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Sample records for level increased frequency

  1. Modelling the increased frequency of extreme sea levels in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta due to sea level rise and other effects of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, S; Caesar, J; Wolf, J; Bricheno, L; Nicholls, R J; Saiful Islam, A K M; Haque, A; Pardaens, A; Lowe, J A

    2015-07-01

    Coastal flooding due to storm surge and high tides is a serious risk for inhabitants of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) delta, as much of the land is close to sea level. Climate change could lead to large areas of land being subject to increased flooding, salinization and ultimate abandonment in West Bengal, India, and Bangladesh. IPCC 5th assessment modelling of sea level rise and estimates of subsidence rates from the EU IMPACT2C project suggest that sea level in the GBM delta region may rise by 0.63 to 0.88 m by 2090, with some studies suggesting this could be up to 0.5 m higher if potential substantial melting of the West Antarctic ice sheet is included. These sea level rise scenarios lead to increased frequency of high water coastal events. Any effect of climate change on the frequency and severity of storms can also have an effect on extreme sea levels. A shelf-sea model of the Bay of Bengal has been used to investigate how the combined effect of sea level rise and changes in other environmental conditions under climate change may alter the frequency of extreme sea level events for the period 1971 to 2099. The model was forced using atmospheric and oceanic boundary conditions derived from climate model projections and the future scenario increase in sea level was applied at its ocean boundary. The model results show an increased likelihood of extreme sea level events through the 21st century, with the frequency of events increasing greatly in the second half of the century: water levels that occurred at decadal time intervals under present-day model conditions occurred in most years by the middle of the 21st century and 3-15 times per year by 2100. The heights of the most extreme events tend to increase more in the first half of the century than the second. The modelled scenarios provide a case study of how sea level rise and other effects of climate change may combine to produce a greatly increased threat to life and property in the GBM delta by the end

  2. Descriptions of health states associated with increasing severity and frequency of hypoglycemia: a patient-level perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris SB

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Stewart B Harris,1 Kamlesh Khunti,2 Mona Landin-Olsson,3 Claus B Galbo-Jørgensen,4 Mette Bøgelund,4 Barrie Chubb,5 Jens Gundgaard,6 Marc Evans71Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, ON, Canada; 2Diabetes Research Unit, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK; 3Department of Medicine, Helsingborg Hospital, Lund University, Lund, Sweden; 4Incentive, Holte Stationsvej, Holte, Denmark; 5EU Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Novo Nordisk Ltd, Crawley, UK; 6Health Economics and HTA, Novo Nordisk A/S, Søborg, Denmark; 7Department of Diabetes, University Hospital Llandough, Cardiff, UKAims: We sought to develop descriptions of health states associated with daytime and nocturnal hypoglycemia in a structured fashion from the patient's perspective under different combinations of severity and frequency of hypoglycemic events.Methods: An expert meeting followed by two patient focus groups was used to develop comprehensive descriptions of acute consequences of severe and non-severe, daytime and nocturnal hypoglycemia. Patients with diabetes (type 1 = 85, type 2 = 162 from a survey panel then validated these descriptions and assessed how often they worried and took different actions to prevent hypoglycemia. Severity and frequency of hypoglycemia were compared with respect to how often people worried and took actions to prevent an event. The effect of hypoglycemia on 35 different life activities was quantitatively compared for patients who had and had not experienced a severe hypoglycemic event.Results: At least 95% of respondents agreed that the detailed patient-level descriptions of health states accurately reflected their experience of severe and non-severe, daytime and nocturnal hypoglycemia, thereby validating these descriptions. Respondents who had experienced a severe hypoglycemic event were generally more adversely affected in their worries and actions and life events than those who experienced only non

  3. Increased levels of lead in the blood and frequencies of lymphocytic micronucleated binucleated cells among workers from an electronic-waste recycling site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; He, An M; Gao, Bo; Chen, Lan; Yu, Qiang Z; Guo, Huan; Shi, Bin J; Jiang, Pu; Zhang, Zeng Y; Li, Ping L; Sheng, Ying G; Fu, Mo J; Wu, Chun T; Chen, Min X; Yuan, Jing

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, adverse health effects of chemicals from electronic waste (e-waste) have been reported. However, little is known about the genotoxic effects of chemicals in e-waste. In the present study, air concentrations of the toxic metals at e-waste and control sites were analyzed using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Levels of toxic metals (lead, copper and cadmium) in blood and urine were detected using atomic absorption spectrophotometry in 48 exposed individuals and 56 age- and sex-matched controls. The frequencies of lymphocytic micronucleated binucleated cells (MNBNCs) were determined using a cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay. Results indicated that blood lead levels were significantly higher in the exposed group (median: 11.449 μg/dL, 1st/3rd quartiles: 9.351-14.410 μg/dL) than in the control group (median: 9.104 μg/dL, 1st/3rd quartiles: 7.275-11.389 μg/dL). The exposed group had higher MNBNCs frequencies (median: 4.0 per thousand, 1st/3rd quartiles: 2.0-7.0 per thousand) compared with the controls (median: 1.0 per thousand, 1st/3rd quartiles: 0.0-2.0 per thousand). Additionally, MNBNCs frequencies and blood lead levels were positively correlated (r = 0.254, phistory of working with e-waste was a predictor for increased blood lead levels and MNBNCs frequencies in the subjects. The results suggest that both the living and occupational environments at the e-waste site may be risk factors for increased MNBNCs frequencies among those who are exposed.

  4. Sea level rise drives increased tidal flooding frequency at tide gauges along the U.S. East and Gulf Coasts: Projections for 2030 and 2045.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Kristina A; Fitzpatrick, Melanie F; Spanger-Siegfried, Erika

    2017-01-01

    Tidal flooding is among the most tangible present-day effects of global sea level rise. Here, we utilize a set of NOAA tide gauges along the U.S. East and Gulf Coasts to evaluate the potential impact of future sea level rise on the frequency and severity of tidal flooding. Using the 2001-2015 time period as a baseline, we first determine how often tidal flooding currently occurs. Using localized sea level rise projections based on the Intermediate-Low, Intermediate-High, and Highest projections from the U.S. National Climate Assessment, we then determine the frequency and extent of such flooding at these locations for two near-term time horizons: 2030 and 2045. We show that increases in tidal flooding will be substantial and nearly universal at the 52 locations included in our analysis. Long before areas are permanently inundated, the steady creep of sea level rise will force many communities to grapple with chronic high tide flooding in the next 15 to 30 years.

  5. frequency of increase in serum tumor marker carcinoembryonic antigen (cea) levels in primary breast cancer (pbc) patients at the time of diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riaz, O.; Mahmood, A.; Alvi, Z.A.; Rasul, S.; Haider, N

    2017-01-01

    To determine the frequency of increase in serum tumor marker CEA levels in PBC patients at the time of diagnosis. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Oncology Department of Combined Military Hospital (CMH) Rawalpindi, from January 2014 to November 2014. Material and Methods: Sixty three female patients with histopathologically confirmed carcinoma of breast and age range from 20 to 70 years from Oncology outpatient department (OPD)/indoor patient department at CMH Rawalpindi, were selected. All patients were staged by clinical and radiological work-up that included physical examination, all base line investigations, serum biomarkers, chest radiograph, ultrasound abdomen and pelvis, bone scan, computed tomography (CT) scan/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the chest (optional). Patients serum carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA) levels were carried out only by blood sampling using chemiluminescent immunoassay with immulite 2000 CEA. Data analysis were done with the help of the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 19 software. Cut-off values of serum CEA levels >2.5 ng/ml were taken as elevated. Results: Sixty three female breast cancer patients with histopathologically confirmed carcinoma of breast revealed elevated serum CEA levels in three stages of the disease. The median age was 47 years (range, 20-70 years). Fifteen (23.8%) patients had family history of the breast cancer. Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDCA) was the commonest histology with 60 (95.23%) patients. Most of the patients had advanced stage of the disease. Node positive cases were 53 (84.1%). The frequency of abnormal CEA levels were varying from stage II to stage IV. Elevated serum CEA levels were noted in 4 (28.6%) of stage II, 19 (76%) of stage III and 17 (77.3%) patients of stage IV, respectively. Overall percentage increase in levels of serum CEA from stage I through IV were 0%, 6.34%, 30.2%, 26% respectively. The sensitivity of serum CEA in our

  6. Increased frequency of rhabdomyolysis in familial dysautonomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Jose-Alberto; Roda, Ricardo; Norcliffe-Kaufmann, Lucy; Kaufmann, Horacio

    2015-11-01

    Familial dysautonomia (FD; OMIM # 223900) is an autosomal recessive disease with features of impaired pain and temperature perception and lack of functional muscle spindles. After 3 FD patients presented with rhabdomyolysis in a short time span, we aimed to determine the frequency of rhabdomyolysis is this population. This study was a retrospective chart review of 665 FD patients. Eight patients had at least 1 episode of rhabdomyolysis. Two patients had 2 episodes. The average incidence of rhabdomyolysis in FD was 7.5 per 10,000 person-years. By comparison, the average incidence with statins has been reported to be 0.44 per 10,000 person-years. Mean maximum creatine kinase (CK) level was 32,714 ± 64,749 U/L. Three patients had hip magnetic resonance imaging showing gluteal hyperintensities. Patients with FD have an increased incidence of rhabdomyolysis. We hypothesize that this may result from a combination of absent functional muscle spindles and muscle mitochondrial abnormalities. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. radio frequency based radio frequency based water level monitor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    ABSTRACT. This paper elucidates a radio frequency (RF) based transmission and reception system used to remotely monitor and .... range the wireless can cover but in this prototype, it ... power supply to the system, the sensed water level is.

  8. Polyploidization increases meiotic recombination frequency in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehmsmeier Marc

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polyploidization is the multiplication of the whole chromosome complement and has occurred frequently in vascular plants. Maintenance of stable polyploid state over generations requires special mechanisms to control pairing and distribution of more than two homologous chromosomes during meiosis. Since a minimal number of crossover events is essential for correct chromosome segregation, we investigated whether polyploidy has an influence on the frequency of meiotic recombination. Results Using two genetically linked transgenes providing seed-specific fluorescence, we compared a high number of progeny from diploid and tetraploid Arabidopsis plants. We show that rates of meiotic recombination in reciprocal crosses of genetically identical diploid and autotetraploid Arabidopsis plants were significantly higher in tetraploids compared to diploids. Although male and female gametogenesis differ substantially in meiotic recombination frequency, both rates were equally increased in tetraploids. To investigate whether multivalent formation in autotetraploids was responsible for the increased recombination rates, we also performed corresponding experiments with allotetraploid plants showing strict bivalent pairing. We found similarly increased rates in auto- and allotetraploids, suggesting that the ploidy effect is independent of chromosome pairing configurations. Conclusions The evolutionary success of polyploid plants in nature and under domestication has been attributed to buffering of mutations and sub- and neo-functionalization of duplicated genes. Should the data described here be representative for polyploid plants, enhanced meiotic recombination, and the resulting rapid creation of genetic diversity, could have also contributed to their prevalence.

  9. Semantic priming increases word frequency judgments: Evidence for the role of memory strength in frequency estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woltz, Dan J; Gardner, Michael K

    2015-09-01

    Previous research has demonstrated a systematic, nonlinear relationship between word frequency judgments and values from word frequency norms. This relationship could reflect a perceptual process similar to that found in the psychophysics literature for a variety of sensory phenomena. Alternatively, it could reflect memory strength differences that are expected for words of varying levels of prior exposure. Two experiments tested the memory strength explanation by semantically priming words prior to frequency judgments. Exposure to related word meanings produced a small but measurable increase in target word frequency ratings. Repetition but not semantic priming had a greater impact on low compared to high frequency words. These findings are consistent with a memory strength view of frequency judgments that assumes a distributed network with lexical and semantic levels of representation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Adaptation responses to increasing drought frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loch, A. J.; Adamson, D. C.; Schwabe, K.

    2016-12-01

    Using state contingent analysis we discuss how and why irrigators adapt to alternative water supply signals. This analysis approach helps to illustrate how and why producers currently use state-general and state-allocable inputs to adapt and respond to known and possible future climatic alternative natures. Focusing on the timing of water allocations, we explore inherent differences in the demand for water by two key irrigation sectors: annual and perennial producers which in Australia have allowed a significant degree of risk-minimisation during droughts. In the absence of land constraints, producers also had a capacity to respond to positive state outcomes and achieve super-normal profits. In the future, however, the probability of positive state outcomes is uncertain; production systems may need to adapt to minimise losses and/or achieve positive returns under altered water supply conditions that may arise as a consequence of more frequent drought states. As such, producers must assess whether altering current input/output choice sets in response to possible future climate states will enhance their long-run competitive advantage for both expected new normal and extreme water supply outcomes. Further, policy supporting agricultural sector climate change resilience must avoid poorly-designed strategies that increase producer vulnerability in the face of drought. Our analysis explores the reliability of alternative water property right bundles and how reduced allocations across time influence alternative responses by producers. We then extend our analysis to explore how management strategies could adapt to two possible future drier state types: i) where an average reduction in water supply is experienced; and ii) where the frequency of droughts increase. The combination of these findings are subsequently used to discuss the role water reform policy has to deal with current and future climate scenarios. We argue current policy strategies could drive producers to

  11. Changes in Soil Fungal Community Structure with Increasing Disturbance Frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyunjun; Kim, Mincheol; Tripathi, Binu; Adams, Jonathan

    2017-07-01

    Although disturbance is thought to be important in many ecological processes, responses of fungal communities to soil disturbance have been little studied experimentally. We subjected a soil microcosm to physical disturbance, at a range of frequencies designed to simulate ecological disturbance events. We analyzed the fungal community structure using Illumina HiSeq sequencing of the ITS1 region. Fungal diversity was found to decline with the increasing disturbance frequencies, with no sign of the "humpback" pattern found in many studies of larger sedentary organisms. There is thus no evidence of an effect of release from competition resulting from moderate disturbance-which suggests that competition and niche overlap may not be important in limiting soil fungal diversity. Changing disturbance frequency also led to consistent differences in community composition. There were clear differences in OTU-level composition, with different disturbance treatments each having distinct fungal communities. The functional profile of fungal groups (guilds) was changed by the level of disturbance frequency. These predictable differences in community composition suggest that soil fungi can possess different niches in relation to disturbance frequency, or time since last disturbance. Fungi appear to be most abundant relative to bacteria at intermediate disturbance frequencies, on the time scale we studied here.

  12. Gender Identification Using High-Frequency Speech Energy: Effects of Increasing the Low-Frequency Limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donai, Jeremy J; Halbritter, Rachel M

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of normal-hearing listeners to use high-frequency energy for gender identification from naturally produced speech signals. Two experiments were conducted using a repeated-measures design. Experiment 1 investigated the effects of increasing high-pass filter cutoff (i.e., increasing the low-frequency spectral limit) on gender identification from naturally produced vowel segments. Experiment 2 studied the effects of increasing high-pass filter cutoff on gender identification from naturally produced sentences. Confidence ratings for the gender identification task were also obtained for both experiments. Listeners in experiment 1 were capable of extracting talker gender information at levels significantly above chance from vowel segments high-pass filtered up to 8.5 kHz. Listeners in experiment 2 also performed above chance on the gender identification task from sentences high-pass filtered up to 12 kHz. Cumulatively, the results of both experiments provide evidence that normal-hearing listeners can utilize information from the very high-frequency region (above 4 to 5 kHz) of the speech signal for talker gender identification. These findings are at variance with current assumptions regarding the perceptual information regarding talker gender within this frequency region. The current results also corroborate and extend previous studies of the use of high-frequency speech energy for perceptual tasks. These findings have potential implications for the study of information contained within the high-frequency region of the speech spectrum and the role this region may play in navigating the auditory scene, particularly when the low-frequency portion of the spectrum is masked by environmental noise sources or for listeners with substantial hearing loss in the low-frequency region and better hearing sensitivity in the high-frequency region (i.e., reverse slope hearing loss).

  13. Effective Strategies for Increasing Citation Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahim, Nader Ale; Salehi, Hadi; Embi, Mohamed Amin; Tanha, Farid Habibi; Gholizadeh, Hossein; Motahar, Seyed Mohammad; Ordi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Due to the effect of citation impact on The Higher Education (THE) world university ranking system, most of the researchers are looking for some helpful techniques to increase their citation record. This paper by reviewing the relevant articles extracts 33 different ways for increasing the citations possibilities. The results show that the article…

  14. Increasing global crop harvest frequency: recent trends and future directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, Deepak K; Foley, Jonathan A

    2013-01-01

    The world’s agricultural systems face the challenge of meeting the rising demands from population growth, changing dietary preferences, and expanding biofuel use. Previous studies have put forward strategies for meeting this growing demand by increasing global crop production, either expanding the area under cultivation or intensifying the crop yields of our existing agricultural lands. However, another possible means for increasing global crop production has received less attention: increasing the frequency of global cropland harvested each year. Historically, many of the world’s croplands were left fallow, or had failed harvests, each year, foregoing opportunities for delivering crop production. Furthermore, many regions, particularly in the tropics, may be capable of multiple harvests per year, often more than are harvested today. Here we analyze a global compilation of agricultural statistics to show how the world’s harvested cropland has changed. Between 2000 and 2011, harvested land area grew roughly 4 times faster than total standing cropland area. Using a metric of cropland harvest frequency (CHF)—the ratio of land harvested each year to the total standing cropland—and its recent trends, we identify countries that harvest their croplands more frequently, and those that have the potential to increase their cropland harvest frequency. We suggest that a possible ‘harvest gap’ may exist in many countries that represents an opportunity to increase crop production on existing agricultural lands. However, increasing the harvest frequency of existing croplands could have significant environmental and social impacts, which need careful evaluation. (letter)

  15. Temporal variation of accumulation rates on a natural salt marsh in the 20th century determined by 137Cs chronologies – the impact of sea level rise and increased inundation frequency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thorbjørn Joest; Svinth, Steffen; Pejrup, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Salt marshes are potentially threatened by sea level rise if sediment supply is unable to balance the rising sea. A rapid sea level rise is one of the pronounced effects of global warming and global sea level is at present rising at an elevated rate of about 3.4 mm y-1 on average. This increasing...... in sediment deposition is significant and gives reason for concern as it may be the first sign of a sedimentation deficiency which could be threatening this and other salt marshes in the case of a rapidly rising sea level. Our work demonstrates that the assumption of a constant relationship between salt marsh...... with salt marsh accretion is most probably not valid in the present case study and it may well be that this is also the case for many other salt marshes, especially if sea level continues to rise rapidly as indicated by some climate change scenarios....

  16. Stimulus Ratio and Level Dependence of Low- and Mid-Frequency Distortion-Product Otoacoustic Emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders Tornvig; Ordoñez, Rodrigo Pizarro; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2014-01-01

    ratios f2/f1 (1.05-1.50) and three stimulus sound pressure levels L1/L2 (65/45, 65/55, 70/60) were measured in each configuration. The DPOAE response was isolated with the discrete Fourier transformation (DFT). The DFT measures the DPOAE response accurately only when the DPOAE frequency and both stimulus...... examples of low-frequency DPOAEs exist in the literature. Overcoming the decreasing response level and increasing noise level with decreasing frequency may provide a non-invasive window into the inner-ear mechanics of low-frequency hearing. Eighteen out of 21 young human adults screened (19-30 years) had......-frequency range. The stimulus level has similar effects in both frequency ranges, that is, the ratio-magnitude response increases and broadens with increasing level. The combined observations could indicate a difference between apical and basal cochlear physiology....

  17. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy for biliary dyskinesia in children: frequency increasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacher, Martin; Yannam, Govardhana R; Muensterer, Oliver J; Aprahamian, Charles J; Haricharan, Ramanath N; Perger, Lena; Bartle, Donna; Talathi, Sonia S; Beierle, Elizabeth A; Anderson, Scott A; Chen, Mike K; Harmon, Carroll M

    2013-08-01

    The treatment of children with biliary dyskinesia (BD) is controversial. As we recently observed an increasing frequency of referrals for BD in our institution the aim of the study was to re-evaluate the long-term outcome in children with BD. Children with laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) for suspected BD between 8/2006 and 5/2011 were included. A pathologic ejection fraction (EF) was defined as <35%. The long-term effect of cholecystectomy was assessed via a Likert scale symptom questionnaire. 82 children (median age 13.5 years, mean BMI 25.8) were included. CCK-HIDA scan was pathologic in 74 children (90.2%). Mean EF was 16.4%. Histology revealed chronic cholecystitis in 48 (58.5%) children and was normal in 30 children (36.5%). The frequency of LC for suspected BD increased by a factor of 4.3 in the last 10 years. Long term follow-up showed that only 23/52 children (44.2%) were symptom-free after LC. Patients with chronic inflammation were more likely to have persistent symptoms (p=0.017). An EF<15% was associated with a resolution of symptoms (p=0.031). The frequency of LC for suspected BD in our institution has increased significantly during recent years. The long-term efficacy in our cohort was only 44.2%. We believe that laparoscopic cholecystectomy is likely helpful in patients with an EF<15%. However, in children with an EF of 15%-35%, based upon our data, we would highly recommend an appropriately thorough pre-op testing to exclude other gastrointestinal disorders prior to consideration of operative management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Tracking electric field exposure levels through radio frequency dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewing, P.D.; Moore, M.R.; Rochelle, R.W.; Thomas, R.S.; Hess, R.A.; Hoffheins, B.S.

    1991-01-01

    The radio-frequency (rf) dosimeter developed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is a portable, pocket-sized cumulative-dose recording device designed to detect and record the strengths and durations of electric fields present in the work areas of naval vessels. The device measures an integrated dose and records the electric fields that exceed the permissible levels set by the American National Standards Institute. Features of the rf dosimeter include a frequency range of 30 MHz to 10 GHz and a three-dimensional sensor. Data obtained with the rf dosimeter will be used to determine the ambient field-strength profile for shipboard personnel over an extended time. Readings are acquired and averaged over a 6-min period corresponding to the rise time of the core body temperature. These values are stored for up to 6 months, after which the data are transferred to a computer via the dosimeter's serial port. The rf dosimeter should increase knowledge of the levels of electric fields to which individuals are exposed. 5 refs., 4 figs

  19. Influences of Fundamental Frequency, Formant Frequencies, Aperiodicity, and Spectrum Level on the Perception of Voice Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skuk, Verena G.; Schweinberger, Stefan R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the relative importance of acoustic parameters (fundamental frequency [F0], formant frequencies [FFs], aperiodicity, and spectrum level [SL]) on voice gender perception, the authors used a novel parameter-morphing approach that, unlike spectral envelope shifting, allows the application of nonuniform scale factors to transform…

  20. High-Frequency Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation Increases Anabolic Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettler, Joni A; Magee, Dillon M; Doucet, Barbara M

    2018-03-16

    Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is commonly used in rehabilitation settings to increase muscle mass and strength. However, the effects of NMES on muscle growth are not clear and no human studies have compared anabolic signaling between low-frequency (LF-) and high-frequency (HF-) NMES. The purpose of this study was to determine the skeletal muscle anabolic signaling response to an acute bout of LF- and HF-NMES. Eleven young healthy volunteers (6 men; 5 women) received an acute bout of LF- (20 Hz) and HF- (60 Hz) NMES. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle prior to the first NMES treatment and 30-mins following each NMES treatment. Phosphorylation of the following key anabolic signaling proteins was measured by Western blot and proteins are expressed as a ratio of phosphorylated to total: mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), p70-S6 kinase 1 (S6K1), and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (4E-BP1). Compared to Pre-NMES, phosphorylation of mTOR was upregulated 40.2% for LF-NMES (P = 0.018) and 68.4% for HF-NMES (P 0.05). There were no differences between treatment conditions for 4E-BP1 phosphorylation (P > 0.05). An acute bout of LF- and HF-NMES upregulated anabolic signaling with HF-NMES producing a greater anabolic response compared to LF-NMES, suggesting that HF-stimulation may provide a stronger stimulus for processes that initiate muscle hypertrophy. Additionally, the stimulation frequency parameter should be considered by clinicians in the design of optimal NMES treatment protocols.

  1. Lifetime leisure music exposure associated with increased frequency of tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, David R; Zobay, Oliver; Mackinnon, Robert C; Whitmer, William M; Akeroyd, Michael A

    2017-04-01

    Tinnitus has been linked to noise exposure, a common form of which is listening to music as a leisure activity. The relationship between tinnitus and type and duration of music exposure is not well understood. We conducted an internet-based population study that asked participants questions about lifetime music exposure and hearing, and included a hearing test involving speech intelligibility in noise, the High Frequency Digit Triplets Test. 4950 people aged 17-75 years completed all questions and the hearing test. Results were analyzed using multinomial regression models. High exposure to leisure music, hearing difficulty, increasing age and workplace noise exposure were independently associated with increased tinnitus. Three forms of music exposure (pubs/clubs, concerts, personal music players) did not differ in their relationship to tinnitus. More males than females reported tinnitus. The objective measure of speech reception threshold had only a minimal relationship with tinnitus. Self-reported hearing difficulty was more strongly associated with tinnitus, but 76% of people reporting usual or constant tinnitus also reported little or no hearing difficulty. Overall, around 40% of participants of all ages reported never experiencing tinnitus, while 29% reported sometimes, usually or constantly experiencing tinnitus that lasted more than 5 min. Together, the results suggest that tinnitus is much more common than hearing loss, but that there is little association between the two, especially among the younger adults disproportionately sampled in this study. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Lake-level frequency analysis for Devils Lake, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiche, Gregg J.; Vecchia, Aldo V.

    1996-01-01

    Two approaches were used to estimate future lake-level probabilities for Devils Lake. The first approach is based on an annual lake-volume model, and the second approach is based on a statistical water mass-balance model that generates seasonal lake volumes on the basis of seasonal precipitation, evaporation, and inflow. Autoregressive moving average models were used to model the annual mean lake volume and the difference between the annual maximum lake volume and the annual mean lake volume. Residuals from both models were determined to be uncorrelated with zero mean and constant variance. However, a nonlinear relation between the residuals of the two models was included in the final annual lakevolume model.Because of high autocorrelation in the annual lake levels of Devils Lake, the annual lake-volume model was verified using annual lake-level changes. The annual lake-volume model closely reproduced the statistics of the recorded lake-level changes for 1901-93 except for the skewness coefficient. However, the model output is less skewed than the data indicate because of some unrealistically large lake-level declines. The statistical water mass-balance model requires as inputs seasonal precipitation, evaporation, and inflow data for Devils Lake. Analysis of annual precipitation, evaporation, and inflow data for 1950-93 revealed no significant trends or long-range dependence so the input time series were assumed to be stationary and short-range dependent.Normality transformations were used to approximately maintain the marginal probability distributions; and a multivariate, periodic autoregressive model was used to reproduce the correlation structure. Each of the coefficients in the model is significantly different from zero at the 5-percent significance level. Coefficients relating spring inflow from one year to spring and fall inflows from the previous year had the largest effect on the lake-level frequency analysis.Inclusion of parameter uncertainty in the model

  3. Increased frequencies of IL-31-producing T cells are found in chronic atopic dermatitis skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szegedi, Krisztina; Kremer, Andreas E.; Kezic, Sanja; Teunissen, Marcel B. M.; Bos, Jan D.; Luiten, Rosalie M.; Res, Pieter C.; Middelkamp-Hup, Maritza A.

    2012-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-31 has been associated with pruritus, a characteristic feature of atopic dermatitis (AD). Local T cell responses may be responsible for the increased level of IL-31 mRNA observed in AD. We investigated the frequency of IL-31-producing T cells in AD lesions, as well as their cytokine

  4. Major enhancement of extra-low-frequency radiation by increasing the high-frequency heating wave power in electrojet modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuo, S.P.; Lee, S.H.; Kossey, Paul

    2002-01-01

    Extra-low-frequency (ELF) wave generation by modulated polar electrojet currents is studied. The amplitude-modulated high-frequency (HF) heating wave excites a stimulated thermal instability to enhance the electrojet current modulation by the passive Ohmic heating process. Inelastic collisions of electrons with neutral particles (mainly due to vibrational excitation of N 2 ) damp nonlinearly this instability, which is normally saturated at low levels. However, the electron's inelastic collision loss rate drops rapidly to a low value in the energy regime from 3.5 to 6 eV. As the power of the modulated HF heating wave exceeds a threshold level, it is shown that significant electron heating enhanced by the stimulated thermal instability can indeed cause a steep drop in the electron inelastic collision loss rate. Consequently, this instability saturates at a much higher level, resulting to a near step increase (of about 10-13 dB, depending on the modulation wave form) in the spectral intensity of ELF radiation. The dependence of the threshold power of the HF heating wave on the modulation frequency is determined

  5. Regional level approach for increasing energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viholainen, Juha; Luoranen, Mika; Väisänen, Sanni; Niskanen, Antti; Horttanainen, Mika; Soukka, Risto

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Comprehensive snapshot of regional energy system for decision makers. • Connecting regional sustainability targets and energy planning. • Involving local players in energy planning. - Abstract: Actions for increasing the renewable share in the energy supply and improving both production and end-use energy efficiency are often built into the regional level sustainability targets. Because of this, many local stakeholders such as local governments, energy producers and distributors, industry, and public and private sector operators require information on the current state and development aspects of the regional energy efficiency. The drawback is that an overall view on the focal energy system operators, their energy interests, and future energy service needs in the region is often not available for the stakeholders. To support the local energy planning and management of the regional energy services, an approach for increasing the regional energy efficiency is being introduced. The presented approach can be seen as a solid framework for gathering the required data for energy efficiency analysis and also evaluating the energy system development, planned improvement actions, and the required energy services at the region. This study defines the theoretical structure of the energy efficiency approach and the required steps for revealing such energy system improvement actions that support the regional energy plan. To demonstrate the use of the approach, a case study of a Finnish small-town of Lohja is presented. In the case example, possible actions linked to the regional energy targets were evaluated with energy efficiency analysis. The results of the case example are system specific, but the conducted study can be seen as a justified example of generating easily attainable and transparent information on the impacts of different improvement actions on the regional energy system.

  6. Frequency-specific modulation of population-level frequency tuning in human auditory cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts Larry E

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Under natural circumstances, attention plays an important role in extracting relevant auditory signals from simultaneously present, irrelevant noises. Excitatory and inhibitory neural activity, enhanced by attentional processes, seems to sharpen frequency tuning, contributing to improved auditory performance especially in noisy environments. In the present study, we investigated auditory magnetic fields in humans that were evoked by pure tones embedded in band-eliminated noises during two different stimulus sequencing conditions (constant vs. random under auditory focused attention by means of magnetoencephalography (MEG. Results In total, we used identical auditory stimuli between conditions, but presented them in a different order, thereby manipulating the neural processing and the auditory performance of the listeners. Constant stimulus sequencing blocks were characterized by the simultaneous presentation of pure tones of identical frequency with band-eliminated noises, whereas random sequencing blocks were characterized by the simultaneous presentation of pure tones of random frequencies and band-eliminated noises. We demonstrated that auditory evoked neural responses were larger in the constant sequencing compared to the random sequencing condition, particularly when the simultaneously presented noises contained narrow stop-bands. Conclusion The present study confirmed that population-level frequency tuning in human auditory cortex can be sharpened in a frequency-specific manner. This frequency-specific sharpening may contribute to improved auditory performance during detection and processing of relevant sound inputs characterized by specific frequency distributions in noisy environments.

  7. Doubling of coastal flooding frequency within decades due to sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitousek, Sean; Barnard, Patrick L.; Fletcher, Charles H.; Frazer, Neil; Erikson, Li; Storlazzi, Curt D.

    2017-01-01

    Global climate change drives sea-level rise, increasing the frequency of coastal flooding. In most coastal regions, the amount of sea-level rise occurring over years to decades is significantly smaller than normal ocean-level fluctuations caused by tides, waves, and storm surge. However, even gradual sea-level rise can rapidly increase the frequency and severity of coastal flooding. So far, global-scale estimates of increased coastal flooding due to sea-level rise have not considered elevated water levels due to waves, and thus underestimate the potential impact. Here we use extreme value theory to combine sea-level projections with wave, tide, and storm surge models to estimate increases in coastal flooding on a continuous global scale. We find that regions with limited water-level variability, i.e., short-tailed flood-level distributions, located mainly in the Tropics, will experience the largest increases in flooding frequency. The 10 to 20 cm of sea-level rise expected no later than 2050 will more than double the frequency of extreme water-level events in the Tropics, impairing the developing economies of equatorial coastal cities and the habitability of low-lying Pacific island nations.

  8. Doubling of coastal flooding frequency within decades due to sea-level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitousek, Sean; Barnard, Patrick L; Fletcher, Charles H; Frazer, Neil; Erikson, Li; Storlazzi, Curt D

    2017-05-18

    Global climate change drives sea-level rise, increasing the frequency of coastal flooding. In most coastal regions, the amount of sea-level rise occurring over years to decades is significantly smaller than normal ocean-level fluctuations caused by tides, waves, and storm surge. However, even gradual sea-level rise can rapidly increase the frequency and severity of coastal flooding. So far, global-scale estimates of increased coastal flooding due to sea-level rise have not considered elevated water levels due to waves, and thus underestimate the potential impact. Here we use extreme value theory to combine sea-level projections with wave, tide, and storm surge models to estimate increases in coastal flooding on a continuous global scale. We find that regions with limited water-level variability, i.e., short-tailed flood-level distributions, located mainly in the Tropics, will experience the largest increases in flooding frequency. The 10 to 20 cm of sea-level rise expected no later than 2050 will more than double the frequency of extreme water-level events in the Tropics, impairing the developing economies of equatorial coastal cities and the habitability of low-lying Pacific island nations.

  9. Dolphins adjust species-specific frequency parameters to compensate for increasing background noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papale, Elena; Gamba, Marco; Perez-Gil, Monica; Martin, Vidal Martel; Giacoma, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    An increase in ocean noise levels could interfere with acoustic communication of marine mammals. In this study we explored the effects of anthropogenic and natural noise on the acoustic properties of a dolphin communication signal, the whistle. A towed array with four elements was used to record environmental background noise and whistles of short-beaked common-, Atlantic spotted- and striped-dolphins in the Canaries archipelago. Four frequency parameters were measured from each whistle, while Sound Pressure Levels (SPL) of the background noise were measured at the central frequencies of seven one-third octave bands, from 5 to 20 kHz. Results show that dolphins increase the whistles' frequency parameters with lower variability in the presence of anthropogenic noise, and increase the end frequency of their whistles when confronted with increasing natural noise. This study provides the first evidence that the synergy among SPLs has a role in shaping the whistles' structure of these three species, with respect to both natural and anthropogenic noise.

  10. Dolphins adjust species-specific frequency parameters to compensate for increasing background noise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Papale

    Full Text Available An increase in ocean noise levels could interfere with acoustic communication of marine mammals. In this study we explored the effects of anthropogenic and natural noise on the acoustic properties of a dolphin communication signal, the whistle. A towed array with four elements was used to record environmental background noise and whistles of short-beaked common-, Atlantic spotted- and striped-dolphins in the Canaries archipelago. Four frequency parameters were measured from each whistle, while Sound Pressure Levels (SPL of the background noise were measured at the central frequencies of seven one-third octave bands, from 5 to 20 kHz. Results show that dolphins increase the whistles' frequency parameters with lower variability in the presence of anthropogenic noise, and increase the end frequency of their whistles when confronted with increasing natural noise. This study provides the first evidence that the synergy among SPLs has a role in shaping the whistles' structure of these three species, with respect to both natural and anthropogenic noise.

  11. Dolphins Adjust Species-Specific Frequency Parameters to Compensate for Increasing Background Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papale, Elena; Gamba, Marco; Perez-Gil, Monica; Martin, Vidal Martel; Giacoma, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    An increase in ocean noise levels could interfere with acoustic communication of marine mammals. In this study we explored the effects of anthropogenic and natural noise on the acoustic properties of a dolphin communication signal, the whistle. A towed array with four elements was used to record environmental background noise and whistles of short-beaked common-, Atlantic spotted- and striped-dolphins in the Canaries archipelago. Four frequency parameters were measured from each whistle, while Sound Pressure Levels (SPL) of the background noise were measured at the central frequencies of seven one-third octave bands, from 5 to 20 kHz. Results show that dolphins increase the whistles’ frequency parameters with lower variability in the presence of anthropogenic noise, and increase the end frequency of their whistles when confronted with increasing natural noise. This study provides the first evidence that the synergy among SPLs has a role in shaping the whistles' structure of these three species, with respect to both natural and anthropogenic noise. PMID:25853825

  12. Increased somatic cell mutant frequency in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakoda, Masayuki; Akiyama, Mitoshi; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Awa, A.A.; Yamakido, Michio; Otake, Masanori.

    1988-05-01

    Frequencies of mutant T-cells in peripheral blood, which are deficient in the activity of hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) were determined for atomic bomb survivors by direct clonal assay using a previously reported method. Results from 30 exposed survivors (exposed to more than 1 rad) and 17 age- and sex-matched controls (exposed to less than 1 rad) were analyzed. The mean mutant frequency (Mf) in the exposed (5.2 x 10 -6 ; range 0.8 - 14.4 x 10 -6 ) was significantly higher than in controls (3.4 x 10 -6 ; range 1.3 - 9.3 x 10 -6 ), a fact not attributable to lower nonmutant cell cloning efficiencies in the exposed group since cell cloning efficiencies were virtually identical in both groups. An initial analysis of the data did not reveal a significant correlation between individual Mfs and individual radiation dose estimates when the latter were defined by the original, tentative estimates (T65D), even though there was a significant positive correlation of Mfs with individual frequency of lymphocytes bearing chromosome aberration. However, reanalysis using the newer revised individual dose estimates (DS86) for 27 exposed survivors and 17 controls did reveal a significant but shallow positive correlation between T-cell Mf values and individual exposure doses. These results indicate that HPRT mutation in vivo in human T-cells could be detected in these survivors 40 years after the presumed mutational event. (author)

  13. Leptin levels in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus inversely correlate with regulatory T cell frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X; Qiao, Y; Yang, L; Song, S; Han, Y; Tian, Y; Ding, M; Jin, H; Shao, F; Liu, A

    2017-11-01

    Leptin levels are increased in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) but little is known on how this correlates with several disease characteristics including the frequency of regulatory T cells (Tregs). Here we compared serum leptin levels with frequency of circulating Tregs in 47 lupus patients vs. 25 healthy matched controls. Correlations with lupus disease activity were also analyzed, as well as Treg proliferation potential. It was found that leptin was remarkably increased in SLE patients as compared to controls, particularly in SLE patients with moderate and severe active SLE, and the increase correlated with disease activity. Importantly, increased leptin in lupus patients inversely correlated with the frequency of Tregs but not in controls, and leptin neutralization resulted in the expansion of Tregs ex vivo. Thus, hyperleptinemia in lupus patients correlates directly with disease activity and inversely with Treg frequency. The finding that leptin inhibition expands Tregs in SLE suggests possible inhibition of this molecule for an enhanced Treg function in the disease.

  14. Increased frequency of retinopathy of prematurity over the last decade and significant regional differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmström, Gerd; Tornqvist, Kristina; Al-Hawasi, Abbas; Nilsson, Åsa; Wallin, Agneta; Hellström, Ann

    2018-03-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) causes childhood blindness globally in prematurely born infants. Although increased levels of oxygen supply lead to increased survival and reduced frequency of cerebral palsy, increased incidence of ROP is reported. With the help of a Swedish register for ROP, SWEDROP, national and regional incidences of ROP and frequencies of treatment were evaluated from 2008 to 2015 (n = 5734), as well as before and after targets of provided oxygen changed from 85-89% to 91-95% in 2014. Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) was found in 31.9% (1829/5734) of all infants with a gestational age (GA) of <31 weeks at birth and 5.7% of the infants (329/5734) had been treated for ROP. Analyses of the national data revealed an increased incidence of ROP during the 8-year study period (p = 0.003), but there was no significant increase in the frequency of treatment. There were significant differences between the seven health regions of Sweden, regarding both incidence of ROP and frequency of treatment (p < 0.001). Comparison of regional data before and after the new oxygen targets revealed a significant increase in treated ROP in one region [OR: 2.24 (CI: 1.11-4.49), p = 0.024] and a borderline increase in one other [OR: 3.08 (CI: 0.99-9.60), p = 0.052]. The Swedish national ROP register revealed an increased incidence of ROP during an 8-year period and significant regional differences regarding the incidence of ROP and frequency of treatment. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Do building wakes increase ground level concentrations?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, T.J.; Melbourne, W.H.

    1996-01-01

    As part of the EPRI Plume Rise and Downwash Project to develop and evaluate new mathematical algorithms representing plume rise and downwash, physical model studies were performed on the plume dispersion from Combustion Turbine Unit 4, (CT 4), at the Jersey Central Power and Light Sayreville Generating Station, Sayreville, New Jersey. Studies were performed both in neutral and stably stratified model atmospheric boundary layer conditions with the primary objective being to determine the behavior of the combustion turbine plume under high and low ambient wind speed conditions within the wake region produced by the combustion turbine itself. Field measurements were also performed at the site and to this end a base case wind direction of β = 335 degree was chosen for both the field and model studies in an attempt to minimize the effects of other building wakes on the plume. This paper looks at the flow and dispersion characteristics with and without these large structures in the model in an attempt to explain why the differences in concentration levels occurred

  16. Fitness costs of increased cataract frequency and cumulative radiation dose in natural mammalian populations from Chernobyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Philipp; Boratyński, Zbyszek; Mappes, Tapio; Mousseau, Timothy A; Møller, Anders P

    2016-01-27

    A cataract is a clouding of the lens that reduces light transmission to the retina, and it decreases the visual acuity of the bearer. The prevalence of cataracts in natural populations of mammals, and their potential ecological significance, is poorly known. Cataracts have been reported to arise from high levels of oxidative stress and a major cause of oxidative stress is ionizing radiation. We investigated whether elevated frequencies of cataracts are found in eyes of bank voles Myodes glareolus collected from natural populations in areas with varying levels of background radiation in Chernobyl. We found high frequencies of cataracts in voles collected from different areas in Chernobyl. The frequency of cataracts was positively correlated with age, and in females also with the accumulated radiation dose. Furthermore, the number of offspring in female voles was negatively correlated with cataract severity. The results suggest that cataracts primarily develop as a function of ionizing background radiation, most likely as a plastic response to high levels of oxidative stress. It is therefore possible that the elevated levels of background radiation in Chernobyl affect the ecology and fitness of local mammals both directly through, for instance, reduced fertility and indirectly, through increased cataractogenesis.

  17. Radio frequency plasma nitriding of aluminium at higher power levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gredelj, Sabina; Kumar, Sunil; Gerson, Andrea R.; Cavallaro, Giuseppe P.

    2006-01-01

    Nitriding of aluminium 2011 using a radio frequency plasma at higher power levels (500 and 700 W) and lower substrate temperature (500 deg. C) resulted in higher AlN/Al 2 O 3 ratios than obtained at 100 W and 575 deg. C. AlN/Al 2 O 3 ratios derived from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis (and corroborated by heavy ion elastic recoil time of flight spectrometry) for treatments preformed at 100 (575 deg. C), 500 (500 deg. C) and 700 W (500 deg. C) were 1.0, 1.5 and 3.3, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that plasma nitrided surfaces obtained at higher power levels exhibited much finer nodular morphology than obtained at 100 W

  18. Subjective annoyance caused by indoor low-level and low frequency noise and control method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DI Guo-qing; ZHANG Bang-jun; SHANG Qi

    2005-01-01

    The influence of low-level noise has not been widely noticed. This paper discovered that low-level and low frequency noise(Aweighted equivalent level Leq < 45 dB) causes higher probability of subjective annoyance. The fuzzy mathematic principle was applied to deal with the threshold level of subjective annoyance from noise in this study; there is preferable relationship between the indoor noise and noise annoyance at low frequency noise level. Study indicated at the same centered noise level, the change of annoyance probability is mainly caused by the change of the frequency spectrum characteristic of the indoor noise. Under low noise level environment, without change of the medium-low frequency noise, the slight increase of medium-high frequency noise level with the help of noise sheltering effect can significantly reduce the noise annoyance. This discovery brings a new resolution on how to improve the environmental quality of working or living places. A noise control model is given in this study according to the acoustic analysis.

  19. Increased micronucleus, nucleoplasmic bridge, and nuclear bud frequencies in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of diesel engine exhaust-exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao; Duan, Huawei; Gao, Feng; Li, Yuanyuan; Huang, Chuanfeng; Niu, Yong; Gao, Weimin; Yu, Shanfa; Zheng, Yuxin

    2015-02-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer has recently reclassified diesel engine exhaust (DEE) as a Group 1 carcinogen. Micronucleus (MN), nucleoplasmic bridge (NPB), and nuclear bud (NBUD) frequencies in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) are associated with cancer risk. However, the impact of DEE exposure on MN frequency has not been thoroughly elucidated due to mixed exposure and its impact on NPB and NBUD frequencies has never been explored in humans. We recruited 117 diesel engine testing workers with exclusive exposure to DEE and 112 non-DEE-exposed workers, and then we measured urinary levels of 4 mono-hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs) using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry as well as MN, NPB, and NBUD frequencies in PBLs using cytokinesis-block MN assay. The DEE-exposed workers exhibited significantly higher MN, NPB, and NBUD frequencies than the non-DEE-exposed workers (P < 0.05). Among all study subjects, increasing levels of all 4 urinary OH-PAHs, on both quartile and continuous scales, were associated with increased MN, NPB, and NBUD frequencies (all P < 0.05). When the associations were analyzed separately in DEE-exposed and non-DEE-exposed workers, we found that the association between increasing quartiles of urinary 9-hydroxyphenanthrene (9-OHPh) and MN frequencies persisted in DEE-exposed workers (P = 0.001). The percent of MN frequencies increased, on average, by 23.99% (95% confidential interval, 9.64-39.93) per 1-unit increase in ln-transformed 9-OHPh. Our results clearly show that exposure to DEE can induce increases in MN, NPB, and NBUD frequencies in PBLs and suggest that DEE exposure level is associated with MN frequencies. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Amplification of flood frequencies with local sea level rise and emerging flood regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Maya K.; Oppenheimer, Michael; Kopp, Robert E.

    2017-06-01

    The amplification of flood frequencies by sea level rise (SLR) is expected to become one of the most economically damaging impacts of climate change for many coastal locations. Understanding the magnitude and pattern by which the frequency of current flood levels increase is important for developing more resilient coastal settlements, particularly since flood risk management (e.g. infrastructure, insurance, communications) is often tied to estimates of flood return periods. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s Fifth Assessment Report characterized the multiplication factor by which the frequency of flooding of a given height increases (referred to here as an amplification factor; AF). However, this characterization neither rigorously considered uncertainty in SLR nor distinguished between the amplification of different flooding levels (such as the 10% versus 0.2% annual chance floods); therefore, it may be seriously misleading. Because both historical flood frequency and projected SLR are uncertain, we combine joint probability distributions of the two to calculate AFs and their uncertainties over time. Under probabilistic relative sea level projections, while maintaining storm frequency fixed, we estimate a median 40-fold increase (ranging from 1- to 1314-fold) in the expected annual number of local 100-year floods for tide-gauge locations along the contiguous US coastline by 2050. While some places can expect disproportionate amplification of higher frequency events and thus primarily a greater number of historically precedented floods, others face amplification of lower frequency events and thus a particularly fast growing risk of historically unprecedented flooding. For example, with 50 cm of SLR, the 10%, 1%, and 0.2% annual chance floods are expected respectively to recur 108, 335, and 814 times as often in Seattle, but 148, 16, and 4 times as often in Charleston, SC.

  1. Object Categorization in Finer Levels Relies More on Higher Spatial Frequencies and Takes Longer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashtiani, Matin N; Kheradpisheh, Saeed R; Masquelier, Timothée; Ganjtabesh, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    The human visual system contains a hierarchical sequence of modules that take part in visual perception at different levels of abstraction, i.e., superordinate, basic, and subordinate levels. One important question is to identify the "entry" level at which the visual representation is commenced in the process of object recognition. For a long time, it was believed that the basic level had a temporal advantage over two others. This claim has been challenged recently. Here we used a series of psychophysics experiments, based on a rapid presentation paradigm, as well as two computational models, with bandpass filtered images of five object classes to study the processing order of the categorization levels. In these experiments, we investigated the type of visual information required for categorizing objects in each level by varying the spatial frequency bands of the input image. The results of our psychophysics experiments and computational models are consistent. They indicate that the different spatial frequency information had different effects on object categorization in each level. In the absence of high frequency information, subordinate and basic level categorization are performed less accurately, while the superordinate level is performed well. This means that low frequency information is sufficient for superordinate level, but not for the basic and subordinate levels. These finer levels rely more on high frequency information, which appears to take longer to be processed, leading to longer reaction times. Finally, to avoid the ceiling effect, we evaluated the robustness of the results by adding different amounts of noise to the input images and repeating the experiments. As expected, the categorization accuracy decreased and the reaction time increased significantly, but the trends were the same. This shows that our results are not due to a ceiling effect. The compatibility between our psychophysical and computational results suggests that the temporal

  2. Compensating Level-Dependent Frequency Representation in Auditory Cortex by Synaptic Integration of Corticocortical Input.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max F K Happel

    Full Text Available Robust perception of auditory objects over a large range of sound intensities is a fundamental feature of the auditory system. However, firing characteristics of single neurons across the entire auditory system, like the frequency tuning, can change significantly with stimulus intensity. Physiological correlates of level-constancy of auditory representations hence should be manifested on the level of larger neuronal assemblies or population patterns. In this study we have investigated how information of frequency and sound level is integrated on the circuit-level in the primary auditory cortex (AI of the Mongolian gerbil. We used a combination of pharmacological silencing of corticocortically relayed activity and laminar current source density (CSD analysis. Our data demonstrate that with increasing stimulus intensities progressively lower frequencies lead to the maximal impulse response within cortical input layers at a given cortical site inherited from thalamocortical synaptic inputs. We further identified a temporally precise intercolumnar synaptic convergence of early thalamocortical and horizontal corticocortical inputs. Later tone-evoked activity in upper layers showed a preservation of broad tonotopic tuning across sound levels without shifts towards lower frequencies. Synaptic integration within corticocortical circuits may hence contribute to a level-robust representation of auditory information on a neuronal population level in the auditory cortex.

  3. Frequency and levels of autoantibodies in healthy adult Omanis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Jabri, Ali A.; A-Belushi Mohammad; Nanze, Herburt

    2003-01-01

    A previous pilot study showed high frequency of anti-smooth muscle autoantibody in Omani blood donors and pregnant women. We conducted this larger-scale study to investigate the frequency and significance of several autoantibodies in healthy individuals from different regions of Oman. Sera obtained from 1537 healthy Omanis (1153 males and 384 females ), ranging in age from 18 to 57 years, tested for the presence of ten different autoantibodies using indirect immunofluoresence, haemagglutination and latex agglutination techniques. Low levels of autoantibodies were detected in 33.5%, whereas a few individuals (1.8%) showed high autoantibody titres. Anti-smooth muscle autoantibodies (ASMA) were the most prevalent (11%). Anti-nuclear autoantibodies (ANA) were the second most prevalent (7.6%). Anti-thyroid microsomal autoantibodies (ATMA) and anti-thyroglobulin autoantibodies (ATA) were present in 6.5% and 4.4% of individuals,respectively. The other autoantibodies were detected much less frequently: anti-parietal cells autoandibodies (APCA) were found in 1.6%,anti-brush border antibodies (ABBA) in 1.3% anti-reticulin autoantibodies (ARA) in 1%, anti-mitochondrial antibodies in 0.8%, antiglomerular basement membrane antibodies (AGBMA) in 0.7% and rheumatoid factor(RF) in 0.4%.Low levels of autoantibodies were detected in 33.5%, whereas a few individuals (1.8%) showed high autoantibody titres. Anti-smooth muscle autoantibodies (ASMA) were the most prevalent (11%). Anti-nuclear autoantibodies (ANA) were the second most prevalent (7.6%). Anti-thyroid microsomal autoantibodies (ATMA) and anti-thyroglobulin autoantibodies (ATA) were present in 6.5% and 4.4% of individuals,respectively. The other autoantibodies were detected much less frequently: anti-parietal cells autoandibodies (APCA) were found in 1.6%,anti-brush border antibodies (ABBA) in 1.3% anti-reticulin autoantibodies (ARA) in 1%, anti-mitochondrial antibodies in 0.8%, antiglomerular basement membrane antibodies

  4. High Frequency Acoustic Propagation using Level Set Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    solution of the high frequency approximation to the wave equation. Traditional solutions to the Eikonal equation in high frequency acoustics are...the Eikonal equation derived from the high frequency approximation to the wave equation, ucuH ∇±=∇ )(),( xx , with the nonnegative function c(x...For simplicity, we only consider the case ucuH ∇+=∇ )(),( xx . Two difficulties must be addressed when solving the Eikonal equation in a fixed

  5. Increased Micronuclei Frequency in Oral and Lingual Epithelium of Treated Diabetes Mellitus Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Emilo Quintero Ojeda

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is a metabolic disease characterized by persistent high levels of glucose in plasma. Chronic hyperglycemia is thought to increase oxidative stress and the formation of free radicals that in turn damage cells. Thus, we decided to determine the frequency of nuclear abnormalities in epithelial cells from cheek and tongue mucosa of DM patients with type 1 (DM1, treated only with insulin and type 2 (DM2, treated with metformin using the buccal micronucleus cytome (BMCyt assay. Micronuclei frequency in cheek epithelial cells was higher in both DM1 (0.75 ± 0.31, P<0.001 and DM2 (0.52 ± 0.27, P<0.001 patients, as compared to healthy controls (0.07  ±  0.06. Similarly, micronuclei frequency in tongue epithelium was increased in DM1 (0.81  ±  0.22, P<0.001 and DM2 (0.41  ±  0.21, P<0.001 groups, in comparison to controls (0.06  ±  0.05. Besides, we found a positive correlation between micronuclei frequency and the onset time of DM2 in both cheek (ρ = 0.69, P<0.001 and tongue epithelial cells (ρ = 0.71, P<0.001, but not with onset time of DM1 or age of the patients. Considering all this, we pose that BMCyt could serve as a fast and easily accessible test to assess genotoxic damage during dental visits of DM patients, helping to monitor their disease.

  6. Highlighting the positive impact of increasing feeding frequency on metabolism and weight management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis-Sylvestre, Jeanine; Lluch, Anne; Neant, Françoise; Blundell, John E

    2003-01-01

    Research on feeding frequency started more than 20 years ago and some studies have shown evidence of nutritional benefits, especially on metabolism and body weight management. Advice on feeding frequency could play an important role in public health policies by reducing levels of overweight and obesity, the prevalence of which has dangerously increased in most countries over the last few decades. The 17th International Congress of Nutrition brought to the forefront the benefits of increasing feeding frequency (i.e. keeping the same total daily energy intake but dividing it into more frequent meals than usual). Recent epidemiological studies, mostly carried out in France, have provided evidence on the beneficial effects of a fourth meal for those individuals who habitually choose this pattern. Supported by metabolic data, these findings have now been supported by experimental studies. The "goûter", commonly eaten in the afternoon in France by most children and many adults, has the biological characteristics of a meal because it is eaten in response to hunger. Suppressing the "goûter" in "habitual fourth meal eaters" soon leads to an increase in Body Mass Index (BMI). Further, people who are regular "goûter" eaters have a higher carbohydrate intake and better metabolic profile than other adults, even though their total energy intake is not greater. Increased feeding frequency leads to a reduction in the total secretion of insulin, an improvement in insulin resistance and a better blood glucose control, as well as an improvement in the blood lipid profile. The experts agreed that, as long as we do not consume more energy than we use up and we only eat when we are hungry, it may be useful to split our total energy intake into as many meals as our social pattern allows. However, the pattern of eating cannot be completely dissociated from the composition of foods consumed. Therefore within this energy intake, we must take care to consume not only a good balance of

  7. Hypercaloric diets with increased meal frequency, but not meal size, increase intrahepatic triglycerides: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopman, Karin E; Caan, Matthan W A; Nederveen, Aart J; Pels, Anouk; Ackermans, Mariette T; Fliers, Eric; la Fleur, Susanne E; Serlie, Mireille J

    2014-08-01

    American children consume up to 27% of calories from high-fat and high-sugar snacks. Both sugar and fat consumption have been implicated as a cause of hepatic steatosis and obesity but the effect of meal pattern is largely understudied. We hypothesized that a high meal frequency, compared to consuming large meals, is detrimental in the accumulation of intrahepatic and abdominal fat. To test this hypothesis, we randomized 36 lean, healthy men to a 40% hypercaloric diet for 6 weeks or a eucaloric control diet and measured intrahepatic triglyceride content (IHTG) using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1) H-MRS), abdominal fat using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and insulin sensitivity using a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp with a glucose isotope tracer before and after the diet intervention. The caloric surplus consisted of fat and sugar (high-fat-high-sugar; HFHS) or sugar only (high-sugar; HS) and was consumed together with, or between, the three main meals, thereby increasing meal size or meal frequency. All hypercaloric diets similarly increased body mass index (BMI). Increasing meal frequency significantly increased IHTG (HFHS mean relative increase of 45%; P = 0.016 and HS mean relative increase of 110%; P = 0.047), whereas increasing meal size did not (2-way analysis of variance [ANOVA] size versus frequency P = 0.03). Abdominal fat increased in the HFHS-frequency group (+63.3 ± 42.8 mL; P = 0.004) and tended to increase in the HS-frequency group (+46.5 ± 50.7 mL; P = 0.08). Hepatic insulin sensitivity tended to decrease in the HFHS-frequency group while peripheral insulin sensitivity was not affected. A hypercaloric diet with high meal frequency increased IHTG and abdominal fat independent of caloric content and body weight gain, whereas increasing meal size did not. This study suggests that snacking, a common feature in the Western diet, independently contributes to hepatic steatosis and obesity. ( www

  8. Freely Chosen Index Finger Tapping Frequency Is Increased in Repeated Bouts of Tapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Ernst Albin; Ebbesen, Brian Duborg; Dalsgaard, Ane; Mora-Jensen, Mark Holten; Rasmussen, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    Healthy individuals (n = 40) performed index finger tapping at freely chosen frequency during repeated bouts and before and after near-maximal muscle action consisting of 3 intense flexions of the index finger metacarpal phalangeal joint. One experiment showed, unexpectedly, that a bout of tapping increased the tapping frequency in the subsequent bout. Thus, a cumulating increase of 8.2 ± 5.4% (p tapping frequency was still increased in consecutive bouts when rest periods were extended to 20 min. Besides, near-maximal muscle activation, followed by 5 min rest, did not affect the tapping frequency. In conclusion, freely chosen tapping frequency was increased in repeated bouts of tapping, which were separated by 10-20 min rest periods. The observed phenomenon is suggested to be termed repeated bout rate enhancement.

  9. Increased frequency of chromosome translocations in airline pilots with long-term flying experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, L C; Sigurdson, A J; Ward, E M; Waters, M A; Whelan, E A; Petersen, M R; Bhatti, P; Ramsey, M J; Ron, E; Tucker, J D

    2009-01-01

    Chromosome translocations are an established biomarker of cumulative exposure to external ionising radiation. Airline pilots are exposed to cosmic ionising radiation, but few flight crew studies have examined translocations in relation to flight experience. We determined the frequency of translocations in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of 83 airline pilots and 50 comparison subjects (mean age 47 and 46 years, respectively). Translocations were scored in an average of 1039 cell equivalents (CE) per subject using fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) whole chromosome painting and expressed per 100 CE. Negative binomial regression models were used to assess the relationship between translocation frequency and exposure status and flight years, adjusting for age, diagnostic x ray procedures, and military flying. There was no significant difference in the adjusted mean translocation frequency of pilots and comparison subjects (0.37 (SE 0.04) vs 0.38 (SE 0.06) translocations/100 CE, respectively). However, among pilots, the adjusted translocation frequency was significantly associated with flight years (p = 0.01) with rate ratios of 1.06 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.11) and 1.81 (95% CI 1.16 to 2.82) for a 1- and 10-year incremental increase in flight years, respectively. The adjusted rate ratio for pilots in the highest compared to the lowest quartile of flight years was 2.59 (95% CI 1.26 to 5.33). Our data suggests that pilots with long-term flying experience may be exposed to biologically significant doses of ionising radiation. Epidemiological studies with longer follow-up of larger cohorts of pilots with a wide range of radiation exposure levels are needed to clarify the relationship between cosmic radiation exposure and cancer risk.

  10. Component-Level Demonstration of a Microfabricated Atomic Frequency Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    Kitching, L. A. Liew, and J. Moreland, "A microfabricated atomic clock," Applied Physics Letters, vol. 85, pp. 1460-1462, 2004. [4] R. Lutwak , P...Symposium on Frequency Standards and Metrology, P. Gill, Ed. St. Andrews, Scotland: World Scientific, 2001, pp. 155-166. [31] R. Lutwak , D. Emmons...Frequency and Time Forum. Tampa, FL, 2003, pp. 31-32. [71] R. Lutwak , D. Emmons, T. English, W. Riley, A. Duwel, M. Varghese, D. K. Serkland, and

  11. Disruption of perineuronal nets increases the frequency of sharp wave ripple events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhi Yong; Bozzelli, P Lorenzo; Caccavano, Adam; Allen, Megan; Balmuth, Jason; Vicini, Stefano; Wu, Jian-Young; Conant, Katherine

    2018-01-01

    Hippocampal sharp wave ripples (SWRs) represent irregularly occurring synchronous neuronal population events that are observed during phases of rest and slow wave sleep. SWR activity that follows learning involves sequential replay of training-associated neuronal assemblies and is critical for systems level memory consolidation. SWRs are initiated by CA2 or CA3 pyramidal cells (PCs) and require initial excitation of CA1 PCs as well as participation of parvalbumin (PV) expressing fast spiking (FS) inhibitory interneurons. These interneurons are relatively unique in that they represent the major neuronal cell type known to be surrounded by perineuronal nets (PNNs), lattice like structures composed of a hyaluronin backbone that surround the cell soma and proximal dendrites. Though the function of the PNN is not completely understood, previous studies suggest it may serve to localize glutamatergic input to synaptic contacts and thus influence the activity of ensheathed cells. Noting that FS PV interneurons impact the activity of PCs thought to initiate SWRs, and that their activity is critical to ripple expression, we examine the effects of PNN integrity on SWR activity in the hippocampus. Extracellular recordings from the stratum radiatum of horizontal murine hippocampal hemisections demonstrate SWRs that occur spontaneously in CA1. As compared with vehicle, pre-treatment (120 min) of paired hemislices with hyaluronidase, which cleaves the hyaluronin backbone of the PNN, decreases PNN integrity and increases SWR frequency. Pre-treatment with chondroitinase, which cleaves PNN side chains, also increases SWR frequency. Together, these data contribute to an emerging appreciation of extracellular matrix as a regulator of neuronal plasticity and suggest that one function of mature perineuronal nets could be to modulate the frequency of SWR events. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. The impact of rate reduction and increased loudness on fundamental frequency characteristics in dysarthria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjaden, Kris; Wilding, Greg

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which articulatory rate reduction and increased loudness were associated with adjustments in utterance-level measures of fundamental frequency (F(0)) variability for speakers with dysarthria and healthy controls that have been shown to impact on intelligibility in previously published studies. More generally, the current study sought to compare and contrast how a slower-than-normal rate and increased vocal loudness impact on a variety of utterance-level F(0) characteristics for speakers with dysarthria and healthy controls. Eleven speakers with Parkinson's disease, 15 speakers with multiple sclerosis, and 14 healthy control speakers were audio recorded while reading a passage in habitual, loud, and slow conditions. Magnitude production was used to elicit variations in rate and loudness. Acoustic measures of duration, intensity and F(0) were obtained. For all speaker groups, a slower-than-normal articulatory rate and increased vocal loudness had distinct effects on F(0) relative to the habitual condition, including a tendency for measures of F(0) variation to be greater in the loud condition and reduced in the slow condition. These results suggest implications for the treatment of dysarthria. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Visual feedback of own tics increases tic frequency in patients with Tourette's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, V C; Lynn, M T; Obst, M; Brass, M; Münchau, A

    2015-01-01

    Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is characterized by motor and phonic tics. It is unknown how paying attention to one's own tics might modulate tic frequency. We determined tic frequency in freely ticcing GTS patients while they were being filmed. In Study 1, we investigated 12 patients (1) alone in a room (baseline); (2) alone in front of a mirror. In Study 2, we replicated these conditions in 16 patients and additionally examined how watching a video, in which the individual was shown not ticcing, affected their tic frequency. In both studies, tic frequency was significantly higher when patients watched themselves in a mirror compared to baseline. In contrast, tic frequency was significantly reduced in the video condition. Paying attention to one's own tics increases tic frequency when tics are not suppressed and appears to be specific for attention to tics, rather than attention to the self.

  14. Adolescent Sexual Behaviors at Varying Levels of Substance Use Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Leah J.; Latimer, William

    2010-01-01

    Combining substance use and sex compounds the risk of contracting sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV. However, the association between substance use and sexual behaviors may vary by substance and sexual behavior. The current study sought to examine the relationship between alcohol and marijuana use frequency and specific sexual…

  15. Base-Level Guide for Electromagnetic Frequency Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    only through exposure to very powerful magnetic fields (> 4 Tesla). For the limits, the force influences on metallic objects are relevant...impractical. Nonferrous shielding materials have little or no effect upon a magnetic field. Magnetic shielding that is effective at low frequencies... detectors or area monitors in Air Force operational environments. This is noted in AFOSH 48-9. In cases where the environment may exceed ten (10

  16. Chronic exposure to low frequency noise at moderate levels causes impaired balance in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruka Tamura

    Full Text Available We are routinely exposed to low frequency noise (LFN; below 0.5 kHz at moderate levels of 60-70 dB sound pressure level (SPL generated from various sources in occupational and daily environments. LFN has been reported to affect balance in humans. However, there is limited information about the influence of chronic exposure to LFN at moderate levels for balance. In this study, we investigated whether chronic exposure to LFN at a moderate level of 70 dB SPL affects the vestibule, which is one of the organs responsible for balance in mice. Wild-type ICR mice were exposed for 1 month to LFN (0.1 kHz and high frequency noise (HFN; 16 kHz at 70 dB SPL at a distance of approximately 10-20 cm. Behavior analyses including rotarod, beam-crossing and footprint analyses showed impairments of balance in LFN-exposed mice but not in non-exposed mice or HFN-exposed mice. Immunohistochemical analysis showed a decreased number of vestibular hair cells and increased levels of oxidative stress in LFN-exposed mice compared to those in non-exposed mice. Our results suggest that chronic exposure to LFN at moderate levels causes impaired balance involving morphological impairments of the vestibule with enhanced levels of oxidative stress. Thus, the results of this study indicate the importance of considering the risk of chronic exposure to LFN at a moderate level for imbalance.

  17. Decreased total antioxidant levels and increased oxidative stress in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    21–25 ... Decreased total antioxidant levels and increased oxidative stress in South ... antioxidant-rich diet and lifestyle changes in T2DM patients would help to avert the .... glycation of proteins and the formation of advanced glycosylation.

  18. Dietary guanidinoacetic acid increases brain creatine levels in healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostojic, Sergej M; Ostojic, Jelena; Drid, Patrik

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) is an experimental dietary additive that might act as a creatine source in tissues with high-energy requirements. In this case study, we evaluated brain levels of creatine in white matter, gray matter, cerebellum, and thalamus during 8 wk oral GAA......, and 8 wk, the participants underwent brain magnetic resonance spectroscopy, clinical chemistry studies, and open-ended questionnaire for side-effect prevalence and severity. RESULTS: Brain creatine levels increased in similar fashion in cerebellum, and white and gray matter after GAA supplementation......, with an initial increase of 10.7% reported after 4 wk, and additional upsurge (7.7%) from the weeks 4 to 8 follow-up (P creatine levels decreased after 4 wk for 6.5% (P = 0.02), and increased nonsignificantly after 8 wk for 8% (P = 0.09). GAA induced an increase in N-acetylaspartate levels at 8...

  19. Acoustic characterization of a nonlinear vibroacoustic absorber at low frequencies and high sound levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvin, A.; Monteil, M.; Bellizzi, S.; Côte, R.; Herzog, Ph.; Pachebat, M.

    2018-03-01

    A nonlinear vibroacoustic absorber (Nonlinear Energy Sink: NES), involving a clamped thin membrane made in Latex, is assessed in the acoustic domain. This NES is here considered as an one-port acoustic system, analyzed at low frequencies and for increasing excitation levels. This dynamic and frequency range requires a suitable experimental technique, which is presented first. It involves a specific impedance tube able to deal with samples of sufficient size, and reaching high sound levels with a guaranteed linear response thank's to a specific acoustic source. The identification method presented here requires a single pressure measurement, and is calibrated from a set of known acoustic loads. The NES reflection coefficient is then estimated at increasing source levels, showing its strong level dependency. This is presented as a mean to understand energy dissipation. The results of the experimental tests are first compared to a nonlinear viscoelastic model of the membrane absorber. In a second step, a family of one degree of freedom models, treated as equivalent Helmholtz resonators is identified from the measurements, allowing a parametric description of the NES behavior over a wide range of levels.

  20. Increasing Lean Mass and Strength: A Comparison of High Frequency Strength Training to Lower Frequency Strength Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Michael H; Burns, Steve P

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect strength training frequency has on improvements in lean mass and strength. Participants were 7 women and 12 men, age ( χ̄ = 34.64 years ± 6.91 years), with strength training experience, training age ( χ̄ = 51.16 months ± 39.02 months). Participants were assigned to one of two groups to equal baseline group demographics. High frequency training group (HFT) trained each muscle group as the agonist, 3 times per week, exercising with 3 sets per muscle group per session (3 total body workouts). Low frequency training group (LFT) trained each muscle group as the agonist one time per week, completing all 9 sets during that one workout. LFT consisted of a routine split over three days: 1) pectoralis, deltoids, and triceps; 2) upper back and biceps; 3) quadriceps, hamstrings, calves, and abdominals. Following eight weeks of training, HFT increased lean mass by 1.06 kg ± 1.78 kg, (1.9%), and LFT increased lean mass by .99 kg ± 1.31 kg, (2.0%). HFT strength improvements on the chest press was 9.07 kg ± 6.33 kg, (11%), and hack squat 20.16 kg ± 11.59 kg, (21%). LFT strength improvements on chest press was 5.80kg ± 4.26 kg, (7.0%), and hack squat 21.83 kg ± 11.17 kg, (24 %). No mean differences between groups were significant. These results suggest that HFT and LFT of equal set totals result in similar improvements in lean mass and strength, following 8 weeks of strength training.

  1. A Practical Method to Increase the Frequency Readability for Vibration Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Loius Ntakpe

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Damage detection and nondestructive evaluation of mechanical and civil engineering structures are nowadays very important to assess the integrity and ensure the reliability of structures. Thus, frequency evaluation becomes a crucial issue, since this modal parameter is mainly used in structural integrity assessment. The herein presented study highligts the possibility of increasing the frequency readability by involving a simple and cost-effective method.

  2. Synchronization to metrical levels in music depends on low-frequency spectral components and tempo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Birgitta; London, Justin; Thompson, Marc R; Toiviainen, Petri

    2017-07-15

    Previous studies have found relationships between music-induced movement and musical characteristics on more general levels, such as tempo or pulse clarity. This study focused on synchronization abilities to music of finely-varying tempi and varying degrees of low-frequency spectral change/flux. Excerpts from six classic Motown/R&B songs at three different tempos (105, 115, and 130 BPM) were used as stimuli in this experiment. Each was then time-stretched by a factor of 5% with regard to the original tempo, yielding a total of 12 stimuli that were presented to 30 participants. Participants were asked to move along with the stimuli while being recorded with an optical motion capture system. Synchronization analysis was performed relative to the beat and the bar level of the music and four body parts. Results suggest that participants synchronized different body parts to specific metrical levels; in particular, vertical movements of hip and feet were synchronized to the beat level when the music contained large amounts of low-frequency spectral flux and had a slower tempo, while synchronization of head and hands was more tightly coupled to the weak flux stimuli at the bar level. Synchronization was generally more tightly coupled to the slower versions of the same stimuli, while synchronization showed an inverted u-shape effect at the bar level as tempo increased. These results indicate complex relationships between musical characteristics, in particular regarding metrical and temporal structure, and our ability to synchronize and entrain to such musical stimuli.

  3. Measurement of radio frequency radiation (RFR) power levels from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the upsurge in the number of network providers and the attendant increase in the installation of mast in Nigeria, the environment is being inundated with radiofrequency radiation (RFR). There is, therefore, increasing concern about the health implications of this development. In this study measurements of RFR output ...

  4. Niacin treatment increases plasma homocyst(e)ine levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, R; Malinow, M; Pettinger, M; Upson, B; Hunninghake, D

    1999-12-01

    Studies have reported high levels of plasma homocyst(e)ine as an independent risk factor for arterial occlusive disease. The Cholesterol Lowering Atherosclerosis Study reported an increase in plasma homocyst(e)ine levels in patients receiving both colestipol and niacin compared with placebo. Thus the objective of this study was to examine the effect of niacin treatment on plasma homocyst(e)ine levels. The Arterial Disease Multiple Intervention Trial, a multicenter randomized, placebo-controlled trial, examined the effect of niacin compared with placebo on homocyst(e)ine in a subset of 52 participants with peripheral arterial disease. During the screening phase, titration of niacin dose from 100 mg to 1000 mg daily resulted in a 17% increase in mean plasma homocyst(e)ine level from 13.1 +/- 4.4 micromol/L to 15.3 +/- 5.6 micromol/L (P ine levels in the niacin group and a 7% decrease in the placebo group (P =.0001). This difference remained statistically significant at the end of follow-up at 48 weeks. Niacin substantially increased plasma homocyst(e)ine levels, which could potentially reduce the expected benefits of niacin associated with lipoprotein modification. However, plasma homocyst(e)ine levels can be decreased by folic acid supplementation. Thus further studies are needed to determine whether B vitamin supplementation to patients undergoing long-term niacin treatment would be beneficial.

  5. Linear response of mutans streptococci to increasing frequency of xylitol chewing gum use: a randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN43479664

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamaguchi David K

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Xylitol is a naturally occurring sugar substitute that has been shown to reduce the level of mutans streptococci in plaque and saliva and to reduce tooth decay. It has been suggested that the degree of reduction is dependent on both the amount and the frequency of xylitol consumption. For xylitol to be successfully and cost-effectively used in public health prevention strategies dosing and frequency guidelines should be established. This study determined the reduction in mutans streptococci levels in plaque and unstimulated saliva to increasing frequency of xylitol gum use at a fixed total daily dose of 10.32 g over five weeks. Methods Participants (n = 132 were randomized to either active groups (10.32 g xylitol/day or a placebo control (9.828 g sorbitol and 0.7 g maltitol/day. All groups chewed 12 pieces of gum per day. The control group chewed 4 times/day and active groups chewed xylitol gum at a frequency of 2 times/day, 3 times/day, or 4 times/day. The 12 gum pieces were evenly divided into the frequency assigned to each group. Plaque and unstimulated saliva samples were taken at baseline and five-weeks and were cultured on modified Mitis Salivarius agar for mutans streptococci enumeration. Results There were no significant differences in mutans streptococci level among the groups at baseline. At five-weeks, mutans streptococci levels in plaque and unstimulated saliva showed a linear reduction with increasing frequency of xylitol chewing gum use at the constant daily dose. Although the difference observed for the group that chewed xylitol 2 times/day was consistent with the linear model, the difference was not significant. Conclusion There was a linear reduction in mutans streptococci levels in plaque and saliva with increasing frequency of xylitol gum use at a constant daily dose. Reduction at a consumption frequency of 2 times per day was small and consistent with the linear-response line but was not statistically

  6. Low-frequency ultrasound increases non-viral gene transfer to the mouse lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xenariou, Stefania; Liang, Hai-Dong; Griesenbach, Uta; Zhu, Jie; Farley, Raymond; Somerton, Lucinda; Singh, Charanjit; Jeffery, Peter K; Scheule, Ronald K; Cheng, Seng H; Geddes, Duncan M; Blomley, Martin; Alton, Eric W F W

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess if low-frequency ultrasound (US), in the range of 30-35 kHz, increases non-viral gene transfer to the mouse lung. US is greatly attenuated in the lung due to large energy losses at the air/tissue interfaces. The advantages of low-frequency US, compared with high-frequency US are: (i) increased cavitation (responsible for the formation of transient pores in the cell membrane) and (ii) reduced energy losses during lung penetration. Cationic lipid GL67/plasmid DNA (pDNA), polyethylenimine (PEI)/pDNA and naked pDNA were delivered via intranasal instillation and the animals were then exposed to US (sonoporation) at 0.07 or 0.1 MPa for 10 min. Under these conditions, US did not enhance GL67 or PEI-mediated transfection. It did, however, increase naked pDNA gene transfer by approximately 4 folds. Importantly, this was achieved in the absence of microbubbles, which are crucial for the commonly used high-frequency (1 MHz) sonoporation but may not be able to withstand nebulization in a clinically relevant setup. Lung hemorrhage was also assessed and shown to increase with US pressure in a dose-dependent manner. We have thus, established that low-frequency US can enhance lung gene transfer with naked pDNA and this enhancement is more effective than the previously reported 1 MHz US.

  7. Increased frequency of micronucleated exfoliated cells among humans exposed in vivo to mobile telephone radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manoj Kumar Sharma; Abhay Singh Yadav

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The health concerns have been raised following the enormous increase in the use of wireless mobile telephones through out the world. This investigation had been taken, with the motive to find out whether mobile phone radiations cause any in vivo effects on the frequency of micronucleated exfoliated cells in the exposed subjects. A total of 109 subjects including 85 regular mobile phone users (exposed) and 24 non-users (controls) had participated in this study. Exfoliated cells were obtained by swabbing the buccal-mucosa from exposed as well as sex-age-matched controls. One thousand exfoliated cells were screened from each individual for nuclear anomalies including micronuclei (MN), karyolysis (KL), karyorrhexis (KH), broken egg (BE) and bi-nucleated (BN) cells. The average daily duration of exposure to mobile phone radiations is 61.26 minutes with an overall average duration of exposure in term of years is 2.35 years in exposed subjects along with the 9.84±0.745 MNC (micronucleated cells) and 10.72±0.889 TMN (total micronuclei) as compared to zero duration of exposure along with average 3.75±0.774 MNC and 4.00±0.808 TMN in controls. The means are significantly different in case MNC and TMN at 0.01% level of significance. For all other nuclear anomalies (KL, KH, BE and BN cells) the means are found statistically nonsignificant. A positive correlation was found in the frequency of MNC and TMN with respect to duration of exposure time.

  8. Increased frequency of single base substitutions in a population of transcripts expressed in cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianchetti Laurent

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single Base Substitutions (SBS that alter transcripts expressed in cancer originate from somatic mutations. However, recent studies report SBS in transcripts that are not supported by the genomic DNA of tumor cells. Methods We used sequence based whole genome expression profiling, namely Long-SAGE (L-SAGE and Tag-seq (a combination of L-SAGE and deep sequencing, and computational methods to identify transcripts with greater SBS frequencies in cancer. Millions of tags produced by 40 healthy and 47 cancer L-SAGE experiments were compared to 1,959 Reference Tags (RT, i.e. tags matching the human genome exactly once. Similarly, tens of millions of tags produced by 7 healthy and 8 cancer Tag-seq experiments were compared to 8,572 RT. For each transcript, SBS frequencies in healthy and cancer cells were statistically tested for equality. Results In the L-SAGE and Tag-seq experiments, 372 and 4,289 transcripts respectively, showed greater SBS frequencies in cancer. Increased SBS frequencies could not be attributed to known Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP, catalogued somatic mutations or RNA-editing enzymes. Hypothesizing that Single Tags (ST, i.e. tags sequenced only once, were indicators of SBS, we observed that ST proportions were heterogeneously distributed across Embryonic Stem Cells (ESC, healthy differentiated and cancer cells. ESC had the lowest ST proportions, whereas cancer cells had the greatest. Finally, in a series of experiments carried out on a single patient at 1 healthy and 3 consecutive tumor stages, we could show that SBS frequencies increased during cancer progression. Conclusion If the mechanisms generating the base substitutions could be known, increased SBS frequency in transcripts would be a new useful biomarker of cancer. With the reduction of sequencing cost, sequence based whole genome expression profiling could be used to characterize increased SBS frequency in patient’s tumor and aid diagnostic.

  9. Conservation threats due to human-caused increases in fire frequency in Mediterranean-climate ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syphard, Alexandra D; Radeloff, Volker C; Hawbaker, Todd J; Stewart, Susan I

    2009-06-01

    Periodic wildfire is an important natural process in Mediterranean-climate ecosystems, but increasing fire recurrence threatens the fragile ecology of these regions. Because most fires are human-caused, we investigated how human population patterns affect fire frequency. Prior research in California suggests the relationship between population density and fire frequency is not linear. There are few human ignitions in areas with low population density, so fire frequency is low. As population density increases, human ignitions and fire frequency also increase, but beyond a density threshold, the relationship becomes negative as fuels become sparser and fire suppression resources are concentrated. We tested whether this hypothesis also applies to the other Mediterranean-climate ecosystems of the world. We used global satellite databases of population, fire activity, and land cover to evaluate the spatial relationship between humans and fire in the world's five Mediterranean-climate ecosystems. Both the mean and median population densities were consistently and substantially higher in areas with than without fire, but fire again peaked at intermediate population densities, which suggests that the spatial relationship is complex and nonlinear. Some land-cover types burned more frequently than expected, but no systematic differences were observed across the five regions. The consistent association between higher population densities and fire suggests that regardless of differences between land-cover types, natural fire regimes, or overall population, the presence of people in Mediterranean-climate regions strongly affects the frequency of fires; thus, population growth in areas now sparsely settled presents a conservation concern. Considering the sensitivity of plant species to repeated burning and the global conservation significance of Mediterranean-climate ecosystems, conservation planning needs to consider the human influence on fire frequency. Fine-scale spatial

  10. Increased frequency of single base substitutions in a population of transcripts expressed in cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchetti, Laurent; Kieffer, David; Féderkeil, Rémi; Poch, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Single Base Substitutions (SBS) that alter transcripts expressed in cancer originate from somatic mutations. However, recent studies report SBS in transcripts that are not supported by the genomic DNA of tumor cells. We used sequence based whole genome expression profiling, namely Long-SAGE (L-SAGE) and Tag-seq (a combination of L-SAGE and deep sequencing), and computational methods to identify transcripts with greater SBS frequencies in cancer. Millions of tags produced by 40 healthy and 47 cancer L-SAGE experiments were compared to 1,959 Reference Tags (RT), i.e. tags matching the human genome exactly once. Similarly, tens of millions of tags produced by 7 healthy and 8 cancer Tag-seq experiments were compared to 8,572 RT. For each transcript, SBS frequencies in healthy and cancer cells were statistically tested for equality. In the L-SAGE and Tag-seq experiments, 372 and 4,289 transcripts respectively, showed greater SBS frequencies in cancer. Increased SBS frequencies could not be attributed to known Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP), catalogued somatic mutations or RNA-editing enzymes. Hypothesizing that Single Tags (ST), i.e. tags sequenced only once, were indicators of SBS, we observed that ST proportions were heterogeneously distributed across Embryonic Stem Cells (ESC), healthy differentiated and cancer cells. ESC had the lowest ST proportions, whereas cancer cells had the greatest. Finally, in a series of experiments carried out on a single patient at 1 healthy and 3 consecutive tumor stages, we could show that SBS frequencies increased during cancer progression. If the mechanisms generating the base substitutions could be known, increased SBS frequency in transcripts would be a new useful biomarker of cancer. With the reduction of sequencing cost, sequence based whole genome expression profiling could be used to characterize increased SBS frequency in patient’s tumor and aid diagnostic

  11. Increasing low frequency sound attenuation using compounded single layer of sonic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulia, Preeti; Gupta, Arpan

    2018-05-01

    Sonic crystals (SC) are man-made periodic structures where sound hard scatterers are arranged in a crystalline manner. SC reduces noise in a particular range of frequencies called as band gap. Sonic crystals have a promising application in noise shielding; however, the application is limited due to the size of structure. Particularly for low frequencies, the structure becomes quite bulky, restricting its practical application. This paper presents a compounded model of SC, which has the same overall area and filling fraction but with increased low frequency sound attenuation. Two cases have been considered, a three layer SC and a compounded single layer SC. Both models have been analyzed using finite element simulation and plane wave expansion method. Band gaps for periodic structures have been obtained using both methods which are in good agreement. Further, sound transmission loss has been evaluated using finite element method. The results demonstrate the use of compounded model of Sonic Crystal for low frequency sound attenuation.

  12. Effect of irrigation frequency and application levels of sulphur ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-21

    Sep 21, 2011 ... both years of experimentation, application of two irrigations significantly increased the India ... marginal lands with poor fertility under rainfed conditions. ... and 40 kg K20 ha-1 as muriate of potash was applied to each plot.

  13. Radio Frequency Based Water Level Monitor and Controller for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Similarly, the control unit of the prototype performs automatic switching control of on and off on a single phase centrifugal water pump, 220volts, 0.5hp motor via a motor driver circuit (relay). It also incorporates a buzzer that beeps briefly when water level hits 100%, thus causing the pump to be switched off but when water ...

  14. Effects of an applied low frequency field on the dynamics of a two-level atom interacting with a single-mode field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xun-Wei, Xu; Nian-Hua, Liu

    2010-01-01

    The effects of an applied low frequency field on the dynamics of a two-level atom interacting with a single-mode field are investigated. It is shown that the time evolution of the atomic population is mainly controlled by the coupling constants and the frequency of the low frequency field, which leads to a low frequency modulation function for the time evolution of the upper state population. The amplitude of the modulation function becomes larger as the coupling constants increase. The frequency of the modulation function is proportional to the frequency of the low frequency field, and decreases with increasing coupling constant. (classical areas of phenomenology)

  15. Increased Frequency of Rheumatoid Arthritis and Allergic Rhinitis among Pesticide Sprayers and Associations with Pesticide Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koureas, Michalis; Rachiotis, George; Tsakalof, Andreas; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2017-08-01

    Objective : The aim of this study was to identify diseases linked with the pesticide sprayer occupation and explore possible associations with exposure history data. Methods : Α cross sectional study was conducted among pesticide sprayers ( n = 80) and the general population ( n = 90) in Thessaly (Greece). Medical history, demographic characteristics and detailed exposure history were recorded by conducting personal interviews. Lifetime exposure indicators were calculated for several pesticide chemical subclasses. Moreover, organophosphate metabolite levels were quantified in urine samples of all participants by using gas chromatography -mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Multinomial analysis was used to determine associations between occupational pesticide exposure and diseases or disorders. Results : In the pesticide sprayers group, significantly higher frequencies for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and allergic rhinitis were observed compared with the control group ( p = 0.002 and p = 0.024 respectively). Within the pesticide sprayers group, high lifetime pesticide exposure was associated with increased risk for reporting RA (OR: 43.07 95% CI: 3.09-600.67) and allergic rhinitis (OR: 9.72 95% CI: 2.31-40.89), compared with low pesticide exposure. Exposure to organophsphate, guanidine and quinone pesticides were associated with RA while organophosphates, pyrethroids and paraquat were associated with allergic rhinitis. Despite the higher levels of certain pesticide metabolites observed among participants with rheumatoid arthritis, the differences were not statistically significant. One metabolite (diethylthiophosphate) was found to be significantly increased in allergic rhinitis cases ( p = 0.037). Conclusion s : The results from the current study suggest a possible association of occupational pesticide exposure with RA and allergic rhinitis that should be further investigated.

  16. Effectiveness of increasing the frequency of posaconazole syrup administration to achieve optimal plasma concentrations in patients with haematological malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Wan Beom; Cho, Joo-Youn; Park, Sang-In; Kim, Eun Jung; Yoon, Seonghae; Yoon, Seo Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Ok; Koh, Youngil; Song, Kyoung-Ho; Choe, Pyoeng Gyun; Yu, Kyung-Sang; Kim, Eu Suk; Bang, Su Mi; Kim, Nam Joong; Kim, Inho; Oh, Myoung-Don; Kim, Hong Bin; Song, Sang Hoon

    2016-07-01

    Few data are available on whether adjusting the dose of posaconazole syrup is effective in patients receiving anti-cancer chemotherapy. The aim of this prospective study was to analyse the impact of increasing the frequency of posaconazole administration on optimal plasma concentrations in adult patients with haematological malignancy. A total of 133 adult patients receiving chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukaemia or myelodysplastic syndrome who received posaconazole syrup 200 mg three times daily for fungal prophylaxis were enrolled in this study. Drug trough levels were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In 20.2% of patients (23/114) the steady-state concentration of posaconazole was suboptimal (increased to 200 mg four times daily. On Day 15, the median posaconazole concentration was significantly increased from 368 ng/mL [interquartile range (IQR), 247-403 ng/mL] to 548 ng/mL (IQR, 424-887 ng/mL) (P = 0.0003). The median increase in posaconazole concentration was 251 ng/mL (IQR, 93-517 ng/mL). Among the patients with initially suboptimal levels, 79% achieved the optimal level unless the steady-state level was increasing the administration frequency of posaconazole syrup is effective for achieving optimal levels in patients with haematological malignancy undergoing chemotherapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  17. Emotionally arousing pictures increase blood glucose levels and enhance recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, T M; Varnhagen, C K; Parent, M B

    2001-05-01

    Arousal enhances memory in human participants and this enhancing effect is likely due to the release of peripheral epinephrine. As epinephrine does not readily enter the brain, one way that peripheral epinephrine may enhance memory is by increasing circulating blood glucose levels. The present study investigated the possibility that emotionally arousing color pictures would improve memory and elevate blood glucose levels in human participants. Blood glucose levels were measured before, 15 min, and 30 min after male university students viewed 60 emotionally arousing or relatively neutral pictures. Participants viewed each picture for 6 s and then had 10 s to rate the arousal (emotional intensity) and valence (pleasantness) of each picture. A free-recall memory test was given 30 min after the last picture was viewed. Although the emotionally arousing and neutral picture sets were given comparable valence ratings, participants who viewed the emotionally arousing pictures rated the pictures as being more arousing, recalled more pictures, and had higher blood glucose levels after viewing the pictures than did participants who viewed the neutral pictures. These findings indicate that emotionally arousing pictures increase blood glucose levels and enhance memory, and that this effect is not due to differences in the degree of pleasantness of the stimuli. These findings support the possibility that increases in circulating blood glucose levels in response to emotional arousal may be part of the biological mechanism that allows emotional arousal to enhance memory. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  18. Increased carboxyhemoglobin level during liver resection with inflow occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godai, Kohei; Hasegawa-Moriyama, Maiko; Kuniyoshi, Tamotsu; Matsunaga, Akira; Kanmura, Yuichi

    2013-04-01

    Controlling stress responses associated with ischemic changes due to bleeding and ischemia/reperfusion injury is essential for anesthetic management. Endogenous carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) is produced in the oxidative degradation of heme proteins by the stress-response enzyme heme oxygenase. Although the COHb level is elevated in critically ill patients, changes in endogenous COHb during anesthesia have not been well investigated. Therefore, we evaluated changes in endogenous COHb levels in patients undergoing liver resections with inflow occlusion. Levels of COHb were significantly increased after the Pringle maneuver. The inflow occlusion time in patients with increased COHb after the Pringle maneuver (∆COHb > 0.3 %) was significantly longer than in patients without increased COHb (∆COHb < 0.3 %) (P = 0.01). In addition, COHb changes were correlated with inflow occlusion time (P = 0.005, R(2) = 0.21). Neither total blood loss, transfusion volume of packed red blood cells, operation time, nor anesthetic time differed between patients with and without increased COHb. The results indicated that endogenous COHb levels were increased by inflow occlusion in patients undergoing liver resections, which suggests that changes in COHb may correlate with hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury induced by inflow occlusion.

  19. [Midline Cyst of the Prostate with Increased Urinary Frequency and Urgency : A Case Report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Kosuke; Kiuchi, Hiroshi; Miyagawa, Yasushi; Tsujimura, Akira; Nonomura, Norio

    2018-02-01

    A 40-year-old man presented to our institution with a few-month history of increased urinary frequency, urgency and voiding difficulty. He had severe lower urinary tract symptoms with an International Prostate Symptom Score of 28 and quality of life score of 6. The mean urinary frequency and voided volume was 20 times per day and 150 ml, respectively. Abdominal ultrasonography and pelvic magnetic resonance imaging revealed the prostate measuring 15 cm3 with a 3 cm midline cyst which compressed the posterior of the bladder wall. A subsequent examination indicated that his lower urinary tract symptoms could be attributed to the cystic mass which mainly affected his storage symptoms. The patient underwent transurethral unroofing of the prostate cyst. Immediately after the surgery, his storage symptoms were improved greatly. The voiding volume was increased to 250 ml, and the frequency of urination was decreased to 8 times. No recurrent symptoms were found for seven months after the surgery.

  20. Decreased total antioxidant levels and increased oxidative stress in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Chronic hyperglycaemia in diabetes mellitus leads to increased lipid peroxidation in the body, followed by the development of chronic complications due to oxidative stress. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare total antioxidant (TAO) levels and oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) ...

  1. Numerical study on increasing mass flow ratio by energy deposition of high frequency pulsed laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Diankai; Hong Yanji; Li Qian

    2013-01-01

    The mass flow ratio (MFR) of air breathing ramjet inlet would be decreased, when the Mach number is lower than the designed value. High frequency pulsed laser energy was deposited upstream of the cowl lip to reflect the stream so as to increase the MFR. When the Mach number of the flow was 5.0, and the static pressure and temperature of the flow were 2 551.6 Pa and 116.7 K, respectively, two-dimensional non-stationary compressible RANS equations were solved with upwind format to study the mechanisms of increasing MFR by high frequency pulsed laser energy deposition. The laser deposition frequency was 100 kHz and the average power was 500 W. The crossing point of the first forebody oblique shock and extension line of cowl lip was selected as the expected point. Then the deposition position was optimized by searching near the expected point. The results indicate that with the optimization of laser energy deposition position, the MFR would be increased from 63% to 97%. The potential value of increasing MFR by high frequency pulsed laser energy deposition was proved. The method for selection of the energy deposition position was also presented. (authors)

  2. Increased fusiform area activation in schizophrenia during processing of spatial frequency-degraded faces, as revealed by fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, S M; All, S D; Kasi, R; Berten, S; Essex, B; Lathrop, K L; Little, D M

    2010-07-01

    People with schizophrenia demonstrate perceptual organization impairments, and these are thought to contribute to their face processing difficulties. We examined the neural substrates of emotionally neutral face processing in schizophrenia by investigating neural activity under three stimulus conditions: faces characterized by the full spectrum of spatial frequencies, faces with low spatial frequency information removed [high spatial frequency (HSF) condition], and faces with high spatial frequency information removed [low spatial frequency (LSF) condition]. Face perception in the HSF condition is more reliant on local feature processing whereas perception in the LSF condition requires greater reliance on global form processing. Past studies of perceptual organization in schizophrenia indicate that patients perform relatively more poorly with degraded stimuli but also that, when global information is absent, patients may perform better than controls because of their relatively increased ability to initially process individual features. Therefore, we hypothesized that people with schizophrenia (n=14) would demonstrate greater face processing difficulties than controls (n=13) in the LSF condition, whereas they would demonstrate a smaller difference or superior performance in the HSF condition. In a gender-discrimination task, behavioral data indicated high levels of accuracy for both groups, with a trend toward an interaction involving higher patient performance in the HSF condition and poorer patient performance in the LSF condition. Patients demonstrated greater activity in the fusiform gyrus compared to controls in both degraded conditions. These data suggest that impairments in basic integration abilities may be compensated for by relatively increased activity in this region.

  3. Locus of Word Frequency Effects in Spelling to Dictation: Still at the Orthographic Level!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Patrick; Laroche, Betty; Perret, Cyril

    2016-01-01

    The present study was aimed at testing the locus of word frequency effects in spelling to dictation: Are they located at the level of spoken word recognition (Chua & Rickard Liow, 2014) or at the level of the orthographic output lexicon (Delattre, Bonin, & Barry, 2006)? Words that varied on objective word frequency and on phonological…

  4. Glycogen and proximate content of white shrimp fed on different carbohydrate level and feeding frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    , Zainuddin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT White shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei is one of penaeid shrimp which can be cultured either in traditional and advanced technology scale. One problem that commonly faced by pond farmer is the high price of feed with high protein content. This research was to identify the optimal level of carbohydrate and feeding frequency on glycogen deposit and chemical composition of white shrimp juvenile. Research used factorial completely randomized design with two factors in triplicates. Treatments were factor A, carbohydrate level in feed respectively A1 (30%, A2 (37%, A3 (44%, A4 (50%, and factor B daily feeding frequency respectively B1 (twice, B2 (four times, and B3 (six times respectively. White shrimp used had an initial average body weight of 0.3 g/shrimp. Feeding level was 10% of shrimp body weight. Results showed that both factors, carbohydrate level in feed, feeding frequency and their interactions were not significantly different on glycogen deposit of white shrimp juvenile. Analysis result on chemical compositions of white shrimp juvenile consisted of protein, lipid, nitrogen-free extract, crude fiber, ash, and energy were generally increased after treatments. Keywords: glycogen deposit, feeding frequency, chemical composition, carbohydrate level ABSTRAK Udang vaname Litopenaeus vannamei merupakan salah satu jenis udang penaeid yang dapat dibudidayakan baik dalam skala teknologi tradisional maupun skala teknologi maju. Salah satu masalah yang dihadapi para petani tambak adalah tingginya harga pakan yang disebabkan karena tingginya kandungan protein pakan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji efek pemberian pakan dengan kadar karbohidrat dan frekuensi pemberian berbeda terhadap deposit glikogen dan komposisi kimia tubuh juvenil udang vanamei. Penelitian menggunakan desain rancangan acak lengkap pola faktorial dengan dua faktor dan setiap faktor diberi masing-masing tiga ulangan. Perlakuan yang diuji adalah faktor A, kadar karbohidrat

  5. Endozepine-4 levels are increased in hepatic coma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaguarnera, Giulia; Vacante, Marco; Drago, Filippo; Bertino, Gaetano; Motta, Massimo; Giordano, Maria; Malaguarnera, Michele

    2015-08-14

    To evaluate the serum levels of endozepine-4, their relation with ammonia serum levels, the grading of coma and the severity of cirrhosis, in patients with hepatic coma. In this study we included 20 subjects with Hepatic coma, 20 subjects with minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) and 20 subjects control. All subjects underwent blood analysis, Child Pugh and Model for End - stage liver disease (MELD) assessment, endozepine-4 analysis. Subjects with hepatic coma showed significant difference in endozepine-4 (P blood ammonia concentration was noted to be raised in patients with hepatic coma, with the highest ammonia levels being found in those who were comatose. We also found a high correlation between endozepine-4 and ammonia (P < 0.001). In patients with grade IV hepatic coma, endozepine levels were significantly higher compared to other groups. This study suggests that an increased level of endozepine in subjects with higher levels of MELD was observed. In conclusion, data concerning involvement of the GABA-ergic system in HE coma could be explained by stage-specific alterations.

  6. Ghrelin administered spinally increases the blood glucose level in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Yun-Beom; Park, Soo-Hyun; Kim, Sung-Su; Kim, Chea-Ha; Kim, Su-Jin; Lim, Su-Min; Jung, Jun-Sub; Suh, Hong-Won

    2014-04-01

    Ghrelin is known as a regulator of the blood glucose homeostasis and food intake. In the present study, the possible roles of ghrelin located in the spinal cord in the regulation of the blood glucose level were investigated in ICR mice. We found that intrathecal (i.t.) injection with ghrelin (from 1 to 10 μg) caused an elevation of the blood glucose level. In addition, i.t. pretreatment with YIL781 (ghrelin receptor antagonist; from 0.1 to 5 μg) markedly attenuated ghrelin-induced hyperglycemic effect. The plasma insulin level was increased by ghrelin. The enhanced plasma insulin level by ghrelin was reduced by i.t. pretreatment with YIL781. However, i.t. pretreatment with glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1; 5 μg) did not affect the ghrelin-induced hyperglycemia. Furthermore, i.t. administration with ghrelin also elevated the blood glucose level, but in an additive manner, in d-glucose-fed model. Our results suggest that the activation of ghrelin receptors located in the spinal cord plays important roles for the elevation of the blood glucose level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Increased plasma agmatine levels in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzbay, Tayfun; Goktalay, Gokhan; Kayir, Hakan; Eker, Salih S; Sarandol, Asli; Oral, Sema; Buyukuysal, Levent; Ulusoy, Gokhan; Kirli, Selcuk

    2013-08-01

    Agmatine is an endogenous substance, synthesized from l-arginine, and it is proposed to be a new neurotransmitter. Preclinical studies indicated that agmatine may have an important role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. This study was organized to investigate plasma agmatine in patients with schizophrenia and in healthy controls. Eighteen patients with schizophrenia and 19 healthy individuals constituted the subjects. Agmatine levels in the plasma were measured using the HPLC method. The S100B protein level, which is a peripheral biomarker for brain damage, was also measured using the ELISA method. While plasma levels of agmatine in patients with schizophrenia were significantly increased (p agmatine levels as a clinical diagnostic test would significantly differentiate between patients with schizophrenia and those in the control group (predictive value: 0.969; p  0.05). A multiple regression analysis revealed that the age of the patient and the severity of the illness, as indicated by the PANSS score, significantly contributed the plasma agmatine levels in patients with schizophrenia. These results support the hypothesis that an excess agmatine release is important in the development of schizophrenia. The findings also imply that the plasma agmatine level may be a potential biomarker of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Experimental investigation of channel avulsion frequency on river deltas under rising sea levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, J.; Chadwick, A. J.; Steele, S.; Lamb, M. P.

    2017-12-01

    River deltas are low-relief landscapes that are socioeconomically important; they are home to over half a billion people worldwide. Many deltas are built by cycles of lobe growth punctuated by abrupt channel shifts, or avulsions, which often reoccur at a similar location and with a regular frequency. Previous experimental work has investigated the effect of hydrodynamic backwater in controlling channel avulsion location and timing on deltas under constant sea level conditions, but it is unclear how sea-level rise impacts avulsion dynamics. We present results from a flume experiment designed to isolate the role of relative sea-level rise on the evolution of a backwater-influenced delta. The experiment was conducted in the river-ocean facility at Caltech, where a 7m long, 14cm wide alluvial river drains into a 6m by 3m "ocean" basin. The experimental delta grew under subcritical flow, a persistent backwater zone, and a range of sea level rise rates. Without sea level rise, lobe progradation produced in-channel aggradation and periodic avulsions every 3.6 ± 0.9 hours, which corresponded to when channels aggraded to approximately one-half of their flow depth. With a modest rate of sea-level rise (0.25 mm/hr), we observed enhanced aggradation in the backwater zone, causing channels to aggrade more quickly and avulse more frequently (every 2.1 ± 0.6 hours). In future work, we expect further increases in the rate of relative sea-level rise to cause avulsion frequency to decrease as the delta drowns and the backwater zone retreats upstream. Experimental results can serve as tests of numerical models that are needed for hazard mitigation and coastal sustainability efforts on drowning deltas.

  9. Efficiency of fisheries is increasing at the ecosystem level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Nis Sand; Burgess, Matthew G; Andersen, Ken Haste

    2017-01-01

    examine the efficiency of North Sea and Baltic Sea fisheries with respect to economic rent and ecosystem impact, finding both to be inefficient but steadily improving. Our results suggest the following: (i) a broad and encouraging trend towards ecosystem-level efficiency of fisheries; (ii) that ecosystem......Managing fisheries presents trade-offs between objectives, for example yields, profits, minimizing ecosystem impact, that have to be weighed against one another. These trade-offs are compounded by interacting species and fisheries at the ecosystem level. Weighing objectives becomes increasingly...... regressing at least one other. We investigate the ecosystem-level efficiency of fisheries in five large marine ecosystems (LMEs) with respect to yield and an aggregate measure of ecosystem impact using a novel calibration of size-based ecosystem models. We estimate that fishing patterns in three LMEs (North...

  10. Fitness costs of increased cataract frequency and cumulative radiation dose in natural mammalian populations from Chernobyl

    OpenAIRE

    Lehmann, Philipp; Boraty?ski, Zbyszek; Mappes, Tapio; Mousseau, Timothy A.; M?ller, Anders P.

    2016-01-01

    A cataract is a clouding of the lens that reduces light transmission to the retina, and it decreases the visual acuity of the bearer. The prevalence of cataracts in natural populations of mammals, and their potential ecological significance, is poorly known. Cataracts have been reported to arise from high levels of oxidative stress and a major cause of oxidative stress is ionizing radiation. We investigated whether elevated frequencies of cataracts are found in eyes of bank voles Myodes glare...

  11. Food frequency consumption and lipoproteins serum levels in the population of an urban area, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fornés Nélida Schmid

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify the association between food group consumption frequency and serum lipoprotein levels among adults. METHODS: The observations were made during a cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of men and women over 20 years old living in Cotia county, S. Paulo, Brazil. Data on food frequency consumption, serum lipids, and other covariates were available for 1,045 adults. Multivariate analyses adjusted by age, gender, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, educational level, family income, physical activity, smoking, and alcohol consumption were performed. RESULTS: Consumption of processed meat, chicken, red meat, eggs and dairy foods were each positively and significantly correlated with LDL-C, whereas the intake of vegetables and fruits showed an inverse correlation. Daily consumption of processed meat, chicken, red meat, eggs, and dairy foods were associated with 16.6 mg/dl, 14.5 mg/dl, 11.1 mg/dl, 5.8 mg/dl, and 4.6 mg/dl increase in blood LDL-C, respectively. Increases of daily consumption of fruit and vegetables were associated with 5.2 mg/dl and 5.5 mg/dl decreases in LDL-C, respectively. Alcohol beverage consumption showed a significant positive correlation with HDL-C. CONCLUSIONS: Dietary habits in the study population seem to contribute substantially to the variation in blood LDL and HDL concentrations. Substantially CHD risk reduction could be achieved with dietary changes.

  12. Increased Plasma Levels of Heme Oxygenase-1 in Human Brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhe; Zhang, Yu-Xue; Fu, Dong-Wei; Gao, Qing-Feng; Ge, Feng-Xia; Liu, Wei-Hua

    2016-08-01

    Brucellosis is associated with inflammation and the oxidative stress response. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a cytoprotective stress-responsive enzyme that has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects. Nevertheless, the role of HO-1 in human brucellosis has not yet been studied. The aim of this study was to examine the plasma levels of HO-1 in patients with brucellosis and to evaluate the ability of plasma HO-1 levels as an auxiliary diagnosis, a severity predictor, and a monitor for brucellosis treatments. A total of 75 patients with brucellosis were divided into the acute, subacute, chronic active, and chronic stable groups. An additional 20 volunteers were included as the healthy control group. The plasma HO-1 levels and other laboratory parameters were measured in all groups. Furthermore, the plasma levels of HO-1 in the acute group were compared before and after treatment. The plasma HO-1 levels were considerably increased in the acute (4.97 ± 3.55), subacute (4.98 ± 3.23), and chronic active groups (4.43 ± 3.00) with brucellosis compared to the healthy control group (1.03 ± 0.63) (p brucellosis (r = 0.707, p brucellosis status and may be used as a supplementary plasma marker for diagnosing brucellosis and monitoring its treatment.

  13. Risk of cancer in an occupationally exposed cohort with increased level of chromosomal aberrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smerhovsky, Z; Landa, K; Rössner, P; Brabec, M; Zudova, Z; Hola, N; Pokorna, Z; Mareckova, J; Hurychova, D

    2001-01-01

    We used cytogenetic analysis to carry out a cohort study in which the major objective was to test the association between frequency of chromosomal aberrations and subsequent risk of cancer. In spite of the extensive use of the cytogenetic analysis of human peripheral blood lymphocytes in biomonitoring of exposure to various mutagens and carcinogens on an ecologic level, the long-term effects of an increased frequency of chromosomal aberrations in individuals are still uncertain. Few epidemiologic studies have addressed this issue, and a moderate risk of cancer in individuals with an elevated frequency of chromosomal aberrations has been observed. In the present study, we analyzed data on 8,962 cytogenetic tests and 3,973 subjects. We found a significant and strong association between the frequency of chromosomal aberrations and cancer incidence in a group of miners exposed to radon, where a 1% increase in frequency of chromosomal aberrations was followed by a 64% increase in risk of cancer (p < 0.000). In contrast, the collected data are inadequate for a critical evaluation of the association with exposure to other chemicals. PMID:11171523

  14. Level of Automation and Failure Frequency Effects on Simulated Lunar Lander Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, Jessica J.; Ramirez, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    A human-in-the-loop experiment was conducted at the NASA Ames Research Center Vertical Motion Simulator, where instrument-rated pilots completed a simulated terminal descent phase of a lunar landing. Ten pilots participated in a 2 x 2 mixed design experiment, with level of automation as the within-subjects factor and failure frequency as the between subjects factor. The two evaluated levels of automation were high (fully automated landing) and low (manual controlled landing). During test trials, participants were exposed to either a high number of failures (75% failure frequency) or low number of failures (25% failure frequency). In order to investigate the pilots' sensitivity to changes in levels of automation and failure frequency, the dependent measure selected for this experiment was accuracy of failure diagnosis, from which D Prime and Decision Criterion were derived. For each of the dependent measures, no significant difference was found for level of automation and no significant interaction was detected between level of automation and failure frequency. A significant effect was identified for failure frequency suggesting failure frequency has a significant effect on pilots' sensitivity to failure detection and diagnosis. Participants were more likely to correctly identify and diagnose failures if they experienced the higher levels of failures, regardless of level of automation

  15. EPICS based low-level radio frequency control system in LIPAc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo, Julio, E-mail: julio.calvo@ciemat.es [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, Ciemat (Spain); Rivers, Mark L. [Department of Geophysical Sciences and Center for Advanced Radiation Sources, The University of Chicago (United States); Patricio, Miguel A. [Departamento de Informatica, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid (Spain); Ibarra, Angel [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, Ciemat (Spain)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The system proposed can control amplitude and phase of each cavity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rapid diagnostics are refreshed in milliseconds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increasing control parameters will not increase consumed time neither complexity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer IQ demodulation can be achieved thanks to the transformed values at driver level. - Abstract: The IFMIF-EVEDA (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility - Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activity) linear accelerator, known as Linear IFMIF Prototype Accelerator (LIPAc), will be a 9 MeV, 125 mA continuous wave (CW) deuteron accelerator prototype to validate the technical options of the accelerator design for IFMIF. The primary mission of such facility is to test and verify materials performance when subjected to extensive neutron irradiation of the type encountered in a fusion reactor to prepare for the design, construction, licensing and safe operation of a fusion demonstration reactor (DEMO). The radio frequency (RF) power system of IFMIF-EVEDA consists of 18 RF chains working at 175 MHz with three amplification stages each. The low-level radio frequency (LLRF) controls the amplitude and phase of the signal to be synchronized with the beam and it also controls the resonance frequency of the cavities. The system is based on a commercial compact peripheral component interconnect (cPCI) field programmable gate array (FPGA) board, provided by Lyrtech and controlled by a Windows host PC. For this purpose, it is mandatory to communicate the cPCI FPGA board from EPICS Channel Access [1]. A software architecture on EPICS framework in order to control and monitor the LLRF system is presented.

  16. Increased frequency of CD8+ and CD4+ regulatory T cells in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: association with disease progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadidi-Niaragh, Farhad; Yousefi, Mehdi; Memarian, Ali; Hojjat-Farsangi, Mohammad; Khoshnoodi, Jalal; Razavi, Seyed Mohsen; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood; Shokri, Fazel

    2013-02-01

    Little is known regarding the immunobiology of regulatory T (Treg) cells in hematopoietic malignancies, particularly in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). In the present study, we showed that the frequencies of CD8(+) and CD4(+) Treg cells were significantly increased in progressive as compared with indolent CLL patients and normal subjects. Enriched CD4(+) Treg cells induced a similar level of inhibition in polyclonally activated B cells and effector T cells from CLL patients and normal subjects. Our results suggest that the increase in circulating Treg cells may result in downregulation of tumor-specific immune response, leading to tumor expansion and disease progression.

  17. Increased levels of metallothionein in placenta of smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronco, Ana Maria; Arguello, Graciela; Suazo, Myriam; Llanos, Miguel N.

    2005-01-01

    Experiments were designed to evaluate and compare metallothionein (MT), zinc and cadmium levels in human placentas of smoking and non-smoking women. Smoking was assessed by self-reported cigarette consumption and urine cotinine levels before delivery. Smoking pregnant women with urine cotinine levels higher than 130 ng/ml were included in the smoking group. Determination of placental MT was performed by western blot analysis after tissue homogenization and saturation with cadmium chloride (1000 ppm). Metallothionein was analyzed with a monoclonal antibody raised against MT-1 and MT-2 and with a second anti mouse antibody conjugated to alkaline phosphatase. Zinc and cadmium were determined by neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry respectively. Smokers showed higher placental MT and cadmium levels, together with decreased newborn birth weights, as compared to non-smokers. The semi-quantitative analysis of western blots by band densitometry indicated that darker bands corresponded to MT present in smokers' samples. This study confirms that cigarette smoking increases cadmium accumulation in placental tissue and suggests that this element has a stimulatory effect on placental MT production

  18. Email Reminders Increase the Frequency That Pet Owners Update Their Microchip Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Goodwin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Stray animals with incorrect microchip details are less likely to be reclaimed, and unclaimed strays are at increased risk of euthanasia. A retrospective cohort study was performed using 394,747 cats and 904,909 dogs registered with Australia’s largest microchip database to describe animal characteristics, determine whether annual email reminders increased the frequency that owners updated their information, and to compare frequencies of microchip information updates according to pet and owner characteristics. More than twice as many dogs (70% than cats (30% were registered on the database; the most numerous pure-breeds were Ragdoll cats and Staffordshire Bull Terrier dogs, and the number of registered animals per capita varied by Australian state or territory. Owners were more likely (p < 0.001 to update their details soon after they were sent a reminder email, compared to immediately before that email, and there were significant (p < 0.001 differences in the frequency of owner updates by state or territory of residence, animal species, animal age, and socioeconomic index of the owner’s postcode. This research demonstrates that email reminders increase the probability of owners updating their details on the microchip database, and this could reduce the percentages of stray animals that are unclaimed and subsequently euthanized.

  19. Increase of perceived frequency of neighborhood domestic violence is associated with increase of women's depression symptoms in a nationally representative longitudinal study in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meffert, Susan M; McCulloch, Charles E; Neylan, Thomas C; Gandhi, Monica; Lund, Crick

    2015-04-01

    Studies that examine the effects of neighborhood characteristics on mental health show that perceptions of general neighborhood violence are associated with depression across diverse populations (Clark et al., 2008; Velez-Gomez et al., 2013; Wilson-Genderson & Pruchno, 2013). However, to our knowledge, none have examined the specific effect of perceived frequency of neighborhood domestic violence (PFNDV) on residents' mental health, despite knowledge that domestic violence is a potent predictor of depression at the level of the individual. This study investigates the impact of PFNDV on mental health using the South African National Income Dynamics Study (SA-NIDS). NIDS Waves 2 and 3 measure the perceived frequency of six neighborhood violence subtypes through the NIDS household respondent questionnaire and depression through a questionnaire administered to all NIDS participants. Linear regression was used to model the relationship between change in depression symptoms and change in violence subtypes between Waves 2 and 3. We found that two-year increase in PFNDV was significantly correlated with increase of depression symptoms over the same time period for women, independently of individual, household and neighborhood level characteristics, including five other types of neighborhood violence. No other type of violence was associated with increased depression in women in the fully adjusted model. Research and policy implications are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Applying Lean Techniques to Reduce Intravenous Waste Through Premixed Solutions and Increasing Production Frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Alex C; Penm, Jonathan; Ivey, Marianne F; Deng, Yihong; Commins, Monica

    This study aims to use lean techniques and evaluate the impact of increasing the use of premixed IV solutions and increased IV production frequency on IV waste. Study was conducted at a tertiary hospital pharmacy department in three phases. Phase I included evaluation of IV waste when IV production occurred three times a day and eight premixed IV products were used. Phase II increased the number of premixed IV products to 16. Phase III then increased IV production to five times a day. During Phase I, an estimate of 2,673 IV doses were wasted monthly, accounting for 6.14% of overall IV doses. This accounted for 688 L that cost $60,135. During Phase II, the average monthly IV wastage reduced significantly to 1,069 doses (2.84%), accounting for 447 L and $34,003. During Phase III, the average monthly IV wastage was further decreased to 675 doses (1.69%), accounting for 78 L and $3,431. Hence, a potential annual saving of $449,208 could result from these changes. IV waste was reduced through the increased use of premixed solutions and increasing IV production frequency.

  1. Transgenic cells with increased plastoquinone levels and methods of use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayre, Richard T.; Subramanian, Sowmya; Cahoon, Edgar

    2016-12-27

    Disclosed herein are transgenic cells expressing a heterologous nucleic acid encoding a prephenate dehydrogenase (PDH) protein, a heterologous nucleic acid encoding a homogentisate solanesyl transferase (HST) protein, a heterologous nucleic acid encoding a deoxyxylulose phosphate synthase (DXS) protein, or a combination of two or more thereof. In particular examples, the disclosed transgenic cells have increased plastoquinone levels. Also disclosed are methods of increasing cell growth rates or production of biomass by cultivating transgenic cells expressing a heterologous nucleic acid encoding a PDH protein, a heterologous nucleic acid encoding an HST protein, a heterologous nucleic acid encoding a DXS protein, or a combination of two or more thereof under conditions sufficient to produce cell growth or biomass.

  2. On increasing stability in the two dimensional inverse source scattering problem with many frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entekhabi, Mozhgan Nora; Isakov, Victor

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we will study the increasing stability in the inverse source problem for the Helmholtz equation in the plane when the source term is assumed to be compactly supported in a bounded domain Ω with a sufficiently smooth boundary. Using the Fourier transform in the frequency domain, bounds for the Hankel functions and for scattering solutions in the complex plane, improving bounds for the analytic continuation, and the exact observability for the wave equation led us to our goals which are a sharp uniqueness and increasing stability estimate when the wave number interval is growing.

  3. Big data integration shows Australian bush-fire frequency is increasing significantly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Ritaban; Das, Aruneema; Aryal, Jagannath

    2016-02-01

    Increasing Australian bush-fire frequencies over the last decade has indicated a major climatic change in coming future. Understanding such climatic change for Australian bush-fire is limited and there is an urgent need of scientific research, which is capable enough to contribute to Australian society. Frequency of bush-fire carries information on spatial, temporal and climatic aspects of bush-fire events and provides contextual information to model various climate data for accurately predicting future bush-fire hot spots. In this study, we develop an ensemble method based on a two-layered machine learning model to establish relationship between fire incidence and climatic data. In a 336 week data trial, we demonstrate that the model provides highly accurate bush-fire incidence hot-spot estimation (91% global accuracy) from the weekly climatic surfaces. Our analysis also indicates that Australian weekly bush-fire frequencies increased by 40% over the last 5 years, particularly during summer months, implicating a serious climatic shift.

  4. Effects of increased CO{sub 2} levels on monsoons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherchi, Annalisa; Masina, Simona; Navarra, Antonio [Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici and Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Bologna (Italy); Alessandri, Andrea [Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici, Bologna (Italy)

    2011-07-15

    Increased atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration provided warmer atmospheric temperature and higher atmospheric water vapor content, but not necessarily more precipitation. A set of experiments performed with a state-of-the-art coupled general circulation model forced with increased atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration (2, 4 and 16 times the present-day mean value) were analyzed and compared with a control experiment to evaluate the effect of increased CO{sub 2} levels on monsoons. Generally, the monsoon precipitation responses to CO{sub 2} forcing are largest if extreme concentrations of carbon dioxide are used, but they are not necessarily proportional to the forcing applied. In fact, despite a common response in terms of an atmospheric water vapor increase to the atmospheric warming, two out of the six monsoons studied simulate less or equal summer mean precipitation in the 16 x CO{sub 2} experiment compared to the intermediate sensitivity experiments. The precipitation differences between CO{sub 2} sensitivity experiments and CTRL have been investigated specifying the contribution of thermodynamic and purely dynamic processes. As a general rule, the differences depending on the atmospheric moisture content changes (thermodynamic component) are large and positive, and they tend to be damped by the dynamic component associated with the changes in the vertical velocity. However, differences are observed among monsoons in terms of the role played by other terms (like moisture advection and evaporation) in shaping the precipitation changes in warmer climates. The precipitation increase, even if weak, occurs despite a weakening of the mean circulation in the monsoon regions (''precipitation-wind paradox''). In particular, the tropical east-west Walker circulation is reduced, as found from velocity potential analysis. The meridional component of the monsoon circulation is changed as well, with larger (smaller) meridional (vertical) scales. (orig.)

  5. Increase in effectiveness of low frequency acoustic liners by use of coupled Helmholtz resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, L. W.

    1977-01-01

    Coupling of Helmholtz resonators in a low-frequency absorber array was studied as a means for increasing the effectiveness for absorbing low-frequency core engine noise. The equations for the impedance of the coupled-resonator systems were developed in terms of uncoupled-resonator parameters, and the predicted impedance for a parallel-coupled scheme is shown to compare favorably with measurements from a test model. In addition, attenuation measurements made in a flow duct on test coupled-resonator panels are shown to compare favorably with predicted values. Finally, the parallel-coupled concept is shown to give significantly more attenuation than that of a typical uncoupled resonator array of the same total volume.

  6. Light affects Varronia curassavica essential oil yield by increasing trichomes frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily V.R. da S. Feijó

    Full Text Available Light can act on essential oil yield directly on synthesis of secondary metabolites, or indirectly on plant growth. Varronia curassavica Jacq., Boraginaceae, is a native medicinal species from Brazil known as “erva-baleeira”, with anti-inflammatory activity related to its essential oil. Despite pharmacological evidences of this species and its economic importance for herbal medicine production, little is known about the effect of light on growth and essential oil production. This study aimed to analyze the influence of different irradiances on growth, frequency of trichomes, essential oil yield and composition of V. curassavica. The irradiance affected plant growth, but no significant alteration on leaf biomass was detected. The increase in essential oil content under higher irradiance reflected on essential oil yield, and is associated with higher frequency of glandular, globular trichomes. The essential oil composition, rich in caryophyllene derivatives was affected by irradiance, but α-humulene, the constituent of pharmaceutical interest, remained unchanged.

  7. A comparison of high-frequency noise levels on Cascadia Initiative ocean-bottom seismometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilmo, R.; Wilcock, W. S. D.; Roland, E. C.; Bodin, P.; Connolly, J.

    2017-12-01

    The Cascadia Initiative (CI) included a four-year deployment of 70 ocean bottom seismometers (OBSs) on the Cascadia subduction zone and the Juan de Fuca plate for the purposes of characterizing seismicity and imaging the Earth's interior. The Cascadia subduction zone megathrust exhibits very low rates of seismicity relative to most other subduction zones, and there is great motivation to understand deformation on the megathrust because of its potential to produce a catastrophic M9 earthquake. An understanding of earthquake detectability of the CI network, based on knowledge of noise levels, could contribute to the interpretation of earthquake catalogs derived from the experiment and aid in the design of future networks. This project is aimed at estimating these thresholds of local earthquake detectability and how they change across the array both geographically and temporally. We characterize background noise levels recorded from 0.1 to 20 Hz with an emphasis on the frequency band used to detect local seismicity ( 3-15 Hz) to understand how noise levels depend on instrument design and environmental parameters including seafloor depth, season and oceanographic conditions. Our initial analysis of 3 weeks of vertical channel data in September, January, and May 2012-2013 shows that noise increase significantly moving from the continental shelf to deeper water. Noise levels at a given depth vary with instrument type but further analysis is required to determine whether this reflects variations in instrumental noise and ground coupling noise or errors in the scaling of the instrument response. There is also a strong seasonality in recorded noise levels at some frequencies, with winter noise levels exceeding spring and fall noise levels by up to 10 decibels in both the microseism band and in the fin whale calling band (15-20 Hz). In contrast, the seasonal noise level in the local seismicity band for a given instrument type and location shows smaller noise variation

  8. Does Non-Targeted Community CPR Training Increase Bystander CPR Frequency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uber, Amy; Sadler, Richard C; Chassee, Todd; Reynolds, Joshua C

    2018-05-01

    Only 37% of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCA) receive bystander Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in Kent County, MI. In May 2014, prehospital providers offered one-time, point-of-contact compression-only CPR training to 2,253 passersby at 7 public locations in Grand Rapids, Michigan. To assess the impact of this intervention, we compared bystander CPR frequency and clinical outcomes in regions surrounding training sites before and after the intervention, adjusting for prehospital covariates. We aimed to assess the effect of this broad, non-targeted intervention on bystander CPR frequency, type of CPR utilized, and clinical outcomes. We also tested for differences in geospatial variation of bystander CPR and clinical outcomes clustered around training sites. Retrospective, observational, before-after study of adult, EMS-treated OHCA in Kent County from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2015. We generated a 5-kilometer radius surrounding each training site to estimate any geospatial influence that training sites might have on bystander CPR frequency in nearby OHCA cases. Chi-squared, Fisher's exact, and t-tests assessed differences in subject features. Difference-in-differences analysis with generalized estimating equation (GEE) modeling assessed bystander CPR frequency, adjusting for training site, covariates (age, sex, witnessed, shockable rhythm, public location), and clustering around training sites. Similar modeling tested for changes in bystander CPR type, return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), survival to hospital discharge, and cerebral performance category (CPC) of 1-2 at hospital discharge. We included 899 cases before and 587 cases post-intervention. Overall, we observed no increase in the frequency of bystander CPR or favorable clinical outcomes. We did observe an increase in compression-only CPR, but this was paradoxically restricted to OHCA cases falling outside radii around training sites. In adjusted modeling, the bystander CPR training

  9. The effect of applying different water levels and irrigation frequencies in propagating rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Giovanni Álvarez Herrera

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rosemary seedlings are obtained by vegetative propagation because the seeds present low viability. Despite being an expanding crop, there is little information on water consumption during the propagation stage. Water levels and irrigation frequencies were therefore applied using a completely randomised design having a 4 x 2 factorial arrangement. The first factor concerned irrigation frequency (4 and 8 days and the second concerned water level (0.6, 0.8, 1.0 and 1.2 evaporation inside the greenhouse. A 1.0 coefficient combined with 4-day irrigation frequency presented the best results regarding height (39.3 cm, fresh weight, dry weight and branch length (146 cm. Water level affected the fresh and dry weight of leaves regardless of frequency. Relative water content in leaves did not present differences due to environmental conditions minimising treatment effect. Rooting percent- tage showed no significant differences regarding irrigation frequency or water level. Irrigation frequency did not affect rosemary growing pattern because sphagnum retains high moisture content. The best branch number (34 was obtained with 1.0 coefficient and 4-day frequency, this being important from the production point of view because this is the material which is sold. Water management changes photoassimilate distribution in rosemary plants.

  10. Tolerance of soil flagellates to increased NaCl levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekelund, Flemming

    2002-01-01

    The ability of heterotrophic flagellates to survive and adapt to increasing salinities was investigated in this study. Whole soil samples were subjected to salinities corresponding to marine conditions and clonal cultures were used to perform growth and adaptation experiments at a wide range...... of different salinities (0-50 ppm). More morphotypes tolerant to elevated NaCl levels were found in road verge soil that was heavily exposed to de-icing salt than in less exposed soils, though there were fewer tolerant than intolerant morphotypes in all soils examined. Heterotrophic flagellates isolated...... on a freshwater medium from a non-exposed soil were unable to thrive at salinities above 15 ppt, and showed reduced growth rates even at low salt salinities (1-5 ppt). The findings suggest that heterotrophic soil flagellates are less tolerant to NaCl than their aquatic relatives, possibly due to their long...

  11. Artificially Increased Yolk Hormone Levels and Neophobia in Domestic Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Bertin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In birds there is compelling evidence that the development and expression of behavior is affected by maternal factors, particularly via variation in yolk hormone concentrations of maternal origin. In the present study we tested whether variation in yolk hormone levels lead to variation in the expression of neophobia in young domestic chicks. Understanding how the prenatal environment could predispose chicks to express fear-related behaviors is essential in order to propose preventive actions and improve animal welfare. We simulated the consequences of a maternal stress by experimentally enhancing yolk progesterone, testosterone and estradiol concentrations in hen eggs prior to incubation. The chicks from these hormone-treated eggs (H and from sham embryos (C that received the vehicle-only were exposed to novel food, novel object and novel environment tests. H chicks approached a novel object significantly faster and were significantly more active in a novel environment than controls, suggesting less fearfulness. Conversely, no effect of the treatment was found in food neophobia tests. Our study highlights a developmental influence of yolk hormones on a specific aspect of neophobia. The results suggest that increased yolk hormone levels modulate specifically the probability of exploring novel environments or novel objects in the environment.

  12. [Severely increased serum lipid levels in diabetic ketoacidosis - case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefansson, Hrafnkell; Sigvaldason, Kristinn; Kjartansson, Hilmar; Sigurjonsdottir, Helga Águsta

    2017-01-01

    Severe hypertriglyceridemia is a known, but uncommon complication of diabetic ketoacidosis. We discuss the case of a 23-year-old, previously healthy, woman who initially presented to the emergency department with abdominal pain. Grossly lipemic serum due to extremely high triglyceride (38.6 mmol/L) and cholesterol (23.2 mmol/L) levels were observed with a high blood glucose (23 mmol/L) and a low pH of 7.06 on a venous blood gas. She was treated successfully with fluids and insulin and had no sequale of pancreatitis or cerebral edema. Her triglycerides and cholesterol was normalized in three days and she was discharged home on insulin therapy after five days. Further history revealed a recent change in diet with no meat, fish or poultry consumption in the last 12 months and concomitantly an increase in carbohydrate intake which might have contributed to her extremely high serum lipid levels. This case demonstrates that clinicians should be mindful of the different presentations of diabetic ketoacidosis. Key words: diabetic ketoacidosis, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperlipidemia, vegan diet, carbohydrate diet. Correspondence: Hrafnkell Stefansson, hrafnkell.stefans@gmail.com.

  13. Increased Blood-Reelin-Levels in First Episode Schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Hornig

    Full Text Available Reelin is an extracellular glycoprotein involved in several functions of brain development, synaptogenesis and dendritic proliferation. Numerous studies found perturbation in the reelin system and altered serum reelin levels in neuropsychiatric patients using the western blot procedure. In the international literature, this is the first study that made use of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to analyze serum reelin protein concentration quantitatively.In order to study possible alterations in reelin blood levels in schizophrenia, we analyzed this signal in schizophrenic patients with a first episode hallucinatory and paranoid syndrome and control subjects in a pilot study design.We found increased blood reelin protein concentration in schizophrenic patients compared to healthy controls.Our findings point to a relevant role of reelin metabolism in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia.Reelin could be a biomarker for the course of disease or psychopharmacological treatment.We conclude that the reelin protein blood concentration might be a relevant signal with respect to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.

  14. The survey of dwellings with increased radon levels in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicanova, M.

    1998-01-01

    This national survey of indoor radon measurements in a sample of dwellings in Slovakia was organised by the Institute of Preventive and Clinical Medicine in Bratislava. The aim was to find districts and type of dwellings with the highest indoor radon concentrations and to estimate the radiation load of the Slovak population owing the indoor radon exposure. Passive solid state nuclear track detectors were used to measure indoor radon concentrations. The detectors were polyallyldiglycolcarbonate CR-39 which were placed in about 6,000 selected houses (minimum two detectors for every residence). After six months exposed detectors and questionnaires were returned to for analysis. Electrochemical etching combined with a chemical pre-etching process was used for evaluating detectors. Present results are from 3,657 residents (0.2% of total dwellings in Slovakia). It was found that the arithmetic mean of equilibrium equivalent concentration (EEC) was 86 ± 119 Bq m -3 , the geometric mean was about 41 ± 2.22 Bq m -3 and 11% of dwellings (N = 409) have a greater EEC of radon than the action level (200 Bq m -3 ). The national survey results suggest that Slovakia may be among the countries with high radon risk in Central Europe. The population-weighted arithmetic mean is 48 Bq m -3 , the maximum value found was 1500 Bq m -3 and the average annual effective dose from indoor radon exposure is 2.1 mSv. The district with the highest indoor radon concentrations correlate with known presence of uranium in the soil, therefore the soil is probably the main source of radon in Slovak dwellings. This survey of dwellings with increased radon levels supported this conclusion, because the highest radon levels were found in older family houses without cellars. (author)

  15. HFE H63D mutation frequency shows an increase in Turkish women with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guler Emine

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The hereditary hemochromatosis gene HFE plays a pivotal role in iron homeostasis. The association between cancer and HFE hetero- or homozygosity has previously been shown including hepatocellular and nonhepatocellular malignancies. This study was performed to compare frequencies of HFE C282Y and H63D variants in Turkish women with breast cancer and healthy controls. Methods Archived DNA samples of Hacettepe University Oncology Institute were used in this study. The HFE gene was investigated by PCR-RFLP. Results All subjects studied were free from C282Y mutation. Thirty-nine patients had H63D mutation and were all heterozygous. H63D allele frequency was 22.2% (39/176 in the breast cancer patients, and 14% (28/200 in the healthy volunteers. Statistical analysis of cases with HFE H63D phenotype showed significant difference between breast cancer and healthy volunteers (P = 0.02. Conclusion Our results suggest that HFE H63D mutation frequencies were increased in the breast cancer patients in comparison to those in the general population. Also, odds ratios (odds ratio = 2.05 computed in this study suggest that H63D has a positive association with breast cancer.

  16. A noise level prediction method based on electro-mechanical frequency response function for capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lingyu; Ji, Shengchang; Shen, Qi; Liu, Yuan; Li, Jinyu; Liu, Hao

    2013-01-01

    The capacitors in high-voltage direct-current (HVDC) converter stations radiate a lot of audible noise which can reach higher than 100 dB. The existing noise level prediction methods are not satisfying enough. In this paper, a new noise level prediction method is proposed based on a frequency response function considering both electrical and mechanical characteristics of capacitors. The electro-mechanical frequency response function (EMFRF) is defined as the frequency domain quotient of the vibration response and the squared capacitor voltage, and it is obtained from impulse current experiment. Under given excitations, the vibration response of the capacitor tank is the product of EMFRF and the square of the given capacitor voltage in frequency domain, and the radiated audible noise is calculated by structure acoustic coupling formulas. The noise level under the same excitations is also measured in laboratory, and the results are compared with the prediction. The comparison proves that the noise prediction method is effective.

  17. High-Frequency Binaural Beats Increase Cognitive Flexibility: Evidence from Dual-Task Crosstalk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hommel, Bernhard; Sellaro, Roberta; Fischer, Rico; Borg, Saskia; Colzato, Lorenza S

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that cognitive-control processes can be configured to optimize either persistence of information processing (by amplifying competition between decision-making alternatives and top-down biasing of this competition) or flexibility (by dampening competition and biasing). We investigated whether high-frequency binaural beats, an auditory illusion suspected to act as a cognitive enhancer, have an impact on cognitive-control configuration. We hypothesized that binaural beats in the gamma range bias the cognitive-control style toward flexibility, which in turn should increase the crosstalk between tasks in a dual-task paradigm. We replicated earlier findings that the reaction time in the first-performed task is sensitive to the compatibility between the responses in the first and the second task-an indication of crosstalk. As predicted, exposing participants to binaural beats in the gamma range increased this effect as compared to a control condition in which participants were exposed to a continuous tone of 340 Hz. These findings provide converging evidence that the cognitive-control style can be systematically biased by inducing particular internal states; that high-frequency binaural beats bias the control style toward more flexibility; and that different styles are implemented by changing the strength of local competition and top-down bias.

  18. High-frequency binaural beats increase cognitive flexibility: evidence from dual-task crosstalk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Hommel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that cognitive-control processes can be configured to optimize either persistence of information processing (by amplifying competition between decision-making alternatives and top-down biasing of this competition or flexibility (by dampening competition and biasing. We investigated whether high-frequency binaural beats, an auditory illusion suspected to act as a cognitive enhancer, have an impact on cognitive-control configuration. We hypothesized that binaural beats in the gamma range bias the cognitive-control style towards flexibility, which in turn should increase the crosstalk between tasks in a dual-task paradigm. We replicated earlier findings that the reaction time in the first-performed task is sensitive to the compatibility between the responses in the first and the second task—an indication of crosstalk. As predicted, exposing participants to binaural beats in the gamma range increased this effect as compared to a control condition in which participants were exposed to a continuous tone of 340 Hz. These findings provide converging evidence that the cognitive-control style can be systematically biased by inducing particular internal states; that high-frequency binaural beats bias the control style towards more flexibility; and that different styles are implemented by changing the strength of local competition and top-down bias.

  19. Effects of increased meal frequency on fat oxidation and perceived hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkawara, Kazunori; Cornier, Marc-Andre; Kohrt, Wendy M; Melanson, Edward L

    2013-02-01

    Consuming smaller, more frequent meals is often advocated as a means of controlling body weight, but studies demonstrating a mechanistic effect of this practice on factors associated with body weight regulation are lacking. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of consuming three (3M) vs. six meals (6M) per day on 24-h fat oxidation and subjective ratings of hunger. Lean (body mass index meal frequency from three to six per day has no significant effect on 24-h fat oxidation, but may increase hunger and the desire to eat. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  20. Analysis of Factors Affecting Output Levels and Frequencies of MP3 Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinsook

    2013-09-01

    Exposure to high levels of music that could lead to music induced hearing loss (MIHL) has been of recent interest especially for young adults, considering their excessive use of personal listening devices such as MP3 player. More attention should be drawn to MIHL for noting that early noise exposure leads to earlier onset of presbycusis. In search of appropriate and safe listening habits for young adults, this investigation was aimed to evaluate output levels and frequencies generated by the Samsung galaxy note MP3 player depending on two earphone types; ear-bud and over-the-ear earphones and three music genres; rock, hip-hop, ballade. A sound level meter was used to measure output level and frequency spectrum between 12.5 and 16000 Hz at all 1/3-octave bands. The following results can be summarized. 1) The earphone styles did not produce significant difference in output levels, but the music genres did. However, the results of music genres varied. 2) Neither earphone styles nor music genres produced significant difference in frequency response spectrum, except music genres at the volume settings we usually listen to. Additionally, volume levels should be lower than 50% for usual listening situation. Through this investigation, it was noted that the frequency range was substantial between 50 and 1000 Hz regardless of the styles of earphones and music genres, implying that we should be cautious of this frequency range when we listen to music. Researchers should give more attention to the effects of the mixture of output level and frequency spectrum, considering that the auditory system has frequency specificity from the periphery to the central to provide refined methods for protecting our ears from MIHL.

  1. Geometry dependent performance of bucky gel actuators: Increasing operating frequency by miniaturization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biso, Maurizio; Ansaldo, Alberto; Ricci, Davide

    2012-01-01

    Bucky gel actuators are one of the most promising type of electrochemical actuators based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs). They are lightweight, they are able to work in air without any liquid electrolyte and require just few volts to operate. In order to find real world applications where bucky gel actuators can outperform conventional motors, there are still some issues to be addressed. One key aspect in CNT-based electrochemical actuators is that their actuation speed is limited by the ability of charging and discharging the device without exceeding the electrochemical stability window of the electrolyte. This speed is macroscopically related with the product of the resistance and the capacitance of the equivalent circuit (circuit time constant), and with the ion diffusion speed inside the active electrodes. To enhance the actuator performance it is necessary to increase the ion drift current in the electrolyte avoiding to significantly raise the voltage at the electrodes and shorten the ion path necessary to charge the bucky gel electrodes. By proper material processing, we have successfully addressed this issue. A reduced thickness of the actuators to one third of the original size results in a one order of magnitude increase both of the strain at higher frequencies and of the maximum operating frequency. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Epigenetic Alterations and an Increased Frequency of Micronuclei in Women with Fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Menzies

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibromyalgia (FM, characterized by chronic widespread pain, fatigue, and cognitive/mood disturbances, leads to reduced workplace productivity and increased healthcare expenses. To determine if acquired epigenetic/genetic changes are associated with FM, we compared the frequency of spontaneously occurring micronuclei (MN and genome-wide methylation patterns in women with FM (n=10 to those seen in comparably aged healthy controls (n=42 (MN; n=8 (methylation. The mean (sd MN frequency of women with FM (51.4 (21.9 was significantly higher than that of controls (15.8 (8.5 (χ2=45.552; df = 1; P=1.49×10-11. Significant differences (n=69 sites in methylation patterns were observed between cases and controls considering a 5% false discovery rate. The majority of differentially methylated (DM sites (91% were attributable to increased values in the women with FM. The DM sites included significant biological clusters involved in neuron differentiation/nervous system development, skeletal/organ system development, and chromatin compaction. Genes associated with DM sites whose function has particular relevance to FM included BDNF, NAT15, HDAC4, PRKCA, RTN1, and PRKG1. Results support the need for future research to further examine the potential role of epigenetic and acquired chromosomal alterations as a possible biological mechanism underlying FM.

  3. Geometry dependent performance of bucky gel actuators: Increasing operating frequency by miniaturization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biso, Maurizio; Ansaldo, Alberto; Ricci, Davide [Robotics, Brain and Cognitive Sciences Department, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Via Morego 30, 16163 Genoa (Italy)

    2012-12-15

    Bucky gel actuators are one of the most promising type of electrochemical actuators based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs). They are lightweight, they are able to work in air without any liquid electrolyte and require just few volts to operate. In order to find real world applications where bucky gel actuators can outperform conventional motors, there are still some issues to be addressed. One key aspect in CNT-based electrochemical actuators is that their actuation speed is limited by the ability of charging and discharging the device without exceeding the electrochemical stability window of the electrolyte. This speed is macroscopically related with the product of the resistance and the capacitance of the equivalent circuit (circuit time constant), and with the ion diffusion speed inside the active electrodes. To enhance the actuator performance it is necessary to increase the ion drift current in the electrolyte avoiding to significantly raise the voltage at the electrodes and shorten the ion path necessary to charge the bucky gel electrodes. By proper material processing, we have successfully addressed this issue. A reduced thickness of the actuators to one third of the original size results in a one order of magnitude increase both of the strain at higher frequencies and of the maximum operating frequency. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Increased excitability of spinal pain reflexes and altered frequency-dependent modulation in the dopamine D3-receptor knockout mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeler, Benjamin E; Baran, Christine A; Brewer, Kori L; Clemens, Stefan

    2012-12-01

    Frequency-dependent modulation and dopamine (DA) receptors strongly modulate neural circuits in the spinal cord. Of the five known DA receptor subtypes, the D3 receptor has the highest affinity to DA, and D3-mediated actions are mainly inhibitory. Using an animal model of spinal sensorimotor dysfunction, the D3 receptor knockout mouse (D3KO), we investigated the physiological consequences of D3 receptor dysfunction on pain-associated signaling pathways in the spinal cord, the initial integration site for the processing of pain signaling. In the D3KO spinal cord, inhibitory actions of DA on the proprioceptive monosynaptic stretch reflex are converted from depression to facilitation, but its effects on longer-latency and pain-associated reflex responses and the effects of FM have not been studied. Using behavioral approaches in vivo, we found that D3KO animals exhibit reduced paw withdrawal latencies to thermal pain stimulation (Hargreaves' test) over wild type (WT) controls. Electrophysiological and pharmacological approaches in the isolated spinal cord in vitro showed that constant current stimulation of dorsal roots at a pain-associated frequency was associated with a significant reduction in the frequency-dependent modulation of longer-latency reflex (LLRs) responses but not monosynaptic stretch reflexes (MSRs) in D3KO. Application of the D1 and D2 receptor agonists and the voltage-gated calcium-channel ligand, pregabalin, but not DA, was able to restore the frequency-dependent modulation of the LLR in D3KO to WT levels. Thus we demonstrate that nociception-associated LLRs and proprioceptive MSRs are differentially modulated by frequency, dopaminergics and the Ca(2+) channel ligand, pregabalin. Our data suggest a role for the DA D3 receptor in pain modulation and identify the D3KO as a possible model for increased nociception. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Frequency of Evaluation as a Measure of Links Between Levels in School Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utande, Emmanuel A.; Dornbusch, Sanford M.

    The frequency of evaluation across organizational levels (i.e., evaluation of inferiors by superiors) is related to three variables: the existence of bureaucratic rules, availability of information across levels, and interaction among participants. In a processual perspective, as opposed to a structural one, evaluation is viewed as a key mechanism…

  6. Stimulus Type, Level of Categorization, and Spatial-Frequencies Utilization: Implications for Perceptual Categorization Hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harel, Assaf; Bentin, Shlomo

    2009-01-01

    The type of visual information needed for categorizing faces and nonface objects was investigated by manipulating spatial frequency scales available in the image during a category verification task addressing basic and subordinate levels. Spatial filtering had opposite effects on faces and airplanes that were modulated by categorization level. The…

  7. Activation of the SOS response increases the frequency of small colony variants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Martin; Paulander, Wilhelm Erik Axel; Ingmer, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Staphylococcus aureus sub-populations of slow-growing cells forming small colony variants (SCVs) are associated with persistent and recurrent infections that are difficult to eradicate with antibiotic therapies. In SCVs that are resistant towards aminoglycosides, mutations have been...... with different mechanism of action influence the formation of SCVs that are resistant to otherwise lethal concentrations of the aminoglycoside, gentamicin. We found that exposure of S. aureus to fluoroquinolones and mitomycin C increased the frequency of gentamicin resistant SCVs, while other antibiotic classes...... failed to do so. The higher proportion of SCVs in cultures exposed to fluoroquinolones and mitomycin C compared to un-exposed cultures correlate with an increased mutation rate monitored by rifampicin resistance and followed induction of the SOS DNA damage response. CONCLUSION: Our observations suggest...

  8. Using an integrated automated system to optimize retention and increase frequency of blood donations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, J Garrett; Hall, Robert F

    2010-07-01

    This study examines the impact of an integrated, automated phone system to reinforce retention and increase frequency of donations among blood donors. Cultivated by incorporating data results over the past 7 years, the system uses computerized phone messaging to contact blood donors with individualized, multilevel notifications. Donors are contacted at planned intervals to acknowledge and recognize their donations, informed where their blood was sent, asked to participate in a survey, and reminded when they are eligible to donate again. The report statistically evaluates the impact of the various components of the system on donor retention and blood donations and quantifies the fiscal advantages to blood centers. By using information and support systems provided by the automated services and then incorporating the phlebotomists and recruiters to reinforce donor retention, both retention and donations will increase. © 2010 American Association of Blood Banks.

  9. Prospects of increasing the engineering level of NPP components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippov, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    Consideration is being given to main problems related to development and industrial introduction of NPP components corresponding to the perspective world-wide engineering level. The nearest task in this field is to elevate the engineering level of developed and being produced power equipment up to the level of similar equipment, manufactured by leading foreign companies

  10. Anethum graveolens Linn. (dill) extract enhances the mounting frequency and level of testicular tyrosine protein phosphorylation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iamsaard, Sitthichai; Prabsattroo, Thawatchai; Sukhorum, Wannisa; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Srisaard, Panee; Uabundit, Nongnut; Thukhammee, Wipawee; Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn

    2013-03-01

    To investigate the effect of Anethum graveolens (AG) extracts on the mounting frequency, histology of testis and epididymis, and sperm physiology. Male rats induced by cold immobilization before treating with vehicle or AG extracts [50, 150, and 450 mg/kg body weight (BW)] via gastric tube for consecutive 1, 7, and 14 d were examined for mounting frequency, testicular phosphorylation level by immunoblotting, sperm concentration, sperm acrosome reaction, and histological structures of testis and epididymis, respectively. AG (50 mg/kg BW) significantly increased the mounting frequency on Days 1 and 7 compared to the control group. Additionally, rat testis treated with 50 mg/kg BW AG showed high levels of phosphorylated proteins as compared with the control group. In histological analyses, AG extract did not affect the sperm concentration, acrosome reaction, and histological structures of testis and epididymis. AG extract enhances the aphrodisiac activity and is not harmful to sperm and male reproductive organs.

  11. Anethum graveolens Linn. (dill) extract enhances the mounting frequency and level of testicular tyrosine protein phosphorylation in rats*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iamsaard, Sitthichai; Prabsattroo, Thawatchai; Sukhorum, Wannisa; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Srisaard, Panee; Uabundit, Nongnut; Thukhammee, Wipawee; Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of Anethum graveolens (AG) extracts on the mounting frequency, histology of testis and epididymis, and sperm physiology. Methods: Male rats induced by cold immobilization before treating with vehicle or AG extracts [50, 150, and 450 mg/kg body weight (BW)] via gastric tube for consecutive 1, 7, and 14 d were examined for mounting frequency, testicular phosphorylation level by immunoblotting, sperm concentration, sperm acrosome reaction, and histological structures of testis and epididymis, respectively. Results: AG (50 mg/kg BW) significantly increased the mounting frequency on Days 1 and 7 compared to the control group. Additionally, rat testis treated with 50 mg/kg BW AG showed high levels of phosphorylated proteins as compared with the control group. In histological analyses, AG extract did not affect the sperm concentration, acrosome reaction, and histological structures of testis and epididymis. Conclusions: AG extract enhances the aphrodisiac activity and is not harmful to sperm and male reproductive organs. PMID:23463768

  12. SSRI treatment suppresses dream recall frequency but increases subjective dream intensity in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace-Schott, E F; Gersh, T; Silvestri, R; Stickgold, R; Salzman, C; Hobson, J A

    2001-06-01

    Clinical lore and a small number of published studies report that the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) intensify dreaming. This study examines the dream effects of paroxetine and fluvoxamine in order to both increase clinical knowledge of these agents and to test an important potential method for probing the relationship between REM sleep neurobiology and dreaming in humans. Fourteen normal, paid volunteers (4 males, 10 females; mean age 27.4 year, range 22--39) free of medical or neuropsychiatric symptoms as well as of psychotropic or sleep affecting drugs completed a 31-day home-based study consisting of: 7 days drug-free baseline; 19 days on either 100 mg fluvoxamine (7 Ss) or 20 mg paroxetine (7 Ss) in divided morning and evening doses; and 5 days acute discontinuation. Upon awakening, subjects wrote dream reports, self-scored specific emotions in their reports and rated seven general dream characteristics using 5-point Likert scales. Dream reports were independently scored for bizarreness, movement and number of visual nouns by three judges. REM sleep-related measures were obtained using the Nightcap ambulatory sleep monitor. Mean dream recall frequency decreased during treatment compared with baseline. Dream report length and judge-rated bizarreness were greater during acute discontinuation compared with both baseline and treatment and this effect was a result of the fluvoxamine-treated subjects. The subjective intensity of dreaming increased during both treatment and acute discontinuation compared with baseline. Propensity to enter REM sleep was decreased during treatment compared with baseline and acute discontinuation and the intensity of REM sleep increased during acute discontinuation compared with baseline and treatment. The decrease in dream frequency during SSRI treatment may reflect serotonergic REM suppression while the augmented report length and bizarreness during acute SSRI discontinuation may reflect cholinergic rebound from

  13. Increased low-frequency oscillation amplitude of sensorimotor cortex associated with the severity of structural impairment in cervical myelopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuqing Zhou

    Full Text Available Decreases in metabolites and increased motor-related, but decreased sensory-related activation of the sensorimotor cortex (SMC have been observed in patients with cervical myelopathy (CM using advanced MRI techniques. However, the nature of intrinsic neuronal activity in the SMC, and the relationship between cerebral function and structural damage of the spinal cord in patients with CM are not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to assess intrinsic neuronal activity by calculating the regional amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (ALFF using resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI, and correlations with clinical and imaging indices. Nineteen patients and 19 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects underwent rs-fMRI scans. ALFF measurements were performed in the SMC, a key brain network likely to impaired or reorganized patients with CM. Compared with healthy subjects, increased amplitude of cortical low-frequency oscillations (LFO was observed in the right precentral gyrus, right postcentral gyrus, and left supplementary motor area. Furthermore, increased z-ALFF values in the right precentral gyrus and right postcentral gyrus correlated with decreased fractional anisotropy values at the C2 level, which indicated increased intrinsic neuronal activity in the SMC corresponding to the structural impairment in the spinal cord of patients with CM. These findings suggest a complex and diverging relationship of cortical functional reorganization and distal spinal anatomical compression in patients with CM and, thus, add important information in understanding how spinal cord integrity may be a factor in the intrinsic covariance of spontaneous low-frequency fluctuations of BOLD signals involved in cortical plasticity.

  14. The Impact of Increasing Fire Frequency on Forest Transformations in the Zabaikal Region, Southern Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conard, S. G.; Kukavskaya, E. A.; Buryak, L. V.; Shvetsov, E.; Kalenskaya, O. P.; Zhila, S.

    2017-12-01

    The Zabaikal region of southern Siberia is characterized by some of the highest fire activity in Russia. There has been a significant increase of fire frequency and burned area in the region over the last two decades due to a combination of high anthropogenic pressure, decreased funding to the forestry sector, and increased fire danger, which was associated with higher frequency and intensity of extreme weather events. Central and southern parts of the Zabaikal region where population density is higher and road network is relatively more developed are the most disturbed by fires. Larch stands cover the largest proportion of fire-disturbed lands in the region, while the less common pine and birch stands are characterized by higher fire frequency. About 13% (3.9 M ha) of the total forest area in the Zabaikal region was burned more than once in the 20 years from 1996 to 2015, with many sites burned multiple times. Repeat disturbances led to inadequate tree regeneration on all but the moistest sites. Pine stands on dry soils, which are common in the forest-steppe zone, were the most vulnerable. After repeat burns and over large burned sites we observed transformation of the forests to steppe ecosystems. The most likely causes of insufficient forest regeneration are soil overheating, dominance of tall grasses, and lack of nearby seed sources. Extensive tree plantations have potential to mitigate negative fire impacts; however, due to high fire hazard in the recent decade about half of the plantation area has been burned. Changes in the SWVI index were used to assess postfire reforestation based on a combination of satellite and field data. In the southwestern part of the Zabaikal region, we estimated that reforestation had been hampered over 11% of the forest land area. Regional climate models project increasing temperatures and decreasing precipitation across Siberia by the end of the 21st century, with changes in the Zabaikal region projected to be more than twice the

  15. Hypomutability in Fanconi anemia cells is associated with increased deletion frequency at the HPRT locus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papadopoulo, D.; Guillouf, C.; Moustacchi, E.; Mohrenweiser, H.

    1990-01-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is an inherited human disorder associated with a predisposition to cancer and characterized by anomalies in the processing of DNA cross-links and certain monoadducts. The authors reported previously that the frequency of psoralen-photoinduced mutations at the HPRT locus is lower in FA cells than in normal cells. This hypomutability is shown here to be associated with an increased frequency of deletions in the HPRT gene when either a mixture of cross-links and monoadducts or monoadducts alone are induced. Molecular analysis of mutants in the HPRT gene was carried out. In normal cells the majority of spontaneous and induced mutants are point mutations whereas in FA deletion mutations predominate. In that case a majority of mutants were found to lack individual exons or small clusters of exons whereas in normal cells large (complete or major gene loss) and small deletions are almost equally represented. Thus they propose that the FA defect lies in a mutagenic pathway that, in normal cells, involves by passing lesions and subsequent gap filling by a recombinational process during replication

  16. Increased frequency of rhinitis medicamentosa due to media advertising for nasal topical decongestants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archontaki, M; Symvoulakis, E K; Hajiioannou, J K; Stamou, A K; Kastrinakis, S; Bizaki, A J; Kyrmizakis, D E

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of rhinitis medicamentosa (RM) in patients attending the ENT outpatient clinic of the General Hospital of Rethymnon (Crete, Greece) before and after the launch of an intensive nasal decongestant advertising campaign in Greece. We reviewed the medical records of the patients with RM seen at the ENT outpatient clinic in May, June and July of 2003 and 2006. We analyzed and recorded the gender, age, and related clinical information of the patients with RM. In May, June and July of 2003, 41 patients out of a total of 1780 patients attending the ENT outpatient clinic were diagnosed with RM (2.3%). In the same months in 2006, 161 patients out a total of 1898 patients were diagnosed with RM (8.5%). The frequency of RM in these groups was therefore found to have increased significantly between 2003 and 2006. In 2006, 8 out of 10 patients with RM reported that they had made their purchasing decision solely on the basis of the information supplied by the drug advertisement without consulting their doctor or pharmacist. We suggest that the intensive media advertising campaign for nasal topical decongestants (particularly on TV) which started in 2004 is probably the main reason for this "endemic" RM.

  17. Breaststroke swimmers moderate internal work increases toward the highest stroke frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, Jessy; Olstad, Bjørn Harald; Minetti, Alberto Enrico; Kjendlie, Per-Ludvik; Rouard, Annie Hélène

    2015-09-18

    A model to predict the mechanical internal work of breaststroke swimming was designed. It allowed us to explore the frequency-internal work relationship in aquatic locomotion. Its accuracy was checked against internal work values calculated from kinematic sequences of eight participants swimming at three different self-chosen paces. Model predictions closely matched experimental data (0.58 ± 0.07 vs 0.59 ± 0.05 J kg(-1)m(-1); t(23)=-0.30, P=0.77), which was reflected in a slope of the major axis regression between measured and predicted total internal work whose 95% confidence intervals included the value of 1 (β=0.84, [0.61, 1.07], N=24). The model shed light on swimmers ability to moderate the increase in internal work at high stroke frequencies. This strategy of energy minimization has never been observed before in humans, but is present in quadrupedal and octopedal animal locomotion. This was achieved through a reduced angular excursion of the heaviest segments (7.2 ± 2.9° and 3.6 ± 1.5° for the thighs and trunk, respectively, Paquatic movements. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Increasing frequency of plastic particles ingested by seabirds in the subarctic North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robards, Martin D.; Piatt, John F.; Wohl, Kenton D.

    1995-01-01

    We examined gut contents of 1799 seabirds comprising 24 species collected in 1988-1990 to assess the types and quantities of plastic particles ingested by seabirds in the subarctic waters of Alaska. Of the 15 species found to ingest plastic, most were surface-feeders (shearwaters, petrels, gulls) or plankton-feeding divers (auklets, puffins). Of 4417 plastic particles examined, 76% were industrial pellets and 21% were fragments of ‘user’ plastic. Ingestion rates varied geographically, but no trends were evident and rates of plastic ingestion varied far more among species within areas than within species among areas. Comparison with similar data from 1968 seabirds comprising 37 species collected in 1969-1977 revealed that plastic ingestion by seabirds has increased significantly during the 10–15-year interval between studies. This was demonstrated by: (i) an increase in the total number of species ingesting plastic; (ii) an increase in the frequency of occurrence of plastic particles within species that ingested plastic; and, (iii) an increase in the mean number of plastic particles ingested by individuals of those species.

  19. The mutation frequency of Drosophila melanogaster populations living under conditions of increased background radiation due to the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainullin, V.G.; Rakin, A.O.; Shevchenko, V.A.; Myasnyankina, E.N.; Generalova, M.V.

    1992-01-01

    One of the problems facing the program in the wake of the Chernobyl accident is the estimation of genetic damage to plants and animals. Special attention was directed to studying the influence of radioactive pollutants at the accident site by means of an appropriate test system, using standard genetic subjects. The present study describes such investigations. Levels of persistent genetic damage in natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster found in the vicinity of the Chernobyl accident site were examined from August 1986-September 1989. Evidence is presented which indicates a relationship between the levels of radioactive pollution resulting from the Chernobyl accident and increasing genetic damage to exposed populations. The possible reasons for the decrease of mutation frequency observed in 1988 and 1989 are also discussed. Furthermore, evidence is presented which suggests that radiosensitive Drosophila mutants may be particularly sensitive indicators of radioactive pollution. (author). 16 refs.; 6 figs

  20. Locus of word frequency effects in spelling to dictation: Still at the orthographic level!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Patrick; Laroche, Betty; Perret, Cyril

    2016-11-01

    The present study was aimed at testing the locus of word frequency effects in spelling to dictation: Are they located at the level of spoken word recognition (Chua & Rickard Liow, 2014) or at the level of the orthographic output lexicon (Delattre, Bonin, & Barry, 2006)? Words that varied on objective word frequency and on phonological neighborhood density were orally presented to adults who had to write them down. Following the additive factors logic (Sternberg, 1969, 2001), if word frequency in spelling to dictation influences a processing level, that is, the orthographic output level, different from that influenced by phonological neighborhood density, that is, spoken word recognition, the impact of the 2 factors should be additive. In contrast, their influence should be overadditive if they act at the same processing level in spelling to dictation, namely the spoken word recognition level. We found that both factors had a reliable influence on the spelling latencies but did not interact. This finding is in line with an orthographic output locus hypothesis of word frequency effects in spelling to dictation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Hypercaloric diets with increased meal frequency, but not meal size, increase intrahepatic triglycerides: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, Karin E.; Caan, Matthan W. A.; Nederveen, Aart J.; Pels, Anouk; Ackermans, Mariette T.; Fliers, Eric; la Fleur, Susanne E.; Serlie, Mireille J.

    2014-01-01

    American children consume up to 27% of calories from high-fat and high-sugar snacks. Both sugar and fat consumption have been implicated as a cause of hepatic steatosis and obesity but the effect of meal pattern is largely understudied. We hypothesized that a high meal frequency, compared to

  2. Decadal summer drought frequency in China: the increasing influence of the Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, Chengcheng; Yu, Jin-Yi; Chen, Ge

    2014-01-01

    Decadal variations in summer drought events during 1956–2005 are examined over Eastern China to identify their leading variability modes and their linkages to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO), and global warming. The PDO influence is found to dominate China drought frequency from the 1960s to early 1990s via modulating the Western Pacific Subtropical High and the Mongolian High. The four-pole drought pattern produced by the PDO diminished after the early 1990s, being replaced by a dipolar drought pattern that is produced by the AMO via a Eurasian wave train emanating from North Atlantic to China. The increasing influence of the AMO on China drought since the early 1990s is further shown to be a consequence of global warming. This study indicates that the early 1990s is a time when the Atlantic began to exert a stronger influence on climate over China and even larger part of Asia. (letter)

  3. Higher balance task demands are associated with an increase in individual alpha peak frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorben eHülsdünker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Balance control is fundamental for most daily motor activities, and its impairment is associated with an increased risk of falling. Growing evidence suggests the human cortex is essentially contributing to the control of standing balance. However, the exact mechanisms remain unclear and need further investigation. In a previous study we introduced a new protocol to identify electrocortical activity associated with performance of different continuous balance tasks with the eyes opened. The aim of this study was to extend our previous results by investigating the individual alpha peak frequency (iAPF, a neurophysiological marker of thalamo-cortical information transmission, which remained unconsidered so far in balance research. Thirty-seven subjects completed nine balance tasks varying in surface stability and base of support. Electroencephalography (EEG was recorded from 32 scalp locations throughout balancing with the eyes closed to ensure reliable identification of the iAPF. Balance performance was quantified as the sum of anterior-posterior and medio-lateral movements of the supporting platform. The iAPF, as well as power in the theta, lower alpha and upper alpha frequency bands were determined for each balance task after applying an ICA-based artifact rejection procedure. Higher demands on balance control were associated with a global increase in iAPF and a decrease in lower alpha power. These results may indicate increased thalamo-cortical information transfer and general cortical activation, respectively. In addition, a significant increase in upper alpha activity was observed in the fronto-central region whereas it decreased in the centro-parietal region. Furthermore, midline theta increased with higher task demands probably indicating activation of error detection/processing mechanisms. IAPF as well as theta and alpha power were correlated with platform movements. The results provide new insights into spectral and spatial characteristics

  4. Increased serum procalcitonin levels in pregnant patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilir, Filiz; Akdemir, Nermin; Ozden, Selcuk; Cevrioglu, A Serhan; Bilir, Cemil

    2013-09-05

    Among the pregnancy urinary tract infections, asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) is the most common one. Untreated ASB can progress to pyelonephritis in 30-50% of the patients and can also result in prematurity in 27% of the pregnancy so it needs immediate diagnosis and treatment. In this study, we wanted to evaluate procalcitonin levels, compared to other inflammatory in pregnant women with ASB. The study was designed between the period of January 2012 and February 2013 at Sakarya University School of Medicine, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics. The study population included 30 pregnant patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria and 39 healthy pregnant controls. Mean age was 28 (SD, 5.5) of the study population; mean maternal weight was 70 (SD, 8) kilogram. There were no statically significant differences between the groups according to the routine biochemical parameters, but gestational age was significantly lower in the ASB group compared to the controls (20.4 vs 28.6, respectively; p 0.05 ng/ml and 21(70%) patients had negative procalcitonin levels (Chi-squrae, p treatment of the first ASB diagnosis. Procalcitonin levels were significantly higher in ASB group than the control group and serum procalcitonin levels were higher in pregnant women with recurrent ASB. This finding is an important result revealed that high procalcitonin level can predict the further urinary tract infection risk. Finally, serum procalcitonin levels were normal in healthy pregnant women while other inflammatory markers such as WBC, ESR and CRP levels were higher.

  5. Note: A component-level frequency tunable isolator for vibration-sensitive chips using SMA beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiaoyong, E-mail: zhangxy@buaa.edu.cn, E-mail: yanxiaojun@buaa.edu.cn; Yan, Xiaojun, E-mail: zhangxy@buaa.edu.cn, E-mail: yanxiaojun@buaa.edu.cn [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Aero-Engine, Beijing 100191 (China); National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Aero-Engine Aero-Thermodynamics, Beijing 100191 (China); Beijing Key Laboratory of Aero-Engine Structure and Strength, Beijing 100191 (China); Ding, Xin; Wu, Di; Qi, Junlei; Wang, Ruixin; Lu, Siwei [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2016-06-15

    This note presents a component-level frequency tunable isolator for vibration-sensitive chips. The isolator employed 8 U-shaped shape memory alloy (SMA) beams to support an isolation island (used for mounting chips). Due to the temperature-induced Young’s modulus variation of SMA, the system stiffness of the isolator can be controlled through heating the SMA beams. In such a way, the natural frequency of the isolator can be tuned. A prototype was fabricated to evaluate the concept. The test results show that the natural frequency of the isolator can be tuned in the range of 64 Hz–97 Hz by applying different heating strategies. Moreover, resonant vibration can be suppressed significantly (the transmissibility decreases about 65% near the resonant frequency) using a real-time tuning method.

  6. Molecular-level mechanisms of vibrational frequency shifts in a polar liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Christine M; Thompson, Ward H

    2011-06-16

    A molecular-level analysis of the origins of the vibrational frequency shifts of the CN stretching mode in neat liquid acetonitrile is presented. The frequency shifts and infrared spectrum are calculated using a perturbation theory approach within a molecular dynamics simulation and are in good agreement with measured values reported in the literature. The resulting instantaneous frequency of each nitrile group is decomposed into the contributions from each molecule in the liquid and by interaction type. This provides a detailed picture of the mechanisms of frequency shifts, including the number of surrounding molecules that contribute to the shift, the relationship between their position and relative contribution, and the roles of electrostatic and van der Waals interactions. These results provide insight into what information is contained in infrared (IR) and Raman spectra about the environment of the probed vibrational mode. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  7. Note: A component-level frequency tunable isolator for vibration-sensitive chips using SMA beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiaoyong; Yan, Xiaojun; Ding, Xin; Wu, Di; Qi, Junlei; Wang, Ruixin; Lu, Siwei

    2016-01-01

    This note presents a component-level frequency tunable isolator for vibration-sensitive chips. The isolator employed 8 U-shaped shape memory alloy (SMA) beams to support an isolation island (used for mounting chips). Due to the temperature-induced Young’s modulus variation of SMA, the system stiffness of the isolator can be controlled through heating the SMA beams. In such a way, the natural frequency of the isolator can be tuned. A prototype was fabricated to evaluate the concept. The test results show that the natural frequency of the isolator can be tuned in the range of 64 Hz–97 Hz by applying different heating strategies. Moreover, resonant vibration can be suppressed significantly (the transmissibility decreases about 65% near the resonant frequency) using a real-time tuning method.

  8. Increased Cortisol and Cortisone Levels in Overweight Children

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Lanling; Sheng, Kangwei; Liu, Ping; Ye, Kan; Wang, Yu; Li, Chen; Kang, Xuejun; Song, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Background It has been unclear whether relatively high cortisol and cortisone levels are related to overweight in childhood, parental body mass index (BMI), and family dietary habits. The aim of this study was to compare cortisol and cortisone levels in urine and saliva from overweight and normal children, as well as correlations between children?s BMI, parental BMI and family dietary behavior questionnaire score (QS). Material/Methods We analyzed the data from 52 overweight children and 53 a...

  9. Ocean acidification increases fatty acids levels of larval fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Gil, Carlos; Catalán, Ignacio A; Palmer, Miquel; Faulk, Cynthia K; Fuiman, Lee A

    2015-07-01

    Rising levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide in the atmosphere are acidifying the oceans and producing diverse and important effects on marine ecosystems, including the production of fatty acids (FAs) by primary producers and their transfer through food webs. FAs, particularly essential FAs, are necessary for normal structure and function in animals and influence composition and trophic structure of marine food webs. To test the effect of ocean acidification (OA) on the FA composition of fish, we conducted a replicated experiment in which larvae of the marine fish red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) were reared under a climate change scenario of elevated CO2 levels (2100 µatm) and under current control levels (400 µatm). We found significantly higher whole-body levels of FAs, including nine of the 11 essential FAs, and altered relative proportions of FAs in the larvae reared under higher levels of CO2. Consequences of this effect of OA could include alterations in performance and survival of fish larvae and transfer of FAs through food webs. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  10. Identification of low-frequency variants associated with gout and serum uric acid levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sulem, Patrick; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Walters, G Bragi

    2011-01-01

    ,506 individuals for whom serum uric acid measurements were available. We identified a low-frequency missense variant (c.1580C>G) in ALDH16A1 associated with gout (OR = 3.12, P = 1.5 × 10(-16), at-risk allele frequency = 0.019) and serum uric acid levels (effect = 0.36 s.d., P = 4.5 × 10(-21)). We confirmed.......48 s.d., P = 4.5 × 10(-16)). This variant is close to a common variant previously associated with serum uric acid levels. This work illustrates how whole-genome sequencing data allow the detection of associations between low-frequency variants and complex traits....

  11. Pavlovian autoshaping procedures increase plasma corticosterone levels in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomie, Arthur; Silberman, Yuval; Williams, Kayon; Pohorecky, Larissa A

    2002-06-01

    Pavlovian autoshaping conditioned responses (CRs) are complex sequences of conditioned stimulus (CS)-directed skeletal-motor responses that are elicited by CS objects predictive of food unconditioned stimulus (US). Autoshaping CRs are observed under conditions known to be conducive to elevations in plasma corticosterone levels, as, for example, in response to the eating of food as well as in response to signals predictive of food. Two experiments investigated the relationships between Pavlovian autoshaping procedures, the performance of Pavlovian autoshaping CRs, and plasma corticosterone levels in male Long-Evans rats. In Experiment 1, rats in the CS-US paired group (n=30) were given 20 daily sessions of Pavlovian autoshaping training wherein the insertion of a retractable lever CS was followed by the response-independent presentation of the food US. Tail blood samples obtained after the 20th autoshaping session revealed higher plasma corticosterone levels in the CS-US paired group than in the CS-US random control group (n=10). In Experiment 2, rats (n=35) were assessed for basal plasma corticosterone levels 2 weeks prior to autoshaping training. Plasma samples obtained immediately following the first autoshaping session, and prior to the acquisition of lever-press autoshaping CR performance, revealed higher plasma corticosterone levels in the CS-US paired group (n=24) relative to basal levels. This effect was not observed in the CS-US random control group (n=11). Data suggest that corticosterone release is a physiological endocrine Pavlovian CR induced by lever CS-food US pairings during Pavlovian autoshaping procedures, rather than a by-product of autoshaping CR performance. Implications of the link between autoshaping procedures and corticosterone release are discussed.

  12. Assessment of Radio-Frequency Radiation Exposure Level from Selected Mobile Base Stations (MBS) in Lokoja, Kogi State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Nwankwo, U. J. Victor; Jibiri, N. N.; Dada, S. S.; Onugba, A. A.; Ushie, P.

    2012-01-01

    The acquisition and use of mobile phone is tremendously increasing especially in developing countries, but not without a concern. The greater concern among the public is principally over the proximity of mobile base stations (MBS) to residential areas rather than the use of handsets. In this paper, we present an assessment of Radio-Frequency (RF) radiation exposure level measurements and analysis of radiation power density (in W/sq m) from mobile base stations relative to radial distance (in ...

  13. Application of process improvement principles to increase the frequency of complete airway management documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, L Kelsey; Saddawi-Konefka, Daniel; Gargan, Lauren M; Driscoll, William D; Walsh, John L; Peterfreund, Robert A

    2014-12-01

    Process improvement in healthcare delivery settings can be difficult, even when there is consensus among clinicians about a clinical practice or desired outcome. Airway management is a medical intervention fundamental to the delivery of anesthesia care. Like other medical interventions, a detailed description of the management methods should be documented. Despite this expectation, airway documentation is often insufficient. The authors hypothesized that formal adoption of process improvement methods could be used to increase the rate of "complete" airway management documentation. The authors defined a set of criteria as a local practice standard of "complete" airway management documentation. The authors then employed selected process improvement methodologies over 13 months in three iterative and escalating phases to increase the percentage of records with complete documentation. The criteria were applied retrospectively to determine the baseline frequency of complete records, and prospectively to measure the impact of process improvements efforts over the three phases of implementation. Immediately before the initial intervention, a retrospective review of 23,011 general anesthesia cases over 6 months showed that 13.2% of patient records included complete documentation. At the conclusion of the 13-month improvement effort, documentation improved to a completion rate of 91.6% (Pprocess improvement methodologies can improve airway documentation and may be similarly effective in improving other areas of anesthesia clinical practice.

  14. Analysis of power and frequency control requirements in view of increased decentralized production and market liberalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roffel, B.; Boer, W.W. de

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic approach of the analysis of the minimum control requirements that are imposed on power producing units in the Netherlands, especially in the case when decentralized production increases. Also some effects of the liberalization on the control behavior are analyzed. First an overview is given of the amount and type of power production in the Netherlands, followed by a review of the control requirements. Next models are described, including a simplified model for the UCTE power system. The model was tested against frequency and power measurements after failure of a 558 MW production unit in the Netherlands. Agreement between measurements and model predictions proved to be good. The model was subsequently used to analyze the primary and secondary control requirements and the impact of an increase in decentralized power production on the fault restoration capabilities of the power system. Since the latter production units are not actively participating in primary and secondary control, fault restoration takes longer and becomes unacceptable when only 35% of the power producing units participate in secondary control. Finally, the model was used to study the impact of deregulation, especially the effect of 'block scheduling', on additional control actions of the secondary control. (Author)

  15. Effects of increasing dietary protein levels on growth, feed utilization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-05

    Jan 5, 2012 ... The effect of different dietary protein levels on growth performance and on feed utilization of catfish. (Heterobranchus ... (Legendre, 1991) because of its taste, fast growth rate ..... diet containing 40% protein had high growth with low food intake and feed ... protein rate (45%) combined with a bad utilization of.

  16. A new approach to comparing binaural masking level differences at low and high frequencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Par, van de S.L.J.D.E.; Kohlrausch, A.G.

    1997-01-01

    A new experimental technique for studying binaural processing at high frequencies is introduced. Binaural masking level differences (BMLDs) for the conditions N0S and NS0 were measured for a tonal signal in narrow-band noise at 125, 250, and 4000 Hz. In addition, "transposed" stimuli were generated,

  17. Frequency of Sports Trauma in Elite National Level Greco-Roman Wrestling Competitions

    OpenAIRE

    Akbarnejad, Ali; Sayyah, Mansour

    2012-01-01

    Background Trauma is an inescapable part of sports competitions. It occurs more frequently in contact sports such as wrestling. Objectives The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of injury in Greco-Roman style wrestling competitions at national level. Patients and Methods This descriptive epidemiological research included 50 Greco-Roman style wrestlers who participated in national level competitions between the years 2003 and 2008. A questionnaire was completed by each partic...

  18. Increased Cortisol and Cortisone Levels in Overweight Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Lanling; Shen, Kangwei; Liu, Ping; Ye, Kan; Wang, Yu; Li, Chen; Kang, Xuejun; Song, Yuan

    2017-02-09

    BACKGROUND It has been unclear whether relatively high cortisol and cortisone levels are related to overweight in childhood, parental body mass index (BMI), and family dietary habits. The aim of this study was to compare cortisol and cortisone levels in urine and saliva from overweight and normal children, as well as correlations between children's BMI, parental BMI and family dietary behavior questionnaire score (QS). MATERIAL AND METHODS We analyzed the data from 52 overweight children and 53 age- and sex-matched normal-weight children aged 4-5 years. The concentrations of salivary cortisol (SF), salivary cortisone (SE), urinary cortisol (UF) and urinary cortisone (UE) were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The family dietary behavior QS was answered by the parent mainly responsible for the family diet. RESULTS Average cortisol and cortisone levels were significantly higher in overweight children. There was no significant difference in the ratio of cortisol to cortisone (Rcc) and the marker of 11b-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2) activities. The results displayed correlations among cortisol, cortisone, and Rcc. Positive correlations were weak-to-moderate between BMI and SF, SE, UF, and UE. There were correlations between BMI and maternal BMI (mBMI), and BMI was significantly associated with QS. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that cortisol and cortisone levels are associated with overweight in children, but the 11β-HSD2 activities showed no significant differences. Unhealthy family diet was associated with higher BMI, UF, and UE, and families with maternal overweight or obesity had a higher prevalence of children's overweight or obesity.

  19. Increasing zinc levels in phytase-supplemented diets improves the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marjina Akter

    2017-09-02

    Sep 2, 2017 ... This result indicate that the Zn concentrations used in this study were not ... levels of phytase, the concentrations of Zn in the experimental diets of these studies ... combustion technique, as described by Sweeney (1989) using a LECO® ... Premix A. 2.0. 2.0. 2.0. 2.0. 2.0. 2.0. Choline Cl. 0.9. 0.9. 0.9. 1.1. 0.9.

  20. Geographic Variation in Festuca rubra L. Ploidy Levels and Systemic Fungal Endophyte Frequencies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Dirihan

    Full Text Available Polyploidy and symbiotic Epichloë fungal endophytes are common and heritable characteristics that can facilitate environmental range expansion in grasses. Here we examined geographic patterns of polyploidy and the frequency of fungal endophyte colonized plants in 29 Festuca rubra L. populations from eight geographic sites across latitudes from Spain to northernmost Finland and Greenland. Ploidy seemed to be positively and negatively correlated with latitude and productivity, respectively. However, the correlations were nonlinear; 84% of the plants were hexaploids (2n = 6x = 42, and the positive correlation between ploidy level and latitude is the result of only four populations skewing the data. In the southernmost end of the gradient 86% of the plants were tetraploids (2n = 4x = 28, whereas in the northernmost end of the gradient one population had only octoploid plants (2n = 8x = 56. Endophytes were detected in 22 out of the 29 populations. Endophyte frequencies varied among geographic sites, and populations and habitats within geographic sites irrespective of ploidy, latitude or productivity. The highest overall endophyte frequencies were found in the southernmost end of the gradient, Spain, where 69% of plants harbored endophytes. In northern Finland, endophytes were detected in 30% of grasses but endophyte frequencies varied among populations from 0% to 75%, being higher in meadows compared to riverbanks. The endophytes were detected in 36%, 30% and 27% of the plants in Faroe Islands, Iceland and Switzerland, respectively. Practically all examined plants collected from southern Finland and Greenland were endophyte-free, whereas in other geographic sites endophyte frequencies were highly variable among populations. Common to all populations with high endophyte frequencies is heavy vertebrate grazing. We propose that the detected endophyte frequencies and ploidy levels mirror past distribution history of F. rubra after the last glaciation

  1. Both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism increase plasma irisin levels in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atici, Emine; Mogulkoc, Rasim; Baltaci, Abdulkerim Kasim; Menevse, Esma

    2017-11-28

    Background A recently discovered hormone, irisin is accepted to be significantly involved in the regulation of body weight. Thyroid functions may be, directly or indirectly, associated with irisin. Aim The aim of the present study is to determine the effect of experimental thyroid dysfunction on irisin levels in rats. Methods The study registered 40 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, which were allocated to groups as follows: 1. Control; 2. Hypothyroidism induced by injection of 10 mg/kg/day intraperitoneal propylthiouracil (PTU) for 3 weeks; 3. Hypothyroidism (PTU 2 weeks) + L-thyroxin (1.5 mg/kg/day for 1 week); 4. Hyperthyroidism induced in rats by 3-week thyroxin (0.3 mg/kg/day); 5. Hyperthyroidism + PTU. At the end of the study, blood samples were collected to quantify free triiodothyronine (FT3), free triiodothyronine (FT4) and irisin levels. Results FT3 and FT4 levels were reduced in hypothyroidism and were significantly elevated in hyperthyroidism (p hyperthyroidism groups (p hyperthyroidism, and that when hypothyroidism is corrected by thyroxin administration and hyperthyroidism by PTU injection, plasma irisin values go back to normal.

  2. High frequency electric field levels: An example of determination of measurement uncertainty for broadband measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vulević Branislav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Determining high frequency electromagnetic field levels in urban areas represents a very complex task, having in mind the exponential growth of the number of sources embodied in public cellular telephony systems in the past twenty years. The main goal of this paper is a representation of a practical solution in the evaluation of measurement uncertainty for in-situ measurements in the case of spatial averaging. An example of the estimation of the uncertainty for electric field strength broadband measurements in the frequency range from 3 MHz to 18 GHz is presented.

  3. High epitope expression levels increase competition between T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almut Scherer

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Both theoretical predictions and experimental findings suggest that T cell populations can compete with each other. There is some debate on whether T cells compete for aspecific stimuli, such as access to the surface on antigen-presenting cells (APCs or for specific stimuli, such as their cognate epitope ligand. We have developed an individual-based computer simulation model to study T cell competition. Our model shows that the expression level of foreign epitopes per APC determines whether T cell competition is mainly for specific or aspecific stimuli. Under low epitope expression, competition is mainly for the specific epitope stimuli, and, hence, different epitope-specific T cell populations coexist readily. However, if epitope expression levels are high, aspecific competition becomes more important. Such between-specificity competition can lead to competitive exclusion between different epitope-specific T cell populations. Our model allows us to delineate the circumstances that facilitate coexistence of T cells of different epitope specificity. Understanding mechanisms of T cell coexistence has important practical implications for immune therapies that require a broad immune response.

  4. Increased concentrations of serum nesfatin-1 levels in childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Sezer; Çatlı, Gönül; Küme, Tuncay; Tuhan, Hale; Gürsoy Çalan, Özlem; Demir, Korcan; Böber, Ece; Abacı, Ayhan

    2018-04-30

    Background/aim: Nesfatin-1, an anorexigenic molecule, seems to play a role in appetite regulation and energy homeostasis. The goal of this study was to evaluate the relation of nesfatin-1 with anthropometric and metabolic (ghrelin, leptin) parameters in children with idiopathic chronic malnutrition. Materials and methods: The study included 37 underweight and 38 healthy children who were similar regarding age, sex, and pubertal status. Anthropometric and biochemical (nesfatin-1, ghrelin, and leptin levels) variables were assessed. Results: A total of 37 underweight subjects (mean age 10.5 ± 2.6 years) and 38 heathy subjects (mean age 10.3 ± 2.3 years) were recruited. Underweight children had significantly higher nesfatin-1 (2.76 ± 0.4 vs. 1.56 ± 0.7, P malnutrition, who were subsequently found to have significantly higher nesfatin-1 levels. Our study underlines that nesfatin-1 may play a role in the development of malnutrition by inhibiting food intake in children.

  5. Frequency of Celiac Disease in Patients with Increased Intestinal Gas (Flatulence)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoodi, Mohsen; Mokhtare, Marjan; Agah, Shahram; Sina, Mohammad; Soltani-Kermanshahi, Mojtaba

    2016-01-01

    Excessive flatulence which impairs social performance in patients is one of the common reasons for referrals to gastroenterology clinics. Celiac Disease is a rare but important cause of increased intestinal gas (bloating) and if not diagnosed, patients face complications such as malabsorption, anemia, osteoporosis and even intestinal lymphoma. This study aimed to determine the frequency of Celiac Disease in patients with excessive flatulence. One hundred and fifty patients with a chief complaint of experiencing flatulence more than 15 times a day and lasting for three months were referred to the gastroenterology clinic of Rasoul-e-Akram Teaching Hospital. Serological tests for Celiac Disease, Anti TTG Ab (IgA-IgG) were requested and the patients with positive tests underwent upper GI endoscopy. Biopsies of the second part of the duodenum were then sent to the laboratory. From one hundred and thirty patients who completed the study, 92 (70.7%) were female. Mean age of the patients was 32 ± 13 years. Anti TTG Ab was found in 5 patients (3.85%). Only 2 patients (1.5%) had a documented positive pathology for Celiac Disease. According to the results of this study and other studies, we conclude that Celiac Disease is an uncommon etiology for excessive flatulence but it is of importance to investigate it in excessive flatulence patients. PMID:26755470

  6. Warm Arctic episodes linked with increased frequency of extreme winter weather in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Judah; Pfeiffer, Karl; Francis, Jennifer A

    2018-03-13

    Recent boreal winters have exhibited a large-scale seesaw temperature pattern characterized by an unusually warm Arctic and cold continents. Whether there is any physical link between Arctic variability and Northern Hemisphere (NH) extreme weather is an active area of research. Using a recently developed index of severe winter weather, we show that the occurrence of severe winter weather in the United States is significantly related to anomalies in pan-Arctic geopotential heights and temperatures. As the Arctic transitions from a relatively cold state to a warmer one, the frequency of severe winter weather in mid-latitudes increases through the transition. However, this relationship is strongest in the eastern US and mixed to even opposite along the western US. We also show that during mid-winter to late-winter of recent decades, when the Arctic warming trend is greatest and extends into the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, severe winter weather-including both cold spells and heavy snows-became more frequent in the eastern United States.

  7. Evaluation of increased milking frequency as an additional treatment for cows with clinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krömker, Volker; Zinke, Claudia; Paduch, Jan-Hendrik; Klocke, Doris; Reimann, Anette; Eller, Georg

    2010-02-01

    This field study focused on the possible effects of increased milking frequency (milking four times a day in comparison with milking twice a day) on clinical and bacteriological cure rates of clinical, antibiotically treated mastitis cases. Parameters tested were clinical, microbiological and full (cytomicrobiological) cure as well as the development of milk yield after the clinical mastitis episode. Cows from a large dairy herd meeting the study criteria (n=93) were assigned to two treatment groups by a systematic randomization scheme (blocked by body temperature 39.5 degrees C). Both groups were randomly divided by experimental treatments: a) antibiotic intramammary treatment and milking 2-times a day; b) antibiotic intramammary treatment and milking 4-times a day. Treatments were initiated before the culture results were known. Cows were surveyed and evaluated on days 1-6, 24 and 31. No significant differences between treatment and control groups regarding clinical cure, microbiological cure, full cure and milk production could be established. Applying a 4-times a day milking regime did not lead to any significant effect, either positive or negative. Therefore, the results suggest that milking 4-times a day as a supporting therapy for mild, moderate and severe antimicrobially treated mastitis cases cannot be recommended.

  8. Can treatment of nocturia increase testosterone level in men with late onset hypogonadism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Wook; Chae, Ji Yun; Kim, Jin Wook; Yoon, Cheol Yong; Oh, Mi Mi; Park, Hong Seok; Kim, Je Jong; Moon, Du Geon

    2014-04-01

    To assess the effect of desmopressin on serum testosterone level in men with nocturia and late onset hypogonadism. We prospectively enrolled men with nocturia and symptoms of late onset hypogonadism. Desmopressin (0.1 mg) was administered once daily to patients for 12 weeks, and we then compared serum testosterone levels, electrolytes, frequency volume chart indices, and changes in the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), International Index of Erectile Function, and Aging Male's Symptom scales before and after treatment. Patients with a history of cardiovascular disease or hyponatremia, those using hypnotics, and those who had primary hypogonadism or hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism were excluded from the study. Sixty-two men (mean age, 68.4 years) completed pre- and post-treatment questionnaires and underwent laboratory testing. At the end of the study, the testosterone levels in men with low testosterone levels (treatment (2.85 ± 0.58 to 3.97 ± 1.44 ng/mL; P = .001). Mean scores had decreased from 17.7 to 13.9 (IPSS), 3.8 to 3.2 (IPSS-Quality of Life), and 33.7 to 31.1 (Aging Male's Symptom). On the frequency volume chart, nocturnal urine volume, nocturnal polyuria index, actual number of nocturia events, nocturia index, and nocturnal bladder capacity index were significantly decreased. Desmopressin improved nocturia and other urinary symptoms. Moreover, serum testosterone levels increased significantly in men with low testosterone levels after 12-week desmopressin treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. INCREASING EMPLOYMENT LEVELS THROUGH THE USE OF CREATIVE JOBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Marie Andreea HORDAU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we want to raise awareness of how important is for an economy the existence of creative jobs. In the last years the employment rate has grown in the sector of creative jobs. This research came out due the need of creative jobs contribution to the development of an economy, in particular Romanian economy. In this paper we want to stress on the importance of creative industry and also to propose some solutions for increasing employment in this sectors , being well-known that creative industry is attractive to smart and talented people. Nevertheless, it is important to point out the development of IT as part of creative industry. Not at last, we will take in consideration the role that small and medium enterprises have, the impact of fiscal facilities in the economy and the need for appropriate financial instruments to support this kind of business.

  10. Does natural gas increase the indoor radon levels?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Ghany, H.A.; Shabaan, D.H.

    2015-01-01

    The natural gas is naturally occurring hydrocarbon consists mainly of methane and includes varying amounts of other hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide and other impurities such as: nitrogen, and hydrogen sulfide. It is used domestically and industrially as a preferable energy source compared to coal and oil. Because natural gas is found in deep underground natural formations or associated with other underground hydrocarbon reservoirs, there is a potential to contain radon as a contaminant. This work was designated to measure indoor radon concentrations in dwellings supplied with natural gas compared with those not supplied with it, where radon level was estimated using solid state nuclear track detectors (CR-39). The results showed that radon concentration was significantly higher in dwellings supplied with natural gas, where it was 252.30 versus 136.19 Bqm -3 in dwelling not supplied with natural gas (P < 0.001). The mean values of radon exhalation rate was 0.02 ± 6.34 · 10 -4 Bq · m -2 · h -1 in dwellings supplied with natural gas and 0.01 +- 0.008 Bq · m -2 · h -1 in dwellings lacking it. In addition, a significant difference was observed in the mean annual effective doses (4.33 and 2.34 mSv · y -1 , respectively) between both groups. Conclusively, the data indicate that natural gas may represent a potential source of indoor radon

  11. Increased Pathological Worry Levels in Patients with Alopecia Areata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basak Sahin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Alopecia Areata (AA is a type of hair loss that has been considered to have associations with various psychiatric disorders. In this study, we aimed to compare pathological worry levels between patients with AA and healthy controls (HC. Material and Method: Sixty-three patients with AA and 90 HCs were included in the present study after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria. The socio-demographic characteristics, some clinical characteristics, and the scores from the Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ were compared between groups. Results: The demographic characteristics were found to be similar between groups except for gender. The family history of AA was significantly higher in the AA group. The mean score of PSWQ in the AA group was 44.02 ± 11.59, compared to 39.71 ± 7.77 in the HC group. The mean score of PSWQ was significantly higher in the AA group (t=-3.27, p= 0.001.Discussion: The present study is the first to compare pathological worry between patients with AA and HCs. We suggest that pathological worry should be more thoroughly investigated in patients with AA to improve their quality of life. Also, this can be an effective approach to targeting the patients who may develop anxiety disorder.

  12. Complexity of low-frequency blood oxygen level-dependent fluctuations covaries with local connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jeffrey S; Zielinski, Brandon A; Nielsen, Jared A; Ferguson, Michael A

    2014-04-01

    Very low-frequency blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) fluctuations have emerged as a valuable tool for describing brain anatomy, neuropathology, and development. Such fluctuations exhibit power law frequency dynamics, with largest amplitude at lowest frequencies. The biophysical mechanisms generating such fluctuations are poorly understood. Using publicly available data from 1,019 subjects of age 7-30, we show that BOLD fluctuations exhibit temporal complexity that is linearly related to local connectivity (regional homogeneity), consistently and significantly covarying across subjects and across gray matter regions. This relationship persisted independently of covariance with gray matter density or standard deviation of BOLD signal. During late neurodevelopment, BOLD fluctuations were unchanged with age in association cortex while becoming more random throughout the rest of the brain. These data suggest that local interconnectivity may play a key role in establishing the complexity of low-frequency BOLD fluctuations underlying functional magnetic resonance imaging connectivity. Stable low-frequency power dynamics may emerge through segmentation and integration of connectivity during development of distributed large-scale brain networks. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Impact of monaural frequency compression on binaural fusion at the brainstem level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauke, Isabelle; Kohl, Manuel C; Hannemann, Ronny; Kornagel, Ulrich; Strauss, Daniel J; Corona-Strauss, Farah I

    2015-08-01

    A classical objective measure for binaural fusion at the brainstem level is the so-called β-wave of the binaural interaction component (BIC) in the auditory brainstem response (ABR). However, in some cases it appeared that a reliable detection of this component still remains a challenge. In this study, we investigate the wavelet phase synchronization stability (WPSS) of ABR data for the analysis of binaural fusion and compare it to the BIC. In particular, we examine the impact of monaural nonlinear frequency compression on binaural fusion. As the auditory system is tonotopically organized, an interaural frequency mismatch caused by monaural frequency compression could negatively effect binaural fusion. In this study, only few subjects showed a detectable β-wave and in most cases only for low ITDs. However, we present a novel objective measure for binaural fusion that outperforms the current state-of-the-art technique (BIC): the WPSS analysis showed a significant difference between the phase stability of the sum of the monaurally evoked responses and the phase stability of the binaurally evoked ABR. This difference could be an indicator for binaural fusion in the brainstem. Furthermore, we observed that monaural frequency compression could indeed effect binaural fusion, as the WPSS results for this condition vary strongly from the results obtained without frequency compression.

  14. High Level Waste (HLW) Processing Experience with Increased Waste Loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JANTZEN, CAROL

    2004-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Engineering requested characterization of glass samples that were taken after the second melter had been operational for about 5 months. After the new melter had been installed, the waste loading had been increased to about 38 weight percentage after a new quasicrystalline liquidus model had been implemented. The DWPF had also switched from processing with refractory Frit 200 to a more fluid Frit 320. The samples were taken after DWPF observed very rapid buildup of deposits in the upper pour spout bore and on the pour spout insert while processing the high waste loading feedstock. These samples were evaluated using various analytical techniques to determine the cause of the crystallization. The pour stream sample was homogeneous, amorphous, and representative of the feed batch from which it was derived. Chemical analysis of the pour stream sample indicated that a waste loading of 38.5 weight per cent had been achieved. The data analysis indicated that surface crystallization, induced by temperature and oxygen fugacity gradients in the pour spout, caused surface crystallization to occur in the spout and on the insert at the higher waste loadings even though there was no crystallization in the pour stream

  15. Survey of ambient electromagnetic and radio-frequency interference levels in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kercel, S.W.; Moore, M.R.; Blakeman, E.D.; Ewing, P.D.; Wood, R.T.

    1996-11-01

    This document reports the results of a survey of ambient electromagnetic conditions in representative nuclear power plants. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research engaged the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to perform these measurements to characterize the electromagnetic interference (EMI) and radio-frequency interference (RFI) levels that can be expected in nuclear power plant environments. This survey is the first of its kind, being based on long-term unattended observations. The data presented in this report were measured at eight different nuclear units and required 14 months to collect. A representative sampling of power plant conditions (reactor type, operating mode, site location) monitored over extended observation periods (up to 5 weeks) were selected to more completely determine the characteristic electromagnetic environment for nuclear power plants. Radiated electric fields were measured over the frequency range of 5 MHz to 8 GHz. Radiated magnetic fields and conducted EMI events were measured over the frequency range of 305 Hz to 5 MHz. Highest strength observations of the electromagnetic ambient environment across all measurement conditions at each site provide frequency-dependent profiles for EMI/RFI levels in nuclear power plants

  16. Maximal exercise increases mucosal associated invariant T cell frequency and number in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Erik D; Danson, Eli; Nguyen-Robertson, Catriona V; Fyfe, Jackson J; Stepto, Nigel K; Bartlett, David B; Sakkal, Samy

    2017-11-01

    Mucosal associated invariant T (MAIT) cells have properties of the innate and acquired immune systems. While the response to vigorous exercise has been established for most leukocytes, MAIT cells have not been investigated. Therefore, the purpose was to determine if MAIT cell lymphocytosis occurs with acute maximal aerobic exercise and if this response is influenced by exercise duration, cardiovascular fitness, or body composition. Twenty healthy young males with moderate fitness levels performed an extended graded exercise test until volitional fatigue. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from venous blood obtained prior and immediately after exercise and were labeled to identify specific T cell populations using flow cytometry. The percentage of MAIT cells relative to total T cells significantly increased from 3.0 to 3.8% and absolute MAIT cell counts increased by 2.2-fold following maximal exercise. MAIT cell subpopulation proportions were unchanged with exercise. Within cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), MAIT cells consisted of 8% of these cells and this remained constant after exercise. MAIT cell counts and changes with exercise were not affected by body composition, VO 2peak , or exercise duration. Maximal exercise doubled MAIT cell numbers and showed preferential mobilization within total T cells but the response was not influenced by fitness levels, exercise duration, or body composition. These results suggest that acute exercise could be used to offset MAIT cell deficiencies observed with certain pathologies. MAIT cells also make up a substantial proportion of CTLs, which may have implications for cytotoxicity assays using these cells.

  17. INCREASED TISSUE TRANSGLUTAMINASE LEVELS ARE ASSOCIATED WITH INCREASED EPILEPTIFORM ACTIVITY IN ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY AMONG PATIENTS WITH CELIAC DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat IŞIKAY

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background - Celiac disease is an autoimmune systemic disorder in genetically predisposed individuals precipitated by gluten ingestion. Objective - In this study, we aimed to determine asymptomatic spike-and-wave findings on electroencephalography in children with celiac disease. Methods - A total of 175 children with the diagnosis of celiac disease (study group and 99 age- and sex-matched healthy children as controls (control group were included in the study. In order to determine the effects of gluten free diet on laboratory and electroencephalography findings, the celiac group is further subdivided into two as newly-diagnosed and formerly-diagnosed patients. Medical histories of all children and laboratory findings were all recorded and neurologic statuses were evaluated. All patients underwent a sleep and awake electroencephalography. Results - Among 175 celiac disease patients included in the study, 43 were newly diagnosed while 132 were formerly-diagnosed patients. In electroencephalography evaluation of patients the epileptiform activity was determined in 4 (9.3% of newly diagnosed and in 2 (1.5% of formerly diagnosed patients; on the other hand the epileptiform activity was present in only 1 (1.0% of control cases. There was a statistically significant difference between groups in regards to the presence of epileptiform activity in electroencephalography. Pearson correlation analysis revealed that epileptiform activity in both sleep and awake electroencephalography were positively correlated with tissue transglutaminase levels (P=0.014 and P=0.019, respectively. Conclusion - We have determined an increased epileptiform activity frequency among newly-diagnosed celiac disease patients compared with formerly-diagnosed celiac disease patients and control cases. Moreover the tissue transglutaminase levels were also correlated with the presence of epileptiform activity in electroencephalography. Among newly diagnosed celiac disease patients

  18. Estimation of average hazardous-event-frequency for allocation of safety-integrity levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misumi, Y.; Sato, Y.

    1999-01-01

    One of the fundamental concepts of the draft international standard, IEC 61508, is target failure measures to be allocated to Electric/Electronic/Programmable Electronic Safety-Related Systems, i.e. Safety Integrity Levels. The Safety Integrity Levels consist of four discrete probabilistic levels for specifying the safety integrity requirements or the safety functions to be allocated to Electric/Electronic/Programmable Electronic Safety-Related Systems. In order to select the Safety Integrity Levels the draft standard classifies Electric/Electronic/Programmable Electronic Safety-Related Systems into two modes of operation using demand frequencies only. It is not clear which modes of operation should be applied to Electric/Electronic/Programmable Electronic Safety-Related Systems taking into account the demand-state probability and the spurious demand frequency. It is essential for the allocation of Safety Integrity Levels that generic algorithms be derived by involving possible parameters, which make it possible to model the actuality of real systems. The present paper addresses this issue. First of all, the overall system including Electric/Electronic/programmable Electronic Safety-Related Systems is described using a simplified fault-tree. Then, the relationships among demands, demand-states and proof-tests are studied. Overall systems are classified into two groups: a non-demand-state-at-proof-test system which includes both repairable and non-repairable demand states and a constant-demand-frequency system. The new ideas such as a demand-state, spurious demand-state, mean time between detections, rates of d-failure and h-failure, and an h/d ratio are introduced in order to make the Safety Integrity Levels and modes of operation generic and comprehensive. Finally, the overall system is simplified and modeled by fault-trees using Priority-AND gates. At the same time the assumptions for modeling are described. Generic algorithms to estimate hazardous

  19. Mapping of radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure levels in outdoor environment and comparing with reference levels for general public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cansiz, Mustafa; Abbasov, Teymuraz; Kurt, M Bahattin; Celik, A Recai

    2018-03-01

    In this study, radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure levels were measured on the main streets in the city center of Diyarbakır, Turkey. Measured electric field levels were plotted on satellite imagery of Diyarbakır and were compared with exposure guidelines published by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). Exposure measurements were performed in dense urban, urban and suburban areas each day for 7 consecutive days. The measurement system consisted of high precision and portable spectrum analyzer, three-axis electric field antenna, connection cable and a laptop which was used to record the measurement samples as a data logger. The highest exposure levels were detected for two places, which are called Diclekent and Batıkent. It was observed that the highest instantaneous electric field strength value for Batıkent was 7.18 V/m and for Diclekent was 5.81 V/m. It was statistically determined that the main contributor band to the total exposure levels was Universal Mobile Telecommunications System band. Finally, it was concluded that all measured exposure levels were lower than the reference levels recommended by ICNIRP for general public health.

  20. Increase in short-term memory capacity induced by down-regulating individual theta frequency via transcranial alternating current stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosskuhl, Johannes; Huster, René J; Herrmann, Christoph S

    2015-01-01

    Working memory (WM) and short-term memory (STM) supposedly rely on the phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) of neural oscillations in the theta and gamma frequency ranges. The ratio between the individually dominant gamma and theta frequencies is believed to determine an individual's memory capacity. The aim of this study was to establish a causal relationship between the gamma/theta ratio and WM/STM capacity by means of transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS). To achieve this, tACS was delivered at a frequency below the individual theta frequency. Thereby the individual ratio of gamma to theta frequencies was changed, resulting in an increase of STM capacity. Healthy human participants (N = 33) were allocated to two groups, one receiving verum tACS, the other underwent a sham control protocol. The electroencephalogram (EEG) was measured before stimulation and analyzed with regard to the properties of PAC between theta and gamma frequencies to determine individual stimulation frequencies. After stimulation, EEG was recorded again in order to find after-effects of tACS in the oscillatory features of the EEG. Measures of STM and WM were obtained before, during and after stimulation. Frequency spectra and behavioral data were compared between groups and different measurement phases. The tACS- but not the sham stimulated group showed an increase in STM capacity during stimulation. WM was not affected in either groups. An increase in task-related theta amplitude after stimulation was observed only for the tACS group. These augmented theta amplitudes indicated that the manipulation of individual theta frequencies was successful and caused the increase in STM capacity.

  1. Increase in short-term memory capacity induced by down-regulating individual theta frequency via transcranial alternating current stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes eVosskuhl

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Working memory (WM and short-term memory (STM supposedly rely on the phase-amplitude coupling of neural oscillations in the theta and gamma frequency ranges. The ratio between the individually dominant gamma and theta frequencies is believed to determine an individual’s memory capacity. The aim of this study was to establish a causal relationship between the gamma/theta ratio and WM/STM capacity by means of transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS. To achieve this, tACS was delivered at a frequency below the individual theta frequency. Thereby the individual ratio of gamma to theta frequencies was changed, resulting in an increase of STM capacity. Healthy human participants (N=33 were allocated to two groups, one receiving verum tACS, the other underwent a sham control protocol. The electroencephalogram (EEG was measured before stimulation and analyzed with regard to the properties of phase-amplitude coupling between theta and gamma frequencies to determine individual stimulation frequencies. After stimulation, EEG was recorded again in order to find after-effects of tACS in the oscillatory features of the EEG. Measures of STM and WM were obtained before, during and after stimulation. Frequency spectra and behavioral data were compared between groups and different measurement phases. The tACS- but not the sham stimulated group showed an increase in STM capacity during stimulation. WM was not affected in either groups. An increase in task-related theta amplitude after stimulation was observed only for the tACS group. These augmented theta amplitudes indicated that the manipulation of individual theta frequencies was successful and caused the increase in STM capacity.

  2. Computized analysis of diagnostic level in breast diseases and frequency of their clinicoroentgenological symptoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babij, Ya.S.; Krakhmaleva, L.P.; Shumakov, A.G.

    1988-01-01

    A standardized chart with a list of clinicoroentgenological symptoms of the most frequent mammary gland diseases is developed. The data of computer analysis of the diagnostics level and the frequency of clinicoroentgenological symptoms of different diseases of the mammary gland are given. The data obtained can be used for conventional and computer diagnostics of mammary gland diseases, as well as as a basis for the further study of semiotics of different pathological processes in the mammary gland. 22 refs

  3. Increased Mercury Levels in Patients with Celiac Disease following a Gluten-Free Regimen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Elli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim. Although mercury is involved in several immunological diseases, nothing is known about its implication in celiac disease. Our aim was to evaluate blood and urinary levels of mercury in celiac patients. Methods. We prospectively enrolled 30 celiac patients (20 treated with normal duodenal mucosa and 10 untreated with duodenal atrophy and 20 healthy controls from the same geographic area. Blood and urinary mercury concentrations were measured by means of flow injection inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Enrolled patients underwent dental chart for amalgam fillings and completed a food-frequency questionnaire to evaluate diet and fish intake. Results. Mercury blood/urinary levels were 2.4±2.3/1.0±1.4, 10.2±6.7/2.2±3.0 and 3.7±2.7/1.3±1.2 in untreated CD, treated CD, and healthy controls, respectively. Resulting mercury levels were significantly higher in celiac patients following a gluten-free diet. No differences were found regarding fish intake and number of amalgam fillings. No demographic or clinical data were significantly associated with mercury levels in biologic samples. Conclusion. Data demonstrate a fourfold increase of mercury blood levels in celiac patients following a gluten-free diet. Further studies are needed to clarify its role in celiac mechanism.

  4. Identification of low-frequency variants associated with gout and serum uric acid levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sulem, Patrick; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Walters, G Bragi

    2011-01-01

    We tested 16 million SNPs, identified through whole-genome sequencing of 457 Icelanders, for association with gout and serum uric acid levels. Genotypes were imputed into 41,675 chip-genotyped Icelanders and their relatives, for effective sample sizes of 968 individuals with gout and 15......,506 individuals for whom serum uric acid measurements were available. We identified a low-frequency missense variant (c.1580C>G) in ALDH16A1 associated with gout (OR = 3.12, P = 1.5 × 10(-16), at-risk allele frequency = 0.019) and serum uric acid levels (effect = 0.36 s.d., P = 4.5 × 10(-21)). We confirmed...... the association with gout by performing Sanger sequencing on 6,017 Icelanders. The association with gout was stronger in males relative to females. We also found a second variant on chromosome 1 associated with gout (OR = 1.92, P = 0.046, at-risk allele frequency = 0.986) and serum uric acid levels (effect = 0...

  5. Increased frequency of social interaction is associated with enjoyment enhancement and reward system activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamichi, Hiroaki; Sugawara, Sho K; Hamano, Yuki H; Makita, Kai; Kochiyama, Takanori; Sadato, Norihiro

    2016-04-19

    Positive social interactions contribute to the sense that one's life has meaning. Enjoyment of feelings associated through social interaction motivates humans to build social connections according to their personal preferences. Therefore, we hypothesized that social interaction itself activates the reward system in a manner that depends upon individual interaction preferences. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study in which 38 participants played a virtual ball-toss game in which the number of ball tosses to the participant was either similar to (normal-frequency condition) or higher than (high-frequency condition) the number of tosses to the other players. Participants reported greater-than-anticipated enjoyment during the high-frequency condition, suggesting that receiving a social reward led to unexpected positive feelings. Consistent with this, the high-frequency condition produced stronger activation in the ventral striatum, which is part of the reward system, and the precuneus, representing positive self-image, which might be translated to social reward. Furthermore, ventral striatal activation covaried with individual participants' preference for interactions with others. These findings suggest that an elevated frequency of social interaction is represented as a social reward, which might motivate individuals to promote social interaction in a manner that is modulated by personal preference.

  6. Potential increase in mating frequency of queens in feral colonies of Bombus terrestris introduced into Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Maki N.; Saito, Fuki; Tsuchida, Koji; Goka, Koichi

    2012-10-01

    With the exception of several species, bumblebees are monandrous. We examined mating frequency in feral colonies of the introduced bumblebee Bombus terrestris in Japan . Using microsatellite markers, genotyping of sperm DNA stored in the spermatheca of nine queens detected multiple insemination paternities in one queen; the others were singly mated. The average effective paternity frequency estimated from the genotypes of queens and workers was 1.23; that estimated from the workers' genotype alone was 2.12. These values were greater than those of laboratory-reared colonies in the native ranges of B. terrestris. The genotypes of one or two workers did not match those of their queens or showed paternities different from those of their nestmates; this may have arisen from either queen takeover or drifting of workers. These alien workers were responsible for the heterogeneous genotype distribution within each B. terrestris colony, resulting in higher estimates of paternity frequency than of insemination frequency. The high mating frequency of introduced B. terrestris may have occurred by artificial selection through mass breeding for commercialization. Moreover, polyandrous queens may be selectively advantageous, because reproduction by such queens is less likely to be disturbed by interspecific mating than that by monandrous queens.

  7. Moderately high frequency ventilation with a conventional ventilator allows reduction of tidal volume without increasing mean airway pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordioli, Ricardo Luiz; Park, Marcelo; Costa, Eduardo Leite Vieira; Gomes, Susimeire; Brochard, Laurent; Amato, Marcelo Britto Passos; Azevedo, Luciano Cesar Pontes

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to explore if positive-pressure ventilation delivered by a conventional ICU ventilator at a moderately high frequency (HFPPV) allows a safe reduction of tidal volume (V T) below 6 mL/kg in a porcine model of severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and at a lower mean airway pressure than high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV). This is a prospective study. In eight pigs (median weight 34 [29,36] kg), ARDS was induced by pulmonary lavage and injurious ventilation. The animals were ventilated with a randomized sequence of respiratory rates: 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, followed by HFOV at 5 Hz. At each step, V T was adjusted to allow partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2) to stabilize between 57 and 63 mmHg. Data are shown as median [P25th,P75th]. After lung injury, the PaO2/FiO2 (P/F) ratio was 92 [63,118] mmHg, pulmonary shunt 26 [17,31]%, and static compliance 11 [8,14] mL/cmH2O. Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) was 14 [10,17] cmH2O. At 30 breaths/min, V T was higher than 6 (7.5 [6.8,10.2]) mL/kg, but at all higher frequencies, V T could be reduced and PaCO2 maintained, leading to reductions in plateau pressures and driving pressures. For frequencies of 60 to 150/min, V T progressively fell from 5.2 [5.1,5.9] to 3.8 [3.7,4.2] mL/kg (p mechanics, auto-PEEP generation, hemodynamics, or gas exchange. Mean airway pressure was maintained constant and was increased only during HFOV. During protective mechanical ventilation, HFPPV delivered by a conventional ventilator in a severe ARDS swine model safely allows further tidal volume reductions. This strategy also allowed decreasing airway pressures while maintaining stable PaCO2 levels.

  8. POLARIZED LINE FORMATION WITH LOWER-LEVEL POLARIZATION AND PARTIAL FREQUENCY REDISTRIBUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Supriya, H. D.; Sampoorna, M.; Nagendra, K. N.; Ravindra, B. [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore 560034 (India); Stenflo, J. O. [Institute of Astronomy, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2016-09-10

    In the well-established theories of polarized line formation with partial frequency redistribution (PRD) for a two-level and two-term atom, it is generally assumed that the lower level of the scattering transition is unpolarized. However, the existence of unexplained spectral features in some lines of the Second Solar Spectrum points toward a need to relax this assumption. There exists a density matrix theory that accounts for the polarization of all the atomic levels, but it is based on the flat-spectrum approximation (corresponding to complete frequency redistribution). In the present paper we propose a numerical algorithm to solve the problem of polarized line formation in magnetized media, which includes both the effects of PRD and the lower level polarization (LLP) for a two-level atom. First we derive a collisionless redistribution matrix that includes the combined effects of the PRD and the LLP. We then solve the relevant transfer equation using a two-stage approach. For illustration purposes, we consider two case studies in the non-magnetic regime, namely, the J {sub a} = 1, J {sub b} = 0 and J {sub a} = J {sub b} = 1, where J {sub a} and J {sub b} represent the total angular momentum quantum numbers of the lower and upper states, respectively. Our studies show that the effects of LLP are significant only in the line core. This leads us to propose a simplified numerical approach to solve the concerned radiative transfer problem.

  9. Increased acceptance bandwidths in optical frequency conversion by use of multiple walk-off-compensating nonlinear crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.V.; Armstrong, D.J.; Alford, W.J.

    1998-01-01

    We show by experiment and mathematical model that angular and frequency acceptance bandwidths for frequency mixing in a nonlinear crystal can often be improved by segmenting the crystal and reversing the spatial or temporal walk-off in alternating segments. We analyze nonlinear mixing primarily in real space, (x,t), rather than Fourier space, (k,ω), and show that acceptance bands for sum- and difference-frequency mixing can be increased by up to a factor equal to the number of crystal segments. We consider both high- and low-efficiency mixing as well as parametric gain, and show that in many cases of practical interest the increased bandwidth substantially improves conversion efficiency. We also attempt to clarify the role of acceptance bandwidths in frequency mixing. copyright 1998 Optical Society of America

  10. Exercise increases the frequency of circulating hematopoietic progenitor cells, but reduces hematopoietic colony-forming capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroepfl, Julia Maria; Pekovits, Karin; Stelzer, Ingeborg; Fuchs, Robert; Zelzer, Sieglinde; Hofmann, Peter; Sedlmayr, Peter; Dohr, Gottfried; Wallner-Liebmann, Sandra; Domej, Wolfgang; Mueller, Wolfram

    2012-11-01

    Circulating hematopoietic progenitor cells (CPCs) may be triggered by physical exercise and/or normobaric hypoxia from the bone marrow. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of physical exercise and normobaric hypoxia on CPC number and functionality in the peripheral blood as well as the involvement of oxidative stress parameters as possibly active agents. Ten healthy male subjects (25.3±4.4 years) underwent a standardized cycle incremental exercise test protocol (40 W+20 W/min) under either normoxic (FiO2 ∼0.21) or hypoxic conditions (FiO2exercise. The number of CPCs in the peripheral blood was analyzed by flow cytometry (CD34/CD45-positive cells). The functionality of cells present was addressed by secondary colony-forming unit-granulocyte macrophage (CFU-GM) assays. To determine a possible correlation between the mobilization of CPCs and reactive oxygen species, parameters for oxidative stress such as malondialdehyde (MDA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were obtained. Data showed a significant increase of CPC release under normoxic as well as hypoxic conditions after 10 min of recovery (Pexercise (Pexercise, possibly due to the influence of increased oxidative stress levels.

  11. Mechanisms Underpinning Increased Plasma Creatinine Levels in Patients Receiving Vemurafenib for Advanced Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurabielle, Charlotte; Pillebout, Evangéline; Stehlé, Thomas; Pagès, Cécile; Roux, Jennifer; Schneider, Pierre; Chevret, Sylvie; Chaffaut, Cendrine; Boutten, Anne; Mourah, Samia; Basset-Seguin, Nicole; Vidal-Petiot, Emmanuelle; Lebbé, Céleste; Flamant, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Context Serum creatinine has been reported to increase in patients receiving Vemurafenib, yet neither the prevalence nor the mechanism of this adverse event are known. Objective We aimed to evaluate the frequency and the mechanisms of increases in plasma creatinine level in patients receiving Vemurafenib for advanced melanoma. Methods We performed a retrospective monocentric study including consecutive patients treated with Vemurafenib for an advanced melanoma. We collected clinical and biological data concerning renal function before introduction of Vemurafenib and in the course of monthly follow-up visits from March 2013 to December 2014. Cystatin C-derived glomerular filtration rate was evaluated before and after Vemurafenib initiation, as increase in serum cystatin C is specific to a decrease in the glomerular filtration rate. We also performed thorough renal explorations in 3 patients, with measurement of tubular secretion of creatinine before and after Vemurafenib initiation and a renal biopsy in 2 patients. Results 70 patients were included: 97% of them displayed an immediate, and thereafter stable, increase in creatinine (+22.8%) after Vemurafenib initiation. In 44/52 patients in whom Vemurafenib was discontinued, creatinine levels returned to baseline. Serum cystatin C increased, although proportionally less than serum creatinine, showing that creatinine increase under vemurafenib was indeed partly due to a renal function impairment. In addition, renal explorations demonstrated that Vemurafenib induced an inhibition of creatinine tubular secretion. Conclusion Thus, Vemurafenib induces a dual mechanism of increase in plasma creatinine with both an inhibition of creatinine tubular secretion and slight renal function impairment. However, this side effect is mostly reversible when Vemurafenib is discontinued, and should not lead physicians to discontinue the treatment if it is effective. PMID:26930506

  12. Increased frequency of HLA-DPw2 in pauciarticular onset juvenile chronic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ødum, Niels; Morling, Niels; Friis, J

    1986-01-01

    Thirty-six unrelated Danish patients with pauciarticular Juvenile Chronic Arthritis (PJCA) and 120 controls were typed for HLA-DPw1-w6 and the local specificity CDPHEI with bulk-expanded Primed Lymphocyte Typing (PLT) cells. The frequency of HLA-DPw2 was 52.8% in PJCA patients and 16.7% in controls...

  13. Increased frequency of HLA-DPw2 in pauciarticular onset juvenile chronic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ødum, Niels; Morling, Niels; Friis, J

    1986-01-01

    Thirty-six unrelated Danish patients with pauciarticular Juvenile Chronic Arthritis (PJCA) and 120 controls were typed for HLA-DPw1-w6 and the local specificity CDPHEI with bulk-expanded Primed Lymphocyte Typing (PLT) cells. The frequency of HLA-DPw2 was 52.8% in PJCA patients and 16.7% in contro...

  14. Increased frequency of drought reduces species richness of enchytraeid communities in both wet and dry heathland soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmstrup, Martin; Sørensen, Jesper G.; Maraldo, Kristine

    2012-01-01

    providing an opportunity to study biological responses on a local (within sites) and regional scale. Warming treatments increasing night-time temperature (0.5–1 °C higher than ambient at 5 cm soil depth) had no detectable effects on the enchytraeid communities. Increased intensity and frequency of drought...

  15. Interacting two-level defects as sources of fluctuating high-frequency noise in superconducting circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Clemens [ARC Centre of Excellence for Engineered Quantum Systems, The University of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia); Lisenfeld, Juergen [Physikalisches Institut, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); Shnirman, Alexander [Institut fuer Theory der Kondensierten Materie, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); LD Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Poletto, Stefano [IBM TJ Watson Research Centre, Yorktown Heights (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Since the very first experiments, superconducting circuits have suffered from strong coupling to environmental noise, destroying quantum coherence and degrading performance. In state-of-the-art experiments, it is found that the relaxation time of superconducting qubits fluctuates as a function of time. We present measurements of such fluctuations in a 3D-transmon circuit and develop a qualitative model based on interactions within a bath of background two-level systems (TLS) which emerge from defects in the device material. In our model, the time-dependent noise density acting on the qubit emerges from its near-resonant coupling to high-frequency TLS which experience energy fluctuations due to their interaction with thermally fluctuating TLS at low frequencies. We support the model by providing experimental evidence of such energy fluctuations observed in a single TLS in a phase qubit circuit.

  16. Frequency response testing at Experimental Breeder Reactor II using discrete-level periodic signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, W.D.; Larson, H.A.

    1990-01-01

    The Experimental Breeder Reactor 2 (EBR-2) reactivity-to-power frequency-response function was measured with pseudo-random, discrete-level, periodic signals. The reactor power deviation was small with insignificant perturbation of normal operation and in-place irradiation experiments. Comparison of results with measured rod oscillator data and with theoretical predictions show good agreement. Moreover, measures of input signal quality (autocorrelation function and energy spectra) confirm the ability to enable this type of frequency response determination at EBR-2. Measurements were made with the pseudo-random binary sequence, quadratic residue binary sequence, pseudo-random ternary sequence, and the multifrequency binary sequence. 10 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  17. Evaluation of the electromagnetic field level emitted by medium frequency AM broadcast stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Licitra, G.; Bambini, S.; Barellini, A.; Monorchio, A.; Rogovich, A.

    2004-01-01

    In order to estimate the level of the electromagnetic field produced by telecommunication systems, different computational techniques can be employed whose complexity depends on the accuracy of the final results. In this paper, we present the validation of a code based on the method of moments that allows us to analyse the electromagnetic field emitted by radio-communication systems operating at medium frequencies. The method is able to provide an accurate estimate of the levels of electromagnetic field produced by this type of device and, consequently, it can be used as a method for verifying the compliance of the system with the safe exposure level regulations and population protection laws. Some numerical and experimental results are shown relevant to an amplitude modulated (AM) radio transmitter, together with the results of a forthcoming system that will be operative in the near future. (authors)

  18. Do the frequencies of adverse events increase, decrease, or stay the same with long-term use of statins?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddy, Karlyn; Dhesi, Pavittarpaul; Thompson, Paul D

    2013-02-01

    Statins are widely used for their cholesterol-lowering properties and proven reduction of cardiovascular disease risk. Many patients take statins as long-term treatment for a variety of conditions without a clear-cut understanding of how treatment duration affects the frequency of adverse effects. We aimed to evaluate whether the frequencies of documented adverse events increase, decrease, or remain unchanged with long-term statin use. We reviewed the established literature to define the currently known adverse effects of statin therapy, including myopathy, central nervous system effects, and the appearance of diabetes, and the frequency of these events with long-term medication use. The frequency of adverse effects associated with long-term statin therapy appears to be low. Many patients who develop side effects from statin therapy do so relatively soon after initiation of therapy, so the frequency of side effects from statin therapy when expressed as a percentage of current users decreases over time. Nevertheless, patients may develop side effects such as muscle pain and weakness years after starting statin therapy; however, the absolute number of patients affected by statin myopathy increases with treatment duration. Also, clinical trials of statin therapy rarely exceed 5 years, so it is impossible to determine with certainty the frequency of long-term side effects with these drugs.

  19. The differential effects of increasing frequency and magnitude of extreme events on coral populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabina, Nicholas S; Baskett, Marissa L; Gross, Kevin

    2015-09-01

    Extreme events, which have profound ecological consequences, are changing in both frequency and magnitude with climate change. Because extreme temperatures induce coral bleaching, we can explore the relative impacts of changes in frequency and magnitude of high temperature events on coral reefs. Here, we combined climate projections and a dynamic population model to determine how changing bleaching regimes influence coral persistence. We additionally explored how coral traits and competition with macroalgae mediate changes in bleaching regimes. Our results predict that severe bleaching events reduce coral persistence more than frequent bleaching. Corals with low adult mortality and high growth rates are successful when bleaching is mild, but bleaching resistance is necessary to persist when bleaching is severe, regardless of frequency. The existence of macroalgae-dominated stable states reduces coral persistence and changes the relative importance of coral traits. Building on previous studies, our results predict that management efforts may need to prioritize protection of "weaker" corals with high adult mortality when bleaching is mild, and protection of "stronger" corals with high bleaching resistance when bleaching is severe. In summary, future reef projections and conservation targets depend on both local bleaching regimes and biodiversity.

  20. Effect of modulated ultrahigh frequency field on behavior and hormone level in female rats under emotional stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasulov, M.M.

    The effect of a modulated electromagnetic field (MEMF) (field frequency of 40 MHz and modulated frequency of 50 Hz, 1 h exposure daily for 30 days) on behavior and level of sexual hormones, determined from the length of the estrous cycle and of its separate phases, was studied in female Wistar rats subjected to sexual deprivation. The ratio of frequency of running to number of vertical positions (R:V) was used as an index. Activity of rats declined during the 1-h exposure to MEMF; this may indicate the direct effect of MEMF on the central nervous system. Analysis of behavior after MEMF treatments ceased showed that the R:V ratio increased from 3.2:1 to 3:1 in month 3 and reached 2:1 in month 5. The relative significance of sexual behavior (lordosis, licking of perineum) more than double in comparison with the initial level. The findings support the existence of individual differences in sensitivity to a UHF field. The data on the estrous cycle indicate the tranquilizing effect of a UHF field on the neuroendocrine system and the greater resistance of individual animals exposed to MEMF to the development of sexual neurosis. 12 references, 2 figures.

  1. Digital low level rf control system with four different intermediate frequencies for the International Linear Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, Sigit Basuki; Matsumoto, Toshihiro; Michizono, Shinichiro; Miura, Takako; Qiu, Feng; Liu, Na

    2017-09-01

    A field programmable gate array-based digital low level rf (LLRF) control system will be used in the International Linear Collider (ILC) in order to satisfy the rf stability requirements. The digital LLRF control system with four different intermediate frequencies has been developed to decrease the required number of analog-to-digital converters in this system. The proof of concept of this technique was demonstrated at the Superconducting RF Test Facility in the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Japan. The amplitude and phase stability has fulfilled the ILC requirements.

  2. Ketamine increases the frequency of electroencephalographic bicoherence peak on the alpha spindle area induced with propofol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, K; Tsuda, N; Sawa, T; Hagihira, S

    2007-09-01

    The reticular and thalamocortical system is known to play a prominent role in spindle wave activity, and the spindle wave is related to the sedative effects of anaesthetics. Recently, bispectral analysis of the EEG has been developed as a better method to indicate nonlinear regulation including the thalamocortical system linking to the cortical area. In the present study, in order to explore the interference of ketamine with the nonlinear regulation of the sub-cortical system, we examined the effect of ketamine on spindle alpha waves through the bispectral analysis. The study included 21 patients. Anaesthesia was induced and maintained using a propofol-TCI system (target-controlled infusion, with target concentration 3.5 microg ml(-1)). An A-2000 BIS monitor was used and the raw EEG signals were collected via an RS232 interface on a personal computer. Bicoherence, the normalized bispectrum, and power spectrum were analysed before and after i.v. administration of 1 mg kg(-1) racemic ketamine. Propofol caused alpha peaks in both power and bicoherence spectra, with average frequencies of 10.6 (SD 0.9) Hz and 10.7 (1.0) Hz, respectively. The addition of ketamine significantly shifted each peak to frequencies of 14.4 (1.4) Hz and 13.6 (1.5) Hz, respectively [P < 0.05, mean (SD)]. Ketamine shifted the alpha peaks of bicoherence induced by propofol to higher frequencies. This suggests that ketamine changes the alpha spindle rhythms through the modulation of the nonlinear sub-cortical reverberating network.

  3. Balanced Physical Exercise Increase Physical Fitness, Optimize Endorphin Levels, and Decrease Malondialdehyde Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Adams Pangkahila

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical fitness determines the level of human health. A good physical fitness can be achieved if conducted with a balance and active physical fitness. The aims of this study was to elucidate the effect of balanced physical exercise on physical fitness, endorphin levels, and malondialdehyde (MDA levels. Methods: This study was a true experimental with pretest-posttest control group design using 24 students of IKIP PGRI Denpasar. Selected samples divided into two groups: the control group given conventional physical training (P0 and the treatment group given balanced physical training (P1. Physical fitness tests was performed using Cooper method and blood sampling was done to evaluate the level of endorphins and MDA before (pre test and after (post test treatment of 8 weeks. The data of endorphin and MDA levels were analyzed using independent T test. Whereas, the physical fitness was analyzed using Mann-Whitney U test. Results: Physical fitness of the group given a balanced physical training was significantly higher compare to the group given a conventional physical training (p < 0.05. Balanced physical training was proven to enhance physical fitness as measured by the Cooper method better than conventional physical training. In contrast, the levels of endorphins of the balanced physical training group did not different with the conventional physical training group (p > 0.05. Levels of MDA of balanced physical training group also did not different with the conventional physical training group (p > 0.05. Conclusions: balanced physical training can maintain physical fitness of people and improve the health and quality of life. 

  4. The frequency and level of sweep in mixed hardwood saw logs in the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Hamner; Marshall S. White; Philip A. Araman

    2007-01-01

    Hardwood sawmills traditionally saw logs in a manner that either orients sawlines parallel to the log central axis (straight sawing) or the log surface (allowing for taper). Sweep is characterized as uniform curvature along the entire length of a log. For logs with sweep, lumber yield losses from straight and taper sawing increase with increasing levels of sweep. Curve...

  5. 162.5 MHz digital low-level radio frequency control monitoring system design and implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ruifeng; Wang Xianwu; Xu Zhe; Yi Xiaoping

    2014-01-01

    162.5 MHz high-frequency low-level control system self-developed by Institute of Modern Physics for ADS project took digital technology. All parameters' reading and writing, including loop parameter setting, open and close-loop operation, and condition monitoring, were achieved through the monitoring system. The system used lightweight client-server working mode that client running in the PC sent command data, server running on high-frequency digital low level system responded instructions to complete parameter monitoring and control. The system consisted of three parts. Firstly, server hardware system was constructed based on Atera Stratix Ⅲ family of field-programmable gate array (FPGA) development board. Secondly, the server software system was designed based on Micro C/OS Ⅱ real-time operating systems and lightweight TCP/IP protocol stack, and finally a client PC program was designed based on MFC. After a long test, it was indicated that the monitoring system works properly and stably. TCP sends and receives throughput reached 11.931038 Mbps and 8.117624 Mbps. (authors)

  6. LPS levels in root canals after the use of ozone gas and high frequency electrical pulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago André Fontoura de MELO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study aims to verify the effect of ozone gas (OZY® System and high frequency electric pulse (Endox® System systems on human root canals previously contaminated with Escherichia colilipopolysaccharide (LPS. Fifty single-rooted teeth had their dental crowns removed and root lengths standardized to 16 mm. The root canals were prepared up to #60 hand K-files and sterilized using gamma radiation with cobalt 60. The specimens were divided into the following five groups (n = 10 based on the disinfection protocol used: OZY® System, one 120-second-pulse (OZY 1p; OZY® System, four 24-second-pulses (OZY 4p; and Endox® System (ENDOX. Contaminated and non-contaminated canals were exposed only to apyrogenic water and used as positive (C+ and negative (C- controls, respectively. LPS (O55:B55 was administered in all root canals except those belonging to group C-. After performing disinfection, LPS samples were collected from the canals using apyrogenic paper tips. Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate (LAL was used to quantify the LPS levels, and the data obtained was analyzed using one-way ANOVA. The disinfection protocols used were unable to reduce the LPS levels significantly (p = 0.019. The use of ozone gas and high frequency electric pulses was not effective in eliminating LPS from the root canals.

  7. Increased levels of anti-glycan antibodies in patients with cystic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirche TO

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of Crohn's disease (CD is increased in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF. Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA have been suggested as a screening tool to detect CD in CF. Recently, several new anti-glycan antibodies have been reported in CD. Materials and methods The sera of 119 CF patients of various age groups were prospectively screened for ASCA type IgG (gASCA, anti-laminaribioside carbohydrate IgG antibodies (ALCA, anti-chitobioside carbohydrate IgA antibodies (ACCA, and anti-mannobioside carbohydrate IgG antibodies (AMCA. The frequency of these anti-glycan antibodies was then compared in patients with CD, ulcerative colitis, rheumatoid arthritis and healthy volunteers. Results A significant number of CF patients were positive for gASCA (51.3% [41.6-60.6] and up to three other anti-glycan antibodies concurrently. Serum levels of anti-glycan antibodies in CF and CD were not related to parameters of inflammation. Despite the well-documented difference in clinical course between male and female CF patients no gender difference of anti-glycan antibodies was found. In contrast, there was a significant positive correlation between anti-glycan markers and age in CF patients. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate for the first time the increased frequency of a panel of anti-glycan antibodies in CF and provide a link between the presence of these serological biomarkers and patient's age. Anti-glycan antibody profiling may therefore become a valuable tool in the care of patients with CF.

  8. Effect of increased and maintained frequency of speed endurance training on performance and muscle adaptations in runners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Casper; Almquist, Nicki Winfield; Bangsbo, Jens

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was, in runners accustomed to speed endurance training (SET), to examine the effect of increased and maintained frequency of SET on performance and muscular adaptations. After familiarization (FAM) to SET, eighteen male (n=14) and female (n=4) runners (VO2-max: 57.3±3.4 ml·mi...

  9. Treatment of mice with a novel antineoplastic agent taxol before irradiation increases the frequency of micronuclei in the bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagetia, Ganesh Chandra; Nayak, Vijayashree

    1995-01-01

    The frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MPCE) and the normochromatic erythrocytes (MNCE) and polychromatic and normochromatic erythrocyte ratio (P/N ratio) was studied at 12, 24 and 36 h postirradiation in the bone marrow of male mice treated or not with taxol before exposure to 0-4 Gy of 60 Co gamma radiation. The frequency of MPCE increased with the increase in radiation dose in a dose-related manner in the irradiated control group. A peak frequency of MPCE was observed at 24 h postirradiation in irradiated control group. The pattern of increase in MNCE was similar to that of MPCE except that a highest number of MNCE was scored at 36 h postirradiation. Taxol administration to animals before irradiation resulted in a significant elevation in the frequency of MPCE and MNCE at all the postirradiation time periods studied. This increase was dose related as observed in the irradiated control group. Irradiation resulted in a dose-dependent decline in the P/N ratio at all the postirradiation time periods studied. The P/N ratio was significantly lower in the taxol+irradiated group compared to the irradiated control group at all postirradiation time periods. A maximum decline in P/N ratio was observed at 36 h postirradiation for both irradiated control and taxol+irradiated groups. The dose response for MPCE, MNCE and P/N ratio was linear quadratic for both the irradiated and taxol+irradiated groups

  10. Application of a modified complementary filtering technique for increased aircraft control system frequency bandwidth in high vibration environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garren, J. F., Jr.; Niessen, F. R.; Abbott, T. S.; Yenni, K. R.

    1977-01-01

    A modified complementary filtering technique for estimating aircraft roll rate was developed and flown in a research helicopter to determine whether higher gains could be achieved. Use of this technique did, in fact, permit a substantial increase in system frequency bandwidth because, in comparison with first-order filtering, it reduced both noise amplification and control limit-cycle tendencies.

  11. Agricultural intensification and drought frequency increases may have landscape-level consequences for ephemeral ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalu, Tatenda; Wasserman, Ryan J; Dalu, Mwazvita T B

    2017-03-01

    Ephemeral wetlands in arid regions are often degraded or destroyed through poor land-use practice long before they are ever studied or prioritized for conservation. Climate change will likely also have implications for these ecosystems given forecast changes in rainfall patterns in many arid environments. Here, we present a conceptual diagram showing typical and modified ephemeral wetlands in agricultural landscapes and how modification impacts on species diversity and composition. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Increased frequency of FBN1 truncating and splicing variants in Marfan syndrome patients with aortic events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudhuin, Linnea M; Kotzer, Katrina E; Lagerstedt, Susan A

    2015-03-01

    Marfan syndrome is a systemic disorder that typically involves FBN1 mutations and cardiovascular manifestations. We investigated FBN1 genotype-phenotype correlations with aortic events (aortic dissection and prophylactic aortic surgery) in patients with Marfan syndrome. Genotype and phenotype information from probands (n = 179) with an FBN1 pathogenic or likely pathogenic variant were assessed. A higher frequency of truncating or splicing FBN1 variants was observed in Ghent criteria-positive patients with an aortic event (n = 34) as compared with all other probands (n = 145) without a reported aortic event (79 vs. 39%; P Marfan syndrome patients with FBN1 truncating and splicing variants.Genet Med 17 3, 177-187.

  13. A new framework for estimating return levels using regional frequency analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Hugo; Bernardara, Pietro; Clegg, Georgina

    2017-04-01

    We propose a new framework for incorporating more spatial and temporal information into the estimation of extreme return levels. Currently, most studies use extreme value models applied to data from a single site; an approach which is inefficient statistically and leads to return level estimates that are less physically realistic. We aim to highlight the benefits that could be obtained by using methodology based upon regional frequency analysis as opposed to classic single site extreme value analysis. This motivates a shift in thinking, which permits the evaluation of local and regional effects and makes use of the wide variety of data that are now available on high temporal and spatial resolutions. The recent winter storms over the UK during the winters of 2013-14 and 2015-16, which have caused wide-ranging disruption and damaged important infrastructure, provide the main motivation for the current work. One of the most impactful natural hazards is flooding, which is often initiated by extreme precipitation. In this presentation, we focus on extreme rainfall, but shall discuss other meteorological variables alongside potentially damaging hazard combinations. To understand the risks posed by extreme precipitation, we need reliable statistical models which can be used to estimate quantities such as the T-year return level, i.e. the level which is expected to be exceeded once every T-years. Extreme value theory provides the main collection of statistical models that can be used to estimate the risks posed by extreme precipitation events. Broadly, at a single site, a statistical model is fitted to exceedances of a high threshold and the model is used to extrapolate to levels beyond the range of the observed data. However, when we have data at many sites over a spatial domain, fitting a separate model for each separate site makes little sense and it would be better if we could incorporate all this information to improve the reliability of return level estimates. Here

  14. Deficiency of the DNA repair protein nibrin increases the basal but not the radiation induced mutation frequency in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wessendorf, Petra; Vijg, Jan; Nussenzweig, André; Digweed, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • lacZ mutant frequencies measured in vivo in mouse models of radiosensitive Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome. • Spontaneous mutation frequencies are increased in lymphatic tissue due to Nbn mutation. • Single base transitions, not deletions, dominate the mutation spectrum. • Radiation induced mutation frequencies are not increased due to Nbn mutation. - Abstract: Nibrin (NBN) is a member of a DNA repair complex together with MRE11 and RAD50. The complex is associated particularly with the repair of DNA double strand breaks and with the regulation of cell cycle check points. Hypomorphic mutation of components of the complex leads to human disorders characterised by radiosensitivity and increased tumour occurrence, particularly of the lymphatic system. We have examined here the relationship between DNA damage, mutation frequency and mutation spectrum in vitro and in vivo in mouse models carrying NBN mutations and a lacZ reporter plasmid. We find that NBN mutation leads to increased spontaneous DNA damage in fibroblasts in vitro and high basal mutation rates in lymphatic tissue of mice in vivo. The characteristic mutation spectrum is dominated by single base transitions rather than the deletions and complex rearrangements expected after abortive repair of DNA double strand breaks. We conclude that in the absence of wild type nibrin, the repair of spontaneous errors, presumably arising during DNA replication, makes a major contribution to the basal mutation rate. This applies also to cells heterozygous for an NBN null mutation. Mutation frequencies after irradiation in vivo were not increased in mice with nibrin mutations as might have been expected considering the radiosensitivity of NBS patient cells in vitro. Evidently apoptosis is efficient, even in the absence of wild type nibrin

  15. Deficiency of the DNA repair protein nibrin increases the basal but not the radiation induced mutation frequency in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wessendorf, Petra [Institute of Medical and Human Genetics, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, D-13353 Berlin (Germany); Vijg, Jan [Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Michael F. Price Center, 1301 Morris Park Avenue, Bronx, NY 10461 (United States); Nussenzweig, André [Laboratory of Genome Integrity, National Cancer Institute, National Institute of Health, 37 Convent Drive, Room 1106, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Digweed, Martin, E-mail: martin.digweed@charite.de [Institute of Medical and Human Genetics, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, D-13353 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • lacZ mutant frequencies measured in vivo in mouse models of radiosensitive Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome. • Spontaneous mutation frequencies are increased in lymphatic tissue due to Nbn mutation. • Single base transitions, not deletions, dominate the mutation spectrum. • Radiation induced mutation frequencies are not increased due to Nbn mutation. - Abstract: Nibrin (NBN) is a member of a DNA repair complex together with MRE11 and RAD50. The complex is associated particularly with the repair of DNA double strand breaks and with the regulation of cell cycle check points. Hypomorphic mutation of components of the complex leads to human disorders characterised by radiosensitivity and increased tumour occurrence, particularly of the lymphatic system. We have examined here the relationship between DNA damage, mutation frequency and mutation spectrum in vitro and in vivo in mouse models carrying NBN mutations and a lacZ reporter plasmid. We find that NBN mutation leads to increased spontaneous DNA damage in fibroblasts in vitro and high basal mutation rates in lymphatic tissue of mice in vivo. The characteristic mutation spectrum is dominated by single base transitions rather than the deletions and complex rearrangements expected after abortive repair of DNA double strand breaks. We conclude that in the absence of wild type nibrin, the repair of spontaneous errors, presumably arising during DNA replication, makes a major contribution to the basal mutation rate. This applies also to cells heterozygous for an NBN null mutation. Mutation frequencies after irradiation in vivo were not increased in mice with nibrin mutations as might have been expected considering the radiosensitivity of NBS patient cells in vitro. Evidently apoptosis is efficient, even in the absence of wild type nibrin.

  16. Ferromagnetic resonance frequency increase and resonance line broadening of a ferromagnetic Fe–Co–Hf–N film with in-plane uniaxial anisotropy by high-frequency field perturbation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seemann, K.; Leiste, H.; Krüger, K.

    2013-01-01

    Soft ferromagnetic Fe-Co-Hf-N films, produced by reactive r.f. magnetron sputtering, are useful to study the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) by means of frequency domain permeability measurements up to the GHz range. Films with the composition Fe 33 Co 43 Hf 10 N 14 exhibit a saturation polarisation J s of around 1.35 T. They are consequently considered as being uniformly magnetised due to an in-plane uniaxial anisotropy of approximately μ 0 H u ≈4.5 m T after annealing them, e.g., at 400 °C in a static magnetic field for 1 h. Being exposed to a high-frequency field, the precession of magnetic moments leads to a marked frequency-dependent permeability with a sharp Lorentzian shaped imaginary part at around 2.33 GHz (natural resonance peak), which is in a very good agreement with the modified Landau–Lifschitz–Gilbert (LLG) differential equation. A slightly increased FMR frequency and a clear increase in the resonance line broadening due to an increase of the exciting high-frequency power (1–25.1 mW), considered as an additional perturbation of the precessing system of magnetic moments, could be discovered. By solving the homogenous LLG differential equation with respect to the in-plane uniaxial anisotropy, it was revealed that the high-frequency field perturbation impacts the resonance peak position f FMR and resonance line broadening Δf FMR characterised by a completed damping parameter α=α eff +Δα. Adapted from this result, the increase in f FMR and decrease in lifetime of the excited level of magnetic moments associated with Δf FMR , similar to a spin-½ particle in a static magnetic field, was theoretically elaborated as well as compared with experimental data. - Highlights: • Impact on the resonance frequency and resonance line by the high-frequency power. • Theoretic approach by solving the LLG differential equation. • Experimental verification and magnon processes. • Theoretical and experimental determination of the resonance state

  17. Artefactual increasing frequency of omphaloceles in the northern Netherlands : lessons for systematic analysis of apparent epidemics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reefhuis, J; de Walle, HEK; Cornel, MC

    Background While monitoring birth defects in a registry, statistically significant increases in prevalence occasionally occur. In the European Registration Of Congenital Anomalies (EUROCAT) in the Northern Netherlands 20 000 births are monitored every year. For omphaloceles, a steady increase in the

  18. [The influence of application of a low-frequency magnetic field on the serum corticosterone level (an experimental study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabovskiĭ, V V; Gotovskiĭ, M Iu; Vinokurov, A A; Maslov, O V

    2013-01-01

    The results of analysis of the literature publications suggest the necessity of experimental studies aimed at investigation of modulating effect of low-frequency magnetic fields on endocrine organs. The present study was carried out using 200 outbred white male rats (body weight 200-220 g). Corticosterone was measured in blood sera following the application of a low-frequency magnetic field (20 and 53 Hz with induction from 0.4 to 6 mT) generated by a Mini-Expert-T apparatus for induction magnetic therapy during 30 minutes. It was shown that the application of the alternating magnetic field to the adrenal region of the rats in the selected frequency and induction ranges caused a significant increase in the serum corticosterone levels. The results of the present study on the hormonal activity of rat adrenals give reason to consider the influence of the alternating magnetic fields as being modulatory. Analysis of the data thus obtained has demonstrated the non-linear dependence of glucocorticoid activity of the rat adrenal glands on the induction strength of the alternating magnetic field.

  19. The effect of extending high-frequency bandwidth on the acceptable noise level (ANL) of hearing-impaired listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Earl; Ricketts, Todd; Hornsby, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effects of extending high-frequency bandwidth, for both a speech signal and a background noise, on the acceptable signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of listeners with mild sensorineural hearing loss through utilization of the Acceptable Noise Level (ANL) procedure. In addition to extending high-frequency bandwidth, the effects of reverberation time and background noise type and shape were also examined. The study results showed a significant increase in the mean ANL (i.e. participants requested a better SNR for an acceptable listening situation) when high-frequency bandwidth was extended from 3 to 9 kHz and from 6 to 9 kHz. No change in the ANL of study participants was observed as a result of isolated modification to reverberation time or background noise stimulus. An interaction effect, however, of reverberation time and background noise stimulus was demonstrated. These findings may have implications for future design of hearing aid memory programs for listening to speech in the presence of broadband background noise.

  20. HLA class II (DR, DQ, DP) in patients with sarcoidosis: evidence of an increased frequency of DRw6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ødum, Niels; Milman, N; Jakobsen, B K

    1991-01-01

    using primed lymphocyte typing. The frequencies of DRw6 were 41.5% in SA patients and 17.9% in controls (relative risk, RR = 3.2, p = 0.00087, p less than 0.05 when corrected). DR3 was decreased to 14.6% in SA patients compared to 25.9% in controls (RR = 0.49, p = 0.07, i.e., not statistically...... significant). The decreased frequency of DR3 was only seen in patients with severe, long-standing disease. In contrast, the DRw6 increase was most pronounced in patients with severe disease (RR = 6.4; p = 0.003). There were no statistically significant deviations in the frequencies of DQ and DP alleles...

  1. Soy food frequency questionnaire does not correlate with baseline isoflavone levels in patients with bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesar, Jill M; Pomplun, Marcia; Havighurst, Tom; Stublaski, Jeanne; Wollmer, Barbara; Kim, KyungMann; Tangrea, Joseph A; Parnes, Howard L; House, Margaret G; Gee, Jason; Messing, Edward; Bailey, Howard H

    2015-04-01

    The isoflavone genistein, a natural soy product with receptor tyrosine kinase-inhibiting activity, as well as phytoestrogenic and other potential anticarcinogenic effects, is being studied as an anticancer agent. Since isoflavones are commonly consumed in food products containing soy proteins, a method to control for baseline isoflavone consumption is needed. HPLC was used to evaluate baseline plasma and urine concentrations of isoflavone in fifty-four participants with bladder cancer enrolled on a phase II chemoprevention study of G-2535. The soy food frequency questionnaire was used to assess participant's baseline soy intake. The association between baseline isoflavone concentrations and intakes for genistein and daidzein was assessed by the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. The majority of participants had no detectable genistein or daidzein in plasma at baseline. The median and range of values were 0 (0-1480) nmol/L for genistein, and 0 (0-1260) nmol/L for daidzein. In urine, the median and range of values were 91.0 (0-9030) nmol/L for genistein and 623 (0-100,000) nmol/L for daidzein. The median and range of weekly estimated genistein intake was 0 (0-236) mg/wk; the median and range of weekly estimated daidzein intake was 0 (0-114) mg/wk. There was no relationship to soy intake as measured by the food frequency questionnaire and baseline isoflavone levels in plasma or urine and the Spearman's rank correlation coefficients were not significant. The soy food frequency questionnaire did not correlate with plasma or urine concentrations of either isoflavone. Alternative methods for controlling for soy consumption, including measuring plasma and urine concentrations, in isoflavone chemoprevention trials should be considered. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  2. Projected increase in El Niño-driven tropical cyclone frequency in the Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chand, Savin S.; Tory, Kevin J.; Ye, Hua; Walsh, Kevin J. E.

    2017-02-01

    The El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) drives substantial variability in tropical cyclone (TC) activity around the world. However, it remains uncertain how the projected future changes in ENSO under greenhouse warming will affect TC activity, apart from an expectation that the overall frequency of TCs is likely to decrease for most ocean basins. Here we show robust changes in ENSO-driven variability in TC occurrence by the late twenty-first century. In particular, we show that TCs become more frequent (~20-40%) during future-climate El Niño events compared with present-climate El Niño events--and less frequent during future-climate La Niña events--around a group of small island nations (for example, Fiji, Vanuatu, Marshall Islands and Hawaii) in the Pacific. We examine TCs across 20 models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 database, forced under historical and greenhouse warming conditions. The 12 most realistic models identified show a strong consensus on El Niño-driven changes in future-climate large-scale environmental conditions that modulate development of TCs over the off-equatorial western Pacific and the central North Pacific regions. These results have important implications for climate change and adaptation pathways for the vulnerable Pacific island nations.

  3. Increased frequency of involuntary semantic memories or mind-pops in schizophrenia: a diary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elua, Ia; Laws, Keith R; Kvavilashvili, Lia

    2015-01-01

    Hallucinations constitute a prominent symptom of schizophrenia and may take a variety of forms (verbal, visual, musical, or environmental noises). Interesting similarities exist between hallucinations and so-called mind-pops which refer to isolated fragments of one's semantic knowledge (e.g., a word/sentence, visual image, or a song/melody) that come to mind unexpectedly, often without any obvious triggers, and are difficult to control. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether mind-pops may constitute the raw cognitive material from which hallucinations are constructed by studying the nature and frequency of mind-pops in the everyday life of people with schizophrenia and non-clinical controls. Eleven participants with schizophrenia and 14 non-clinical controls kept a diary of their mind-pops for seven days and completed a brief questionnaire every time they had a mind-pop. Schizophrenia participants reported significantly more verbal and image mind-pops than controls and their content was negative more often than in controls. No group differences were obtained in terms of reported triggers or ongoing activities. Data from both groups also supported the priming hypothesis by showing that stimuli encountered in one's environment or thoughts could later re-appear in the form of a mind-pop. The findings have implications for models of schizophrenia that emphasise the role of intrusive thoughts and memories in the aetiology and development of key psychotic symptoms.

  4. Electrical high frequency stimulation in the dorsal striatum: Effects on response learning and on GABA levels in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Anett; de Vasconcelos, Anne Pereira; Lecourtier, Lucas; Moser, Andreas; Cassel, Jean-Christophe

    2011-09-23

    Electrical high frequency stimulation (HFS) has been used to treat various neurological and psychiatric diseases. The striatal area contributes to response learning and procedural memory. Therefore, we investigated the effect of striatal HFS application on procedural/declarative-like memory in rats. All rats were trained in a flooded Double-H maze for three days (4 trials/day) to swim to an escape platform hidden at a constant location. The starting place was the same for all trials. After each training session, HFS of the left dorsal striatum was performed over 4h in alternating 20 min periods (during rest time, 10a.m. to 3p.m.). Nineteen hours after the last HFS and right after a probe trial assessing the rats' strategy (procedural vs. declarative-like memory-based choice), animals were sacrificed and the dorsal striatum was quickly removed. Neurotransmitter levels were measured by HPLC. Stimulated rats did not differ from sham-operated and control rats in acquisition performance, but exhibited altered behavior during the probe trial (procedural memory responses being less frequent than in controls). In stimulated rats, GABA levels were significantly increased in the dorsal striatum on both sides. We suggest that HFS of the dorsal striatum does not alter learning behavior in rats but influences the strategy by which the rats solve the task. Given that the HFS-induced increase of GABA levels was found 19 h after stimulation, it can be assumed that HFS has consequences lasting for several hours and which are functionally significant at a behavioral level, at least under our stimulation (frequency, timing, location, side and strength of stimulation) and testing conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Increased situation awareness in major incidents-radio frequency identification (RFID) technique: a promising tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokela, Jorma; Rådestad, Monica; Gryth, Dan; Nilsson, Helené; Rüter, Anders; Svensson, Leif; Harkke, Ville; Luoto, Markku; Castrén, Maaret

    2012-02-01

    In mass-casualty situations, communications and information management to improve situational awareness is a major challenge for responders. In this study, the feasibility of a prototype system that utilizes commercially available, low-cost components, including Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and mobile phone technology, was tested in two simulated mass-casualty incidents. The feasibility and the direct benefits of the system were evaluated in two simulated mass-casualty situations: one in Finland involving a passenger ship accident resulting in multiple drowning/hypothermia patients, and another at a major airport in Sweden using an aircraft crash scenario. Both simulations involved multiple agencies and functioned as test settings for comparing the disaster management's situational awareness with and without using the RFID-based system. Triage documentation was done using both an RFID-based system, which automatically sent the data to the Medical Command, and a traditional method using paper triage tags. The situational awareness was measured by comparing the availability of up-to date information at different points in the care chain using both systems. Information regarding the numbers and status or triage classification of the casualties was available approximately one hour earlier using the RFID system compared to the data obtained using the traditional method. The tested prototype system was quick, stable, and easy to use, and proved to work seamlessly even in harsh field conditions. It surpassed the paper-based system in all respects except simplicity of use. It also improved the general view of the mass-casualty situations, and enhanced medical emergency readiness in a multi-organizational medical setting. The tested technology is feasible in a mass-casualty incident; further development and testing should take place.

  6. Increased sperm count may account for high population frequency of factor V Leiden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohn, D. M.; Repping, S.; Büller, H. R.; Meijers, J. C. M.; Middeldorp, S.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Factor V Leiden (FVL) increases the risk of venous thrombosis and pregnancy loss in carriers. Nevertheless, this relatively old mutation is prevalent in Caucasion populations, which could be explained by positive selection pressure. Men with FVL have previously been found to have higher

  7. High Frequency rTMS over the Left Parietal Lobule Increases Non-Word Reading Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanzo, Floriana; Menghini, Deny; Caltagirone, Carlo; Oliveri, Massimiliano; Vicari, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Increasing evidence in the literature supports the usefulness of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) in studying reading processes. Two brain regions are primarily involved in phonological decoding: the left superior temporal gyrus (STG), which is associated with the auditory representation of spoken words, and the left inferior parietal lobe…

  8. Increased opacity of left pericardiac area on chest radiograph : correlation with CT findings and its frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Ik; Kim, Jeung Sook; Kwak, Jin Young; Ryu, Chang Woo; Yoon, Sam Hyun

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of extrapericardial fat in the left cardiac border, and with regard to left extrapericardial fat, to correlate chest radiographs with CT scans. This study involved 132 consecutive patients who underwent chest PA and lateral radiographs, and chest CT scans. According to the results of chest PA radiograph, patients were divided into three groups: those with a clear left cardiac border; those with an indistinct left cardiac border; and those with an indistinct left cardiac border with increased density; cardiophrenic angle, as seen on lateral radiograph, the presence of increased density in the anterior cardiophrenic angle, as seen on lateral radiographs was evaluated. On the basis of the results of CT scanning, patients were classified into four groups according to the amount of left extrapericardial fat : negative, minimum, moderate, and maximum. Left extrapericardial fat, as seen on CT, was correlated with the conspicuity of left cardiac border seen on PA radiograph and the presence of increased density in the anterior cardiophrenic angle, as seen on lateral radiograph. The conspicuousness of the left cardiac border, as seen on PA chest radiograph, correlated with the presence of left extrapericardial fat, as seen on CT, and was related to the amount of left extrapericardial fat. Increased density of the anterior cardiophrenic angle, as seen on lateral radiographs, correlated with the presence of left extrapericardial fat on CT, but the absence of increased density on lateral radiograph corresponds to the absence or a minimal amount of left extrapericardial fat, as seen on CT. (author). 8 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs

  9. Parallel increases in sister chromatid exchanges at base level and with UV treatment in human opiate users

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafer, D.A.; Falek, A.; Madden, J.J.; Tadayon, F.; Pline, M.; Kuehnle, J.C.; Mendelson, J.

    1983-01-01

    The SCE base level frequency and SCE levels induced by far-UV (254 nm) treatment of cells in early G 1 and early S phases of the cell cycle were significantly higher in leukocytes from heroin addicts as compared to controls. The increased SCE levels in addicts was greatest at base level and smallest after UV irradiation of cells in S phase. These results corrobate and extend our previous findings of increased chromosome damage and reduced DNA-repair synthesis in heroin users. Since opiates do not directly damage DNA, the elevated cytogenetic effects associated with opiate use probably arise from secondary promotional effects related to opiate-mediated alterations in leukocyte metabolism. (orig.)

  10. In-situ plasma processing to increase the accelerating gradients of superconducting radio-frequency cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doleans, M.; Tyagi, P. V.; Afanador, R.; McMahan, C. J.; Ball, J. A.; Barnhart, D. L.; Blokland, W.; Crofford, M. T.; Degraff, B. D.; Gold, S. W.; Hannah, B. S.; Howell, M. P.; Kim, S.-H.; Lee, S.-W.; Mammosser, J.; Neustadt, T. S.; Saunders, J. W.; Stewart, S.; Strong, W. H.; Vandygriff, D. J.; Vandygriff, D. M.

    2016-03-01

    A new in-situ plasma processing technique is being developed at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) to improve the performance of the cavities in operation. The technique utilizes a low-density reactive oxygen plasma at room temperature to remove top surface hydrocarbons. The plasma processing technique increases the work function of the cavity surface and reduces the overall amount of vacuum and electron activity during cavity operation; in particular it increases the field emission onset, which enables cavity operation at higher accelerating gradients. Experimental evidence also suggests that the SEY of the Nb surface decreases after plasma processing which helps mitigating multipacting issues. In this article, the main developments and results from the plasma processing R&D are presented and experimental results for in-situ plasma processing of dressed cavities in the SNS horizontal test apparatus are discussed.

  11. Increasing frequency of extremely severe cyclonic storms over the Arabian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Hiroyuki; Vecchi, Gabriel A.; Underwood, Seth

    2017-12-01

    In 2014 and 2015, post-monsoon extremely severe cyclonic storms (ESCS)—defined by the WMO as tropical storms with lifetime maximum winds greater than 46 m s-1—were first observed over the Arabian Sea (ARB), causing widespread damage. However, it is unknown to what extent this abrupt increase in post-monsoon ESCSs can be linked to anthropogenic warming, natural variability, or stochastic behaviour. Here, using a suite of high-resolution global coupled model experiments that accurately simulate the climatological distribution of ESCSs, we show that anthropogenic forcing has likely increased the probability of late-season ECSCs occurring in the ARB since the preindustrial era. However, the specific timing of observed late-season ESCSs in 2014 and 2015 was likely due to stochastic processes. It is further shown that natural variability played a minimal role in the observed increase of ESCSs. Thus, continued anthropogenic forcing will further amplify the risk of cyclones in the ARB, with corresponding socio-economic implications.

  12. Quality Assurance Analysis of a Large Multicenter Practice: Does Increased Complexity of Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Lead to Increased Error Frequency?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, Adam C.; Wegner, Rodney E.; Scicutella, Carol; Heron, Dwight E.; Greenberger, Joel S.; Huq, M. Saiful; Bednarz, Gregory; Flickinger, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Error reduction is an important concern in clinical medicine. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is an important advancement in radiation oncology that increases the complexity of treatment, potentially increasing the error risk. We studied the frequency and severity of errors in a large multicenter practice to ascertain the impact of quality improvement interventions over time, IMRT, and type of practice. Methods and Materials: We analyzed prospective data from three academic and 16 community practice sites with 24,775 courses of radiotherapy (9,210 IMRT courses and 15,565 non-IMRT) between January 2006 and December 2009. All IMRT treatment was performed using one centralized dose planning center for all sites. Results: We prospectively identified various errors or potential errors in 0.14 % vs. 0.40 % of the IMRT vs. non-IMRT courses (13/9,210 vs. 62/15,565, p = 0.0004) and excluding potential errors: 0.03 % for IMRT vs. 0.21% for non-IMRT. We developed the Clinical Radiotherapy Error Severity Scale (CRESS) to classify error severity from 1 to 10, with 1 to 3 for potential or completely correctable errors, 4 to 5 for dose variations 5%. Multivariate analyses of CRESS values, severity >4, and any error (including potential) correlated significantly reduced errors with IMRT (p = 0.0001–0.0024) but found no significant difference between the academic and community practice sites and no change in error frequency over time despite implementation of 39 system-wide policy changes by the centralized quality improvement committee. Conclusions: Despite the increase in complexity with IMRT compared with conventional radiotherapy, it can be delivered with reduced error frequency.

  13. Increased frequency of pink bollworm resistance to Bt toxin Cry1Ac in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Wan

    Full Text Available Transgenic crops producing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt kill some key insect pests, but evolution of resistance by pests can reduce their efficacy. The main approach for delaying pest adaptation to Bt crops uses non-Bt host plants as "refuges" to increase survival of susceptible pests. To delay evolution of pest resistance to transgenic cotton producing Bt toxin Cry1Ac, the United States and some other countries have required refuges of non-Bt cotton, while farmers in China have relied on "natural" refuges of non-Bt host plants other than cotton. The "natural" refuge strategy focuses on cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera, the primary target of Bt cotton in China that attacks many crops, but it does not apply to another major pest, pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella, which feeds almost entirely on cotton in China. Here we report data showing field-evolved resistance to Cry1Ac by pink bollworm in the Yangtze River Valley of China. Laboratory bioassay data from 51 field-derived strains show that the susceptibility to Cry1Ac was significantly lower during 2008 to 2010 than 2005 to 2007. The percentage of field populations yielding one or more survivors at a diagnostic concentration of Cry1Ac increased from 0% in 2005-2007 to 56% in 2008-2010. However, the median survival at the diagnostic concentration was only 1.6% from 2008 to 2010 and failure of Bt cotton to control pink bollworm has not been reported in China. The early detection of resistance reported here may promote proactive countermeasures, such as a switch to transgenic cotton producing toxins distinct from Cry1A toxins, increased planting of non-Bt cotton, and integration of other management tactics together with Bt cotton.

  14. Update of regional intensity-duration-frequency curves in Denmark: Tendency towards increased storm intensities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, H.; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2009-01-01

    The regional model for estimation of extreme rainfall characteristics in Denmark has been updated with data from the augmented rain database 1 January 1997-1 August 2005, corresponding to almost twice the amount of data used in the previous study (1 January 1979-1 January 1997). In general...... patterns and a sub-regional division of the country in a western and eastern part. Comparison with the previous regional analysis shows a general increase in extreme rainfall characteristics. For the durations (30 min-3 h) and return periods (similar to 10 years) typical for most urban drainage designs...

  15. Comparison of Extreme Precipitation Return Levels using Spatial Bayesian Hierarchical Modeling versus Regional Frequency Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, C. A.; Skahill, B. E.; AghaKouchak, A.; Karlovits, G. S.; England, J. F.; Duren, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    We compare gridded extreme precipitation return levels obtained using spatial Bayesian hierarchical modeling (BHM) with their respective counterparts from a traditional regional frequency analysis (RFA) using the same set of extreme precipitation data. Our study area is the 11,478 square mile Willamette River basin (WRB) located in northwestern Oregon, a major tributary of the Columbia River whose 187 miles long main stem, the Willamette River, flows northward between the Coastal and Cascade Ranges. The WRB contains approximately two ­thirds of Oregon's population and 20 of the 25 most populous cities in the state. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Portland District operates thirteen dams and extreme precipitation estimates are required to support risk­ informed hydrologic analyses as part of the USACE Dam Safety Program. Our intent is to profile for the USACE an alternate methodology to an RFA that was developed in 2008 due to the lack of an official NOAA Atlas 14 update for the state of Oregon. We analyze 24-hour annual precipitation maxima data for the WRB utilizing the spatial BHM R package "spatial.gev.bma", which has been shown to be efficient in developing coherent maps of extreme precipitation by return level. Our BHM modeling analysis involved application of leave-one-out cross validation (LOO-CV), which not only supported model selection but also a comprehensive assessment of location specific model performance. The LOO-CV results will provide a basis for the BHM RFA comparison.

  16. Quanty for core level spectroscopy - excitons, resonances and band excitations in time and frequency domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haverkort, Maurits W.

    2016-01-01

    Depending on the material and edge under consideration, core level spectra manifest themselves as local excitons with multiplets, edge singularities, resonances, or the local projected density of states. Both extremes, i.e., local excitons and non-interacting delocalized excitations are theoretically well under control. Describing the intermediate regime, where local many body interactions and band-formation are equally important is a challenge. Here we discuss how Quanty , a versatile quantum many body script language, can be used to calculate a variety of different core level spectroscopy types on solids and molecules, both in the frequency as well as the time domain. The flexible nature of Quanty allows one to choose different approximations for different edges and materials. For example, using a newly developed method merging ideas from density renormalization group and quantum chemistry [1-3], Quanty can calculate excitons, resonances and band-excitations in x-ray absorption, photoemission, x-ray emission, fluorescence yield, non-resonant inelastic x-ray scattering, resonant inelastic x-ray scattering and many more spectroscopy types. Quanty can be obtained from: http://www.quanty.org. (paper)

  17. Optical frequency divider with division uncertainty at the 10-21 level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Yao; Yanyi Jiang; Hongfu Yu; Zhiyi Bi; Longsheng Ma

    2016-01-01

    Optical clocks with unprecedented accuracy of 10-18 promise innovations in many research areas.heir applications rely to a large extent on the ability of precisely converting the frequency from one optical clock to another,or particularly to the frequencies in the iber telecom band for long-distance transmission.his report demonstrates a low-noise,high-precision optical frequency divider,which realizes accurate optical frequency conversion and enables precise measurement of optical frequency ratios.By measuring against the frequency ratio between the fundamental and the second harmonic of a 1064-nm laser instead of a second copy of the same system,we demonstrate that the optical frequency divider has a fractional frequency division instability of 6×10-19 at 1 s and a fractional frequency division uncertainty of 1.4×10-21.he remarkable numbers can support frequency division of the best optical clocks in the world without frequency-conversion-caused degradation of their performance.

  18. 'Cold shock' increases the frequency of homology directed repair gene editing in induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Q; Mintier, G; Ma-Edmonds, M; Storton, D; Wang, X; Xiao, X; Kienzle, B; Zhao, D; Feder, John N

    2018-02-01

    Using CRISPR/Cas9 delivered as a RNA modality in conjunction with a lipid specifically formulated for large RNA molecules, we demonstrate that homology directed repair (HDR) rates between 20-40% can be achieved in induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC). Furthermore, low HDR rates (between 1-20%) can be enhanced two- to ten-fold in both iPSCs and HEK293 cells by 'cold shocking' cells at 32 °C for 24-48 hours following transfection. This method can also increases the proportion of loci that have undergone complete sequence conversion across the donor sequence, or 'perfect HDR', as opposed to partial sequence conversion where nucleotides more distal to the CRISPR cut site are less efficiently incorporated ('partial HDR'). We demonstrate that the structure of the single-stranded DNA oligo donor can influence the fidelity of HDR, with oligos symmetric with respect to the CRISPR cleavage site and complementary to the target strand being more efficient at directing 'perfect HDR' compared to asymmetric non-target strand complementary oligos. Our protocol represents an efficient method for making CRISPR-mediated, specific DNA sequence changes within the genome that will facilitate the rapid generation of genetic models of human disease in iPSCs as well as other genome engineered cell lines.

  19. Increased drop formation frequency via reduction of surfactant interactions in flow-focusing microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephides, Dimitris N; Sajjadi, Shahriar

    2015-01-27

    Glass capillary based microfluidic devices are able to create extremely uniform droplets, when formed under the dripping regime, at low setup costs due to their ease of manufacture. However, as they are rarely parallelized, simple methods to increase droplet production from a single device are sought. Surfactants used to stabilize drops in such systems often limit the maximum flow rate that highly uniform drops can be produced due to the lowering interfacial tension causing jetting. In this paper we show that by simple design changes we can limit the interactions of surfactants and maximize uniform droplet production. Three flow-focused configurations are explored: a standard glass capillary device (consisting of a single round capillary inserted into a square capillary), a nozzle fed device, and a surfactant shielding device (both consisting of two round capillaries inserted into either end of a square capillary). In principle, the maximum productivity of uniform droplets is achieved if surfactants are not present. It was found that surfactants in the standard device greatly inhibit droplet production by means of interfacial tension lowering and tip-streaming phenomena. In the nozzle fed configuration, surfactant interactions were greatly limited, yielding flow rates comparable to, but lower than, a surfactant-free system. In the surfactant shielding configuration, flow rates were equal to that of a surfactant-free system and could make uniform droplets at rates an order of magnitude above the standard surfactant system.

  20. Differences in micronucleus frequency and acrylamide adduct levels with hemoglobin between vegetarians and non-vegetarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotova, Natalia; Frostne, Cecilia; Abramsson-Zetterberg, Lilianne; Tareke, Eden; Bergman, Rolf; Haghdoost, Siamak; Paulsson, Birgit; Törnqvist, Margareta; Segerbäck, Dan; Jenssen, Dag; Grawé, Jan

    2015-10-01

    Nutrients and food constituents can prevent or contribute to genotoxicity. In this study, the possible influence of a vegetarian/non-vegetarian diet on genotoxic effects was investigated in 58 non-smoking healthy vegetarians (V) and non-vegetarians (NV), age 21-37 years from the Stockholm area in Sweden. Physical activity and dietary habits were similar in both groups, with the exception of the intake of meat and fish. Using flow cytometry, we determined the formation of micronuclei (MN) in transferrin-positive immature peripheral blood reticulocytes (Trf-Ret) (Total: n = 53; V: n = 27; NV: n = 26). Dietary exposure to acrylamide was measured through hemoglobin (Hb) adducts in peripheral erythrocytes (Total: n = 53; V: n = 29; NV: n = 24). Hb adducts of both acrylamide and its genotoxic metabolite glycidamide were monitored as a measure of the corresponding in vivo doses. Our data demonstrated that compared with the non-vegetarians, the vegetarians exhibited lower frequencies of MN (fMN) in the Trf-Ret (p vegetarians and non-vegetarians. Furthermore, there were no significant relationships between the adduct levels and fMN in the individuals. The ratio of the Hb adduct levels from glycidamide and acrylamide, however, showed a significant difference (p vegetarian diet might be beneficial in lowering genomic instability in healthy individuals. The measured Hb adduct levels indicate that the total intake of acrylamide does not differ between the two studied groups and does not contribute to the observed difference in fMN, although an influence of the diet on the metabolic rates of acrylamide was indicated. In addition, the observed significant difference in the background fMN in the two groups demonstrated that the MN analysis method has a sensitivity applicable to the biomonitoring of human lifestyle factors.

  1. Ambush frequency should increase over time during optimal predator search for prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpern, Steve; Fokkink, Robbert; Timmer, Marco; Casas, Jérôme

    2011-11-07

    We advance and apply the mathematical theory of search games to model the problem faced by a predator searching for prey. Two search modes are available: ambush and cruising search. Some species can adopt either mode, with their choice at a given time traditionally explained in terms of varying habitat and physiological conditions. We present an additional explanation of the observed predator alternation between these search modes, which is based on the dynamical nature of the search game they are playing: the possibility of ambush decreases the propensity of the prey to frequently change locations and thereby renders it more susceptible to the systematic cruising search portion of the strategy. This heuristic explanation is supported by showing that in a new idealized search game where the predator is allowed to ambush or search at any time, and the prey can change locations at intermittent times, optimal predator play requires an alternation (or mixture) over time of ambush and cruise search. Thus, our game is an extension of the well-studied 'Princess and Monster' search game. Search games are zero sum games, where the pay-off is the capture time and neither the Searcher nor the Hider knows the location of the other. We are able to determine the optimal mixture of the search modes when the predator uses a mixture which is constant over time, and also to determine how the mode mixture changes over time when dynamic strategies are allowed (the ambush probability increases over time). In particular, we establish the 'square root law of search predation': the optimal proportion of active search equals the square root of the fraction of the region that has not yet been explored.

  2. Fatigue level estimation of monetary bills based on frequency band acoustic signals with feature selection by supervised SOM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teranishi, Masaru; Omatu, Sigeru; Kosaka, Toshihisa

    Fatigued monetary bills adversely affect the daily operation of automated teller machines (ATMs). In order to make the classification of fatigued bills more efficient, the development of an automatic fatigued monetary bill classification method is desirable. We propose a new method by which to estimate the fatigue level of monetary bills from the feature-selected frequency band acoustic energy pattern of banking machines. By using a supervised self-organizing map (SOM), we effectively estimate the fatigue level using only the feature-selected frequency band acoustic energy pattern. Furthermore, the feature-selected frequency band acoustic energy pattern improves the estimation accuracy of the fatigue level of monetary bills by adding frequency domain information to the acoustic energy pattern. The experimental results with real monetary bill samples reveal the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  3. Attenuation of G2 cell cycle checkpoint control in human tumor cells is associated with increased frequencies of unrejoined chromosome breaks but not increased cytotoxicity following radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, J.L.; Cowan, J.; Grdina, D.J.

    1997-01-01

    The contribution of G 2 cell cycle checkpoint control to ionizing radiation responses was examined in ten human tumor cell lines. Most of the delay in cell cycle progression seen in the first cell cycle following radiation exposure was due to blocks in G 2 and there were large cell line-to-cell line variations in the length of the G 2 block. Longer delays were seen in cell lines that had mutations in p53. There was a highly significant inverse correlation between the length of G 2 delay and the frequency of unrejoined chromosome breaks seen as chromosome terminal deletions in mitosis, and observation that supports the hypothesis that the signal for G 2 delay in mammalian cells is an unrejoined chromosome break. There were also an inverse correlation between the length of G 2 delay and the level of chromosome aneuploidy in each cell line, suggesting that the G 2 and mitotic spindel checkpoints may be linked to each other. Attenuation in G 2 checkpoint control was not associated with alterations in either the frequency of induced chromosome rearrangements or cell survival following radiation exposure suggesting that chromosome rearrangements, the major radiation-induced lethal lesion in tumor cells, form before cells enters G 2 . Thus, agents that act solely to override G 2 arrest should produce little radiosensitization in human tumor cells

  4. Frequency and levels of candidate endodontic pathogens in acute apical abscesses as compared to asymptomatic apical periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rôças, Isabela N.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Acute apical abscess is caused by bacteria that leave the infected dental root canal to invade the periodontal tissues. Most species occurring in abscesses are also found in asymptomatic infections; therefore, the possibility exists that not only the presence of certain species but also their specific counts influence the appearance of symptoms. This molecular study compared the frequency and levels of several candidate endodontic pathogens in teeth with acute apical abscesses and asymptomatic apical periodontitis. Methods Samples were taken from the root canals of teeth with asymptomatic apical periodontitis (n = 73) and by aspiration of purulent exudate from acute abscesses (n = 55). DNA was extracted from samples and bacterial identifications were performed by a closed-ended semi-quantitative reverse-capture checkerboard approach targeting 40 bacterial species/phylotypes. Results Bacterial DNA was detected in all cases. In abscesses, the most prevalent taxa were Fusobacterium nucleatum (60%), Porphyromonas endodontalis (53%), Parvimonas micra (51%), and Streptococcus species (45%). The most frequently detected taxa in asymptomatic teeth were P. endodontalis (63%), Dialister invisus (58%), Olsenella uli (56%), and F. nucleatum (51%). None of the targeted taxa were significantly associated with abscesses when only mere presence was evaluated (p>0.05). However, semi-quantitative data demonstrated that P. endodontalis, Prevotella baroniae, Treponema denticola and Streptococcus species were significantly more frequent at levels >105 in abscesses than in asymptomatic cases (pabscesses in terms of frequency. However, some taxa were significantly found in higher levels in abscesses. Presence of a potentially virulent pathogen in high counts may increase the collective pathogenicity of the bacterial community and give rise to symptoms. PMID:29293651

  5. Frequency and levels of candidate endodontic pathogens in acute apical abscesses as compared to asymptomatic apical periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rôças, Isabela N; Siqueira, José F

    2018-01-01

    Acute apical abscess is caused by bacteria that leave the infected dental root canal to invade the periodontal tissues. Most species occurring in abscesses are also found in asymptomatic infections; therefore, the possibility exists that not only the presence of certain species but also their specific counts influence the appearance of symptoms. This molecular study compared the frequency and levels of several candidate endodontic pathogens in teeth with acute apical abscesses and asymptomatic apical periodontitis. Samples were taken from the root canals of teeth with asymptomatic apical periodontitis (n = 73) and by aspiration of purulent exudate from acute abscesses (n = 55). DNA was extracted from samples and bacterial identifications were performed by a closed-ended semi-quantitative reverse-capture checkerboard approach targeting 40 bacterial species/phylotypes. Bacterial DNA was detected in all cases. In abscesses, the most prevalent taxa were Fusobacterium nucleatum (60%), Porphyromonas endodontalis (53%), Parvimonas micra (51%), and Streptococcus species (45%). The most frequently detected taxa in asymptomatic teeth were P. endodontalis (63%), Dialister invisus (58%), Olsenella uli (56%), and F. nucleatum (51%). None of the targeted taxa were significantly associated with abscesses when only mere presence was evaluated (p>0.05). However, semi-quantitative data demonstrated that P. endodontalis, Prevotella baroniae, Treponema denticola and Streptococcus species were significantly more frequent at levels >105 in abscesses than in asymptomatic cases (p<0.05). None of the target species/phylotypes were associated with abscesses in terms of frequency. However, some taxa were significantly found in higher levels in abscesses. Presence of a potentially virulent pathogen in high counts may increase the collective pathogenicity of the bacterial community and give rise to symptoms.

  6. Introducing a Romanian Frequency List and the Romanian Vocabulary Levels Test

    OpenAIRE

    Szabo, Cz.

    2015-01-01

    Vocabulary is considered essential to language learning, thus English word lists and tests based on frequency information have become the centre of attention for researchers, teachers and learners alike. As a result, it is argued hereby that frequency based word lists and tests should be adapted and regarded as key elements for teaching and learning Romanian as an additional language as well. \\ud Since there are currently no reliable frequency lists and lexical tests in Romanian, this paper a...

  7. Genetic variation of the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene: increased frequency of the insertion allele in Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, S H; Kang, B Y; Park, W H; Kim, J Q; Lee, C C

    1997-01-01

    In view of the clinical importance of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) as a major marker for cardiovascular diseases, we investigated insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of the ACE gene in Koreans. Genotype frequencies were examined by polymerase chain reaction in 171 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and 120 healthy subjects. Allele frequencies of ACE polymorphism in Koreans were not significantly different between patient and control groups. In addition, association between ACE genotypes and the number of stenosed coronary arteries was not detected. ACE genotypes in the CAD group were not associated with body mass index and plasma lipid levels. Thus, our results suggest that, at least in Koreans, I/D polymorphism of the gene is unlikely to be a useful marker for CAD subjects. However, the I allele frequency of Koreans (0.58) was higher than that of Caucasian populations (0.47) but lower than that of Samoan (0.91) and Yanomami (0.85) populations. Here, we discuss the clinical and ethnic importance of ACE polymorphism.

  8. Estimated Cost of the Administration's Proposal to Increase the Army's and the Marine Corps's Personnel Levels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schmit, Matt; Wheelock, Jason; Newman, David

    2007-01-01

    .... The Administration also plans to increase the size of the Army Reserve and National Guard. The cost of the Administration's proposal to increase the size of the armed forces depends on the personnel levels it is being measured against...

  9. Do levels of perceived stress increase with increasing age after age 65? A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmanovic-Thunström, Almira; Mossello, Enrico; Åkerstedt, Torbjörn; Fratiglioni, Laura; Wang, Hui-Xin

    2015-09-01

    psychological and health-related stressors often occur in advanced ages, but little is known about perceived stress in adults aged 65 and over. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that levels of perceived stress increase with increasing age and to detect factors that may account for the association. a dementia-free cohort of 1,656 adults aged 66-97 years living at home or in institutions, participating in the Swedish National Aging and Care study, Kungsholmen (SNAC-K) was assessed for levels of perceived stress using the 10-item perceived stress scale (PSS). prevalence of high stress according to the top tertile of the population (PSS score 20+) was 7.8% in adults aged 81+ years, 7.5% in adults aged 72-78 and 6.2% in adults aged 66 years (P = 0.020). More women than men reported high stress, 8.3 versus 5.4% (P = 0.001). Levels of stress increased with increasing age (P = 0.001) in the linear regression model. This association remained after adjustment for demographic and psychosocial factors, but no longer was present after adjusting for health-related factors. health-related stress is highly prevalent in older adults and seems to play an important role in the association between levels of perceived stress and age in older adults. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Effects of Water Level Increase on Phytoplankton Assemblages in a Drinking Water Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangdong Pan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Excessive water level fluctuation may affect physico-chemical characteristics, and consequently ecosystem function, in lakes and reservoirs. In this study, we assessed the changes of phytoplankton assemblages in response to water level increase in Danjiangkou Reservoir, one of the largest drinking water reservoirs in Asia. The water level increased from a low of 137 m to 161 m in 2014 as a part of the South–North Water Diversion Project. Phytoplankton assemblages were sampled four times per year before, during and after the water level increase, at 10 sites. Environmental variables such as total nitrogen as well as phytoplankton biomass decreased after the water level increase. Non-metric multi-dimensional scaling analysis indicated that before the water level increase, phytoplankton assemblages showed distinct seasonal variation with diatom dominance in both early and late seasons while such seasonal variation was much less evident after the water level increase. Month and year (before and after explained 13% and 6% of variance in phytoplankton assemblages (PERMANOVA, p < 0.001 respectively, and phytoplankton assemblages were significantly different before and after the water level increase. Both chlorophytes and cyanobacteria became more abundant in 2015. Phytoplankton compositional change may largely reflect the environmental changes, such as hydrodynamics mediated by the water level increase.

  11. Acoustic feedwater heater leak detection: Industry application of low ampersand high frequency detection increases response and reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woyshner, W.S.; Bryson, T.; Robertson, M.O.

    1993-01-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute has sponsored research associated with acoustic Feedwater Heater Leak Detection since the early 1980s. Results indicate that this technology is economically beneficial and dependable. Recent research work has employed acoustic sensors and signal conditioning with wider frequency range response and background noise elimination techniques to provide increased accuracy and dependability. Dual frequency sensors have been applied at a few facilities to provide information on this application of dual frequency response. Sensor mounting methods and attenuation due to various mounting configurations are more conclusively understood. These are depicted and discussed in detail. The significance of trending certain plant parameters such as heat cycle flows, heater vent and drain valve position, proper relief valve operation, etc. is also addressed. Test data were collected at various facilities to monitor the effect of varying several related operational parameters. A group of FWHLD Users have been involved from the inception of the project and reports on their latest successes and failures, along with various data depicting early detection of FWHLD tube leaks, will be included. 3 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab

  12. Recurrent RECQL4 Imbalance and Increased Gene Expression Levels Are Associated with Structural Chromosomal Instability in Sporadic Osteosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Maire

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Osteosarcoma (OS is an aggressive bone tumor with complex abnormal karyotypes and a highly unstable genome, exhibiting both numerical- and structural-chromosomal instability (N- and S-CIN. Chromosomal rearrangements and genomic imbalances affecting 8q24 are frequent in OS. RECQL4 gene maps to this cytoband and encodes a putative helicase involved in the fidelity of DNA replication and repair. This protective genomic function of the protein is relevant because often patients with Rothmund-Thomson syndrome have constitutional mutations of RECQL4 and carry a very high risk of developing OS. To determine the relative level of expression of RECQL4 in OS, 18 sporadic tumors were studied by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction. All tumors overexpressed RECQL4 in comparison to control osteoblasts, and fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of tumor DNA showed that expression levels were strongly copy number–dependent. Relative N- and S-CIN levels were determined by classifying copy number transitions within array comparative genomic hybridization profiles and by enumerating the frequency of break-apart fluorescence in situ hybridization within 8q24 using region-specific and control probes. Although there was no evidence that disruption of 8q24 in OS led to an elevated expression of RECQL4, there was a marked association between increased overall levels of S-CIN, determined by copy number transition frequency and higher levels of RECQL4.

  13. Hippocampal low-frequency stimulation inhibits afterdischarge and increases GABA (A) receptor expression in amygdala-kindled pharmacoresistant epileptic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guofeng; Wang, Likun; Hong, Zhen; Ren, Siying; Zhou, Feng

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to observe the effects of hippocampal low-frequency stimulation (Hip-LFS) on amygdala afterdischarge and GABA (A) receptor expression in pharmacoresistant epileptic (PRE) rats. A total of 110 healthy adult male Wistar rats were used to generate a model of epilepsy by chronic stimulation of the amygdala. Sixteen PRE rats were selected from 70 amygdala-kindled rats by testing their response to Phenytoin and Phenobarbital, and they were randomly assigned to a pharmacoresistant stimulation group (PRS group, 8 rats) or a pharmacoresistant control group (PRC group, 8 rats). A stimulation electrode was implanted into the hippocampus of all of the rats. Hip-LFS was administered twice per day in the PRS group for two weeks. Simultaneously, amygdala stimulus-induced seizures and afterdischarge were recorded. After the hippocampal stimulation was terminated, the brain tissues were obtained to determine the GABA (A) receptors by a method of immumohistochemistry and a real-time polymerase chain reaction. The stages and duration of the amygdala stimulus-induced epileptic seizures were decreased in the PRS group. The afterdischarge threshold was increased and the duration as well as the afterdischarge frequency was decreased. Simultaneously, the GABA (A) expression was significantly increased in the PRS group. Hip-LFS may inhibit amygdala stimulus-induced epileptic seizures and up-regulate GABA (A) receptor expression in PRE rats. The antiepileptic effects of hippocampal stimulation may be partly achieved by increasing the GABA (A) receptor.

  14. Increased Ventricular Premature Contraction Frequency During REM Sleep in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease and Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari A. Watanabe

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Patients with obstructive sleep apnea are reported to have a peak of sudden cardiac death at night, in contrast to patients without apnea whose peak is in the morning. We hypothesized that ventricular premature contraction (VPC frequency would correlate with measures of apnea and sympathetic activity.Methods Electrocardiograms from a sleep study of 125 patients with coronary artery disease were evaluated. Patients were categorized by apnea-hypopnea index (AHI into Moderate (AHI 15 apnea groups. Sleep stages studied were Wake, S1, S2, S34, and rapid eye movement (REM. Parameters of a potent autonomically-based risk predictor for sudden cardiac death called heart rate turbulence were calculated.Results There were 74 Moderate and 51 Severe obstructive sleep apnea patients. VPC frequency was affected significantly by sleep stage (Wake, S2 and REM, F=5.8, p<.005 and by AHI (F=8.7, p<.005. In Severe apnea patients, VPC frequency was higher in REM than in Wake (p=.011. In contrast, patients with Moderate apnea had fewer VPCs and exhibited no sleep stage dependence (p=.19. Oxygen desaturation duration per apnea episode correlated positively with AHI (r2=.71, p<.0001, and was longer in REM than in non-REM (p<.0001. The heart rate turbulence parameter TS correlated negatively with oxygen desaturation duration in REM (r2=.06, p=.014.Conclusions Higher VPC frequency coupled with higher sympathetic activity caused by longer apnea episodes in REM sleep may be one reason for increased nocturnal death in apneic patients.

  15. Glycine facilitates gamma-glutamylcysteinylethyl ester-mediated increase in liver glutathione level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, K; Ohta, Y; Ishiguro, I

    1997-08-27

    gamma-Glutamylcysteinylethyl ester (gamma-GCE) increases reduced glutathione (GSH) levels in GSH-depleted rat hepatocytes. Because glycine, a constituent of GSH, exists at 0.3 to 0.4 mM in rat plasma, we examined the influence of glycine added to the medium on the action of gamma-GCE to increase GSH levels in the rat hepatocytes. Glycine (0.2-0.8 mM) dose-dependently enhanced gamma-GCE-mediated increase in intracellular GSH levels with an increase in intracellular gamma-GCE levels. These results indicate that exogenous glycine facilitates gamma-GCE-mediated increase in intracellular GSH levels in rat hepatocytes possibly by enhancing the uptake of gamma-GCE into the cells.

  16. White-crowned sparrow males show immediate flexibility in song amplitude but not in song minimum frequency in response to changes in noise levels in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derryberry, Elizabeth P; Gentry, Katherine; Derryberry, Graham E; Phillips, Jennifer N; Danner, Raymond M; Danner, Julie E; Luther, David A

    2017-07-01

    The soundscape acts as a selective agent on organisms that use acoustic signals to communicate. A number of studies document variation in structure, amplitude, or timing of signal production in correspondence with environmental noise levels thus supporting the hypothesis that organisms are changing their signaling behaviors to avoid masking. The time scale at which organisms respond is of particular interest. Signal structure may evolve across generations through processes such as cultural or genetic transmission. Individuals may also change their behavior during development (ontogenetic change) or in real time (i.e., immediate flexibility). These are not mutually exclusive mechanisms, and all must be investigated to understand how organisms respond to selection pressures from the soundscape. Previous work on white-crowned sparrows ( Zonotrichia leucophrys ) found that males holding territories in louder areas tend to sing higher frequency songs and that both noise levels and song frequency have increased over time (30 years) in urban areas. These previous findings suggest that songs are changing across generations; however, it is not known if this species also exhibits immediate flexibility. Here, we conducted an exploratory, observational study to ask whether males change the minimum frequency of their song in response to immediate changes in noise levels. We also ask whether males sing louder, as increased minimum frequency may be physiologically linked to producing sound at higher amplitudes, in response to immediate changes in environmental noise. We found that territorial males adjust song amplitude but not minimum frequency in response to changes in environmental noise levels. Our results suggest that males do not show immediate flexibility in song minimum frequency, although experimental manipulations are needed to test this hypothesis further. Our work highlights the need to investigate multiple mechanisms of adaptive response to soundscapes.

  17. Propagation of frequency-chirped laser pulses in a medium of atoms with a Λ-level scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demeter, G.; Dzsotjan, D.; Djotyan, G. P.

    2007-01-01

    We study the propagation of frequency-chirped laser pulses in optically thick media. We consider a medium of atoms with a Λ level-scheme (Lambda atoms) and also, for comparison, a medium of two-level atoms. Frequency-chirped laser pulses that induce adiabatic population transfer between the atomic levels are considered. They induce transitions between the two lower (metastable) levels of the Λ-atoms and between the ground and excited states of the two-level atoms. We show that associated with this adiabatic population transfer in Λ-atoms, there is a regime of enhanced transparency of the medium--the pulses are distorted much less than in the medium of two-level atoms and retain their ability to transfer the atomic population much longer during propagation

  18. The effects of increasing body mass index on heartburn severity, frequency and response to treatment with dexlansoprazole or lansoprazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peura, D A; Pilmer, B; Hunt, B; Mody, R; Perez, M C

    2013-04-01

    Higher body mass index (BMI) is a recognised risk factor for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Data regarding the impact of BMI on proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy are conflicting. To assess the impact of BMI on baseline heartburn symptom severity and frequency and response to PPI therapy in patients with non-erosive GERD (NERD) or erosive oesophagitis (EO). In post hoc analyses of phase 3 trial data, 621 NERD and 2692 EO patients were stratified by BMI (heartburn severity increased with increasing BMI. The impact of PPI therapy on the reduction in heartburn symptom frequency and severity in both NERD and EO patients was similar across BMI categories. EO healing rates in patients treated with dexlansoprazole but not lansoprazole were higher in obese patients compared with those with a BMI heartburn regardless of baseline BMI. In addition, because patients with higher BMI have more severe symptoms at baseline, they may experience greater therapeutic gain with dexlansoprazole (NERD and erosive oesophagitis) and possibly lansoprazole (erosive oesophagitis) treatment. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Possible Increase in Serum FABP4 Level Despite Adiposity Reduction by Canagliflozin, an SGLT2 Inhibitor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Furuhashi

    Full Text Available Fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4/A-FABP/aP2 is secreted from adipocytes in association with catecholamine-induced lipolysis, and elevated serum FABP4 level is associated with obesity, insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. Secreted FABP4 as a novel adipokine leads to insulin resistance via increased hepatic glucose production (HGP. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2 inhibitors decrease blood glucose level via increased urinary glucose excretion, though HGP is enhanced. Here we investigated whether canagliflozin, an SGLT2 inhibitor, modulates serum FABP4 level.Canagliflozin (100 mg/day was administered to type 2 diabetic patients (n = 39 for 12 weeks. Serum FABP4 level was measured before and after treatment.At baseline, serum FABP4 level was correlated with adiposity, renal dysfunction and noradrenaline level. Treatment with canagliflozin significantly decreased adiposity and levels of fasting glucose and HbA1c but increased average serum FABP4 level by 10.3% (18.0 ± 1.0 vs. 19.8 ± 1.2 ng/ml, P = 0.008, though elevation of FABP4 level after treatment was observed in 26 (66.7% out of 39 patients. Change in FABP4 level was positively correlated with change in levels of fasting glucose (r = 0.329, P = 0.044, HbA1c (r = 0.329, P = 0.044 and noradrenaline (r = 0.329, P = 0.041 but was not significantly correlated with change in adiposity or other variables.Canagliflozin paradoxically increases serum FABP4 level in some diabetic patients despite amelioration of glucose metabolism and adiposity reduction, possibly via induction of catecholamine-induced lipolysis in adipocytes. Increased FABP4 level by canagliflozin may undermine the improvement of glucose metabolism and might be a possible mechanism of increased HGP by inhibition of SGLT2.UMIN-CTR Clinical Trial UMIN000018151.

  20. Combination of the mutation process with the sensitization and repair processes leading to increased frequencies of mutations in algal populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Necas, J.

    1977-01-01

    The possibility of combining the mutation process with the induction of the repair processes was studied to increase the mutation frequencies in algal populations after UV treatment. The repair process induced by visible light was found to be much more effective than the dark repair processes in the chlorococcal algae used. In these algae, visible light possibly does not induce only those repair processes which affect their DNA, but probably also certain recovery processes which affect their damaged structures and physiological functions. A suitable combination of the sensitization of algae cells by a DNA-base analogue before UV treatment and the induction of the light repair and recovery processes resulted in a rather high increase of viable mutations in chlorococcal algae. These findings may be useful in breeding chlorococcal algae, which have no possibility of hybridization other than somatic. (author)

  1. Mutagenic treatments towards increasing the frequency of day-neutral mutations and standardization of procedures for tissue culture, in potato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhya, M.D.; Chandra, R.; Abraham, M.J.

    1976-01-01

    Various chemical mutagens and gamma radiation have been used on single dormant eyes and true seeds with a view to finding effective mutagenic treatment for the induction of day-length neutral mutants in potato using an effective screening technique for the isolation of day-length neutral mutants. Sodium meta bisulphite (SMS) was found to be an efficient mutagen in inducing mutations for this trait in true seeds although the same concentrations, when used for treating the single tuber eyes proved lethal. Pre-soaking the seeds for 24 hrs prior to treatment with 0.0025M SMS gave highest frequency of the mutants followed by 48 hrs presoaking, indicating a sensitive stage during the cell cycle in true seeds. Other mutagen treatments gave different frequencies of mutations. The highest frequency of day-length neutral mutants was observed when seeds irradiated with 40 Kr of gamma radiation were treated with 0.05M hydrazinium dichloride solution. Screening procedures have also been standardised with the development of synethetic media for the isolation of biochemical mutants at the true seed level. Initial efforts have yielded mutants resistant to LD 100 doses of ethionine. Another aspect of the study was to develop a proper potato callus culture technique. A medium has been developed to produce and maintain callus from potato leaf strips. Efforts on the regeneration of shoot and roots from callus, have so far lead to differentiation of callus to form roots. The ultimate aim of these studies is to develop plantlets from single cell which would form the units of mutation induction and isolation. (author)

  2. Increased motor preparation activity during fluent single word production in DS: A correlate for stuttering frequency and severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhoutte, Sarah; Santens, Patrick; Cosyns, Marjan; van Mierlo, Pieter; Batens, Katja; Corthals, Paul; De Letter, Miet; Van Borsel, John

    2015-08-01

    Abnormal speech motor preparation is suggested to be a neural characteristic of stuttering. One of the neurophysiological substrates of motor preparation is the contingent negative variation (CNV). The CNV is an event-related, slow negative potential that occurs between two defined stimuli. Unfortunately, CNV tasks are rarely studied in developmental stuttering (DS). Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate motor preparation in DS by use of a CNV task. Twenty five adults who stutter (AWS) and 35 fluent speakers (FS) were included. They performed a picture naming task while an electro-encephalogram was recorded. The slope of the CNV was evaluated at frontal, central and parietal electrode sites. In addition, a correlation analysis was performed with stuttering severity and frequency measures. There was a marked increase in CNV slope in AWS as compared to FS. This increase was observed over the entire scalp with respect to stimulus onset, and only over the right hemisphere with respect to lip movement onset. Moreover, strong positive correlations were found between CNV slope and stuttering frequency and severity. As the CNV is known to reflect the activity in the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical-network, the present findings confirm an increased activation of this loop during speech motor preparation in stuttering. The more a person stutters, the more neurons of this cortical-subcortical network seem to be activated. Because this increased CNV slope was observed during fluent single word production, it is discussed whether or not this observation refers to a successful compensation strategy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Influence of fatigue time and level on increases in postural sway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pline, Kevin M; Madigan, Michael L; Nussbaum, Maury A

    2006-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of fatigue time and fatigue level on the increases in postural sway during quiet standing. Centre of pressure-based measures of postural sway were collected both before and after fatiguing participants using three different fatigue levels and two different fatigue times. Results showed increasing fatigue time increased sway velocity and sway area, and increasing fatigue level increased sway velocity. Fatigue time effects are important to consider when applying laboratory-based findings to the field given that the fatigue time can differ substantially between the two. Fatigue level effects imply a dose - response relationship between localized muscle fatigue and risk of falling that can have important implications in work/rest cycle scheduling for occupations at risk of injurious falls.

  4. Increasing Accuracy: A New Design and Algorithm for Automatically Measuring Weights, Travel Direction and Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) of Penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanasyev, Vsevolod; Buldyrev, Sergey V; Dunn, Michael J; Robst, Jeremy; Preston, Mark; Bremner, Steve F; Briggs, Dirk R; Brown, Ruth; Adlard, Stacey; Peat, Helen J

    2015-01-01

    A fully automated weighbridge using a new algorithm and mechanics integrated with a Radio Frequency Identification System is described. It is currently in use collecting data on Macaroni penguins (Eudyptes chrysolophus) at Bird Island, South Georgia. The technology allows researchers to collect very large, highly accurate datasets of both penguin weight and direction of their travel into or out of a breeding colony, providing important contributory information to help understand penguin breeding success, reproductive output and availability of prey. Reliable discrimination between single and multiple penguin crossings is demonstrated. Passive radio frequency tags implanted into penguins allow researchers to match weight and trip direction to individual birds. Low unit and operation costs, low maintenance needs, simple operator requirements and accurate time stamping of every record are all important features of this type of weighbridge, as is its proven ability to operate 24 hours a day throughout a breeding season, regardless of temperature or weather conditions. Users are able to define required levels of accuracy by adjusting filters and raw data are automatically recorded and stored allowing for a range of processing options. This paper presents the underlying principles, design specification and system description, provides evidence of the weighbridge's accurate performance and demonstrates how its design is a significant improvement on existing systems.

  5. Trophic assimilation efficiency markedly increases at higher trophic levels in four-level host-parasitoid food chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Dirk; Moser, Andrea; Newton, Jason; van Veen, F J Frank

    2016-03-16

    Trophic assimilation efficiency (conversion of resource biomass into consumer biomass) is thought to be a limiting factor for food chain length in natural communities. In host-parasitoid systems, which account for the majority of terrestrial consumer interactions, a high trophic assimilation efficiency may be expected at higher trophic levels because of the close match of resource composition of host tissue and the consumer's resource requirements, which would allow for longer food chains. We measured efficiency of biomass transfer along an aphid-primary-secondary-tertiary parasitoid food chain and used stable isotope analysis to confirm trophic levels. We show high efficiency in biomass transfer along the food chain. From the third to the fourth trophic level, the proportion of host biomass transferred was 45%, 65% and 73%, respectively, for three secondary parasitoid species. For two parasitoid species that can act at the fourth and fifth trophic levels, we show markedly increased trophic assimilation efficiencies at the higher trophic level, which increased from 45 to 63% and 73 to 93%, respectively. In common with other food chains, δ(15)N increased with trophic level, with trophic discrimination factors (Δ(15)N) 1.34 and 1.49‰ from primary parasitoids to endoparasitic and ectoparasitic secondary parasitoids, respectively, and 0.78‰ from secondary to tertiary parasitoids. Owing to the extraordinarily high efficiency of hyperparasitoids, cryptic higher trophic levels may exist in host-parasitoid communities, which could alter our understanding of the dynamics and drivers of community structure of these important systems. © 2016 The Authors.

  6. Acute binge drinking increases serum endotoxin and bacterial DNA levels in healthy individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashi Bala

    Full Text Available Binge drinking, the most common form of alcohol consumption, is associated with increased mortality and morbidity; yet, its biological consequences are poorly defined. Previous studies demonstrated that chronic alcohol use results in increased gut permeability and increased serum endotoxin levels that contribute to many of the biological effects of chronic alcohol, including alcoholic liver disease. In this study, we evaluated the effects of acute binge drinking in healthy adults on serum endotoxin levels. We found that acute alcohol binge resulted in a rapid increase in serum endotoxin and 16S rDNA, a marker of bacterial translocation from the gut. Compared to men, women had higher blood alcohol and circulating endotoxin levels. In addition, alcohol binge caused a prolonged increase in acute phase protein levels in the systemic circulation. The biological significance of the in vivo endotoxin elevation was underscored by increased levels of inflammatory cytokines, TNFα and IL-6, and chemokine, MCP-1, measured in total blood after in vitro lipopolysaccharide stimulation. Our findings indicate that even a single alcohol binge results in increased serum endotoxin levels likely due to translocation of gut bacterial products and disturbs innate immune responses that can contribute to the deleterious effects of binge drinking.

  7. Increased fire frequency promotes stronger spatial genetic structure and natural selection at regional and local scales in Pinus halepensis Mill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budde, Katharina B; González-Martínez, Santiago C; Navascués, Miguel; Burgarella, Concetta; Mosca, Elena; Lorenzo, Zaida; Zabal-Aguirre, Mario; Vendramin, Giovanni G; Verdú, Miguel; Pausas, Juli G; Heuertz, Myriam

    2017-04-01

    The recurrence of wildfires is predicted to increase due to global climate change, resulting in severe impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Recurrent fires can drive plant adaptation and reduce genetic diversity; however, the underlying population genetic processes have not been studied in detail. In this study, the neutral and adaptive evolutionary effects of contrasting fire regimes were examined in the keystone tree species Pinus halepensis Mill. (Aleppo pine), a fire-adapted conifer. The genetic diversity, demographic history and spatial genetic structure were assessed at local (within-population) and regional scales for populations exposed to different crown fire frequencies. Eight natural P. halepensis stands were sampled in the east of the Iberian Peninsula, five of them in a region exposed to frequent crown fires (HiFi) and three of them in an adjacent region with a low frequency of crown fires (LoFi). Samples were genotyped at nine neutral simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and at 251 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from coding regions, some of them potentially important for fire adaptation. Fire regime had no effects on genetic diversity or demographic history. Three high-differentiation outlier SNPs were identified between HiFi and LoFi stands, suggesting fire-related selection at the regional scale. At the local scale, fine-scale spatial genetic structure (SGS) was overall weak as expected for a wind-pollinated and wind-dispersed tree species. HiFi stands displayed a stronger SGS than LoFi stands at SNPs, which probably reflected the simultaneous post-fire recruitment of co-dispersed related seeds. SNPs with exceptionally strong SGS, a proxy for microenvironmental selection, were only reliably identified under the HiFi regime. An increasing fire frequency as predicted due to global change can promote increased SGS with stronger family structures and alter natural selection in P. halepensis and in plants with similar life history traits

  8. Variations in voice level and fundamental frequency with changing background noise level and talker-to-listener distance while wearing hearing protectors: A pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouserhal, Rachel E.; MacDonald, Ewen; Falk, Tiago H.

    2016-01-01

    in voice level and fundamental frequency in noise and with varying talker-to-listener distance. Study sample: Twelve participants with a mean age of 28 participated in this study. Results: Compared to existing data, results show a trend similar to the open ear condition with the exception of the occluded...

  9. Low-Frequency Cortical Entrainment to Speech Reflects Phoneme-Level Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Liberto, Giovanni M; O'Sullivan, James A; Lalor, Edmund C

    2015-10-05

    The human ability to understand speech is underpinned by a hierarchical auditory system whose successive stages process increasingly complex attributes of the acoustic input. It has been suggested that to produce categorical speech perception, this system must elicit consistent neural responses to speech tokens (e.g., phonemes) despite variations in their acoustics. Here, using electroencephalography (EEG), we provide evidence for this categorical phoneme-level speech processing by showing that the relationship between continuous speech and neural activity is best described when that speech is represented using both low-level spectrotemporal information and categorical labeling of phonetic features. Furthermore, the mapping between phonemes and EEG becomes more discriminative for phonetic features at longer latencies, in line with what one might expect from a hierarchical system. Importantly, these effects are not seen for time-reversed speech. These findings may form the basis for future research on natural language processing in specific cohorts of interest and for broader insights into how brains transform acoustic input into meaning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Both experimental hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism increase cardiac irisin levels in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atici, E; Menevse, E; Baltaci, A K; Mogulkoc, R

    2018-01-01

    Irisin is a newly discovered myokine and adipokine that increases total body energy expenditure. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of experimental hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism on the levels of irisin in heart tissue in rats. The study was performed on the 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats. Experimental groups were designed as; Control, Hypothyroidism, Hypothyroidism+L-Thyroxine, Hyperthyroidism and Hyperthyroidism + PTU. Following 3 weeks experimental period, irisin levels were determined in heart tissues. Hypothyroidism group values of irisin were higher than in the control group, but lower than in the hyperthyroidism group. The hyperthyroidism group had the highest levels of cardiac irisin. The results of the study showed that the experimental hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism increased the heart irisin levels, but the increase in the hyperthyroidism group was much higher than in the hypothyroidism group. However, treatment of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism corrected cardiac irisin levels (Fig. 1, Ref. 28).

  11. Increasing seat belt use through state-level demonstration projects : a compendium of initial findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    This report summarizes the efforts and results from four of six State-level demonstration projects supported with cooperative agreements from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. The projects were intended to increase seat belt use sta...

  12. Strategies for Mitigating the Reduction in Economic Value of Variable Generation with Increasing Penetration Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Andrew; Wiser, Ryan

    2014-03-03

    In this report, we evaluate individual options that have the potential to stem the decline in the marginal value of variable generation (VG) with increasing penetration levels. We focus only on the effectiveness of mitigation measures for wind and PV.

  13. Combined Exposure to Dissimilarly Acting Anti-Androgens causes Markedly Increased Frequency of Hypospadias in the Rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Sofie; Petersen, Marta Axelstad; Scholze, Martin

    2007-01-01

    , a combination of doses of each chemical that on its own did not produce clear sign of hypospadias (DEHP, finasteride and prochloraz) or a frequency around 14% (vinclozolin) induced a 100% frequency of hypospadias. In conclusion, doses of anti-androgens, which appear to induce only low frequencies of hypospadias...... when judged on their own, may induce a very high frequency when they interact in concert with other anti-androgens....

  14. Serum apolipoprotein e level is not increased in Alzheimer's disease : The Rotterdam study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slooter, A.J.C.; Knijff, P. de; Hofman, A.; Cruts, M.; Breteler, M.M.B.; Broeckhoven, C. van; Havekes, L.M.; Duijn, C.M. van

    1998-01-01

    The APOE*4 allele of the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE) is an important risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. It has been suggested that levels of apolipoprotein E (apoE) in plasma are increased in Alzheimer's disease. In this population-based study, we found that serum apoE levels were lower in

  15. High LDL levels lead to increased synovial inflammation and accelerated ectopic bone formation during experimental osteoarthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munter, W. de; Bosch, M.H. van den; Sloetjes, A.W.; Croce, K.J.; Vogl, T.; Roth, J.; Koenders, M.I.; Loo, F.A.J. van de; Berg, W.B. van den; Kraan, P.M. van der; Lent, P.L.E.M. van

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A relation between osteoarthritis (OA) and increased cholesterol levels is apparent. In the present study we investigate OA pathology in apolipoprotein E (ApoE)(-)(/-) mice with and without a cholesterol-rich diet, a model for high systemic low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels

  16. Effects of Multimedia Instruction on L2 Acquisition of High-Level, Low-Frequency English Vocabulary Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Euna

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of multimedia enhancement in video form in addition to textual information on L2 vocabulary instruction for high-level, low-frequency English words among Korean learners of English. Although input-based incidental learning of L2 vocabulary through extensive reading has been conventionally believed to be…

  17. The Influence of Fundamental Frequency and Sound Pressure Level Range on Breathing Patterns in Female Classical Singing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collyer, Sally; Thorpe, C. William; Callaghan, Jean; Davis, Pamela J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the influence of fundamental frequency (F0) and sound pressure level (SPL) range on respiratory behavior in classical singing. Method: Five trained female singers performed an 8-s messa di voce (a crescendo and decrescendo on one F0) across their musical F0 range. Lung volume (LV) change was estimated, and…

  18. Ingestive behavior of grazing steers fed increasing levels of concentrate supplementation with different crude protein contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Fabrício Bacelar Lima; Silva, Robério Rodrigues; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto; da Silva, Fabiano Ferreira; Lins, Túlio Otávio Jardim D Almeida; da Silva, Anderson Luiz Nascimento; Macedo, Venício; Abreu Filho, George; de Souza, Sinvaldo Oliveira; Guimarães, Joanderson Oliveira

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the ingestive behavior of steers on Brachiaria brizantha pasture fed diets with increasing levels of concentrate supplementation. Thirty-two crossbred steers in the finishing phase with average weight of 420 ± 8 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design with four treatments and eight replicates per treatment. Their behavior was assessed every 5 min for 24 h, in the middle of the experimental period. Variance and regression analyses at 0.05 % probability were adopted. The times spent grazing and ruminating reduced linearly (P <0.05), whereas the times spent at the trough (eating) and on other activities increased linearly (P <0.05) as the supplementation levels were elevated. The total feeding and chewing times decreased linearly (P <0.05) as the concentrate levels in the diet were elevated. By increasing the supplementation levels, the number of bites per day decreased linearly (P <0.05), and the feed efficiency of dry matter increased quadratically. Rumination efficiency of dry matter increased linearly (P <0.05) with increasing levels of concentrate supplementation. Grazing and rumination activities are reduced when the time devoted to other activities and at the trough are increased, as a result of the substitution effect.

  19. The brain responses to different frequencies of binaural beat sounds on QEEG at cortical level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirakittayakorn, Nantawachara; Wongsawat, Yodchanan

    2015-01-01

    Beat phenomenon is occurred when two slightly different frequency waves interfere each other. The beat can also occur in the brain by providing two slightly different frequency waves separately each ear. This is called binaural beat. The brain responses to binaural beat are in discussion process whether the brain side and the brain area. Therefore, this study aims to figure out the brain responses to binaural beat by providing different binaural beat frequencies on 250 carrier tone continuously for 30 minutes to participants and using quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) to interpret the data. The result shows that different responses appear in different beat frequency. Left hemisphere dominance occur in 3 Hz beat within 15 minutes and 15 Hz beat within 5 minutes. Right hemisphere dominance occurs in 10 Hz beat within 25 minute. 6 Hz beat enhances all area of the brain within 10 minutes. 8 Hz and 25 Hz beats have no clearly responses while 40 Hz beat enhances the responses in frontal lobe. These brain responses can be used for brain modulation application to induce the brain activity in further studies.

  20. Identification and Level 1 Damage Detection of the Z24 Highway Bridge by Frequency Domain Decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Andersen, P.; Cantieni, R.

    2001-01-01

    A series of 15 progressive damage tests were performed on a prestressed concrete highway bridge in Switzerland. The ambient response of the bridge was recorded for each damage case with a relatively large number of sensors. Changes in frequencies, damping ratios and MAC values were determined...

  1. The effect of pressurizer-water-level on the low frequency component of the pressure spectrum in a PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Por, G.; Izsak, E.; Valko, J.

    1984-09-01

    The pressure fluctuations were measured in the cooling system of the Paks-1 reactor. A shift of the peak was detected in low frequency component of the pressure fluctuation spectrum which is due to the fluctuations of water level in the pressurizer. Using the model of Katona and Nagy (1983), the eigenfrequencies, the magnitude of the shift and the sensitivity to the pressurizer water level were reproduced in good accordance with the experimental data. (D.Gy.)

  2. Increased frequency and range of sexual behavior in a patient with Parkinson's disease after use of pramipexole: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munhoz, Renato P; Fabiani, Giorgio; Becker, Nilson; Teive, Hélio A G

    2009-04-01

    Several recent reports have linked the use of dopamine agonists (DAs) to a variety of compulsive behaviors in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). These inappropriate behaviors may include pathological gambling, compulsive shopping, and hypersexuality. To report the case of a patient with increased range of sexual behavior after use of pramipexole, a DA. A 67-year-old man with a 7-year diagnosis of PD treated with levodopa and pramipexole presented with a dramatic change in sexual behavior after an increase in DA dose. The patient, who historically was a very shy and conservative person, started to present increased frequency of sexual intercourse with his wife, during which he began speaking obscenities with an extreme preference for anal intercourse, preferences never requested before. After pramipexole was withdrawn, complete remission was observed with return to his usual sexual behavior. Hypersexuality and paraphilias are complications not uncommonly found in patients with PD under dopaminergic treatment. Further studies are needed for the understanding of this complex complication, and particularly the most prevalent relationship between pathological hypersexuality and use of DAs.

  3. Increased Eating Frequency Is Associated with Lower Obesity Risk, But Higher Energy Intake in Adults: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue-Qiao Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Body weight is regulated by energy intake which occurs several times a day in humans. In this meta-analysis, we evaluated whether eating frequency (EF is associated with obesity risk and energy intake in adults without any dietary restriction. Experimental and observational studies published before July 2015 were selected through English-language literature searches in several databases. These studies reported the association between EF and obesity risk (odd ratios, ORs in adults who were not in dietary restriction. R software was used to perform statistical analyses. Ten cross-sectional studies, consisting of 65,742 participants, were included in this analysis. ORs were considered as effect size for the analysis about the effect of EF on obesity risk. Results showed that the increase of EF was associated with 0.83 time lower odds of obesity (i.e., OR = 0.83, 95% confidence intervals (CI 0.70–0.99, p = 0.040. Analysis about the effect of EF on differences in participants’ energy intake revealed that increased EF was associated with higher energy intake (β = 125.36, 95% CI 21.76–228.97, p = 0.017. We conclude that increased EF may lead to lower obesity risk but higher energy intake. Clinical trials are warranted to confirm these results and to assess the clinical practice applicability.

  4. Classification of Word Levels with Usage Frequency, Expert Opinions and Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohsah, Gihad N.; Ünal, Muhammed Esad; Güzey, Onur

    2015-01-01

    Educational applications for language teaching can utilize the language levels of words to target proficiency levels of students. This paper and the accompanying data provide a methodology for making educational standard-aligned language-level predictions for all English words. The methodology involves expert opinions on language levels and…

  5. Increased serum levels of sortilin are associated with depression and correlated with BDNF and VEGF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buttenschøn, Henriette Nørmølle; Demontis, Ditte; Ollendorff, Mathias Kaas

    2015-01-01

    measured by immunoassay, and potential determinants of the serum sortilin level were assessed by generalized linear models. Serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were measured in previous studies. We identified a significant increase of serum...... sortilin levels in depressed individuals compared with controls (P = 0.0002) and significant positive correlation between serum sortilin levels and the corresponding levels of BDNF and VEGF. None of the genotyped SNPs were associated with depression. Additional analyses showed that the serum sortilin level...... was influenced by several other factors. Alcohol intake and body mass index, as well as depression, serum BDNF and serum VEGF were identified as predictors of serum sortilin levels in our final multivariate model. In conclusion, the results suggest a role of circulating sortilin in depression which may relate...

  6. Reduced genetic distance and high replication levels increase the RNA recombination rate of hepatitis delta virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Chi; Yang, Zhi-Wei; Iang, Shan-Bei; Chao, Mei

    2015-01-02

    Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) replication is carried out by host RNA polymerases. Since homologous inter-genotypic RNA recombination is known to occur in HDV, possibly via a replication-dependent process, we hypothesized that the degree of sequence homology and the replication level should be related to the recombination frequency in cells co-expressing two HDV sequences. To confirm this, we separately co-transfected cells with three different pairs of HDV genomic RNAs and analyzed the obtained recombinants by RT-PCR followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism and sequencing analyses. The sequence divergence between the clones ranged from 24% to less than 0.1%, and the difference in replication levels was as high as 100-fold. As expected, significant differences were observed in the recombination frequencies, which ranged from 0.5% to 47.5%. Furthermore, varying the relative amounts of parental RNA altered the dominant recombinant species produced, suggesting that template switching occurs frequently during the synthesis of genomic HDV RNA. Taken together, these data suggest that during the host RNA polymerase-driven RNA recombination of HDV, both inter- and intra-genotypic recombination events are important in shaping the genetic diversity of HDV. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Serum levels of polyamine synthesis enzymes increase in diabetic patients with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Kenan Çelik

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it was aimed to investigate the relationship between diabetes and breast cancer and the detection of enzymes and ornithine levels in polyamine synthesis pathway in diabetes, breast cancer and diabetic breast cancer patients. Methods: Ornithine, arginine decarboxylase, ornithine decarboxylase and agmatinase levels have been measured in serum of all groups. Ornithine levels were measured spectrophotometrically. Arginine decarboxylase, ornithine decarboxylase and agmatinase levels were determined by ELISA kits. Results: Except for the diabetic group, the levels of enzymes in the polyamine synthesis pathway were increased in all and statistically significant (P < 0.05. The increase in the levels of agmatinase was very important among the enzymes (P < 0.001. Conclusions: Decreased levels of polyamine synthase enzymes in diabetes mellitus were found to be increased patients with breast cancer. Whether and how diabetes-based breast cancer development relates to increase activity of enzymes responsible for polyamine synthesis requires further mechanistic and prospective monitoring studies in larger patient cohorts.

  8. What a Shame: Increased Rates of OMS Resident Burnout May Be Related to the Frequency of Shamed Events During Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Michael C; Rao, Sowmya R; Dean, Jason; Salama, Andrew R

    2017-03-01

    Shame is an ineffective tool in residency education that often results in depression, isolation, and worse patient care. This study aimed to assess burnout, depersonalization, and personal achievement levels in current oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMS) residents, to assess the prevalence of the use of shame in OMS residency training, and to determine whether there is a relation between shame exposure and resident burnout, depersonalization, and personal achievement levels. An anonymous 20-question cross-sectional survey was developed incorporating the Maslach Burnout Index and a previously validated shame questionnaire and sent to all OMS program directors affiliated with the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons for distribution among their respective residents in 2016. Univariate analyses were used to determine the distribution of the predictor (shame) and outcome (burnout) by gender and by frequency of shaming events. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to assess the relation of shame to burnout. A 2-sided P value less than .05 was considered statistically significant. Two hundred seventeen responses were received; 82% of respondents were men (n = 178), 95% were 25 to 34 years old (n = 206), and 58% (n = 126) were enrolled in a 4-year program. Frequently shamed residents were more likely to have depression (58 vs 22%; P < .0001), isolation (55 vs 22%; P < .0001), and poor job performance (50 vs 30%; P < .0001). Residents who were frequently shamed were more likely to experience moderate to severe burnout (odds ratio = 4.6; 95% confidence interval, 2.1-10.0; P < .001) and severe depersonalization (odds ratio = 5.1; 95% confidence interval, 2.1-12.0; P < .0001) than residents who had never or infrequently been shamed. There is a clear relation between the number of shame events and burnout and depersonalization levels. It is important to understand the negative impact that the experience of shame has on residents

  9. Broadband measurements of high-frequency electric field levels and exposure ratios determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vulević Branislav

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The exposure of people to high-frequency electromagnetic fields (over 100 kHz that emanate from modern wireless information transmission systems is inevitable in modern times. Due to the rapid development of new technologies, measuring devices and their connection to measuring systems, the first fifteen years of the 21st century are characterized by the appearance of different approaches to measurements. This prompts the need for the assessment of the exposure of people to these fields. The main purpose of this paper is to show how to determine the exposure ratios based on the results of broadband measurements of the high-frequency electric field in the range of 3 MHz to 18 GHz in the environment.

  10. Frequency of micronuclei in individuals from high level natural radiation areas of Kerala in India, as a function of age and gender

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karuppasamy, C.V.; Ramachandran, E.N.; Vivek Kumar, P.R.; Anil Kumar, V.; Sudheer, K.R.; Jaikishan, G.; Jagateesan, C.K.; Seshadri, M.

    2012-01-01

    influenced by age (P=0.5) and residential area (NLNRA/HLNRA, P=0.24). A significant age related increase in the frequency of MN as seen in all subjects may be due to a reduction in DNA repair capacity and spindle disturbances resulting in chromosome lagging at anaphase. In our study, it seems more likely for female subjects to have higher DNA damage. Absence of the influence of age on the frequency of MN in female subjects may be because majority of female samples belonged to a narrow age range of 35-55. However, in this pilot study, we could not observe significant genotoxic effects of chronic low level radiation exposure with regard to the frequency of micronuclei in HLNRA subjects. (author)

  11. Vicks VapoRub induces mucin secretion, decreases ciliary beat frequency, and increases tracheal mucus transport in the ferret trachea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abanses, Juan Carlos; Arima, Shinobu; Rubin, Bruce K

    2009-01-01

    Vicks VapoRub (VVR) [Proctor and Gamble; Cincinnati, OH] is often used to relieve symptoms of chest congestion. We cared for a toddler in whom severe respiratory distress developed after VVR was applied directly under her nose. We hypothesized that VVR induced inflammation and adversely affected mucociliary function, and tested this hypothesis in an animal model of airway inflammation. [1] Trachea specimens excised from 15 healthy ferrets were incubated in culture plates lined with 200 mg of VVR, and the mucin secretion was compared to those from controls without VVR. Tracheal mucociliary transport velocity (MCTV) was measured by timing the movement of 4 microL of mucus across the trachea. Ciliary beat frequency (CBF) was measured using video microscopy. [2] Anesthetized and intubated ferrets inhaled a placebo or VVR that was placed at the proximal end of the endotracheal tube. We evaluated both healthy ferrets and animals in which we first induced tracheal inflammation with bacterial endotoxin (a lipopolysaccharide [LPS]). Mucin secretion was measured using an enzyme-linked lectin assay, and lung water was measured by wet/dry weight ratios. [1] Mucin secretion was increased by 63% over the controls in the VVR in vitro group (p < 0.01). CBF was decreased by 35% (p < 0.05) in the VVR group. [2] Neither LPS nor VVR increased lung water, but LPS decreased MCTV in both normal airways (31%) and VVR-exposed airways (30%; p = 0.03), and VVR increased MCTV by 34% in LPS-inflamed airways (p = 0.002). VVR stimulates mucin secretion and MCTV in the LPS-inflamed ferret airway. This set of findings is similar to the acute inflammatory stimulation observed with exposure to irritants, and may lead to mucus obstruction of small airways and increased nasal resistance.

  12. A Forest Tent Caterpillar Outbreak Increased Resource Levels and Seedling Growth in a Northern Hardwood Forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danaë M A Rozendaal

    Full Text Available In closed-canopy forests, gap formation and closure are thought to be major drivers of forest dynamics. Crown defoliation by insects, however, may also influence understory resource levels and thus forest dynamics. We evaluate the effect of a forest tent caterpillar outbreak on understory light availability, soil nutrient levels and tree seedling height growth in six sites with contrasting levels of canopy defoliation in a hardwood forest in northern lower Michigan. We compared resource levels and seedling growth of six hardwood species before, during and in the three years after the outbreak (2008-2012. Canopy openness increased strongly during the forest tent caterpillar outbreak in the four moderately and severely defoliated sites, but not in lightly defoliated sites. Total inorganic soil nitrogen concentrations increased in response to the outbreak in moderately and severely defoliated sites. The increase in total inorganic soil nitrogen was driven by a strong increase in soil nitrate, and tended to become stronger with increasing site defoliation. Seedling height growth increased for all species in the moderately and severely defoliated sites, but not in lightly defoliated sites, either during the outbreak year or in the year after the outbreak. Growth increases did not become stronger with increasing site defoliation, but were strongest in a moderately defoliated site with high soil nutrient levels. Growth increases tended to be strongest for the shade intolerant species Fraxinus americana and Prunus serotina, and the shade tolerant species Ostrya virginiana. The strong growth response of F. americana and P. serotina suggests that recurring forest tent caterpillar outbreaks may facilitate the persistence of shade intolerant species in the understory in the absence of canopy gaps. Overall, our results suggest that recurrent canopy defoliation resulting from cyclical forest insect outbreaks may be an additional driver of dynamics in

  13. A Forest Tent Caterpillar Outbreak Increased Resource Levels and Seedling Growth in a Northern Hardwood Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozendaal, Danaë M A; Kobe, Richard K

    2016-01-01

    In closed-canopy forests, gap formation and closure are thought to be major drivers of forest dynamics. Crown defoliation by insects, however, may also influence understory resource levels and thus forest dynamics. We evaluate the effect of a forest tent caterpillar outbreak on understory light availability, soil nutrient levels and tree seedling height growth in six sites with contrasting levels of canopy defoliation in a hardwood forest in northern lower Michigan. We compared resource levels and seedling growth of six hardwood species before, during and in the three years after the outbreak (2008-2012). Canopy openness increased strongly during the forest tent caterpillar outbreak in the four moderately and severely defoliated sites, but not in lightly defoliated sites. Total inorganic soil nitrogen concentrations increased in response to the outbreak in moderately and severely defoliated sites. The increase in total inorganic soil nitrogen was driven by a strong increase in soil nitrate, and tended to become stronger with increasing site defoliation. Seedling height growth increased for all species in the moderately and severely defoliated sites, but not in lightly defoliated sites, either during the outbreak year or in the year after the outbreak. Growth increases did not become stronger with increasing site defoliation, but were strongest in a moderately defoliated site with high soil nutrient levels. Growth increases tended to be strongest for the shade intolerant species Fraxinus americana and Prunus serotina, and the shade tolerant species Ostrya virginiana. The strong growth response of F. americana and P. serotina suggests that recurring forest tent caterpillar outbreaks may facilitate the persistence of shade intolerant species in the understory in the absence of canopy gaps. Overall, our results suggest that recurrent canopy defoliation resulting from cyclical forest insect outbreaks may be an additional driver of dynamics in temperate closed

  14. High-frequency resistance training is not more effective than low-frequency resistance training in increasing muscle mass and strength in well-trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Gederson K; Franco, Cristiane M; Nunes, Paulo Ricardo P; Orsatti, Fábio L

    2018-02-27

    We studied the effects of two different weekly frequency resistance training (RT) protocols over eight weeks on muscle strength and muscle hypertrophy in well-trained men. Twenty-three subjects (age: 26.2±4.2 years; RT experience: 6.9±3.1 years) were randomly allocated into the two groups: low frequency (LFRT, n = 12) or high frequency (HFRT, n = 11). The LFRT performed a split-body routine, training each specific muscle group once a week. The HFRT performed a total-body routine, training all muscle groups every session. Both groups performed the same number of sets (10-15 sets) and exercises (1-2 exercise) per week, 8-12 repetitions maximum (70-80% of 1RM), five times per week. Muscle strength (bench press and squat 1RM) and lean tissue mass (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) were assessed prior to and at the end of the study. Results showed that both groups improved (ptrained subjects when the sets and intensity are equated per week.

  15. Modeling Caspian Sea water level oscillations under different scenarios of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshan GholamReza

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The rapid rise of Caspian Sea water level (about 2.25 meters since 1978 has caused much concern to all five surrounding countries, primarily because flooding has destroyed or damaged buildings and other engineering structures, roads, beaches and farm lands in the coastal zone. Given that climate, and more specifically climate change, is a primary factor influencing oscillations in Caspian Sea water levels, the effect of different climate change scenarios on future Caspian Sea levels was simulated. Variations in environmental parameters such as temperature, precipitation, evaporation, atmospheric carbon dioxide and water level oscillations of the Caspian sea and surrounding regions, are considered for both past (1951-2006 and future (2025-2100 time frames. The output of the UKHADGEM general circulation model and five alternative scenarios including A1CAI, BIASF, BIMES WRE450 and WRE750 were extracted using the MAGICC SCENGEN Model software (version 5.3. The results suggest that the mean temperature of the Caspian Sea region (Bandar-E-Anzali monitoring site has increased by ca. 0.17°C per decade under the impacts of atmospheric carbon dioxide changes (r=0.21. The Caspian Sea water level has increased by ca. +36cm per decade (r=0.82 between the years 1951-2006. Mean results from all modeled scenarios indicate that the temperature will increase by ca. 3.64°C and precipitation will decrease by ca. 10% (182 mm over the Caspian Sea, whilst in the Volga river basin, temperatures are projected to increase by ca. 4.78°C and precipitation increase by ca. 12% (58 mm by the year 2100. Finally, statistical modeling of the Caspian Sea water levels project future water level increases of between 86 cm and 163 cm by the years 2075 and 2100, respectively.

  16. Modeling Caspian Sea water level oscillations under different scenarios of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshan, Gholamreza; Moghbel, Masumeh; Grab, Stefan

    2012-12-12

    The rapid rise of Caspian Sea water level (about 2.25 meters since 1978) has caused much concern to all five surrounding countries, primarily because flooding has destroyed or damaged buildings and other engineering structures, roads, beaches and farm lands in the coastal zone. Given that climate, and more specifically climate change, is a primary factor influencing oscillations in Caspian Sea water levels, the effect of different climate change scenarios on future Caspian Sea levels was simulated. Variations in environmental parameters such as temperature, precipitation, evaporation, atmospheric carbon dioxide and water level oscillations of the Caspian sea and surrounding regions, are considered for both past (1951-2006) and future (2025-2100) time frames. The output of the UKHADGEM general circulation model and five alternative scenarios including A1CAI, BIASF, BIMES WRE450 and WRE750 were extracted using the MAGICC SCENGEN Model software (version 5.3). The results suggest that the mean temperature of the Caspian Sea region (Bandar-E-Anzali monitoring site) has increased by ca. 0.17°C per decade under the impacts of atmospheric carbon dioxide changes (r=0.21). The Caspian Sea water level has increased by ca. +36cm per decade (r=0.82) between the years 1951-2006. Mean results from all modeled scenarios indicate that the temperature will increase by ca. 3.64°C and precipitation will decrease by ca. 10% (182 mm) over the Caspian Sea, whilst in the Volga river basin, temperatures are projected to increase by ca. 4.78°C and precipitation increase by ca. 12% (58 mm) by the year 2100. Finally, statistical modeling of the Caspian Sea water levels project future water level increases of between 86 cm and 163 cm by the years 2075 and 2100, respectively.

  17. Increased prolactin levels are associated with impaired processing speed in subjects with early psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalvo, Itziar; Gutiérrez-Zotes, Alfonso; Creus, Marta; Monseny, Rosa; Ortega, Laura; Franch, Joan; Lawrie, Stephen M; Reynolds, Rebecca M; Vilella, Elisabet; Labad, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Hyperprolactinaemia, a common side effect of some antipsychotic drugs, is also present in drug-naïve psychotic patients and subjects at risk for psychosis. Recent studies in non-psychiatric populations suggest that increased prolactin may have negative effects on cognition. The aim of our study was to explore whether high plasma prolactin levels are associated with poorer cognitive functioning in subjects with early psychoses. We studied 107 participants: 29 healthy subjects and 78 subjects with an early psychosis (55 psychotic disorders with levels were determined as well as total cortisol levels in plasma. Psychopathological status was assessed and the use of psychopharmacological treatments (antipsychotics, antidepressants, benzodiazepines) recorded. Prolactin levels were negatively associated with cognitive performance in processing speed, in patients with a psychotic disorder and high-risk subjects. In the latter group, increased prolactin levels were also associated with impaired reasoning and problem solving and poorer general cognition. In a multiple linear regression analysis conducted in both high-risk and psychotic patients, controlling for potential confounders, prolactin and benzodiazepines were independently related to poorer cognitive performance in the speed of processing domain. A mediation analysis showed that both prolactin and benzodiazepine treatment act as mediators of the relationship between risperidone/paliperidone treatment and speed of processing. These results suggest that increased prolactin levels are associated with impaired processing speed in early psychosis. If these results are confirmed in future studies, strategies targeting reduction of prolactin levels may improve cognition in this population.

  18. Frequent mild head injury promotes trigeminal sensitivity concomitant with microglial proliferation, astrocytosis, and increased neuropeptide levels in the trigeminal pain system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyburski, Ashley L; Cheng, Lan; Assari, Soroush; Darvish, Kurosh; Elliott, Melanie B

    2017-12-01

    Frequent mild head injuries or concussion along with the presence of headache may contribute to the persistence of concussion symptoms. In this study, the acute effects of recovery between mild head injuries and the frequency of injuries on a headache behavior, trigeminal allodynia, was assessed using von Frey testing up to one week after injury, while histopathological changes in the trigeminal pain pathway were evaluated using western blot, ELISA and immunohistochemistry.  RESULTS: A decreased recovery time combined with an increased mild closed head injury (CHI) frequency results in reduced trigeminal allodynia thresholds compared to controls. The repetitive CHI group with the highest injury frequency showed the greatest reduction in trigeminal thresholds along with greatest increased levels of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the trigeminal nucleus caudalis. Repetitive CHI resulted in astrogliosis in the central trigeminal system, increased GFAP protein levels in the sensory barrel cortex, and an increased number of microglia cells in the trigeminal nucleus caudalis. Headache behavior in rats is dependent on the injury frequency and recovery interval between mild head injuries. A worsening of headache behavior after repetitive mild head injuries was concomitant with increases in CGRP levels, the presence of astrocytosis, and microglia proliferation in the central trigeminal pathway. Signaling between neurons and proliferating microglia in the trigeminal pain system may contribute to the initiation of acute headache after concussion or other traumatic brain injuries.

  19. Comparison of level discrimination, increment detection, and comodulation masking release in the audio- and envelope-frequency domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelson, Paul C.; Ewert, Stephan; Carney, Laurel H.

    2007-01-01

    In general, the temporal structure of stimuli must be considered to account for certain observations made in detection and masking experiments in the audio-frequency domain. Two such phenomena are (1) a heightened sensitivity to amplitude increments with a temporal fringe compared to gated level......-frequency domain. Pure-tone carrier amplitude-modulation (AM) depth-discrimination thresholds were found to be similar using both traditional gated stimuli and using a temporally modulated fringe for a fixed standard depth (ms=0.25) and a range of AM frequencies (4-64 Hz). In a second experiment, masked sinusoidal...... AM detection thresholds were compared in conditions with and without slow and regular fluctuations imposed on the instantaneous masker AM depth. Release from masking was obtained only for very slow masker fluctuations (less than 2 Hz). A physiologically motivated model that effectively acts...

  20. Increased Heme Levels in the Heart Lead to Exacerbated Ischemic Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicki, Konrad Teodor; Shang, Meng; Wu, Rongxue; Chang, Hsiang-Chun; Khechaduri, Arineh; Sato, Tatsuya; Kamide, Christine; Liu, Ting; Naga Prasad, Sathyamangla V; Ardehali, Hossein

    2015-07-31

    Heme is an essential iron-containing molecule for cardiovascular physiology, but in excess it may increase oxidative stress. Failing human hearts have increased heme levels, with upregulation of the rate-limiting enzyme in heme synthesis, δ-aminolevulinic acid synthase 2 (ALAS2), which is normally not expressed in cardiomyocytes. We hypothesized that increased heme accumulation (through cardiac overexpression of ALAS2) leads to increased oxidative stress and cell death in the heart. We first showed that ALAS2 and heme levels are increased in the hearts of mice subjected to coronary ligation. To determine the causative role of increased heme in the development of heart failure, we generated transgenic mice with cardiac-specific overexpression of ALAS2. While ALAS2 transgenic mice have normal cardiac function at baseline, their hearts display increased heme content, higher oxidative stress, exacerbated cell death, and worsened cardiac function after coronary ligation compared to nontransgenic littermates. We confirmed in cultured cardiomyoblasts that the increased oxidative stress and cell death observed with ALAS2 overexpression is mediated by increased heme accumulation. Furthermore, knockdown of ALAS2 in cultured cardiomyoblasts exposed to hypoxia reversed the increases in heme content and cell death. Administration of the mitochondrial antioxidant MitoTempo to ALAS2-overexpressing cardiomyoblasts normalized the elevated oxidative stress and cell death levels to baseline, indicating that the effects of increased ALAS2 and heme are through elevated mitochondrial oxidative stress. The clinical relevance of these findings was supported by the finding of increased ALAS2 induction and heme accumulation in failing human hearts from patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy compared to nonischemic cardiomyopathy. Heme accumulation is detrimental to cardiac function under ischemic conditions, and reducing heme in the heart may be a novel approach for protection against the

  1. Abdominal obesity is a common finding in normal and overweight subjects of Chile and is associated with increased frequency of cardiometabolic risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Villanueva

    Full Text Available Abdominal obesity (AO is associated with elevated risk for cardiovascular diseases; however, this association is less clear for non-obese people. We estimated the association of AO and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF and disease in non-obese adult individuals from Chile.5248 adults (15 years of age or older of both sexes from the Chilean National Health Survey (October 2009 -September 2010, response rate 85%. were included. Information on myocardial infarction and stroke was self-reported. BMI, waist circumference (WC, arterial pressure, plasma glucose, and cholesterol levels were measured. Predictive accuracy of WC was evaluated by area under curve of receiver operating characteristic analysis and cut off points were established by Youden Index. Relationship between AO and CVRF was analyzed by Chi-squared tests.Normal weight/overweight/obesity were present in 34.4%/45.2%/18.1% of men and 33.4%/33.6%/27.5% of women. Predictive accuracy of WC to identify at least one CVRF was 0.70/0.67 and optimal cutoff points for WC in non-obese subjects were 91/83 cm in men/women, respectively. AO was present in 98.2%/99.1% of obese, 70.5%/77.4% of overweight and 12.4%/16.4% of normal weight men/women. AO was associated with increased frequency of CVRF in overweight men (6/8 and stroke and women (4/8 and higher frequency in normal weight men (8/8 and myocardial infarction/stroke and women (6/8 and myocardial infarction.WC cutoff points calculated for non-obese chilean population discriminate more differences in CVRF in normal weight woman. AO significantly increases the frequency of CVRF and diseases in overweight and especially normal weight individuals. WC can be used as a low cost, feasible and reproducible predictor for CVRF in non-obese individuals in most clinical settings.

  2. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura with decreased level of ADAMTS-13 activity and increased level of ADAMTS-13 inhibitor in an adolescent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Mi Yang

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP is a thrombotic microangiopathy characterized by endothelial cell damage, resulting in microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and various degrees of neurological and renal impairment caused by microvascular thrombi. It is rare in children and frequently follows a fatal course. TTP is divided into 2 types: one is inherited and associated with ADAMTS-13 gene mutations and the other is acquired and associated with anti-ADAMTS-13 autoantibodies. The measurement of ADAMTS-13 activity in plasma, identification of ADAMTS-13 circulating inhibitor, anti-ADAMTS-13 IgG, and ADAMTS-13 gene sequencing are crucial to the diagnosis of TTP. Plasma exchanges are the first-line treatment for acquired TTP, combined with steroids and immunosuppressive drugs. Here, we describe the case of an adolescent patient with TTP, confirmed by decreased level of ADAMTS-13 activity and an increased level of ADAMTS-13 inhibitor, who was successfully treated by plasma exchanges.

  3. Increased frequency of micronuclei in adults with a history of childhood sexual abuse: a discordant monozygotic twin study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy P York

    Full Text Available Childhood sexual abuse (CSA is a traumatic life event associated with an increased lifetime risk for psychopathology/morbidity. The long-term biological consequences of CSA-elicited stress on chromosomal stability in adults are unknown. The primary aim of this study was to determine if the rate of acquired chromosomal changes, measured using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay on stimulated peripheral blood lymphocytes, differs in adult female monozygotic twins discordant for CSA.Monozygotic twin pairs discordant for CSA were identified from a larger population-based sample of female adult twins for whom the experience of CSA was assessed by self-report (51 individuals including a reference sample. Micronuclei (MN contain chromatin from structurally normal or abnormal chromosomes that are excluded from the daughter nuclei during cell division and serve as a biomarker to assess acquired chromosomal instability.Female twins exposed to CSA exhibited a 1.63-fold average increase in their frequency of MN compared to their nonexposed genetically identical cotwins (Paired t-test, t₁₆ = 2.65, P = 0.017. No additional effects of familial factors were detected after controlling for the effect of CSA exposure. A significant interaction between CSA history and age was observed, suggesting that the biological effects of CSA on MN formation may be cumulative.These data support a direct link between CSA exposure and MN formation measured in adults that is not attributable to genetic or environmental factors shared by siblings. Further research is warranted to understand the biological basis for the observed increase in acquired chromosomal findings in people exposed to CSA and to determine if acquired somatic chromosomal abnormalities/somatic clonal mosaicism might mediate the adult pathology associated with CSA.

  4. Arthroscopy and the Dramatic Increase in Frequency of Anterior Acromioplasty from 1980 to 2005: An Epidemiologic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Elizabeth; Cil, Akin; Harmsen, William Scott; Schleck, Cathy; Sperling, John W.; Cofield, Robert H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to better understand the utilization of anterior acromioplasty over time – in the absence of rotator cuff repair, to examine the relationship to patient characteristics (age, sex) and types of rotator cuff pathology (inflammation or fibrosis, partial thickness tearing, full thickness tearing undergoing debridement), and to assess the utilization of arthroscopy in this procedure. Methods Using the resources of the Rochester Epidemiology Project, cataloging medical records of residents in Olmsted County, Minnesota, we identified 246 patients who underwent anterior acromioplasty between 1980 and 2005. It has previously been shown that rarely does a resident of Olmsted County undergo an orthopedic procedure at a facility outside the county. Results The incidence of anterior acromioplasty increased over time (p<0.001) with the crude rate of 3.3 per 100,000 in 1980 to 1985 to 19.0 per 100,000 in 2000 to 2005. Sex, age, and types of rotator cuff pathology did not significantly change over the twenty-six year period. There was a dramatic shift from use of the open to the arthroscopic approach over this time period (p<0.001) and a decrease in the concomitant performance of distal clavicle resection (p<0.001). Conclusions The frequency of anterior acromioplasty has dramatically increased over time. Increasing knowledge about this syndrome, including better imaging, has facilitated patient treatment for a stable spectrum of rotator cuff pathology (inflammation or fibrosis, partial thickness tearing, full thickness tearing undergoing debridement), as has the application of endoscopic surgery. PMID:20691562

  5. Increased abdominal fat levels measured by bioelectrical impedance are associated with histological lesions of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margariti, Aikaterini; Kontogianni, Meropi D; Tileli, Nafsika; Georgoulis, Michael; Deutsch, Melanie; Zafeiropoulou, Rodessa; Tiniakos, Dina; Manios, Yannis; Pectasides, Dimitrios; Papatheodoridis, George V

    2015-08-01

    Abdominal fat is considered to play an important role in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), although it is not adequately studied because abdominal fat levels cannot be estimated easily. In this study, associations between abdominal obesity, as assessed by abdominal bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and the characteristics of patients with NAFLD were explored. Seventy-four consecutive NAFLD patients who underwent measurement of abdominal fat levels by BIA were included. Levels of abdominal fat 12.5 or less and more than 12.5 were considered to be average and increased, respectively. The mean±SD BMI was 30±4 kg/m and the mean abdominal fat levels were 16±5, whereas 26% of patients had average abdominal fat levels. Patients with average compared with those with increased abdominal fat levels were more frequently women (50 vs. 12%, P=0.001), had lower BMI (27±3 vs. 31±4 kg/m, Pabdominal fat levels (78 vs. 38%, P=0.030) and in patients with BMI 30 or more compared with less than 30 kg/m (87 vs. 48%, P=0.033), but similar in patients with increased or normal waist circumference (67 vs. 56%, P=0.693). Average levels of abdominal fat, as assessed by abdominal BIA, are mainly present in female patients with NAFLD and are associated with a lower degree of insulin resistance. Increased abdominal fat as assessed by BIA and obesity seem to represent strong risk factors for histological steatohepatitis.

  6. IGF-1 levels may increase paradoxically with dopamine agonist treatment for prolactinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akirov, Amit; Greenman, Yona; Glaser, Benjamin; S'chigol, Irena; Mansiterski, Yossi; Eizenberg, Yoav; Shraga-Slutzky, Ilana; Shimon, Ilan

    2018-05-04

    Hyperprolactinemia is common in acromegaly and in these patients, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 level may decrease with dopamine agonist. We report a series of patients with prolactinoma and a paradoxical increase of IGF-1 levels during cabergoline treatment. Clinical characteristics and response to treatment of patients with prolactinomas, in whom normal or slightly elevated baseline IGF-1 levels increased with cabergoline. The cohort consisted of ten prolactinoma patients (nine males, mean age 48 ± 14 years). Mean adenoma size was 23.8 ± 16.2 mm, with cavernous sinus invasion in eight. In five patients baseline IGF-1 levels were normal and in four levels were 1.2-1.5-fold the upper limit of the normal (ULN). One patient had IGF-1 measured shortly after initiating cabergoline and it was 1.4 × ULN. During cabergoline treatment (dose range 0.5-2 mg/week) PRL normalization was achieved in all and tumor shrinkage occurred in seven patients. The mean IGF-1 increase on cabergoline was 1.7 ± 0.4 × ULN. Cabergoline dose reduction or interruption was attempted in five patients and resulted in decreased IGF-1 levels in all, including normalization in two patients. Three patients were eventually diagnosed with acromegaly, one was referred for pituitary surgery followed by complete remission, another patient was switched to somatostatin analogue, and the third was treated by combination of somatostatin analogues with pegvisomant, with reduction of IGF-1 in all these patients. IGF-1 levels may increase to clinically significant levels during cabergoline treatment for PRL-adenoma. We suggest IGF-1 monitoring in all patients treated with dopamine agonists and not only in those presenting symptoms of acromegaly.

  7. Effect of increasing levels of apparent metabolizable energy on laying hens in barn system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hwan Ku; Park, Seong Bok; Jeon, Jin Joo; Kim, Hyun Soo; Park, Ki Tae; Kim, Sang Ho; Hong, Eui Chul; Kim, Chan Ho

    2018-04-12

    This experiment was to investigate the effect of increasing levels of apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn) on the laying performance, egg quality, blood parameter, blood biochemistry, intestinal morphology, and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy and nutrients in diets fed to laying hens. A total of three-hundred twenty 33-week-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens (Gallus domesticus) were evenly assigned to four experimental diets of 2,750, 2,850, 2,950, and 3,050 kcal AMEn/kg in floor with deep litter of rice hulls. There were four replicates of each treatment, each consisting of 20 birds in a pen. AMEn intake was increased (linear, p Feed intake and feed conversion ratio were improved (linear, p hen-day egg production tended to be increased as increasing level of AMEn in diets increased. During the experiment, leukocyte concentration and blood biochemistry (total cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose, total protein, calcium, asparate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine transferase (ALT) were not influenced by increasing level of AMEn in diets. Gross energy and ether extract were increased (linear, p hens fed high AMEn diet (i.e., 3,050 kcal/kg in the current experiment) tended to overconsume energy with a positive effect on feed intake, feed conversion ratio, nutrient digestibility, and intestinal morphology but not in egg production and egg mass.

  8. Propagation and forcing of high-frequency sea level variability along the west coast of South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Pilar Cornejo-Rodriguez, Maria; Enfield, David B.

    1987-12-01

    Tide and wind data from coastal and island stations from Buenaventura, Colombia (4°N), to Callao, Peru (12°S), have been analyzed for the 1979-1984 time period to determine the propagation and forcing characteristics of coastal sea level variability at periods of days to weeks, as well as how they vary either with season or between the 1982-1983 El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) period and non-ENSO years. During four non-ENSO years, the ensemble averaged cross spectra between coastal sea level height (SLH) and local winds show weak evidence of local forcing during the whole year without significant differences between the austral summer and winter seasons, other than a greater energy in the wind fluctuations at Talara during summer. Cross spectra between SLH series from neighboring stations show evidence of poleward phase propagation during winter seasons at speeds of about 2.0 m s-1 between La Libertad and Talara at periods of a week or more, and about 2.7 m s-1 between Talara and Callao at periods of 5-11 days, but no propagation is found during summers. During the 1982-1983 ENSO there is a large increase in SLH energy at most frequencies at all coastal stations, but especially in the 8-to-11-day band, where energies are enhanced by as much as an order of magnitude above non-ENSO levels. The cross spectra between adjacent SLH stations indicate a nondispersive poleward propagation of events during the 1982-1983 ENSO with phase speeds of 2.2-3.5 m s-1 from La Libertad to Talara (periods of a week or more) and 3.4-3.6 m s-1 from Talara to Callao (3.5 days or more). As with the SLH energy, the coherence and phase propagation were much stronger along the Peru coast in 1982-1983 than during non-ENSO periods, especially in the 8-to-11-day band. The one-third increase in phase speeds during the ENSO over the non-ENSO speeds is found to be consistent with the anomalous depressions of the density structure during El Niño. Comparisons between coastal SLH and the local

  9. A FEMTOSECOND-LEVEL FIBER-OPTICS TIMING DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM USING FREQUENCY-OFFSET INTERFEROMETRY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staples, J.W.; Byrd, J.; Doolittle, L.; Huang, G.; Wilcox, R.

    2008-01-01

    An optical fiber-based frequency and timing distribution system based on the principle of heterodyne interferometry has been in development at LBNL for several years. The fiber drift corrector has evolved from an RF-based to an optical-based system, from mechanical correctors (piezo and optical trombone) to fully electronic, and the electronics from analog to fully digital, all using inexpensive off-the-shelf commodity fiber components. Short-term optical phase jitter and long-term phase drift are both in the femtosecond range over distribution paths of 2 km or more

  10. Implementation guidance for industrial-level security systems using radio frequency alarm links

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swank, R.G.

    1996-07-12

    Spread spectrum (SS) RF transmission technologies have properties that make the transmitted signal difficult to intercept, interpret, and jam. The digital code used in the modulation process results in a signal that has high reception reliability and supports multiple use of frequency bands and selective addressing. These attributes and the relatively low installation cost of RF systems make SSRF technologies candidate for communications links in security systems used for industrial sites, remote locations, and where trenching or other disturbances of soil or structures may not be desirable or may be costly. This guide provides a description of such a system and presents implementation methods that may be of engineering benefit.

  11. Low-molecular weight heparin increases circulating sFlt-1 levels and enhances urinary elimination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Hagmann

    Full Text Available RATIONALE: Preeclampsia is a devastating medical complication of pregnancy which leads to maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. While the etiology of preeclampsia is unclear, human and animal studies suggest that excessive circulating levels of soluble fms-like tyrosine-kinase-1 (sFlt-1, an alternatively spliced variant of VEGF-receptor1, contribute to the signs and symptoms of preeclampsia. Since sFlt-1 binds to heparin and heparan sulfate proteoglycans, we hypothesized that the anticoagulant heparin, which is often used in pregnancy, may interfere with the levels, distribution and elimination of sFlt-1 in vivo. OBJECTIVE: We systematically determined serum and urine levels of angiogenic factors in preeclamptic women before and after administration of low molecular weight heparin and further characterized the interaction with heparin in biochemical studies. METHODS AND RESULTS: Serum and urine samples were used to measure sFlt-1 levels before and after heparin administration. Serum levels of sFlt-1 increased by 25% after heparin administration in pregnant women. The magnitude of the increase in circulating sFlt-1 correlated with initial sFlt-1 serum levels. Urinary sFlt-1 levels were also elevated following heparin administration and levels of elimination were dependent on the underlying integrity of the glomerular filtration barrier. Biochemical binding studies employing cation exchange chromatography revealed that heparin bound sFlt-1 had decreased affinity to negatively charged surfaces when compared to sFlt-1 alone. CONCLUSION: Low molecular weight heparin administration increased circulating sFlt1 levels and enhanced renal elimination. We provide evidence that both effects may be due to heparin binding to sFlt1 and masking the positive charges on sFlt1 protein.

  12. The Use of Refundable Tax Credits to Increase Low-Income Children's After-School Physical Activity Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunton, Genevieve; Ebin, Vicki J; Efrat, Merav W; Efrat, Rafael; Lane, Christianne J; Plunkett, Scott

    2015-06-01

    The current study investigates the extent to which a refundable tax credit could be used to increase low-income children's after-school physical activity levels. An experimental study was conducted evaluating the effectiveness of an intervention offering a simulated refundable tax credit to parents of elementary-school-age children (n = 130) for enrollment in after-school physical activity programs. A randomized controlled design was used, with data collected at baseline, immediately following the 4-month intervention (postintervention), and 6 weeks after the end of the intervention (follow-up). Evaluation measures included (1) enrollment rate, time spent, weekly participation frequency, duration of enrollment, and long-term enrollment patterns in after-school physical activity programs and (2) moderate to vigorous physical activity. The simulated tax credits did not significantly influence low-income children's rates of enrollment in after-school physical activity programs, frequency of participation, time spent in after-school physical activity programs, and overall moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity at postintervention or follow-up. The use of refundable tax credits as incentives to increase participation in after-school physical activity programs in low-income families may have limited effectiveness. Lawmakers might consider other methods of fiscal policy to promote physical activity such as direct payment to after-school physical activity program providers for enrolling and serving a low-income child in a qualified program, or improvements to programming and infrastructure.

  13. Low-level contrast statistics of natural images can modulate the frequency of event-related potentials (ERP in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Ghodrati

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Humans are fast and accurate in categorizing complex natural images. It is, however, unclear what features of visual information are exploited by brain to perceive the images with such speed and accuracy. It has been shown that low-level contrast statistics of natural scenes can explain the variance of amplitude of event-related potentials (ERP in response to rapidly presented images. In this study, we investigated the effect of these statistics on frequency content of ERPs. We recorded ERPs from human subjects, while they viewed natural images each presented for 70 ms. Our results showed that Weibull contrast statistics, as a biologically plausible model, explained the variance of ERPs the best, compared to other image statistics that we assessed. Our time-frequency analysis revealed a significant correlation between these statistics and ERPs’ power within theta frequency band (~3-7 Hz. This is interesting, as theta band is believed to be involved in context updating and semantic encoding. This correlation became significant at ~110 ms after stimulus onset, and peaked at 138 ms. Our results show that not only the amplitude but also the frequency of neural responses can be modulated with low-level contrast statistics of natural images and highlights their potential role in scene perception.

  14. Enteral nutrition increases interstitial brain glucose levels in poor-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofler, Mario; Schiefecker, Alois J; Beer, Ronny; Gaasch, Maxime; Rhomberg, Paul; Stover, John; Pfausler, Bettina; Thomé, Claudius; Schmutzhard, Erich; Helbok, Raimund

    2018-03-01

    Low brain tissue glucose levels after acute brain injury are associated with poor outcome. Whether enteral nutrition (EN) reliably increases cerebral glucose levels remains unclear. In this retrospective analysis of prospectively collected observational data, we investigate the effect of EN on brain metabolism in 17 poor-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients undergoing cerebral microdialysis (CMD) monitoring. CMD-values were obtained hourly. A nutritional intervention was defined as the clinical routine administration of EN without supplemental parenteral nutrition. Sixty-three interventions were analyzed. The mean amount of EN per intervention was 472.4 ± 10.7 kcal. CMD-glucose levels significantly increased from 1.59 ± 0.13 mmol/l at baseline to a maximum of 2.03 ± 0.2 mmol/l after 5 h (p  40) and the microdialysis probe location. The increase in CMD-glucose was directly dependent on the magnitude of increase of serum glucose levels (p = 0.007). No change in CMD-lactate, CMD-pyruvate, CMD-LPR, or CMD-glutamate (p > 0.4) was observed. Routine EN also increased CMD-glucose even if baseline concentrations were critically low ( < 0.7 mmol/l, neuroglucopenia; p < 0.001). These results may have treatment implications regarding glucose management of poor-grade aneurysmal SAH patients.

  15. Core design experience of WWER-440 reactors when they working on increased power level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeev, V.; Panov, A.; Melenchuk, I.

    2015-01-01

    The Kola NPP continues commercial operation of 2nd generation fuel (FA-2) and trial operation of 3rd generation fuel (FA-3), which has a number of design features providing the best operational characteristics. This report gives the results of VVER-440 core operation with FA-2 and FA-3 with enrichment increased up to 4.87%, and at the power level uprated to 107% of nominal power level. Brief analysis of obtained data is carried out. Peculiarities and techniques of developing loading patterns with new types of nuclear fuel for operation at the uprated power level are reviewed. (authors)

  16. Respiratory Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumours 1 (DMBT1) levels increase during lung maturation and infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, H; End, C; Weiss, C

    2007-01-01

    .0179). An increase of respiratory DMBT1 levels was detected in neonatal infections (P ...Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumours 1 (DMBT1) is a secreted scavenger receptor cysteine-rich protein that binds and aggregates various bacteria and viruses in vitro. Studies in adults have shown that DMBT1 is expressed mainly by mucosal epithelia and glands, in particular within the respiratory...... tract, and plays a role in innate immune defence. We hypothesized that respiratory DMBT1 levels may be influenced by various developmental and clinical factors such as maturity, age and bacterial infection. DMBT1 levels were studied in 205 tracheal aspirate samples of 82 ventilated preterm and full...

  17. Relationship between increased serum tumor necrosis factor levels and insulin resistance in patients with essential hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Weimin; Li Jinliang; Huang Yongqiang

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels and insulin resistance (IR) in patients with essential by pertension. Methods: Serum TNF-α and free insulin (fINS)levels were measured with RIA in 41 patients with essential hypertension and 38 controls. Insulin resistance was calculated with insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR). Results: The serum TNF-α levels were significantly higher in patients with essential hypertension than those in the controls (P<0.001). The HOMA-IR was also significantly higher in hypertension group than that in controls (P<0.001). Serum TNF-α levels was positively correlated with BMI, HOMA-IR and SBP both in hypertension group and control group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Serum TNF-α level was increased in hypertensive patients and positively correlated with obesity and IR. (authors)

  18. Elevated fasting insulin levels increase the risk of abdominal obesity in Korean men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Keun; Oh, Chang-Mo; Jung, Taegi; Choi, Young-Jun; Chung, Ju Youn; Ryoo, Jae-Hong

    2017-04-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether an elevated fasting insulin level predicts abdominal obesity. A cohort study was conducted with 13,707 non-obese Korean men. They were categorized into 4 groups according to the quartile of fasting insulin level, and followed up from 2005 to 2010. Incidence rates of obesity were compared among the 4 groups during follow-up, and a Cox proportional hazards model was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) for abdominal obesity according to fasting insulin level. The overall incidence rate of obesity was 16.2%, but the rate increased in proportion to the fasting insulin level (quartiles 1-4: 9.8%, 12.4%, 16.9%, 25.5%, Pobesity increased proportionally to baseline fasting insulin level in an unadjusted model. However, after adjustment for covariates, including baseline waist circumference (WC), only in the quartile 4 group was the statistical significance of the association maintained [quartile 2-4; abdominal obesity: 0.89 (0.76-1.02), 1.00 (0.86-1.14) and 1.24 (1.08-1.43), P for trend obesity was highest in the group with the highest fasting insulin levels, an overall proportional relationship between fasting insulin level and incident abdominal obesity was not found. Additionally, this association was largely accounted for by baseline WC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A randomized controlled trial of increased dose and frequency of albendazole with standard dose DEC for treatment of Wuchereria bancrofti microfilaremics in Odisha, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Shantanu Kumar; Dwibedi, Bhagirathi; Kerketa, Anna Salomi; Maharana, Antaryami; Panda, Sudanshu S; Mohanty, Prafulla Chandra; Horton, John; Ramachandran, Cherubala P

    2015-03-01

    Although current programmes to eliminate lymphatic filariasis have made significant progress it may be necessary to use different approaches to achieve the global goal, especially where compliance has been poor and 'hot spots' of continued infection exist. In the absence of alternative drugs, the use of higher or more frequent dosing with the existing drugs needs to be explored. We examined the effect of higher and/or more frequent dosing with albendazole with a fixed 300 mg dose of diethylcarbamazine in a Wuchereria bancrofti endemic area in Odisha, India. Following screening, 104 consenting adults were randomly assigned to treatment with the standard regimen annually for 24 months (S1), or annually with increased dose (800 mg albendazole)(H1) or with increased frequency (6 monthly) with either standard (S2) or increased (H2) dose. Pre-treatment microfilaria counts (GM) ranged from 348 to 459 mf/ml. Subjects were followed using microfilaria counts, OG4C3 antigen levels and ultrasound scanning for adult worm nests. Microfilarial counts tended to decrease more rapidly with higher or more frequent dosing at all time points. At 12 months, Mf clearance was marginally greater with the high dose regimens, while by 24 months, there was a trend to higher Mf clearance in the arm with increased frequency and 800 mg of albendazole (76.9%) compared to other arms, (S1:64%, S2:69.2% & H1:73.1%). Although higher and/or more frequent dosing showed a trend towards a greater decline in antigenemia and clearance of "nests", all regimens demonstrated the potential macrofilaricidal effect of the combination. The higher doses of albendazole did not result in a greater number or more severe side effects. The alternative regimens could be useful in the later stages of existing elimination programmes or achieving elimination more rapidly in areas where programmes have yet to start.

  20. Fluctuations in Echo Level Associated with Changes in Target Aspect and Target Frequency Response (abstract only)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zampolli, M.; Ainslie, M.A.; Zon, T. van

    2011-01-01

    Ping-to-ping variations in echo level can be caused by time variations in sonar parameters (source level, orientation), target aspect, relative and absolute motion of sonar and target, and time varying environment (e.g. surface waves). Quantifying and understanding such fluctuations are important,

  1. Increased levels of etheno-DNA adducts and genotoxicity biomarkers of long-term exposure to pure diesel engine exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Meili; Bin, Ping; Li, Haibin; Zhang, Xiao; Sun, Xin; Duan, Huawei; Niu, Yong; Meng, Tao; Dai, Yufei; Gao, Weimin; Yu, Shanfa; Gu, Guizhen; Zheng, Yuxin

    2016-02-01

    Etheno-DNA adducts are biomarkers for assessing oxidative stress. In this study, the aim was to detect the level of etheno-DNA adducts and explore the relationship between the etheno-DNA adducts and genotoxicity biomarkers of the diesel engine exhaust (DEE)-exposed workers. We recruited 86 diesel engine testing workers with long-term exposure to DEE and 99 non-DEE-exposed workers. The urinary mono-hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs) and etheno-DNA adducts (εdA and εdC) were detected by HPLC-MS/MS and UPLC-MS/MS, respectively. Genotoxicity biomarkers were also evaluated by comet assay and cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay. The results showed that urinary εdA was significantly higher in the DEE-exposed workers (p<0.001), exhibited 2.1-fold increase compared with the non-DEE-exposed workers. The levels of urinary OH-PAHs were positively correlated with the level of εdA among all the study subjects (p<0.001). Moreover, we found that the increasing level of εdA was significantly associated with the increased olive tail moment, percentage of tail DNA, or frequency of micronucleus in the study subjects (p<0.01). No significant association was observed between the εdC level and any measured genotoxicity biomarkers. In summary, εdA could serve as an indicator for DEE exposure in the human population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Are electrically induced muscle cramps able to increase the cramp threshold frequency, when induced once a week?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Behringer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The cramp threshold frequency (CTF is known to be positively correlated with the individual cramp susceptibility. Here we assessed CTF changes after two bouts of electrically induced muscle cramps (EIMCs. The EIMCs (6×5 sec were unilaterally induced twice (separated by one week in the gastrocnemius of an intervention group (n=8, while 5 participants served as control. The CTF increased from 25.1±4.6 Hz at baseline to 31.4±9.0 Hz and 31.7±8.5 Hz 24 h after bout 1 and 2 (P<0.05. Thereafter, the CTF declined following both bouts to reach values of 28.0±6.7 Hz and 29.1±7.7 Hz after 72 h after bout 1 and 2. Creatine kinase (CK activity and perceived discomfort during cramps was lower after bout 2 (P<0.05. CTF, CK, and discomfort did not change in CG. That is, a single bout of EIMCs induces a 24 h CTF increment and a second bout sustains this effect, while perceived discomfort and muscle damage decreases. This short term effect may help athletes to reduce the cramp susceptibility for an important match.

  3. An analysis of hereditary increase in frequency of cell mortality induced by external factors (Experiments on nuclear transplantation in amoebae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bychkovskaya, I.B.; Ochinskaya, G.K.; Yudin, A.L.; AN SSSR, Leningrad. Inst. Tsitologii)

    1980-01-01

    By using nuclear transplantations in Amoeba proteus a study was made of a peculiar heritable effect, a stable increase in the frequency of cell mortality incuced by comparatively low doses of x radiation (50 Gy) or slight heating (29 0 C during 6 to 7 h). This effect differs qualitatively from the known radiation effects (reproductive death, lethal sectoring) by its being non-specific for radiation. In addition, the effect is saltatory appearing in 100% of the treated cells and the extent of its expression is not dependent on the dose of an inducing factor (at supra-threshold doses) and the period of time after treatment. It was found that (1) the hereditary changes in amoebae, unlike those resulting in reproductive death, are transmitted during intercellular transplantations both by the nucleus and cytoplasm of an altered cell; (2) the transfer of the character under test is accomplished by means of a certiin factor capable of shuttling between the nucleus and cytoplasm, (3) the effect is not necessarily a consequence of primary injury of nuclear structures and it may be induced by treatment of the cytoplasm of an enucleated cell renucleated then by the nucleus of a normal amoeba. In this respect, the effect under test differs also from the known types of hereditary post-radiation lethal effects which are commonly suggested to involve primary injury of the nucleus. Possible mechanisms of genetic control over the character tested are discussed. (author)

  4. New And Existing Bridge Constructions - Increase of Fatigue Strength of Welded Joints by High Frequency Mechanical Impact Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ummenhofer Thomas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies at KIT prove that high frequency mechanical impact (HFMI treatment is an efficient method for increasing the fatigue strength of welded steel structures. Within different research projects it was found that HFMI-methods can be used successfully for new and existing structures in order to extend the fatigue life. This paper gives an overview of the current status of existing steel bridges in Germany regarding aspects like bridge age distributions and traffic loads. Based on that overview welded joints susceptible to fatigue failure are identified. Using component-like small scale specimens, HFMI-methods were investigated within the objective of implementing an effective application for new and existing structures. Applying the fatigue test data observed, existing design proposals are evaluated and design recommendations for HFMI-treated joints are given. As a result of the research work, a transfer into practice has been realized and different applications are illustrated using the example of bridge constructions made of steel.

  5. Apelin-13 increased food intake with serum ghrelin and leptin levels in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saral, S; Alkanat, M; Sumer, A; Canpolat, S

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to explain the role of apelin-13 on body weight, food and water intake with serum leptin, ghrelin, neuropeptid Y (NPY) and peptid YY (PYY) levels in male rat. Thirty-two Sprague-Dawley male rats were used for the study. The rats were injected SP (0.9 %) intraperitoneally (i.p) in the control group and 30 (AP30), 100 (AP100) and 300 (AP300) µg/kg apelin-13 in the study groups, respectively, 10 min before the transition to dark period, for 10 days. During the experimental period, with light and dark periods of food and water intake, body weights were recorded in rats. Rats were euthanized and serum samples were obtained. In serum samples leptin, ghrelin, NPY and PYY levels were measured with specific ELISA kit. Apelin-13 was increased body weights in all three (AP30, AP100 and AP300) groups compared with the control group. AP100 and AP300 groups had increased food intake in the dark and the cumulative period, but in the light period food intake values were not significantly increased (p > 0.05). As for the value of water intake, compared with the control group, all dose of apelin-13 increased water intake during the dark and the cumulative period. There was no significant change in water intake in the light period. On the other hand, compared with the control group, serum leptin levels were found to increase in the groups administered 100 and 300 µg/kg of apelin-13 (p Ghrelin levels were found high in all groups treated with apelin-13. Serum levels of NPY decreased only in the 300 µg/kg apelin-13 treated group (p 0.05). Apelin-13 increases body weight in rats as well as food and water intake (dark and cumulative period). Additionally, ghrelin can mediate the orexigenic effect of apelin-13 in the regulation of food intake (Fig. 4, Ref. 37).

  6. Frequency of Low-level Mosaicism in X-Cromosome in Couples with Antecedent of Recurrent Miscarriages

    OpenAIRE

    Forero C., Maribel; Lucena Q, Elkin; Esteban Pérez, Clara

    2010-01-01

    Recurrent miscarriage occurs in around 1 to 7 percent of couples. The etiology involves genetic, immunologic, anatomic, hormonal, metabolic, thrombophilic and infectious factors. With the aim of establishing the frequency of low-level mosaicism in the X-chromosome, in a population of couples with prior recurrent miscarriages, a prospective case-control cytogenetic study took place on 20 couples, at the biogenetic laboratory in CECOLFES (Colombian Center of Fertility and Sterility). Clinical p...

  7. Frequency and levels of candidate endodontic pathogens in acute apical abscesses as compared to asymptomatic apical periodontitis

    OpenAIRE

    Rôças, Isabela N.; Siqueira, José F.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Acute apical abscess is caused by bacteria that leave the infected dental root canal to invade the periodontal tissues. Most species occurring in abscesses are also found in asymptomatic infections; therefore, the possibility exists that not only the presence of certain species but also their specific counts influence the appearance of symptoms. This molecular study compared the frequency and levels of several candidate endodontic pathogens in teeth with acute apical abscesses an...

  8. Bilirubin Increases Insulin Sensitivity by Regulating Cholesterol Metabolism, Adipokines and PPARγ Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinfeng; Dong, Huansheng; Zhang, Yong; Cao, Mingjun; Song, Lili; Pan, Qingjie; Bulmer, Andrew; Adams, David B.; Dong, Xiao; Wang, Hongjun

    2015-01-01

    Obesity can cause insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Moderate elevations in bilirubin levels have anti-diabetic effects. This study is aimed at determining the mechanisms by which bilirubin treatment reduces obesity and insulin resistance in a diet-induced obesity (DIO) mouse model. DIO mice were treated with bilirubin or vehicle for 14 days. Body weights, plasma glucose, and insulin tolerance tests were performed prior to, immediately, and 7 weeks post-treatment. Serum lipid, leptin, adiponectin, insulin, total and direct bilirubin levels were measured. Expression of factors involved in adipose metabolism including sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP-1), insulin receptor (IR), and PPARγ in liver were measured by RT-PCR and Western blot. Compared to controls, bilirubin-treated mice exhibited reductions in body weight, blood glucose levels, total cholesterol (TC), leptin, total and direct bilirubin, and increases in adiponectin and expression of SREBP-1, IR, and PPARγ mRNA. The improved metabolic control achieved by bilirubin-treated mice was persistent: at two months after treatment termination, bilirubin-treated DIO mice remained insulin sensitive with lower leptin and higher adiponectin levels, together with increased PPARγ expression. These results indicate that bilirubin regulates cholesterol metabolism, adipokines and PPARγ levels, which likely contribute to increased insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in DIO mice. PMID:26017184

  9. Respirometry increases cortisol levels in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss: implications for measurements of metabolic rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murray, L.; Rennie, M. D.; Svendsen, Jon Christian

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the extent to which chasing, handling and confining Oncorhynchus mykiss to a small respirometer chamber during respirometric experiments is stressful and affects metabolic measurements. The study observed increased cortisol levels in animals tested using a chase protocol...

  10. Increased levels of apoptosis in the prefusion neural folds underlie the craniofacial disorder, Treacher Collins syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dixon, J; Brakebusch, C; Fässler, R

    2000-01-01

    mice die perinatally as a result of severe craniofacial anomalies that include agenesis of the nasal passages, abnormal development of the maxilla, exencephaly and anophthalmia. These defects arise due to a massive increase in the levels of apoptosis in the prefusion neural folds, which are the site...

  11. Increased osteopontin plasma levels in multiple sclerosis patients correlate with bone-specific markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogt, M.H.J.; ten Kate, J.; Drent, R.J.M.; Polman, C.H.; Hupperts, R.

    2010-01-01

    The pro-inflammatory cytokine osteopontin has been found to be highly expressed in multiple sclerosis lesions and plasma levels are increased during relapses in relapse-onset multiple sclerosis patients. The objective was to determine the relationship between osteopontin plasma and cerebrospinal

  12. Pioglitazone treatment increases spontaneous growth hormone (GH) secretion and stimulated GH levels in polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Dorte; Støving, René Klinkby; Hagen, Claus

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low GH levels, probably due to insulin resistance and increased abdominal fat mass, are well described in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). GH acts as an important ovarian cogonadotropin, and GH disturbances may be an additional pathogenic factor in PCOS. Decreased abdominal fat mass...

  13. Acceptability and storage stability of pork products with increased levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houben, J.H.; Krol, B.

    1980-01-01

    Several batches of back bacon, belly bacon, Dutch-style cervelat sausage, pork loin roll, shoulder with fat, Bologna, Guelders ring sausage, Saxon liver sausage and luncheon meat were produced with increasing PUFA-levels using raw materials containing up to 30% linoleic acid in their fats. Only

  14. Epalrestat increases intracellular glutathione levels in Schwann cells through transcription regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Sato

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Epalrestat (EPS, approved in Japan, is the only aldose reductase inhibitor that is currently available for the treatment of diabetic neuropathy. Here we report that EPS at near-plasma concentration increases the intracellular levels of glutathione (GSH, which is important for protection against oxidative injury, through transcription regulation. Treatment of Schwann cells with EPS caused a dramatic increase in intracellular GSH levels. EPS increased the mRNA levels of γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCS, the enzyme catalyzing the first and rate-limiting step in de novo GSH synthesis. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 is a key transcription factor that plays a central role in regulating the expression of γ-GCS. ELISA revealed that EPS increased nuclear Nrf2 levels. Knockdown of Nrf2 by siRNA suppressed the EPS-induced GSH biosynthesis. Furthermore, pretreatment with EPS reduced the cytotoxicity induced by H2O2, tert-butylhydroperoxide, 2,2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane dihydrochloride, and menadione, indicating that EPS plays a role in protecting against oxidative stress. This is the first study to show that EPS induces GSH biosynthesis via the activation of Nrf2. We suggest that EPS has new beneficial properties that may prevent the development and progression of disorders caused by oxidative stress.

  15. Elevated levels of homocysteine increase IL-6 production in monocytic Mono Mac 6 cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Aken, B. E.; Jansen, J.; van Deventer, S. J.; Reitsma, P. H.

    2000-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for atherosclerosis and thrombosis. The aim of this study was to analyze if exposure of monocytic cells to increased levels of homocysteine (HCY) induces the accumulation of inflammatory mediators. Interleukin (IL)-6 production by monocytic cell line Mono Mac 6

  16. Modeling Effectiveness of Gradual Increases in Source Level to Mitigate Effects of Sonar on Marine Mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benda-Beckmann, A.M. von; Wensveen, P.J.; Kvadsheim, P.H.; Lam, F.P.A.; Miller, P.J.O.; Tyack, P.L.; Ainslie, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Ramp-up or soft-start procedures (i.e., gradual increase in the source level) are used to mitigate the effect of sonar sound on marine mammals, although no one to date has tested whether ramp-up procedures are effective at reducing the effect of sound on marine mammals. We investigated the

  17. Plasma insulin levels are increased by sertraline in rats under oral glucose overload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomez R.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Recognition and control of depression symptoms are important to increase patient compliance with treatment and to improve the quality of life of diabetic patients. Clinical studies indicate that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI are better antidepressants for diabetic patients than other drugs. However, preclinical trials have demonstrated that not all SSRI reduce plasma glucose levels. In fact, fluoxetine increases and sertraline decreases glycemia in diabetic and non-diabetic rats. In the present study we evaluated plasma insulin levels during fasting and after glucose overload after treatment with sertraline. Adult male Wistar rats were fasted and treated with saline or 30 mg/kg sertraline and submitted or not to glucose overload (N = 10. Blood was collected and plasma insulin was measured. The mean insulin levels were: fasting group: 25.9 ± 3.86, sertraline + fasting group: 31.10 ± 2.48, overload group: 34.1 ± 3.40, and overload + sertraline group: 43.73 ± 5.14 µU/ml. Insulinemia was significantly increased in the overload + sertraline group. There were no differences between the other groups. No difference in glucose/insulin ratios could be detected between groups. The overload + sertraline group was the only one in which a significant number of individuals exceeded the upper confidence limit of insulin levels. This study demonstrates that sertraline increases glucose-stimulated insulin secretion without any change in peripheral insulin sensitivity.

  18. Increased risk of severe hypoglycemic events with increasing frequency of non-severe hypoglycemic events in patients with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sreenan, Seamus

    2014-07-15

    Severe hypoglycemic events (SHEs) are associated with significant morbidity, mortality and costs. However, the more common non-severe hypoglycemic events (NSHEs) are less well explored. We investigated the association between reported frequency of NSHEs and SHEs among patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the PREDICTIVE study.

  19. Increased DHT levels in androgenic alopecia have been selected for to protect men from prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Shiva

    2014-04-01

    Androgenic alopecia, a condition characterized by increased levels of DHT could have been selected for due to the benefits that prostaglandin D2 (PGD(2)) has on the prostate. A DHT metabolite can increase the transcription of prostaglandin D2 synthase through estrogen receptor beta. The increase of PGD(2) can decrease the risk of prostate cancer and proliferation of prostate cancer cells. Therefore, the mechanisms behind male pattern baldness may also curtail the advancement of prostate cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Increased 5-hydroxymethylation levels in the sub ventricular zone of the Alzheimer's brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Mastroeni

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The subventricular zone (SVZ is a site of neurogenesis in the aging brain, and epigenetic mechanisms have been implicated in regulating the “normal” distribution of new nerve cells into the existing cellular milieu. In a case-control study of human primary SVZ cultures and fixed tissue from the same individuals, we have found significant increases in DNA hydroxymethylation levels in the SVZ of Alzheimer's disease patients compared with nondiseased control subjects. We show that this increase in hydroxymethylation directly correlates to an increase in cellular proliferation in Alzheimer's disease precursor cells, which implicates the hydroxymethylation tag to a higher degree of cellular proliferation.

  1. Increasing occurrence of multiple sclerosis in women correlates to hygiene level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Cendrowski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The increasing incidence of multiple sclerosis, particularly among women in Europe and North America, has a multifactorial aetiology. Method: The aim of the current study was to ascertain the relation between the hygiene level and occurrence of multiple sclerosis in women in Poland. The study was based on a large cohort of 14,200 multiple sclerosis individuals (male – 6,106, female – 8,094 who died in the years 1981–2010 in Poland. The female to male ratio (the F:M ratio in the multiple sclerosis group was calculated using the number of deaths per year. The rate of late mortality in infants (LMI per 1,000 live births yearly was used as a marker of the hygiene level. A correlation analysis was carried out between the rate of LMI and the F:M ratio in the multiple sclerosis cohort in the years 1981–2010. Demographic data were obtained from the Central Statistical Office in Warsaw. Results: The F:M ratio in the multiple sclerosis group evidently increased (range 1.08–1.79 in the years 1981–2010, showing increasing occurrence of multiple sclerosis in women (p < 0.0001. A significant, strong and inverse correlation was found between the marker of the hygiene level (LMI rate and the F:M ratio in the multiple sclerosis group over three decades: linear correlation coefficient by Pearson: r = –0.693, p < 0.0001. By contrast with this result, no correlation was established between the hygiene level marker and proportion of women to men in the general population on account of extremely low variance of the F:M ratio (0.000025. Conclusion: The improvement of the hygiene level showed association with the increasing occurrence of multiple sclerosis in women in the years 1981–2010. The higher the hygiene level was, the greater the occurrence of female multiple sclerosis in Poland.

  2. Increased levels of unscheduled DNA synthesis in UV-irradiated human fibroblasts pretreated with sodium butyrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.I.; Friedberg, E.C.

    1982-01-01

    Pretreatment of growing normal and xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) human fibroblasts with sodium butyrate at concentrations of 5-20 mM results in increased levels of DNA repair synthesis measured by autoradiography after exposure of the cells to 254 nm UV radiation in the fluence range 0-25 J/m 2 . The phenomenon manifests as an increased extent and an increased initial rate of unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS). This experimental result is not due to an artifact of autoradiography related to cell size. Xeroderma pigmentosum cells from complementation groups A, C, D and E and XP variant cells all exhibit increases in the levels of UV-induced UDS in response to sodium butyrate proportional to those observed with normal cells. These UDS increases associated with butyrate pretreatment correlate with demonstrable changes in intracellular thymidine pool size and suggest that sodium butyrate enhances uptake of exogenous radiolabeled thymidine during UV-induced repair synthesis by reducing endogenous levels of thymidine. (author)

  3. Trans fatty acids increase nitric oxide levels and pancreatic beta-cell necrosis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusmiyati Tjahjono DK

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background The prevalence of diabetes in Indonesia is increasing due to various factors, including life style changes such as trans fatty acid (TFA intake. High TFA intake is known to be related to blood lipid profile changes resulting in cardiovascular disorders. This study was to identify the effect of TFA on nitric oxide (NO production and on necrosis of pancreatic beta cells. Methods A study of randomized pre-test post–test design with control group. Thirty Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups, i.e. group K (control, group P1 receiving a diet with 5% TFA, and P2 receiving 10% TFA. The intervention was performed for 8 weeks. NO level and pancreatic beta-cell necrosis were analyzed using Pearson’s chi square test. Results After 4 weeks of treatment there was no change in NO levels in group K, but increased NO in P2 (2.6-3.8 ìM. At 8 weeks after treatment, NO levels in groups P1 and P2 increased to 2.6-3.4 ìM and 4.2-14.3 ìM, respectively, while in group K only 2 rats had increased NO levels of 2.8-2.9 ìM. With Pearson’s chi-square test, there was a signifant difference in the proportions of necrotic pancreatic beta cells after 4 weeks and 8 weeks (p=0.000. No necrosis of beta cells was found in group K, mild necrosis in group P1 (1-25% and moderate necrosis in group P2 (26-50%. Conclusion TFA consumption significantly increases NO levels in Sprague Dawley rats and also results in moderate grades of necrosis of pancreatic beta cells.

  4. Trans fatty acids increase nitric oxide levels and pancreatic beta-cell necrosis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusmiyati Tjahjono DK

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The prevalence of diabetes in Indonesia is increasing due to various factors, including life style changes such as trans fatty acid (TFA intake. High TFA intake is known to be related to blood lipid profile changes resulting in cardiovascular disorders. This study was to identify the effect of TFA on nitric oxide (NO production and on necrosis of pancreatic beta cells. METHODS A study of randomized pre-test post–test design with control group. Thirty Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups, i.e. group K (control, group P1 receiving a diet with 5% TFA, and P2 receiving 10% TFA. The intervention was performed for 8 weeks. NO level and pancreatic beta-cell necrosis were analyzed using Pearson’s chi square test. RESULTS After 4 weeks of treatment there was no change in NO levels in group K, but increased NO in P2 (2.6-3.8 ìM. At 8 weeks after treatment, NO levels in groups P1 and P2 increased to 2.6-3.4 ìM and 4.2-14.3 ìM, respectively, while in group K only 2 rats had increased NO levels of 2.8-2.9 ìM. With Pearson’s chi-square test, there was a signifant difference in the proportions of necrotic pancreatic beta cells after 4 weeks and 8 weeks (p= 0.000. No necrosis of beta cells was found in group K, mild necrosis in group P1 (1-25% and moderate necrosis in group P2 (26-50%. CONCLUSION TFA consumption significantly increases NO levels in Sprague Dawley rats and also results in moderate grades of necrosis of pancreatic beta cells

  5. Increased prolactin levels are associated with impaired processing speed in subjects with early psychosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itziar Montalvo

    Full Text Available Hyperprolactinaemia, a common side effect of some antipsychotic drugs, is also present in drug-naïve psychotic patients and subjects at risk for psychosis. Recent studies in non-psychiatric populations suggest that increased prolactin may have negative effects on cognition. The aim of our study was to explore whether high plasma prolactin levels are associated with poorer cognitive functioning in subjects with early psychoses. We studied 107 participants: 29 healthy subjects and 78 subjects with an early psychosis (55 psychotic disorders with <3 years of illness, 23 high-risk subjects. Cognitive assessment was performed with the MATRICS Cognitive Consensus Cognitive Battery, and prolactin levels were determined as well as total cortisol levels in plasma. Psychopathological status was assessed and the use of psychopharmacological treatments (antipsychotics, antidepressants, benzodiazepines recorded. Prolactin levels were negatively associated with cognitive performance in processing speed, in patients with a psychotic disorder and high-risk subjects. In the latter group, increased prolactin levels were also associated with impaired reasoning and problem solving and poorer general cognition. In a multiple linear regression analysis conducted in both high-risk and psychotic patients, controlling for potential confounders, prolactin and benzodiazepines were independently related to poorer cognitive performance in the speed of processing domain. A mediation analysis showed that both prolactin and benzodiazepine treatment act as mediators of the relationship between risperidone/paliperidone treatment and speed of processing. These results suggest that increased prolactin levels are associated with impaired processing speed in early psychosis. If these results are confirmed in future studies, strategies targeting reduction of prolactin levels may improve cognition in this population.

  6. Autism and increased paternal age related changes in global levels of gene expression regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D Alter

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A causal role of mutations in multiple general transcription factors in neurodevelopmental disorders including autism suggested that alterations in global levels of gene expression regulation might also relate to disease risk in sporadic cases of autism. This premise can be tested by evaluating for changes in the overall distribution of gene expression levels. For instance, in mice, variability in hippocampal-dependent behaviors was associated with variability in the pattern of the overall distribution of gene expression levels, as assessed by variance in the distribution of gene expression levels in the hippocampus. We hypothesized that a similar change in variance might be found in children with autism. Gene expression microarrays covering greater than 47,000 unique RNA transcripts were done on RNA from peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL of children with autism (n = 82 and controls (n = 64. Variance in the distribution of gene expression levels from each microarray was compared between groups of children. Also tested was whether a risk factor for autism, increased paternal age, was associated with variance. A decrease in the variance in the distribution of gene expression levels in PBL was associated with the diagnosis of autism and a risk factor for autism, increased paternal age. Traditional approaches to microarray analysis of gene expression suggested a possible mechanism for decreased variance in gene expression. Gene expression pathways involved in transcriptional regulation were down-regulated in the blood of children with autism and children of older fathers. Thus, results from global and gene specific approaches to studying microarray data were complimentary and supported the hypothesis that alterations at the global level of gene expression regulation are related to autism and increased paternal age. Global regulation of transcription, thus, represents a possible point of convergence for multiple etiologies of autism and other

  7. Increasing cadmium and zinc levels in wild common eiders breeding along Canada's remote northern coastline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallory, Mark L.; Braune, Birgit M.; Robertson, Gregory J.; Gilchrist, H. Grant; Mallory, Conor D.; Forbes, Mark R.; Wells, Regina

    2014-01-01

    The common eider (Somateria mollissima) is an abundant sea duck breeding around the circumpolar Arctic, and is an important component of subsistence and sport harvest in some regions. We determined hepatic cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) concentrations in the livers of breeding females sampled during three time periods including 1992/3, 2001/2 and 2008 at three sites spanning 53.7°N–75.8°N in the eastern Canadian Arctic. At all sites, concentrations of both Cd and Zn increased ∼ 300% over this time period. The reasons for this rapid increase in concentrations are unclear. - Highlights: • Cd and Zn analyzed in common eider (Somateria mollissima) liver tissue in Canadian Arctic from sites spanning 3000 km. • ∼ 300% increase in concentrations observed over ∼ 20 years • Levels of both elements considered high and near levels thought to pose concerns for wildlife health

  8. Blood parameters in growing pigs fed increasing levels of bacterial protein meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Skrede, Anders

    2007-01-01

    The experiment investigated the effects of increasing dietary levels of bacterial protein meal (BPM) on various blood parameters reflecting protein and fat metabolism, liver function, and purine base metabolism in growing pigs. Sixteen barrows were allocated to four different experimental diets....... The control diet was based on soybean meal. In the other three diets soybean meal was replaced with increasing levels of BPM, approximately 17%, 35%, and 50% of the nitrogen being derived from BPM. Blood samples from the jugular vein were taken when the body weights of the pigs were approximately 10 kg, 21 kg......, 45 kg, and 77 kg. The blood parameters reflecting fat metabolism and liver funtion were not affected by diet. Both the plasma albumin and uric acid concentrations tended to decrease (P = 0.07 and 0.01, respectively) with increasing dietary BPM content, whereas the plasma glucose concentration tended...

  9. Steroid injection for shoulder pain causes prolonged increased glucose level in type 1 diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povlsen, Bo; Povlsen, Sebastian D

    2014-09-08

    Shoulder pain is very common in diabetic patients and often treated with steroid injections, with subsequent increases in blood glucose levels or the need for additional insulin being questioned. We report a case of significant and prolonged elevation of blood glucose levels and resultant insulin requirement in a type 1 diabetic man after a single 40 mg injection of triamcinolone for shoulder pain. Within 48 h, the shoulder pain as assessed by a visual analogue scale (0-10) was reduced to zero, but the elevated insulin requirements continued for 4 weeks after the injection. This finding suggests that steroid injections for shoulder pain in diabetics may not always be as safe as previously thought. We propose that medical practitioners advise their patients to monitor their glucose levels more carefully after such injections and that caution is exercised when considering administrating these injections to those who have poorly controlled blood glucose levels preinjection to avoid ketoacidosis. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  10. Which Exercise Is Better for Increasing Serum Testosterone Levels in Patients with Erectile Dysfunction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Kyun Yeo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We investigated the correlations of serum total testosterone (TT levels with body composition and physical fitness parameters in patients with erectile dysfunction (ED to know the best exercise for testosterone deficiency. Materials and Methods: Eighty-seven ED patients underwent serum TT assessment as well as body composition and basic exercise testing. The bioelectrical impedance analysis was used to assess body composition. Seven types of basic exercise tests were used to determine physical fitness. Correlations between serum TT levels and body composition/physical function parameters were evaluated using partial correlation analyses. A serum TT cut-off value was obtained for the parameters significantly correlated with serum TT levels. Results: The subjects had a mean serum TT level of 342.1 ng/dL. Among the body composition parameters, body and abdominal fat percentages showed statistically significant negative correlations with serum TT levels. Among the basic exercise test parameters, only the cycle ergometer test for cardiorespiratory fitness showed a statistically significant positive correlation with serum TT levels. Conclusions: Serum TT levels in patients with ED, may be increased by reducing fat percentage and improving cardiorespiratory fitness via aerobic exercise.

  11. Low oxygen level increases proliferation and metabolic changes in bovine granulosa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiratsuki, Shogo; Hara, Tomotaka; Munakata, Yasuhisa; Shirasuna, Koumei; Kuwayama, Takehito; Iwata, Hisataka

    2016-12-05

    The present study addresses molecular backgrounds underlying low oxygen induced metabolic changes and 1.2-fold change in bovine granulosa cell (GCs) proliferation. RNA-seq revealed that low oxygen (5%) upregulated genes associated with HIF-1 and glycolysis and downregulated genes associated with mitochondrial respiration than that in high oxygen level (21%). Low oxygen level induced high glycolytic activity and low mitochondrial function and biogenesis. Low oxygen level enhanced GC proliferation with high expression levels of HIF-1, VEGF, AKT, mTOR, and S6RP, whereas addition of anti-VEGF antibody decreased cellular proliferation with low phosphorylated AKT and mTOR expression levels. Low oxygen level reduced SIRT1, whereas activation of SIRT1 by resveratrol increased mitochondrial replication and decreased cellular proliferation with reduction of phosphorylated mTOR. These results suggest that low oxygen level stimulates the HIF1-VEGF-AKT-mTOR pathway and up-regulates glycolysis, which contributes to GC proliferation, and downregulation of SIRT1 contributes to hypoxia-associated reduction of mitochondria and cellular proliferation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Increased serum level of prolactin is related to autoantibody production in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J; Li, Q; Yang, X; Li, M

    2016-04-01

    Prolactin (PRL) is known to aid effector B cells and augment autoimmunity, but the role of PRL in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is not fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between the serum levels of PRL and autoantibody production in SLE. Blood levels of PRL, anti-double-stranded DNA (ds-DNA) antibody, immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) were determined in samples from 30 adult patients with SLE and 25 healthy controls. The relationships between the serum level of PRL and SLE disease activity, as well as the titres of the ds-DNA antibody, IgM and IgG were determined. The serum level of PRL was higher in the SLE patients than in the healthy controls. PRL concentration increased during SLE flares-ups and decreased following disease remission. There was a positive correlation between the PRL concentration and serum levels of IgM, IgG and ds-DNA antibody titre. These data suggest that the serum level of PRL was closely related to the antibody production and disease activity of SLE patients. PRL concentration was dramatically reduced upon the remission of disease activity, indicating that PRL levels might be a promising predictor of SLE disease severity. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Basic Restriction and Reference Level in Anatomically-based Japanese Models for Low-Frequency Electric and Magnetic Field Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Yukinori; Hirata, Akimasa; Fujiwara, Osamu

    Human exposed to electric and/or magnetic fields at low frequencies may cause direct effect such as nerve stimulation and excitation. Therefore, basic restriction is regulated in terms of induced current density in the ICNIRP guidelines and in-situ electric field in the IEEE standard. External electric or magnetic field which does not produce induced quantities exceeding the basic restriction is used as a reference level. The relationship between the basic restriction and reference level for low-frequency electric and magnetic fields has been investigated using European anatomic models, while limited for Japanese model, especially for electric field exposures. In addition, that relationship has not well been discussed. In the present study, we calculated the induced quantities in anatomic Japanese male and female models exposed to electric and magnetic fields at reference level. A quasi static finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method was applied to analyze this problem. As a result, spatially averaged induced current density was found to be more sensitive to averaging algorithms than that of in-situ electric field. For electric and magnetic field exposure at the ICNIRP reference level, the maximum values of the induced current density for different averaging algorithm were smaller than the basic restriction for most cases. For exposures at the reference level in the IEEE standard, the maximum electric fields in the brain were larger than the basic restriction in the brain while smaller for the spinal cord and heart.

  14. Stretchable Complementary Split Ring Resonator (CSRR-Based Radio Frequency (RF Sensor for Strain Direction and Level Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seunghyun Eom

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we proposed a stretchable radio frequency (RF sensor to detect strain direction and level. The stretchable sensor is composed of two complementary split ring resonators (CSRR with microfluidic channels. In order to achieve stretchability, liquid metal (eutectic gallium-indium, EGaIn and Ecoflex substrate are used. Microfluidic channels are built by Ecoflex elastomer and microfluidic channel frames. A three-dimensional (3D printer is used for fabrication of microfluidic channel frames. Two CSRR resonators are designed to resonate 2.03 GHz and 3.68 GHz. When the proposed sensor is stretched from 0 to 8 mm along the +x direction, the resonant frequency is shifted from 3.68 GHz to 3.13 GHz. When the proposed sensor is stretched from 0 to 8 mm along the −x direction, the resonant frequency is shifted from 2.03 GHz to 1.78 GHz. Therefore, we can detect stretched length and direction from independent variation of two resonant frequencies.

  15. Increased Cord Blood Betatrophin Levels in the Offspring of Mothers with Gestational Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shimin; Zhao, Yue; Du, Caiqi; Yuan, Guandou; Ning, Qin; McCormick, Kenneth; Luo, Xiaoping

    2016-01-01

    Aim Exposing a fetus to hyperglycemia can increase the risk for later-life metabolic disorders. Betatrophin has been proposed as a key regulator of pancreatic beta cell proliferation and lipid regulation. Highly responsive to nutritional signals, serum betatrophin concentrations have been found to be altered by various physiological and pathological conditions. We hypothesized that betatrophin levels are increased in the cord blood in offspring exposed to intrauterine hyperglycemia. Methods This was a cross-sectional study including 54 mothers who underwent uncomplicated Cesarean delivery in a university hospital. Maternal gestational glucose concentration was determined at 24–48 weeks gestation after a 75-g OGTT. Cord blood and placental tissue was collected immediately post delivery. Metabolic parameters were determined in the Clinical Laboratory. Cord blood betatrophin levels were assayed using a commercially available ELISA kit. Placental mitochondrial content was determined by real-time PCR. Results Cord blood betatrophin levels were increased in the gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) group compared with the normoglycemic group. Furthermore, betatrophin levels were positively correlated with maternal gestational 2h post-OGTT glucose, cord blood insulin, HOMA-IR, and inversely correlated with placental mitochondrial content. Conclusions Cord blood betatrophin may function as a potential biomarker of maternal intrauterine hyperglycemia and fetal insulin resistance, which may presage for long-term metabolic impact of GDM on offspring. PMID:27196053

  16. [Increased oxidized LDL cholesterol levels in peritoneal fluid of women with advanced-stage endometriosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polak, Grzegorz; Mazurek, Diana; Rogala, Ewelina; Nowicka, Aldona; Derewianka-Polak, Magdalena; Kotarski, Jan

    2011-03-01

    Proinflammatory and prooxidative environment in the peritoneal cavity may be involved in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. Imbalance between reactive oxygen species levels and the antioxidant capacity leads to oxidation of low-density lipoproteins (LDL). The importance of oxidized LDL (Ox-LDL) in the development of atherosclerosis is well recognized. The aim of our study was to evaluate for the presence of ox-LDL in the peritoneal fluid (PF) of women with and without endometriosis. A total of 60 women who underwent laparoscopy were divided into groups: endometriosis sufferers with minimal to mild (n 20) and moderate to severe (n 20) stages, and the reference group (n 20) with functional follicle ovarian cysts. Oxidized LDL levels were determined in the PF using enzyme immunoassay Oxidized LDL levels were detectable in all peritoneal fluid samples. Significantly increased levels of ox-LDL were observed in PF of women with stage III/IV endometriosis compared to the reference group (p = 0.03). However peritoneal fluid ox-LDL concentrations did not differ significantly between patients with minimal/mild and women with moderate/severe stage of the disease (p = 0.2). No significant difference in the PF ox-LDL concentrations was also found between women with stage I/II endometriosis and patients with follicle cysts (p = 0.3). Increased peritoneal fluid ox-LDL levels observed in women with advanced-stage endometriosis suggest the important role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of the disease.

  17. Cigarette smoking increases radon working level exposures to all occupants of the smoker's home

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.H. Jr.; Rosario, A. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that the 1988 National Academy of Sciences report on radon health risks evaluated the combined effects of radon exposures and cigarettes on the lung cancer risk to smokers. This report showed that the risk of lung cancer is about 10 times greater for smokers than for nonsmokers at the same Working Level exposures. In 1986, the Surgeon General reported that 106,000 lung cancer deaths occurred among smokers. Therefore, the health risks of cigarettes alone or in combination with radon exposures are well recognized. What has not been studied is the effect of cigarette smoke on the Working Levels in homes that increases the exposure to radon decay products to all occupants, both smokers and nonsmokers. Preliminary studies in a radon chamber at Radon QC showed that the smoke from a single cigarette increased the Working Levels by a factor of five within four hours. Furthermore, the Working Levels remained at an elevated level for more than 24 hours. The equilibrium ratio of radon decay products to radon gas also went from about 14% up to 71%, with a slow decrease over 24 hours. Similar studies in the homes of a smoker and nonsmoker confirmed the laboratory observations. The studies in homes also showed the effects of thoron decay products

  18. Selective increase of in vivo firing frequencies in DA SN neurons after proteasome inhibition in the ventral midbrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Mahalakshmi; Kern, Beatrice; Vogel, Simone; Klose, Verena; Schneider, Gaby; Roeper, Jochen

    2014-09-01

    The impairment of protein degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is present in sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD), and might play a key role in selective degeneration of vulnerable dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SN). Further evidence for a causal role of dysfunctional UPS in familial PD comes from mutations in parkin, which results in a loss of function of an E3-ubiquitin-ligase. In a mouse model, genetic inactivation of an essential component of the 26S proteasome lead to widespread neuronal degeneration including DA midbrain neurons and the formation of alpha-synuclein-positive inclusion bodies, another hallmark of PD. Studies using pharmacological UPS inhibition in vivo had more mixed results, varying from extensive degeneration to no loss of DA SN neurons. However, it is currently unknown whether UPS impairment will affect the neurophysiological functions of DA midbrain neurons. To answer this question, we infused a selective proteasome inhibitor into the ventral midbrain in vivo and recorded single DA midbrain neurons 2 weeks after the proteasome challenge. We found a selective increase in the mean in vivo firing frequencies of identified DA SN neurons in anesthetized mice, while those in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) were unaffected. Our results demonstrate that a single-hit UPS inhibition is sufficient to induce a stable and selective hyperexcitability phenotype in surviving DA SN neurons in vivo. This might imply that UPS dysfunction sensitizes DA SN neurons by enhancing 'stressful pacemaking'. © 2014 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. and improvement of bowel function by increasing stool frequency pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    2014-01-01

    to a combination of Bifidobacterium longum LA 101, Lactobacillus helveticus LA 102, Lactococcus lactis LA 103 and Streptococcus thermophilus LA 104 and improvement of bowel function by increasing stool frequency. The food that is the subject of the health claim is a combination of four bacterial strains—B. longum...... proposed by the applicant is "improves stool frequency". The Panel considers that improvement of bowel function by increasing stool frequency, provided that it does not result in diarrhoea, is a beneficial physiological effect. The Panel considers that the human study provided for the substantiation...... of the claim did not find an increase in stool frequency following consumption of a combination of the bacterial strains which is the subject of the claim. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of a combination of B. longum LA 101, L...

  20. Diffuse radiation increases global ecosystem-level water-use efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffat, A. M.; Reichstein, M.; Cescatti, A.; Knohl, A.; Zaehle, S.

    2012-12-01

    Current environmental changes lead not only to rising atmospheric CO2 levels and air temperature but also to changes in air pollution and thus the light quality of the solar radiation reaching the land-surface. While rising CO2 levels are thought to enhance photosynthesis and closure of stomata, thus leading to relative water savings, the effect of diffuse radiation on transpiration by plants is less clear. It has been speculated that the stimulation of photosynthesis by increased levels of diffuse light may be counteracted by higher transpiration and consequently water depletion and drought stress. Ultimately, in water co-limited systems, the overall effect of diffuse radiation will depend on the sensitivity of canopy transpiration versus photosynthesis to diffuse light, i.e. whether water-use efficiency changes with relative levels of diffuse light. Our study shows that water-use efficiency increases significantly with higher fractions of diffuse light. It uses the ecosystem-atmosphere gas-exchange observations obtained with the eddy covariance method at 29 flux tower sites. In contrast to previous global studies, the analysis is based directly on measurements of diffuse radiation. Its effect on water-use efficiency was derived by analyzing the multivariate response of carbon and water fluxes to radiation and air humidity using a purely empirical approach based on artificial neural networks. We infer that per unit change of diffuse fraction the water-use efficiency increases up to 40% depending on diffuse fraction levels and ecosystem type. Hence, in regions with increasing diffuse radiation positive effects on primary production are expected even under conditions where water is co-limiting productivity.

  1. Oxidized low density lipoprotein increases RANKL level in human vascular cells. Involvement of oxidative stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazière, Cécile, E-mail: maziere.cecile@chu-amiens.fr [Biochemistry Laboratory, South Hospital University, René Laennec Avenue, Amiens 80000 (France); Salle, Valéry [Internal Medicine, North Hospital University, Place Victor Pauchet, Amiens 80000 (France); INSERM U1088 (EA 4292), SFR CAP-Santé (FED 4231), University of Picardie – Jules Verne (France); Gomila, Cathy; Mazière, Jean-Claude [Biochemistry Laboratory, South Hospital University, René Laennec Avenue, Amiens 80000 (France)

    2013-10-18

    Highlights: •Oxidized LDL enhances RANKL level in human smooth muscle cells. •The effect of OxLDL is mediated by the transcription factor NFAT. •UVA, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and buthionine sulfoximine also increase RANKL level. •All these effects are observed in human fibroblasts and endothelial cells. -- Abstract: Receptor Activator of NFκB Ligand (RANKL) and its decoy receptor osteoprotegerin (OPG) have been shown to play a role not only in bone remodeling but also in inflammation, arterial calcification and atherosclerotic plaque rupture. In human smooth muscle cells, Cu{sup 2+}-oxidized LDL (CuLDL) 10–50 μg/ml increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and RANKL level in a dose-dependent manner, whereas OPG level was not affected. The lipid extract of CuLDL reproduced the effects of the whole particle. Vivit, an inhibitor of the transcription factor NFAT, reduced the CuLDL-induced increase in RANKL, whereas PKA and NFκB inhibitors were ineffective. LDL oxidized by myeloperoxidase (MPO-LDL), or other pro-oxidant conditions such as ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation, incubation with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} or with buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), an inhibitor of glutathione synthesis{sub ,} also induced an oxidative stress and enhanced RANKL level. The increase in RANKL in pro-oxidant conditions was also observed in fibroblasts and endothelial cells. Since RANKL is involved in myocardial inflammation, vascular calcification and plaque rupture, this study highlights a new mechanism whereby OxLDL might, by generation of an oxidative stress, exert a deleterious effect on different cell types of the arterial wall.

  2. Increased sorbitol levels in the hypertrophic ligamentum flavum of diabetic patients with lumbar spinal canal stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jiaquan; Huang, Lu; Chen, Zhuo; Zeng, Zhaoxun; Miyamoto, Takeshi; Wu, Hao; Zhang, Zhongzu; Pan, Zhimin; Fujita, Nobuyuki; Hikata, Tomohiro; Iwanami, Akio; Tsuji, Takashi; Ishii, Ken; Nakamura, Masaya; Matsumoto, Morio; Watanabe, Kota; Cao, Kai

    2017-05-01

    The pathomechanism of the ligamentum flavum (LF) hypertrophy in diabetic patients with lumbar spinal canal stenosis (LSCS) remains unclear. A cross-sectional study was undertaken to investigate the mechanism of LF hypertrophy in these patients. Twenty-four diabetic and 20 normoglycemic patients with LSCS were enrolled in the study. The structure of the LF in the study subjects was evaluated using histological and immunohistochemical methods, and the levels of sorbitol, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and the fibrogenic factor, TGF-β1, in the LF were analyzed. In vitro experiments were performed using NIH3T3 fibroblasts to evaluate the effect of high-glucose conditions and an aldose reductase inhibitor on the cellular production of sorbitol, pro-inflammatory factors, and TGF-β1. We found that the LF of diabetic patients exhibited significantly higher levels of sorbitol and pro-inflammatory cytokines, TGF-β1 and of CD68-positive staining than that of the normoglycemic subjects. The diabetic LF was significantly thicker than that of the controls, and showed evidence of degeneration. The high glucose-cultured fibroblasts exhibited significantly higher levels of sorbitol, pro-inflammatory factors, and TGF-β1 compared to the low glucose-cultured cells, and these levels were dose-dependently reduced by treatment with the aldose reductase inhibitor. Taken together, our data suggests that increased sorbitol levels in the LF of diabetic patients results in increased production of pro-inflammatory and fibrogenic factor, which contribute to LF hypertrophy, and could increase the susceptibility of diabetic patients to LSCS. Furthermore, aldose reductase inhibition effectively reduced the levels of sorbitol and sorbitol-induced pro-inflammatory factor expression in high glucose-cultured fibroblasts. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:1058-1066, 2017. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Chronic lithium treatment increased intracellular S100ß levels in rat primary neuronal culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Emamghoreishi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available S100ß a neurotrophic factor mainly released by astrocytes, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of bipolar disorder. Thus, lithium may exert its neuroprotective effects to some extent through S100ß. Furthermore, the possible effects of lithium on astrocytes as well as on interactions between neurons and astrocytes as a part of its mechanisms of actions are unknown. This study was undertaken to determine the effect of lithium on S100β in neurons, astrocytes and a mixture of neurons and astrocytes. Rat primary astrocyte, neuronal and mixed neuro-astroglia cultures were prepared from cortices of 18-day's embryos. Cell cultures were exposed to lithium (1mM or vehicle for 1day (acute or 7 days (chronic. RT-PCR and ELISA determined S100β mRNA and intra- and extracellular protein levels. Chronic lithium treatment significantly increased intracellular S100β in neuronal and neuro-astroglia cultures in comparison to control cultures (P<0.05. Acute and chronic lithium treatments exerted no significant effects on intracellular S100β protein levels in astrocytes, and extracellular S100β protein levels in three studied cultures as compared to control cultures. Acute and chronic lithium treatments did not significantly alter S100β mRNA levels in three studied cultures, compared to control cultures. Chronic lithium treatment increased intracellular S100ß protein levels in a cell-type specific manner which may favor its neuroprotective action. The findings of this study suggest that lithium may exert its neuroprotective action, at least partly, by increasing neuronal S100ß level, with no effect on astrocytes or interaction between neurons and astrocytes.

  4. Salicylic Acid Treatment Increases the Levels of Triterpene Glycosides in Black Cohosh (Actaea Racemosa) Rhizomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Capite, Annette; Lancaster, Tyler; Puthoff, David

    2016-01-01

    Black cohosh (Actaea racemosa) serves as the host plant for the Appalachian azure butterfly, Celastrina neglectamajor. Overharvesting of Black cohosh for the dietary supplement industry may result in its extirpation, and may also cause the elimination of the dependent butterfly. One way to increase or maintain the number of host plants in forested environments would be to reduce the number harvested, for example by increasing the levels of the desired metabolites in Black cohosh rhizomes. The secondary metabolites actein and deoxyactein are triterpene glycosides and are among the compounds associated with the putative activity of Black cohosh extracts. Acetein and deoxyacetein are used to standardize Black cohosh supplements. To gain an understanding of mechanisms that may control actein and deoxyactein accumulation, Black cohosh rhizomes were treated with exogenous salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, or ethylene, or were mechanically wounded. Salicylic acid treatment significantly increased the levels of actein and deoxyactein in the rhizome of Black cohosh, suggesting that the synthesis of triterpene glycosides is controlled in part by salicylic acid. Using salicylic acid or related chemicals to increase the levels of actein and deoxyactein in rhizomes may help supply the supplement industry and, simultaneously, help conserve Black cohosh and species dependent upon it.

  5. Suramin Inhibits Osteoarthritic Cartilage Degradation by Increasing Extracellular Levels of Chondroprotective Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanalaris, Anastasios; Doherty, Christine; Marsden, Brian D; Bambridge, Gabriel; Wren, Stephen P; Nagase, Hideaki; Troeberg, Linda

    2017-10-01

    Osteoarthritis is a common degenerative joint disease for which no disease-modifying drugs are currently available. Attempts to treat the disease with small molecule inhibitors of the metalloproteinases that degrade the cartilage matrix have been hampered by a lack of specificity. We aimed to inhibit cartilage degradation by augmenting levels of the endogenous metalloproteinase inhibitor, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP)-3, through blocking its interaction with the endocytic scavenger receptor, low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1). We discovered that suramin (C 51 H 40 N 6 O 23 S 6 ) bound to TIMP-3 with a K D value of 1.9 ± 0.2 nM and inhibited its endocytosis via LRP1, thus increasing extracellular levels of TIMP-3 and inhibiting cartilage degradation by the TIMP-3 target enzyme, adamalysin-like metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs 5. NF279 (8,8'-[carbonyl bis (imino-4,1-phenylenecarbonylimino-4,1-phenylenecarbonylimino)] bis -1,3,5-naphthalenetrisulfonic acid hexasodium salt), a structural analog of suramin, has an increased affinity for TIMP-3 and increased ability to inhibit TIMP-3 endocytosis and protect cartilage. Suramin is thus a promising scaffold for the development of novel therapeutics to increase TIMP-3 levels and inhibit cartilage degradation in osteoarthritis. Copyright © 2017 by The Author(s).

  6. Steroid injection for shoulder pain causes prolonged increased glucose level in type 1 diabetics

    OpenAIRE

    Povlsen, Bo; Povlsen, Sebastian D

    2014-01-01

    Shoulder pain is very common in diabetic patients and often treated with steroid injections, with subsequent increases in blood glucose levels or the need for additional insulin being questioned. We report a case of significant and prolonged elevation of blood glucose levels and resultant insulin requirement in a type 1 diabetic man after a single 40 mg injection of triamcinolone for shoulder pain. Within 48 h, the shoulder pain as assessed by a visual analogue scale (0–10) was reduced to zer...

  7. Smoking is associated with increased levels of extracellular peptidylarginine deiminase 2 (PAD2) in the lungs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Dres; Friberg Bruun Nielsen, Michael; Quisgaard Gaunsbaek, Maria

    2015-01-01

    lavage (BAL) fluid from smokers, but intracellularly located PAD cannot be responsible for citrullination of extracellular self-antigens. We aimed to establish a link between smoking and extracellular PAD2 in the lungs. METHODS: BAL fluid samples were obtained from 13 smokers and 11 nonsmoking controls...... fluids from smokers as compared to non-smokers (p=0.018). The PAD2 content correlated with the overall CRP levels (p=0.009) and cell count (p=0.016). CONCLUSIONS: This first demonstration of increased levels of extracellular PAD2 in the lungs of smokers supports the hypothesis that smoking promotes...

  8. Five-Level Converter with Low Switching Frequency Applied as DC Voltage Supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Tonny Wederberg

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the use of a multi-level converter as a DC supply. Equations for the converter will be deduced in the nondissipative case. The equations provide solutions to DC voltage and the angle of converter voltage. In addition the spectrum for the harmonics after the elimination of sel...

  9. Clusterin levels are increased in Alzheimer's disease and influence the regional distribution of Aβ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miners, J Scott; Clarke, Polly; Love, Seth

    2017-05-01

    Clusterin, also known as apoJ, is a lipoprotein abundantly expressed within the CNS. It regulates Aβ fibril formation and toxicity and facilitates amyloid-β (Aβ) transport across the blood-brain barrier. Genome-wide association studies have shown variations in the clusterin gene (CLU) to influence the risk of developing sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). To explore whether clusterin modulates the regional deposition of Aβ, we measured levels of soluble (NP40-extracted) and insoluble (guanidine-HCl-extracted) clusterin, Aβ40 and Aβ42 by sandwich ELISA in brain regions with a predilection for amyloid pathology-mid-frontal cortex (MF), cingulate cortex (CC), parahippocampal cortex (PH), and regions with little or no pathology-thalamus (TH) and white matter (WM). Clusterin level was highest in regions with plaque pathology (MF, CC, PH and PC), approximately mirroring the regional distribution of Aβ. It was significantly higher in AD than controls, and correlated positively with Aβ42 and insoluble Aβ40. Soluble clusterin level rose significantly with severity of cerebral amyloid angiopathy, and in MF and PC regions was highest in APOE ɛ4 homozygotes. In the TH and WM (areas with little amyloid pathology) clusterin was unaltered in AD and did not correlate with Aβ level. There was a significant positive correlation between the concentration of clusterin and the regional levels of insoluble Aβ42; however, the molar ratio of clusterin : Aβ42 declined with insoluble Aβ42 level in a region-dependent manner, being lowest in regions with predilection for Aβ plaque pathology. Under physiological conditions, clusterin reduces aggregation and promotes clearance of Aβ. Our findings indicate that in AD, clusterin increases, particularly in regions with most abundant Aβ, but because the increase does not match the rising level of Aβ42, the molar ratio of clusterin : Aβ42 in those regions falls, probably contributing to Aβ deposition within the tissue. © 2016

  10. Plasma adiponectin levels correlate positively with an increasing number of components of frailty in male elders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaw-Shiun Tsai

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Frailty is an important geriatric syndrome. Adiponectin is an important adipokine that regulates energy homeostasis. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between plasma adiponectin levels and frailty in elders. METHODS: The demographic data, body weight, metabolic and inflammatory parameters, including plasma glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, c-reactive protein (CRP and adiponectin levels, were assessed. The frailty score was assessed using the Fried Frailty Index (FFI. RESULTS: The mean (SD age of the 168 participants [83 (49.4% men and 85 (50.6% women] was 76.86 (6.10 years. Judged by the FFI score, 42 (25% elders were robust, 92 (54.7% were pre-frail, and 34 (20.3% were frail. The mean body mass index was 25.19 (3.42 kg/m(2. The log-transformed mean (SD plasma adiponectin (µg/mL level was 1.00 (0.26. The log-transformed mean plasma adiponectin (µg/mL levels were 0.93 (0.23 in the robust elders, 1.00 (0.27 in the pre-frail elders, and 1.10 (0.22 in the frail elders, and the differences between these values were statistically significant (p  = 0.012. Further analysis showed that plasma adiponectin levels rose progressively with an increasing number of components of frailty in all participants as a whole (p for trend  = 0.024 and males (p for trend  = 0.037, but not in females (p for trend  = 0.223. CONCLUSION: Plasma adiponectin levels correlate positively with an increasing number of components of frailty in male elders. The difference between the sexes suggests that certain sex-specific mechanisms may exist to affect the association between adiponectin levels and frailty.

  11. On the question of increasing the frequency of caesarean section and effects on maternal and neonatal outcomes (Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iu. Davydova

    2016-06-01

    and 2 groups, there were no cases of antenatal and intrapartum fetal death, however, 12 (19.3% children in group 1 and 8 (26.7% in the second required a long stay in the intensive care unit newborns with subsequent transfer to the stage postintensivnoy rehabilitation. Conclusions. There is high frequency of obstetric and perinatal complications of pregnancy and childbirth with SLE women occurs. Particularly noteworthy are pregnant with SLE and APS who have significantly more marked IUGR, premature detachment of normally situated placenta, the need for early delivery (p<0.001. Prenatal care in these patients it is advisable to carry out as part of a multidisciplinary team. In the group of pregnant women with SLE and APS using quantitative risk assessment method thromboembolic complications revealed an extremely high rate risk, which makes it possible, using data from evidence-based medicine, to conduct effective thromboprophylaxis drug enoxaparin, having an appropriate level of safety (according to FDA guidelines and high efficiency, proven in many randomized clinical trials.

  12. Instantaneous Real-Time Kinematic Decimeter-Level Positioning with BeiDou Triple-Frequency Signals over Medium Baselines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiyang; Zhang, Xiaohong; Tang, Long; Liu, Wanke

    2015-12-22

    Many applications, such as marine navigation, land vehicles location, etc., require real time precise positioning under medium or long baseline conditions. In this contribution, we develop a model of real-time kinematic decimeter-level positioning with BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) triple-frequency signals over medium distances. The ambiguities of two extra-wide-lane (EWL) combinations are fixed first, and then a wide lane (WL) combination is reformed based on the two EWL combinations for positioning. Theoretical analysis and empirical analysis is given of the ambiguity fixing rate and the positioning accuracy of the presented method. The results indicate that the ambiguity fixing rate can be up to more than 98% when using BDS medium baseline observations, which is much higher than that of dual-frequency Hatch-Melbourne-Wübbena (HMW) method. As for positioning accuracy, decimeter level accuracy can be achieved with this method, which is comparable to that of carrier-smoothed code differential positioning method. Signal interruption simulation experiment indicates that the proposed method can realize fast high-precision positioning whereas the carrier-smoothed code differential positioning method needs several hundreds of seconds for obtaining high precision results. We can conclude that a relatively high accuracy and high fixing rate can be achieved for triple-frequency WL method with single-epoch observations, displaying significant advantage comparing to traditional carrier-smoothed code differential positioning method.

  13. Instantaneous Real-Time Kinematic Decimeter-Level Positioning with BeiDou Triple-Frequency Signals over Medium Baselines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiyang He

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Many applications, such as marine navigation, land vehicles location, etc., require real time precise positioning under medium or long baseline conditions. In this contribution, we develop a model of real-time kinematic decimeter-level positioning with BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS triple-frequency signals over medium distances. The ambiguities of two extra-wide-lane (EWL combinations are fixed first, and then a wide lane (WL combination is reformed based on the two EWL combinations for positioning. Theoretical analysis and empirical analysis is given of the ambiguity fixing rate and the positioning accuracy of the presented method. The results indicate that the ambiguity fixing rate can be up to more than 98% when using BDS medium baseline observations, which is much higher than that of dual-frequency Hatch-Melbourne-Wübbena (HMW method. As for positioning accuracy, decimeter level accuracy can be achieved with this method, which is comparable to that of carrier-smoothed code differential positioning method. Signal interruption simulation experiment indicates that the proposed method can realize fast high-precision positioning whereas the carrier-smoothed code differential positioning method needs several hundreds of seconds for obtaining high precision results. We can conclude that a relatively high accuracy and high fixing rate can be achieved for triple-frequency WL method with single-epoch observations, displaying significant advantage comparing to traditional carrier-smoothed code differential positioning method.

  14. The Common Inhalational Anesthetic Sevoflurane Induces Apoptosis and Increases β-Amyloid Protein Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yuanlin; Zhang, Guohua; Zhang, Bin; Moir, Robert D.; Xia, Weiming; Marcantonio, Edward R.; Culley, Deborah J.; Crosby, Gregory; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Xie, Zhongcong

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effects of sevoflurane, the most commonly used inhalation anesthetic, on apoptosis and β-amyloid protein (Aβ) levels in vitro and in vivo. Subjects: Naive mice, H4 human neuroglioma cells, and H4 human neuroglioma cells stably transfected to express full-length amyloid precursor protein. Interventions: Human H4 neuroglioma cells stably transfected to express full-length amyloid precursor protein were exposed to 4.1% sevoflurane for 6 hours. Mice received 2.5% sevoflurane for 2 hours. Caspase-3 activation, apoptosis, and Aβ levels were assessed. Results: Sevoflurane induced apoptosis and elevated levels of β-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme and Aβ in vitro and in vivo. The caspase inhibitor Z-VAD decreased the effects of sevoflurane on apoptosis and Aβ. Sevoflurane-induced caspase-3 activation was attenuated by the γ-secretase inhibitor L-685,458 and was potentiated by Aβ. These results suggest that sevoflurane induces caspase activation which, in turn, enhances β-site amyloid precursor protein–cleaving enzyme and Aβ levels. Increasedlevels then induce further rounds of apoptosis. Conclusions: These results suggest that inhalational anesthetic sevoflurane may promote Alzheimer disease neuropathogenesis. If confirmed in human subjects, it may be prudent to caution against the use of sevoflurane as an anesthetic, especially in those suspected of possessing excessive levels of cerebral Aβ. PMID:19433662

  15. Benefits and costs of increased levels of corticosterone in seabird chicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaysky, A.S.; Kitaiskaia, E.V.; Piatt, John F.; Wingfield, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    Seabird chicks respond to food shortages by increasing corticosterone (cort) secretion, which is probably associated with fitness benefits and costs. To examine this, we experimentally increased levels of circulating cort in captive black-legged kittiwake chicks fed ad libitum. We found that cort-implanted chicks begged more frequently and were more aggressive compared to controls. These behavioral modifications must be beneficial to chicks as they facilitate acquisition of food from the parents and might trigger brood reduction and reduced competition for food. Cort-implanted chicks also increased food intake; however, their growth rates were similar to controls. To examine the costs of chronically increased circulating levels of cort, we removed cort implants and, after a 10-day recovery period, tested cognitive abilities of young kittiwakes. We found that the ability of kittiwakes to associate a visual cue with the presence of food in a choice situation was compromised by the experimental elevation of cort during development. To examine the long-term costs of increased levels of cort, 8 months later we tested the performance of the same individuals in a spatial task requiring them to make a detour around a barrier in order to escape from an enclosure. Individuals treated with cort during development took significantly more time to solve this task compared to controls. The results of this study suggest that the adrenocortical response of a developing bird to environmental stressors is associated with both benefits (increased food intake, foraging behavior, and aggression) and costs (low growth efficiency and compromised cognitive abilities later in life). This provides an evolutionary framework for relating juvenile physiological traits to fitness of birds in subsequent life-history stages. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  16. Widespread recent increases in county-level heart disease mortality across age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Adam S; Ritchey, Matthew D; Hannan, Judy; Kramer, Michael R; Casper, Michele

    2017-12-01

    Recent national trends show decelerating declines in heart disease mortality, especially among younger adults. National trends may mask variation by geography and age. We examined recent county-level trends in heart disease mortality by age group. Using a Bayesian statistical model and National Vital Statistics Systems data, we estimated overall rates and percent change in heart disease mortality from 2010 through 2015 for four age groups (35-44, 45-54, 55-64, and 65-74 years) in 3098 US counties. Nationally, heart disease mortality declined in every age group except ages 55-64 years. County-level trends by age group showed geographically widespread increases, with 52.3%, 58.5%, 69.1%, and 42.0% of counties experiencing increases with median percent changes of 0.6%, 2.2%, 4.6%, and -1.5% for ages 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, and 65-74 years, respectively. Increases were more likely in counties with initially high heart disease mortality and outside large metropolitan areas. Recent national trends have masked local increases in heart disease mortality. These increases, especially among adults younger than age 65 years, represent challenges to communities across the country. Reversing these trends may require intensification of primary and secondary prevention-focusing policies, strategies, and interventions on younger populations, especially those living in less urban counties. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Blood parameters in growing pigs fed increasing levels of bacterial protein meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauson Anne-Helene

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The experiment investigated the effects of increasing dietary levels of bacterial protein meal (BPM on various blood parameters reflecting protein and fat metabolism, liver function, and purine base metabolism in growing pigs. Sixteen barrows were allocated to four different experimental diets. The control diet was based on soybean meal. In the other three diets soybean meal was replaced with increasing levels of BPM, approximately 17%, 35%, and 50% of the nitrogen being derived from BPM. Blood samples from the jugular vein were taken when the body weights of the pigs were approximately 10 kg, 21 kg, 45 kg, and 77 kg. The blood parameters reflecting fat metabolism and liver function were not affected by diet. Both the plasma albumin and uric acid concentrations tended to decrease (P = 0.07 and 0.01, respectively with increasing dietary BPM content, whereas the plasma glucose concentration tended to increase (P = 0.07 with increasing dietary BPM content. It was concluded that up to 50% of the nitrogen could be derived from BPM without affecting metabolic function, as reflected in the measured blood parameters.

  18. Low-frequency variability of sea level along the coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shankar, D.

    March?April (the southwest monsoon). -30 -15 0 15 30 etaa Kochi J F M A M J J A S O N D J -30 -15 0 15 30 etaa Mangalore J F M A M J J A S O N D J -30 -15 0 15 30 etaa Marmagao J F M A M J J A S O N D J -30 -15 0 15 30 etaa Mumbai J F M A M J J A S O N D... J Colombo J F M A M J J A S O N D J Chennai J F M A M J J A S O N D J Vishakhapatnam J F M A M J J A S O N D J Paradip J F M A M J J A S O N D J Observed sea level The Seasonal Cycle of Sea Level Along the Coast 85 Figure 4.2 The climatological...

  19. Protein synthesis levels are increased in a subset of individuals with Fragile X syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacquemont, Sébastien; Pacini, Laura; Jønch, Aia E

    2018-01-01

    architecture and plasticity. Preclinical studies revealed that pharmacological interventions restore those deficits, which are thought to mediate the FXS cognitive and behavioral symptoms. Here we characterized the de novo rate of protein synthesis in patients with FXS and their relationship with clinical...... severity. We measured the rate of protein synthesis in fibroblasts derived from 32 individuals with FXS and from 17 controls as well as in fibroblasts and primary neurons of 27 Fmr1 KO mice and 20 controls. Here we show that levels of protein synthesis are increased in fibroblasts of individuals with FXS...... and Fmr1 KO mice. However, this cellular phenotype displays a broad distribution and a proportion of fragile X individuals and Fmr1 KO mice do not show increased levels of protein synthesis, having measures in the normal range. Because the same Fmr1 KO animal measures in fibroblasts predict those...

  20. High Circulating Adrenaline Levels at Admission Predict Increased Mortality After Trauma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Pär Ingemar; Stensballe, Jakob; Rasmussen, Lars Simon

    2012-01-01

    partial thromboplastin time, international normalized ratio, hematology, biochemistry, circulating adrenaline and noradrenaline, 11 biomarkers of tissue and endothelial damage, glycocalyx degradation, natural anticoagulation and fibrinolysis (histone-complexed DNA fragments, high-mobility group box 1......:: The adrenaline level was increased in nonsurvivors (p = 0.026), it was independently associated with increased activated partial thromboplastin time (p = 0.034) and syndecan-1 (p = 0.007), a marker of glycocalyx degradation, and it correlated with biomarkers of tissue and endothelial damage (histone......-complexed DNA, high-mobility group box 1, soluble thrombomodulin) and hyperfibrinolysis (tissue-type plasminogen activator, d-dimer). Furthermore, nonsurvivors had higher syndecan-1, tissue factor pathway inhibitor, and d-dimer levels (all p adrenaline was independently associated with 30...

  1. Increasing Resilience Through Engagement In Sea Level Rise Community Science Initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilton, L. A.; Rindge, H.

    2017-12-01

    Science literate and engaged members of the public, including students, are critical to building climate resilient communities. USC Sea Grant facilitates programs that work to build and strengthen these connections. The Urban Tides Community Science Initiative (Urban Tides) and the Youth Exploring Sea Level Rise Science Program (YESS) engage communities across the boundaries of public engagement, K-12 education, and informal education. YESS is an experiential sea level rise education program that combines classroom learning, field investigations and public presentations. Students explore sea level rise using a new curricula, collect their own data on sea level rise, develop communication products, and present their findings to city governments, researchers, and others. Urban Tides engages community members, informal education centers, K-12 students, and local government leaders in a citizen science program photo- documenting extreme high tides, erosion and coastal flooding in Southern California. Images provide critical information to help calibrate scientific models used to identify locations vulnerable to damage from future sea level rise. These tools and information enable community leaders and local governments to set priorities, guidelines, and update policies as they plan strategies that will help the region adapt. The program includes a mobile app for data collection, an open database to view photos, a lesson plan, and community beach walks. Urban Tides has led to an increase in data and data-gathering capacity for regional scientists, an increase in public participation in science, and an increase in ocean and climate literacy among initiative participants. Both of these programs bring informed and diverse voices into the discussion of how to adapt and build climate resilient communities. USC Sea Grant will share impacts and lessons learned from these two unique programs.

  2. The increasing of beta-defensin-2 level in saliva after probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuti Kusumaningsih

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Commesal bacteria is an excellent inducer for beta defensin-2 (BD-2. Probiotics bacteria Lactobacillus reuteri (L. reuteri as commensal bacteria may play the same role as an excellent inducer for BD-2. Beta defensin is natural antimicrobial peptides widely expressed in oral cavity, including in epithelium salivary gland. Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans as the main of bacteria causing caries are sensitive to BD-2. Purpose: This research was aimed to determine whether administration of probiotic L. reuteri can increase salivary BD-2 level in Wistar rats. Methods: This research can be considered as a laboratory experimental research with a randomized control group post test only design. Twenty-four male Rattus norvegicus Wistar strain rats aged 3 months were used. They were randomly divided into four groups, namely two control groups (negative control group that was not induced and positive control group induced with S. mutans, and two treatment groups (K1: induced with L. reuteri for 14 days and S. mutans for 7 days, and K2: induced with L. reuteri and S. mutans simultaneously for 14 days. L. reuteri culture at a concentration of 108 CFU/ml and S. mutans culture at a concentration of 1010CFU/ml were induced into the oral cavity of Wistar rats. An examination of BD-2 level was then conducted by using Elisa techniques. results: There was significant difference of salivary BD-2 level among those treatment groups (p=0.001. BD-2 level in saliva was increased after the administration of L. reuteri. Conclusion: L. reuteri probiotic can increase salivary BD-2 level in Wistar rats.

  3. Myoclonic epilepsy with ragged-red fibers without increased lactate levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Shigemi; Ozasa, Shiro; Nakamura, Kyoko; Nomura, Keiko; Kosuge, Hirofumi

    2009-07-01

    Myoclonic epilepsy associated with ragged-red fibers is one of the mitochondrial encephalomyopathies. Pathogenic mitochondrial DNA mutations have been identified in the mitochondrial transfer RNA (tRNA)(Lys) at positions 8344 and 8356. Characteristics of myoclonic epilepsy associated with ragged-red fibers include myoclonic epilepsy, generalized epilepsy, hearing loss, exercise intolerance, lactic acidosis, and ragged-red fibers. The elevated lactate level is one of the most important symptoms needed to make a diagnosis of mitochondrial encephalomyopathy. In the present case, however, myoclonic epilepsy was associated with ragged-red fibers but without increased lactate levels. Therefore, myoclonic epilepsy associated with ragged-red fibers should be suspected in a patient who has myoclonic epilepsy that is difficult to control with antiepileptic medications and who has other symptoms of mitochondrial disease, such as mental retardation, even if the patient's lactate level is normal.

  4. Taenia pisiformis cysticercosis induces decreased prolificacy and increased progesterone levels in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallal-Calleros, Claudia; Morales-Montor, Jorge; Orihuela-Trujillo, Agustín; Togno-Peirce, Cristián; Murcia-Mejía, Clara; Bielli, Alejandro; Hoffman, Kurt L; Flores-Pérez, Fernando Iván

    2016-10-15

    Reproductive alterations in hosts infected by parasites have been recognized in several phyla, especially in arthropods and mollusks, but it has been less studied in higher vertebrates, particularly in mammals. In the present study, ten eight week-old female New Zealand rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) were either infected with Taenia pisiformis eggs or uninfected, and 7 weeks later they were mated. We found that serum progesterone levels were increased during pregnancy in infected does. At birth, litter size of infected does was reduced by half as compared to the control group, and, at weaning, the number of kits and the weight of litters was lower. Since serum progesterone levels have a key role in the maintenance of pregnancy and implantation, we propose that the observed prolificacy alterations in does infected with T. pisiformis infection were due to changes in the levels of circulating progesterone during pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Increased levels of circulating arginase I in overweight compared to normal weight adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Christian; Figulla, Hans R; Lichtenauer, Michael; Franz, Marcus; Pernow, John

    2014-02-01

    Overweight and the metabolic syndrome have become major problems, especially in children and adolescents. Obesity at a young age increases the risk for cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus later in life. An early event in the development of cardiovascular disease is endothelial dysfunction which is found in obese young individuals. Increased activity of the enzyme arginase has been described as a central mechanism for endothelial dysfunction, especially in patients with diabetes mellitus. The aim of the study was to determine plasma levels of arginase in overweight adolescents. Sixty-six male German adolescents (age: 15.2 ± 1.1 years old) were included. Thirty-one of them were overweight (>90th age-specific weight percentile). Plasma arginase I and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) were determined. In addition, clinical data were recorded and anthropometrical measurements of obesity were performed. Overweight adolescents had a higher systolic blood pressure, lower high-density lipoprotein and increased levels of high-sensitive C-reactive protein (CRP). Circulating arginase I was elevated in overweight adolescents (95.8 ± 68.2 ng/ml) compared to normal weight adolescents (39.3 ± 26.9 ng/ml, p obesity. There was no difference between the two groups regarding TNFα. We demonstrate that arginase I levels are increased in obese adolescents. Knowing the important role for arginase in endothelial dysfunction, elevated levels of arginase I may represent a link between obesity, endothelial dysfunction and related comorbidities. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Increased Prolactin Levels Are Associated with Impaired Processing Speed in Subjects with Early Psychosis

    OpenAIRE

    Montalvo, Itziar; Gutiérrez-Zotes, Alfonso; Creus, Marta; Monseny, Rosa; Ortega, Laura; Franch, Joan; Lawrie, Stephen M.; Reynolds, Rebecca M.; Vilella, Elisabet; Labad, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Hyperprolactinaemia, a common side effect of some antipsychotic drugs, is also present in drug-naïve psychotic patients and subjects at risk for psychosis. Recent studies in non-psychiatric populations suggest that increased prolactin may have negative effects on cognition. The aim of our study was to explore whether high plasma prolactin levels are associated with poorer cognitive functioning in subjects with early psychoses. We studied 107 participants: 29 healthy subjects and 78 subjects w...

  7. Glucose levels in late preterm and term newborns at one hour of life and frequency of hypoglycemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afzal, M.; Yaqoob, A.

    2015-01-01

    To determine glucose levels in late preterm and term newborns at one hour of life in our population, along with the frequency of symptomatic hypoglycemia and it's known risk factors. Study Design: Descriptive study Place and Duration of Study: Quaid-e-Azam International Hospital (QIH) Islamabad from July 2012 to September 2013. Material and Methods: Two hundred and seventy newborns were selected by consecutive purposive non probability sampling who were born at QIH either by spontaneous vaginal delivery or cesarean section. Only healthy neonates were included. Gestational age, weight, fetal and maternal risk factors were assessed. Glucose level was measured by glucometer at 1 hour of life after first feed. Neonates that became symptomatic with low glucose levels were thoroughly studied, readings reconfirmed from laboratory and were promptly managed. Results: Thirty (11%) babies showed sugar level < 30 mg/dl at 1 hour of life. Out of them 18(60%) were late preterm and 12(40%) were term babies. Out of them 12(40%) babies weighed <2kg, 8(26%) were between 2-2.5 kg and 6(20%) were 2.5-4.0 kg while 4(14%) babies were between 4.0 to 4.6 kg. Only 6(2.2%) newborns became symptomatic with low sugar level. Among symptomatic newnates, 4 mothers had gestational diabetes and other two were with pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH). Important risk factors were gestational diabetes, PIH, fetal distress and SGA babies. Safest lower glucose level was found to be 30 mg/dl at 1 hour after birth. Conclusion: Plasma glucose levels measured at 1 hour of life in late preterm and term newborns in our population are consistent with international studies. Frequency of ymptomatic hypoglycemia is quite low and normal newborns without risk factors do not need screening. However one needs to be vigilant in babies with risk factors. (author)

  8. Sleep deprivation prevents stimulation-induced increases of levels of P-CREB and BDNF: protection by caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhaider, Ibrahim A; Aleisa, Abdulaziz M; Tran, Trinh T; Alkadhi, Karim A

    2011-04-01

    It is well known that caffeine and sleep deprivation have opposing effects on learning and memory; therefore, this study was undertaken to determine the effects of chronic (4wks) caffeine treatment (0.3g/l in drinking water) on long-term memory deficit associated with 24h sleep deprivation. Animals were sleep deprived using the modified multiple platform method. The results showed that chronic caffeine treatment prevented the impairment of long-term memory as measured by performance in the radial arm water maze task and normalized L-LTP in area CA1 of the hippocampi of sleep-deprived anesthetized rats. Sleep deprivation prevents the high frequency stimulation-induced increases in the levels of phosphorylated-cAMP response element binding protein (P-CREB) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) seen during the expression of late phase long-term potentiation (L-LTP). However, chronic caffeine treatment prevented the effect of sleep-deprivation on the stimulated levels of P-CREB and BDNF. The results suggest that chronic caffeine treatment may protect the sleep-deprived brain probably by preserving the levels of P-CREB and BDNF. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Temporal aspects of increases in eye-neck activation levels during visually deficient near work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Hans O; Camilla, Lodin; Forsman, Mikael

    2012-01-01

    In an experimental study two levels of oculomotor load were induced via optical trial lenses. Trapezius muscle activity was measured with bipolar surface electromyography and normalized to a submaximal contraction. Sixty-six subjects with a median age of 36 (range 19-47, std 8) viewed a black and white Gabor grating (5 c/deg) for two 7-min periods monocularly through a 0 D lens or binocularly through -3.5 D lenses. The effect of time was separately regressed to EMG in two different subgroups of responders: a High-Oculomotor-Load (HOL) and a Low-Oculomotor-Load (LOL) group. A linear regression model was fitted on group level with exposure time on the x-axis and normalized trapezius muscle EMG (%RVE) on the y-axis. The slope coefficient was significantly positive in the -D blur condition for only the HOL subgroup of responders: 0.926 + Time(min 1-7) × 0.088 (p = 0.002, r(2)=0.865). There was no obvious sign of this activity to level off or to stabilize. These results suggest that professional information technology users that are exposed to a high level of oculomotor load, during extended times, are at an increased risk of exhibiting an increased trap.m. activity.

  10. Increased Sclerostin Levels after Further Ablation of Remnant Estrogen by Aromatase Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wonjin Kim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundSclerostin is a secreted Wnt inhibitor produced almost exclusively by osteocytes, which inhibits bone formation. Aromatase inhibitors (AIs, which reduce the conversion of steroids to estrogen, are used to treat endocrine-responsive breast cancer. As AIs lower estrogen levels, they increase bone turnover and lower bone mass. We analyzed changes in serum sclerostin levels in Korean women with breast cancer who were treated with an AI.MethodsWe included postmenopausal women with endocrine-responsive breast cancer (n=90; mean age, 57.7 years treated with an AI, and compared them to healthy premenopausal women (n=36; mean age, 28.0 years. The subjects were randomly assigned to take either 5 mg alendronate with 0.5 µg calcitriol (n=46, or placebo (n=44 for 6 months.ResultsPostmenopausal women with breast cancer had significantly higher sclerostin levels compared to those in premenopausal women (27.8±13.6 pmol/L vs. 23.1±4.8 pmol/L, P0.05.ConclusionSerum sclerostin levels increased with absolute deficiency of residual estrogens in postmenopausal women with endocrine-responsive breast cancer who underwent AI therapy with concurrent bone loss.

  11. Process-based modelling to evaluate simulated groundwater levels and frequencies in a Chalk catchment in south-western England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Simon; Coxon, Gemma; Howden, Nicholas J. K.; Freer, Jim; Hartmann, Andreas

    2018-02-01

    Chalk aquifers are an important source of drinking water in the UK. Due to their properties, they are particularly vulnerable to groundwater-related hazards like floods and droughts. Understanding and predicting groundwater levels is therefore important for effective and safe water management. Chalk is known for its high porosity and, due to its dissolvability, exposed to karstification and strong subsurface heterogeneity. To cope with the karstic heterogeneity and limited data availability, specialised modelling approaches are required that balance model complexity and data availability. In this study, we present a novel approach to evaluate simulated groundwater level frequencies derived from a semi-distributed karst model that represents subsurface heterogeneity by distribution functions. Simulated groundwater storages are transferred into groundwater levels using evidence from different observations wells. Using a percentile approach we can assess the number of days exceeding or falling below selected groundwater level percentiles. Firstly, we evaluate the performance of the model when simulating groundwater level time series using a spilt sample test and parameter identifiability analysis. Secondly, we apply a split sample test to the simulated groundwater level percentiles to explore the performance in predicting groundwater level exceedances. We show that the model provides robust simulations of discharge and groundwater levels at three observation wells at a test site in a chalk-dominated catchment in south-western England. The second split sample test also indicates that the percentile approach is able to reliably predict groundwater level exceedances across all considered timescales up to their 75th percentile. However, when looking at the 90th percentile, it only provides acceptable predictions for long time periods and it fails when the 95th percentile of groundwater exceedance levels is considered. By modifying the historic forcings of our model

  12. Testosterone increases circulating dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels in the male rhesus macaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystina eSorwell

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The adrenal steroid dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA and its sulfate (DHEAS are two of the most abundant hormones in the human circulation. Furthermore, they are released in a circadian pattern and show a marked age-associated decline. Adult levels of DHEA and DHEAS are significantly higher in males than in females, but the reason for this sexual dimorphism is unclear. In the present study, we administered supplementary androgens (DHEA, testosterone and 5α-dihydrotestosterone [DHT] to aged male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta. While this paradigm increased circulating DHEAS immediately after DHEA administration, an increase was also observed following either testosterone or DHT administration, resulting in hormonal profile resembling levels observed in young males in terms of both amplitude and circadian pattern. This stimulatory effect was limited to DHEAS, as an increase in circulating cortisol was not observed. Taken together, these data demonstrate an influence of the hypothalamo-pituitary-testicular axis on adrenal function in males, possibly by sensitizing the zona reticularis to the stimulating action of adrenocorticopic hormone. This represents a plausible mechanism to explain sex differences in circulating DHEA and DHEAS levels, and may have important implications in the development of hormone therapies designed for elderly men and women.

  13. Comparing Canadian and American cybersecurity awareness levels: Educational strategies to increase public awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoggard, Amy

    Cybersecurity awareness is an important issue that affects everyone who uses a computer or a mobile device. Canada and the United States both recognize the value of mitigating cybersecurity risks in terms of national safety, economic stability and protection of their citizens. The research performed compared the levels of cybersecurity awareness in Canadian and American Internet users. Canadian and American users were equally aware of cybersecurity measures, but were not implementing best practices to keep themselves safe. The research suggested users needed to understand why a cybersecurity measure was important before being motivated to implement it. Educational strategies were reviewed in both Canada and the United States and it was determined that although there were significant resources available, they were not being utilized by both the educators and the public. In order to increase cybersecurity awareness levels, nations should focus on increasing the public's awareness by using various types of messaging, such as cartoons, in media. One possible consideration is a compulsory awareness model before accessing the Internet. Cybersecurity topics should be included in the curriculum for students at all levels of education and a focus on providing training and resources to teachers will help increase the cybersecurity knowledge of children and youth.

  14. Specific Increase of Protein Levels by Enhancing Translation Using Antisense Oligonucleotides Targeting Upstream Open Frames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xue-Hai; Shen, Wen; Crooke, Stanley T

    2017-01-01

    A number of diseases are caused by low levels of key proteins; therefore, increasing the amount of specific proteins in human bodies is of therapeutic interest. Protein expression is downregulated by some structural or sequence elements present in the 5' UTR of mRNAs, such as upstream open reading frames (uORF). Translation initiation from uORF(s) reduces translation from the downstream primary ORF encoding the main protein product in the same mRNA, leading to a less efficient protein expression. Therefore, it is possible to use antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) to specifically inhibit translation of the uORF by base-pairing with the uAUG region of the mRNA, redirecting translation machinery to initiate from the primary AUG site. Here we review the recent findings that translation of specific mRNAs can be enhanced using ASOs targeting uORF regions. Appropriately designed and optimized ASOs are highly specific, and they act in a sequence- and position-dependent manner, with very minor off-target effects. Protein levels can be increased using this approach in different types of human and mouse cells, and, importantly, also in mice. Since uORFs are present in around half of human mRNAs, the uORF-targeting ASOs may thus have valuable potential as research tools and as therapeutics to increase the levels of proteins for a variety of genes.

  15. Elevated levels of serum IL-5 are associated with an increased likelihood of major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elomaa, Antti-Pekka; Niskanen, Leo; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Viinamäki, Heimo; Hintikka, Jukka; Koivumaa-Honkanen, Heli; Honkalampi, Kirsi; Valkonen-Korhonen, Minna; Harvima, Ilkka T; Lehto, Soili M

    2012-01-09

    Inflammatory mediators in both the peripheral circulation and central nervous system (CNS) are dysregulated in major depressive disorder (MDD). Nevertheless, relatively little is known about the role of the T-helper (Th)-2 effector cytokines interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-13 in MDD. We examined the serum levels of these cytokines and a Th-1 comparison cytokine, interferon (IFN)-γ, in 116 individuals (MDD, n = 58; controls, n = 58). In our basic multivariate model controlling for the effects of potential confounders on the associations between MDD and the examined cytokines, each 1-unit increase in the serum IL-5 level increased the likelihood of belonging to the MDD group by 76% (OR 1.76, 95% CI 1.03-2.99, p = 0.04; model covariates: age, gender, marital status, daily smoking and alcohol use). The likelihood further increased in models additionally controlling for the effects of the use of antidepressants and NSAIDS, and a diagnosis of asthma. No such associations were detected with regard to IL-13 (OR 1.08, 95% CI 0.96-1.22, p = 0.22) or IFN-γ (OR 1.02, 95% CI 0.99-1.05, p = 0.23). Elevated levels of IL-5, which uses the neural plasticity-related RAS GTPase-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Ras-ERK) pathway to mediate its actions in the central nervous system (CNS), could be one of the factors underlying the depression-related changes in CNS plasticity.

  16. Connexin 30 expression and frequency of connexin heterogeneity in astrocyte gap junction plaques increase with age in the rat retina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Mansour

    Full Text Available We investigated age-associated changes in retinal astrocyte connexins (Cx by assaying Cx numbers, plaque sizes, protein expression levels and heterogeneity of gap junctions utilizing six-marker immunohistochemistry (IHC. We compared Wistar rat retinal wholemounts in animals aged 3 (young adult, 9 (middle-aged and 22 months (aged. We determined that retinal astrocytes have gap junctions composed of Cx26, -30, -43 and -45. Cx30 was consistently elevated at 22 months compared to younger ages both when associated with parenchymal astrocytes and vascular-associated astrocytes. Not only was the absolute number of Cx30 plaques significantly higher (P<0.05 but the size of the plaques was significantly larger at 22 months compared to younger ages (p<0.05. With age, Cx26 increased significantly initially, but returned to basal levels; whereas Cx43 expression remained low and stable with age. Evidence that astrocytes alter connexin compositions of gap junctions was demonstrated by the significant increase in the number of Cx26/Cx45 gap junctions with age. We also found gap junctions comprised of 1, 2, 3 or 4 Cx proteins suggesting that retinal astrocytes use various connexin protein combinations in their gap junctions during development and aging. These data provides new insight into the dynamic and extensive Cx network utilized by retinal astrocytes for communication within both the parenchyma and vasculature for the maintenance of normal retinal physiology with age. This characterisation of the changes in astrocytic gap junctional communication with age in the CNS is crucial to the understanding of physiological aging and age-related neurodegenerative diseases.

  17. Matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) levels are increased in active acromegaly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karci, Alper Cagri; Canturk, Zeynep; Tarkun, Ilhan; Cetinarslan, Berrin

    2017-07-01

    During follow-up of acromegaly patients, there is a discordance rate of 30% between the measurements of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 levels. Further tests are required to determine disease activity in patients with discordant results. This study was planned to investigate an association of serum levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2, matrix metalloproteinase-9, and cathepsin B with disease activity in acromegaly patients. In this study, 64 acromegaly patients followed in our clinic were divided into two groups according to the 2010 consensus criteria for cure of acromegaly as patients with active disease (n = 24) and patients with controlled disease (n = 40). Serum matrix metalloproteinase-2, matrix metalloproteinase-9, and cathepsin B levels were measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. The mean serum matrix metalloproteinase-2 level was significantly higher in the active acromegaly patients than in the controlled acromegaly patients (150.1 ± 54.5 ng/mL vs. 100.2 ± 44.6 ng/mL; p matrix metalloproteinase-9 and cathepsin B levels (p = 0.205 and p = 0.598, respectively). Serum matrix metalloproteinase-2 levels of 118.3 ng/mL and higher had a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 77.5% in determining active disease. The risk of active acromegaly was 3.3 fold higher in the patients with a matrix metalloproteinase-2 level of >118.3 ng/mL than in the patients with a matrix metalloproteinase-2 level of matrix metalloproteinase-2 level is increased in the active acromegaly patients and a threshold value in determining active disease was defined for serum matrix metalloproteinase-2 level. This study is the first to compare acromegaly patients having active or controlled disease in terms of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 levels. The results need to be confirmed by a study that will be conducted in a larger patient group also including a healthy control group to demonstrate the

  18. Antisense oligonucleotides targeting translation inhibitory elements in 5' UTRs can selectively increase protein levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xue-Hai; Sun, Hong; Shen, Wen; Wang, Shiyu; Yao, Joyee; Migawa, Michael T; Bui, Huynh-Hoa; Damle, Sagar S; Riney, Stan; Graham, Mark J; Crooke, Rosanne M; Crooke, Stanley T

    2017-09-19

    A variety of diseases are caused by deficiencies in amounts or activity of key proteins. An approach that increases the amount of a specific protein might be of therapeutic benefit. We reasoned that translation could be specifically enhanced using trans-acting agents that counter the function of negative regulatory elements present in the 5' UTRs of some mRNAs. We recently showed that translation can be enhanced by antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) that target upstream open reading frames. Here we report the amount of a protein can also be selectively increased using ASOs designed to hybridize to other translation inhibitory elements in 5' UTRs. Levels of human RNASEH1, LDLR, and ACP1 and of mouse ACP1 and ARF1 were increased up to 2.7-fold in different cell types and species upon treatment with chemically modified ASOs targeting 5' UTR inhibitory regions in the mRNAs encoding these proteins. The activities of ASOs in enhancing translation were sequence and position dependent and required helicase activity. The ASOs appear to improve the recruitment of translation initiation factors to the target mRNA. Importantly, ASOs targeting ACP1 mRNA significantly increased the level of ACP1 protein in mice, suggesting that this approach has therapeutic and research potentials. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  19. Lactobacillus salivarius Isolated from Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis Suppresses Collagen-Induced Arthritis and Increases Treg Frequency in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaofei; Zhang, Juan; Zou, Qinghua; Zhong, Bing; Wang, Heng; Mou, Fangxiang; Wu, Like; Fang, Yongfei

    2016-12-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that Lactobacillus salivarius was more abundant in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), an inflammatory autoimmune disease wherein the gut microbiota is altered, than in healthy individuals. However, the effect of L. salivarius in RA is unclear. Hence, we investigated the effect of L. salivarius isolated from patients with RA on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice. L. salivarius UCC118 or L. plantarum WCFS1 isolated from patients with RA was administered orally for 5 weeks, starting from 2 weeks before the induction of arthritis in DBA/1 mice. Clinical score progression, histological changes, serum cytokine concentrations, and the proportion of interleukin (IL)-17-producing T cells [T helper 17 (Th17)] and regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the spleen were evaluated. Bone erosion was evaluated by micro-computed tomography. CIA mice treated with either L. salivarius or L. plantarum showed lower arthritis scores, milder synovial infiltration, and less bone erosion when compared with phosphate-buffered, saline-treated CIA mice. Administration of L. salivarius and L. plantarum reduced the Th17 cell fraction and increased the Treg fraction. L. salivarius-treated CIA mice displayed a significant increase in serum anti-inflammatory IL-10 levels. Thus, pretreatment with L. salivarius could significantly improve CIA in mice and may help alleviate RA in a clinical setting.

  20. Non-thermal radio frequency and static magnetic fields increase rate of hemoglobin deoxygenation in a cell-free preparation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Muehsam

    Full Text Available The growing body of clinical and experimental data regarding electromagnetic field (EMF bioeffects and their therapeutic applications has contributed to a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms of action. This study reports that two EMF modalities currently in clinical use, a pulse-modulated radiofrequency (PRF signal, and a static magnetic field (SMF, applied independently, increased the rate of deoxygenation of human hemoglobin (Hb in a cell-free assay. Deoxygenation of Hb was initiated using the reducing agent dithiothreitol (DTT in an assay that allowed the time for deoxygenation to be controlled (from several min to several hours by adjusting the relative concentrations of DTT and Hb. The time course of Hb deoxygenation was observed using visible light spectroscopy. Exposure for 10-30 min to either PRF or SMF increased the rate of deoxygenation occurring several min to several hours after the end of EMF exposure. The sensitivity and biochemical simplicity of the assay developed here suggest a new research tool that may help to further the understanding of basic biophysical EMF transduction mechanisms. If the results of this study were to be shown to occur at the cellular and tissue level, EMF-enhanced oxygen availability would be one of the mechanisms by which clinically relevant EMF-mediated enhancement of growth and repair processes could occur.

  1. Increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in mice with XX versus XY sex chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Jenny C; Chen, Xuqi; Prien, Christopher; Borja, Mark S; Hammerson, Bradley; Oda, Michael N; Arnold, Arthur P; Reue, Karen

    2015-08-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying sex differences in dyslipidemia are poorly understood. We aimed to distinguish genetic and hormonal regulators of sex differences in plasma lipid levels. We assessed the role of gonadal hormones and sex chromosome complement on lipid levels using the four core genotypes mouse model (XX females, XX males, XY females, and XY males). In gonadally intact mice fed a chow diet, lipid levels were influenced by both male-female gonadal sex and XX-XY chromosome complement. Gonadectomy of adult mice revealed that the male-female differences are dependent on acute effects of gonadal hormones. In both intact and gonadectomized animals, XX mice had higher HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels than XY mice, regardless of male-female sex. Feeding a cholesterol-enriched diet produced distinct patterns of sex differences in lipid levels compared with a chow diet, revealing the interaction of gonadal and chromosomal sex with diet. Notably, under all dietary and gonadal conditions, HDL-C levels were higher in mice with 2 X chromosomes compared with mice with an X and Y chromosome. By generating mice with XX, XY, and XXY chromosome complements, we determined that the presence of 2 X chromosomes, and not the absence of the Y chromosome, influences HDL-C concentration. We demonstrate that having 2 X chromosomes versus an X and Y chromosome complement drives sex differences in HDL-C. It is conceivable that increased expression of genes escaping X-inactivation in XX mice regulates downstream processes to establish sexual dimorphism in plasma lipid levels. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Experimental increase in baseline corticosterone level reduces oxidative damage and enhances innate immune response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csongor I Vágási

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoid (GC hormones are significant regulators of homeostasis. The physiological effects of GCs critically depend on the time of exposure (short vs. long as well as on their circulating levels (baseline vs. stress-induced. Previous experiments, in which chronic and high elevation of GC levels was induced, indicate that GCs impair both the activity of the immune system and the oxidative balance. Nonetheless, our knowledge on how mildly elevated GC levels, a situation much more common in nature, might influence homeostasis is limited. Therefore, we studied whether an increase in GC level within the baseline range suppresses or enhances condition (body mass, hematocrit and coccidian infestation and physiological state (humoral innate immune system activity and oxidative balance. We implanted captive house sparrows Passer domesticus with either 60 days release corticosterone (CORT or control pellets. CORT-treated birds had elevated baseline CORT levels one week after the implantation, but following this CORT returned to its pre-treatment level and the experimental groups had similar CORT levels one and two months following the implantation. The mass of tail feathers grown during the initial phase of treatment was smaller in treated than in control birds. CORT implantation had a transient negative effect on body mass and hematocrit, but both of these traits resumed the pre-treatment values by one month post-treatment. CORT treatment lowered oxidative damage to lipids (malondialdehyde and enhanced constitutive innate immunity at one week and one month post-implantation. Our findings suggest that a relatively short-term (i.e. few days elevation of baseline CORT might have a positive and stimulatory effect on animal physiology.

  3. Ocean acidification increases the accumulation of toxic phenolic compounds across trophic levels

    KAUST Repository

    Jin, Peng; Wang, Tifeng; Liu, Nana; Dupont, Sam; Beardall, John; Boyd, Philip W.; Riebesell, Ulf; Gao, Kunshan

    2015-01-01

    Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations are causing ocean acidification (OA), altering carbonate chemistry with consequences for marine organisms. Here we show that OA increases by 46–212% the production of phenolic compounds in phytoplankton grown under the elevated CO2 concentrations projected for the end of this century, compared with the ambient CO2 level. At the same time, mitochondrial respiration rate is enhanced under elevated CO2 concentrations by 130–160% in a single species or mixed phytoplankton assemblage. When fed with phytoplankton cells grown under OA, zooplankton assemblages have significantly higher phenolic compound content, by about 28–48%. The functional consequences of the increased accumulation of toxic phenolic compounds in primary and secondary producers have the potential to have profound consequences for marine ecosystem and seafood quality, with the possibility that fishery industries could be influenced as a result of progressive ocean changes.

  4. Ocean acidification increases the accumulation of toxic phenolic compounds across trophic levels

    KAUST Repository

    Jin, Peng

    2015-10-27

    Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations are causing ocean acidification (OA), altering carbonate chemistry with consequences for marine organisms. Here we show that OA increases by 46–212% the production of phenolic compounds in phytoplankton grown under the elevated CO2 concentrations projected for the end of this century, compared with the ambient CO2 level. At the same time, mitochondrial respiration rate is enhanced under elevated CO2 concentrations by 130–160% in a single species or mixed phytoplankton assemblage. When fed with phytoplankton cells grown under OA, zooplankton assemblages have significantly higher phenolic compound content, by about 28–48%. The functional consequences of the increased accumulation of toxic phenolic compounds in primary and secondary producers have the potential to have profound consequences for marine ecosystem and seafood quality, with the possibility that fishery industries could be influenced as a result of progressive ocean changes.

  5. Low Adiponectin Levels and Increased Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Patients With Myocardial Infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Søren; Jensen, Jan S; Pedersen, Sune H

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) have increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Adiponectin is an insulin-sensitizing hormone produced in adipose tissue, directly suppressing hepatic gluconeogenesis, stimulating fatty acid oxidation and glucose uptake...... 5.3-6.1]) 6% (n = 38) developed T2DM. Risk of T2DM was analyzed using a competing risk analysis. RESULTS: Low adiponectin levels were associated with increased risk of T2DM (P age, sex, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, current smoking.......001). Importantly, plasma adiponectin added to the predictive value of blood glucose, with the combination of high blood glucose and low plasma adiponectin, vastly increasing the risk of developing T2DM (HR 9.6 [3.7-25.3]; P

  6. Increasing energy efficiency level of building production based on applying modern mechanization facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokhorov, Sergey

    2017-10-01

    Building industry in a present day going through the hard times. Machine and mechanism exploitation cost, on a field of construction and installation works, takes a substantial part in total building construction expenses. There is a necessity to elaborate high efficient method, which allows not only to increase production, but also to reduce direct costs during machine fleet exploitation, and to increase its energy efficiency. In order to achieve the goal we plan to use modern methods of work production, hi-tech and energy saving machine tools and technologies, and use of optimal mechanization sets. As the optimization criteria there are exploitation prime cost and set efficiency. During actual task-solving process we made a conclusion, which shows that mechanization works, energy audit with production juxtaposition, prime prices and costs for energy resources allow to make complex machine fleet supply, improve ecological level and increase construction and installation work quality.

  7. Lake-level increasing under the climate cryoaridization conditions during the Last Glacial Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amosov, Mikhail; Strelkov, Ivan

    2017-04-01

    A lake genesis and lake-level increasing during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) are the paramount issues in paleoclimatology. Investigating these problems reveals the regularities of lake development and figures out an arid territory conditions at the LGM stage. Pluvial theory is the most prevalent conception of lake formation during the LGM. This theory is based on a fact that the water bodies emerged and their level increased due to torrential rainfalls. In this study, it is paid attention to an alternative assumption of lake genesis at the LGM stage, which is called climate cryoaridization. In accordance with this hypothesis, the endorheic water basins had their level enlarged because of a simultaneous climate aridity and temperature decrease. In this research, a lake-level increasing in endorheic regions of Central Asia and South American Altiplano of the Andes is described. The lake investigation is related to its conditions during the LGM. The study also includes a lake catalogue clearly presenting the basin conditions at the LGM stage and nowadays. The data compilation partly consists of information from an earlier work of Mikhail Amosov, Lake-levels, Vegetation And Climate In Central Asia During The Last Glacial Maximum (EGU2014-3015). According to the investigation, a lake catalogue on 27 lakes showed that most of the water bodies had higher level. This feature could be mentioned for the biggest lakes of the Aral Sea, Lake Balkhash, Issyk-Kul etc. and for the small ones located in the mountains, such as Pamir, Tian-Shan and Tibet. Yet some lakes that are situated in Central Asian periphery (Lake Qinghai and lakes in Inner Mongolia) used to be lower than nowadays. Also, the lake-level increasing of Altiplano turned to be a significant feature during the LGM in accordance with the data of 5 lakes, such as Titicaca, Coipasa-Uyuni, Lejia, Miscanti and Santa-Maria. Most of the current endorheic basins at the LGM stage were filled with water due to abundant

  8. Sympathetic arousal increases a negative memory bias in young women with low sex hormone levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Shawn E.; Barber, Sarah J.; Chai, Audrey; Clewett, David V.; Mather, Mara

    2015-01-01

    Emotionally arousing events are typically better attended to and remembered than neutral ones. Current theories propose that arousal-induced increases in norepinephrine during encoding bias attention and memory in favor of affectively salient stimuli. Here, we tested this hypothesis by manipulating levels of physiological arousal prior to encoding and examining how it influenced memory for emotionally salient images, particularly those that are negative rather than positive in valence. We also tested whether sex steroid hormones interact with noradrenergic activity to influence these emotional memory biases in women. Healthy naturally cycling women and women on hormonal contraception completed one of the following physiological arousal manipulations prior to viewing a series of negative, positive and neutral images: 1) Immediate handgrip arousal – isometric handgrip immediately prior to encoding, 2) Residual handgrip arousal – isometric handgrip 15 min prior to encoding, or 3) No handgrip. Sympathetic arousal was measured throughout the session via pupil diameter changes. Levels of 17β-estradiol and progesterone were measured via salivary samples. Memory performance was assessed approximately 10 minutes after encoding using a surprise free recall test. The results indicated that handgrip successfully increased sympathetic arousal compared to the control task. Under immediate handgrip arousal, women showed enhanced memory for negative images over positive images; this pattern was not observed in women assigned to the residual and no-handgrip arousal conditions. Additionally, under immediate handgrip arousal, both high estradiol and progesterone levels attenuated the memory bias for negative over positive images. Follow-up hierarchical linear models revealed consistent effects when accounting for trial-by-trial variability in normative International Affective Picture System valence and arousal ratings. These findings suggest that heightened sympathetic arousal

  9. Delayed discrimination of spatial frequency for gratings of different orientation: behavioral and fMRI evidence for low-level perceptual memory stores in early visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Oliver; Endestad, Tor; Magnussen, Svein; Greenlee, Mark W

    2008-07-01

    The concept of perceptual memory refers to the neural and cognitive processes underlying the storage of specific stimulus features such as spatial frequency, orientation, shape, contrast, and color. Psychophysical studies of perceptual memory indicate that observers can retain visual information about the spatial frequency of Gabor patterns independent of the orientation with which they are presented. Compared to discrimination of gratings with the same orientation, reaction times to orthogonally oriented gratings, however, increase suggesting additional processing. Using event-related fMRI we examined the pattern of neural activation evoked when subjects discriminated the spatial frequency of Gabors presented with the same or orthogonal orientation. Blood-oxygen level dependent BOLD fMRI revealed significantly elevated bilateral activity in visual areas (V1, V2) when the gratings to be compared had an orthogonal orientation, compared to when they had the same orientation. These findings suggest that a change in an irrelevant stimulus dimension requires additional processing in primary and secondary visual areas. The finding that the task-irrelevant stimulus property (orientation) had no significant effect on the prefrontal and intraparietal cortex supports a model of working memory in which discrimination and retention of basic stimulus dimensions is based on low-level perceptual memory stores that are located at an early stage in the visual process. Our findings suggest that accessing different stores requires time and has higher metabolic costs.

  10. Erythropoetin treatment can increase 2,3-diphosphoglycerate levels in red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birgegård, G; Sandhagen, B

    2001-01-01

    Some patients experience an improved well-being during treatment with recombinant human erythropoietin even with an unchanged Hb level. We have hypothesized that this may not be only a placebo effect. 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) in red blood cells increases in response to anaemia/hypoxia and causes a shift of the oxygen dissociation curve, allowing a more effective oxygen delivery. We have investigated red cell 2,3-DPG concentrations during erythropoietin treatment in healthy volunteers as a mediator of a possible physiological explanation. Thirteen healthy subjects with no iron deficiency were recruited and randomly assigned to a treatment group comprising five males and three females and a control group including three males and two females. The treatment group was treated with erythropoietin (Recormon), 20 IE/kg subcutaneously three times/week for 4 weeks. Blood samples were collected at each injection day and 10 days after the last injection and at corresponding times in the control group. B-Hb, red cell 2,3-DPG and P50 were measured by standard techniques and oxygen-releasing capacity was calculated. due to the sampling (26 ml each time, three times/week) the mean Hb level was lowered from 140.5 +/- 5.9 to 128.6 +/- 10.4 g/L in the control group whereas the erythropoietin treatment group maintained a mean Hb level of about 142 g/L (plevel curve as well as that for oxygen releasing capacity also differed significantly between the two groups (p levels. treatment with erythropoietin causes an increase in red cell 2,3-DPG levels.

  11. Correlation between increasing tissue ischemia and circulating levels of angiogenic growth factors in peripheral artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalkanen, Juho; Hautero, Olli; Maksimow, Mikael; Jalkanen, Sirpa; Hakovirta, Harri

    2018-04-21

    The aim of the present study was to assess the circulating levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and other suggested therapeutic growth factors with the degree of ischemia in patients with different clinical manifestations of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) according to the Rutherford grades. The study cohort consists of 226 consecutive patients admitted to a Department of Vascular Surgery for elective invasive procedures. PAD patients were grouped according to the Rutherford grades after a clinical assessment. Ankle-brachial pressure indices (ABI) and absolute toe pressure (TP) values were measured. Serum levels of circulating VEGF, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) were measured from serum and analysed against Rutherford grades and peripheral hemodynamic measurements. The levels of VEGF (P = 0.009) and HGF (P correlations between Rutherford grades was detected as follows; VEGF (Pearson's correlation = 0.183, P = 0.004), HGF (Pearson's correlation = 0.253, P Pearson's correlation = 0.169, P = 0.008) and PDGF (Pearson's correlation = 0.296, P correlation with ABI (Pearson's correlation -0.19, P = 0.009) and TP (Pearson's correlation -0.20, P = 0.005) measurements. Our present observations show that the circulating levels of VEGF and other suggested therapeutic growth factors are significantly increased along with increasing ischemia. These findings present a new perspective to anticipated positive effects of gene therapies utilizing VEGF, HGF, and bFGF, because the levels of these growth factors are endogenously high in end-stage PAD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Increasing phylogenetic resolution at low taxonomic levels using massively parallel sequencing of chloroplast genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cronn Richard

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular evolutionary studies share the common goal of elucidating historical relationships, and the common challenge of adequately sampling taxa and characters. Particularly at low taxonomic levels, recent divergence, rapid radiations, and conservative genome evolution yield limited sequence variation, and dense taxon sampling is often desirable. Recent advances in massively parallel sequencing make it possible to rapidly obtain large amounts of sequence data, and multiplexing makes extensive sampling of megabase sequences feasible. Is it possible to efficiently apply massively parallel sequencing to increase phylogenetic resolution at low taxonomic levels? Results We reconstruct the infrageneric phylogeny of Pinus from 37 nearly-complete chloroplast genomes (average 109 kilobases each of an approximately 120 kilobase genome generated using multiplexed massively parallel sequencing. 30/33 ingroup nodes resolved with ≥ 95% bootstrap support; this is a substantial improvement relative to prior studies, and shows massively parallel sequencing-based strategies can produce sufficient high quality sequence to reach support levels originally proposed for the phylogenetic bootstrap. Resampling simulations show that at least the entire plastome is necessary to fully resolve Pinus, particularly in rapidly radiating clades. Meta-analysis of 99 published infrageneric phylogenies shows that whole plastome analysis should provide similar gains across a range of plant genera. A disproportionate amount of phylogenetic information resides in two loci (ycf1, ycf2, highlighting their unusual evolutionary properties. Conclusion Plastome sequencing is now an efficient option for increasing phylogenetic resolution at lower taxonomic levels in plant phylogenetic and population genetic analyses. With continuing improvements in sequencing capacity, the strategies herein should revolutionize efforts requiring dense taxon and character sampling

  13. Low Levels of Physical Activity Are Associated with Increased Metabolic Syndrome Risk Factors in Korean Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hoon Lee

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundLow levels of physical activity (PA are strongly associated with the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS and chronic diseases. However, few studies have examined this association in Koreans. The primary purpose of this study was to examine the associations between PA and MetS risks in Korean adults.MethodsA total of 1,016 Korean adults (494 males and 522 females participated in this study. PA levels were assessed using the International PA Questionnaire. MetS risk factors were determined using clinically established diagnostic criteria.ResultsCompared with the highest PA group, the group with the lowest level of PA was at greater risk of high triglyceride (TG in males (odds ratio [OR], 1.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07 to 3.24 and of hemoglobin A1c ≥5.5% in females (OR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.00 to 3.04 after adjusting for age and body mass index. Compared with subjects who met the PA guidelines, those who did not meet the guidelines were more likely to have low high density lipoprotein cholesterol in both males (OR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.11 to 2.58, and females (OR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.20 to 2.77. Furthermore, those who did not meet the PA guidelines were at increased risk of high TG levels in males (OR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.23 to 2.86 and abnormal fasting glucose (OR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.17 to 3.20 and MetS (OR, 2.10; 95% CI, 1.15 to 3.84 in females.ConclusionIncreased levels of PA are significantly associated with a decreased risk of abnormal MetS components.

  14. Mars Rover Curriculum: Teacher Self Reporting of Increased Frequency and Confidence in their Science and Language Arts Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bering, E. A.; Carlson, C.; Nieser, K.; Slagle, E.

    2013-12-01

    The University of Houston is in the process of developing a flexible program that offers children an in-depth educational experience culminating in the design and construction of their own model Mars rover. The program is called the Mars Rover Model Celebration (MRC). It focuses on students, teachers and parents in grades 3-8. Students design and build a model of a Mars rover to carry out a student selected science mission on the surface of Mars. A total of 65 Mars Rover teachers from the 2012-2013 cohort were invited to complete the Mars Rover Teacher Evaluation Survey. The survey was administered online and could be taken at the convenience of the participant. In total, 29 teachers participated in the survey. Teachers were asked to rate their current level of confidence in their ability to teach specific topics within the Earth and Life Science realms, as well as their confidence in their ability to implement teaching strategies with their students. In addition, they were asked to rate the degree to which they felt their confidence increased in the past year as a result of their participation in the MRC program. The majority of teachers (81-90%) felt somewhat to very confident in their ability to effectively teach concepts related to earth and life sciences to their students. In addition, many of the teachers felt that their confidence in teaching these concepts increased somewhat to quite a bit as a result of their participation in the MRC program (54-88%). The most striking increase in this area was the reported 48% of teachers who felt their confidence in teaching 'Earth and the solar system and universe' increased 'Quite a bit' as a result of their participation in the MRC program. The vast majority of teachers (86-100%) felt somewhat to very confident in their ability to effectively implement all of the listed teaching strategies. In addition, the vast majority reported believing that their confidence increased somewhat to quite a bit as a result of their

  15. Increased body size along urbanization gradients at both community and intraspecific level in macro-moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merckx, Thomas; Kaiser, Aurélien; Van Dyck, Hans

    2018-05-23

    Urbanization involves a cocktail of human-induced rapid environmental changes and is forecasted to gain further importance. Urban-heat-island effects result in increased metabolic costs expected to drive shifts towards smaller body sizes. However, urban environments are also characterized by strong habitat fragmentation, often selecting for dispersal phenotypes. Here, we investigate to what extent, and at which spatial scale(s), urbanization drives body size shifts in macro-moths-an insect group characterized by positive size-dispersal links-at both the community and intraspecific level. Using light and bait trapping as part of a replicated, spatially nested sampling design, we show that despite the observed urban warming of their woodland habitat, macro-moth communities display considerable increases in community-weighted mean body size because of stronger filtering against small species along urbanization gradients. Urbanization drives intraspecific shifts towards increased body size too, at least for a third of species analysed. These results indicate that urbanization drives shifts towards larger, and hence, more mobile species and individuals in order to mitigate low connectivity of ecological resources in urban settings. Macro-moths are a key group within terrestrial ecosystems, and since body size is central to species interactions, such urbanization-driven phenotypic change may impact urban ecosystem functioning, especially in terms of nocturnal pollination and food web dynamics. Although we show that urbanization's size-biased filtering happens simultaneously and coherently at both the inter- and intraspecific level, we demonstrate that the impact at the community level is most pronounced at the 800 m radius scale, whereas species-specific size increases happen at local and landscape scales (50-3,200 m radius), depending on the species. Hence, measures-such as creating and improving urban green infrastructure-to mitigate the effects of urbanization on

  16. Increasing sensitivity in the measurement of heart rate variability: the method of non-stationary RR time-frequency analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melkonian, D; Korner, A; Meares, R; Bahramali, H

    2012-10-01

    A novel method of the time-frequency analysis of non-stationary heart rate variability (HRV) is developed which introduces the fragmentary spectrum as a measure that brings together the frequency content, timing and duration of HRV segments. The fragmentary spectrum is calculated by the similar basis function algorithm. This numerical tool of the time to frequency and frequency to time Fourier transformations accepts both uniform and non-uniform sampling intervals, and is applicable to signal segments of arbitrary length. Once the fragmentary spectrum is calculated, the inverse transform recovers the original signal and reveals accuracy of spectral estimates. Numerical experiments show that discontinuities at the boundaries of the succession of inter-beat intervals can cause unacceptable distortions of the spectral estimates. We have developed a measure that we call the "RR deltagram" as a form of the HRV data that minimises spectral errors. The analysis of the experimental HRV data from real-life and controlled breathing conditions suggests transient oscillatory components as functionally meaningful elements of highly complex and irregular patterns of HRV. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Income inequality and schizophrenia: increased schizophrenia incidence in countries with high levels of income inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jonathan K; Tomita, Andrew; Kapadia, Amy S

    2014-03-01

    Income inequality is associated with numerous negative health outcomes. There is evidence that ecological-level socio-environmental factors may increase risk for schizophrenia. The aim was to investigate whether measures of income inequality are associated with incidence of schizophrenia at the country level. We conducted a systematic review of incidence rates for schizophrenia, reported between 1975 and 2011. For each country, national measures of income inequality (Gini coefficient) along with covariate risk factors for schizophrenia were obtained. Multi-level mixed-effects Poisson regression was performed to investigate the relationship between Gini coefficients and incidence rates of schizophrenia controlling for covariates. One hundred and seven incidence rates (from 26 countries) were included. Mean incidence of schizophrenia was 18.50 per 100,000 (SD = 11.9; range = 1.7-67). There was a significant positive relationship between incidence rate of schizophrenia and Gini coefficient (β = 1.02; Z = 2.28; p = .02; 95% CI = 1.00, 1.03). Countries characterized by a large rich-poor gap may be at increased risk of schizophrenia. We suggest that income inequality impacts negatively on social cohesion, eroding social capital, and that chronic stress associated with living in highly disparate societies places individuals at risk of schizophrenia.

  18. Short communication: Artificial ultraviolet B light exposure increases vitamin D levels in cow plasma and milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jette; Jensen, Søren Krogh; Hymøller, Lone

    2015-01-01

    tested the ability of a specially designed UVB lamp to enhance the vitamin D-3 content in milk from dairy cows housed indoors. This study included 16 cows divided into 4 groups. Each group was exposed daily to artificial UVB light simulating 1, 2, 3, or 4 h of summer sun at 56 degrees N for 24 d...... exposure to artificial UVB light to 73 d did not lead to an increase of vitamin D-3 or 25OHD(3) level in the milk. In conclusion, the change in production facilities for dairy cows providing cows with no access to pasture and sunlight causes a decrease of vitamin D levels in dairy products. This decrease......The number of dairy cows without access to pasture or sunlight is increasing; therefore, the content of vitamin D in dairy products is decreasing. Ultimately, declining vitamin D levels in dairy products will mean that dairy products are a negligible source of natural vitamin D for humans. We...

  19. Increasing levels of crude protein in multiple supplements for grazing beef heifers in rainy season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Vieira de Barros

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the effect of multiple supplements with differents levels of crude protein (CP or mineral supplements on the nutritional parameters and performance of beef heifers grazing Uruchloa decumbens in the rainy season. A complete random design was employed. The treatments were made up of increasing levels of CP in the multiple supplements and a control treatment (MM in which animals were offered only mineral mixture. Multiple supplements contained 17; 30; 43 and 56% of CP, for treatments CP17; CP30; CP43 and CP56, respectively. Average daily gain (ADG (g was 447.7; 554.6; 638.4; 587.9; 590.4, for treatments MM, CP17; CP30; CP43 and CP56, respectively. A quadratic effect of the levels of crude protein was found (p< 0.10 on ADG. A greater intake of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, CP, ether extract (EE, non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC, total digestible nutrients (TDN, and digested dry matter (p< 0.10 was found in animals supplemented with multiple supplements. Multiple supplements increased the apparent digestibility coefficient of DM, CP, EE and NFC. Supply of multiple multiple supplements for heifers grazing in medium to high quality pastures in the rainy season improves the performance of the animals.

  20. Frequency converters increase the energy efficiency of electric motors in refrigerators; Frequenzumrichter steigern die Energieeffizienz von Elektromotoren in Kaelteanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heide, Alexander [Ziehl-Abegg AG Produktmanagement System- und Regeltechnik, Kuenzelsau (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Refrigerators have vast potential for energy conservation. Blowers mounted on condensers and recirculation coolers are commonly controlled via phase angle control. It is shown how modern frequency converters can improve the energy balance of existing systems. The advantages of a combination of frequency converter and sinus filter are explained by the example of the Fcontrol frequency converter, which has an integrated all-phase sinus filter. Retrofitting is easy, and the payback period will be short. An example is presented to show that more than 50 % of the energy cost can be saved this way. In addition to blower control, also the compressor motor can be controlled by frequency converters, with advantages for the whole refrigerating system. The paper shows how retrofitting of modern frequency converters will reduce the energy cost and operating cost of existing refrigeration systems. [German] Kaelteanlagen, insbesondere bestehende Kaelteanlagen, bieten grosses Potenzial Energie einzusparen. Ventilatoren, die auf Verfluessigern oder Rueckkuehlern montiert sind, werden ueberwiegend mit Regelgeraeten betrieben, die die Drehzahl ueber die Spannung variieren (Phasenanschnittregelung). Es wird aufgezeigt, dass durch moderne Frequenzumrichter auf einfache Art und Weise bestehende Anlagen energetisch verbessert werden koennen. Am Beispiel des Frequenzumrichters Fcontrol, der einen allpolig wirksamen Sinusfilter integriert hat, werden die Vorteile durch die Kombination von Frequenzumrichter und Sinusfilter erklaert. Die nachtraegliche Installation in bestehende Anlagen ist einfach. Die Investition in eine solche Umruestung rechnet sich in der Regel sehr schnell. Beispielhaft wird gezeigt, dass beim Ersetzen der Phasenanschnittregelung gegen einen Frequenzumrichter mehr als 50 % der Energiekosten an den Ventilatoren eingespart werden koennen. Neben der energiesparenden Regelung der Ventilatoren auf Verfluessigern oder Rueckkuehlern, kann auch der Verdichtermotor durch

  1. Antidepressant Use is Associated with Increased Energy Intake and Similar Levels of Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsbeth Jensen-Otsu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Antidepressants have been associated with weight gain, but the causes are unclear. The aims of this study were to assess the association of antidepressant use with energy intake, macronutrient diet composition, and physical activity. We used data on medication use, energy intake, diet composition, and physical activity for 3073 eligible adults from the 2005–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES. Potential confounding variables, including depression symptoms, were included in the models assessing energy intake, physical activity, and sedentary behavior. Antidepressant users reported consuming an additional (mean ± S.E. 215 ± 73 kcal/day compared to non-users (p = 0.01. There were no differences in percent calories from sugar, fat, or alcohol between the two groups. Antidepressant users had similar frequencies of walking or biking, engaging in muscle-strengthening activities, and engaging in moderate or vigorous physical activity. Antidepressant users were more likely to use a computer for ≥2 h/day (OR 1.77; 95% CI: 1.09–2.90, but TV watching was similar between the two groups. These results suggest increased energy intake and sedentary behavior may contribute to weight gain associated with antidepressant use. Focusing on limiting food intake and sedentary behaviors may be important in mitigating the weight gain associated with antidepressant use.

  2. On the increase of predictive performance with high-level data fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doeswijk, T.G.; Smilde, A.K.; Hageman, J.A.; Westerhuis, J.A.; Eeuwijk, F.A. van

    2011-01-01

    The combination of the different data sources for classification purposes, also called data fusion, can be done at different levels: low-level, i.e. concatenating data matrices, medium-level, i.e. concatenating data matrices after feature selection and high-level, i.e. combining model outputs. In this paper the predictive performance of high-level data fusion is investigated. Partial least squares is used on each of the data sets and dummy variables representing the classes are used as response variables. Based on the estimated responses y-hat j for data set j and class k, a Gaussian distribution p(g k |y-hat j ) is fitted. A simulation study is performed that shows the theoretical performance of high-level data fusion for two classes and two data sets. Within group correlations of the predicted responses of the two models and differences between the predictive ability of each of the separate models and the fused models are studied. Results show that the error rate is always less than or equal to the best performing subset and can theoretically approach zero. Negative within group correlations always improve the predictive performance. However, if the data sets have a joint basis, as with metabolomics data, this is not likely to happen. For equally performing individual classifiers the best results are expected for small within group correlations. Fusion of a non-predictive classifier with a classifier that exhibits discriminative ability lead to increased predictive performance if the within group correlations are strong. An example with real life data shows the applicability of the simulation results.

  3. Phytosterol and cholesterol precursor levels indicate increased cholesterol excretion and biosynthesis in gallstone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, Marcin; Lütjohann, Dieter; Schirin-Sokhan, Ramin; Villarroel, Luis; Nervi, Flavio; Pimentel, Fernando; Lammert, Frank; Miquel, Juan Francisco

    2012-05-01

    In hepatocytes and enterocytes sterol uptake and secretion is mediated by Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) and ATP-binding cassette (ABC)G5/8 proteins, respectively. Whereas serum levels of phytosterols represent surrogate markers for intestinal cholesterol absorption, cholesterol precursors reflect cholesterol biosynthesis. Here we compare serum and biliary sterol levels in ethnically different populations of patients with gallstone disease (GSD) and stone-free controls to identify differences in cholesterol transport and synthesis between these groups. In this case-control study four cohorts were analyzed: 112 German patients with GSD and 152 controls; two distinct Chilean ethnic groups: Hispanics (100 GSD, 100 controls), and Amerindians (20 GSD, 20 controls); additionally an 8-year follow-up of 70 Hispanics was performed. Serum sterols were measured by gas chromatography / mass spectrometry. Gallbladder bile sterol levels were analyzed in cholesterol GSD and controls. Common ABCG5/8 variants were genotyped. Comparison of serum sterols showed lower levels of phytosterols and higher levels of cholesterol precursors in GSD patients than in controls. The ratios of phytosterols to cholesterol precursors were lower in GSD patients, whereas biliary phytosterol and cholesterol concentrations were elevated as compared with controls. In the follow-up study, serum phytosterol levels were significantly lower even before GSD was detectable by ultrasound. An ethnic gradient in the ratios of phytosterols to cholesterol precursors was apparent (Germans > Hispanics > Amerindians). ABCG5/8 variants did not fully explain the sterol metabolic trait of GSD in any of the cohorts. Individuals predisposed to GSD display increased biliary output of cholesterol in the setting of relatively low intestinal cholesterol absorption, indicating enhanced whole-body sterol clearance. This metabolic trait precedes gallstone formation and is a feature of ethnic groups at higher risk of cholesterol

  4. Increased Blood Lactate Level Deteriorates Running Economy in World Class Endurance Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Jan; Støren, Øyvind; Finstad, Arnstein; Wang, Eivind; Helgerud, Jan

    2016-05-01

    Blood lactate accumulation is associated with development of muscle fatigue and negatively correlated to endurance performance. No research has quantified the effects of lactate presence at moderate levels of lactate accumulation. The purpose of this study was to test whether 2 moderate blood lactate concentration levels affect running economy (RE) when running at the individual lactate threshold (LT). Seven male world class endurance athletes with an average V[Combining Dot Above]O2max of 80.7 ± 2.7 ml·kg·min or 5.8 ± 0.5 L·min participated in this study. After the V[Combining Dot Above]O2max test, the subjects were resting or walking and in a random order tested for RE at their LT velocity when the blood lactate level reached either 3 mmol·L or 5 mmol·L. After a new 5-minute exercising period at maximal aerobic velocity, the crossover lactate value RE testing was performed. Running economy was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) deteriorated from 0.668 ± 0.044 to 0.705 ± 0.056 ml·kg·m or 5.5% (p ≤ 0.05) for blood lactate level of 3 mmol·L compared with 5 mmol·L, respectively. Increased lactate level from 3 to 5 mmol·L is thus accompanied by deteriorated RE at LT running velocity. The deteriorated RE at moderate levels of lactate concentration emphasizes the importance of avoiding intensities above LT in the early parts of a dominantly aerobic endurance competition. It also emphasizes the importance of a high V[Combining Dot Above]O2max for aerobic endurance athletes and may partly explain the V[Combining Dot Above]O2 slow component as impaired RE.

  5. Increased vaspin levels are associated with beneficial metabolic outcome pre- and post-bariatric surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HuiLing Lu

    Full Text Available Vaspin (visceral-adipose-tissue-derived-serine-protease-inhibitor is a recently identified adipokine with putative insulin-sensitizing properties. Plasma vaspin responses to surgery-induced weight loss are sparse and contradictory.We evaluated changes in vaspin levels and relationship to post-operative outcomes in men (n = 22 and women (n = 55 undergoing biliopancreatic-diversion/duodenal-switch bariatric surgery. Body composition and plasma parameters were measured at baseline, acutely (1 and 5 days and medium-term (6 and 12 months post-surgery.Fasting preoperative vaspin concentrations were comparable in men vs women. The distribution was biphasic (both men and women with a nadir of 2.5 ng/ml. Subjects were divided into high (≥2.5 ng/mL, HI-group and low (<2.5 ng/mL, LO-group vaspin level. Both groups had comparable sex distribution, age and BMI, but the HI-vaspin group had lower insulin, HOMA, and triglyceride and higher HDL-cholesterol, acylation stimulating protein (ASP and IL-6 levels (all p<0.05. Post-operatively, both groups decreased BMI comparably over 12 months; the HI-vaspin group maintained high vaspin levels, while the LO-vaspin group gradually increased their levels with weight loss over 12 months. The HI-vaspin group maintained a better glucose, insulin, HOMA, fructosamine, HDL-cholesterol, and triglyceride profile throughout. The HI-vaspin group also had higher gamma-glutamyltransferase and ASP profiles. Finally, baseline vaspin level inversely correlated significantly with baseline and 12-month insulin, HOMA, triglyceride and positively correlated with HDL and ASP. Twelve-month vaspin also correlated similarly, including an inverse correlation with BMI.Globally, this study supports the concept of vaspin as a beneficial adipokine in obesity, which may potentially lead to possible therapeutic targets.

  6. Prevalence of Congenital Hypothyroidism and Transient Increased Levels of TSH in Yazd Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Shojaeifar

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Congenital hypothyroidism is one of the most preventable causes of mental retardation. Worldwide, incidences vary from 1:3000 to 1:4000 and mean incidence in Iran is estimated to be 1:1000. Neonatal screening and early treatment within first 2 weeks of neonatal period can prevent neurocognitive deficits. We aimed to study the incidence of CH and increased levels of TSH in Yazd province and collect data describing the disease status and designing first and second levels of preventive interventions. Methods: This descriptive analytic study was performed by census cross sectional method on 13022 neonates in Yazd province in 2006-2007(March 2006- March 2007 including 6495 females and 6527 males. Sampling was done (within the first 3-5 days of life by lancet sticking of neonatal heel. After transfer of 3 blood drops over filter papers, the TSH level was measured. If the TSH level was equal or higher than 5 mu/l, additional confirmation tests were done. Neonates were diagnosed according to serum confirmation test (TSH10 mu/l or T4<6.5g/dl and underwent treatment according to national guidelines. Data was analyzed by SPSS software. Results: Total number of patients was 45, including 25 males (55.5% and 20 females (44.5%. Prevalence in males, females and overall was consecutively, 1:261, 1:325 and 1:289, but this difference was not statistically significant. Prevalence in urban and rural areas was 1:315 and 1:216, but the difference was statistically not significant. The prevalence during spring, summer, autumn& winter was 1:95, 1:250, 1:1934 and 1:369, respectively, that was statistically significant. Mean age at sampling was 7.2 days, mean TSH level 2.3 mu/l and mean age of mothers was 25.8 years. Conclusions: Incidence of CH and transient increased levels of TSH in Yazd province is significantly higher than national and worldwide levels that necessitate the constancy and reinforcement of neonatal screening program. On the other

  7. Using a Music Video Parody to Promote Breastfeeding and Increase Comfort Levels Among Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austen, Erin L; Beadle, Julie; Lukeman, Sionnach; Lukeman, Ellen; Aquino, Nicola

    2017-08-01

    North Americans are not meeting the World Health Organization's breastfeeding recommendations. Young adults understand that breastfeeding is healthy but are uncomfortable seeing breastfeeding. Research aim: The aim of the current project was to determine if a music video parody promoting breastfeeding is perceived by young adults to be an effective means of promotion and if exposure to such a video could increase comfort levels. Young adults rated how comfortable they felt looking at breastfeeding and bottle-feeding images (pretest). Two months later, a subset of participants watched the music video parody "Breastfeeding My Baby." In Phase 1, participants completed the picture-rating task again (posttest) after a 2-month delay, plus a survey to assess memory and perception of the video. In Phase 2, participants were reminded of the video before completing the comfort ratings, and in the final phase, posttest measures were administered only 1 week after exposure to the video. Across all phases, the video was perceived to be effective and was memorable. Breastfeeding comfort ratings were comparable at pretest across participant groups; comfort ratings improved at posttest for participants who saw the video but only if they were reminded of seeing it before providing their ratings. At shorter intervals between seeing the video and completing the posttests, comfort ratings for breastfeeding images increased for all participants, highlighting the general importance of exposure to breastfeeding. Young adults are receptive to using a music video parody to promote breastfeeding, which can help to increase comfort levels with breastfeeding.

  8. Adaptive Capacity Mapping of Semarang Offshore Territory by the Increasing of Water Level and Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ifan Ridlo Suhelm

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Tidal inundation, flood and land subsidence are the problems faced by Semarang city related to climate change. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC predicted the increase of sea level rise 18-59 cm during 1990-2100 while the temperature increase 0,6°C to 4°C during the same period. The Semarang coastal city was highly vulnerable to sea level rise and it increased with two factors, topography and land subsidence. The purpose of this study was to map the adaptive capacity of coastal areas in the face of the threat of disasters caused by climate change. The parameters used are Network Number, Employee based educational background, Source Main Livelihoods, Health Facilities, and Infrastructure Road. Adaptive capacity of regions classified into 3 (three classes, namely low, medium and high. The results of the study showed that most of the coastal area of Semarang have adaptive capacities ranging from low to moderate, while the village with low capacity totaling 58 villages (58.62% of the total coastal district in the city of Semarang.

  9. Kaempferol increases levels of coenzyme Q in kidney cells and serves as a biosynthetic ring precursor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Del-Río, Lucía; Nag, Anish; Gutiérrez Casado, Elena; Ariza, Julia; Awad, Agape M; Joseph, Akil I; Kwon, Ohyun; Verdin, Eric; de Cabo, Rafael; Schneider, Claus; Torres, Jorge Z; Burón, María I; Clarke, Catherine F; Villalba, José M

    2017-09-01

    Coenzyme Q (Q) is a lipid-soluble antioxidant essential in cellular physiology. Patients with Q deficiencies, with few exceptions, seldom respond to treatment. Current therapies rely on dietary supplementation with Q 10 , but due to its highly lipophilic nature, Q 10 is difficult to absorb by tissues and cells. Plant polyphenols, present in the human diet, are redox active and modulate numerous cellular pathways. In the present study, we tested whether treatment with polyphenols affected the content or biosynthesis of Q. Mouse kidney proximal tubule epithelial (Tkpts) cells and human embryonic kidney cells 293 (HEK 293) were treated with several types of polyphenols, and kaempferol produced the largest increase in Q levels. Experiments with stable isotope 13 C-labeled kaempferol demonstrated a previously unrecognized role of kaempferol as an aromatic ring precursor in Q biosynthesis. Investigations of the structure-function relationship of related flavonols showed the importance of two hydroxyl groups, located at C3 of the C ring and C4' of the B ring, both present in kaempferol, as important determinants of kaempferol as a Q biosynthetic precursor. Concurrently, through a mechanism not related to the enhancement of Q biosynthesis, kaempferol also augmented mitochondrial localization of Sirt3. The role of kaempferol as a precursor that increases Q levels, combined with its ability to upregulate Sirt3, identify kaempferol as a potential candidate in the design of interventions aimed on increasing endogenous Q biosynthesis, particularly in kidney. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Heparin-induced increase in serum levels of aminotranferases. A controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, H K; Husted, S E; Koopmann, H D; Fasting, H; Simonsen, O; Andersen, K; Husegaard, H C; Petersen, T K

    1984-01-01

    Sixty-four patients over the age of 40 years, undergoing elective surgery of at least one hour's duration, were randomized to treatment with either a thromboembolic deterrent ( TED ) stocking (Kendall Co.) or subcutaneous low-dose heparin 5 000 IU every 12 hours. Serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (S-ALAT), aspartate aminotransferase (S-ASAT), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (S-gamma-GT) and alkaline phosphatase (S-ALP) were measured. S-ALAT increased significantly on the 5th and 10th postoperative day, from 27 +/- 2 (x +/- SE) to 40 +/- 4 (p less than 0.01) and 55 +/- 7 U/l (p less than 0.001), respectively, in the heparin group and was significantly higher in the heparin than in the TED group both on the 5th (p less than 0.01) and 10th (p less than 0.05) postoperative day. S-ASAT and S-gamma-GT increased significantly during heparin treatment, but did not differ significantly from the values of the TED group. No change in S-ALP was registered in either group. It is concluded that prophylactic treatment with low-dose heparin induces a significant increase in S-aminotransferase levels, especially in S-ALAT. The phenomenon has profound differential diagnostic implications in conditions such as pulmonary embolism and acute myocardial infarction.

  11. Gestational Protein Restriction Increases Cardiac Connexin 43 mRNA levels in male adult rat offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossini, Kamila Fernanda; de Oliveira, Camila Andrea; Rebelato, Hércules Jonas; Esquisatto, Marcelo Augusto Marreto; Catisti, Rosana

    2017-01-01

    Background The dietary limitation during pregnancy influences the growth and development of the fetus and offspring and their health into adult life. The mechanisms underlying the adverse effects of gestational protein restriction (GPR) in the development of the offspring hearts are not well understood. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of GPR on cardiac structure in male rat offspring at day 60 after birth (d60). Methods Pregnant Wistar rats were fed a normal-protein (NP, 17% casein) or low-protein (LP, 6% casein) diet. Blood pressure (BP) values from 60-day-old male offspring were measured by an indirect tail-cuff method using an electro sphygmomanometer. Hearts (d60) were collected for assessment of connexin 43 (Cx43) mRNA expression and morphological and morphometric analysis. Results LP offspring showed no difference in body weight, although they were born lighter than NP offspring. BP levels were significantly higher in the LP group. We observed a significant increase in the area occupied by collagen fibers, a decrease in the number of cardiomyocytes by 104 µm2, and an increase in cardiomyocyte area associated with an increased Cx43 expression. Conclusion GPR changes myocardial levels of Cx43 mRNA in male young adult rats, suggesting that this mechanism aims to compensate the fibrotic process by the accumulation of collagen fibers in the heart interstitium. PMID:28678925

  12. Music stimuli lead to increased levels of nitrite in unstimulated mixed saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Luyuan; Zhang, Mengbi; Xu, Junji; Xia, Dengsheng; Zhang, Chunmei; Wang, Jingsong; Wang, Songlin

    2018-06-15

    Concentration of salivary nitrate is approximately 10-fold to that of serum. Many circumstances such as acute stress could promote salivary nitrate secretion and nitrite formation. However, whether other conditions can also be used as regulators of salivary nitrate/nitrite has not yet been explored. The present study was designed to determine the influence of exposure to different music on the salivary flow rate and nitrate secretion and nitrite formation. Twenty-four undergraduate students (12 females and 12 males) were exposed to silence, rock music, classical music or white noise respectively on four consecutive mornings. The unstimulated salivary flow rate and stimulated salivary flow rate were measured. Salivary ionic (Na + , Ca 2+ Cl - , and PO 4 3- ) content and nitrate/nitrite levels were detected. The unstimulated salivary flow rate was significantly increased after classical music exposure compared to that after silence. Salivary nitrite levels were significantly higher upon classical music and white noise stimulation than those under silence in females. However, males were more sensitive only to white noise with regard to the nitrite increase. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that classical music stimulation promotes salivary nitrite formation and an increase in saliva volume was observed. These observations may play an important role in regulating oral function.

  13. Population genetical investigation of the level of mutagenesis and teratological events frequency in ecologically different regions of Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashaganova, Zh.A.; Zhapbasov, R.; Kadyrova, N.Zh.; Karimbaeva, K.S.; Mamyrbaeva, A.N.; Altaeva, N.Z.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Kazakhstan territory is unique including regions with radioactive pollution of Semipalatinsk nuclear test territory and storage of radioactive waste of uranium mines and metallurgy enterprises, and regions of drying Aral sea. These technogenic factors may cause some types of chromosome aberrations and developmental anomalies in mammals. The level of mutagenesis was estimated basing on chromosome aberrations and genomic mutation frequencies in bone marrow cells of natural rodents populations (Allactaga major Kern, Allactaga saltator Eversman, Cytellus eritrogenus Br.) and domestic animals (sheep, cattle, horse), which inhabit these regions. Sheep populations which are bred in the regions with different climatic conditions were used for teratological investigations. Different generations are met in the populations of mice family rodents caught in the nature. So studying the animals of different ages separately we can estimate the frequency of mutations in the animals of different age inhabiting the same radiation polluted regions. The frequency of chromosome abe rations in mice family rodents from such territories was twice as high as from the clear territories. In some animals chromosome aberration types characteristic for radiation mutagenesis (dicentrics, double acentric fragments) were found. High level of cytogenetical instability in somatic cells of agricultural animals which were bred on the pastures within former nuclear test territories for several generations may be caused by chronic radiation in low doses. The analysis of the spectrum of recorder chromosome aberrations in somatic cells and their dynamics in different animal species inhabiting for several generations these territories being chronically irradiated, allows us to investigate the direction of genetical evolution of mammals genofond structure induced by ecological factors. Comparative analysis of the frequencies of spontaneous abortuses, deadborn and newborn animals with innate

  14. Increase of {sup 210}Po levels in human semen fluid after mussel ingestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelecom, Alphonse, E-mail: lararapls@hotmail.co [Laboratory of Radiobiology and Radiometry-LARARA-PLS, Universidade Federal Fluminense, P.O.Box 100.436, 24001-970 Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Programs in Environmental Science and Marine Biology, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Gouvea, Rita de Cassia dos Santos [Laboratory of Radiobiology and Radiometry-LARARA-PLS, Universidade Federal Fluminense, P.O.Box 100.436, 24001-970 Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-05-15

    Polonium-210 ({sup 210}Po) radioactive concentrations were determined in human semen fluid of vasectomized non-smoker volunteers. The {sup 210}Po levels ranged from 0.10 to 0.39 mBq g{sup -1} (mean: 0.23 {+-} 0.08 mBq g{sup -1}). This value decreased to 0.10 {+-} 0.02 mBq g{sup -1} (range from 0.07 to 0.13 mBq g{sup -1}) after two weeks of a controlled diet, excluding fish and seafood. Then, volunteers ate during a single meal 200 g of the cooked mussel Perna perna L., and {sup 210}Po levels were determined again, during ten days, in semen fluid samples collected every morning. Volunteers continued with the controlled diet and maintained sexual abstinence through the period of the experiment. A 300% increase of {sup 210}Po level was observed the day following mussel consumption, with a later reduction, such that the level returned to near baseline by day 4.

  15. IL-33 circulating serum levels are increased in patients with non-segmental generalized vitiligo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccaro, Mario; Cicero, Francesca; Mannucci, Carmen; Calapai, Gioacchino; Spatari, Giovanna; Barbuzza, Olga; Cannavò, Serafinella P; Gangemi, Sebastiano

    2016-09-01

    IL-33 is a recently identified cytokine, encoded by the IL-33 gene, which is a member of the IL-1 family that drives the production of T-helper-2 (Th-2)-associated cytokines. Serum levels of IL-33 have been reported to be up-regulated in various T-helper (Th)-1/Th-17-mediated diseases, such as psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, and inflammatory bowel. To investigate whether cytokine imbalance plays a role in the pathogenesis of vitiligo, we performed a case-control association study by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of IL-33 in our patients. IL-33 serum levels were measured by a quantitative enzyme immunoassay technique in patients with non-segmental generalized vitiligo and compared with those of healthy controls. IL-33 serum levels in patients with vitiligo were significantly increased than those in healthy controls. There was a positive correlation of IL-33 serum levels with extension of vitiligo and disease activity. This study suggests a possible systemic role of IL-33 in the pathogenesis of vitiligo. Inhibiting IL-33 activity might be a novel therapeutic strategy in the treatment of autoimmune inflammatory disease, like vitiligo.

  16. Levels of betatrophin decrease during pregnancy despite increased insulin resistance, beta-cell function and triglyceride levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielińska, A; Maciulewski, R; Siewko, K; Popławska-Kita, A; Lipińska, D; Kozłowska, G; Górska, M; Szelachowska, M

    2016-12-01

    Evidence in support of an association between betatrophin and insulin resistance (IR) is mounting, with studies demonstrating that betatrophin is elevated in patients with type 2 diabetes, obesity and gestational diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of betatrophin in IR and physiological proliferation of beta cells during pregnancy in healthy women. Eighty healthy pregnant women were examined at each trimester [T1 (first), T2 (second), T3 (third)], with a subgroup (n=45) that was also examined at 3 months postpartum (3MPP). The controls comprised 30 non-pregnant healthy women (HW) of reproductive age. Also measured were levels of betatrophin (ELISA), glucose (enzymatic method with hexokinase), insulin (IRMA), C-peptide (EASIA) and HbA 1c (HPLC), while HOMA-IR and HOMA-β scores were calculated. Betatrophin concentration was highest at T1, and differed significantly from T2 and T3 (1.84 [Q 1 =1.16, Q 3 =2.67]ng/mL vs 1.46 [Q 1 =0.96, Q 3 =2.21]ng/mL; Pindex scores increased during gestation, peaking at T3 (2.3 [Q 1 =1.66, Q 3 =2.72] and 227.7 [Q 1 =185.49, Q 3 =326.31], respectively) and returning to levels similar to those of HW at 3MPP (1.53 [Q 1 =1.12, Q 3 =2.41] and 88.86 [Q 1 =62.73, Q 3 =130.45] vs 1.35 [Q 1 =1.02, Q 3 =1.62] and 92.5 [Q 1 =74.20, Q 3 =111.47], respectively). Concentrations of betatrophin decrease during pregnancy, suggesting that the hormone does not play a significant role in the expansion of beta-cell mass and IR during pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Changes to injury profile (and recommended cricket injury definitions based on the increased frequency of Twenty20 cricket matches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Orchard

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available John Orchard1, Trefor James2, Alex Kountouris2, Marc Portus21School of Public Health, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia; 2Cricket Australia, Melbourne, AustraliaAbstract: This study analyzes injuries occurring prospectively in Australian men’s cricket at the state and national levels over 11 seasons (concluding in season 2008–09. In the last four of these seasons, there was more cricket played, with most of the growth being a new form of the game – Twenty20 cricket. Since the introduction of a regular Twenty20 program, injury incidence rates in each form of cricket have been fairly steady. Because of the short match duration, Twenty20 cricket exhibits a high match injury incidence, expressed as injuries per 10,000 hours of play. Expressed as injuries per days of play, Twenty20 cricket injury rates compare more favorably to other forms of cricket. Domestic level Twenty20 cricket resulted in 145 injuries per 1000 days of play (compared to 219 injuries per 1000 days of domestic one day cricket, and 112 injuries per 1000 days of play in first class domestic cricket. It is therefore recommended that match injury incidence measures be expressed in units of injuries per 1000 days of play. Given the high numbers of injuries which are of gradual onset, seasonal injury incidence rates (which typically range from 15–20 injuries per team per defined ‘season’ are probably a superior incidence measure. Thigh and hamstring strains have become clearly the most common injury in the past two years (greater than four injuries per team per season, perhaps associated with the increased amount of Twenty20 cricket. Injury prevalence rates have risen in conjunction with an increase in the density of the cricket calendar. Annual injury prevalence rates (average proportion of players missing through injury have exceeded 10% in the last three years, with the injury prevalence rates for fast bowlers exceeding 18%. As the amount of scheduled cricket is

  18. Increased frequency and nocturia in a middle aged male may not always be due to Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy (BPH): a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaurav, Kumar; Fitch, Jamie; Panda, Mukta

    2009-10-27

    Primary signet ring cell carcinoma of urinary bladder is a rare type of bladder tumor and carries a very high mortality rate. It may have a clinical presentation similar to common diseases like Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy (BPH) and the management options are extremely limited. We report a case of 58 year old Caucasian male who presented with a 5 month history of increased frequency of urination, nocturia and weight loss without any fever or hematuria. He was found to have an increased creatinine of 2.8 mg/dl and a prostate specific antigen level of 0.18 ng/ml. His azotemia was thought to be secondary to BPH. A foley catheter was initially placed with a plan for outpatient follow up. On removal of the catheter his problems persisted and he returned to the hospital. Diagnostic work up including abdominal ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT) scan, retrograde pyelogram, cystography and cystoscopic biopsies revealed the diagnosis of primary signet ring cell carcinoma of urinary bladder. Although cystectomy was planned, our patient passed away before this could be done.

  19. Increased frequency and nocturia in a middle aged male may not always be due to benign prostatic hypertrophy: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaurav, Kumar; Fitch, Jamie; Panda, Mukta

    2009-09-15

    Primary signet ring cell carcinoma of urinary bladder is a rare type of bladder tumor and carries a very high mortality rate. It may have a clinical presentation similar to common diseases like benign prostatic hypertrophy and the management options are extremely limited. We report a case of 58-year-old Caucasian male who presented with a 5 month history of increased frequency of urination, nocturia and weight loss without any fever or hematuria. He was found to have an increased creatinine of 2.8 mg/dl and a prostate specific antigen level of 0.18 ng/ml. His azotemia was thought to be secondary to BPH. A Foley catheter was initially placed with a plan for outpatient follow up. On removal of the catheter his problems persisted and he returned to the hospital. Diagnostic work up including abdominal ultrasonography, computed tomography scan, retrograde pyelogram, cystography and cystoscopic biopsies revealed the diagnosis of primary signet ring cell carcinoma of urinary bladder. Although cystectomy was planned, our patient passed away before this could be done.

  20. Total circulating microparticle levels are increased in patients with deep infiltrating endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munrós, J; Martínez-Zamora, M A; Tàssies, D; Coloma, J L; Torrente, M A; Reverter, J C; Carmona, F; Balasch, J

    2017-02-01

    Are the levels of total circulating cell-derived microparticles (cMPs) and circulating tissue factor-containing microparticles (cMP-TF) increased in patients with endometriosis? The levels of total cMP, but not cMP-TF, were higher in patients with endometriosis, and these were attributed to higher levels in patients with deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE). Previous studies have reported elevated levels of total cMP in inflammatory conditions as well as higher levels of other inflammatory biomarkers in endometriosis. Increased expression of tissue factor (a transmembrane receptor for Factor VII/VIIa) in eutopic and ectopic endometrium from patients with endometriosis has been described. There is no previous data regarding total cMP and cMP-TF levels in patients with endometriosis. A prospective case-control study including two groups of patients was carried out. The E group included 65 patients with surgically confirmed endometriosis (37 with DIE lesions) and the C group comprises 33 women without surgical findings of any form of endometriosis. Patients and controls were recruited during the same 10-month period. Controls were the next patient without endometriosis undergoing surgery, after including two patients with endometriosis. Venous blood samples for total cMP and cMP-TF determinations were obtained at the time of surgery, before anesthesia at a tertiary care center. To assess total cMP, an ELISA functional assay was used and cMP-TF activity in plasma was measured using an ELISA kit. Total cMP levels in plasma were higher in the E group compared with the C group (P < 0.0001). The subanalysis of endometriosis patients with DIE or with ovarian endometriomas without DIE showed that total cMP levels were higher in the DIE group (P = 0.001). There were no statistically significant differences in cMP-TF levels among the groups analyzed. This is a preliminary study in which the sample size was arbitrarily decided, albeit in keeping with previous studies analyzing

  1. Increased plasma levels of microparticles expressing CD39 and CD133 in acute liver injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmelzle, Moritz; Splith, Katrin; Wiuff Andersen, Lars

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We have previously demonstrated that CD133 and CD39 are expressed by hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), which are mobilized after liver injury and target sites of injury, limit vascular inflammation, and boost hepatic regeneration. Plasma microparticles (MP) expressing CD39 can block...... sacrificed and plasma MP were isolated by ultracentrifugation. HSC and CD133 MP levels were analyzed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Patients were enrolled with acute (n=5) and acute on chronic (n=5) liver injury with matched controls (n=7). Blood was collected at admission and plasma CD133 and CD39...... MP subsets were analyzed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. RESULTS: HSC and CD133 MP levels were significantly increased only in the plasma of wild-type mice with acetaminophen hepatotoxicity (P

  2. Increased reactive oxygen species levels cause ER stress and cytotoxicity in andrographolide treated colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Aditi; Banerjee, Vivekjyoti; Czinn, Steven; Blanchard, Thomas

    2017-04-18

    Chemotherapy continues to play an essential role in the management of many cancers including colon cancer, the third leading cause of death due to cancer in the United States. Many naturally occurring plant compounds have been demonstrated to possess anti-cancer cell activity and have the potential to supplement existing chemotherapy strategies. The plant metabolite andrographolide induces cell death in cancer cells and apoptosis is dependent upon the induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress) leading to the unfolded protein response (UPR). The goal of the present study was to determine the mechanism by which andrographolide induces ER stress and to further evaluate its role in promoting cell death pathways. The T84 and COLO 205 cancer cell lines were used to demonstrate that andrographolide induces increased ROS levels, corresponding anti-oxidant response molecules, and reduced mitochondrial membrane potential. No increases in ROS levels were detected in control colon fibroblast cells. Andrographolide-induced cell death, UPR signaling, and CHOP, Bax, and caspase 3 apoptosis elements were all inhibited in the presence of the ROS scavenger NAC. Additionally, andrographolide-induced suppression of cyclins B1 and D1 were also reversed in the presence of NAC. Finally, Akt phosphorylation and phospho-mTOR levels that are normally suppressed by andrographolide were also expressed at normal levels in the absence of ROS. These data demonstrate that andrographolide induces ER stress leading to apoptosis through the induction of ROS and that elevated ROS also play an important role in down-regulating cell cycle progression and cell survival pathways as well.

  3. Bothrops jararaca venom metalloproteinases are essential for coagulopathy and increase plasma tissue factor levels during envenomation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine M Yamashita

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/AIMS: Bleeding tendency, coagulopathy and platelet disorders are recurrent manifestations in snakebites occurring worldwide. We reasoned that by damaging tissues and/or activating cells at the site of the bite and systemically, snake venom toxins might release or decrypt tissue factor (TF, resulting in activation of blood coagulation and aggravation of the bleeding tendency. Thus, we addressed (a whether TF and protein disulfide isomerase (PDI, an oxireductase involved in TF encryption/decryption, were altered in experimental snake envenomation; (b the involvement and significance of snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMP and serine proteinases (SVSP to hemostatic disturbances. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Crude Bothrops jararaca venom (BjV was preincubated with Na2-EDTA or AEBSF, which are inhibitors of SVMP and SVSP, respectively, and injected subcutaneously or intravenously into rats to analyze the contribution of local lesion to the development of hemostatic disturbances. Samples of blood, lung and skin were collected and analyzed at 3 and 6 h. Platelet counts were markedly diminished in rats, and neither Na2-EDTA nor AEBSF could effectively abrogate this fall. However, Na2-EDTA markedly reduced plasma fibrinogen consumption and hemorrhage at the site of BjV inoculation. Na2-EDTA also abolished the marked elevation in TF levels in plasma at 3 and 6 h, by both administration routes. Moreover, increased TF activity was also noticed in lung and skin tissue samples at 6 h. However, factor VII levels did not decrease over time. PDI expression in skin was normal at 3 h, and downregulated at 6 h in all groups treated with BjV. CONCLUSIONS: SVMP induce coagulopathy, hemorrhage and increased TF levels in plasma, but neither SVMP nor SVSP are directly involved in thrombocytopenia. High levels of TF in plasma and TF decryption occur during snake envenomation, like true disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome, and might be implicated in

  4. Increased complement C1q level marks active disease in human tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Cai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Complement functions as an important host defense system and complement C5 and C7 have been implicated in immunopathology of tuberculosis. However, little is known about the role of other complement components in tuberculosis. METHODS: Complement gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of tuberculosis patients and controls were determined using whole genome transcriptional microarray assays. The mRNA and protein levels of three C1q components, C1qA, C1qB, and C1qC, were further validated by qRT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. The percentages of C1q expression in CD14 positive cells were determined by flow cytometry. Finally, C1qC protein level was quantified in the pleural fluid of tuberculosis and non-tuberculosis pleurisy. RESULTS: C1q expression increases significantly in the peripheral blood of patients with active tuberculosis compared to healthy controls and individuals with latent TB infection. The percentage of C1q-expressing CD14 positive cells is significantly increased in active TB patients. C1q expression in the peripheral blood correlates with sputum smear positivity in tuberculosis patients and is reduced after anti-tuberculosis chemotherapy. Notably, receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that C1qC mRNA levels in peripheral blood efficiently discriminate active from latent tuberculosis infection and healthy controls. Additionally, C1qC protein level in pleural effusion shows improved power in discriminating tuberculosis from non-tuberculosis pleurisy when compared to other inflammatory markers, such as IL-6 and TNF-α. CONCLUSIONS: C1q expression correlates with active disease in human tuberculosis. C1q could be a potential diagnostic marker to discriminate active tuberculosis from latent tuberculosis infection as well as tuberculosis pleurisy from non-tuberculosis pleurisy.

  5. Toxoplasma gondii infection specifically increases the levels of key host microRNAs.

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    Gusti M Zeiner

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii can infect and replicate in virtually any nucleated cell in many species of warm-blooded animals; thus, it has evolved the ability to exploit well-conserved biological processes common to its diverse hosts. Here we have investigated whether Toxoplasma modulates the levels of host microRNAs (miRNAs during infection.Using microarray profiling and a combination of conventional molecular approaches we report that Toxoplasma specifically modulates the expression of important host microRNAs during infection. We show that both the primary transcripts for miR-17 approximately 92 and miR-106b approximately 25 and the pivotal miRNAs that are derived from miR-17 approximately 92 display increased abundance in Toxoplasma-infected primary human cells; a Toxoplasma-dependent up-regulation of the miR-17 approximately 92 promoter is at least partly responsible for this increase. The abundance of mature miR-17 family members, which are derived from these two miRNA clusters, remains unchanged in host cells infected with the closely related apicomplexan Neospora caninum; thus, the Toxoplasma-induced increase in their abundance is a highly directed process rather than a general host response to infection.Altered levels of miR-17 approximately 92 and miR-106b approximately 25 are known to play crucial roles in mammalian cell regulation and have been implicated in numerous hyperproliferative diseases although the mechanisms driving their altered expression are unknown. Hence, in addition to the implications of these findings on the host-pathogen interaction, Toxoplasma may represent a powerful probe for understanding the normal mechanisms that regulate the levels of key host miRNAs.

  6. Elevated levels of serum IL-5 are associated with an increased likelihood of major depressive disorder

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    Elomaa Antti-Pekka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammatory mediators in both the peripheral circulation and central nervous system (CNS are dysregulated in major depressive disorder (MDD. Nevertheless, relatively little is known about the role of the T-helper (Th-2 effector cytokines interleukin (IL-5 and IL-13 in MDD. Methods We examined the serum levels of these cytokines and a Th-1 comparison cytokine, interferon (IFN-γ, in 116 individuals (MDD, n = 58; controls, n = 58. Results In our basic multivariate model controlling for the effects of potential confounders on the associations between MDD and the examined cytokines, each 1-unit increase in the serum IL-5 level increased the likelihood of belonging to the MDD group by 76% (OR 1.76, 95% CI 1.03-2.99, p = 0.04; model covariates: age, gender, marital status, daily smoking and alcohol use. The likelihood further increased in models additionally controlling for the effects of the use of antidepressants and NSAIDS, and a diagnosis of asthma. No such associations were detected with regard to IL-13 (OR 1.08, 95% CI 0.96-1.22, p = 0.22 or IFN-γ (OR 1.02, 95% CI 0.99-1.05, p = 0.23. Conclusions Elevated levels of IL-5, which uses the neural plasticity-related RAS GTPase-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Ras-ERK pathway to mediate its actions in the central nervous system (CNS, could be one of the factors underlying the depression-related changes in CNS plasticity.

  7. Increased CSF levels of phosphorylated neurofilament heavy protein following bout in amateur boxers.

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    Sanna Neselius

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Diagnosis of mild TBI is hampered by the lack of imaging or biochemical measurements for identifying or quantifying mild TBI in a clinical setting. We have previously shown increased biomarker levels of protein reflecting axonal (neurofilament light protein and tau and glial (GFAP and S-100B damage in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF after a boxing bout. The aims of this study were to find other biomarkers of mild TBI, which may help clinicians diagnose and monitor mild TBI, and to calculate the role of APOE ε4 allele genotype which has been associated with poor outcome after TBI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty amateur boxers with a minimum of 45 bouts and 25 non-boxing matched controls were included in a prospective cohort study. CSF and blood were collected at one occasion between 1 and 6 days after a bout, and after a rest period for at least 14 days (follow up. The controls were tested once. CSF levels of neurofilament heavy (pNFH, amyloid precursor proteins (sAPPα and sAPPβ, ApoE and ApoA1 were analyzed. In blood, plasma levels of Aβ42 and ApoE genotype were analyzed. RESULTS: CSF levels of pNFH were significantly increased between 1 and 6 days after boxing as compared with controls (p<0.001. The concentrations decreased at follow up but were still significantly increased compared to controls (p = 0.018. CSF pNFH concentrations correlated with NFL (r =  0.57 after bout and 0.64 at follow up, p<0.001. No significant change was found in the other biomarkers, as compared to controls. Boxers carrying the APOE ε4 allele had similar biomarker concentrations as non-carriers. CONCLUSIONS: Subconcussive repetitive trauma in amateur boxing causes a mild TBI that may be diagnosed by CSF analysis of pNFH, even without unconsciousness or concussion symptoms. Possession of the APOE ε4 allele was not found to influence biomarker levels after acute TBI.

  8. Effects of glycerol on the metabolism of broilers fed increasing glycerine levels

    OpenAIRE

    Romano,GG; Menten,JFM; Freitas,LW; Lima,MB; Pereira,R; Zavarize,KC; Dias,CTS

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the metabolic response of broilers fed diets containing increasing crude glycerine levels in two bioassays. Birds were house in metabolic cages, and were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design with five treatments of 4 replicates each (1st assay: 5 birds/ cage; 2nd assay: 1-20 days = 8 birds/ cage, and 21-42 days = 4 birds/cage). Treatments consisted of a control diet based on corn and soybean meal, and four other diets containing 2.5%, 5.0%,...

  9. Increased meal frequency attenuates fat-free mass losses and some markers of health status with a portion-controlled weight loss diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, Michelle K; Beam, Jason R; McCormick, James J; White, Ailish C; Salgado, Roy M; Kravitz, Len R; Mermier, Christine M; Gibson, Ann L; Conn, Carole A; Kolkmeyer, Deborah; Ferraro, Robert T; Kerksick, Chad M

    2015-05-01

    Increased meal frequency (MF) may be associated with improvements in blood markers of health and body composition during weight loss; however, this claim has not been validated. The purpose of the study was to determine if either a 2-meal (2 MF) or 6-meal frequency (6 MF) regimen can improve body composition and blood-based markers of health while consuming a portion-controlled equihypocaloric diet. Eleven (N=11) obese women (52 ± 7 years, 101.7 ± 22.6 kg, 39.1 ± 7.6 kg/m(2)) were randomized into treatment condition (2 MF or 6 MF) for 2 weeks, completed a 2-week washout, and alternated treatment conditions. In pre/post fashion, changes in body composition, glucose, insulin, and lipid components were measured in response to a test meal. Body mass was successfully lost (P ≤ .05) under both feeding regimens (2 MF: -2.8 ± 1.5 vs 6 MF: -1.9 ± 1.5 kg). Altering MF did not impact glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P>.05). On average, fat-free mass (FFM) decreased by -3.3% ± 2.6% following the 2 MF condition and, on average, increased by 1.2% ± 1.7% following the 6 MF condition (P ≤ .05). Fasting high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) percentage increased during the 2 MF condition; this was significantly greater than that in the 6 MF condition (1.3% ± 12.2% vs 0.12% ± 10.3%) (P ≤ .05). Overall, reductions in MF (2 MF) were associated with improved HDL-C levels; but the clinical significance is not clear. Alternatively, increased MF (6 MF) did appear to favorably preserve FFM during weight loss. In conclusion, caloric restriction was effective in reducing body mass and attenuating FFM changes in body composition; however, glucose, insulin, and lipid metabolism had no significant differences between MF. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Increased macrophage colony-stimulating factor levels in patients with Graves' disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishita, Eriko; Sekiya, Akiko; Hayashi, Tomoe; Kadohira, Yasuko; Maekawa, Mio; Yamazaki, Masahide; Asakura, Hidesaku; Nakao, Shinji; Ohtake, Shigeki

    2008-10-01

    Previous studies have found markedly elevated serum concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines in patients with Graves' disease (GD). We investigated the role of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) in GD. We assayed concentrations of M-CSF in sera from 32 patients with GD (25 untreated; 7 receiving thiamazole therapy). We also studied 32 age-matched healthy subjects as controls. Relationships between serum M-CSF and both thyroid state and serum lipids were examined. Moreover, to examine the effect of thyroid hormone alone on serum M-CSF, T3 was administered orally to normal subjects. Serum concentrations of M-CSF in GD patients who were hyperthyroid were significantly increased compared with GD patients who were euthyroid (P oral T3 administered to 15 volunteers for 7 days produced significant increases in serum levels of M-CSF (P production of M-CSF in patients with GD.

  11. Increasing levels and biomagnification of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Antarctic biota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goerke, Helmut; Weber, Kurt; Bornemann, Horst; Ramdohr, Sven; Ploetz, Joachim

    2004-02-01

    Representatives of the Antarctic food web (krill, cephalopod, fish, penguin, seal) of the area around Elephant Island and from the Weddell Sea were analysed for the most recalcitrant organochlorine compounds. Due to sorption of the compounds to sinking particles and accumulation in sediments, two benthic fish species (Gobionotothen gibberifrons, Chaenocephalus aceratus) feeding on benthos invertebrates and fish reflected significantly increasing concentrations within a decade (1987-1996), while a benthopelagic species (Champsocephalus gunnari) feeding on krill did not. In the pelagic food chain, lipid normalised concentrations of all compounds increased from Antarctic krill to fish proving that biomagnification of highly lipophilic pollutants (log octanol-water partition coefficient > 5) occurs in water-breathing animals. As top predators Weddell and southern elephant seals (Leptonychotes weddellii, Mirounga leonina) biomagnified the persistent organic pollutants relative to krill 30-160 fold with the exception of hexachlorobenzene, the levels of which were lower than in fish indicating its intense specific elimination.

  12. Increasing levels and biomagnification of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Antarctic biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goerke, Helmut; Weber, Kurt; Bornemann, Horst; Ramdohr, Sven; Ploetz, Joachim

    2004-01-01

    Representatives of the Antarctic food web (krill, cephalopod, fish, penguin, seal) of the area around Elephant Island and from the Weddell Sea were analysed for the most recalcitrant organochlorine compounds. Due to sorption of the compounds to sinking particles and accumulation in sediments, two benthic fish species (Gobionotothen gibberifrons, Chaenocephalus aceratus) feeding on benthos invertebrates and fish reflected significantly increasing concentrations within a decade (1987-1996), while a benthopelagic species (Champsocephalus gunnari) feeding on krill did not. In the pelagic food chain, lipid normalised concentrations of all compounds increased from Antarctic krill to fish proving that biomagnification of highly lipophilic pollutants (log octanol-water partition coefficient > 5) occurs in water-breathing animals. As top predators Weddell and southern elephant seals (Leptonychotes weddellii, Mirounga leonina) biomagnified the persistent organic pollutants relative to krill 30-160 fold with the exception of hexachlorobenzene, the levels of which were lower than in fish indicating its intense specific elimination

  13. Potential to increase active commuting level in university area (Case study: Universitas Gadjah Mada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, M. K.

    2017-06-01

    In order to alleviate the negative impacts of motorized vehicle use as well as create sustainable environment within campus area, it is pivotal to encourage mode shifting among university students. Active transport modes such as walking, cycling, and using public transport can be considered as alternative modes. This paper tried to identify the potential to increase active commuting in UGM by understanding student’s travel behavior. ANOVA test was employed to identify the perceptions between students across residential zones toward motivators and barriers to actively commute. The findings were used to propose strategies for increasing active commuting level in UGM, which are: reducing barriers to actively commute, improving public transport services, improving walking and cycling facilities, and introducing programs to discourage motorized vehicle use.

  14. Increase in the temperature of a laser plasma formed by two-frequency UV - IR irradiation of metal targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antipov, A A; Grasyuk, Arkadii Z; Efimovskii, S V; Kurbasov, Sergei V; Losev, Leonid L; Soskov, V I

    1998-01-01

    An experimental investigation was made of a laser plasma formed by successive irradiation of a metal target with 30-ps UV and IR laser pulses. The UV prepulse, of 266 nm wavelength, was of relatively low intensity (∼ 10 12 W cm -2 ), whereas the intensity of an IR pulse, of 10.6 μm wavelength, was considerably higher (∼3 x 10 14 W cm -2 ) and it was delayed by 0 - 6 ns (the optimal delay was 2 ns). Such two-frequency UV - IR irradiation produced a laser plasma with an electron temperature 5 times higher than that of a plasma created by singe-frequency IR pulses of the same (∼3 x 10 14 W cm -2 ) intensity. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  15. Increased Frequency of ColV Plasmids and Mannose-Resistant Hemagglutinating Activity in an Escherichia coli K1 Population

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    The expression of traits linked to pathogenicity was studied in a population of Escherichia coli K1 strains. It was found that E. coli K1 strains isolated from extraintestinal infection harbor the ColV plasmid and express mannose-resistant hemagglutinating activity type VI with a high frequency. The presence of these properties may play a role in the ability of some E. coli K1 serogroups to invade.

  16. Increased circulating full-length betatrophin levels in drug-naïve metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dan; Li, Sheyu; He, He; Yu, Chuan; Li, Xiaodan; Liang, Libo; Chen, Yi; Li, Jianwei; Li, Jianshu; Sun, Xin; Tian, Haoming; An, Zhenmei

    2017-03-14

    Betatrophin is a newly identified circulating adipokine playing a role in the regulation of glucose homeostasis and lipid metabolism. But its role in metabolic syndrome (MetS) remains unknown. Therefore, we aimed to compare the circulating betatrophin concentrations between patients with MetS and healthy controls. We recruited 47 patients with MetS and 47 age and sex matched healthy controls. Anthropometric and biochemical measurements were performed, and serum betatrophin levels were detected by ELISA. Full-length betatrophin levels in patients with MetS were significantly higher than those in controls (694.84 ± 365.51 pg/ml versus 356.64 ± 287.92 pg/ml; P <0.001). While no significant difference of total betatrophin levels was found between the two groups (1.20 ± 0.79 ng/ml versus 1.31 ± 1.08 ng/ml; P = 0.524). Full-length betatrophin level was positively correlated with fasting plasma glucose (FPG) (r = 0.357, P = 0.014) and 2-hour plasma glucose (2hPG) (r = 0.38, P <0.01). Binary logistic regression models indicated that subjects in the tertile of the highest full-length betatrophin level experienced higher odds of having MetS (OR, 8.6; 95% CI 2.8-26.8; P <0.001). Our study showed that full-length betatrophin concentrations were increased in drug-naïve MetS patients.

  17. Association between iron level, glucose impairment and increased DNA damage during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zein, Salam; Rachidi, Samar; Shami, Nadine; Sharara, Iman; Cheikh-Ali, Khawla; Gauchez, Anne-Sophie; Moulis, Jean-Marc; Ayoubi, Jean-Marc; Salameh, Pascale; Hininger-Favier, Isabelle

    2017-09-01

    Elevated circulating ferritin has been reported to increase the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). When high ferritin translates into high iron stores, iron excess is also a condition leading to free radical damage. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between oxidative stress (OS) induced by iron status and GDM risk in non iron-supplemented pregnant women. This was a pilot observational study conducted on 93 non-anemic pregnant women. Iron status was assessed at the first trimester of gestation. Blood sampling was done at 24-28 weeks' gestation for oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), insulin and biological markers of oxidative damage tests. A significant increase in DNA damage was found in patients who developed GDM. Women with elevated DNA damage had a six-fold increased risk of developing GDM (Exp (B)=6.851, P=0.038; 95% CI [1.108-42.375]). The serum ferritin levels at first trimester were significantly correlated to lipid peroxidation (rho=0.24, p=0.012). The stratified analysis suggests that ferritin is a modifying factor for the correlation of oxidative stress (OS) and glucose intolerance. Moderate ferritin levels due to iron intake without iron-supplement, at early pregnancy is a modifying factor for the correlation of oxidative damage and glucose intolerance in pregnant women. Larger studies to evaluate the risk of food iron intake induced increased oxidative damage in offspring are warranted to propose nutrition advice regarding iron intake in women with a high risk of GDM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. The Dietary Furocoumarin Imperatorin Increases Plasma GLP-1 Levels in Type 1-Like Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Yu Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Imperatorin, a dietary furocoumarin, is found not only in medicinal plants, but also in popular culinary herbs, such as parsley and fennel. Recently, imperatorin has been shown to activate GPR119 in cells. Another GPR, GPR131, also called TGR5 or G-protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1 (GPBAR1, is known to regulate glucose metabolism. Additionally, TGR5 activation increases glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1 secretion to lower blood sugar levels in animals. Therefore, the present study aims to determine whether the effects of imperatorin on GLP-1 secretion are mediated by TGR5. First, we transfected cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1 cells with the TGR5 gene. Glucose uptake was confirmed in the transfected cells using a fluorescent indicator. Moreover, NCI-H716 cells, which secrete GLP-1, were used to investigate the changes in calcium concentrations and GLP-1 levels. In addition, streptozotocin (STZ-induced type 1-like diabetic rats were used to identify the effects of imperatorin in vivo. Imperatorin dose-dependently increased glucose uptake in CHO-K1 cells expressing TGR5. In STZ diabetic rats, similar to the results in NCI-H716 cells, imperatorin induced a marked increase of GLP-1 secretion that was reduced, but not totally abolished, by a dose of triamterene that inhibited TGR5. Moreover, increases in GLP-1 secretion induced by imperatorin and GPR119 activation were shown in NCI-H716 cells. We demonstrated that imperatorin induced GLP-1 secretion via activating TGR5 and GPR119. Therefore, imperatorin shall be considered as a TGR5 and GPR119 agonist.

  19. Chronic mild stress increases alcohol intake in mice with low dopamine D2 receptor levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delis, Foteini; Thanos, Panayotis K; Rombola, Christina; Rosko, Lauren; Grandy, David; Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D

    2013-02-01

    Alcohol use disorders emerge from a complex interaction between environmental and genetic factors. Stress and dopamine D2 receptor levels (DRD2) have been shown to play a central role in alcoholism. To better understand the interactions between DRD2 and stress in ethanol intake behavior, we subjected Drd2 wild-type (+/+), heterozygous (+/-), and knockout (-/-) mice to 4 weeks of chronic mild stress (CMS) and to an ethanol two-bottle choice during CMS weeks 2-4. Prior to and at the end of the experiment, the animals were tested in the forced swim and open field tests. We measured ethanol intake and preference, immobility in the force swim test, and activity in the open field. We show that under no CMS, Drd2+/- and Drd2-/- mice had lower ethanol intake and preference compared with Drd2+/+. Exposure to CMS decreased ethanol intake and preference in Drd2+/+ and increased them in Drd2+/- and Drd2-/- mice. At baseline, Drd2+/- and Drd2-/- mice had significantly lower activity in the open field than Drd2+/+, whereas no genotype differences were observed in the forced swim test. Exposure to CMS increased immobility during the forced swim test in Drd2+/- mice, but not in Drd2+/+ or Drd2-/- mice, and ethanol intake reversed this behavior. No changes were observed in open field test measures. These findings suggest that in the presence of a stressful environment, low DRD2 levels are associated with increased ethanol intake and preference and that under this condition, increased ethanol consumption could be used as a strategy to alleviate negative mood. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Mammalian Auditory Hair Cell Bundle Stiffness Affects Frequency Tuning by Increasing Coupling along the Length of the Cochlea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, James B; Xia, Anping; Müller, Ulrich; Belyantseva, Inna A; Applegate, Brian E; Oghalai, John S

    2018-06-05

    The stereociliary bundles of cochlear hair cells convert mechanical vibrations into the electrical signals required for auditory sensation. While the stiffness of the bundles strongly influences mechanotransduction, its influence on the vibratory response of the cochlear partition is unclear. To assess this, we measured cochlear vibrations in mutant mice with reduced bundle stiffness or with a tectorial membrane (TM) that is detached from the sensory epithelium. We found that reducing bundle stiffness decreased the high-frequency extent and sharpened the tuning of vibratory responses obtained postmortem. Detaching the TM further reduced the high-frequency extent of the vibrations but also lowered the partition's resonant frequency. Together, these results demonstrate that the bundle's stiffness and attachment to the TM contribute to passive longitudinal coupling in the cochlea. We conclude that the stereociliary bundles and TM interact to facilitate passive-wave propagation to more apical locations, possibly enhancing active-wave amplification in vivo. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A survey of strong high-frequency sea level oscillations along the US East Coast between 2006 and 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pasquet

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A systematic survey of high-frequency sea level oscillations (<6 h measured between 2006 and 2011 along the US East Coast is performed. Raw 1-min resolution sea level data is used. After performing a data quality check, the nine most intense events, with maximum recorded wave heights ranging from 40 to 100 cm, are identified. Focusing on three of these events enables us to recognize two different generation mechanisms: (i topographically-trapped edge waves which are found to be a significant contributor to the strongest observed oscillations, and (ii standing waves, which occur over enclosed shallow waters and may result in significant wave heights of up to 100 cm. A reproduction of the observed oscillations is a part of a future work, which will include an assessment of a generating force in the atmosphere, allowing for a better prevention of potential flooding along the US East Coast.

  2. Increasing the frequency of hand washing by healthcare workers does not lead to commensurate reductions in staphylococcal infection in a hospital ward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerr Kevin G

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hand hygiene is generally considered to be the most important measure that can be applied to prevent the spread of healthcare-associated infection (HAI. Continuous emphasis on this intervention has lead to the widespread opinion that HAI rates can be greatly reduced by increased hand hygiene compliance alone. However, this assumes that the effectiveness of hand hygiene is not constrained by other factors and that improved compliance in excess of a given level, in itself, will result in a commensurate reduction in the incidence of HAI. However, several researchers have found the law of diminishing returns to apply to hand hygiene, with the greatest benefits occurring in the first 20% or so of compliance, and others have demonstrated that poor cohorting of nursing staff profoundly influences the effectiveness of hand hygiene measures. Collectively, these findings raise intriguing questions about the extent to which increasing compliance alone can further reduce rates of HAI. Methods In order to investigate these issues further, we constructed a deterministic Ross-Macdonald model and applied it to a hypothetical general medical ward. In this model the transmission of staphylococcal infection was assumed to occur after contact with the transiently colonized hands of HCWs, who, in turn, acquire contamination only by touching colonized patients. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of imperfect hand cleansing on the transmission of staphylococcal infection and to identify, whether there is a limit, above which further hand hygiene compliance is unlikely to be of benefit. Results The model demonstrated that if transmission is solely via the hands of HCWs, it should, under most circumstances, be possible to prevent outbreaks of staphylococcal infection from occurring at a hand cleansing frequencies Conclusion Although our study confirmed hand hygiene to be an effective control measure, it demonstrated that the law of

  3. Low-Frequency Synonymous Coding Variation in CYP2R1 Has Large Effects on Vitamin D Levels and Risk of Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manousaki, Despoina; Dudding, Tom; Haworth, Simon; Hsu, Yi-Hsiang; Liu, Ching-Ti; Medina-Gómez, Carolina; Voortman, Trudy; van der Velde, Nathalie; Melhus, Håkan; Robinson-Cohen, Cassianne; Cousminer, Diana L; Nethander, Maria; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Noordam, Raymond; Forgetta, Vincenzo; Greenwood, Celia M T; Biggs, Mary L; Psaty, Bruce M; Rotter, Jerome I; Zemel, Babette S; Mitchell, Jonathan A; Taylor, Bruce; Lorentzon, Mattias; Karlsson, Magnus; Jaddoe, Vincent V W; Tiemeier, Henning; Campos-Obando, Natalia; Franco, Oscar H; Utterlinden, Andre G; Broer, Linda; van Schoor, Natasja M; Ham, Annelies C; Ikram, M Arfan; Karasik, David; de Mutsert, Renée; Rosendaal, Frits R; den Heijer, Martin; Wang, Thomas J; Lind, Lars; Orwoll, Eric S; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O; Michaëlsson, Karl; Kestenbaum, Bryan; Ohlsson, Claes; Mellström, Dan; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; Grant, Struan F A; Kiel, Douglas P; Zillikens, M Carola; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Sawcer, Stephen; Timpson, Nicholas J; Richards, J Brent

    2017-08-03

    Vitamin D insufficiency is common, correctable, and influenced by genetic factors, and it has been associated with risk of several diseases. We sought to identify low-frequency genetic variants that strongly increase the risk of vitamin D insufficiency and tested their effect on risk of multiple sclerosis, a disease influenced by low vitamin D concentrations. We used whole-genome sequencing data from 2,619 individuals through the UK10K program and deep-imputation data from 39,655 individuals genotyped genome-wide. Meta-analysis of the summary statistics from 19 cohorts identified in CYP2R1 the low-frequency (minor allele frequency = 2.5%) synonymous coding variant g.14900931G>A (p.Asp120Asp) (rs117913124[A]), which conferred a large effect on 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels (-0.43 SD of standardized natural log-transformed 25OHD per A allele; p value = 1.5 × 10 -88 ). The effect on 25OHD was four times larger and independent of the effect of a previously described common variant near CYP2R1. By analyzing 8,711 individuals, we showed that heterozygote carriers of this low-frequency variant have an increased risk of vitamin D insufficiency (odds ratio [OR] = 2.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.78-2.78, p = 1.26 × 10 -12 ). Individuals carrying one copy of this variant also had increased odds of multiple sclerosis (OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.19-1.64, p = 2.63 × 10 -5 ) in a sample of 5,927 case and 5,599 control subjects. In conclusion, we describe a low-frequency CYP2R1 coding variant that exerts the largest effect upon 25OHD levels identified to date in the general European population and implicates vitamin D in the etiology of multiple sclerosis. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A Low-Frequency Inactivating AKT2 Variant Enriched in the Finnish Population Is Associated With Fasting Insulin Levels and Type 2 Diabetes Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Alisa; Highland, Heather M; Gasser, Jessica; Sim, Xueling; Tukiainen, Taru; Fontanillas, Pierre; Grarup, Niels; Rivas, Manuel A; Mahajan, Anubha; Locke, Adam E; Cingolani, Pablo; Pers, Tune H; Viñuela, Ana; Brown, Andrew A; Wu, Ying; Flannick, Jason; Fuchsberger, Christian; Gamazon, Eric R; Gaulton, Kyle J; Im, Hae Kyung; Teslovich, Tanya M; Blackwell, Thomas W; Bork-Jensen, Jette; Burtt, Noël P; Chen, Yuhui; Green, Todd; Hartl, Christopher; Kang, Hyun Min; Kumar, Ashish; Ladenvall, Claes; Ma, Clement; Moutsianas, Loukas; Pearson, Richard D; Perry, John R B; Rayner, N William; Robertson, Neil R; Scott, Laura J; van de Bunt, Martijn; Eriksson, Johan G; Jula, Antti; Koskinen, Seppo; Lehtimäki, Terho; Palotie, Aarno; Raitakari, Olli T; Jacobs, Suzanne B R; Wessel, Jennifer; Chu, Audrey Y; Scott, Robert A; Goodarzi, Mark O; Blancher, Christine; Buck, Gemma; Buck, David; Chines, Peter S; Gabriel, Stacey; Gjesing, Anette P; Groves, Christopher J; Hollensted, Mette; Huyghe, Jeroen R; Jackson, Anne U; Jun, Goo; Justesen, Johanne Marie; Mangino, Massimo; Murphy, Jacquelyn; Neville, Matt; Onofrio, Robert; Small, Kerrin S; Stringham, Heather M; Trakalo, Joseph; Banks, Eric; Carey, Jason; Carneiro, Mauricio O; DePristo, Mark; Farjoun, Yossi; Fennell, Timothy; Goldstein, Jacqueline I; Grant, George; Hrabé de Angelis, Martin; Maguire, Jared; Neale, Benjamin M; Poplin, Ryan; Purcell, Shaun; Schwarzmayr, Thomas; Shakir, Khalid; Smith, Joshua D; Strom, Tim M; Wieland, Thomas; Lindstrom, Jaana; Brandslund, Ivan; Christensen, Cramer; Surdulescu, Gabriela L; Lakka, Timo A; Doney, Alex S F; Nilsson, Peter; Wareham, Nicholas J; Langenberg, Claudia; Varga, Tibor V; Franks, Paul W; Rolandsson, Olov; Rosengren, Anders H; Farook, Vidya S; Thameem, Farook; Puppala, Sobha; Kumar, Satish; Lehman, Donna M; Jenkinson, Christopher P; Curran, Joanne E; Hale, Daniel Esten; Fowler, Sharon P; Arya, Rector; DeFronzo, Ralph A; Abboud, Hanna E; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Hicks, Pamela J; Palmer, Nicholette D; Ng, Maggie C Y; Bowden, Donald W; Freedman, Barry I; Esko, Tõnu; Mägi, Reedik; Milani, Lili; Mihailov, Evelin; Metspalu, Andres; Narisu, Narisu; Kinnunen, Leena; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Swift, Amy; Pasko, Dorota; Wood, Andrew R; Fadista, João; Pollin, Toni I; Barzilai, Nir; Atzmon, Gil; Glaser, Benjamin; Thorand, Barbara; Strauch, Konstantin; Peters, Annette; Roden, Michael; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Liang, Liming; Kriebel, Jennifer; Illig, Thomas; Grallert, Harald; Gieger, Christian; Meisinger, Christa; Lannfelt, Lars; Musani, Solomon K; Griswold, Michael; Taylor, Herman A; Wilson, Gregory; Correa, Adolfo; Oksa, Heikki; Scott, William R; Afzal, Uzma; Tan, Sian-Tsung; Loh, Marie; Chambers, John C; Sehmi, Jobanpreet; Kooner, Jaspal Singh; Lehne, Benjamin; Cho, Yoon Shin; Lee, Jong-Young; Han, Bok-Ghee; Käräjämäki, Annemari; Qi, Qibin; Qi, Lu; Huang, Jinyan; Hu, Frank B; Melander, Olle; Orho-Melander, Marju; Below, Jennifer E; Aguilar, David; Wong, Tien Yin; Liu, Jianjun; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Chia, Kee Seng; Lim, Wei Yen; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Chan, Edmund; Tai, E Shyong; Aung, Tin; Linneberg, Allan; Isomaa, Bo; Meitinger, Thomas; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Hakaste, Liisa; Kravic, Jasmina; Jørgensen, Marit E; Lauritzen, Torsten; Deloukas, Panos; Stirrups, Kathleen E; Owen, Katharine R; Farmer, Andrew J; Frayling, Timothy M; O'Rahilly, Stephen P; Walker, Mark; Levy, Jonathan C; Hodgkiss, Dylan; Hattersley, Andrew T; Kuulasmaa, Teemu; Stančáková, Alena; Barroso, Inês; Bharadwaj, Dwaipayan; Chan, Juliana; Chandak, Giriraj R; Daly, Mark J; Donnelly, Peter J; Ebrahim, Shah B; Elliott, Paul; Fingerlin, Tasha; Froguel, Philippe; Hu, Cheng; Jia, Weiping; Ma, Ronald C W; McVean, Gilean; Park, Taesung; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Sandhu, Manjinder; Scott, James; Sladek, Rob; Tandon, Nikhil; Teo, Yik Ying; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Watanabe, Richard M; Koistinen, Heikki A; Kesaniemi, Y Antero; Uusitupa, Matti; Spector, Timothy D; Salomaa, Veikko; Rauramaa, Rainer; Palmer, Colin N A; Prokopenko, Inga; Morris, Andrew D; Bergman, Richard N; Collins, Francis S; Lind, Lars; Ingelsson, Erik; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Karpe, Fredrik; Groop, Leif; Jørgensen, Torben; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Kuusisto, Johanna; Abecasis, Gonçalo; Bell, Graeme I; Blangero, John; Cox, Nancy J; Duggirala, Ravindranath; Seielstad, Mark; Wilson, James G; Dupuis, Josee; Ripatti, Samuli; Hanis, Craig L; Florez, Jose C; Mohlke, Karen L; Meigs, James B; Laakso, Markku; Morris, Andrew P; Boehnke, Michael; Altshuler, David; McCarthy, Mark I; Gloyn, Anna L; Lindgren, Cecilia M

    2017-07-01

    To identify novel coding association signals and facilitate characterization of mechanisms influencing glycemic traits and type 2 diabetes risk, we analyzed 109,215 variants derived from exome array genotyping together with an additional 390,225 variants from exome sequence in up to 39,339 normoglycemic individuals from five ancestry groups. We identified a novel association between the coding variant (p.Pro50Thr) in AKT2 and fasting plasma insulin (FI), a gene in which rare fully penetrant mutations are causal for monogenic glycemic disorders. The low-frequency allele is associated with a 12% increase in FI levels. This variant is present at 1.1% frequency in Finns but virtually absent in individuals from other ancestries. Carriers of the FI-increasing allele had increased 2-h insulin values, decreased insulin sensitivity, and increased risk of type 2 diabetes (odds ratio 1.05). In cellular studies, the AKT2-Thr50 protein exhibited a partial loss of function. We extend the allelic spectrum for coding variants in AKT2 associated with disorders of glucose homeostasis and demonstrate bidirectional effects of variants within the pleckstrin homology domain of AKT2 . © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  5. A low-frequency inactivating AKT2 variant enriched in the Finnish population is associated with fasting insulin levels and type 2 diabetes risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grarup, Niels; Rivas, Manuel A; Mahajan, Anubha; Locke, Adam E; Cingolani, Pablo; Pers, Tune H; Viñuela, Ana; Brown, Andrew A; Wu, Ying; Flannick, Jason; Fuchsberger, Christian; Gamazon, Eric R; Gaulton, Kyle J; Im, Hae Kyung; Teslovich, Tanya M; Blackwell, Thomas W; Bork-Jensen, Jette; Burtt, Noël P; Chen, Yuhui; Green, Todd; Hartl, Christopher; Kang, Hyun Min; Kumar, Ashish; Ladenvall, Claes; Ma, Clement; Moutsianas, Loukas; Pearson, Richard D; Perry, John R B; Rayner, N William; Robertson, Neil R; Scott, Laura J; van de Bunt, Martijn; Eriksson, Johan G; Jula, Antti; Koskinen, Seppo; Lehtimäki, Terho; Palotie, Aarno; Raitakari, Olli T; Jacobs, Suzanne BR; Wessel, Jennifer; Chu, Audrey Y; Scott, Robert A; Goodarzi, Mark O; Blancher, Christine; Buck, Gemma; Buck, David; Chines, Peter S; Gabriel, Stacey; Gjesing, Anette P; Groves, Christopher J; Hollensted, Mette; Huyghe, Jeroen R; Jackson, Anne U; Jun, Goo; Justesen, Johanne Marie; Mangino, Massimo; Murphy, Jacquelyn; Neville, Matt; Onofrio, Robert; Small, Kerrin S; Stringham, Heather M; Trakalo, Joseph; Banks, Eric; Carey, Jason; Carneiro, Mauricio O; DePristo, Mark; Farjoun, Yossi; Fennell, Timothy; Goldstein, Jacqueline I; Grant, George; de Angelis, Martin Hrabé; Maguire, Jared; Neale, Benjamin M; Poplin, Ryan; Purcell, Shaun; Schwarzmayr, Thomas; Shakir, Khalid; Smith, Joshua D; Strom, Tim M; Wieland, Thomas; Lindstrom, Jaana; Brandslund, Ivan; Christensen, Cramer; Surdulescu, Gabriela L; Lakka, Timo A; Doney, Alex S F; Nilsson, Peter; Wareham, Nicholas J; Langenberg, Claudia; Varga, Tibor V; Franks, Paul W; Rolandsson, Olov; Rosengren, Anders H; Farook, Vidya S; Thameem, Farook; Puppala, Sobha; Kumar, Satish; Lehman, Donna M; Jenkinson, Christopher P; Curran, Joanne E; Hale, Daniel Esten; Fowler, Sharon P; Arya, Rector; DeFronzo, Ralph A; Abboud, Hanna E; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Hicks, Pamela J; Palmer, Nicholette D; Ng, Maggie C Y; Bowden, Donald W; Freedman, Barry I; Esko, Tõnu; Mägi, Reedik; Milani, Lili; Mihailov, Evelin; Metspalu, Andres; Narisu, Narisu; Kinnunen, Leena; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Swift, Amy; Pasko, Dorota; Wood, Andrew R; Fadista, João; Pollin, Toni I; Barzilai, Nir; Atzmon, Gil; Glaser, Benjamin; Thorand, Barbara; Strauch, Konstantin; Peters, Annette; Roden, Michael; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Liang, Liming; Kriebel, Jennifer; Illig, Thomas; Grallert, Harald; Gieger, Christian; Meisinger, Christa; Lannfelt, Lars; Musani, Solomon K; Griswold, Michael; Taylor, Herman A; Wilson, Gregory; Correa, Adolfo; Oksa, Heikki; Scott, William R; Afzal, Uzma; Tan, Sian-Tsung; Loh, Marie; Chambers, John C; Sehmi, Jobanpreet; Kooner, Jaspal Singh; Lehne, Benjamin; Cho, Yoon Shin; Lee, Jong-Young; Han, Bok-Ghee; Käräjämäki, Annemari; Qi, Qibin; Qi, Lu; Huang, Jinyan; Hu, Frank B; Melander, Olle; Orho-Melander, Marju; Below, Jennifer E; Aguilar, David; Wong, Tien Yin; Liu, Jianjun; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Chia, Kee Seng; Lim, Wei Yen; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Chan, Edmund; Tai, E Shyong; Aung, Tin; Linneberg, Allan; Isomaa, Bo; Meitinger, Thomas; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Hakaste, Liisa; Kravic, Jasmina; Jørgensen, Marit E; Lauritzen, Torsten; Deloukas, Panos; Stirrups, Kathleen E; Owen, Katharine R; Farmer, Andrew J; Frayling, Timothy M; O'Rahilly, Stephen P; Walker, Mark; Levy, Jonathan C; Hodgkiss, Dylan; Hattersley, Andrew T; Kuulasmaa, Teemu; Stančáková, Alena; Barroso, Inês; Bharadwaj, Dwaipayan; Chan, Juliana; Chandak, Giriraj R; Daly, Mark J; Donnelly, Peter J; Ebrahim, Shah B; Elliott, Paul; Fingerlin, Tasha; Froguel, Philippe; Hu, Cheng; Jia, Weiping; Ma, Ronald C W; McVean, Gilean; Park, Taesung; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Sandhu, Manjinder; Scott, James; Sladek, Rob; Tandon, Nikhil; Teo, Yik Ying; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Watanabe, Richard M; Koistinen, Heikki A; Kesaniemi, Y Antero; Uusitupa, Matti; Spector, Timothy D; Salomaa, Veikko; Rauramaa, Rainer; Palmer, Colin N A; Prokopenko, Inga; Morris, Andrew D; Bergman, Richard N; Collins, Francis S; Lind, Lars; Ingelsson, Erik; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Karpe, Fredrik; Groop, Leif; Jørgensen, Torben; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Kuusisto, Johanna; Abecasis, Gonçalo; Bell, Graeme I; Blangero, John; Cox, Nancy J; Duggirala, Ravindranath; Seielstad, Mark; Wilson, James G; Dupuis, Josee; Ripatti, Samuli; Hanis, Craig L; Florez, Jose C; Mohlke, Karen L; Meigs, James B; Laakso, Markku; Morris, Andrew P; Boehnke, Michael; Altshuler, David; McCarthy, Mark I; Gloyn, Anna L; Lindgren, Cecilia M

    2017-01-01

    To identify novel coding association signals and facilitate characterization of mechanisms influencing glycemic traits and type 2 diabetes risk, we analyzed 109,215 variants derived from exome array genotyping together with an additional 390,225 variants from exome sequence in up to 39,339 normoglycemic individuals from five ancestry groups. We identified a novel association between the coding variant (p.Pro50Thr) in AKT2 and fasting insulin, a gene in which rare fully penetrant mutations are causal for monogenic glycemic disorders. The low-frequency allele is associated with a 12% increase in fasting plasma insulin (FI) levels. This variant is present at 1.1% frequency in Finns but virtually absent in individuals from other ancestries. Carriers of the FI-increasing allele had increased 2-hour insulin values, decreased insulin sensitivity, and increased risk of type 2 diabetes (odds ratio=1.05). In cellular studies, the AKT2-Thr50 protein exhibited a partial loss of function. We extend the allelic spectrum for coding variants in AKT2 associated with disorders of glucose homeostasis and demonstrate bidirectional effects of variants within the pleckstrin homology domain of AKT2. PMID:28341696

  6. Increased circulating miR-21 levels are associated with kidney fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Glowacki

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of noncoding RNA acting at a post-transcriptional level to control the expression of large sets of target mRNAs. While there is evidence that miRNAs deregulation plays a causative role in various complex disorders, their role in fibrotic kidney diseases is largely unexplored. Here, we found a strong up-regulation of miR-21 in the kidneys of mice with unilateral ureteral obstruction and also in the kidneys of patients with severe kidney fibrosis. In addition, mouse primary fibroblasts derived from fibrotic kidneys exhibited higher miR-21 expression level compared to those derived from normal kidneys. Expression of miR-21 in normal primary kidney fibroblasts was induced upon TGFβ exposure, a key growth factor involved in fibrogenesis. Finally, ectopic expression of miR-21 in primary kidney fibroblasts was sufficient to promote myofibroblast differentiation. As circulating miRNAs have been suggested as promising non-invasive biomarkers, we further assess whether circulating miR-21 levels are associated with renal fibrosis using sera from 42 renal transplant recipients, categorized according to their renal fibrosis severity, evaluated on allograft biopsies (Interstitial Fibrosis/Tubular Atrophy (IF/TA. Circulating miR-21 levels are significantly increased in patients with severe IF