid waste, the waste water solution contains about ≤ 1.496 g/l of detergent and 10 -3 Ci/m 3 of Cs-137 activity. The simulation waste having equivalent activity of Cs-137 10 -3 Ci/m 3 , detergent content (X) 1.496, 0.748, 0.374, 0.187, 0.1496 and 0.094 g/l on BOD value respectively 186, 115, 71, 48, 19, and 16 ppm was processed by activated sludge in reactor of 18.6 l capacity on ambient temperature. It is used Super Growth Bacteria (SGB) 102 and SGB 104, nitrogen and phosphor nutrition, and aeration. The result show that bacteria of SGB 102 and SGB 104 were able to degrade the persil detergent for attaining standard quality of water release category B in which BOD values 6 ppm. It was need 30 hours for X ≤ 0.187 g/l, 50 hours for 0.187 < X ≤ 0.374 g/l, 75 hours for 0.374 < X ≤ 0.748, and 100 hours for 0.748 < X ≤ 1.496 g/l. On the initial period the bacteria of SGB 104 interact most quickly to degrade the detergent comparing SGB 102. Biochemical oxidation process decontaminate the solution on the decontamination factor of 350, Cs-137 be concentrate in sludge by complexing with the bacteria wall until the activity of solution be become very low. (author)

  2. POLLUTION EFFECT OF FOOD AND BEVERAGES EFFLUENTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    UV-Visible spectrophotometer (model CE 2501, 2000 series). Nickel ..... The level of nitrate in the effluent varied between 32.1 mg/L and 58.4 mg/L. These levels ..... Institute of Social and Economic Research, Ibadan, Nigeria; 1986; p 234. 9.

  3. Discharge of radionuclides in liquid effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duggleby, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    One of the aims of the Radiation Health Committee of the National Health and Medical Research Council, through Council recommendations, is to achieve some degree of uniformity in State legislation applied to the public health aspects of radiation. In developing the recommendation on the discharge of radionuclides to sewerage systems the Committee made use of the comparatively new concept of the Annual Limit on Intake (ALI)

  4. Determination of Na+ and K+ ions in the high-level liquid waste by ion chromatography (IC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Lianzhong; Ma Guilan

    1992-01-01

    The determination of Na + and k + ions in the high-level liquid waste is investigated using ion chromatography. In order to protect the low capacity ion exchange resin in single column IC and remove the transition metal as well as other heavy metal ions that are contained in liquid waste, the pretreatment column with EDTA chelating resin is used. Those impurity metal ions are strongly absorbed by EDTA chelating resin and 100% of Na + and K + ions in the solution are eluted. The ability of the decontamination of EDTA chelating resin is satisfactory. The sample of the high-level liquid waste is diluted appropriately, then an aliquot of the sample is passed through the pretreatment column with EDTA chelating resin, the eluate is analysed by single column ion chromatography. The precision of this method is better than 5% for the determination of Na + and K + ions (at μg· ml -1 level)

  5. Some problems in utilization system of FP nuclides and actinides in the high level liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichiyanagi, Katsuaki; Emura, Satoru

    1974-01-01

    There are three nuclides of sup(134/137)Cs for irradiation sources, 90 Sr for radioisotope thermoelectric generators, and 238 Pu for cardiac pacemakers, as the nuclides for which considerable demand is expected in near future among those contained in reprocessed high level liquid wastes. Technical problems are first described from the viewpoint of utilization system. Then the control system of reprocessed high level wastes is expained. Finally, economic possibility and problems in their utilization are discussed. Being in competition with 60 Co, the price of sup(134/137)Cs will be lower than that of 60 Co after a decade. The annual demand in 1985 may be 6.1 x 10 6 Ci. The conclusive factor of 90 Sr market price is hard to get because it finds no strong competitive nuclides. It may be about 20 yen/Ci after ten years. Demand is expected to be approximately 1.2 x 10 7 Ci/year. However it is pretty hard to pay the cost of group separation and solidification, storage and conversion to products with such gain. It is estimated that the balance of income and outgo would be almost profitable, if the utilization of FP nuclides would progress and the demand three times as large as this assumption would be developed. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  6. Pore solution chemistry of simulated low-level liquid waste incorporated in cement grouts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, A.A.

    1995-12-01

    Expressed pore solutions from simulated low level liquid waste cement grouts cured at room temperature, 50 degree C and 90 degree C for various duration were analyzed by standard chemical methods and ion chromatography. The solid portions of the grouts were formulated with portland cement, fly ash, slag, and attapulgite clay in the ratios of 3:3:3:1. Two different solutions simulating off-gas condensates expected from vitrification of Hanford low level tank wastes were made. One is highly alkaline and contains the species Na + , P0 4 3- , N0 2 - , NO 3 - and OH - . The other is carbonated and contains the species, Na + , PO 4 3- , NO 2 - , NO 3 - , and CO 3 2- . In both cases phosphate rapidly disappeared from the pore solution, leaving behind sodium in the form of hydroxide. The carbonates were also removed from the pore solution to form calcium carbonate and possibly calcium monocarboaluminate. These reactions resulted in the increase of hydroxide ion concentration in the early period. Subsequently there was a significant reduction OH - and Na + ion concentrations. In contrast high concentration of N0 2 - and N0 3 - were retained in the pore solution indefinitely

  7. Development of a glass matrix for vitrification of sulphate bearing high level radioactive liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaushik, C.P.; Mishra, R.K.; Thorat, Vidya; Ramchandran, M.; Amar Kumar; Ozarde, P.D.; Raj, Kanwar; Das, D.

    2004-07-01

    High level radioactive liquid waste (HLW) is generated during reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. In the earlier reprocessing flow sheet ferrous sulphamate has been used for valancy adjustment of Pu from IV to III for effective separation. This has resulted in generation of HLW containing significance amount of sulphate. Internationally borosilicate glass matrix has been adopted for vitrification of HLW. The first Indian vitrification facility at Waste Immobilislition Plant (WIP), Tarapur a five component borosilicate matrix (SiO 2 :B 2 O 3 :Na 2 O : MnO : TiO 2 ) has been used for vitrification of waste. However at Trombay HLW contain significant amount of sulphate which is not compatible with standard borosilicate formulation. Extensive R and D efforts were made to develop a glass formulation which can accommodate sulphate and other constituents of HLW e.g., U, Al, Ca, etc. This report deals with development work of a glass formulations for immobilization of sulphate bearing waste. Different glass formulations were studied to evaluate the compatibility with respect to sulphate and other constituents as mentioned above. This includes sodium, lead and barium borosilicate glass matrices. Problems encountered in different glass matrices for containment of sulphate have also been addressed. A glass formulation based on barium borosilicate was found to be effective and compatible for sulphate bearing high level waste. (author)

  8. Determination of boron in nuclear materials at subppm levels by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Radhika M.; Aggarwal, S.K.

    2002-11-01

    Experiments were conducted for the determination of boron in U 3 O 8 powder, aluminium metal and milliQ water using dynamically modified Reversed Phase High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC) and using two precolumn chromogenic agents viz. chromotropic acid and curcumin for complexing boron. The complex was separated from the excess of reagent and determined by HPLC. When present in subppm levels, chromotropic acid was used successfully only for determination boron in water samples. For determination of boron at subppm levels in uranium and aluminium samples, curcumin was used as the precolumn chromogenic agent. The boron curcumin complex (rosocyanin) was formed after extraction of boron with 2-ethyl-l, 3-hexane diol (EHD). The rosocyanin complex was then separated from excess curcumin by displacement chromatography. Linear calibration curves for boron amounts in the range of 0.02 μg to 0.5 μg were developed with correlation coefficients varying from 0.997 to 0.999 and were used for the determination of boron in aluminium and uranium samples. Precision of about 10% was achieved in samples containing less than 1 ppmw of boron. Detection limit of this method is 0.01 μg boron. (author)

  9. Addition of liquid waste incineration capability to the INEL's low-level waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steverson, E.M.; Clark, D.P.; McFee, J.N.

    1986-01-01

    A liquid waste system has recently been installed in the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF) incinerator at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). In this paper, aspects of the incineration system such as the components, operations, capabilities, capital cost, EPA permit requirements, and future plans are discussed. The principal objective of the liquid incineration system is to provide the capability to process hazardous, radioactively contaminated, non-halogenated liquid wastes. The system consists primarily of a waste feed system, instrumentation and controls, and a liquid burner, which were procured at a capital cost of $115,000

  10. Chromium removal from tanning industries effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudry, M.A.; Ahmad, S.

    1997-01-01

    Air and water are the basic needs of human being and other living entities on the earth. Tanning industry uses water and some chemicals and so creates environmental problems, depending basically on two principal sources, hide and water. The processes of tanning are based on chromium sulphate and vegetable treatment of hide. According to the national environmental quality standards (NEQS) the effluent or disposed water should contain phenol less than 0.5 ppm, Cr, sulphates, chloride and other salts content. About 30-40 liters of water are used to process one Kg of raw hide into finished goods. Total installed capacity of hides and skins chrome tanning is 53.5 million square meter, earning a large amount of foreign exchange for our country. In the present work, seven tanning industries effluents from the suburbs of Multan city have been collected and analysed. The pH of the liquors have been found to vary from 2.72 to 4.4 and the constituent Cr have been found to be from zero to 8000 ppm from vegetable to chrome tanning industrial effluents studied. The stages involved in tanning and treatment of the effluent water waste including chemical treatment of Cr has been described with a special reference to supported liquid membranes process for removal of chromium ions. (author)

  11. Effluent treatment efficiency and compliance monitoring in Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effectiveness of effluent treatment at the Eleme Petrochemical Industry, Port Harcourt, Nigeria was monitored weekly for six weeks to assess their level of compliance with the Directorate of Petroleum Resources (DPR) guidelines and standards for environmental safety. Effluent samples were taken from the untreated ...

  12. Environmental and effluent monitoring at ANSTO sites, 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, E L; Loosz, T

    2002-07-01

    Results are presented of environmental surveillance and effluent monitoring conducted in the calendar year 2001 at the two sites owned and operated by ANSTO at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre (LHSTC) and the National Medical Cyclotron (NMC). All low-level liquid and gaseous effluent discharges complied with existing discharge authorisations and relevant environmental regulations. Potential effective doses to the general public from LHSTC-controlled airborne discharges were estimated for 2001 using the PC-Cream atmospheric dispersion and dosimetry code. The potential effective doses to the public in 2001 were estimated to be less than 0.01 mSv/year for all receptor locations on the LHSTC 1.6 km buffer zone boundary or beyond. This is well below the ALARA objective of 0.02 mSv per year for off-site doses that ANSTO has set and much lower than the public dose limit of 1 mSv per year (above natural background and medical doses) and the natural background dose in Australia of 1.5 mSv per year (Webb et al; 1999). It is concluded that there is no impact on the health of the community as a consequence of operations at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre or the National Medical Cyclotron.

  13. Environmental and effluent monitoring at ANSTO sites, 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, E L; Loosz, T; Mokhber-Shahin, L

    1999-07-01

    Results are presented of environmental and effluent monitoring conducted in 1999 at the two sites owned and operated by ANSTO, at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre (LHSTC) and the National Medical Cyclotron (NMC). All low-level liquid and gaseous effluent discharges complied with existing discharge authorisations and relevant environmental regulations. Potential effective doses to the general public from LHSTC controlled airborne discharges were estimated for 1999 using the PC-Cream atmospheric dispersion and dosimetry code. The potential effective doses to the public in 1999 were estimated to be less than 0.010 mSv/year for all receptor locations on the LHSTC 1.6 km buffer zone boundary or beyond. This value represents 1% of the I milli sievert (mSv) per year dose limit for long term exposure that is recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council and 3.3% of the LHSTC site dose constraint of 0.3 mSv/year. It is concluded that there is no impact on the health of the community, staff or the environment as a consequence of operations at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre or the National Medical Cyclotron (authors)

  14. Environmental and effluent monitoring at ANSTO sites 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, E L; Loosz, T; Mokhber-Shahin, L [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Lucas Heights, NSW, Australia, (Australia)

    2000-07-01

    Results are presented of environmental and effluent monitoring conducted in 1999 at the two sites owned and operated by ANSTO, at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre (LHSTC) and the National Medical Cyclotron (NMC). All low-level liquid and gaseous effluent discharges complied with existing discharge authorisations and relevant environmental regulations. Potential effective doses to the general public from LHSTC controlled airborne discharges were estimated for 1999 using the PC-Cream atmospheric dispersion and dosimetry code. The potential effective doses to the public in 1999 were estimated to be less than 0.010 mSv/year for all receptor locations on the LHSTC 1.6 km buffer zone boundary or beyond. This value represents 1% of the 1 millisievert (mSv) per year dose limit for long term exposure that is recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council and 3.3% of the LHSTC site dose constraint of 0.3 mSv/year. It is concluded that there is no impact on the health of the community, staff or the environment as a consequence of operations at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre or the National Medical Cyclotron.

  15. Environmental and effluent monitoring at ANSTO sites, 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, E L; Loosz, T; Mokhber-Shahin, L [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai, NSW (Australia)

    2001-07-01

    Results are presented of environmental surveillance and effluent monitoring conducted in the calendar year 2000 at the two sites owned and operated by ANSTO, at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre (LHSTC) and the National Medical Cyclotron (NMC). All low-level liquid and gaseous effluent discharges complied with existing discharge authorisations and relevant environmental regulations. Potential effective doses to the general public from LHSTC controlled airborne discharges were estimated for 2000 using the PC-Cream atmospheric dispersion and dosimetry code. The potential effective doses to the public in 2000 were estimated to be less than 0.01 mSv/year for all receptor locations on the LHSTC 1.6 km buffer zone boundary or beyond. This value represents 1 % of the 1 milli sievert (mSv) per year dose limit for long term exposure that is recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council and 3.3% of the LHSTC site dose constraint of 0.3 mSv/year. It is concluded that there is no impact on the health of the community, staff or the environment as a consequence of operations at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre or the National Medical Cyclotron.

  16. Control verification radioactive effluent discharges to the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, D.E.; Czerniczyniec, M.A.; Amado, V.A.; Curti, A.R.; Lee Gonzáles, H.M.

    2015-01-01

    The National Law of Nuclear Activity No. 24,804 establishes that the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) will be responsible for the function of regulation and control of nuclear activity, grant, suspend and revoke licenses, permits or authorizations and to issue regulatory standards on radiation and nuclear safety. According to the latter the ARN has issued a set of rules that make up the regulatory framework for nuclear activity. This includes the standards that determine the radiological criteria for controlling the release of radioactive effluents which were established to protect members of the public. In the process of licensing a facility, the ARN determines the authorized discharge of gaseous and liquid effluents which must comply with the installation values. These annual values are understood as an operating restriction (OR) and arise from the activity of each relevant radionuclide present in the discharge. For this is taken as a reference the level of optimized discharge considering an appropriate margin of flexibility to ensure public protection without interfering with the operation of the installation. This paper presents the results of the review of the above criteria and methodology for calculating the RO adopted by the RNA present. [es

  17. Environmental and effluent monitoring at ANSTO sites, 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, E.L.; Loosz, T.; Mokhber-Shahin, L.

    2001-01-01

    Results are presented of environmental surveillance and effluent monitoring conducted in the calendar year 2000 at the two sites owned and operated by ANSTO, at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre (LHSTC) and the National Medical Cyclotron (NMC). All low-level liquid and gaseous effluent discharges complied with existing discharge authorisations and relevant environmental regulations. Potential effective doses to the general public from LHSTC controlled airborne discharges were estimated for 2000 using the PC-Cream atmospheric dispersion and dosimetry code. The potential effective doses to the public in 2000 were estimated to be less than 0.01 mSv/year for all receptor locations on the LHSTC 1.6 km buffer zone boundary or beyond. This value represents 1 % of the 1 milli sievert (mSv) per year dose limit for long term exposure that is recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council and 3.3% of the LHSTC site dose constraint of 0.3 mSv/year. It is concluded that there is no impact on the health of the community, staff or the environment as a consequence of operations at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre or the National Medical Cyclotron

  18. Effect of surface treatment of tailings on effluent quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, D.R.

    1980-01-01

    Successful reclamation treatment, in preparation for long range abandonment of mining wastes, involves both surface treatment and water quality control containment of waste solids and liquid contaminants. This paper describes use of lysimeters containing 125 tonnes of tailings to determine the impact of gravel, sawdust, and vegetation as surface treatments on the quality and quantity of effluent produced from sulphide-containing uranium mill tailings. Over a five-year period these treatments were observed and compared with bare tailings where no surface addition was made. The treatments did not alter the effluent quality to a level acceptable to regulatory requirements. Surface treatments did not appear to affect the leaching of Ra-226, NH 4 and NO 3 . The concentration of Fe, SO 4 , Cu, Pb, and Al increased with the rise of acidity as the pH changed from pH 9.5 to pH 2 in four and one-half years. However the rate and extent of changes of some of these parameters vary with the treatment. The experimental results for the observed trends are presented with limited explanation. Original design problems and unexpected delays in tailing reactions have made firm conclusions impossible at this stage. These data, however, provide a base for further investigation and development of explanations and firm conclusions, as to the role of surface treatment in long-term waste abandonment

  19. Environmental and effluent monitoring at ANSTO sites, 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, E.L.; Loosz, T.

    2002-01-01

    Results are presented of environmental surveillance and effluent monitoring conducted in the calendar year 2001 at the two sites owned and operated by ANSTO at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre (LHSTC) and the National Medical Cyclotron (NMC). All low-level liquid and gaseous effluent discharges complied with existing discharge authorisations and relevant environmental regulations. Potential effective doses to the general public from LHSTC-controlled airborne discharges were estimated for 2001 using the PC-Cream atmospheric dispersion and dosimetry code. The potential effective doses to the public in 2001 were estimated to be less than 0.01 mSv/year for all receptor locations on the LHSTC 1.6 km buffer zone boundary or beyond. This is well below the ALARA objective of 0.02 mSv per year for off-site doses that ANSTO has set and much lower than the public dose limit of 1 mSv per year (above natural background and medical doses) and the natural background dose in Australia of 1.5 mSv per year (Webb et al; 1999). It is concluded that there is no impact on the health of the community as a consequence of operations at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre or the National Medical Cyclotron

  20. Environmental and effluent monitoring at ANSTO sites 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, E. L.; Loosz, T.; Mokhber-Shahin, L.

    2000-01-01

    Results are presented of environmental and effluent monitoring conducted in 1999 at the two sites owned and operated by ANSTO, at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre (LHSTC) and the National Medical Cyclotron (NMC). All low-level liquid and gaseous effluent discharges complied with existing discharge authorisations and relevant environmental regulations. Potential effective doses to the general public from LHSTC controlled airborne discharges were estimated for 1999 using the PC-Cream atmospheric dispersion and dosimetry code. The potential effective doses to the public in 1999 were estimated to be less than 0.010 mSv/year for all receptor locations on the LHSTC 1.6 km buffer zone boundary or beyond. This value represents 1% of the 1 millisievert (mSv) per year dose limit for long term exposure that is recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council and 3.3% of the LHSTC site dose constraint of 0.3 mSv/year. It is concluded that there is no impact on the health of the community, staff or the environment as a consequence of operations at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre or the National Medical Cyclotron