WorldWideScience

Sample records for level homogeneous terrain

  1. Comparing mixing-length models of the diabatic wind profile over homogeneous terrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Gryning, Sven-Erik; Hasager, Charlotte Bay

    2010-01-01

    Models of the diabatic wind profile over homogeneous terrain for the entire atmospheric boundary layer are developed using mixing-length theory and are compared to wind speed observations up to 300 m at the National Test Station for Wind Turbines at Høvsøre, Denmark. The measurements are performe...

  2. A proxy for variance in dense matching over homogeneous terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altena, Bas; Cockx, Liesbet; Goedemé, Toon

    2014-05-01

    Automation in photogrammetry and avionics have brought highly autonomous UAV mapping solutions on the market. These systems have great potential for geophysical research, due to their mobility and simplicity of work. Flight planning can be done on site and orientation parameters are estimated automatically. However, one major drawback is still present: if contrast is lacking, stereoscopy fails. Consequently, topographic information cannot be obtained precisely through photogrammetry for areas with low contrast. Even though more robustness is added in the estimation through multi-view geometry, a precise product is still lacking. For the greater part, interpolation is applied over these regions, where the estimation is constrained by uniqueness, its epipolar line and smoothness. Consequently, digital surface models are generated with an estimate of the topography, without holes but also without an indication of its variance. Every dense matching algorithm is based on a similarity measure. Our methodology uses this property to support the idea that if only noise is present, no correspondence can be detected. Therefore, the noise level is estimated in respect to the intensity signal of the topography (SNR) and this ratio serves as a quality indicator for the automatically generated product. To demonstrate this variance indicator, two different case studies were elaborated. The first study is situated at an open sand mine near the village of Kiezegem, Belgium. Two different UAV systems flew over the site. One system had automatic intensity regulation, and resulted in low contrast over the sandy interior of the mine. That dataset was used to identify the weak estimations of the topography and was compared with the data from the other UAV flight. In the second study a flight campaign with the X100 system was conducted along the coast near Wenduine, Belgium. The obtained images were processed through structure-from-motion software. Although the beach had a very low

  3. Turbulent Characterization of atmospheric surface layer over non-homogeneous terrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artinano Rodriguez de Torres, B.

    1989-01-01

    About 15000 wind and temperature profiles from a 100 m tower located in CEDER (Soria, Spain) have been analyzed. Using profiles in close neutral conditions, two main parameters of surface layer were obtained. Results show a great dependence of these parameters (Z 0 roughness length and u friction velocity) on flow conditions and terrain (tinctures. Difficulty finding neutral conditions in this type of terrain (gently rolling and scattered bush) and in this latitude , is also remarkable. (Author) 91 refs

  4. Turbulent Characterization of atmospheric surface layer over non-homogeneous terrain; Caracterizacion turbulenta de la capa superficial atmosferica en un terreno no homogeneo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artinano Rodriguez de Torres, B.

    1989-07-01

    About 15000 wind and temperature profiles from a 100 m tower located in CEDER (Soria, Spain) have been analyzed. Using profiles in close neutral conditions, two main parameters of surface layer were obtained. Results show a great dependence of these parameters (Z{sub 0} roughness length and u friction velocity) on flow conditions and terrain (tinctures. Difficulty finding neutral conditions in this type of terrain (gently rolling and scattered bush) and in this latitude , is also remarkable. (Author) 91 refs.

  5. Energy levels of mesic molecules ddμ and dt μ in a homogeneous magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi Nam Chol.

    1990-01-01

    The energy levels of mesic molecules ddμ and dtμ in a homogeneous magnetic field 0-10 8 Gs have been calculated. Calculations are carried out in the adiabatic representation of three-body problem. It is shown that in really existing fields ( 5 Gs) the shifts of energy levels produce no considerable effect on the process of resonant production of mesic molecules. 13 refs.; 3 figs.; 2 tabs

  6. An improved and homogeneous altimeter sea level record from the ESA Climate Change Initiative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legeais, Jean-Francois; Ablain, Michael; Zawadzki, Lionel

    2018-01-01

    , the sea level ECV has been measured from space by different altimetry missions that have provided global and regional observations of sea level variations. As part of the Climate Change Initiative (CCI) program of the European Space Agency (ESA) (established in 2010), the Sea Level project (SL_cci) aimed...... to provide an accurate and homogeneous long-term satellite-based sea level record. At the end of the first phase of the project (2010-2013), an initial version (v1.1) of the sea level ECV was made available to users (Ablain et al., 2015). During the second phase of the project (2014-2017), improved altimeter...

  7. Determined Initial lead for South Of Isua (SOI) terrain suggests a single homogeneous source for it and possibly other archaean rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tera, F.

    2011-12-01

    A Thorogenic-Uranogenic Lead Isotope Plane (TULIP), which entails plotting 206/208 (or its reverse) vs 207/208 (or its reverse), was applied to the Pb data on South of Isua (SOI) by Kamber et al., (1). When the data on 20 samples of these rocks and feldspars are plotted in pairs (each pair is a rock and its feldspar) on TULIP, they fall on 10 mixing lines that converge on a single spot (Fig. 1). This is the end member initial lead (EMIL). The 206/208 & 207/208 so determined are 0.3675 and 0.43525, respectively. From these values one calculates 207/206 = 1.1843 ± 0.0007, for EMIL. This pattern requires either: A) each pair has a singular kappa, K = 232Th/238U, different from others, or B) a pair's in situ decay Pb was homogenized in recent times. On 204/206 vs 207/206 diagram, the whole rocks of SOI define a 3.776 Ga isochron (2). From this and EMIL's 207/206, one obtains: 206/204 = 10.977, 207/204 = 12.974; and 208/204 = 29.756. This singularity of initial Pb contrasts with a deduced variability by the original authors (1). EMIL's radiogenic *(207/206) = 1.6220, gives a single-stage age = 5.9 Ga, indicating inapplicability of its evolution in one stage. Also, the μ calculated from 238U-206Pb for the single stage is different from that inferred from 235U-207Pb, confirming disqualification of this scenario. Reconciliation of the two decay schemes necessitates assumption of EMIL evolution in a minimum of two stages. Starting at 4.563 Ga, five scenarios were assumed: First stage ends and second starts at 4.55, 4.54, 4.53, 4.52 or 4.51 Ga. Second stages end at 3.776 Ga. The calculated μ1 for the first stage are 106, 59.5, 44.6, 36.3 and 30.9 respectively. For μ2 the change is limited, from 5.45 to 5.28. Only an average calculated K for both stages is possible. For the five outlined scenarios it ranges from 1.118 to 1.111. Earlier, Tera (3) observed that initial Pb of the oldest terrestrial reservoir requires evolution in two stages. There too μ1 >> μ2. Data on

  8. One-level modeling for diagnosing surface winds over complex terrain. II - Applicability to short-range forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpert, P.; Getenio, B.; Zak-Rosenthal, R.

    1988-01-01

    The Alpert and Getenio (1988) modification of the Mass and Dempsey (1985) one-level sigma-surface model was used to study four synoptic events that included two winter cases (a Cyprus low and a Siberian high) and two summer cases. Results of statistical verification showed that the model is not only capable of diagnosing many details of surface mesoscale flow, but might also be useful for various applications which require operative short-range prediction of the diurnal changes of high-resolution surface flow over complex terrain, for example, in locating wildland fires, determining the dispersion of air pollutants, and predicting changes in wind energy or of surface wind for low-level air flights.

  9. Multiscale iterative methods, coarse level operator construction and discrete homogenization techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griebel, M. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    For problems which model locally strong varying phenomena on a micro-scale level, the grid for numerical simulation can not be chosen sufficiently fine enough due to reasons of storage requirements and numerical complexity. A typical example for such kind of a problem is the diffusion equation with strongly varying diffusion coefficients as it arises as Darcy law in reservoir simulation and related problems for flow in porous media. Therefore, on the macro-scale level, it is necessary to work with averaged equations which describe directly the large-scale behavior of the problem under consideration. In the numerical simulation of reservoir performance this is achieved e.g. by renormalization or homogenization, as simpler approaches like the arithmetic, geometric or harmonic mean turn out to be invalid for systems with strong permeability variations.

  10. Circulating levels of endothelin-1 in a homogenous Gulf Arab population with untreated essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obineche, Enyioma; Abdulle, Abdishakur M; Bokhari, Awais M; Yasin, Javed Y; Gillett, Michael P T

    2006-01-01

    Racial variations are reported in the natural history of hypertension. For example, hypertension is significantly more prevalent in blacks than whites. Endothelial cells are important regulators of vascular tone and homeostasis, in part through secretions of vasoactive substances including endothelin-1 (ET-1), a small peptide with potent vasopressor actions. In black hypertensives, ET-1 levels are higher than in normotensive blacks and in both hypertensive and normotensive whites. Since ET-1 might play a significant role in the development and severity of hypertension in the indigenous Arab population of the United Arab Emirates, we investigated the circulating levels of ET-1 in this homogenous population. ET-1 levels were measured in plasma samples from 60 untreated hypertensive Arabs and compared with 60 age- and sex-matched normotensive controls. ET-1 levels were significantly higher in hypertensives (mean 10.1 +/- 1 pmol/L) than normotensives (mean 2.2 +/- 0.5 pmol/L). Body mass index (BMI) was slightly higher among the hypertensives. For all subjects these levels significantly (P Arabs as compared with reported levels in white hypertensives and ET-1 could be a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases in this population. The endothelial system might be particularly important with respect to hypertension in this racial group and merits further study.

  11. Measurement and regulation of the level of a homogeneous plutonium reactor; Mesure et regulation du niveau d'un reacteur homogene au plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, F; Bertrand, J

    1958-12-01

    Reactivity depends strongly on disturbances of the level of the plutonium solution In the homogeneous reactor. Proserpine has a small cylindrical core, 250 mm diameter, and 10 liters volume. With a view to reducing the dangers due to corrosion and contamination, the solution level in the core is raised by pneumatic pressure. The level is stabilized by means of a regulating system. During critical experiments the variations of the level are less than one hundredth part of a millimeter. (author) [French] Les variations du niveau de la solution de plutonium dans le reacteur homogene Proserpine ont une grosse influence sur la reactivite, car le coeur est petit (10 litres de solution dans un cylindre de diametre 250 mm). En vue de reduire les dangers dus a la corrosion et a la contamination, la commande du volume liquide est pneumatique. Nous avons realise la stabilite du niveau par une regulation qui, dans les essais en regime critique, limite les variations du plan liquide a une fraction de centieme de millimetre. (auteur)

  12. An improved and homogeneous altimeter sea level record from the ESA Climate Change Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legeais, Jean-François; Ablain, Michaël; Zawadzki, Lionel; Zuo, Hao; Johannessen, Johnny A.; Scharffenberg, Martin G.; Fenoglio-Marc, Luciana; Joana Fernandes, M.; Baltazar Andersen, Ole; Rudenko, Sergei; Cipollini, Paolo; Quartly, Graham D.; Passaro, Marcello; Cazenave, Anny; Benveniste, Jérôme

    2018-02-01

    Sea level is a very sensitive index of climate change since it integrates the impacts of ocean warming and ice mass loss from glaciers and the ice sheets. Sea level has been listed as an essential climate variable (ECV) by the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS). During the past 25 years, the sea level ECV has been measured from space by different altimetry missions that have provided global and regional observations of sea level variations. As part of the Climate Change Initiative (CCI) program of the European Space Agency (ESA) (established in 2010), the Sea Level project (SL_cci) aimed to provide an accurate and homogeneous long-term satellite-based sea level record. At the end of the first phase of the project (2010-2013), an initial version (v1.1) of the sea level ECV was made available to users (Ablain et al., 2015). During the second phase of the project (2014-2017), improved altimeter standards were selected to produce new sea level products (called SL_cci v2.0) based on nine altimeter missions for the period 1993-2015 (https://doi.org/10.5270/esa-sea_level_cci-1993_2015-v_2.0-201612; Legeais and the ESA SL_cci team, 2016c). Corresponding orbit solutions, geophysical corrections and altimeter standards used in this v2.0 dataset are described in detail in Quartly et al. (2017). The present paper focuses on the description of the SL_cci v2.0 ECV and associated uncertainty and discusses how it has been validated. Various approaches have been used for the quality assessment such as internal validation, comparisons with sea level records from other groups and with in situ measurements, sea level budget closure analyses and comparisons with model outputs. Compared with the previous version of the sea level ECV, we show that use of improved geophysical corrections, careful bias reduction between missions and inclusion of new altimeter missions lead to improved sea level products with reduced uncertainties on different spatial and temporal scales. However, there

  13. Radon levels in dwellings in chalk terrain. Development and analysis of distributional and causal models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killip, Ian Richmond

    2002-01-01

    This thesis investigates the range, distribution and causes of high radon levels in dwellings in the Brighton area of Southeast England. Indoor radon levels were measured in more than 1000 homes. The results show that high radon levels can arise in an area previously considered to offer low radon potential from local geological sources. Climate and building-related factors were found to affect significantly the radon levels in dwellings. Multiple regression was used to determine the influence of the various factors on indoor radon levels and an empirical model develop to predict indoor radon levels. The radon hazard, independent of building-related effects, was determined for each surveyed location by adjusting the radon measurement to that expected on the ground floor of a 'model' dwelling. This standardised set of radon levels was entered into a geographical information system (GIS) and related to surface geology. The geometric mean radon level for each lithological unit was plotted to produce a radon hazard map for the area. The highest radon levels were found to be associated with the youngest Chalk Formations, particularly where they meet overlying Tertiary deposits, and with Clay-with-Flints Quaternary deposits in the area. The results were also converted to the radon activity equivalent to that expected from the NRPB's standard dual-detector dwelling survey method and analysed by lognormal modelling to estimate the proportion of dwellings likely to exceed the UK Action Level of 200 Bq/m 3 for each lithological unit. The likely percentages of dwellings affected by radon thus obtained were mapped to lithological boundaries to produce a radon potential map. The radon hazard map and the empirical radon model facilitate the prediction of radon levels in dwellings of comparable construction and above similar geology and should further the understanding of the behaviour of radon gas in buildings to allow indoor radon concentrations to be controlled. The radon

  14. Circulating levels of endothelin-1 in a homogenous Gulf Arab population with untreated essential hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obinache, C.N.; Abdullah, A.M.; Pathan, J.Y.; Bokahri, A.M.; Gillett, M.P.T.

    2006-01-01

    Rectal variations are reported in the natural history of high-tension. For example hypertension is significantly more prevalent in blacks than whites. Endothelial cells are important regulators of vasculars tone and homeostasis, in part through secretions of vasoactive substances including endothelin-I (ET-1), a small peptide with potent vaspressor actions in black hypertensive and normotensive whites. Since ET-I might play a significant role to the development and severity of hypertension in the indigenous Arab population of United Arab Emirates; we investigated the circulatory levels of ET-1 in the homogenous population. ET-I levels were measured in plasma samples from 60 unteated hypertensive Arabs and compared with 60 age and sex matched normotensive controls. ET-I levels were significantly higher in hypertensive (10.1+-pmol/L) than normtensives (mean 2.2+-0.5 pmol/L). Body mass index (BMI) was slightly higher among the hypertensive. For all subjects these levels significantly (P<0.001) correlated with systolic blood pressure and less significantly (P<0.05) with diastolic blood pressure and body weight. The correlation with ET-1 and both systolic and diastolic blood pressure with persistently significant after adjusting for BMI. Plasma concentration of ET-I are significantly higher in hypertensive Gulf Arabs as compared with reported levels in which hypertensives and ET-I could be a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases in this population. The endothelial sate might be particularly important with respect to hypertension in this racial group and merits further study. (author)

  15. Real-time Terrain Rendering using Smooth Hardware Optimized Level of Detail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bent Dalgaard; Christensen, Niels Jørgen

    2003-01-01

    We present a method for real-time level of detail reduction that is able to display high-complexity polygonal surface data. A compact and efficient regular grid representation is used. The method is optimized for modern, low-end consumer 3D graphics cards. We avoid sudden changes of the geometry...

  16. Radiochemical analysis of homogeneously solidified low level radioactive waste from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Kaneaki; Ikeuchi, Yoshihiro; Higuchi, Hideo

    1995-01-01

    As mentioned above, we have reliable radioanalytical methods for all kinds of homogeneously solidified wastes. We are now under studying an analytical method for pellets which are made from evaporator concentrates or resin. And we are going to study to establish new analytical method for the rad-waste including metal, cloths and so on in near future. (J.P.N.)

  17. Identification of a system of ecologically homogeneous areas and of priority intervention levels for forest plantation planning in Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pizzurro GM

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Afforestation and reforestation activities in Sicily have been widespreaded in the last century. The results of forestation activities indicate the need to adopt a operational tools to promote the extension of forest surface at regional and sub-regional levels. In this view, with the aim to produce useful tools for forest plantation planning, the entire regional area was analysed and ecologically homogeneous areas have been identified to join and target arboriculture and/or forestation plantation activities, to choose tree and shrub species for different environments and to identify priority areas of intervention. The map of Rivas-Martinez bioclimate and the map of litological types were used as basic information layers to map pedo-climatic homogeneous areas. In order to mitigate disruptive hydrogeological effects and to reduce desertification risk and forest fragmentation, the Corine Land Cover map (CLC2000, the hydrogeological bond map and the desertification risk map were used to identify areas characterized by urgent need of forest activities at high priority level. A total of 23 ecologically homogeneous areas have been identified in Sicily, while more than a quarter of the regional surface has been characterized as highest priority intervention level. At sub-regional level, the target of the analysis was carried out at administrative province and at hydrographic basin level.

  18. MECHANICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND SHRINKAGE OF Sclerolobium paniculatum Vogel WOOD IN A HOMOGENEOUS PLANTING UNDER DIFFERENT LEVELS OF FERTILIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joselito Bonifácio Oliveira

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The purposa of this work was to study the influence of fertilization on wood quality of Sclerolobium paniculatum Vogel. A homogeneous planting trial, under different levels of liming and phosphorus, was established by Embrapa-Cerrados 18 years ago in Planaltina, Distrito Federal, Brazil, tropical wood savanna region. Mechanical tests conducted were static bending, parallel compression to grain, shear strength and shrinkage. No significant differences were observed for mechanical properties or for shrinkage, which presented: ¦b = 650kg/cm2, E = 59.877kg/cm2, ¦c = 296kg/cm2 e ¦n = 131kg/cm2. Control treatment showed highest values for shear strength and compression parallel to grain. Too many branches in all trees and also too many knots in lumber were observed. Pruning is recommended for homogeneous planting of Sclerolobium paniculatum to avoid knots in order to be produced wood of superior quality.

  19. Terrain-Toolkit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Qi; Kaul, Manohar; Long, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    , as will be shown, is used heavily for query processing in spatial databases; and (3) they do not provide the surface distance operator which is fundamental for many applications based on terrain data. Motivated by this, we developed a tool called Terrain-Toolkit for terrain data which accepts a comprehensive set......Terrain data is becoming increasingly popular both in industry and in academia. Many tools have been developed for visualizing terrain data. However, we find that (1) they usually accept very few data formats of terrain data only; (2) they do not support terrain simplification well which...

  20. Homogeneous-oxide stack in IGZO thin-film transistors for multi-level-cell NAND memory application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hao; Wei, Yehui; Zhang, Xinlei; Jiang, Ran

    2017-11-01

    A nonvolatile charge-trap-flash memory that is based on amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin film transistors was fabricated with a homogeneous-oxide structure for a multi-level-cell application. All oxide layers, i.e., tunneling layer, charge trapping layer, and blocking layer, were fabricated with Al2O3 films. The fabrication condition (including temperature and deposition method) of the charge trapping layer was different from those of the other oxide layers. This device demonstrated a considerable large memory window of 4 V between the states fully erased and programmed with the operation voltage less than 14 V. This kind of device shows a good prospect for multi-level-cell memory applications.

  1. Assessing the level of spatial homogeneity of the agronomic Indian monsoon onset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Rory G. J.; Parker, Douglas J.; Willetts, Peter D.

    2016-11-01

    Over monsoon regions, such as the Indian subcontinent, the local onset of persistent rainfall is a crucial event in the annual climate for agricultural planning. Recent work suggested that local onset dates are spatially coherent to a practical level over West Africa; a similar assessment is undertaken here for the Indian subcontinent. Areas of coherent onset, defined as local onset regions or LORs, exist over the studied region. These LORs are significant up to the 95% confidence interval and are primarily clustered around the Arabian Sea (adjacent to and extending over the Western Ghats), the Monsoon Trough (north central India), and the Bay of Bengal. These LORs capture regions where synoptic scale controls of onset may be present and identifiable. In other regions, the absence of LORs is indicative of regions where local and stochastic factors may dominate onset. A potential link between sea surface temperature anomalies and LOR variability is presented. Finally, Kerala, which is often used as a representative onset location, is not contained within an LOR suggesting that variability here may not be representative of wider onset variability.

  2. Geochemical homogeneity of tuffs at the potential repository level, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterman, Zell E.; Cloke, Paul

    2001-01-01

    In a potential high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, radioactive waste and canisters, drip shields protecting the waste from seepage and from rock falls, the backfill and invert material of crushed rock, the host rock, and water and gases contained within pores and fractures in the host rock together would form a complex system commonly referred to as the near-field geochemical environment. Materials introduced into the rock mass with the waste that are designed to prolong containment collectively are referred to as the Engineered Barrier System, and the host rock and its contained water and gases compose the natural system. The interaction of these component parts under highly perturbed conditions including temperatures well above natural ambient temperatures will need to be understood to assess the performance of the potential repository for long-term containment of nuclear waste. The geochemistry and mineralogy of the rock mass hosting the emplacement drifts must be known in order to assess the role of the natural system in the near-field environment. Emplacement drifts in a potential repository at Yucca Mountain would be constructed in the phenocryst-poor member of the Topopah Spring Tuff which is composed of both lithophysal and nonlithophysal zones. The chemical composition of the phenocryst-poor member has been characterized by numerous chemical analyses of outcrop samples and of core samples obtained by surface-based drilling. Those analyses have shown that the phenocryst-poor member of the Topopah Spring Tuff is remarkably uniform in composition both vertically and laterally. To verify this geochemical uniformity and to provide rock analyses of samples obtained directly from the potential repository block, major and trace elements were analyzed in core samples obtained from drill holes in the cross drift, which was driven to provide direct access to the rock mass where emplacement drifts would be constructed

  3. Iron-Mediated Homogeneous ICAR ATRP of Methyl Methacrylate under ppm Level Organometallic Catalyst Iron(III Acetylacetonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization (ATRP is an important polymerization process in polymer synthesis. However, a typical ATRP system has some drawbacks. For example, it needs a large amount of transition metal catalyst, and it is difficult or expensive to remove the metal catalyst residue in products. In order to reduce the amount of catalyst and considering good biocompatibility and low toxicity of the iron catalyst, in this work, we developed a homogeneous polymerization system of initiators for continuous activator regeneration ATRP (ICAR ATRP with just a ppm level of iron catalyst. Herein, we used oil-soluble iron (III acetylacetonate (Fe(acac3 as the organometallic catalyst, 1,1′-azobis (cyclohexanecarbonitrile (ACHN with longer half-life period as the thermal initiator, ethyl 2-bromophenylacetate (EBPA as the initiator, triphenylphosphine (PPh3 as the ligand, toluene as the solvent and methyl methacrylate (MMA as the model monomer. The factors related with the polymerization system, such as concentration of Fe(acac3 and ACHN and polymerization kinetics, were investigated in detail at 90 °C. It was found that a polymer with an acceptable molecular weight distribution (Mw/Mn = 1.43 at 45.9% of monomer conversion could be obtained even with 1 ppm of Fe(acac3, making it needless to remove the residual metal in the resultant polymers, which makes such an ICAR ATRP process much more industrially attractive. The “living” features of this polymerization system were further confirmed by chain-extension experiment.

  4. Reflector homogenization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, R.; Ragusa, J.; Santandrea, S.

    2004-01-01

    The problem of the determination of a homogeneous reflector that preserves a set of prescribed albedo is considered. Duality is used for a direct estimation of the derivatives needed in the iterative calculation of the optimal homogeneous cross sections. The calculation is based on the preservation of collapsed multigroup albedo obtained from detailed reference calculations and depends on the low-order operator used for core calculations. In this work we analyze diffusion and transport as low-order operators and argue that the P 0 transfers are the best choice for the unknown cross sections to be adjusted. Numerical results illustrate the new approach for SP N core calculations. (Author)

  5. TERRAIN, Norfolk County, Massachusetts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix M: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  6. TERRAIN, WRIGHT COUNTY, IA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix M: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  7. TERRAIN, RANKIN COUNTY, MS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  8. TERRAIN, MITCHELL COUNTY, IA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix M: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  9. TERRAIN, DAWSON COUNTY, NE

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  10. TERRAIN, HOWARD COUNTY, IA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix M: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  11. TERRAIN, RICE COUNTY, MN

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  12. TERRAIN, PIERCE, COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  13. TERRAIN, DARKE COUNTY, OH

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  14. TERRAIN, JONES COUNTY, IA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  15. TERRAIN, JEFFERSON COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  16. TERRAIN, Pierce County, WA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  17. TERRAIN, BERKS COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  18. TERRAIN, NEWTON COUNTY, GA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix M: Data Capture Standards, describe the digital topographical data that were used to create...

  19. TERRAIN, PIKE COUNTY, MS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  20. TERRAIN, Lincoln County, AR

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix M: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  1. TERRAIN, KENDALL COUNTY, TEXAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  2. TERRAIN, LEON COUNTY, TEXAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix M: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  3. TERRAIN, SNOHOMISH COUNTY, WASHINGTON

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix M: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  4. TERRAIN, TRAVIS COUNTY, TEXAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix M: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  5. TERRAIN, Bennington County, Vermont

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix M: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  6. TERRAIN, FRANKLIN COUNTY, IA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix M: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  7. TERRAIN, CLALLAM COUNTY, WASHINGTON

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix M: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  8. TERRAIN, BARNSTABLE COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  9. TERRAIN, Northampton COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that were used to create...

  10. TERRAIN, POTTER COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that were used to create...

  11. TERRAIN, KITSAP COUNTY, WASHINGTON

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix M: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  12. TERRAIN, WAYNE COUNTY, TENNESSEE

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  13. TERRAIN, TROUSDALE COUNTY, TENNESSEE

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  14. TERRAIN, UNION PARISH, LOUSIANA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  15. Geological terrain models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaupp, V. H.; Macdonald, H. C.; Waite, W. P.

    1981-01-01

    The initial phase of a program to determine the best interpretation strategy and sensor configuration for a radar remote sensing system for geologic applications is discussed. In this phase, terrain modeling and radar image simulation were used to perform parametric sensitivity studies. A relatively simple computer-generated terrain model is presented, and the data base, backscatter file, and transfer function for digital image simulation are described. Sets of images are presented that simulate the results obtained with an X-band radar from an altitude of 800 km and at three different terrain-illumination angles. The simulations include power maps, slant-range images, ground-range images, and ground-range images with statistical noise incorporated. It is concluded that digital image simulation and computer modeling provide cost-effective methods for evaluating terrain variations and sensor parameter changes, for predicting results, and for defining optimum sensor parameters.

  16. Reflector homogenization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, R.; Ragusa, J.; Santandrea, S. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Direction de l' Energie Nucleaire, Service d' Etudes de Reacteurs et de Modelisation Avancee, CEA de Saclay, DM2S/SERMA 91 191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France)]. e-mail: richard.sanchez@cea.fr

    2004-07-01

    The problem of the determination of a homogeneous reflector that preserves a set of prescribed albedo is considered. Duality is used for a direct estimation of the derivatives needed in the iterative calculation of the optimal homogeneous cross sections. The calculation is based on the preservation of collapsed multigroup albedo obtained from detailed reference calculations and depends on the low-order operator used for core calculations. In this work we analyze diffusion and transport as low-order operators and argue that the P{sub 0} transfers are the best choice for the unknown cross sections to be adjusted. Numerical results illustrate the new approach for SP{sub N} core calculations. (Author)

  17. ARAC terrain data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, H.

    1982-11-01

    A terrain data base covering the continental United States at 500-meter resolution has been generated. Its function is to provide terrain data for input to mesoscale atmospheric models that are used as part of the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLNL). The structure of the data base as it exists on the LLNL computer system is described. The data base has been written to tapes for transfer to other systems and the format of these tapes is also described

  18. Diurnal fluctuations in calcium level in the blood serum and homogenates of the kidney and small intestine of mice. Pt. 1. Influence of X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fialkowski, M. (Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Krakow (Poland))

    1980-01-01

    Male and female mice were whole-body X-rayed with a dose 2100 R. Rhythmic changes in the calcium level in the blood serum and renal and intestinal homogenates were studied. The study material was secured in the course of one day at 6-hr intervals: at 12:00, 18:00, 24:00, 6:00 and 12:00 hr. The control animals showed rhythmic changes of calcium level in the blood serum and in the kidney and intestinal homogenates. Rhythmicity of the calcium level in the study material was distinctly changed after exposure of males and females to X-rays. Altered rhythmic phases were noted in comparison with the rhythm in control animals. In males, irradiation caused significant lowering of the calcium level in the intestinal and renal homogenates and blood serum. Hypocalcemia and an altered rhythm of changes in calcium level was probably due to impaired calcium transport in the small intestine and renal tubules in the irradiated animals.

  19. Diurnal fluctuations in calcium level in the blood serum and homogenates of the kidney and small intestine of mice. Pt. 1. Influence of X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fialkowski, M.

    1980-01-01

    Male and female mice were whole-body X-rayed with a dose 2100 R. Rhythmic changes in the calcium level in the blood serum and renal and intestinal homogenates were studied. The study material was secured in the course of one day at 6-hr intervals: at 12:00, 18:00, 24:00, 6:00 and 12:00 hr. The control animals showed rhythmic changes of calcium level in the blood serum and in the kidney and intestinal homogenates. Rhythmicity of the calcium level in the study material was distinctly changed after exposure of males and females to X-rays. Altered rhythmic phases were noted in comparison with the rhythm in control animals. In males, irradiation caused significant lowering of the calcium level in the intestinal and renal homogenates and blood serum. Hypocalcemia and an altered rhythm of changes in calcium level was probably due to impaired calcium transport in the small intestine and renal tubules in the irradiated animals. (author)

  20. Submarine Salt Karst Terrains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Augustin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Karst terrains that develop in bodies of rock salt (taken as mainly of halite, NaCl are special not only for developing in one of the most soluble of all rocks, but also for developing in one of the weakest rocks. Salt is so weak that many surface-piercing salt diapirs extrude slow fountains of salt that that gravity spread downslope over deserts on land and over sea floors. Salt fountains in the deserts of Iran are usually so dry that they flow at only a few cm/yr but the few rain storms a decade so soak and weaken them that they surge at dm/day for a few days. We illustrate the only case where the rates at which different parts of one of the many tens of subaerial salt karst terrains in Iran flows downslope constrains the rates at which its subaerial salt karst terrains form. Normal seawater is only 10% saturated in NaCl. It should therefore be sufficiently aggressive to erode karst terrains into exposures of salt on the thousands of known submarine salt extrusions that have flowed or are still flowing over the floors of hundreds of submarine basins worldwide. However, we know of no attempt to constrain the processes that form submarine salt karst terrains on any of these of submarine salt extrusions. As on land, many potential submarine karst terrains are cloaked by clastic and pelagic sediments that are often hundreds of m thick. Nevertheless, detailed geophysical and bathymetric surveys have already mapped likely submarine salt karst terrains in at least the Gulf of Mexico, and the Red Sea. New images of these two areas are offered as clear evidence of submarine salt dissolution due to sinking or rising aggressive fluids. We suggest that repeated 3D surveys of distinctive features (± fixed seismic reflectors of such terrains could measure any downslope salt flow and thus offer an exceptional opportunity to constrain the rates at which submarine salt karst terrains develop. Such rates are of interest to all salt tectonicians and the many

  1. Length Scales of the Neutral Wind Profile over Homogeneous Terrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Gryning, Sven-Erik; Mann, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    The wind speed profile for the neutral boundary layer is derived for a number of mixing-length parameterizations, which account for the height of the boundary layer. The wind speed profiles show good agreement with the reanalysis of the Leipzig wind profile (950 m high) and with combined cup–soni...

  2. Probing the Terrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Runa

    2016-01-01

    Whether manifest in built structures or invisible infrastructures, architectures of control in the occupied Palestinian West Bank is structurally defined by endemic uncertainty. Shifting lines and frontiers are recorded on the terrain, creating elastic zones of uncertainty necessitating navigatio...... to the territory through its lines and laws, and how the very structure of the occupation has changed over the years, I seek to make visible the ways in which architectures of uncertainty compensate for the fleeting terrain that HH is probing.......Whether manifest in built structures or invisible infrastructures, architectures of control in the occupied Palestinian West Bank is structurally defined by endemic uncertainty. Shifting lines and frontiers are recorded on the terrain, creating elastic zones of uncertainty necessitating...

  3. Assessment of homogeneity of candidate reference material at the nanogram level and investigation on representativeness of single particle analysis using electron probe X ray microanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ro, Chul-Un; Hoornaerta, S.; Griekena, R. van

    2002-01-01

    Particulate samples of a candidate reference material are evaluated on their homogeneity from bottle to bottle using electron probe X ray microanalysis technique. The evaluation on the homogeneity is done by the utilization of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistics to the processing of the quantitative electron probe X ray microanalysis data. Due to a limitation, existing even in computer controlled electron probe X ray microanalysis, in terms of analysis time and expenses, the number of particles analyzed is much smaller compared to that in the sample. Therefore, it is investigated whether this technique provides representative analysis results for the characteristics of the sample, even though a very small portion of the sample is really analyzed. Furthermore, the required number of particles for the analysis, to insure a certain level of reproducibility, e.g. 5% relative standard deviation, is determined by the application of the Ingamells sampling theory. (author)

  4. Processing Terrain Point Cloud Data

    KAUST Repository

    DeVore, Ronald; Petrova, Guergana; Hielsberg, Matthew; Owens, Luke; Clack, Billy; Sood, Alok

    2013-01-01

    Terrain point cloud data are typically acquired through some form of Light Detection And Ranging sensing. They form a rich resource that is important in a variety of applications including navigation, line of sight, and terrain visualization

  5. Profile derived fluxes above inhomogeneous terrain : a numerical approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroon, L.J.M.

    1985-01-01

    In Chapter 1 the goals of the present study were presented. These goals are (i) the estimation and analysis of the errors introduced in the standard flux determination methods when they are applied above non-homogeneous terrain
    (ii) providing simple techniques for estimating these errors,

  6. Recent developments and assessment of a three-dimensional PBL parameterization for improved wind forecasting over complex terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosovic, B.; Jimenez, P. A.; Haupt, S. E.; Martilli, A.; Olson, J.; Bao, J. W.

    2017-12-01

    At present, the planetary boundary layer (PBL) parameterizations available in most numerical weather prediction (NWP) models are one-dimensional. One-dimensional parameterizations are based on the assumption of horizontal homogeneity. This homogeneity assumption is appropriate for grid cell sizes greater than 10 km. However, for mesoscale simulations of flows in complex terrain with grid cell sizes below 1 km, the assumption of horizontal homogeneity is violated. Applying a one-dimensional PBL parameterization to high-resolution mesoscale simulations in complex terrain could result in significant error. For high-resolution mesoscale simulations of flows in complex terrain, we have therefore developed and implemented a three-dimensional (3D) PBL parameterization in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The implementation of the 3D PBL scheme is based on the developments outlined by Mellor and Yamada (1974, 1982). Our implementation in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model uses a pure algebraic model (level 2) to diagnose the turbulent fluxes. To evaluate the performance of the 3D PBL model, we use observations from the Wind Forecast Improvement Project 2 (WFIP2). The WFIP2 field study took place in the Columbia River Gorge area from 2015-2017. We focus on selected cases when physical phenomena of significance for wind energy applications such as mountain waves, topographic wakes, and gap flows were observed. Our assessment of the 3D PBL parameterization also considers a large-eddy simulation (LES). We carried out a nested LES with grid cell sizes of 30 m and 10 m covering a large fraction of the WFIP2 study area. Both LES domains were discretized using 6000 x 3000 x 200 grid cells in zonal, meridional, and vertical direction, respectively. The LES results are used to assess the relative magnitude of horizontal gradients of turbulent stresses and fluxes in comparison to vertical gradients. The presentation will highlight the advantages of the 3

  7. Information measures for terrain visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaventura, Xavier; Sima, Aleksandra A.; Feixas, Miquel; Buckley, Simon J.; Sbert, Mateu; Howell, John A.

    2017-02-01

    Many quantitative and qualitative studies in geoscience research are based on digital elevation models (DEMs) and 3D surfaces to aid understanding of natural and anthropogenically-influenced topography. As well as their quantitative uses, the visual representation of DEMs can add valuable information for identifying and interpreting topographic features. However, choice of viewpoints and rendering styles may not always be intuitive, especially when terrain data are augmented with digital image texture. In this paper, an information-theoretic framework for object understanding is applied to terrain visualization and terrain view selection. From a visibility channel between a set of viewpoints and the component polygons of a 3D terrain model, we obtain three polygonal information measures. These measures are used to visualize the information associated with each polygon of the terrain model. In order to enhance the perception of the terrain's shape, we explore the effect of combining the calculated information measures with the supplementary digital image texture. From polygonal information, we also introduce a method to select a set of representative views of the terrain model. Finally, we evaluate the behaviour of the proposed techniques using example datasets. A publicly available framework for both the visualization and the view selection of a terrain has been created in order to provide the possibility to analyse any terrain model.

  8. Geomorphic response to sea level and climate changes during Late Quaternary in a humid tropical coastline: Terrain evolution model from Southwest India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K, Maya; S, Vishnu Mohan; Limaye, Ruta B; Padmalal, Damodaran; Kumaran, Navnith K P

    2017-01-01

    The coastal lands of southern Kerala, SW India in the vicinity of Achankovil and Thenmala Shear Zones reveal a unique set of geomorphic features like beach ridges, runnels, chain of wetlands, lakes, estuaries, etc. The chain of wetlands and water bodies that are seen in the eastern periphery of the coastal lands indicates the remnants of the upper drainage channels of the previously existed coastal plain rivers of Late Pleistocene age that are later broadened due to coastal erosion under the transgressive phase. The terrain evolutionary model developed from the results of the study shows that the Late Pleistocene transgressive events might have carved out a major portion of the land areas drained by the coastal plain rivers and as a result the coastal cliff has been retreated several kilometers landwards. The NNE-SSW trending beach ridges located close to the inland wetlands indicate the extent of shoreline shift towards eastwards during Late Pleistocene period. The present beach parallel ridges in the younger coastal plain indicate the limit of the Mid Holocene shoreline as the transgression was not so severe compared to Late Pleistocene event. The zone of convergence of the two sets of beach ridges coincides with the areas of economically viable heavy mineral placers that resulted from the size and density based sorting under the repeated transgressive events to which the coast had subjected to. The chain of wetlands in the eastern side of the study area has been evolved from a mega lagoon existed during Late Pleistocene. The Pallikkal River that links discrete eastern wetland bodies has been evolved into its present form during Early Holocene.

  9. Turbulence in complex terrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, Jakob [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy and Atmosheric Physics Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop a model of the spectral velocity-tensor in neutral flow over complex terrain. The resulting equations are implemented in a computer code using the mean flow generated by a linear mean flow model as input. It estimates turbulence structure over hills (except on the lee side if recirculation is present) in the so-called outer layer and also models the changes in turbulence statistics in the vicinity roughness changes. The generated turbulence fields are suitable as input for dynamic load calculations on wind turbines and other tall structures and is under implementation in the collection of programs called WA{sup s}P Engineering. (au) EFP-97; EU-JOULE-3. 15 refs.

  10. On characterizing terrain visibility graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Evans

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A terrain is an $x$-monotone polygonal line in the $xy$-plane. Two vertices of a terrain are mutually visible if and only if there is no terrain vertex on or above the open line segment connecting them. A graph whose vertices represent terrain vertices and whose edges represent mutually visible pairs of terrain vertices is called a terrain visibility graph. We would like to find properties that are both necessary and sufficient for a graph to be a terrain visibility graph; that is, we would like to characterize terrain visibility graphs.Abello et al. [Discrete and Computational Geometry, 14(3:331--358, 1995] showed that all terrain visibility graphs are “persistent”. They showed that the visibility information of a terrain point set implies some ordering requirements on the slopes of the lines connecting pairs of points in any realization, and as a step towards showing sufficiency, they proved that for any persistent graph $M$ there is a total order on the slopes of the (pseudo lines in a generalized configuration of points whose visibility graph is $M$.We give a much simpler proof of this result by establishing an orientation to every triple of vertices, reflecting some slope ordering requirements that are consistent with $M$ being the visibility graph, and prove that these requirements form a partial order. We give a faster algorithm to construct a total order on the slopes. Our approach attempts to clarify the implications of the graph theoretic properties on the ordering of the slopes, and may be interpreted as defining properties on an underlying oriented matroid that we show is a restricted type of $3$-signotope.

  11. Digital terrain data base - new possibilities of 3D terrain modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja Rihtaršič

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available GISs has brought new dimensions in the field of digital terrain modelling, too. Modem DTMs must be real (relational databases with high degree of "intelligence". This paper presents some of the demands, ivhich have to be solved in modern digital terrain databases, together with main steps of their's generation. Problems, connected to regional level, multi-pur pose use, new possibilities and direct integration into GIS are presented. The practical model was created across smaller test area, so few lines with practical experiences can be droped, too.

  12. Conically scanning lidar error in complex terrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferhat Bingöl

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Conically scanning lidars assume the flow to be homogeneous in order to deduce the horizontal wind speed. However, in mountainous or complex terrain this assumption is not valid implying a risk that the lidar will derive an erroneous wind speed. The magnitude of this error is measured by collocating a meteorological mast and a lidar at two Greek sites, one hilly and one mountainous. The maximum error for the sites investigated is of the order of 10 %. In order to predict the error for various wind directions the flows at both sites are simulated with the linearized flow model, WAsP Engineering 2.0. The measurement data are compared with the model predictions with good results for the hilly site, but with less success at the mountainous site. This is a deficiency of the flow model, but the methods presented in this paper can be used with any flow model.

  13. TERRAIN, HENRY COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  14. TERRAIN, BARREN COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  15. TERRAIN, LOWNDES COUNTY, ALABAMA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  16. TERRAIN, FRANKLIN COUNTY, ALABAMA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  17. TERRAIN, HARRISON COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  18. TERRAIN, LOGAN COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  19. TERRAIN, LAWRENCE COUNTY, Ohio USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix M: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  20. TERRAIN, SEBASTIAN COUNTY, AR, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix M: Data Capture Standards, describe the digital topographical data that were used to create...

  1. TERRAIN, MONROE COUNTY, Michigan USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix M: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  2. TERRAIN, ALLENDALE COUNTY, SOUTH CAROLINA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  3. TERRAIN, WAKULLA COUNTY, FL, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  4. TERRAIN, BRADFORD COUNTY, FL, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  5. TERRAIN, GADSDEN COUNTY, FL, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  6. TERRAIN, LEVY COUNTY, FL, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  7. TERRAIN, WOODFORD COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  8. TERRAIN, POWELL COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  9. TERRAIN, TALLAPOOSA COUNTY, ALABAMA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  10. TERRAIN Submission for CHICKASAW, IA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix M: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  11. TERRAIN, CHEROKEE COUNTY, ALABAMA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  12. TERRAIN, JEFFERSON COUNTY, ALABAMA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  13. TERRAIN, POWESHIEK COUNTY, IOWA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  14. TERRAIN, RANDOLPH COUNTY, ALABAMA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  15. TERRAIN, ELMORE COUNTY, ALABAMA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  16. TERRAIN, ANNE ARUNDEL COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  17. TERRAIN, WASHINGTON COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  18. TERRAIN, WASHINGTON COUNTY, Ohio USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix M: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  19. TERRAIN, WINNESHIEK COUNTY, IOWA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  20. TERRAIN, WAYNE COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  1. TERRAIN, MCLEAN COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  2. TERRAIN, WINSTON COUNTY, ALABAMA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  3. TERRAIN, CHAMBERS COUNTY, ALABAMA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  4. TERRAIN, PERRY COUNTY, ALABAMA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  5. TERRAIN, ESTILL COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  6. TERRAIN, NATCHITOCHES PARISH, LA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  7. TERRAIN, CLINTON COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  8. TERRAIN, CHILTON COUNTY, ALABAMA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  9. TERRAIN, GRAYSON COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  10. TERRAIN, GARRARD COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  11. TERRAIN, Sedgwick COUNTY, Kansas USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  12. TERRAIN, MACOMB COUNTY, MI, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  13. TERRAIN, MARSHALL COUNTY, ALABAMA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  14. Terrain Data, Caroline COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  15. TERRAIN, SUWANNEE COUNTY, FLORIDA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  16. TERRAIN, CHOCTAW COUNTY, ALABAMA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  17. TERRAIN, CARLISLE COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  18. TERRAIN, SIMPSON COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  19. TERRAIN, GRAVES COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  20. TERRAIN, MADISON COUNTY, ALABAMA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  1. TERRAIN, TANEY COUNTY, Missouri USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  2. TERRAIN, FRANKLIN PARISH, LA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  3. TERRAIN, Catahoula PARISH, LA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  4. TERRAIN, RICHLAND PARISH, LA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  5. TERRAIN, OVERTON COUNTY, TN, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  6. TERRAIN, STEWART COUNTY, TN, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  7. TERRAIN, MOREHOUSE PARISH, LA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  8. TERRAIN, ALLEN COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  9. TERRAIN, LEWIS COUNTY, Missouri USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  10. TERRAIN, BUFFALO COUNTY, WISCONSIN, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  11. TERRAIN, MARENGO COUNTY, ALABAMA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  12. TERRAIN, CLARKE COUNTY, ALABAMA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  13. TERRAIN, HART COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  14. TERRAIN, HOUSTON COUNTY, TN, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  15. TERRAIN, JESSAMINE COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  16. TERRAIN, LAWRENCE COUNTY, ALABAMA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  17. TERRAIN, BALLARD COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  18. TERRAIN, NELSON COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  19. TERRAIN, EVANGELINE PARISH, LA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  20. Terrain Adaptive Reconfiguration of Mobility

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop an algorithm (and software) to automatically adapt a reconfigurable robot to different types of terrains for improved mobility, that compared to SOA:...

  1. TERRAIN, MENIFEE COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  2. TERRAIN, SHELBY COUNTY, ALABAMA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  3. TERRAIN, Platte County, Missouri USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  4. TERRAIN, SCOTT COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  5. TERRAIN, FAYETTE COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix M: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  6. TERRAIN, MUHLENBERG COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  7. TERRAIN, CAMPBELL COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  8. TERRAIN, CARTER COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  9. TERRAIN, SANTA CRUZ COUNTY, AZ

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  10. A new method for the homogeneous precipitative separation of trace level lanthanides as oxalates: application to different types of geological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Premadas, A.; Cyriac, Bincy; Kesavan, V.S.

    2013-01-01

    Oxalate precipitation of lanthanides in acidic medium is a widely used selective group separation method at percentage to trace level in different types of geological samples. Most of the procedures are based on the heterogeneous oxalate precipitation of lanthanides using calcium as carrier. In the heterogeneous precipitation, the co-precipitated impurities from the matrix elements are more, besides if the pH at the time of precipitation is not monitored carefully there is a chance of losing some of the lanthanides. In this report, we present a new homogeneous oxalate precipitation of trace level lanthanides from different types of geological samples using calcium as carrier. In the present method pH is getting adjusted (pH ∼1) on its own, after the hydrolysis of urea added to the sample solution. This acidic pH is essential for the complete precipitation of the lanthanides. Therefore, no critical parameter adjustment for the precipitation is involved in the proposed method. The oxalate precipitate obtained was in crystalline nature which facilitates the fast settlement, easy filtration; besides the co-precipitated matrix elements are very less as compared to normal heterogeneous oxalate precipitation of lanthanides. Another advantage is more quantity of the sample can be taken for the separation of lanthanides which is a limitation for other separation methods reported. Accuracy of the method was checked by analyzing nine international reference materials comprising different types of geological samples obtained from Canadian Certified Reference Project Materials such as syenite samples SY-2, SY-3 and SY-4; gabro sample MRG-1; soil samples SO-1 and SO-2; iron formation sample FeR-2; lake sediments LKSD-2 and LKSD-4. The values of the lanthanides obtained for these reference materials are comparable with recommended values, indicating that the method is accurate. The reproducibility is characterized by a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 1 to 6% (n=4). (author)

  11. NPSNET: Dynamic Terrain and Cultured Feature Depiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    defaults. bridge(terrain *ptr, vertex pos, bridge mattype bmat ); This constructor takes only the pointer to the underlying terrain, a placement, and a...material to use for construction. bridge(terrain *ptr, vertex pos, bridge-mattype bmat , float dir); This constructor takes a terrain pointer, a...placement position, a material to use, and a direction to run. bridge(terrain *ptr, vertex pos, bridge-mattype bmat , float dir, float width, float height

  12. VTAC: virtual terrain assisted impact assessment for cyber attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argauer, Brian J.; Yang, Shanchieh J.

    2008-03-01

    Overwhelming intrusion alerts have made timely response to network security breaches a difficult task. Correlating alerts to produce a higher level view of intrusion state of a network, thus, becomes an essential element in network defense. This work proposes to analyze correlated or grouped alerts and determine their 'impact' to services and users of the network. A network is modeled as 'virtual terrain' where cyber attacks maneuver. Overlaying correlated attack tracks on virtual terrain exhibits the vulnerabilities exploited by each track and the relationships between them and different network entities. The proposed impact assessment algorithm utilizes the graph-based virtual terrain model and combines assessments of damages caused by the attacks. The combined impact scores allow to identify severely damaged network services and affected users. Several scenarios are examined to demonstrate the uses of the proposed Virtual Terrain Assisted Impact Assessment for Cyber Attacks (VTAC).

  13. Processing Terrain Point Cloud Data

    KAUST Repository

    DeVore, Ronald

    2013-01-10

    Terrain point cloud data are typically acquired through some form of Light Detection And Ranging sensing. They form a rich resource that is important in a variety of applications including navigation, line of sight, and terrain visualization. Processing terrain data has not received the attention of other forms of surface reconstruction or of image processing. The goal of terrain data processing is to convert the point cloud into a succinct representation system that is amenable to the various application demands. The present paper presents a platform for terrain processing built on the following principles: (i) measuring distortion in the Hausdorff metric, which we argue is a good match for the application demands, (ii) a multiscale representation based on tree approximation using local polynomial fitting. The basic elements held in the nodes of the tree can be efficiently encoded, transmitted, visualized, and utilized for the various target applications. Several challenges emerge because of the variable resolution of the data, missing data, occlusions, and noise. Techniques for identifying and handling these challenges are developed. © 2013 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  14. Complex terrain and wind lidars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bingoel, F.

    2009-08-15

    This thesis includes the results of a PhD study about complex terrain and wind lidars. The study mostly focuses on hilly and forested areas. Lidars have been used in combination with cups, sonics and vanes, to reach the desired vertical measurement heights. Several experiments are performed in complex terrain sites and the measurements are compared with two different flow models; a linearised flow model LINCOM and specialised forest model SCADIS. In respect to the lidar performance in complex terrain, the results showed that horizontal wind speed errors measured by a conically scanning lidar can be of the order of 3-4% in moderately-complex terrain and up to 10% in complex terrain. The findings were based on experiments involving collocated lidars and meteorological masts, together with flow calculations over the same terrains. The lidar performance was also simulated with the commercial software WAsP Engineering 2.0 and was well predicted except for some sectors where the terrain is particularly steep. Subsequently, two experiments were performed in forested areas; where the measurements are recorded at a location deep-in forest and at the forest edge. Both sites were modelled with flow models and the comparison of the measurement data with the flow model outputs showed that the mean wind speed calculated by LINCOM model was only reliable between 1 and 2 tree height (h) above canopy. The SCADIS model reported better correlation with the measurements in forest up to approx6h. At the forest edge, LINCOM model was used by allocating a slope half-in half out of the forest based on the suggestions of previous studies. The optimum slope angle was reported as 17 deg.. Thus, a suggestion was made to use WAsP Engineering 2.0 for forest edge modelling with known limitations and the applied method. The SCADIS model worked better than the LINCOM model at the forest edge but the model reported closer results to the measurements at upwind than the downwind and this should be

  15. Mechanical Homogenization Increases Bacterial Homogeneity in Sputum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokell, Joshua R.; Khan, Ammad

    2014-01-01

    Sputum obtained from patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) is highly viscous and often heterogeneous in bacterial distribution. Adding dithiothreitol (DTT) is the standard method for liquefaction prior to processing sputum for molecular detection assays. To determine if DTT treatment homogenizes the bacterial distribution within sputum, we measured the difference in mean total bacterial abundance and abundance of Burkholderia multivorans between aliquots of DTT-treated sputum samples with and without a mechanical homogenization (MH) step using a high-speed dispersing element. Additionally, we measured the effect of MH on bacterial abundance. We found a significant difference between the mean bacterial abundances in aliquots that were subjected to only DTT treatment and those of the aliquots which included an MH step (all bacteria, P = 0.04; B. multivorans, P = 0.05). There was no significant effect of MH on bacterial abundance in sputum. Although our results are from a single CF patient, they indicate that mechanical homogenization increases the homogeneity of bacteria in sputum. PMID:24759710

  16. Treinta y Tres stratigraphic terrain: ex Cuchilla Dionisio terrain. Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossi, J.

    2010-01-01

    From 1998 we are discussing if the eastern area of ZCSB is an allochtonous block named TCD or if it belongs to Dom Feliciano belt with an age of 500 - 700 Ma. This crustal block is difficult to study because Laguna Merin Graben cut it in two around 4000 k m2 crustal fragments distant s more de 100 km between them. Southern block which was named T PE by Masquelín (2006) was demonstrated as allochtonous by Bossi and Gaucher (2004) destroying the Cdf model but seriously complicating the stratigraphic terminology. It is proposed to do some changes in order to profit the general agreement about allochtomy. The CDT with change by Treinta y Tres terrane; T PE become sub - terrain Punta del Este; sub - terrain Cuchilla Dionisio for the septetrional block. From 1998 we are discussing if the eastern area of ZCSB is an allochtonous block named TCD or if it belongs to Dom Feliciano belt with an age of 500 - 700 Ma. This crustal block is difficult to study because Laguna Merín Graben cut it in two around 4000 k m2 crustal fragments distant s more de 100 km between them. Southern block which was named T PE by Masquelín (2006) was demonstrated as allochtonous by Bossi and Gaucher (2004) destroying the CDF model but seriously complicating the stratigraphic terminology. It is proposed to do some changes in order to profit the general agreement about allochtomy. The CDT with change by Treinta y Tres terrain; TPE become sub - terrain Punta del Este; sub - terrain Cuchilla Dionisio for the septetrional block

  17. Multilevel Monte Carlo Approaches for Numerical Homogenization

    KAUST Repository

    Efendiev, Yalchin R.; Kronsbein, Cornelia; Legoll, Fré dé ric

    2015-01-01

    it comes to homogenized solutions, different levels of coarse-grid meshes are used to solve the homogenized equation. We show that, by carefully selecting the number of realizations at each level, we can achieve a speed-up in the computations in comparison

  18. LOD-based clustering techniques for efficient large-scale terrain storage and visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xiaohong; Pajarola, Renato

    2003-05-01

    Large multi-resolution terrain data sets are usually stored out-of-core. To visualize terrain data at interactive frame rates, the data needs to be organized on disk, loaded into main memory part by part, then rendered efficiently. Many main-memory algorithms have been proposed for efficient vertex selection and mesh construction. Organization of terrain data on disk is quite difficult because the error, the triangulation dependency and the spatial location of each vertex all need to be considered. Previous terrain clustering algorithms did not consider the per-vertex approximation error of individual terrain data sets. Therefore, the vertex sequences on disk are exactly the same for any terrain. In this paper, we propose a novel clustering algorithm which introduces the level-of-detail (LOD) information to terrain data organization to map multi-resolution terrain data to external memory. In our approach the LOD parameters of the terrain elevation points are reflected during clustering. The experiments show that dynamic loading and paging of terrain data at varying LOD is very efficient and minimizes page faults. Additionally, the preprocessing of this algorithm is very fast and works from out-of-core.

  19. Automatic terrain modeling using transfinite element analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Collier, Nathan; Calo, Victor M.

    2010-01-01

    An automatic procedure for modeling terrain is developed based on L2 projection-based interpolation of discrete terrain data onto transfinite function spaces. The function space is refined automatically by the use of image processing techniques

  20. Functionality and homogeneity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2011-01-01

    Functionality and homogeneity are two of the five Sustainable Safety principles. The functionality principle aims for roads to have but one exclusive function and distinguishes between traffic function (flow) and access function (residence). The homogeneity principle aims at differences in mass,

  1. Homogenization of Mammalian Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, Mariana E G; Lamberti, Giorgia; Huber, Lukas A

    2015-11-02

    Homogenization is the name given to the methodological steps necessary for releasing organelles and other cellular constituents as a free suspension of intact individual components. Most homogenization procedures used for mammalian cells (e.g., cavitation pump and Dounce homogenizer) rely on mechanical force to break the plasma membrane and may be supplemented with osmotic or temperature alterations to facilitate membrane disruption. In this protocol, we describe a syringe-based homogenization method that does not require specialized equipment, is easy to handle, and gives reproducible results. The method may be adapted for cells that require hypotonic shock before homogenization. We routinely use it as part of our workflow to isolate endocytic organelles from mammalian cells. © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  2. UAS applications in high alpine, snow-covered terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bühler, Y.; Stoffel, A.; Ginzler, C.

    2017-12-01

    Access to snow-covered, alpine terrain is often difficult and dangerous. Hence parameters such as snow depth or snow avalanche release and deposition zones are hard to map in situ with adequate spatial and temporal resolution and with spatial continuous coverage. These parameters are currently operationally measured at automated weather stations and by observer networks. However such isolated point measurements are not able to capture the information spatial continuous and to describe the high spatial variability present in complex mountain topography. Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) have the potential to fill this gap by frequently covering selected high alpine areas with high spatial resolution down to ground resolutions of even few millimeters. At the WSL Institute for Snow and Avalanche Research SLF we test different photogrammetric UAS with visual and near infrared bands. During the last three years we were able to gather experience in more than 100 flight missions in extreme terrain. By processing the imagery applying state-of-the-art structure from motion (SfM) software, we were able to accurately document several avalanche events and to photogrammetrically map snow depth with accuracies from 1 to 20 cm (dependent on the flight height above ground) compare to manual snow probe measurements. This was even possible on homogenous snow surfaces with very little texture. A key issue in alpine terrain is flight planning. We need to cover regions at high elevations with large altitude differences (up to 1 km) with high wind speeds (up to 20 m/s) and cold temperatures (down to - 25°C). Only a few UAS are able to cope with these environmental conditions. We will give an overview on our applications of UAS in high alpine terrain that demonstrate the big potential of such systems to acquire frequent, accurate and high spatial resolution geodata in high alpine, snow covered terrain that could be essential to answer longstanding questions in avalanche and snow hydrology

  3. Lunar terrain mapping and relative-roughness analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Lawrence C.; McCauley, John F.; Holm, Esther A.

    1971-01-01

    Terrain maps of the equatorial zone (long 70° E.-70° W. and lat 10° N-10° S.) were prepared at scales of 1:2,000,000 and 1:1,000,000 to classify lunar terrain with respect to roughness and to provide a basis for selecting sites for Surveyor and Apollo landings as well as for Ranger and Lunar Orbiter photographs. The techniques that were developed as a result of this effort can be applied to future planetary exploration. By using the best available earth-based observational data and photographs 1:1,000,000-scale and U.S. Geological Survey lunar geologic maps and U.S. Air Force Aeronautical Chart and Information Center LAC charts, lunar terrain was described by qualitative and quantitative methods and divided into four fundamental classes: maria, terrae, craters, and linear features. Some 35 subdivisions were defined and mapped throughout the equatorial zone, and, in addition, most of the map units were illustrated by photographs. The terrain types were analyzed quantitatively to characterize and order their relative-roughness characteristics. Approximately 150,000 east-west slope measurements made by a photometric technique (photoclinometry) in 51 sample areas indicate that algebraic slope-frequency distributions are Gaussian, and so arithmetic means and standard deviations accurately describe the distribution functions. The algebraic slope-component frequency distributions are particularly useful for rapidly determining relative roughness of terrain. The statistical parameters that best describe relative roughness are the absolute arithmetic mean, the algebraic standard deviation, and the percentage of slope reversal. Statistically derived relative-relief parameters are desirable supplementary measures of relative roughness in the terrae. Extrapolation of relative roughness for the maria was demonstrated using Ranger VII slope-component data and regional maria slope data, as well as the data reported here. It appears that, for some morphologically homogeneous

  4. Spectra of Velocity components over Complex Terrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panofsky, H. A.; Larko, D.; Lipschut, R.

    1982-01-01

    : When air moves over terrain with changed characteristics, then (1) for wavelengths very short relative to the fetch over the new terrain, the spectral densities are in equilibrium with the new terrain. (1) for wavelengths long compared to this fetch, spectral densities remain unchanged if the ground...

  5. A "Global Radiosonde and tracked-balloon Archive on Sixteen Pressure levels" (GRASP) going back to 1905 – Part 2: homogeneity adjustments for pilot balloon and radiosonde wind data

    OpenAIRE

    L. Ramella Pralungo; L. Haimberger

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the comprehensive homogenization of the "Global Radiosonde and tracked balloon Archive on Sixteen Pressure levels" (GRASP) wind records. Many of those records suffer from artificial shifts that need to be detected and adjusted before they are suitable for climate studies. Time series of departures between observations and the National Atmospheric and Oceanic Administration 20th-century (NOAA-20CR) surface pressure only reanalysis have been calculated...

  6. The SPH homogeneization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavenoky, Alain

    1978-01-01

    The homogeneization of a uniform lattice is a rather well understood topic while difficult problems arise if the lattice becomes irregular. The SPH homogeneization method is an attempt to generate homogeneized cross sections for an irregular lattice. Section 1 summarizes the treatment of an isolated cylindrical cell with an entering surface current (in one velocity theory); Section 2 is devoted to the extension of the SPH method to assembly problems. Finally Section 3 presents the generalisation to general multigroup problems. Numerical results are obtained for a PXR rod bundle assembly in Section 4

  7. Homogeneity of Inorganic Glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin; Zhang, L.; Keding, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    Homogeneity of glasses is a key factor determining their physical and chemical properties and overall quality. However, quantification of the homogeneity of a variety of glasses is still a challenge for glass scientists and technologists. Here, we show a simple approach by which the homogeneity...... of different glass products can be quantified and ranked. This approach is based on determination of both the optical intensity and dimension of the striations in glasses. These two characteristic values areobtained using the image processing method established recently. The logarithmic ratio between...

  8. Declarative Terrain Modeling for Military Training Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben M. Smelik

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Military training instructors increasingly often employ computer games to train soldiers in all sorts of skills and tactics. One of the difficulties instructors face when using games as a training tool is the creation of suitable content, including scenarios, entities, and corresponding terrain models. Terrain plays a key role in many military training games, as for example, in our case game Tactical Air Defense. However, current manual terrain editors are both too complex and too time-consuming to be useful for instructors; automatic terrain generation methods show a lot of potential, but still lack user control and intuitive editing capabilities. We present a novel way for instructors to model terrain for their training games: instead of constructing a terrain model using complex modeling tools, instructors can declare the required properties of their terrain using an advanced sketching interface. Our framework integrates terrain generation methods and manages dependencies between terrain features in order to automatically create a complete 3D terrain model that matches the sketch. With our framework, instructors can easily design a large variety of terrain models that meet their training requirements.

  9. Automatic Computer Mapping of Terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedes, H. W.

    1971-01-01

    Computer processing of 17 wavelength bands of visible, reflective infrared, and thermal infrared scanner spectrometer data, and of three wavelength bands derived from color aerial film has resulted in successful automatic computer mapping of eight or more terrain classes in a Yellowstone National Park test site. The tests involved: (1) supervised and non-supervised computer programs; (2) special preprocessing of the scanner data to reduce computer processing time and cost, and improve the accuracy; and (3) studies of the effectiveness of the proposed Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS) data channels in the automatic mapping of the same terrain, based on simulations, using the same set of scanner data. The following terrain classes have been mapped with greater than 80 percent accuracy in a 12-square-mile area with 1,800 feet of relief; (1) bedrock exposures, (2) vegetated rock rubble, (3) talus, (4) glacial kame meadow, (5) glacial till meadow, (6) forest, (7) bog, and (8) water. In addition, shadows of clouds and cliffs are depicted, but were greatly reduced by using preprocessing techniques.

  10. Risø 1978: Further Investigations into the Effects of Local Terrain Irregularties on Tower-Measured Wind Profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterson, E. W.; Taylor, P. A.; Højstrup, Jørgen

    1980-01-01

    Observations of flow over complex terrain taken at Risø during June–July 1978 and numerical studies confirm earlier findings that small variations in surface elevation have significant effects on mean wind profiles. Measured shear stresses in the nonequilibrium region of the flow are consistent w...... with theory but quite different from those obtained assuming simple flux-profile relationships. These findings imply that flux-profile relationships can be quite complicated over other than simple homogeneous terrain....

  11. Benchmarking monthly homogenization algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venema, V. K. C.; Mestre, O.; Aguilar, E.; Auer, I.; Guijarro, J. A.; Domonkos, P.; Vertacnik, G.; Szentimrey, T.; Stepanek, P.; Zahradnicek, P.; Viarre, J.; Müller-Westermeier, G.; Lakatos, M.; Williams, C. N.; Menne, M.; Lindau, R.; Rasol, D.; Rustemeier, E.; Kolokythas, K.; Marinova, T.; Andresen, L.; Acquaotta, F.; Fratianni, S.; Cheval, S.; Klancar, M.; Brunetti, M.; Gruber, C.; Prohom Duran, M.; Likso, T.; Esteban, P.; Brandsma, T.

    2011-08-01

    The COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology) Action ES0601: Advances in homogenization methods of climate series: an integrated approach (HOME) has executed a blind intercomparison and validation study for monthly homogenization algorithms. Time series of monthly temperature and precipitation were evaluated because of their importance for climate studies and because they represent two important types of statistics (additive and multiplicative). The algorithms were validated against a realistic benchmark dataset. The benchmark contains real inhomogeneous data as well as simulated data with inserted inhomogeneities. Random break-type inhomogeneities were added to the simulated datasets modeled as a Poisson process with normally distributed breakpoint sizes. To approximate real world conditions, breaks were introduced that occur simultaneously in multiple station series within a simulated network of station data. The simulated time series also contained outliers, missing data periods and local station trends. Further, a stochastic nonlinear global (network-wide) trend was added. Participants provided 25 separate homogenized contributions as part of the blind study as well as 22 additional solutions submitted after the details of the imposed inhomogeneities were revealed. These homogenized datasets were assessed by a number of performance metrics including (i) the centered root mean square error relative to the true homogeneous value at various averaging scales, (ii) the error in linear trend estimates and (iii) traditional contingency skill scores. The metrics were computed both using the individual station series as well as the network average regional series. The performance of the contributions depends significantly on the error metric considered. Contingency scores by themselves are not very informative. Although relative homogenization algorithms typically improve the homogeneity of temperature data, only the best ones improve precipitation data

  12. Micro- and meso-scale effects of forested terrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellwik, Ebba; Mann, Jakob; Sogachev, Andrey

    2011-01-01

    scales are the height of the planetary boundary layer and the Monin-Obukhov length, which both are related to the energy balance of the surface. Examples of important micro- and meso-scale effects of forested terrain are shown using data and model results from recent and ongoing experiments. For micro......The height and rotor diameter of modern wind turbines are so extensive, that the wind conditions they encounter often are well above the surface layer, where traditionally it is assumed that wind direction and turbulent fluxes are constant with respect to height, if the surface is homogenous....... Deviations from the requirement of homogeneity are often the focus of micro-scale studies in forested areas. Yet, to explain the wind climate in the relevant height range for turbines, it is necessary to also account for the length scales that are important parameters for the meso-scale flow. These length...

  13. ISOSTATICALLY DISTURBED TERRAIN OF NORTHWESTERN ANDES MOUNTAINS FROM SPECTRALLY CORRELATED FREE-AIR AND GRAVITY TERRAIN DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández P Orlando

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently revised models on global tectonics describe the convergence of the North Andes, Nazca, Caribbean and South American Plates and their seismicity, volcanism, active faulting and extreme
    topography. The current plate boundaries of the area are mainly interpreted from volcanic and seismic datasets with variable confidence levels. New insights on the isostatic state and plate boundaries of
    the northwestern Andes Mountains can be obtained from the spectral analysis of recently available gravity and topography data.
    Isostatically disturbed terrain produces free-air anomalies that are highly correlated with the gravity effects of the terrain. The terrain gravity effects (TGE and free air gravity anomalies (FAGA of the
    Andes mountains spectral correlation data confirms that these mountains are isostatically disturbed. Strong negative terrain-correlated FAGA along western South America and the Greater and Lesser Antilles are consistent with anomalously deepened mantle displaced by subducting oceanic plates.

    Inversion of the compensated terrain gravity effects (CTGE reveals plate subduction systems with alternating shallower and steeper subduction angles. The gravity modeling highlights crustal
    deformation from plate collision and subduction and other constraints on the tectonism of the plate boundary zones for the region.

  14. How fine is fine enough when doing CFD terrain simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Niels N.; Bechmann, Andreas; Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan

    2012-01-01

    The present work addresses the problemof establishing the necessary grid resolution to obtain a given level of numerical accuracy using a CFD model for prediction of flow over terrain. It is illustrated, that a very high resolution may be needed if the numerical difference between consecutive...

  15. Multilevel Monte Carlo Approaches for Numerical Homogenization

    KAUST Repository

    Efendiev, Yalchin R.

    2015-10-01

    In this article, we study the application of multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) approaches to numerical random homogenization. Our objective is to compute the expectation of some functionals of the homogenized coefficients, or of the homogenized solutions. This is accomplished within MLMC by considering different sizes of representative volumes (RVEs). Many inexpensive computations with the smallest RVE size are combined with fewer expensive computations performed on larger RVEs. Likewise, when it comes to homogenized solutions, different levels of coarse-grid meshes are used to solve the homogenized equation. We show that, by carefully selecting the number of realizations at each level, we can achieve a speed-up in the computations in comparison to a standard Monte Carlo method. Numerical results are presented for both one-dimensional and two-dimensional test-cases that illustrate the efficiency of the approach.

  16. Glassy slag: A complementary waste form to homogeneous glass for the implementation of MAWS in treating DOE low level/mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, X.; Ordaz, G.; Krumrine, P.

    1994-01-01

    Glassy slag waste forms are being developed to complement glass waste forms in implementing the Minimum Additive Waste Stabilization (MAWS) Program for supporting DOE's environmental restoration efforts. These glassy slags are composed of various metal oxide crystalline phases embedded in an alumino-silicate glass phase. The slags are appropriate final waste forms for waste streams that contain large amounts of scrap metals and elements with low solubilities in glass, and that have low-flux contents. Homogeneous glass waste forms are appropriate for wastes with sufficient fluxes and low metal contents. Therefore, utilization of both glass and glassy slag waste forms will make vitrification technology applicable to the treatment of a much larger range of radioactive and mixed wastes. The MAWS approach was a plied to glassy slags by blending multiple waste streams to produce the final waste form, minimizing overall waste form volume and reducing costs. The crystalline oxide phases formed in the glassy slags can be specially formulated so that they are very durable and contain hazardous and radioactive elements in their lattice structures. The Structural Bond Strength (SBS) Model was used to predict the chemical durability of the product from the slag composition so that optimized slag compositions could be obtain with a limited number of crucible melts and testing

  17. Hybrid diffusion–transport spatial homogenization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kooreman, Gabriel; Rahnema, Farzad

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A new hybrid diffusion–transport homogenization method. • An extension of the consistent spatial homogenization (CSH) transport method. • Auxiliary cross section makes homogenized diffusion consistent with heterogeneous diffusion. • An on-the-fly re-homogenization in transport. • The method is faster than fine-mesh transport by 6–8 times. - Abstract: A new hybrid diffusion–transport homogenization method has been developed by extending the consistent spatial homogenization (CSH) transport method to include diffusion theory. As in the CSH method, an “auxiliary cross section” term is introduced into the source term, making the resulting homogenized diffusion equation consistent with its heterogeneous counterpart. The method then utilizes an on-the-fly re-homogenization in transport theory at the assembly level in order to correct for core environment effects on the homogenized cross sections and the auxiliary cross section. The method has been derived in general geometry and tested in a 1-D boiling water reactor (BWR) core benchmark problem for both controlled and uncontrolled configurations. The method has been shown to converge to the reference solution with less than 1.7% average flux error in less than one third the computational time as the CSH method – 6 to 8 times faster than fine-mesh transport

  18. Complex Terrain and Wind Lidars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bingöl, Ferhat

    software WAsP Engineering 2.0 and was well predicted except for some sectors where the terrain is particularly steep. Subsequently, two experiments were performed in forested areas; where the measurements are recorded at a location deep-in forest and at the forest edge. Both sites were modelled with flow...... edge, LINCOM model was used by allocating a slope half-in half out of the forest based on the suggestions of previous studies. The optimum slope angle was reported as 17º. Thus, a suggestion was made to use WAsP Engineering 2.0 for forest edge modelling with known limitations and the applied method...

  19. Homogenization approach in engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babuska, I.

    1975-10-01

    Homogenization is an approach which studies the macrobehavior of a medium by its microproperties. Problems with a microstructure play an essential role in such fields as mechanics, chemistry, physics, and reactor engineering. Attention is concentrated on a simple specific model problem to illustrate results and problems typical of the homogenization approach. Only the diffusion problem is treated here, but some statements are made about the elasticity of composite materials. The differential equation is solved for linear cases with and without boundaries and for the nonlinear case. 3 figures, 1 table

  20. Irregular Morphing for Real-Time Rendering of Large Terrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kalem

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The following paper proposes an alternative approach to the real-time adaptive triangulation problem. A new region-based multi-resolution approach for terrain rendering is described which improves on-the-fly the distribution of the density of triangles inside the tile after selecting appropriate Level-Of-Detail by an adaptive sampling. This proposed approach organizes the heightmap into a QuadTree of tiles that are processed independently. This technique combines the benefits of both Triangular Irregular Network approach and region-based multi-resolution approach by improving the distribution of the density of triangles inside the tile. Our technique morphs the initial regular grid of the tile to deformed grid in order to minimize approximation error. The proposed technique strives to combine large tile size and real-time processing while guaranteeing an upper bound on the screen space error. Thus, this approach adapts terrain rendering process to local surface characteristics and enables on-the-fly handling of large amount of terrain data. Morphing is based-on the multi-resolution wavelet analysis. The use of the D2WT multi-resolution analysis of the terrain height-map speeds up processing and permits to satisfy an interactive terrain rendering. Tests and experiments demonstrate that Haar B-Spline wavelet, well known for its properties of localization and its compact support, is suitable for fast and accurate redistribution. Such technique could be exploited in client-server architecture for supporting interactive high-quality remote visualization of very large terrain.

  1. Local curvature entropy-based 3D terrain representation using a comprehensive Quadtree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiyu; Liu, Gang; Ma, Xiaogang; Mariethoz, Gregoire; He, Zhenwen; Tian, Yiping; Weng, Zhengping

    2018-05-01

    Large scale 3D digital terrain modeling is a crucial part of many real-time applications in geoinformatics. In recent years, the improved speed and precision in spatial data collection make the original terrain data more complex and bigger, which poses challenges for data management, visualization and analysis. In this work, we presented an effective and comprehensive 3D terrain representation based on local curvature entropy and a dynamic Quadtree. The Level-of-detail (LOD) models of significant terrain features were employed to generate hierarchical terrain surfaces. In order to reduce the radical changes of grid density between adjacent LODs, local entropy of terrain curvature was regarded as a measure of subdividing terrain grid cells. Then, an efficient approach was presented to eliminate the cracks among the different LODs by directly updating the Quadtree due to an edge-based structure proposed in this work. Furthermore, we utilized a threshold of local entropy stored in each parent node of this Quadtree to flexibly control the depth of the Quadtree and dynamically schedule large-scale LOD terrain. Several experiments were implemented to test the performance of the proposed method. The results demonstrate that our method can be applied to construct LOD 3D terrain models with good performance in terms of computational cost and the maintenance of terrain features. Our method has already been deployed in a geographic information system (GIS) for practical uses, and it is able to support the real-time dynamic scheduling of large scale terrain models more easily and efficiently.

  2. Dynamics of homogeneous nucleation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toxværd, Søren

    2015-01-01

    The classical nucleation theory for homogeneous nucleation is formulated as a theory for a density fluctuation in a supersaturated gas at a given temperature. But molecular dynamics simulations reveal that it is small cold clusters which initiates the nucleation. The temperature in the nucleating...

  3. Homogeneous bilateral block shifts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Douglas class were classified in [3]; they are unilateral block shifts of arbitrary block size (i.e. dim H(n) can be anything). However, no examples of irreducible homogeneous bilateral block shifts of block size larger than 1 were known until now.

  4. Homogeneity and Entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tignanelli, H. L.; Vazquez, R. A.; Mostaccio, C.; Gordillo, S.; Plastino, A.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. Presentamos una metodologia de analisis de la homogeneidad a partir de la Teoria de la Informaci6n, aplicable a muestras de datos observacionales. ABSTRACT:Standard concepts that underlie Information Theory are employed in order design a methodology that enables one to analyze the homogeneity of a given data sample. Key : DATA ANALYSIS

  5. Homogeneous Poisson structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafei Deh Abad, A.; Malek, F.

    1993-09-01

    We provide an algebraic definition for Schouten product and give a decomposition for any homogenenous Poisson structure in any n-dimensional vector space. A large class of n-homogeneous Poisson structures in R k is also characterized. (author). 4 refs

  6. Atmospheric processes over complex terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banta, Robert M.; Berri, G.; Blumen, William; Carruthers, David J.; Dalu, G. A.; Durran, Dale R.; Egger, Joseph; Garratt, J. R.; Hanna, Steven R.; Hunt, J. C. R.

    1990-06-01

    A workshop on atmospheric processes over complex terrain, sponsored by the American Meteorological Society, was convened in Park City, Utah from 24 vto 28 October 1988. The overall objective of the workshop was one of interaction and synthesis--interaction among atmospheric scientists carrying out research on a variety of orographic flow problems, and a synthesis of their results and points of view into an assessment of the current status of topical research problems. The final day of the workshop was devoted to an open discussion on the research directions that could be anticipated in the next decade because of new and planned instrumentation and observational networks, the recent emphasis on development of mesoscale numerical models, and continual theoretical investigations of thermally forced flows, orographic waves, and stratified turbulence. This monograph represents an outgrowth of the Park City Workshop. The authors have contributed chapters based on their lecture material. Workshop discussions indicated interest in both the remote sensing and predictability of orographic flows. These chapters were solicited following the workshop in order to provide a more balanced view of current progress and future directions in research on atmospheric processes over complex terrain.

  7. Archaean TTG of Vodlozero Terrain, Fennoscandian Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekulaev, Valery; Arestova, Natalia

    2014-05-01

    The Vodlozero terrain is the largest (about 270*240 km) early Archaean fragment of Fennoscandian Shield and composes its eastern part. The granitoids of TTG suite are predominant component of the terrain. The greenstone belts are placed along the margins of the terrain. Several stages of TTG formation can be distinguished in Achaean crust history. (1) The oldest TTG are trondhjemites and tonalities with age of 3240 Ma. They contain rare and small amphibolite inclusions of the same age. These TTG are characterized by high Sr (av. 412 ppm), Sr/Y (70), (La/Yb)n (54) and low Y (av. 7 ppm), Yb (0.32 ppm) and Nb (4 ppm). It was shown (Lobach-Zhuchenko et al., 2000), that the source of these TTG could be basic rocks, having composition similar with TH1 by K.Condie. (2) The tonalities and granodiorites with age of 3150 Ma are disposed near greenstone belts and contain compared to TTG of the first group less Sr (av. 250 ppm), Sr/Y (22), (La/Yb)n (18) and more K, Rb (av. 70 ppm), Ba (470 ppm), Y (11 ppm),Yb (1.16 ppm). TTG of both groups have identical T(DM)Nd (3250-3400 Ma) and differences in composition is evidently connected with lower level of source melting of the second group and also with K-metasomatism. The volcanics of the greenstone belts have age 3020 - 2940 Ma. Dykes of gabbro-amphibolites and andesites with the same age and composition cut TTG of the first and the second groups. The age of the third TTG group is about 2900 Ma ago. These rocks form leucosoma of migmatites within TTG of the second group. The composition of the third TTG and Nd isotope data suppose their origin by the melting of ancient TTG crust simultaneously with greenstone belt emplacement. The fourth TTG group with age 2780-2850 Ma forms a small intrusions, cutting older TTG and greenstone rocks. Their composition is similar to 3150 Ma TTG. Nd isotope data indicate that these TTG have younger (about 2850 Ma) source. Thus there are four TTG groups formed into interval more 400 Ma. The age and

  8. Homogeneous group, research, institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Natascia Vasta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The work outlines the complex connection among empiric research, therapeutic programs and host institution. It is considered the current research state in Italy. Italian research field is analyzed and critic data are outlined: lack of results regarding both the therapeutic processes and the effectiveness of eating disorders group analytic treatment. The work investigates on an eating disorders homogeneous group, led into an eating disorder outpatient service. First we present the methodological steps the research is based on including the strong connection among theory and clinical tools. Secondly clinical tools are described and the results commented. Finally, our results suggest the necessity of validating some more specifical hypothesis: verifying the relationship between clinical improvement (sense of exclusion and painful emotions reduction and specific group therapeutic processes; verifying the relationship between depressive feelings, relapses and transition trough a more differentiated groupal field.Keywords: Homogeneous group; Eating disorders; Institutional field; Therapeutic outcome

  9. Homogeneous turbulence dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Sagaut, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    This book provides state-of-the-art results and theories in homogeneous turbulence, including anisotropy and compressibility effects with extension to quantum turbulence, magneto-hydodynamic turbulence  and turbulence in non-newtonian fluids. Each chapter is devoted to a given type of interaction (strain, rotation, shear, etc.), and presents and compares experimental data, numerical results, analysis of the Reynolds stress budget equations and advanced multipoint spectral theories. The role of both linear and non-linear mechanisms is emphasized. The link between the statistical properties and the dynamics of coherent structures is also addressed. Despite its restriction to homogeneous turbulence, the book is of interest to all people working in turbulence, since the basic physical mechanisms which are present in all turbulent flows are explained. The reader will find a unified presentation of the results and a clear presentation of existing controversies. Special attention is given to bridge the results obta...

  10. Homogen Mur - et udviklingsprojekt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Torben; Beim, Anne; Sørensen, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Mølletorvet i Slagelse er det første byggeri i Danmark, hvor ydervæggen er udført af homogene bærende og isolerende teglblokke. Byggeriet viser en række af de muligheder, der både med hensyn til konstruktioner, energiforhold og arkitektur ligger i anvendelsen af homogent blokmurværk.......Mølletorvet i Slagelse er det første byggeri i Danmark, hvor ydervæggen er udført af homogene bærende og isolerende teglblokke. Byggeriet viser en række af de muligheder, der både med hensyn til konstruktioner, energiforhold og arkitektur ligger i anvendelsen af homogent blokmurværk....

  11. Improved visibility computation on massive grid terrains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fishman, J.; Haverkort, H.J.; Toma, L.; Wolfson, O.; Agrawal, D.; Lu, C.-T.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the design and engineering of algorithms for computing visibility maps on massive grid terrains. Given a terrain T, specified by the elevations of points in a regular grid, and given a viewpoint v, the visibility map or viewshed of v is the set of grid points of T that are

  12. Computing visibility on terrains in external memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverkort, H.J.; Toma, L.; Zhuang, Yi

    2007-01-01

    We describe a novel application of the distribution sweeping technique to computing visibility on terrains. Given an arbitrary viewpoint v, the basic problem we address is computing the visibility map or viewshed of v, which is the set of points in the terrain that are visible from v. We give the

  13. Terrain Classification of Norwegian Slab Avalanche Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallandvik, Linda; Aadland, Eivind; Vikene, Odd Lennart

    2016-01-01

    It is difficult to rely on snow conditions, weather, and human factors when making judgments about avalanche risk because these variables are dynamic and complex; terrain, however, is more easily observed and interpreted. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate (1) the type of terrain in which historical fatal snow avalanche accidents in Norway…

  14. Parallel Implementation of the Terrain Masking Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-01

    contains behavior rules which can define a computation or an algorithm. It can communicate with other process nodes, it can contain local data, and it can...terrain maskirg calculation is being performed. It is this algorithm that comsumes about seventy percent of the total terrain masking calculation time

  15. A GPS inspired Terrain Referenced Navigation algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaman, D.

    2014-01-01

    Terrain Referenced Navigation (TRN) refers to a form of localization in which measurements of distances to the terrain surface are matched with a digital elevation map allowing a vehicle to estimate its own position within the map. The main goal of this dissertation is to improve TRN performance

  16. Homogenization of resonant chiral metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Menzel, C.; Rockstuhl, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    Homogenization of metamaterials is a crucial issue as it allows to describe their optical response in terms of effective wave parameters as, e.g., propagation constants. In this paper we consider the possible homogenization of chiral metamaterials. We show that for meta-atoms of a certain size...... an analytical criterion for performing the homogenization and a tool to predict the homogenization limit. We show that strong coupling between meta-atoms of chiral metamaterials may prevent their homogenization at all....

  17. Homogeneous M2 duals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueroa-O’Farrill, José; Ungureanu, Mara

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the search for new gravity duals to M2 branes with N>4 supersymmetry — equivalently, M-theory backgrounds with Killing superalgebra osp(N|4) for N>4 — we classify (except for a small gap) homogeneous M-theory backgrounds with symmetry Lie algebra so(n)⊕so(3,2) for n=5,6,7. We find that there are no new backgrounds with n=6,7 but we do find a number of new (to us) backgrounds with n=5. All backgrounds are metrically products of the form AdS 4 ×P 7 , with P riemannian and homogeneous under the action of SO(5), or S 4 ×Q 7 with Q lorentzian and homogeneous under the action of SO(3,2). At least one of the new backgrounds is supersymmetric (albeit with only N=2) and we show that it can be constructed from a supersymmetric Freund-Rubin background via a Wick rotation. Two of the new backgrounds have only been approximated numerically.

  18. Homogeneous M2 duals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa-O’Farrill, José [School of Mathematics and Maxwell Institute for Mathematical Sciences,The University of Edinburgh,James Clerk Maxwell Building, The King’s Buildings, Peter Guthrie Tait Road,Edinburgh EH9 3FD, Scotland (United Kingdom); Ungureanu, Mara [Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Institut für Mathematik,Unter den Linden 6, 10099 Berlin (Germany)

    2016-01-25

    Motivated by the search for new gravity duals to M2 branes with N>4 supersymmetry — equivalently, M-theory backgrounds with Killing superalgebra osp(N|4) for N>4 — we classify (except for a small gap) homogeneous M-theory backgrounds with symmetry Lie algebra so(n)⊕so(3,2) for n=5,6,7. We find that there are no new backgrounds with n=6,7 but we do find a number of new (to us) backgrounds with n=5. All backgrounds are metrically products of the form AdS{sub 4}×P{sup 7}, with P riemannian and homogeneous under the action of SO(5), or S{sup 4}×Q{sup 7} with Q lorentzian and homogeneous under the action of SO(3,2). At least one of the new backgrounds is supersymmetric (albeit with only N=2) and we show that it can be constructed from a supersymmetric Freund-Rubin background via a Wick rotation. Two of the new backgrounds have only been approximated numerically.

  19. Interactive Editing of GigaSample Terrain Fields

    KAUST Repository

    Treib, Marc

    2012-05-01

    Previous terrain rendering approaches have addressed the aspect of data compression and fast decoding for rendering, but applications where the terrain is repeatedly modified and needs to be buffered on disk have not been considered so far. Such applications require both decoding and encoding to be faster than disk transfer. We present a novel approach for editing gigasample terrain fields at interactive rates and high quality. To achieve high decoding and encoding throughput, we employ a compression scheme for height and pixel maps based on a sparse wavelet representation. On recent GPUs it can encode and decode up to 270 and 730 MPix/s of color data, respectively, at compression rates and quality superior to JPEG, and it achieves more than twice these rates for lossless height field compression. The construction and rendering of a height field triangulation is avoided by using GPU ray-casting directly on the regular grid underlying the compression scheme. We show the efficiency of our method for interactive editing and continuous level-of-detail rendering of terrain fields comprised of several hundreds of gigasamples. © 2012 The Author(s).

  20. New high-fidelity terrain modeling method constrained by terrain semanteme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhou

    Full Text Available Production of higher-fidelity digital elevation models is important; as such models are indispensable components of space data infrastructure. However, loss of terrain features is a constant problem for grid digital elevation models, although these models have already been defined in such a way that their distinct usage as data sources in terrain modeling processing is prohibited. Therefore, in this study, the novel concept-terrain semanteme is proposed to define local space terrain features, and a new process for generating grid digital elevation models based on this new concept is designed. A prototype system is programmed to test the proposed approach; the results indicate that terrain semanteme can be applied in the process of grid digital elevation model generation, and that usage of this new concept improves the digital elevation model fidelity. Moreover, the terrain semanteme technique can be applied for recovery of distorted digital elevation model regions containing terrain semantemes, with good recovery efficiency indicated by experiments.

  1. Terrain assessment guidelines : CAGC best practice. Version 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This terrain classification assessment guideline discussed the steps required for personnel to understand terrain hazards present during seismic operations. Maps and other sources must be used to classify terrain steepness and surface conditions using geographical information systems (GIS), LIDAR, or satellite photographs. The impact of managing steep terrain within projects must also be considered when class 3, 4, 5, or 6 terrain has been identified. Terrains must also be classified according to colours. Secondary terrain assessments must be conducted when class 3, 4, 5, or 6 terrain has been identified. Terrain management plans should included methods of keeping untrained workers out of areas with classes greater than 3. Methods of entering and exiting steep terrain must be identified. Workers must be trained to work in areas with steep terrains. Methods of rescue and evacuation must also be established. Procedures were outlined for all terrain classes. Footwear, head protection and general safety requirements were outlined. 14 figs.

  2. Noise level arrangement in determined zones of homogenous development of green areas on the example of the spa park in Inowrocław

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sztubecka, Małgorzata; Skiba, Marta

    2016-11-01

    Noise measurements are usually carried out in developed areas as well as in the surroundings of traffic routes providing basis for actions in order to limit its influence on the neighboring areas. Noise measurements in park areas are rare due to belief that these areas are silent zones. Such attitude cannot be justified. This article aims to the assessment of noise appearing in determined subzones of the spa park in Inowrocław. From the research carried out it can be noticed that traffic noise does not have any important meaning for the acoustic climate of the park. It is the people who stay there who generate more noise. Comparative analysis proves the appearance and penetration of noise from the zones with greater level of noise to the ones with lower amount.

  3. Stimulus homogeneity enhances implicit learning: evidence from contextual cueing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmann-Wüstefeld, Tobias; Schubö, Anna

    2014-04-01

    Visual search for a target object is faster if the target is embedded in a repeatedly presented invariant configuration of distractors ('contextual cueing'). It has also been shown that the homogeneity of a context affects the efficiency of visual search: targets receive prioritized processing when presented in a homogeneous context compared to a heterogeneous context, presumably due to grouping processes at early stages of visual processing. The present study investigated in three Experiments whether context homogeneity also affects contextual cueing. In Experiment 1, context homogeneity varied on three levels of the task-relevant dimension (orientation) and contextual cueing was most pronounced for context configurations with high orientation homogeneity. When context homogeneity varied on three levels of the task-irrelevant dimension (color) and orientation homogeneity was fixed, no modulation of contextual cueing was observed: high orientation homogeneity led to large contextual cueing effects (Experiment 2) and low orientation homogeneity led to low contextual cueing effects (Experiment 3), irrespective of color homogeneity. Enhanced contextual cueing for homogeneous context configurations suggest that grouping processes do not only affect visual search but also implicit learning. We conclude that memory representation of context configurations are more easily acquired when context configurations can be processed as larger, grouped perceptual units. However, this form of implicit perceptual learning is only improved by stimulus homogeneity when stimulus homogeneity facilitates grouping processes on a dimension that is currently relevant in the task. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Pulmonary injuries and cytokine levels after the intraperitoneal administration of pancreatic homogenates in rats Lesiones pulmonares y niveles de citoquinas tras la administración intraperitoneal de homogeneizado pancreático en ratas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Mozo

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: our objective was to investigate the effects of the administration of pancreatic homogenates, with or without enzymatic activation, to healthy animals regarding cytokine serum levels and the development of pulmonary distress. Material and methods: 106 male Wistar rats, divided into three groups, were studied: group A, intraperitoneal administration of homogenates activated with enterokinase; group B, homogenates without enterokinase; and group C, control group with administration of physiological saline solution. Each group was divided into 4 subgroups according to the time of sacrifice: 0, 2, 6 and 24 hours. We studied the pulmonary and pancreatic histology, serum parameters of renal and hepatic function, and serum levels of IL-1ß, IL-6 and TNFa. Results: there was no mortality in any group. Pancreatic disorders in A and B groups were noted at 24 hours. These two groups had statistically significant higher transaminase serum levels than those of the control group, as well as statistically significant higher creatinine levels in group A. IL-1ß showed a statistically significant higher level at 6 h in both groups, A and B, but was higher in group A, which also exhibited significant pulmonary histologic damage with respect to controls at 6 h. Conclusions: the higher IL-1ß level in group A may result from production by peritoneal macrophages under the influence of homogenate enzymatic activation. This may be the reason for lung damage.Introducción: nuestro objetivo es investigar, en animales sanos, los efectos de la administración de homogeneizado pancreático, con y sin activación enzimática, sobre los niveles séricos de citoquinas y el desarrollo de lesiones pulmonares. Material y métodos: se estudiaron 106 ratas Wistar macho divididas en 3 grupos: A: administración intraperitoneal de homogeneizado pancreático activado con enteroquinasa; B: homogeneizado sin enteroquinasa; y C: control, con la administración de suero

  5. HOMOGENEOUS NUCLEAR POWER REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, L.D.P.

    1959-09-01

    A homogeneous nuclear power reactor utilizing forced circulation of the liquid fuel is described. The reactor does not require fuel handling outside of the reactor vessel during any normal operation including complete shutdown to room temperature, the reactor being selfregulating under extreme operating conditions and controlled by the thermal expansion of the liquid fuel. The liquid fuel utilized is a uranium, phosphoric acid, and water solution which requires no gus exhaust system or independent gas recombining system, thereby eliminating the handling of radioiytic gas.

  6. Homogeneous Finsler Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, Shaoqiang

    2012-01-01

    "Homogeneous Finsler Spaces" is the first book to emphasize the relationship between Lie groups and Finsler geometry, and the first to show the validity in using Lie theory for the study of Finsler geometry problems. This book contains a series of new results obtained by the author and collaborators during the last decade. The topic of Finsler geometry has developed rapidly in recent years. One of the main reasons for its surge in development is its use in many scientific fields, such as general relativity, mathematical biology, and phycology (study of algae). This monograph introduc

  7. Homogeneity spoil spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennig, J.; Boesch, C.; Martin, E.; Grutter, R.

    1987-01-01

    One of the problems of in vivo MR spectroscopy of P-31 is spectra localization. Surface coil spectroscopy, which is the method of choice for clinical applications, suffers from the high-intensity signal from subcutaneous muscle tissue, which masks the spectrum of interest from deeper structures. In order to suppress this signal while maintaining the simplicity of surface coil spectroscopy, the authors introduced a small sheet of ferromagnetically dotted plastic between the surface coil and the body. This sheet destroys locally the field homogeneity and therefore all signal from structures around the coil. The very high reproducibility of the simple experimental procedure allows long-term studies important for monitoring tumor therapy

  8. The effect of terrain slope on firefighter safety zone effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bret Butler; J. Forthofer; K. Shannon; D. Jimenez; D. Frankman

    2010-01-01

    The current safety zone guidelines used in the US were developed based on the assumption that the fire and safety zone were located on flat terrain. The minimum safe distance for a firefighter to be from a flame was calculated as that corresponding to a radiant incident energy flux level of 7.0kW-m-2. Current firefighter safety guidelines are based on the assumption...

  9. Homogeneous instantons in bigravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ying-li; Sasaki, Misao; Yeom, Dong-han

    2015-01-01

    We study homogeneous gravitational instantons, conventionally called the Hawking-Moss (HM) instantons, in bigravity theory. The HM instantons describe the amplitude of quantum tunneling from a false vacuum to the true vacuum. Corrections to General Relativity (GR) are found in a closed form. Using the result, we discuss the following two issues: reduction to the de Rham-Gabadadze-Tolley (dRGT) massive gravity and the possibility of preference for a large e-folding number in the context of the Hartle-Hawking (HH) no-boundary proposal. In particular, concerning the dRGT limit, it is found that the tunneling through the so-called self-accelerating branch is exponentially suppressed relative to the normal branch, and the probability becomes zero in the dRGT limit. As far as HM instantons are concerned, this could imply that the reduction from bigravity to the dRGT massive gravity is ill-defined.

  10. TERRAIN, CITY OF DALLAS, DALLAS COUNTY, TEXAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix M: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  11. DCS Terrain Submission for Cass County, MO

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  12. DCS Terrain Submission for Bark River PMR

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  13. DCS Terrain Submission for Lee County MS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix M: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  14. DCS Terrain Submission for Mono, CA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  15. DCS Terrain for Greer County, Oklahoma, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix M: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  16. DCS Terrain Submission for Angelina County, TX

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  17. Terrain Sumbission for Howard County NE

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  18. TERRAIN Submission for Outagamie Countywide DFIRM

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  19. DCS TERRAIN SUBMISSION FOR VOLUSIA COUNTY, FL

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix M: Data Capture Standards, describe the digital topographic data that were used to create...

  20. Terrain, CEDAR RAPIDS, LINN COUNTY, IA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  1. DOGWOOD RUN TERRAIN, YORK COUNTY, PA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data includes digital elevation models, LIDAR derived contours, LIDAR three-dimensional spot elevations and breaklines, field surveyed ground elevations and...

  2. DCS Terrain Submission for Irwin, GA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  3. DCS Terrain Submission for Stephens, OK

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  4. TERRAIN Submission for Waushara Countywide DFIRM

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  5. DCS Terrain Submission for Dawes County, NE

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  6. DCS Terrain for Middlesex County, NJ

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that were used to create...

  7. DCS Terrain Submission for Seminole, GA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  8. DCS Terrain Submission for Chemung County, NY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  9. DCS Terrain Submission for Garvin, OK

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  10. DCS Terrain Submission for Winston County, AL

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  11. DCS Terrain for Jasper County, GA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix M: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  12. TERRAIN DATA CAPTURE STANDARDS, Bedford PA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data includes digital elevation models, LIDAR derived contours, LIDAR three-dimensional spot elevations and breaklines, field surveyed ground elevations and...

  13. TERRAIN DATA, CITY OF CARSON CITY, NV

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describe the digital topographic data that were used to create...

  14. TERRAIN, ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS - Coastal PMR

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix M: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  15. DCS Terrain Submission for Fulton County, IN

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  16. DCS Terrain Submission for Miami County, IN

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  17. DCS Terrain Submittal for Socorro County NM

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix M: Data Capture Standards, describe the digital topographic data that were used to create...

  18. DCS Terrain for HOUSTON COUNTY, ALABAMA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix M: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  19. Digital Terrain Submittal for Duval County, FL

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  20. DCS Terrain for Clay County, GA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix M: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  1. DCS TERRAIN SUBMISSION FOR KNOX COUNTY, TN

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix M: Data Capture Standards, describe the digital topographic data that were used to create...

  2. TERRAIN, UPPER CUMBERLAND WATERSHED, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix M: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  3. DCS TERRAIN SUBMISSION FOR PUTNAM COUNTY, FL

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix M: Data Capture Standards, describe the digital topographic data that were used to create...

  4. DCS Terrain Submission for Sioux Falls

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  5. DCS TERRAIN SUBMISSION FOR SHELBY COUNTY, TN

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix M: Data Capture Standards, describe the digital topographic data that were used to create...

  6. DCS Terrain Submission for Mohave, AZ

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  7. DCS Terrain Submission for Albany County NY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describe the digital topographic data that were used to create...

  8. DCS Terrain Submission for Gunnison County, CO

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  9. DCS Terrain for Hancock County, GA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix M: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  10. TERRAIN, ST. CLAIR COUNTY, ALABAMA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  11. DCS Terrain for Lincoln County, GA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix M: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  12. DCS Terrain for Greene County, GA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix M: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  13. TERRAIN, CERRO GORDO COUNTY, IOWA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  14. DCS Terrain Submission for Merced, CA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  15. DCS Terrain Submission for Ouachita, AR

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  16. DCS Terrain Submission for Lewis County, KY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix M: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that were used to create...

  17. DCS Terrain for Pickens County, GA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix M: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  18. DCS Terrain for Williamson County, TX

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix M: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  19. DCS Terrain Submission for Clark, AR

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  20. DCS Terrain Submission for Lake County, Montana

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  1. DCS Terrain Submission for Drew AR

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  2. TERRAIN, Priest Lake, Bonner County, Idaho USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  3. DCS Terrain Submission for Mason County, KY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix M: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that were used to create...

  4. TERRAIN, Pointe Coupee PARISH, LA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  5. DCS Terrain Submission for Carter, OK

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  6. Terrain Data, Queen Anne's COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  7. DCS Terrain for Gilmer County, GA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix M: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  8. DCS Terrain Submission for Houston TX

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  9. DCS Terrain for Marion County, GA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix M: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  10. DCS Terrain for Washington County, GA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix M: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  11. DCS Terrain Submission for Chippewa County, Wisconsin

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  12. DCS Terrain Submission for Lancaster County, NE

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  13. DCS Terrain Submission for Benton County, AR

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix M: Data Capture Standards, describe the digital topographic data that were used to create...

  14. DCS Terrain Submission for Cass County, TX

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  15. DCS Terrain Submission for Brazos TX

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  16. DCS Terrain for Cobb County, GA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix M: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  17. DCS Terrain for Harris County, GA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix M: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  18. TERRAIN Submission for CHISAGO COUNTY, MN

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix M: Data Capture Standards, describe the digital topographic data that were used to create...

  19. DCS Terrain Submission for Pike County, KY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix M: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that were used to create...

  20. DCS Terrain Submission for Chariton County, MO

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  1. AAN Tactical Roles in Complex Urban Terrain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Funkhouser, Anthony

    1998-01-01

    .... The infantryman will assume the responsibility for tasks such as mobility. However, many experts predict the future battlefields will consist of complex urban terrain where much of the world population is occupying...

  2. TERRAIN, ST. LOUIS COUNTY, Missouri USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  3. DCS Terrain Submission for Lagrange County, IN

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  4. DCS TERRAIN Submission for STEARNS COUNTY, MN

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  5. DCS Terrain Submission for Logan, OK

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  6. Productive uncertainty. Notes on Terrain Vague

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Marullo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Terrain vague is usually synonym for a place exceeding the traditional categories of the city. Juxtaposing entropy to definite zones of containment, abandonment and emptiness to consolidated urban fabric, ceaseless transformation to historical stratification, informality and illegal activities to controlled jurisdictions, the terrain vague acts a sort of ruin, where the city is at the point of both being forgotten and disclosing its imminent future, eluding any of its regular uses and functioning mechanisms.

  7. Automatic terrain modeling using transfinite element analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Collier, Nathan

    2010-05-31

    An automatic procedure for modeling terrain is developed based on L2 projection-based interpolation of discrete terrain data onto transfinite function spaces. The function space is refined automatically by the use of image processing techniques to detect regions of high error and the flexibility of the transfinite interpolation to add degrees of freedom to these areas. Examples are shown of a section of the Palo Duro Canyon in northern Texas.

  8. On the extension of the wind profile over homogeneous terrain beyond the surface boundary layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gryning, Sven-Erik; Batchvarova, Ekaterina; Brümmer, B.

    2007-01-01

    -Obukhov similarity. Above the surface layer the second length scale (L-MBL ) becomes independent of height but not of stability, and at the top of the boundary layer the third length scale is assumed to be negligible. A simple model for the combined length scale that controls the wind profile and its stability...... dependence is formulated by inverse summation. Based on these assumptions the wind profile for the entire boundary layer is derived. A parameterization of L-MBL is formulated using the geostrophic drag law, which relates friction velocity and geostrophic wind. The empirical parameterization of the resistance...... law functions A and B in the geostrophic drag law is uncertain, making it impractical. Therefore an expression for the length scale, L-MBL , for applied use is suggested, based on measurements from the two sites....

  9. Large-Eddy Simulations of Flows in Complex Terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosovic, B.; Lundquist, K. A.

    2011-12-01

    Large-eddy simulation as a methodology for numerical simulation of turbulent flows was first developed to study turbulent flows in atmospheric by Lilly (1967). The first LES were carried by Deardorff (1970) who used these simulations to study atmospheric boundary layers. Ever since, LES has been extensively used to study canonical atmospheric boundary layers, in most cases flat plate boundary layers under the assumption of horizontal homogeneity. Carefully designed LES of canonical convective and neutrally stratified and more recently stably stratified atmospheric boundary layers have contributed significantly to development of better understanding of these flows and their parameterizations in large scale models. These simulations were often carried out using codes specifically designed and developed for large-eddy simulations of horizontally homogeneous flows with periodic lateral boundary conditions. Recent developments in multi-scale numerical simulations of atmospheric flows enable numerical weather prediction (NWP) codes such as ARPS (Chow and Street, 2009), COAMPS (Golaz et al., 2009) and Weather Research and Forecasting model, to be used nearly seamlessly across a wide range of atmospheric scales from synoptic down to turbulent scales in atmospheric boundary layers. Before we can with confidence carry out multi-scale simulations of atmospheric flows, NWP codes must be validated for accurate performance in simulating flows over complex or inhomogeneous terrain. We therefore carry out validation of WRF-LES for simulations of flows over complex terrain using data from Askervein Hill (Taylor and Teunissen, 1985, 1987) and METCRAX (Whiteman et al., 2008) field experiments. WRF's nesting capability is employed with a one-way nested inner domain that includes complex terrain representation while the coarser outer nest is used to spin up fully developed atmospheric boundary layer turbulence and thus represent accurately inflow to the inner domain. LES of a

  10. The relationship between continuum homogeneity and statistical homogeneity in cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoeger, W.R.; Ellis, G.F.R.; Hellaby, C.

    1987-01-01

    Although the standard Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) Universe models are based on the concept that the Universe is spatially homogeneous, up to the present time no definition of this concept has been proposed that could in principle be tested by observation. Such a definition is here proposed, based on a simple spatial averaging procedure, which relates observable properties of the Universe to the continuum homogeneity idea that underlies the FLRW models. It turns out that the statistical homogeneity often used to describe the distribution of matter on a large scale does not imply spatial homogeneity according to this definition, and so cannot be simply related to a FLRW Universe model. Values are proposed for the homogeneity parameter and length scale of homogeneity of the Universe. (author)

  11. An improved method of continuous LOD based on fractal theory in terrain rendering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lan; Li, Lijun

    2007-11-01

    With the improvement of computer graphic hardware capability, the algorithm of 3D terrain rendering is going into the hot topic of real-time visualization. In order to solve conflict between the rendering speed and reality of rendering, this paper gives an improved method of terrain rendering which improves the traditional continuous level of detail technique based on fractal theory. This method proposes that the program needn't to operate the memory repeatedly to obtain different resolution terrain model, instead, obtains the fractal characteristic parameters of different region according to the movement of the viewpoint. Experimental results show that the method guarantees the authenticity of landscape, and increases the real-time 3D terrain rendering speed.

  12. Walking on uneven terrain with a powered ankle prosthesis: A preliminary assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Amanda H; Lawson, Brian E; Goldfarb, Michael

    2015-01-01

    A successful walking gait with a powered prosthesis depends heavily on proper timing of power delivery, or push-off. This paper describes a control approach which provides improved walking on uneven terrain relative to previous work intended for use on even (level) terrain. This approach is motivated by an initial healthy subject study which demonstrated less variation in sagittal plane shank angle than sagittal plane ankle angle when walking on uneven terrain relative to even terrain. The latter therefore replaces the former as the control signal used to initiate push-off in the powered prosthesis described herein. The authors demonstrate improvement in consistency for several gait characteristics, relative to healthy, as well as controller characteristics with the new control approach, including a 50% improvement in the consistency of the percentage of stride at which push-off is initiated.

  13. Central Andean temperature and precipitation measurements and its homogenization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunziker, Stefan; Gubler, Stefanie

    2015-04-01

    Observation of climatological parameters and the homogenization of these time series have a well-established history in western countries. This is not the case for many other countries, such as Bolivia and Peru. In Bolivia and Peru, the organization of measurements, quality of measurement equipment, equipment maintenance, training of staff and data management are fundamentally different compared to the western standard. The data needs special attention, because many problems are not detected by standard quality control procedures. Information about the weather stations, best achieved by station visits, is very beneficial. If the cause of the problem is known, some of the data may be corrected. In this study, cases of typical problems and measurement errors will be demonstrated. Much of research on homogenization techniques (up to subdaily scale) has been completed in recent years. However, data sets of the quality of western station networks have been used, and little is known about the performance of homogenization methods on data sets from countries such as Bolivia and Peru. HOMER (HOMogenizaton softwarE in R) is one of the most recent and widely used homogenization softwares. Its performance is tested on Peruvian-like data that has been sourced from Swiss stations (similar station density and metadata availability). The Swiss station network is a suitable test bed, because climate gradients are strong and the terrain is complex, as is also found in the Central Andes. On the other hand, the Swiss station network is dense, and long time series and extensive metadata are available. By subsampling the station network and omitting the metadata, the conditions of a Peruvian test region are mimicked. Results are compared to a dataset homogenized by THOMAS (Tool for Homogenization of Monthly Data Series), the homogenization tool used by MeteoSwiss.

  14. Homogenization of resonant chiral metamaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Menzel, Christoph; Rockstuhl, Carsten; Malureanu, Radu; Lederer, Falk; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2010-01-01

    Homogenization of metamaterials is a crucial issue as it allows to describe their optical response in terms of effective wave parameters as e.g. propagation constants. In this paper we consider the possible homogenization of chiral metamaterials. We show that for meta-atoms of a certain size a critical density exists above which increasing coupling between neighboring meta-atoms prevails a reasonable homogenization. On the contrary, a dilution in excess will induce features reminiscent to pho...

  15. Bilipschitz embedding of homogeneous fractals

    OpenAIRE

    Lü, Fan; Lou, Man-Li; Wen, Zhi-Ying; Xi, Li-Feng

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a class of fractals named homogeneous sets based on some measure versions of homogeneity, uniform perfectness and doubling. This fractal class includes all Ahlfors-David regular sets, but most of them are irregular in the sense that they may have different Hausdorff dimensions and packing dimensions. Using Moran sets as main tool, we study the dimensions, bilipschitz embedding and quasi-Lipschitz equivalence of homogeneous fractals.

  16. Homogeneity in Social Groups of Iraqis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gresham, J.; Saleh, F.; Majid, S.

    With appreciation to the Royal Institute for Inter-Faith Studies for initiating the Second World Congress for Middle Eastern Studies, this paper summarizes findings on homogeneity in community-level social groups derived from inter-ethnic research conducted during 2005 among Iraqi Arabs and Kurds

  17. Selection method of terrain matching area for TERCOM algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qieqie; Zhao, Long

    2017-10-01

    The performance of terrain aided navigation is closely related to the selection of terrain matching area. The different matching algorithms have different adaptability to terrain. This paper mainly studies the adaptability to terrain of TERCOM algorithm, analyze the relation between terrain feature and terrain characteristic parameters by qualitative and quantitative methods, and then research the relation between matching probability and terrain characteristic parameters by the Monte Carlo method. After that, we propose a selection method of terrain matching area for TERCOM algorithm, and verify the method correctness with real terrain data by simulation experiment. Experimental results show that the matching area obtained by the method in this paper has the good navigation performance and the matching probability of TERCOM algorithm is great than 90%

  18. Homogeneous versus heterogeneous zeolite nucleation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dokter, W.H.; Garderen, van H.F.; Beelen, T.P.M.; Santen, van R.A.; Bras, W.

    1995-01-01

    Aggregates of fractal dimension were found in the intermediate gel phases that organize prior to nucleation and crystallization (shown right) of silicalite from a homogeneous reaction mixture. Small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering studies prove that for zeolites nucleation may be homogeneous or

  19. Homogeneous crystal nucleation in polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, C; Androsch, R; Schmelzer, J W P

    2017-11-15

    The pathway of crystal nucleation significantly influences the structure and properties of semi-crystalline polymers. Crystal nucleation is normally heterogeneous at low supercooling, and homogeneous at high supercooling, of the polymer melt. Homogeneous nucleation in bulk polymers has been, so far, hardly accessible experimentally, and was even doubted to occur at all. This topical review summarizes experimental findings on homogeneous crystal nucleation in polymers. Recently developed fast scanning calorimetry, with cooling and heating rates up to 10 6 K s -1 , allows for detailed investigations of nucleation near and even below the glass transition temperature, including analysis of nuclei stability. As for other materials, the maximum homogeneous nucleation rate for polymers is located close to the glass transition temperature. In the experiments discussed here, it is shown that polymer nucleation is homogeneous at such temperatures. Homogeneous nucleation in polymers is discussed in the framework of the classical nucleation theory. The majority of our observations are consistent with the theory. The discrepancies may guide further research, particularly experiments to progress theoretical development. Progress in the understanding of homogeneous nucleation is much needed, since most of the modelling approaches dealing with polymer crystallization exclusively consider homogeneous nucleation. This is also the basis for advancing theoretical approaches to the much more complex phenomena governing heterogeneous nucleation.

  20. Homogenization theory in reactor lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benoist, P.

    1986-02-01

    The purpose of the theory of homogenization of reactor lattices is to determine, by the mean of transport theory, the constants of a homogeneous medium equivalent to a given lattice, which allows to treat the reactor as a whole by diffusion theory. In this note, the problem is presented by laying emphasis on simplicity, as far as possible [fr

  1. Terrain Simplification Research in Augmented Scene Modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    environment. As one of the most important tasks in augmented scene modeling, terrain simplification research has gained more and more attention. In this paper, we mainly focus on point selection problem in terrain simplification using triangulated irregular network. Based on the analysis and comparison of traditional importance measures for each input point, we put forward a new importance measure based on local entropy. The results demonstrate that the local entropy criterion has a better performance than any traditional methods. In addition, it can effectively conquer the "short-sight" problem associated with the traditional methods.

  2. Maintaining Contour Trees of Dynamic Terrains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, Pankaj K.; Mølhave, Thomas; Revsbæk, Morten

    2015-01-01

    We study the problem of maintaining the contour tree T of a terrain Sigma, represented as a triangulated xy-monotone surface, as the heights of its vertices vary continuously with time. We characterize the combinatorial changes in T and how they relate to topological changes in Sigma. We present ...

  3. Declarative terrain modeling for military training games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smelik, R.M.; Tutenel, T.; Kraker, J.K.. de; Bidarra, R.

    2010-01-01

    Military training instructors increasingly often employ computer games to train soldiers in all sorts of skills and tactics. One of the difficulties instructors face when using games as a training tool is the creation of suitable content, including scenarios, entities, and corresponding terrain

  4. Wind turbine wake measurement in complex terrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose; Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Menke, Robert

    2016-01-01

    SCADA data from a wind farm and high frequency time series measurements obtained with remote scanning systems have been analysed with focus on identification of wind turbine wake properties in complex terrain. The analysis indicates that within the flow regime characterized by medium to large dow...

  5. A method to harness global crowd-sourced data to understand travel behavior in avalanche terrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrikx, J.; Johnson, J.

    2015-12-01

    To date, most studies of the human dimensions of decision making in avalanche terrain has focused on two areas - post-accident analysis using accident reports/interviews and, the development of tools as decision forcing aids. We present an alternate method using crowd-sourced citizen science, for understanding decision-making in avalanche terrain. Our project combines real-time GPS tracking via a smartphone application, with internet based surveys of winter backcountry users as a method to describe and quantify travel practices in concert with group decision-making dynamics, and demographic data of participants during excursions. Effectively, we use the recorded GPS track taken within the landscape as an expression of the decision making processes and terrain usage by the group. Preliminary data analysis shows that individual experience levels, gender, avalanche hazard, and group composition all influence the ways in which people travel in avalanche terrain. Our results provide the first analysis of coupled real-time GPS tracking of the crowd while moving in avalanche terrain combined with psychographic and demographic correlates. This research will lead to an improved understanding of real-time decision making in avalanche terrain. In this paper we will specifically focus on the presentation of the methods used to solicit, and then harness the crowd to obtain data in a unique and innovative application of citizen science where the movements within the terrain are the desired output data (Figure 1). Figure 1: Example GPS tracks sourced from backcountry winter users in the Teton Pass area (Wyoming), from the 2014-15 winter season, where tracks in red represent those recorded as self-assessed experts (as per our survey), and where tracks in blue represent those recorded as self-assessed intermediates. All tracks shown were obtained under similar avalanche conditions. Statistical analysis of terrain metrics showed that the experts used steeper terrain than the

  6. Photometric diversity of terrains on Triton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillier, J.; Veverka, J.; Helfenstein, P.; Lee, P.

    1994-01-01

    Voyager disk-resolved images of Triton in the violet (0.41 micrometers) and green (0.56 micrometer wavelengths have been analyzed to derive the photometric characteristics of terrains on Triton. Similar conclusions are found using two distinct but related definitions of photometric units, one based on color ratio and albedo properties (A. S. McEwen, 1990), the other on albedo and brightness ratios at different phase angles (P. Lee et al., 1992). A significant diversity of photometric behavior, much broader than that discovered so far on any other icy satellite, occurs among Triton's terrains. Remarkably, differences in photometric behavior do not correlate well with geologic terrain boundaries defined on the basis of surface morphology. This suggests that in most cases photometric properties on Triton are controlled by thin deposits superposed on underlying geologic units. Single scattering albedos are 0.98 or higher and asymmetry factors range from -0.35 to -0.45 for most units. The most distinct scattering behavior is exhibited by the reddish northern units already identified as the Anomalously Scattering Region (ASR), which scatters light almost isotropically with g = -0.04. In part due to the effects of Triton's clouds and haze, it is difficult to constrain the value of bar-theta, Hapke's macroscopic roughness parameter, precisely for Triton or to map differences in bar-theta among the different photometric terrains. However, our study shows that Triton must be relatively smooth, with bar-theta less than 15-20 degs and suggests that a value of 14 degs is appropriate. The differences in photometric characteristics lead to significantly different phase angle behavior for the various terrains. For example, a terrain (e.g., the ASR) that appears dark relative to another at low phase angles will reverse its contrast (become relatively brighter) at larger phase angles. The photometric parameters have been used to calculate hemispherical albedos for the units and to

  7. Homogeneous Spaces and Equivariant Embeddings

    CERN Document Server

    Timashev, DA

    2011-01-01

    Homogeneous spaces of linear algebraic groups lie at the crossroads of algebraic geometry, theory of algebraic groups, classical projective and enumerative geometry, harmonic analysis, and representation theory. By standard reasons of algebraic geometry, in order to solve various problems on a homogeneous space it is natural and helpful to compactify it keeping track of the group action, i.e. to consider equivariant completions or, more generally, open embeddings of a given homogeneous space. Such equivariant embeddings are the subject of this book. We focus on classification of equivariant em

  8. Qualitative analysis of homogeneous universes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novello, M.; Araujo, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    The qualitative behaviour of cosmological models is investigated in two cases: Homogeneous and isotropic Universes containing viscous fluids in a stokesian non-linear regime; Rotating expanding universes in a state which matter is off thermal equilibrium. (Author) [pt

  9. A second stage homogenization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makai, M.

    1981-01-01

    A second homogenization is needed before the diffusion calculation of the core of large reactors. Such a second stage homogenization is outlined here. Our starting point is the Floquet theorem for it states that the diffusion equation for a periodic core always has a particular solution of the form esup(j)sup(B)sup(x) u (x). It is pointed out that the perturbation series expansion of function u can be derived by solving eigenvalue problems and the eigenvalues serve to define homogenized cross sections. With the help of these eigenvalues a homogenized diffusion equation can be derived the solution of which is cos Bx, the macroflux. It is shown that the flux can be expressed as a series of buckling. The leading term in this series is the well known Wigner-Seitz formula. Finally three examples are given: periodic absorption, a cell with an absorber pin in the cell centre, and a cell of three regions. (orig.)

  10. Homogenization methods for heterogeneous assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, M.R.

    1980-01-01

    The third session of the IAEA Technical Committee Meeting is concerned with the problem of homogenization of heterogeneous assemblies. Six papers will be presented on the theory of homogenization and on practical procedures for deriving homogenized group cross sections and diffusion coefficients. That the problem of finding so-called ''equivalent'' diffusion theory parameters for the use in global reactor calculations is of great practical importance. In spite of this, it is fair to say that the present state of the theory of second homogenization is far from being satisfactory. In fact, there is not even a uniquely accepted approach to the problem of deriving equivalent group diffusion parameters. Common agreement exists only about the fact that the conventional flux-weighting technique provides only a first approximation, which might lead to acceptable results in certain cases, but certainly does not guarantee the basic requirement of conservation of reaction rates

  11. On-the-Fly Decompression and Rendering of Multiresolution Terrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindstrom, P; Cohen, J D

    2009-04-02

    We present a streaming geometry compression codec for multiresolution, uniformly-gridded, triangular terrain patches that supports very fast decompression. Our method is based on linear prediction and residual coding for lossless compression of the full-resolution data. As simplified patches on coarser levels in the hierarchy already incur some data loss, we optionally allow further quantization for more lossy compression. The quantization levels are adaptive on a per-patch basis, while still permitting seamless, adaptive tessellations of the terrain. Our geometry compression on such a hierarchy achieves compression ratios of 3:1 to 12:1. Our scheme is not only suitable for fast decompression on the CPU, but also for parallel decoding on the GPU with peak throughput over 2 billion triangles per second. Each terrain patch is independently decompressed on the fly from a variable-rate bitstream by a GPU geometry program with no branches or conditionals. Thus we can store the geometry compressed on the GPU, reducing storage and bandwidth requirements throughout the system. In our rendering approach, only compressed bitstreams and the decoded height values in the view-dependent 'cut' are explicitly stored on the GPU. Normal vectors are computed in a streaming fashion, and remaining geometry and texture coordinates, as well as mesh connectivity, are shared and re-used for all patches. We demonstrate and evaluate our algorithms on a small prototype system in which all compressed geometry fits in the GPU memory and decompression occurs on the fly every rendering frame without any cache maintenance.

  12. Local-scale stratigraphy of grooved terrain on Ganymede

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murchie, Scott L.; Head, James W.; Helfenstein, Paul; Plescia, Jeffrey B.

    1987-01-01

    The surface of the Jovian satellite, Ganymede, is divided into two main units, dark terrain cut by arcuate and subradial furrows, and light terrain consisting largely of areas with pervasive U-shaped grooves. The grooved terrain may be subdivided on the basis of pervasive morphology of groove domains into four terrain types: (1) elongate bands of parallel grooves (groove lanes); (2) polygonal domains of parallel grooves (grooved polygons); (3) polygonal domains of two orthogonal groove sets (reticulate terrain); and (4) polygons having two to several complexly cross-cutting groove sets (complex grooved terrain). Reticulate terrain is frequently dark and not extensively resurfaced, and grades to a more hummocky terrain type. The other three grooved terrain types have almost universally been resurfaced by light material during their emplacement. The sequence of events during grooved terrain emplacement has been investigated. An attempt is made to integrate observed geologic and tectonic patterns to better constrain the relative ages and styles of emplacement of grooved terrain types. A revised model of grooved terrain emplacement is proposed and is tested using detailed geologic mapping and measurement of crater density.

  13. Spinor structures on homogeneous spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyakhovskii, V.D.; Mudrov, A.I.

    1993-01-01

    For multidimensional models of the interaction of elementary particles, the problem of constructing and classifying spinor fields on homogeneous spaces is exceptionally important. An algebraic criterion for the existence of spinor structures on homogeneous spaces used in multidimensional models is developed. A method of explicit construction of spinor structures is proposed, and its effectiveness is demonstrated in examples. The results are of particular importance for harmonic decomposition of spinor fields

  14. A personal view on homogenization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tartar, L.

    1987-02-01

    The evolution of some ideas is first described. Under the name homogenization are collected all the mathematical results who help understanding the relations between the microstructure of a material and its macroscopic properties. Homogenization results are given through a critically detailed bibliography. The mathematical models given are systems of partial differential equations, supposed to describe some properties at a scale ε and we want to understand what will happen to the solutions if ε tends to 0

  15. I/O-Efficient Algorithms for Computing Contour Lines on a Terrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, Pankaj Kumar; Arge, Lars; Sadri, Bardia

    2008-01-01

    A terrain M is the graph of a bivariate function. We assume that M is represented as a triangulated surface with N vertices. A contour (or isoline) of M is a connected component of a level set of M. Generically, each contour is a closed polygonal curve; at "critical" levels these curves may touch...

  16. The Efficacy of Using Synthetic Vision Terrain-Textured Images to Improve Pilot Situation Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uenking, Michael D.; Hughes, Monica F.

    2002-01-01

    The General Aviation Element of the Aviation Safety Program's Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) Project is developing technology to eliminate low visibility induced General Aviation (GA) accidents. SVS displays present computer generated 3-dimensional imagery of the surrounding terrain on the Primary Flight Display (PFD) to greatly enhance pilot's situation awareness (SA), reducing or eliminating Controlled Flight into Terrain, as well as Low-Visibility Loss of Control accidents. SVS-conducted research is facilitating development of display concepts that provide the pilot with an unobstructed view of the outside terrain, regardless of weather conditions and time of day. A critical component of SVS displays is the appropriate presentation of terrain to the pilot. An experimental study is being conducted at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) to explore and quantify the relationship between the realism of the terrain presentation and resulting enhancements of pilot SA and performance. Composed of complementary simulation and flight test efforts, Terrain Portrayal for Head-Down Displays (TP-HDD) experiments will help researchers evaluate critical terrain portrayal concepts. The experimental effort is to provide data to enable design trades that optimize SVS applications, as well as develop requirements and recommendations to facilitate the certification process. In this part of the experiment a fixed based flight simulator was equipped with various types of Head Down flight displays, ranging from conventional round dials (typical of most GA aircraft) to glass cockpit style PFD's. The variations of the PFD included an assortment of texturing and Digital Elevation Model (DEM) resolution combinations. A test matrix of 10 terrain display configurations (in addition to the baseline displays) were evaluated by 27 pilots of various backgrounds and experience levels. Qualitative (questionnaires) and quantitative (pilot performance and physiological) data were collected during

  17. Homogenization of neutronic diffusion models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capdebosq, Y.

    1999-09-01

    In order to study and simulate nuclear reactor cores, one needs to access the neutron distribution in the core. In practice, the description of this density of neutrons is given by a system of diffusion equations, coupled by non differential exchange terms. The strong heterogeneity of the medium constitutes a major obstacle to the numerical computation of this models at reasonable cost. Homogenization appears as compulsory. Heuristic methods have been developed since the origin by nuclear physicists, under a periodicity assumption on the coefficients. They consist in doing a fine computation one a single periodicity cell, to solve the system on the whole domain with homogeneous coefficients, and to reconstruct the neutron density by multiplying the solutions of the two computations. The objectives of this work are to provide mathematically rigorous basis to this factorization method, to obtain the exact formulas of the homogenized coefficients, and to start on geometries where two periodical medium are placed side by side. The first result of this thesis concerns eigenvalue problem models which are used to characterize the state of criticality of the reactor, under a symmetry assumption on the coefficients. The convergence of the homogenization process is proved, and formulas of the homogenized coefficients are given. We then show that without symmetry assumptions, a drift phenomenon appears. It is characterized by the mean of a real Bloch wave method, which gives the homogenized limit in the general case. These results for the critical problem are then adapted to the evolution model. Finally, the homogenization of the critical problem in the case of two side by side periodic medium is studied on a one dimensional on equation model. (authors)

  18. 7 CFR 58.920 - Homogenization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Homogenization. 58.920 Section 58.920 Agriculture... Procedures § 58.920 Homogenization. Where applicable concentrated products shall be homogenized for the... homogenization and the pressure at which homogenization is accomplished will be that which accomplishes the most...

  19. GIS TECHNOLOGY AND TERRAIN ORTHOPHOTOMAP MAKING FOR MILITARY APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elshan Hashimov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, it is shown that GIS and photogrammetry technologiyes, determination of searching target coordinates for the operational desicion making are very important for the military application, for the combat control. With aim of orthophotomap making of the terrain and identification of terrain supervision there has been constructed 3D model for choosen mountainous terrain of Azerbaijan Republic using GIS technology. Based on this model there has been obtained a terrain profile and carried out mapping. Using ArcGis software there has been investigated possibility remain control on obserbvable and unobservable parties of terrain on supervision line from supervision point to target point.

  20. Application of Digital Terrain Model to volcanology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Achilli

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional reconstruction of the ground surface (Digital Terrain Model, DTM, derived by airborne GPS photogrammetric surveys, is a powerful tool for implementing morphological analysis in remote areas. High accurate 3D models, with submeter elevation accuracy, can be obtained by images acquired at photo scales between 1:5000-1:20000. Multitemporal DTMs acquired periodically over volcanic area allow the monitoring of areas interested by crustal deformations and the evaluation of mass balance when large instability phenomena or lava flows have occurred. The work described the results obtained from the analysis of photogrammetric data collected over the Vulcano Island from 1971 to 2001. The data, processed by means of the Digital Photogrammetry Workstation DPW 770, provided DTM with accuracy ranging between few centimeters to few decimeters depending on the geometric image resolution, terrain configuration and quality of photographs.

  1. EARTHWORK VOLUME CALCULATION FROM DIGITAL TERRAIN MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JANIĆ Milorad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Accurate calculation of cut and fill volume has an essential importance in many fields. This article shows a new method, which has no approximation, based on Digital Terrain Models. A relatively new mathematical model is developed for that purpose, which is implemented in the software solution. Both of them has been tested and verified in the praxis on several large opencast mines. This application is developed in AutoLISP programming language and works in AutoCAD environment.

  2. Periodic spring–mass running over uneven terrain through feedforward control of landing conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    III, Luther R Palmer; Eaton, Caitrin E

    2014-01-01

    This work pursues a feedforward control algorithm for high-speed legged locomotion over uneven terrain. Being able to rapidly negotiate uneven terrain without visual or a priori information about the terrain will allow legged systems to be used in time-critical applications and alongside fast-moving humans or vehicles. The algorithm is shown here implemented on a spring-loaded inverted pendulum model in simulation, and can be configured to approach fixed running height over uneven terrain or self-stable terrain following. Offline search identifies unique landing conditions that achieve a desired apex height with a constant stride period over varying ground levels. Because the time between the apex and touchdown events is directly related to ground height, the landing conditions can be computed in real time as continuous functions of this falling time. Enforcing a constant stride period reduces the need for inertial sensing of the apex event, which is nontrivial for physical systems, and allows for clocked feedfoward control of the swing leg. (paper)

  3. Periodic spring-mass running over uneven terrain through feedforward control of landing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Luther R; Eaton, Caitrin E

    2014-09-01

    This work pursues a feedforward control algorithm for high-speed legged locomotion over uneven terrain. Being able to rapidly negotiate uneven terrain without visual or a priori information about the terrain will allow legged systems to be used in time-critical applications and alongside fast-moving humans or vehicles. The algorithm is shown here implemented on a spring-loaded inverted pendulum model in simulation, and can be configured to approach fixed running height over uneven terrain or self-stable terrain following. Offline search identifies unique landing conditions that achieve a desired apex height with a constant stride period over varying ground levels. Because the time between the apex and touchdown events is directly related to ground height, the landing conditions can be computed in real time as continuous functions of this falling time. Enforcing a constant stride period reduces the need for inertial sensing of the apex event, which is nontrivial for physical systems, and allows for clocked feedfoward control of the swing leg.

  4. An Effective Terrain Aided Navigation for Low-Cost Autonomous Underwater Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ling; Cheng, Xianghong; Zhu, Yixian; Dai, Chenxi; Fu, Jinbo

    2017-03-25

    Terrain-aided navigation is a potentially powerful solution for obtaining submerged position fixes for autonomous underwater vehicles. The application of terrain-aided navigation with high-accuracy inertial navigation systems has demonstrated meter-level navigation accuracy in sea trials. However, available sensors may be limited depending on the type of the mission. Such limitations, especially for low-grade navigation sensors, not only degrade the accuracy of traditional navigation systems, but further impact the ability to successfully employ terrain-aided navigation. To address this problem, a tightly-coupled navigation is presented to successfully estimate the critical sensor errors by incorporating raw sensor data directly into an augmented navigation system. Furthermore, three-dimensional distance errors are calculated, providing measurement updates through the particle filter for absolute and bounded position error. The development of the terrain aided navigation system is elaborated for a vehicle equipped with a non-inertial-grade strapdown inertial navigation system, a 4-beam Doppler Velocity Log range sensor and a sonar altimeter. Using experimental data for navigation performance evaluation in areas with different terrain characteristics, the experiment results further show that the proposed method can be successfully applied to the low-cost AUVs and significantly improves navigation performance.

  5. Quasi-analytical treatment of spatially averaged radiation transfer in complex terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    LöWe, H.; Helbig, N.

    2012-10-01

    We provide a new quasi-analytical method to compute the subgrid topographic influences on the shortwave radiation fluxes and the effective albedo in complex terrain as required for large-scale meteorological, land surface, or climate models. We investigate radiative transfer in complex terrain via the radiosity equation on isotropic Gaussian random fields. Under controlled approximations we derive expressions for domain-averaged fluxes of direct, diffuse, and terrain radiation and the sky view factor. Domain-averaged quantities can be related to a type of level-crossing probability of the random field, which is approximated by long-standing results developed for acoustic scattering at ocean boundaries. This allows us to express all nonlocal horizon effects in terms of a local terrain parameter, namely, the mean-square slope. Emerging integrals are computed numerically, and fit formulas are given for practical purposes. As an implication of our approach, we provide an expression for the effective albedo of complex terrain in terms of the Sun elevation angle, mean-square slope, the area-averaged surface albedo, and the ratio of atmospheric direct beam to diffuse radiation. For demonstration we compute the decrease of the effective albedo relative to the area-averaged albedo in Switzerland for idealized snow-covered and clear-sky conditions at noon in winter. We find an average decrease of 5.8% and spatial patterns which originate from characteristics of the underlying relief. Limitations and possible generalizations of the method are discussed.

  6. Assessing the importance of terrain parameters on glide avalanche release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peitzsch, Erich H.; Hendrikx, Jordy; Fagre, Daniel B.

    2014-01-01

    Glide snow avalanches are dangerous and difficult to predict. Despite recent research there is still a lack of understanding regarding the controls of glide avalanche release. Glide avalanches often occur in similar terrain or the same locations annually and observations suggest that topography may be critical. Thus, to gain an understanding of the terrain component of these types of avalanches we examined terrain parameters associated with glide avalanche release as well as areas of consistent glide crack formation but no subsequent avalanches. Glide avalanche occurrences visible from the Going-to-the-Sun Road corridor in Glacier National Park, Montana from 2003-2013 were investigated using an avalanche database derived of daily observations each year from April 1 to June 15. This yielded 192 glide avalanches in 53 distinct avalanche paths. Each avalanche occurrence was digitized in a GIS using satellite, oblique, and aerial imagery as reference. Topographical parameters such as area, slope, aspect, elevation and elevation were then derived for the entire dataset utilizing GIS tools and a 10m DEM. Land surface substrate and surface geology were derived from National Park Service Inventory and Monitoring maps and U.S. Geological Survey surface geology maps, respectively. Surface roughness and glide factor were calculated using a four level classification index. . Then, each avalanche occurrence was aggregated to general avalanche release zones and the frequencies were compared. For this study, glide avalanches released in elevations ranging from 1300 to 2700 m with a mean aspect of 98 degrees (east) and a mean slope angle of 38 degrees. The mean profile curvature for all glide avalanches was 0.15 and a plan curvature of -0.01, suggesting a fairly linear surface (i.e. neither convex nor concave). The glide avalanches occurred in mostly bedrock made up of dolomite and limestone slabs and talus deposits with very few occurring in alpine meadows. However, not all glide

  7. Assessing the importance of terrain parameters on glide avalanche release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peitzsch, E.; Hendrikx, J.; Fagre, D. B.

    2013-12-01

    Glide snow avalanches are dangerous and difficult to predict. Despite recent research there is still a lack of understanding regarding the controls of glide avalanche release. Glide avalanches often occur in similar terrain or the same locations annually and observations suggest that topography may be critical. Thus, to gain an understanding of the terrain component of these types of avalanches we examined terrain parameters associated with glide avalanche release as well as areas of consistent glide crack formation but no subsequent avalanches. Glide avalanche occurrences visible from the Going-to-the-Sun Road corridor in Glacier National Park, Montana from 2003-2013 were investigated using an avalanche database derived of daily observations each year from April 1 to June 15. This yielded 192 glide avalanches in 53 distinct avalanche paths. Each avalanche occurrence was digitized in a GIS using satellite, oblique, and aerial imagery as reference. Topographical parameters such as area, slope, aspect, elevation and elevation were then derived for the entire dataset utilizing GIS tools and a 10m DEM. Land surface substrate and surface geology were derived from National Park Service Inventory and Monitoring maps and U.S. Geological Survey surface geology maps, respectively. Surface roughness and glide factor were calculated using a four level classification index. . Then, each avalanche occurrence was aggregated to general avalanche release zones and the frequencies were compared. For this study, glide avalanches released in elevations ranging from 1300 to 2700 m with a mean aspect of 98 degrees (east) and a mean slope angle of 38 degrees. The mean profile curvature for all glide avalanches was 0.15 and a plan curvature of -0.01, suggesting a fairly linear surface (i.e. neither convex nor concave). The glide avalanches occurred in mostly bedrock made up of dolomite and limestone slabs and talus deposits with very few occurring in alpine meadows. However, not all glide

  8. Genetic Homogenization of Composite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tobola

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on numerical studies of electromagnetic properties of composite materials used for the construction of small airplanes. Discussions concentrate on the genetic homogenization of composite layers and composite layers with a slot. The homogenization is aimed to reduce CPU-time demands of EMC computational models of electrically large airplanes. First, a methodology of creating a 3-dimensional numerical model of a composite material in CST Microwave Studio is proposed focusing on a sufficient accuracy of the model. Second, a proper implementation of a genetic optimization in Matlab is discussed. Third, an association of the optimization script and a simplified 2-dimensional model of the homogeneous equivalent model in Comsol Multiphysics is proposed considering EMC issues. Results of computations are experimentally verified.

  9. A web-mapping system for real-time visualization of the global terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liqiang; Yang, Chongjun; Liu, Donglin; Ren, Yingchao; Rui, Xiaoping

    2005-04-01

    In this paper, we mainly present a web-based 3D global terrain visualization application that provides more powerful transmission and visualization of global multiresolution data sets across networks. A client/server architecture is put forward. The paper also reports various relevant research work, such as efficient data compression methods to reduce the physical size of these data sets and accelerate network delivery, streaming transmission for progressively downloading data, and real-time multiresolution terrain surface visualization with a high visual quality by M-band wavelet transforms and a hierarchical triangulation technique. Finally, an experiment is performed using different levels of detailed data to verify that the system works appropriately.

  10. Core homogenization method for pebble bed reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulik, V.; Sanchez, R.

    2005-01-01

    This work presents a core homogenization scheme for treating a stochastic pebble bed loading in pebble bed reactors. The reactor core is decomposed into macro-domains that contain several pebble types characterized by different degrees of burnup. A stochastic description is introduced to account for pebble-to-pebble and pebble-to-helium interactions within a macro-domain as well as for interactions between macro-domains. Performance of the proposed method is tested for the PROTEUS and ASTRA critical reactor facilities. Numerical simulations accomplished with the APOLLO2 transport lattice code show good agreement with the experimental data for the PROTEUS reactor facility and with the TRIPOLI4 Monte Carlo simulations for the ASTRA reactor configuration. The difference between the proposed method and the traditional volume-averaged homogenization technique is negligible while only one type of fuel pebbles present in the system, but it grows rapidly with the level of pebble heterogeneity. (authors)

  11. Spontaneous compactification to homogeneous spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourao, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The spontaneous compactification of extra dimensions to compact homogeneous spaces is studied. The methods developed within the framework of coset space dimensional reduction scheme and the most general form of invariant metrics are used to find solutions of spontaneous compactification equations

  12. Enterprise Terrain Data Standards for Joint Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-03

    e.g., bombs /shells, vehicles, etc.) or environmental factors (e.g., weather). • Riverine and ocean surface and bathymetry. o Wave/swell generation...Attachment 2 Terrain Generation Capability St an da rd iz ed S ch em a & At tr ib ut es...F or m at Pl at fo rm In de pe nd en t O pe ra tin g Sy st em In de pe nd en t Geospatial Source & Industry Formats Utilized by the Specification

  13. The research frontier and beyond: granitic terrains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twidale, C. R.

    1993-07-01

    Investigations of granite forms and landscapes over the past two centuries suggest that many features, major and minor, are shaped by fracture-controlled subsurface weathering, and particularly moisture-driven alteration: in other words etch forms are especially well represented in granitic terrains. Commonly referred to as two stage forms, many are in reality multistage in origin, for the structural contrasts exploited by weathering and erosion that are essential to the mechanism originated as magmatic, thermal or tectonic events in the distant geological past. Fracture patterns are critical to landform and landscape development in granitic terrains, but other structural factors also come into play. Location with respect to water table and moisture contact are also important. Once exposed and comparatively dry, granite forms tend to stability; they are developed and diversified, and many are gradually destroyed as new, epigene, forms evolve, but many granite forms persist over long ages. Reinforcement effects frequently play a part in landform development. Several granite forms are convergent, i.e. features of similar morphology evolve under the influence of different processes, frequently in contrasted environments. On the other hand many landforms considered to be typical of granitic terrains are also developed in bedrock that is petrologically different but physically similar to granite; and in particular is subdivided by fractures of similar pattern and density. To date, most of the general statements concerning the evolution of granitic terrains have been based in work in the tropics but other climatic settings, and notably those of cold land, are now yielding significant results. Future research will extend and develop these avenues, but biotic factors, and particularly the role of bacteria, in such areas as weathering, will take on a new importance. Structural variations inherited from the magnetic, thermal and tectonic events to which granite bodies have

  14. Morphological modeling of terrains and volume data

    CERN Document Server

    Comic, Lidija; Magillo, Paola; Iuricich, Federico

    2014-01-01

    This book describes the mathematical background behind discrete approaches to morphological analysis of scalar fields, with a focus on Morse theory and on the discrete theories due to Banchoff and Forman. The algorithms and data structures presented are used for terrain modeling and analysis, molecular shape analysis, and for analysis or visualization of sensor and simulation 3D data sets. It covers a variety of application domains including geography, geology, environmental sciences, medicine and biology. The authors classify the different approaches to morphological analysis which are all ba

  15. Wind resource assessment in heterogeneous terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderwel, C.; Placidi, M.; Ganapathisubramani, B.

    2017-03-01

    variance in thrust and power also appears to be significant in the presence of secondary flows. Finally, there are substantial differences in the dispersive and turbulent stresses across the terrain, which could lead to variable fatigue life depending on the placement of the turbines within such heterogeneous terrain. Overall, these results indicate the importance of accounting for heterogeneous terrain when siting individual turbines and wind farms. This article is part of the themed issue 'Wind energy in complex terrains'.

  16. Electro-magnetostatic homogenization of bianisotropic metamaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Fietz, Chris

    2012-01-01

    We apply the method of asymptotic homogenization to metamaterials with microscopically bianisotropic inclusions to calculate a full set of constitutive parameters in the long wavelength limit. Two different implementations of electromagnetic asymptotic homogenization are presented. We test the homogenization procedure on two different metamaterial examples. Finally, the analytical solution for long wavelength homogenization of a one dimensional metamaterial with microscopically bi-isotropic i...

  17. Gravity Terrain Effect of the Seafloor Topography in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lun-Tao Tong Tai-Rong Guo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Gravity terrain correction is used to compensate for the gravitational effects of the topography residual to the Bouguer plate. The seafloor topography off the eastern offshore of Taiwan is extremely rugged, and the depth of the sea bottom could be greater than 5000 m. In order to evaluate the terrain effect caused by the seafloor topography, a modern computer algorithm is used to calculate the terrain correction based on the digital elevation model (DEM.

  18. Wind flow simulation over flat terrain using CFD based software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, Peter; Terziev, Angel; Genovski, Ivan

    2009-01-01

    Velocity distribution recognition over definite place (terrain) is very important because due to that the zones with high energy potential could be defined (the fields with high velocities). This is a precondition for optimal wind turbine generators micro-sitting. In current work a simulation of the open flow over the flat terrain using the CFD based software is reviewed. The simulations are made of a real fluid flow in order to be defined the velocity fields over the terrain

  19. Photo-electret effects in homogenous semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabiev, G.A.

    2004-01-01

    In the given work is shown the opportunity and created the theory of photo-electret condition in semiconductors with Dember mechanism of photo-voltage generation. Photo-electret of such type can be created, instead of traditional and without an external field as a result of only one illumination. Polar factor, in this case, is the distinction of electrons and holes mobility. Considered the multilayered structure with homogeneous photoactive micro areas shared by the layers, which are interfering to alignment of carriers concentration. We consider, that the homogeneous photoactive areas contain deep levels of stick. Because of addition of elementary photo voltage in separate micro photo cells it is formed the abnormal-large photo voltage (APV-effect). Let's notice, that Dember photo-voltage in a separate micro photo-cell ≤kT/q. From the received expressions, in practically important, special case, when quasi- balance between valent zone and stick levels established in much more smaller time, than free hole lifetime, and we received, that photo-voltage is relaxing. Comparing of the received expressions with the laws of photo voltage attenuation in p-n- junction structures shows their identity; the difference is only in absolute meanings of photo voltage. During the illumination in the semiconductor are created the superfluous concentration of charge carriers and part from them stays at deep levels. At de-energizing light there is a gradual generation of carriers located at these levels

  20. Observational homogeneity of the Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnor, W.B.; Ellis, G.F.R.

    1986-01-01

    A new approach to observational homogeneity is presented. The observation that stars and galaxies in distant regions appear similar to those nearby may be taken to imply that matter has had a similar thermodynamic history in widely separated parts of the Universe (the Postulate of Uniform Thermal Histories, or PUTH). The supposition is now made that similar thermodynamic histories imply similar dynamical histories. Then the distant apparent similarity is evidence for spatial homogeneity of the Universe. General Relativity is used to test this idea, taking a perfect fluid model and implementing PUTH by the condition that the density and entropy per baryon shall be the same function of the proper time along all galaxy world-lines. (author)

  1. Terrain Commander: Unattended Ground-Based Surveillance System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Steadman, Bob

    2000-01-01

    .... Terrain Commander OASIS provides next generation target detection, classification, and tracking through smart sensor fusion of beamforming acoustic, seismic, passive infrared, and magnetic sensors...

  2. Functional Decomposition of Modeling and Simulation Terrain Database Generation Process

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yakich, Valerie R; Lashlee, J. D

    2008-01-01

    .... This report documents the conceptual procedure as implemented by Lockheed Martin Simulation, Training, and Support and decomposes terrain database construction using the Integration Definition for Function Modeling (IDEF...

  3. Survivor shielding. Part C. Improvements in terrain shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egbert, Stephen D.; Kaul, Dean C.; Roberts, James A.; Kerr, George D.

    2005-01-01

    A number of atomic-bomb survivors were affected by shielding provided by terrain features. These terrain features can be a small hill, affecting one or two houses, or a high mountain that shields large neighborhoods. In the survivor dosimetry system, terrain shielding can be described by a transmission factor (TF), which is the ratio between the dose with and without the terrain present. The terrain TF typically ranges between 0.1 and 1.0. After DS86 was implemented at RERF, the terrain shielding categories were examined and found to either have a bias or an excessive uncertainty that could readily be removed. In 1989, an improvement in the terrain model was implemented at RERF in the revised DS86 code, but the documentation was not published. It is now presented in this section. The solution to the terrain shielding in front of a house is described in this section. The problem of terrain shielding of survivors behind Hijiyama mountain at Hiroshima and Konpirasan mountain at Nagasaki has also been recognized, and a solution to this problem has been included in DS02. (author)

  4. Estimating Slopes In Images Of Terrain By Use Of BRDF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, Marija S.

    1995-01-01

    Proposed method of estimating slopes of terrain features based on use of bidirectional reflectivity distribution function (BRDF) in analyzing aerial photographs, satellite video images, or other images produced by remote sensors. Estimated slopes integrated along horizontal coordinates to obtain estimated heights; generating three-dimensional terrain maps. Method does not require coregistration of terrain features in pairs of images acquired from slightly different perspectives nor requires Sun or other source of illumination to be low in sky over terrain of interest. On contrary, best when Sun is high. Works at almost all combinations of illumination and viewing angles.

  5. Conclusions about homogeneity and devitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larche, F.

    1997-01-01

    A lot of experimental data concerning homogeneity and devitrification of R7T7 glass have been published. It appears that: - the crystallization process is very limited, - the interfaces due to bubbles and the container wall favor crystallization locally but the ratio of crystallized volume remains always below a few per cents, and - crystallization has no damaging long-term effects as far as leaching tests can be trusted. (A.C.)

  6. Is charity a homogeneous good?

    OpenAIRE

    Backus, Peter

    2010-01-01

    In this paper I estimate income and price elasticities of donations to six different charitable causes to test the assumption that charity is a homogeneous good. In the US, charitable donations can be deducted from taxable income. This has long been recognized as producing a price, or taxprice, of giving equal to one minus the marginal tax rate faced by the donor. A substantial portion of the economic literature on giving has focused on estimating price and income elasticities of giving as th...

  7. Effects of vitamin A, C and E, or omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on the level of paraoxonase and arylesterase activity in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats: an investigation of activities in plasma, and heart and liver homogenates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Mahnaz; Fakher, Shima; Tabei, Seyed Mohammad Bagher; Javanbakht, Mohammad Hassan; Derakhshanian, Hoda; Farahbakhsh-Farsi, Payam; Sadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Mostafavi, Ebrahim; Djalali, Mahmoud

    2016-03-01

    This study was designed and conducted to evaluate the effects of vitamin A, C and E supplementation, and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on the activity of paraoxonase and arylesterase in an experimental model of diabetes mellitus. A total of 64 male Sprague Dawley® rats, each weighing 250 g, were randomly distributed into four groups: (a) normal control; (b) diabetic control; (c) diabetic with vitamin A, C and E supplementation; and (d) diabetic with omega-3 fatty acid supplementation. The animals were anaesthetised after four weeks of intervention, and paraoxonase and arylesterase activity in blood plasma, and liver and heart homogenates were measured. Arylesterase activity in the heart and liver homogenates was significantly lower in the diabetic control group than in the normal control group (p Vitamin A, C and E supplementation, and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation significantly increased liver arylesterase activity (p Vitamin A, C and E, or omega-3 fatty acid supplementation were found to increase liver arylesterase activity in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. These supplements may be potential agents for the treatment of diabetes mellitus complications. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association.

  8. Addressing terrain masking in orbital reconnaissance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Sharad; Cico, Luke

    2012-06-01

    During aerial orbital reconnaissance, a sensor system is mounted on an airborne platform for imaging a region on the ground. The latency between the image acquisition and delivery of information to the end-user is critical and must be minimized. Due to fine ground pixel resolution and a large field-of-view for wide-area surveillance applications, a massive volume of data is gathered and imagery products are formed using a real-time multi-processor system. The images are taken at oblique angles, stabilized and ortho-rectified. The line-of-sight of the sensor to the ground is often interrupted by terrain features such as mountains or tall structures as depicted in Figure1. The ortho-rectification process renders the areas hidden from the line-of sight of the sensor with spurious information. This paper discusses an approach for addressing terrain masking in size, weight, and power (SWaP) and memory-restricted onboard processing systems.

  9. Homogenization in powder compacts of UO2-PuO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, R.

    1979-01-01

    The homogenization kinetics in mixed UO 2 -PuO 2 compacts have been studied by adopting a concentric core-shell model of diffusion. An equation relating the extent of homogenization expressed in terms of the fraction of UO 2 remaining undissolved and the time of annealing has been derived. From the equation, the periods required at different annealing temperatures to attain a specified level of homogenization have been calculated. These calculated homogenization times have been found to be in fair agreement with the experimentally observed homogenization times. The derived relationship has also been shown to satisfactorily predict homogenization in Cu-Ni powder compacts. (Auth.)

  10. The rapid terrain visualization interferometric synthetic aperture radar sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Robert H.; Bickel, Douglas L.; Hensley, William H.

    2003-11-01

    The Rapid Terrain Visualization interferometric synthetic aperture radar was designed and built at Sandia National Laboratories as part of an Advanced Concept Technology Demonstration (ACTD) to "demonstrate the technologies and infrastructure to meet the Army requirement for rapid generation of digital topographic data to support emerging crisis or contingencies." This sensor is currently being operated by Sandia National Laboratories for the Joint Precision Strike Demonstration (JPSD) Project Office to provide highly accurate digital elevation models (DEMs) for military and civilian customers, both inside and outside of the United States. The sensor achieves better than DTED Level IV position accuracy in near real-time. The system is being flown on a deHavilland DHC-7 Army aircraft. This paper outlines some of the technologies used in the design of the system, discusses the performance, and will discuss operational issues. In addition, we will show results from recent flight tests, including high accuracy maps taken of the San Diego area.

  11. Matrix-dependent multigrid-homogenization for diffusion problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapek, S. [Institut fuer Informatik tu Muenchen (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    We present a method to approximately determine the effective diffusion coefficient on the coarse scale level of problems with strongly varying or discontinuous diffusion coefficients. It is based on techniques used also in multigrid, like Dendy`s matrix-dependent prolongations and the construction of coarse grid operators by means of the Galerkin approximation. In numerical experiments, we compare our multigrid-homogenization method with homogenization, renormalization and averaging approaches.

  12. Physical applications of homogeneous balls

    CERN Document Server

    Scarr, Tzvi

    2005-01-01

    One of the mathematical challenges of modern physics lies in the development of new tools to efficiently describe different branches of physics within one mathematical framework. This text introduces precisely such a broad mathematical model, one that gives a clear geometric expression of the symmetry of physical laws and is entirely determined by that symmetry. The first three chapters discuss the occurrence of bounded symmetric domains (BSDs) or homogeneous balls and their algebraic structure in physics. The book further provides a discussion of how to obtain a triple algebraic structure ass

  13. Heterotic strings on homogeneous spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Israel, D.; Kounnas, C.; Orlando, D.; Petropoulos, P.M.

    2005-01-01

    We construct heterotic string backgrounds corresponding to families of homogeneous spaces as exact conformal field theories. They contain left cosets of compact groups by their maximal tori supported by NS-NS 2-forms and gauge field fluxes. We give the general formalism and modular-invariant partition functions, then we consider some examples such as SU(2)/U(1)∝S 2 (already described in a previous paper) and the SU(3)/U(1) 2 flag space. As an application we construct new supersymmetric string vacua with magnetic fluxes and a linear dilaton. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  14. ATRAN Terrain Sensing Guidance-The Grand-Daddy System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Richard F.; Evans, Donald C.

    1980-12-01

    ATRAN was the pioneer terrain sensing guidance system developed in the 1950 era and deployed in Europe on the Air Force's mobile, ground launched TM-76A MACE cruise missile in the late 1950's and early 1960's. The background, principles and technology are described for this system which was the forerunner of todays modern autonomous standoff terrain sensing guided weapons.

  15. Colour based off-road environment and terrain type classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, P.; Mark, W. van der; Heuvel, J.C. van den; Groen, F.C.A.

    2005-01-01

    Terrain classification is an important problem that still remains to be solved for off-road autonomous robot vehicle guidance. Often, obstacle detection systems are used which cannot distinguish between solid obstacles such as rocks or soft obstacles such as tall patches of grass. Terrain

  16. What Influences Youth to Operate All-Terrain Vehicles Safely?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grummon, A. H.; Heaney, C. A.; Dellinger, W. A.; Wilkins, J. R., III

    2014-01-01

    The operation of all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) by youth has contributed to the incidence of serious and fatal injuries among children. This study explored factors related to the frequency with which youth wore a helmet and refrained from engaging in three risky driving behaviors (driving at risky speeds, on paved roads and on unfamiliar terrain)…

  17. 47 CFR 1.959 - Computation of average terrain elevation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Computation of average terrain elevation. 1.959 Section 1.959 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Wireless Radio Services Applications and Proceedings Application Requirements and Procedures § 1.959 Computation of average terrain elevation. Except a...

  18. 47 CFR 80.759 - Average terrain elevation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Average terrain elevation. 80.759 Section 80.759 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Standards for Computing Public Coast Station VHF Coverage § 80.759 Average terrain elevation. (a)(1) Draw radials...

  19. Terrain Perception in a Shape Shifting Rolling-Crawling Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuchida Masataka

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Terrain perception greatly enhances the performance of robots, providing them with essential information on the nature of terrain being traversed. Several living beings in nature offer interesting inspirations which adopt different gait patterns according to nature of terrain. In this paper, we present a novel terrain perception system for our bioinspired robot, Scorpio, to classify the terrain based on visual features and autonomously choose appropriate locomotion mode. Our Scorpio robot is capable of crawling and rolling locomotion modes, mimicking Cebrenus Rechenburgi, a member of the huntsman spider family. Our terrain perception system uses Speeded Up Robust Feature (SURF description method along with color information. Feature extraction is followed by Bag of Word method (BoW and Support Vector Machine (SVM for terrain classification. Experiments were conducted with our Scorpio robot to establish the efficacy and validity of the proposed approach. In our experiments, we achieved a recognition accuracy of over 90% across four terrain types namely grass, gravel, wooden deck, and concrete.

  20. Experiment S-5: Synoptic Terrain Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowman, Paul D., Jr.

    1966-01-01

    The Synoptic Terrain Photography Experiment (S-5) was successfully conducted during the Gemini V mission, the second of the Gemini flights on which it was carried. This report summarizes briefly the methods and results of the experiment. Interpretation of the many excellent pictures obtained is in progress, and a full report is not possible at this time; instead, representative pictures will be presented and described. The purpose of the experiment was to obtain a large number of high-quality color photographs of selected land areas from geologic and geographic study. Southern Mexico, eastern Africa, and Australia were given high priority, but it was stressed that good pictures of any cloud-free land area would be useful. The same camera (Hasselblad 500 C) and film (Ektachrome MS) used on the Gemini III and IV missions were carried on the Gemini V flight.

  1. Atmospheric dispersion experiments over complex terrain in a spanish valley site (Guardo-90)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibarra, J.I.

    1991-01-01

    An intensive field experimental campaign was conducted in Spain to quantify atmospheric diffusion within a deep, steep-walled valley in rough, mountainous terrain. The program has been sponsored by the spanish companies of electricity and is intended to validate existing plume models and to provide the scientific basis for future model development. The atmospheric dispersion and transport processes in a 40x40 km domain were studied in order to evaluate SO 2 and SF 6 releases from an existing 185 m chimney and ground level sources in a complex terrain valley site. Emphasis was placed on the local mesoscale flows and light wind stable conditions. Although the measuring program was intensified during daytime for dual tracking of SO 2 /SF 6 from an elevated source, nighttime experiments were conducted for mountain-valley flows characterization. Two principle objectives were pursued: impaction of plumes upon elevated terrain, and diffusion of gases within the valley versus diffusion over flat, open terrain. Artificial smoke flows visualizations provided qualitative information: quantitative diffusion measurements were obtained using sulfur hexafluoride gas with analysis by highly sensitive electron capture gas chromatographs systems. Fourteen 2 hours gaseous tracer releases were conducted

  2. Homogenization scheme for acoustic metamaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Min

    2014-02-26

    We present a homogenization scheme for acoustic metamaterials that is based on reproducing the lowest orders of scattering amplitudes from a finite volume of metamaterials. This approach is noted to differ significantly from that of coherent potential approximation, which is based on adjusting the effective-medium parameters to minimize scatterings in the long-wavelength limit. With the aid of metamaterials’ eigenstates, the effective parameters, such as mass density and elastic modulus can be obtained by matching the surface responses of a metamaterial\\'s structural unit cell with a piece of homogenized material. From the Green\\'s theorem applied to the exterior domain problem, matching the surface responses is noted to be the same as reproducing the scattering amplitudes. We verify our scheme by applying it to three different examples: a layered lattice, a two-dimensional hexagonal lattice, and a decorated-membrane system. It is shown that the predicted characteristics and wave fields agree almost exactly with numerical simulations and experiments and the scheme\\'s validity is constrained by the number of dominant surface multipoles instead of the usual long-wavelength assumption. In particular, the validity extends to the full band in one dimension and to regimes near the boundaries of the Brillouin zone in two dimensions.

  3. ISOTOPE METHODS IN HOMOGENEOUS CATALYSIS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BULLOCK,R.M.; BENDER,B.R.

    2000-12-01

    The use of isotope labels has had a fundamentally important role in the determination of mechanisms of homogeneously catalyzed reactions. Mechanistic data is valuable since it can assist in the design and rational improvement of homogeneous catalysts. There are several ways to use isotopes in mechanistic chemistry. Isotopes can be introduced into controlled experiments and followed where they go or don't go; in this way, Libby, Calvin, Taube and others used isotopes to elucidate mechanistic pathways for very different, yet important chemistries. Another important isotope method is the study of kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) and equilibrium isotope effect (EIEs). Here the mere observation of where a label winds up is no longer enough - what matters is how much slower (or faster) a labeled molecule reacts than the unlabeled material. The most careti studies essentially involve the measurement of isotope fractionation between a reference ground state and the transition state. Thus kinetic isotope effects provide unique data unavailable from other methods, since information about the transition state of a reaction is obtained. Because getting an experimental glimpse of transition states is really tantamount to understanding catalysis, kinetic isotope effects are very powerful.

  4. Slip estimation methods for proprioceptive terrain classification using tracked mobile robots

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masha, Ditebogo F

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent work has shown that proprioceptive measurements such as terrain slip can be used for terrain classification. This paper investigates the suitability of four simple slip estimation methods for differentiating between indoor and outdoor terrain...

  5. Homogeneity Study of UO2 Pellet Density for Quality Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Je Seon; Park, Chang Je; Kang, Kwon Ho; Moon, Heung Soo; Song, Kee Chan

    2005-01-01

    A homogeneity study has been performed with various densities of UO 2 pellets as the work of a quality control. The densities of the UO 2 pellets are distributed randomly due to several factors such as the milling conditions and sintering environments, etc. After sintering, total fourteen bottles were chosen for UO 2 density and each bottle had three samples. With these bottles, the between-bottle and within-bottle homogeneity were investigated via the analysis of the variance (ANOVA). From the results of ANOVA, the calculated F-value is used to determine whether the distribution is accepted or rejected from the view of a homogeneity under a certain confidence level. All the homogeneity checks followed the International Standard Guide 35

  6. Homogenization patterns of the world’s freshwater fish faunas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villéger, Sébastien; Blanchet, Simon; Beauchard, Olivier; Oberdorff, Thierry; Brosse, Sébastien

    2011-01-01

    The world is currently undergoing an unprecedented decline in biodiversity, which is mainly attributable to human activities. For instance, nonnative species introduction, combined with the extirpation of native species, affects biodiversity patterns, notably by increasing the similarity among species assemblages. This biodiversity change, called taxonomic homogenization, has rarely been assessed at the world scale. Here, we fill this gap by assessing the current homogenization status of one of the most diverse vertebrate groups (i.e., freshwater fishes) at global and regional scales. We demonstrate that current homogenization of the freshwater fish faunas is still low at the world scale (0.5%) but reaches substantial levels (up to 10%) in some highly invaded river basins from the Nearctic and Palearctic realms. In these realms experiencing high changes, nonnative species introductions rather than native species extirpations drive taxonomic homogenization. Our results suggest that the “Homogocene era” is not yet the case for freshwater fish fauna at the worldwide scale. However, the distressingly high level of homogenization noted for some biogeographical realms stresses the need for further understanding of the ecological consequences of homogenization processes. PMID:22025692

  7. Homogenization patterns of the world's freshwater fish faunas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villéger, Sébastien; Blanchet, Simon; Beauchard, Olivier; Oberdorff, Thierry; Brosse, Sébastien

    2011-11-01

    The world is currently undergoing an unprecedented decline in biodiversity, which is mainly attributable to human activities. For instance, nonnative species introduction, combined with the extirpation of native species, affects biodiversity patterns, notably by increasing the similarity among species assemblages. This biodiversity change, called taxonomic homogenization, has rarely been assessed at the world scale. Here, we fill this gap by assessing the current homogenization status of one of the most diverse vertebrate groups (i.e., freshwater fishes) at global and regional scales. We demonstrate that current homogenization of the freshwater fish faunas is still low at the world scale (0.5%) but reaches substantial levels (up to 10%) in some highly invaded river basins from the Nearctic and Palearctic realms. In these realms experiencing high changes, nonnative species introductions rather than native species extirpations drive taxonomic homogenization. Our results suggest that the "Homogocene era" is not yet the case for freshwater fish fauna at the worldwide scale. However, the distressingly high level of homogenization noted for some biogeographical realms stresses the need for further understanding of the ecological consequences of homogenization processes.

  8. Global multi-resolution terrain elevation data 2010 (GMTED2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, Jeffrey J.; Gesch, Dean B.

    2011-01-01

    -second DTEDRegistered level 0, the USGS and the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) have collaborated to produce an enhanced replacement for GTOPO30, the Global Land One-km Base Elevation (GLOBE) model and other comparable 30-arc-second-resolution global models, using the best available data. The new model is called the Global Multi-resolution Terrain Elevation Data 2010, or GMTED2010 for short. This suite of products at three different resolutions (approximately 1,000, 500, and 250 meters) is designed to support many applications directly by providing users with generic products (for example, maximum, minimum, and median elevations) that have been derived directly from the raw input data that would not be available to the general user or would be very costly and time-consuming to produce for individual applications. The source of all the elevation data is captured in metadata for reference purposes. It is also hoped that as better data become available in the future, the GMTED2010 model will be updated.

  9. Improving homogeneity by dynamic speed limit systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nes, N. van Brandenberg, S. & Twisk, D.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Homogeneity of driving speeds is an important variable in determining road safety; more homogeneous driving speeds increase road safety. This study investigates the effect of introducing dynamic speed limit systems on homogeneity of driving speeds. A total of 46 subjects twice drove a route along 12

  10. 7 CFR 58.636 - Homogenization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Homogenization. 58.636 Section 58.636 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Procedures § 58.636 Homogenization. Homogenization of the pasteurized mix shall be accomplished to...

  11. The homogeneous geometries of real hyperbolic space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castrillón López, Marco; Gadea, Pedro Martínez; Swann, Andrew Francis

    We describe the holonomy algebras of all canonical connections of homogeneous structures on real hyperbolic spaces in all dimensions. The structural results obtained then lead to a determination of the types, in the sense of Tricerri and Vanhecke, of the corresponding homogeneous tensors. We use...... our analysis to show that the moduli space of homogeneous structures on real hyperbolic space has two connected components....

  12. Orthogonality Measurement for Homogenous Projects-Bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivan, Ion; Sandu, Andrei; Popa, Marius

    2009-01-01

    The homogenous projects-base concept is defined. Next, the necessary steps to create a homogenous projects-base are presented. A metric system is built, which then will be used for analyzing projects. The indicators which are meaningful for analyzing a homogenous projects-base are selected. The given hypothesis is experimentally verified. The…

  13. The evaporative vector: Homogeneous systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klots, C.E.

    1987-05-01

    Molecular beams of van der Waals molecules are the subject of much current research. Among the methods used to form these beams, three-sputtering, laser ablation, and the sonic nozzle expansion of neat gases - yield what are now recognized to be ''warm clusters.'' They contain enough internal energy to undergo a number of first-order processes, in particular that of evaporation. Because of this evaporation and its attendant cooling, the properties of such clusters are time-dependent. The states of matter which can be arrived at via an evaporative vector on a typical laboratory time-scale are discussed. Topics include the (1) temperatures, (2) metastability, (3) phase transitions, (4) kinetic energies of fragmentation, and (5) the expression of magical properties, all for evaporating homogeneous clusters

  14. The horizontally homogeneous model equations of incompressible atmospheric flow in general orthogonal coordinates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Bo Hoffmann

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this brief report is to express the model equations for an incompressible flow which is horizontally homogeneous. It is intended as a computationally inexpensive starting point of a more complete solution for neutral atmospheric flow overcomplex terrain. This idea was set forth...... by Ayotte and Taylor (1995) and in the work of Beljaars et al. (1987). Unlike the previous models, the present work uses general orthogonal coordinates. Strong conservation form of the model equations is employedto allow a robust and consistent numerical procedure. An invariant tensor form of the model...

  15. Environmental impacts of forest road construction on mountainous terrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliskan, Erhan

    2013-03-15

    Forest roads are the base infrastructure foundation of forestry operations. These roads entail a complex engineering effort because they can cause substantial environmental damage to forests and include a high-cost construction. This study was carried out in four sample sites of Giresun, Trabzon(2) and Artvin Forest Directorate, which is in the Black Sea region of Turkey. The areas have both steep terrain (30-50% gradient) and very steep terrain (51-80% gradient). Bulldozers and hydraulic excavators were determined to be the main machines for forest road construction, causing environmental damage and cross sections in mountainous areas.As a result of this study, the percent damage to forests was determined as follows: on steep terrain, 21% of trees were damaged by excavators and 33% of trees were damaged by bulldozers during forest road construction, and on very steep terrain, 27% of trees were damaged by excavators and 44% of trees were damaged by bulldozers during forest road construction. It was also determined that on steep terrain, when excavators were used, 12.23% less forest area was destroyed compared with when bulldozers were used and 16.13% less area was destroyed by excavators on very steep terrain. In order to reduce the environmental damage on the forest ecosystem, especially in steep terrains, hydraulic excavators should replace bulldozers in forest road construction activities.

  16. Environmental Impacts of Forest Road Construction on Mountainous Terrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhan Caliskan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Forest roads are the base infrastructure foundation of forestry operations. These roads entail a complex engineering effort because they can cause substantial environmental damage to forests and include a high-cost construction. This study was carried out in four sample sites of Giresun, Trabzon(2 and Artvin Forest Directorate, which is in the Black Sea region of Turkey. The areas have both steep terrain (30-50% gradient and very steep terrain (51-80% gradient. Bulldozers and hydraulic excavators were determined to be the main machines for forest road construction, causing environmental damage and cross sections in mountainous areas.As a result of this study, the percent damage to forests was determined as follows: on steep terrain, 21% of trees were damaged by excavators and 33% of trees were damaged by bulldozers during forest road construction, and on very steep terrain, 27% of trees were damaged by excavators and 44% of trees were damaged by bulldozers during forest road construction. It was also determined that on steep terrain, when excavators were used, 12.23% less forest area was destroyed compared with when bulldozers were used and 16.13% less area was destroyed by excavators on very steep terrain. In order to reduce the environmental damage on the forest ecosystem, especially in steep terrains, hydraulic excavators should replace bulldozers in forest road construction activities.

  17. Terrain aided navigation for autonomous underwater vehicles with coarse maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Ling; Cheng, Xianghong; Zhu, Yixian

    2016-01-01

    Terrain aided navigation (TAN) is a form of geophysical localization technique for autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) operating in GPS-denied environments. TAN performance on sensor-rich AUVs has been evaluated in sea trials. However, many challenges remain before TAN can be successfully implemented on sensor-limited AUVs, especially with coarse maps. To improve TAN performance over coarse maps, a Gaussian process (GP) is proposed for the modeling of bathymetric terrain and integrated into the particle filter (GP-PF). GP is applied to provide not only the bathymetric value prediction through learning a set of bathymetric data from coarse maps but also the variance of the prediction. As a measurement update, calculated on bathymetric deviation is performed through the PF to obtain absolute and bounded positioning accuracy. Through the analysis of TAN performance on experimental data for two different terrains with map resolutions of 10–50 m, both the ability of the proposed model to represent the actual bathymetric terrain with accuracy and the effect of the GP-PF for TAN on sensor-limited systems in suited terrain are demonstrated. The experiment results further verify that there is an inverse relationship between the coarseness of the map and the overall TAN accuracy in rough terrains, but there is hardly any relationship between them in relatively flat terrains. (paper)

  18. Self-Supervised Learning of Terrain Traversability from Proprioceptive Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajracharya, Max; Howard, Andrew B.; Matthies, Larry H.

    2009-01-01

    Robust and reliable autonomous navigation in unstructured, off-road terrain is a critical element in making unmanned ground vehicles a reality. Existing approaches tend to rely on evaluating the traversability of terrain based on fixed parameters obtained via testing in specific environments. This results in a system that handles the terrain well that it trained in, but is unable to process terrain outside its test parameters. An adaptive system does not take the place of training, but supplements it. Whereas training imprints certain environments, an adaptive system would imprint terrain elements and the interactions amongst them, and allow the vehicle to build a map of local elements using proprioceptive sensors. Such sensors can include velocity, wheel slippage, bumper hits, and accelerometers. Data obtained by the sensors can be compared to observations from ranging sensors such as cameras and LADAR (laser detection and ranging) in order to adapt to any kind of terrain. In this way, it could sample its surroundings not only to create a map of clear space, but also of what kind of space it is and its composition. By having a set of building blocks consisting of terrain features, a vehicle can adapt to terrain that it has never seen before, and thus be robust to a changing environment. New observations could be added to its library, enabling it to infer terrain types that it wasn't trained on. This would be very useful in alien environments, where many of the physical features are known, but some are not. For example, a seemingly flat, hard plain could actually be soft sand, and the vehicle would sense the sand and avoid it automatically.

  19. Evaluation of coarse scale land surface remote sensing albedo product over rugged terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, J.; Xinwen, L.; You, D.; Dou, B.

    2017-12-01

    Satellite derived Land surface albedo is an essential climate variable which controls the earth energy budget and it can be used in applications such as climate change, hydrology, and numerical weather prediction. The accuracy and uncertainty of surface albedo products should be evaluated with a reliable reference truth data prior to applications. And more literatures investigated the validation methods about the albedo validation in a flat or homogenous surface. However, the albedo performance over rugged terrain is still unknow due to the validation method limited. A multi-validation strategy is implemented to give a comprehensive albedo validation, which will involve the high resolution albedo processing, high resolution albedo validation based on in situ albedo, and the method to upscale the high resolution albedo to a coarse scale albedo. Among them, the high resolution albedo generation and the upscale method is the core step for the coarse scale albedo validation. In this paper, the high resolution albedo is generated by Angular Bin algorithm. And a albedo upscale method over rugged terrain is developed to obtain the coarse scale albedo truth. The in situ albedo located 40 sites in mountain area are selected globally to validate the high resolution albedo, and then upscaled to the coarse scale albedo by the upscale method. This paper takes MODIS and GLASS albedo product as a example, and the prelimarily results show the RMSE of MODIS and GLASS albedo product over rugged terrain are 0.047 and 0.057, respectively under the RMSE with 0.036 of high resolution albedo.

  20. Reorienting with terrain slope and landmarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardi, Daniele; Newcombe, Nora S; Shipley, Thomas F

    2013-02-01

    Orientation (or reorientation) is the first step in navigation, because establishing a spatial frame of reference is essential for a sense of location and heading direction. Recent research on nonhuman animals has revealed that the vertical component of an environment provides an important source of spatial information, in both terrestrial and aquatic settings. Nonetheless, humans show large individual and sex differences in the ability to use terrain slope for reorientation. To understand why some participants--mainly women--exhibit a difficulty with slope, we tested reorientation in a richer environment than had been used previously, including both a tilted floor and a set of distinct objects that could be used as landmarks. This environment allowed for the use of two different strategies for solving the task, one based on directional cues (slope gradient) and one based on positional cues (landmarks). Overall, rather than using both cues, participants tended to focus on just one. Although men and women did not differ significantly in their encoding of or reliance on the two strategies, men showed greater confidence in solving the reorientation task. These facts suggest that one possible cause of the female difficulty with slope might be a generally lower spatial confidence during reorientation.

  1. Pneumatic tyres interacting with deformable terrains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekakos, C. A.; Papazafeiropoulos, G.; O'Boy, D. J.; Prins, J.

    2016-09-01

    In this study, a numerical model of a deformable tyre interacting with a deformable road has been developed with the use of the finite element code ABAQUS (v. 6.13). Two tyre models with different widths, not necessarily identical to any real industry tyres, have been created purely for research use. The behaviour of these tyres under various vertical loads and different inflation pressures is studied, initially in contact with a rigid surface and then with a deformable terrain. After ensuring that the tyre model gives realistic results in terms of the interaction with a rigid surface, the rolling process of the tyre on a deformable road was studied. The effects of friction coefficient, inflation pressure, rebar orientation and vertical load on the overall performance are reported. Regarding the modelling procedure, a sequence of models were analysed, using the coupling implicit - explicit method. The numerical results reveal that not only there is significant dependence of the final tyre response on the various initial driving parameters, but also special conditions emerge, where the desired response of the tyre results from specific optimum combination of these parameters.

  2. Infiltration on sloping terrain and its role on runoff generation and slope stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loáiciga, Hugo A.; Johnson, J. Michael

    2018-06-01

    A modified Green-and-Ampt model is formulated to quantify infiltration on sloping terrain underlain by homogeneous soil wetted by surficial water application. This paper's theory for quantifying infiltration relies on the mathematical statement of the coupled partial differential equations (pdes) governing infiltration and runoff. These pdes are solved by employing an explicit finite-difference numerical method that yields the infiltration, the infiltration rate, the depth to the wetting front, the rate of runoff, and the depth of runoff everywhere on the slope during external wetting. Data inputs consist of a water application rate or the rainfall hyetograph of a storm of arbitrary duration, soil hydraulic characteristics and antecedent moisture, and the slope's hydraulic and geometric characteristics. The presented theory predicts the effect an advancing wetting front has on slope stability with respect to translational sliding. This paper's theory also develops the 1D pde governing suspended sediment transport and slope degradation caused by runoff influenced by infiltration. Three examples illustrate the application of the developed theory to calculate infiltration and runoff on a slope and their role on the stability of cohesive and cohesionless soils forming sloping terrain.

  3. Homogenization in thermoelasticity: application to composite materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peyroux, R [Lab. de Mecanique et Genie Civil, Univ. Montpellier 2, 34 Montpellier (France); Licht, C [Lab. de Mecanique et Genie Civil, Univ. Montpellier 2, 34 Montpellier (France)

    1993-11-01

    One of the obstacles to the industrial use of metal matrix composite materials is the damage they rapidly undergo when they are subjected to cyclic thermal loadings; local thermal stresses of high level can develop, sometimes nearby or over the elastic limit, due to the mismatch of elastic and thermal coefficients between the fibers and the matrix. For the same reasons, early cracks can appear in composites like ceramic-ceramic. Therefore, we investigate the linear thermoelastic behaviour of heterogeneous materials, taking account of the isentropic coupling term in the heat conduction equation. In the case of periodic materials, recent results, using the homogenization theory, allowed us to describe macroscopic and microscopic behaviours of such materials. This paper is concerned with the numerical simulation of this problem by a finite element method, using a multiscale approach. (orig.).

  4. Reciprocity theory of homogeneous reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbormbai, Adolf A.

    1990-03-01

    The reciprocity formalism is applied to the homogeneous gaseous reactions in which the structure of the participating molecules changes upon collision with one another, resulting in a change in the composition of the gas. The approach is applied to various classes of dissociation, recombination, rearrangement, ionizing, and photochemical reactions. It is shown that for the principle of reciprocity to be satisfied it is necessary that all chemical reactions exist in complementary pairs which consist of the forward and backward reactions. The backward reaction may be described by either the reverse or inverse process. The forward and backward processes must satisfy the same reciprocity equation. Because the number of dynamical variables is usually unbalanced on both sides of a chemical equation, it is necessary that this balance be established by including as many of the dynamical variables as needed before the reciprocity equation can be formulated. Statistical transformation models of the reactions are formulated. The models are classified under the titles free exchange, restricted exchange and simplified restricted exchange. The special equations for the forward and backward processes are obtained. The models are consistent with the H theorem and Le Chatelier's principle. The models are also formulated in the context of the direct simulation Monte Carlo method.

  5. Moral Beliefs and Cognitive Homogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevia Dolcini

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Emotional Perception Model of moral judgment intends to account for experientialism about morality and moral reasoning. In explaining how moral beliefs are formed and applied in practical reasoning, the model attempts to overcome the mismatch between reason and action/desire: morality isn’t about reason for actions, yet moral beliefs, if caused by desires, may play a motivational role in (moral agency. The account allows for two kinds of moral beliefs: genuine moral beliefs, which enjoy a relation to desire, and motivationally inert moral beliefs acquired in ways other than experience. Such etiology-based dichotomy of concepts, I will argue, leads to the undesirable view of cognition as a non-homogeneous phenomenon. Moreover, the distinction between moral beliefs and moral beliefs would entail a further dichotomy encompassing the domain of moral agency: one and the same action might possibly be either genuine moral, or not moral, if acted by individuals lacking the capacity for moral feelings, such as psychopaths.

  6. Homogeneous modes of cosmological instantons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gratton, Steven; Turok, Neil

    2001-06-15

    We discuss the O(4) invariant perturbation modes of cosmological instantons. These modes are spatially homogeneous in Lorentzian spacetime and thus not relevant to density perturbations. But their properties are important in establishing the meaning of the Euclidean path integral. If negative modes are present, the Euclidean path integral is not well defined, but may nevertheless be useful in an approximate description of the decay of an unstable state. When gravitational dynamics is included, counting negative modes requires a careful treatment of the conformal factor problem. We demonstrate that for an appropriate choice of coordinate on phase space, the second order Euclidean action is bounded below for normalized perturbations and has a finite number of negative modes. We prove that there is a negative mode for many gravitational instantons of the Hawking-Moss or Coleman{endash}De Luccia type, and discuss the associated spectral flow. We also investigate Hawking-Turok constrained instantons, which occur in a generic inflationary model. Implementing the regularization and constraint proposed by Kirklin, Turok and Wiseman, we find that those instantons leading to substantial inflation do not possess negative modes. Using an alternate regularization and constraint motivated by reduction from five dimensions, we find a negative mode is present. These investigations shed new light on the suitability of Euclidean quantum gravity as a potential description of our universe.

  7. Homogeneous modes of cosmological instantons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gratton, Steven; Turok, Neil

    2001-01-01

    We discuss the O(4) invariant perturbation modes of cosmological instantons. These modes are spatially homogeneous in Lorentzian spacetime and thus not relevant to density perturbations. But their properties are important in establishing the meaning of the Euclidean path integral. If negative modes are present, the Euclidean path integral is not well defined, but may nevertheless be useful in an approximate description of the decay of an unstable state. When gravitational dynamics is included, counting negative modes requires a careful treatment of the conformal factor problem. We demonstrate that for an appropriate choice of coordinate on phase space, the second order Euclidean action is bounded below for normalized perturbations and has a finite number of negative modes. We prove that there is a negative mode for many gravitational instantons of the Hawking-Moss or ColemanendashDe Luccia type, and discuss the associated spectral flow. We also investigate Hawking-Turok constrained instantons, which occur in a generic inflationary model. Implementing the regularization and constraint proposed by Kirklin, Turok and Wiseman, we find that those instantons leading to substantial inflation do not possess negative modes. Using an alternate regularization and constraint motivated by reduction from five dimensions, we find a negative mode is present. These investigations shed new light on the suitability of Euclidean quantum gravity as a potential description of our universe

  8. DCS Terrain submission for Washoe County NV PMR

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  9. DCS Terrain Submission for Lewis and Clark County, Montana

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  10. DCS Terrain for Bullcoh County GA MAPMOD04-08

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix M: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  11. DCS Terrain Submittal for Thomas County, Georgia, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  12. DIGITAL TERRAIN DCS DATABASE for ALLEN PARISH, LA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  13. DCS Terrain Submission for Chippewa County, MI (Countywide DFIRM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix M: Data Capture Standards, describe the digital topographic data that were used to create...

  14. DCS Terrain for Roscommon County, MI (Countywide DFIRM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix M: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  15. DCS Terrain Submission for Clay County, AR, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  16. Cross-Coupled Control for All-Terrain Rovers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Reina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile robots are increasingly being used in challenging outdoor environments for applications that include construction, mining, agriculture, military and planetary exploration. In order to accomplish the planned task, it is critical that the motion control system ensure accuracy and robustness. The achievement of high performance on rough terrain is tightly connected with the minimization of vehicle-terrain dynamics effects such as slipping and skidding. This paper presents a cross-coupled controller for a 4-wheel-drive/4-wheel-steer robot, which optimizes the wheel motors’ control algorithm to reduce synchronization errors that would otherwise result in wheel slip with conventional controllers. Experimental results, obtained with an all-terrain rover operating on agricultural terrain, are presented to validate the system. It is shown that the proposed approach is effective in reducing slippage and vehicle posture errors.

  17. Terrain, BIG BLUE RIVER TRIBUTARY NO 44, GAGE COUNTY, NE

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  18. DCS Terrain Submission for Monmouth County, New Jersey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  19. DCS Terrain Submission for Los Alamos County, New Mexico, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  20. DCS Terrain Submission for Los Angeles County, CA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  1. DCS TERRAIN SUBMISSION for MORRIS COUNTY, NEW JERSEY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that were used to create...

  2. DCS Terrain for Appling County GA MapMod08

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix M: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  3. DCS Terrain for Laurens County GA MAPMOD04-08

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix M: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  4. TERRAIN, City of El Dorado, Butler County, KS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix M: Data Capture Standards, describe the digital topographic data that were used to create...

  5. DCS Terrain Submittal for Santa Fe County, New Mexico, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix M: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  6. Terrain Submission for Crawford County, MI (Countywide DFIRM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix M: Data Capture Standards, describe the digital topographic data that were used to create...

  7. Terrain Submission for Dickinson County, MI (Countywide DFIRM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix M: Data Capture Standards, describe the digital topographic data that were used to create...

  8. DCS Terrain Submittal for Sumter County, Georgia, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  9. DCS Terrain Submission for Lake Kaweah PMR - Tulare County, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix M: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  10. Terrain Submission for Alcona County, MI (Countywide DFIRM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix M: Data Capture Standards, describe the digital topographic data that were used to create...

  11. TERRAIN, CITY OF NORWALK, FAIRFIELD COUNTY, CONNECTICUT - Levee PMR

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix M: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  12. DCS Terrain for Wayne County GA MapMod08

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix M: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  13. Laser altimetry and terrain analysis: A revolution in geomorphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anders, N.; Seijmonsbergen, H.

    2008-01-01

    Terrain analysis in geomorphology has undergone a serious quantitative revolution over recent decades. Lidar information has been efficiently used to automatically classify discrete landforms, map forest structures, and provide input for models simulating landscape development, e.g. channel incision

  14. DCS Terrain Submission for Gold Star Canyon Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  15. TERRAIN DATA, DELANEY CREEK WATERSHED, HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY, FL

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describe the digital topographic data that were used to create...

  16. DCS Terrain Submission for Forked Gulch in Canon City CO

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  17. DCS Terrain Submittal for Lamar County, Georgia, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  18. DCS Terrain Submission for Mercer County New Jersey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  19. DCS Terrain Submittal for Washita County, Oklahoma, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix M: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  20. DCS Terrain Submission for Hunterdon County New Jersey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  1. DCS Terrain Submittal for Pike County, Georgia, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  2. DCS Terrain for Effingham Co GA (FY2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix M: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  3. DCS Terrain Submission for Missoula County,Montana

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  4. Terrain Submission for Mason County, MI (Countywide DFIRM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix M: Data Capture Standards, describe the digital topographic data that were used to create...

  5. DCS Terrain Submission for LeFlore, OK

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  6. DCS Terrain Submission for Pine County, MN (Countywide DFIRM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix M: Data Capture Standards, describe the digital topographic data that were used to create...

  7. DCS Terrain Submission for McCook County, SD

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix M: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that were used to create...

  8. DCS Terrain Submittal for Dougherty County, Georgia, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  9. TERRAIN, CITY OF ANSONIA, NEW HAVEN COUNTY, CONNECTICUT - Levee PMR

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix M: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  10. Optimization of Wind Farm Layout in Complex Terrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Chang; Yang, Jianchuan; Li, Chenqi

    2013-01-01

    Microscopic site selection for wind farms in complex terrain is a technological difficulty in the development of onshore wind farms. This paper presented a method for optimizing wind farm layout in complex terrain. This method employed Lissaman and Jensen wake models, took wind velocity distribut......Microscopic site selection for wind farms in complex terrain is a technological difficulty in the development of onshore wind farms. This paper presented a method for optimizing wind farm layout in complex terrain. This method employed Lissaman and Jensen wake models, took wind velocity...... are subject to boundary conditions and minimum distance conditions. The improved genetic algorithm (GA) for real number coding was used to search the optimal result. Then the optimized result was compared to the result from the experienced layout method. Results show the advantages of the present method...

  11. DCS Terrain Submission for Randolph County, AR, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  12. DCS Terrain Submission for Washburn County, Wisconsin, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  13. CITY OF RADFORD TERRAIN, CITY OF RADFORD, VA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data includes digital elevation models, LIDAR derived contours, LIDAR three-dimensional spot elevations and breaklines, field surveyed ground elevations and...

  14. Lunar All-Terrain Utility Vehicle for EVA, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ProtoInnovations, LLC proposes to develop a new type of planetary rover called a Lunar All-terrain Utility Vehicle ("Lunar ATV") to assist extra-vehicular activities...

  15. DCS Terrain Submission for Jackson County, AR, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  16. DCS Terrain Submission for New Castle County, DE

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  17. Spatial and temporal variability of hyperspectral signatures of terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, K. F.; Perovich, D. K.; Koenig, G. G.

    2008-04-01

    Electromagnetic signatures of terrain exhibit significant spatial heterogeneity on a range of scales as well as considerable temporal variability. A statistical characterization of the spatial heterogeneity and spatial scaling algorithms of terrain electromagnetic signatures are required to extrapolate measurements to larger scales. Basic terrain elements including bare soil, grass, deciduous, and coniferous trees were studied in a quasi-laboratory setting using instrumented test sites in Hanover, NH and Yuma, AZ. Observations were made using a visible and near infrared spectroradiometer (350 - 2500 nm) and hyperspectral camera (400 - 1100 nm). Results are reported illustrating: i) several difference scenes; ii) a terrain scene time series sampled over an annual cycle; and iii) the detection of artifacts in scenes. A principal component analysis indicated that the first three principal components typically explained between 90 and 99% of the variance of the 30 to 40-channel hyperspectral images. Higher order principal components of hyperspectral images are useful for detecting artifacts in scenes.

  18. TERRAIN submission for Rock River Risk Map, Dane County Portion

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  19. TERRAIN submission for Rock River RiskMap DFIRM

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  20. Lunar All-Terrain Utility Vehicle for EVA, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ProtoInnovations, LLC proposes to develop a new type of planetary rover called a Lunar All-terrain Utility Vehicle ("LATUV") to assist extra-vehicular activities in...

  1. TERRAIN, CITY OF GRAND PRAIRIE, DALLAS COUNTY, TEXAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix M: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  2. DCS Terrain Submittal for Harmon County, Oklahoma, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix M: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  3. Exploration of Extreme Terrain Using a Polyhedral Rover

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Exploring celestial bodies with extreme terrains in our solar system, like Mars, Europa, Enceladus, and asteroids, are of great importance to NASA because these...

  4. Terrain Mapping and Classification in Outdoor Environments Using Neural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Yukinobu Hata; Denis Fernando Wolf; Gustavo Pessin; Fernando Osório

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a three-dimensional terrain mapping and classification technique to allow the operation of mobile robots in outdoor environments using laser range finders. We propose the use of a multi-layer perceptron neural network to classify the terrain into navigable, partially navigable, and non-navigable. The maps generated by our approach can be used for path planning, navigation, and local obstacle avoidance. Experimental tests using an outdoor robot and a laser sensor demonstra...

  5. Stratigraphy of the layered terrain in Valles Marineris, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, G.; Strom, Roger G.

    1991-01-01

    The layered terrain in Valles Marineris provides information about its origin and the geologic history of this canyon system. Whether the terrain is sedimentary material deposited in a dry or lacustrine environment, or volcanic material related to the tectonics of the canyon is still controversial. However, recent studies of Gangis Layered Terrain suggests a cyclic sequence of deposition and erosion under episodic lacustrine conditions. The stratigraphic studies are extended to four other occurrences of layered terrains in Valles Marineris in an attempt to correlate and distinguish between depositional environments. The Juvantae Chasma, Hebes Chasma, Ophir and Candor Chasmata, Melas Chasma, and Gangis Layered Terrain were examined. Although there are broad similarities among the layered terrains, no two deposits are exactly alike. This suggests that there was no synchronized regional depositional processes to form all the layered deposits. However, the similar erosional style of the lower massive weakly bedded unit in Hebes, Gangis, and Ophir-Candor suggests it may have been deposited under similar circumstances.

  6. Method for Measuring the Information Content of Terrain from Digital Elevation Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lujin Hu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available As digital terrain models are indispensable for visualizing and modeling geographic processes, terrain information content is useful for terrain generalization and representation. For terrain generalization, if the terrain information is considered, the generalized terrain may be of higher fidelity. In other words, the richer the terrain information at the terrain surface, the smaller the degree of terrain simplification. Terrain information content is also important for evaluating the quality of the rendered terrain, e.g., the rendered web terrain tile service in Google Maps (Google Inc., Mountain View, CA, USA. However, a unified definition and measures for terrain information content have not been established. Therefore, in this paper, a definition and measures for terrain information content from Digital Elevation Model (DEM, i.e., a digital model or 3D representation of a terrain’s surface data are proposed and are based on the theory of map information content, remote sensing image information content and other geospatial information content. The information entropy was taken as the information measuring method for the terrain information content. Two experiments were carried out to verify the measurement methods of the terrain information content. One is the analysis of terrain information content in different geomorphic types, and the results showed that the more complex the geomorphic type, the richer the terrain information content. The other is the analysis of terrain information content with different resolutions, and the results showed that the finer the resolution, the richer the terrain information. Both experiments verified the reliability of the measurements of the terrain information content proposed in this paper.

  7. Wind farm design in complex terrain: the FarmOpt methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ju

    Designing wind farms in complex terrain is becoming more and more important, especially for countries like China, where a large portion of the territory is featured as complex terrain. Although potential richer wind resources could be expected at complex terrain sites (thanks to the terrain effec...

  8. AQUEOUS HOMOGENEOUS REACTORTECHNICAL PANEL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamond, D.J.; Bajorek, S.; Bakel, A.; Flanagan, G.; Mubayi, V.; Skarda, R.; Staudenmeier, J.; Taiwo, T.; Tonoike, K.; Tripp, C.; Wei, T.; Yarsky, P.

    2010-12-03

    Considerable interest has been expressed for developing a stable U.S. production capacity for medical isotopes and particularly for molybdenum- 99 (99Mo). This is motivated by recent re-ductions in production and supply worldwide. Consistent with U.S. nonproliferation objectives, any new production capability should not use highly enriched uranium fuel or targets. Conse-quently, Aqueous Homogeneous Reactors (AHRs) are under consideration for potential 99Mo production using low-enriched uranium. Although the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has guidance to facilitate the licensing process for non-power reactors, that guidance is focused on reactors with fixed, solid fuel and hence, not applicable to an AHR. A panel was convened to study the technical issues associated with normal operation and potential transients and accidents of an AHR that might be designed for isotope production. The panel has produced the requisite AHR licensing guidance for three chapters that exist now for non-power reactor licensing: Reac-tor Description, Reactor Coolant Systems, and Accident Analysis. The guidance is in two parts for each chapter: 1) standard format and content a licensee would use and 2) the standard review plan the NRC staff would use. This guidance takes into account the unique features of an AHR such as the fuel being in solution; the fission product barriers being the vessel and attached systems; the production and release of radiolytic and fission product gases and their impact on operations and their control by a gas management system; and the movement of fuel into and out of the reactor vessel.

  9. Homogeneity and thermodynamic identities in geometrothermodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quevedo, Hernando [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares (Mexico); Universita di Roma ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); ICRANet, Rome (Italy); Quevedo, Maria N. [Universidad Militar Nueva Granada, Departamento de Matematicas, Facultad de Ciencias Basicas, Bogota (Colombia); Sanchez, Alberto [CIIDET, Departamento de Posgrado, Queretaro (Mexico)

    2017-03-15

    We propose a classification of thermodynamic systems in terms of the homogeneity properties of their fundamental equations. Ordinary systems correspond to homogeneous functions and non-ordinary systems are given by generalized homogeneous functions. This affects the explicit form of the Gibbs-Duhem relation and Euler's identity. We show that these generalized relations can be implemented in the formalism of black hole geometrothermodynamics in order to completely fix the arbitrariness present in Legendre invariant metrics. (orig.)

  10. A literature review on biotic homogenization

    OpenAIRE

    Guangmei Wang; Jingcheng Yang; Chuangdao Jiang; Hongtao Zhao; Zhidong Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Biotic homogenization is the process whereby the genetic, taxonomic and functional similarity of two or more biotas increases over time. As a new research agenda for conservation biogeography, biotic homogenization has become a rapidly emerging topic of interest in ecology and evolution over the past decade. However, research on this topic is rare in China. Herein, we introduce the development of the concept of biotic homogenization, and then discuss methods to quantify its three components (...

  11. Risk terrain modeling predicts child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Dyann; Bachmann, Michael; Bachmann, Brittany A; Pedigo, Christian; Bui, Minh-Thuy; Coffman, Jamye

    2016-12-01

    As indicated by research on the long-term effects of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), maltreatment has far-reaching consequences for affected children. Effective prevention measures have been elusive, partly due to difficulty in identifying vulnerable children before they are harmed. This study employs Risk Terrain Modeling (RTM), an analysis of the cumulative effect of environmental factors thought to be conducive for child maltreatment, to create a highly accurate prediction model for future substantiated child maltreatment cases in the City of Fort Worth, Texas. The model is superior to commonly used hotspot predictions and more beneficial in aiding prevention efforts in a number of ways: 1) it identifies the highest risk areas for future instances of child maltreatment with improved precision and accuracy; 2) it aids the prioritization of risk-mitigating efforts by informing about the relative importance of the most significant contributing risk factors; 3) since predictions are modeled as a function of easily obtainable data, practitioners do not have to undergo the difficult process of obtaining official child maltreatment data to apply it; 4) the inclusion of a multitude of environmental risk factors creates a more robust model with higher predictive validity; and, 5) the model does not rely on a retrospective examination of past instances of child maltreatment, but adapts predictions to changing environmental conditions. The present study introduces and examines the predictive power of this new tool to aid prevention efforts seeking to improve the safety, health, and wellbeing of vulnerable children. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Toward whole-core neutron transport without spatial homogenization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, E. E.

    2009-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: A long-term goal of computational reactor physics is the deterministic analysis of power reactor core neutronics without incurring significant discretization errors in the energy, spatial or angular variables. In principle, given large enough parallel configurations with unlimited CPU time and memory, this goal could be achieved using existing three-dimensional neutron transport codes. In practice, however, solving the Boltzmann equation for neutrons over the six-dimensional phase space is made intractable by the nature of neutron cross-sections and the complexity and size of power reactor cores. Tens of thousands of energy groups would be required for faithful cross section representation. Likewise, the numerous material interfaces present in power reactor lattices require exceedingly fine spatial mesh structures; these ubiquitous interfaces preclude effective implementation of adaptive grid, mesh-less methods and related techniques that have been applied so successfully in other areas of engineering science. These challenges notwithstanding, substantial progress continues in the pursuit for more robust deterministic methods for whole-core neutronics analysis. This paper examines the progress over roughly the last decade, emphasizing the space-angle variables and the quest to eliminate errors attributable to spatial homogenization. As prolog we briefly assess 1990's methods used in light water reactor analysis and review the lessons learned from the C5G7 benchmark exercises which were originated in 1999 to appraise the ability of transport codes to perform core calculations without homogenization. We proceed by examining progress over the last decade much of which falls into three areas. These may be broadly characterized as reduced homogenization, dynamic homogenization and planar-axial synthesis. In the first, homogenization in three-dimensional calculations is reduced from the fuel assembly to the pin-cell level. In the second

  13. Hybrid RANS/LES method for wind flow over complex terrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Andreas; Sørensen, Niels N.

    2010-01-01

    for flows at high Reynolds numbers. To reduce the computational cost of traditional LES, a hybrid method is proposed in which the near-wall eddies are modelled in a Reynolds-averaged sense. Close to walls, the flow is treated with the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations (unsteady RANS...... rough walls. Previous attempts of combining RANS and LES has resulted in unphysical transition regions between the two layers, but the present work improves this region by using a stochastic backscatter model. To demonstrate the ability of the proposed hybrid method, simulations are presented for wind...... the turbulent kinetic energy, whereas the new method captures the high turbulence levels well but underestimates the mean velocity. The presented results are for a relative mild configuration of complex terrain, but the proposed method can also be used for highly complex terrain where the benefits of the new...

  14. A portfolio of products from the rapid terrain visualization interferometric SAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickel, Douglas L.; Doerry, Armin W.

    2007-04-01

    The Rapid Terrain Visualization interferometric synthetic aperture radar was designed and built at Sandia National Laboratories as part of an Advanced Concept Technology Demonstration (ACTD) to "demonstrate the technologies and infrastructure to meet the Army requirement for rapid generation of digital topographic data to support emerging crisis or contingencies." This sensor was built by Sandia National Laboratories for the Joint Programs Sustainment and Development (JPSD) Project Office to provide highly accurate digital elevation models (DEMs) for military and civilian customers, both inside and outside of the United States. The sensor achieved better than HRTe Level IV position accuracy in near real-time. The system was flown on a deHavilland DHC-7 Army aircraft. This paper presents a collection of images and data products from the Rapid Terrain Visualization interferometric synthetic aperture radar. The imagery includes orthorectified images and DEMs from the RTV interferometric SAR radar.

  15. For wind turbines in complex terrain, the devil is in the detail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Julia; Mann, Jakob; Berg, Jacob; Parvu, Dan; Kilpatrick, Ryan; Costache, Adrian; Chowdhury, Jubayer; Siddiqui, Kamran; Hangan, Horia

    2017-09-01

    The cost of energy produced by onshore wind turbines is among the lowest available; however, onshore wind turbines are often positioned in a complex terrain, where the wind resources and wind conditions are quite uncertain due to the surrounding topography and/or vegetation. In this study, we use a scale model in a three-dimensional wind-testing chamber to show how minor changes in the terrain can result in significant differences in the flow at turbine height. These differences affect not only the power performance but also the life-time and maintenance costs of wind turbines, and hence, the economy and feasibility of wind turbine projects. We find that the mean wind, wind shear and turbulence level are extremely sensitive to the exact details of the terrain: a small modification of the edge of our scale model, results in a reduction of the estimated annual energy production by at least 50% and an increase in the turbulence level by a factor of five in the worst-case scenario with the most unfavorable wind direction. Wind farm developers should be aware that near escarpments destructive flows can occur and their extent is uncertain thus warranting on-site field measurements.

  16. Land-use intensification causes multitrophic homogenization of grassland communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossner, Martin M; Lewinsohn, Thomas M; Kahl, Tiemo; Grassein, Fabrice; Boch, Steffen; Prati, Daniel; Birkhofer, Klaus; Renner, Swen C; Sikorski, Johannes; Wubet, Tesfaye; Arndt, Hartmut; Baumgartner, Vanessa; Blaser, Stefan; Blüthgen, Nico; Börschig, Carmen; Buscot, Francois; Diekötter, Tim; Jorge, Leonardo Ré; Jung, Kirsten; Keyel, Alexander C; Klein, Alexandra-Maria; Klemmer, Sandra; Krauss, Jochen; Lange, Markus; Müller, Jörg; Overmann, Jörg; Pašalić, Esther; Penone, Caterina; Perović, David J; Purschke, Oliver; Schall, Peter; Socher, Stephanie A; Sonnemann, Ilja; Tschapka, Marco; Tscharntke, Teja; Türke, Manfred; Venter, Paul Christiaan; Weiner, Christiane N; Werner, Michael; Wolters, Volkmar; Wurst, Susanne; Westphal, Catrin; Fischer, Markus; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Allan, Eric

    2016-12-08

    Land-use intensification is a major driver of biodiversity loss. Alongside reductions in local species diversity, biotic homogenization at larger spatial scales is of great concern for conservation. Biotic homogenization means a decrease in β-diversity (the compositional dissimilarity between sites). Most studies have investigated losses in local (α)-diversity and neglected biodiversity loss at larger spatial scales. Studies addressing β-diversity have focused on single or a few organism groups (for example, ref. 4), and it is thus unknown whether land-use intensification homogenizes communities at different trophic levels, above- and belowground. Here we show that even moderate increases in local land-use intensity (LUI) cause biotic homogenization across microbial, plant and animal groups, both above- and belowground, and that this is largely independent of changes in α-diversity. We analysed a unique grassland biodiversity dataset, with abundances of more than 4,000 species belonging to 12 trophic groups. LUI, and, in particular, high mowing intensity, had consistent effects on β-diversity across groups, causing a homogenization of soil microbial, fungal pathogen, plant and arthropod communities. These effects were nonlinear and the strongest declines in β-diversity occurred in the transition from extensively managed to intermediate intensity grassland. LUI tended to reduce local α-diversity in aboveground groups, whereas the α-diversity increased in belowground groups. Correlations between the β-diversity of different groups, particularly between plants and their consumers, became weaker at high LUI. This suggests a loss of specialist species and is further evidence for biotic homogenization. The consistently negative effects of LUI on landscape-scale biodiversity underscore the high value of extensively managed grasslands for conserving multitrophic biodiversity and ecosystem service provision. Indeed, biotic homogenization rather than local diversity

  17. A homogeneous cooling scheme investigation for high power slab laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jianguo; Lin, Weiran; Fan, Zhongwei; Chen, Yanzhong; Ge, Wenqi; Yu, Jin; Liu, Hao; Mo, Zeqiang; Fan, Lianwen; Jia, Dan

    2017-10-01

    The forced convective heat transfer with the advantages of reliability and durability is widely used in cooling the laser gain medium. However, a flow direction induced temperature gradient always appears. In this paper, a novel cooling configuration based on longitudinal forced convective heat transfer is presented. In comparison with two different types of configurations, it shows a more efficient heat transfer and more homogeneous temperature distribution. The investigation of the flow rate reveals that the higher flow rate the better cooling performance. Furthermore, the simulation results with 20 L/min flow rate shows an adequate temperature level and temperature homogeneity which keeps a lower hydrostatic pressure in the flow path.

  18. Early capillary flux homogenization in response to neural activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonghwan; Wu, Weicheng; Boas, David A

    2016-02-01

    This Brief Communication reports early homogenization of capillary network flow during somatosensory activation in the rat cerebral cortex. We used optical coherence tomography and statistical intensity variation analysis for tracing changes in the red blood cell flux over hundreds of capillaries nearly at the same time with 1-s resolution. We observed that while the mean capillary flux exhibited a typical increase during activation, the standard deviation of the capillary flux exhibited an early decrease that happened before the mean flux increase. This network-level data is consistent with the theoretical hypothesis that capillary flow homogenizes during activation to improve oxygen delivery. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Self-consolidating concrete homogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarque, J. C.

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Concrete instability may lead to the non-uniform distribution of its properties. The homogeneity of self-consolidating concrete in vertically cast members was therefore explored in this study, analyzing both resistance to segregation and pore structure uniformity. To this end, two series of concretes were prepared, self-consolidating and traditional vibrated materials, with different w/c ratios and types of cement. The results showed that selfconsolidating concretes exhibit high resistance to segregation, albeit slightly lower than found in the traditional mixtures. The pore structure in the former, however, tended to be slightly more uniform, probably as a result of less intense bleeding. Such concretes are also characterized by greater bulk density, lower porosity and smaller mean pore size, which translates into a higher resistance to pressurized water. For pore diameters of over about 0.5 μm, however, the pore size distribution was found to be similar to the distribution in traditional concretes, with similar absorption rates.En este trabajo se estudia la homogeneidad de los hormigones autocompactantes en piezas hormigonadas verticalmente, determinando su resistencia a la segregación y la uniformidad de su estructura porosa, dado que la pérdida de estabilidad de una mezcla puede conducir a una distribución no uniforme de sus propiedades. Para ello se han fabricado dos tipos de hormigones, uno autocompactante y otro tradicional vibrado, con diferentes relaciones a/c y distintos tipos de cemento. Los resultados ponen de manifiesto que los hormigones autocompactantes presentan una buena resistencia a la segregación, aunque algo menor que la registrada en los hormigones tradicionales. A pesar de ello, su estructura porosa tiende a ser ligeramente más uniforme, debido probablemente a un menor sangrado. Asimismo, presentan una mayor densidad aparente, una menor porosidad y un menor tamaño medio de poro, lo que les confiere mejores

  20. Method of the characteristics for calculation of VVER without homogenization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suslov, I.R.; Komlev, O.G.; Novikova, N.N.; Zemskov, E.A.; Tormyshev, I.V.; Melnikov, K.G.; Sidorov, E.B. [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    2005-07-01

    The first stage of the development of characteristics code MCCG3D for calculation of the VVER-type reactor without homogenization is presented. The parallel version of the code for MPI was developed and tested on cluster PC with LINUX-OS. Further development of the MCCG3D code for design-level calculations with full-scale space-distributed feedbacks is discussed. For validation of the MCCG3D code we use the critical assembly VENUS-2. The geometrical models with and without homogenization have been used. With both models the MCCG3D results agree well with the experimental power distribution and with results generated by the other codes, but model without homogenization provides better results. The perturbation theory for MCCG3D code is developed and implemented in the module KEFSFGG. The calculations with KEFSFGG are in good agreement with direct calculations. (authors)

  1. Complex terrain influences ecosystem carbon responses to temperature and precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, W. M.; Epstein, H. E.; Li, X.; McGlynn, B. L.; Riveros-Iregui, D. A.; Emanuel, R. E.

    2017-08-01

    Terrestrial ecosystem responses to temperature and precipitation have major implications for the global carbon cycle. Case studies demonstrate that complex terrain, which accounts for more than 50% of Earth's land surface, can affect ecological processes associated with land-atmosphere carbon fluxes. However, no studies have addressed the role of complex terrain in mediating ecophysiological responses of land-atmosphere carbon fluxes to climate variables. We synthesized data from AmeriFlux towers and found that for sites in complex terrain, responses of ecosystem CO2 fluxes to temperature and precipitation are organized according to terrain slope and drainage area, variables associated with water and energy availability. Specifically, we found that for tower sites in complex terrain, mean topographic slope and drainage area surrounding the tower explained between 51% and 78% of site-to-site variation in the response of CO2 fluxes to temperature and precipitation depending on the time scale. We found no such organization among sites in flat terrain, even though their flux responses exhibited similar ranges. These results challenge prevailing conceptual framework in terrestrial ecosystem modeling that assumes that CO2 fluxes derive from vertical soil-plant-climate interactions. We conclude that the terrain in which ecosystems are situated can also have important influences on CO2 responses to temperature and precipitation. This work has implications for about 14% of the total land area of the conterminous U.S. This area is considered topographically complex and contributes to approximately 15% of gross ecosystem carbon production in the conterminous U.S.

  2. Planning and design considerations in karst terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, J. A.; Greene, R. W.; Ottoson, R. S.; Graham, T. C.

    1988-10-01

    This article discusses the various steps that the authors feel are necessary to the successful progression of an engineered project sited in karst terrain. The procedures require a multidisciplined approach with liaison and cooperation among the various parties to the project. Initially, the prospective owner must have sufficient understanding of the potential engineering problems to incorporate the engineering geologist into the early stages of any planned acquisition. The first step in an investigation should include a review of the available geologic information, aerial photo interpretation, consultation with the State Geological Survey, and a geologic reconnaissance of the prospective site and surrounding area. A go-no-go decision as to purchase can often been made at an early time. Although, in some instances, more study is needed for a particularly intriguing property. The second stage should consider the various planning alternatives that are feasible based upon the limited available information. At this stage planning/purchase decisions can be made as to purchasing options, value of the property, design constraints, and the possible economic penalties that could be associated with the potential site construction. Various planning and construction alternatives should be considered in this phase of the work. The third stage should include a site investigation program of moderate size, consisting of test pits and/or exploratory borings. The borings should be drilled using water as the drilling fluid, with an experienced crew and qualified technical inspection. The authors find the use of geophysical techniques can be extremely misleading unless used in conjunction with exploratory drilling. Successful evaluations using geophysical procedures occur only under ideal conditions. The geotechnical viability of the plan and preliminary design should be investigated in the fourth phase. Additionally, the physical parameters required for the design of structures

  3. Benchmarking homogenization algorithms for monthly data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venema, V. K. C.; Mestre, O.; Aguilar, E.; Auer, I.; Guijarro, J. A.; Domonkos, P.; Vertacnik, G.; Szentimrey, T.; Stepanek, P.; Zahradnicek, P.; Viarre, J.; Müller-Westermeier, G.; Lakatos, M.; Williams, C. N.; Menne, M. J.; Lindau, R.; Rasol, D.; Rustemeier, E.; Kolokythas, K.; Marinova, T.; Andresen, L.; Acquaotta, F.; Fratiannil, S.; Cheval, S.; Klancar, M.; Brunetti, M.; Gruber, C.; Prohom Duran, M.; Likso, T.; Esteban, P.; Brandsma, T.; Willett, K.

    2013-09-01

    The COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology) Action ES0601: Advances in homogenization methods of climate series: an integrated approach (HOME) has executed a blind intercomparison and validation study for monthly homogenization algorithms. Time series of monthly temperature and precipitation were evaluated because of their importance for climate studies. The algorithms were validated against a realistic benchmark dataset. Participants provided 25 separate homogenized contributions as part of the blind study as well as 22 additional solutions submitted after the details of the imposed inhomogeneities were revealed. These homogenized datasets were assessed by a number of performance metrics including i) the centered root mean square error relative to the true homogeneous values at various averaging scales, ii) the error in linear trend estimates and iii) traditional contingency skill scores. The metrics were computed both using the individual station series as well as the network average regional series. The performance of the contributions depends significantly on the error metric considered. Although relative homogenization algorithms typically improve the homogeneity of temperature data, only the best ones improve precipitation data. Moreover, state-of-the-art relative homogenization algorithms developed to work with an inhomogeneous reference are shown to perform best. The study showed that currently automatic algorithms can perform as well as manual ones.

  4. Investigations into homogenization of electromagnetic metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Niels Christian Jerichau

    This dissertation encompasses homogenization methods, with a special interest into their applications to metamaterial homogenization. The first method studied is the Floquet-Bloch method, that is based on the assumption of a material being infinite periodic. Its field can then be expanded in term...

  5. Homogeneity of Prototypical Attributes in Soccer Teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Zepp

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Research indicates that the homogeneous perception of prototypical attributes influences several intragroup processes. The aim of the present study was to describe the homogeneous perception of the prototype and to identify specific prototypical subcategories, which are perceived as homogeneous within sport teams. The sample consists of N = 20 soccer teams with a total of N = 278 athletes (age M = 23.5 years, SD = 5.0 years. The results reveal that subcategories describing the cohesiveness of the team and motivational attributes are mentioned homogeneously within sport teams. In addition, gender, identification, team size, and the championship ranking significantly correlate with the homogeneous perception of prototypical attributes. The results are discussed on the basis of theoretical and practical implications.

  6. Data Fusion of Gridded Snow Products Enhanced with Terrain Covariates and a Simple Snow Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snauffer, A. M.; Hsieh, W. W.; Cannon, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    Hydrologic planning requires accurate estimates of regional snow water equivalent (SWE), particularly areas with hydrologic regimes dominated by spring melt. While numerous gridded data products provide such estimates, accurate representations are particularly challenging under conditions of mountainous terrain, heavy forest cover and large snow accumulations, contexts which in many ways define the province of British Columbia (BC), Canada. One promising avenue of improving SWE estimates is a data fusion approach which combines field observations with gridded SWE products and relevant covariates. A base artificial neural network (ANN) was constructed using three of the best performing gridded SWE products over BC (ERA-Interim/Land, MERRA and GLDAS-2) and simple location and time covariates. This base ANN was then enhanced to include terrain covariates (slope, aspect and Terrain Roughness Index, TRI) as well as a simple 1-layer energy balance snow model driven by gridded bias-corrected ANUSPLIN temperature and precipitation values. The ANN enhanced with all aforementioned covariates performed better than the base ANN, but most of the skill improvement was attributable to the snow model with very little contribution from the terrain covariates. The enhanced ANN improved station mean absolute error (MAE) by an average of 53% relative to the composing gridded products over the province. Interannual peak SWE correlation coefficient was found to be 0.78, an improvement of 0.05 to 0.18 over the composing products. This nonlinear approach outperformed a comparable multiple linear regression (MLR) model by 22% in MAE and 0.04 in interannual correlation. The enhanced ANN has also been shown to estimate better than the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model calibrated and run for four BC watersheds, improving MAE by 22% and correlation by 0.05. The performance improvements of the enhanced ANN are statistically significant at the 5% level across the province and

  7. An Optimized Method for Terrain Reconstruction Based on Descent Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Xinchao

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available An optimization method is proposed to perform high-accuracy terrain reconstruction of the landing area of Chang’e III. First, feature matching is conducted using geometric model constraints. Then, the initial terrain is obtained and the initial normal vector of each point is solved on the basis of the initial terrain. By changing the vector around the initial normal vector in small steps a set of new vectors is obtained. By combining these vectors with the direction of light and camera, the functions are set up on the basis of a surface reflection model. Then, a series of gray values is derived by solving the equations. The new optimized vector is recorded when the obtained gray value is closest to the corresponding pixel. Finally, the optimized terrain is obtained after iteration of the vector field. Experiments were conducted using the laboratory images and descent images of Chang’e III. The results showed that the performance of the proposed method was better than that of the classical feature matching method. It can provide a reference for terrain reconstruction of the landing area in subsequent moon exploration missions.

  8. Generating color terrain images in an emergency response system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belles, R.D.

    1985-08-01

    The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) provides real-time assessments of the consequences resulting from an atmospheric release of radioactive material. In support of this operation, a system has been created which integrates numerical models, data acquisition systems, data analysis techniques, and professional staff. Of particular importance is the rapid generation of graphical images of the terrain surface in the vicinity of the accident site. A terrain data base and an associated acquisition system have been developed that provide the required terrain data. This data is then used as input to a collection of graphics programs which create and display realistic color images of the terrain. The graphics system currently has the capability of generating color shaded relief images from both overhead and perspective viewpoints within minutes. These images serve to quickly familiarize ARAC assessors with the terrain near the release location, and thus permit them to make better informed decisions in modeling the behavior of the released material. 7 refs., 8 figs

  9. String pair production in non homogeneous backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolognesi, S. [Department of Physics “E. Fermi” University of Pisa, and INFN - Sezione di Pisa,Largo Pontecorvo, 3, Ed. C, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Rabinovici, E. [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem,91904 Jerusalem (Israel); Tallarita, G. [Departamento de Ciencias, Facultad de Artes Liberales,Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Santiago 7941169 (Chile)

    2016-04-28

    We consider string pair production in non homogeneous electric backgrounds. We study several particular configurations which can be addressed with the Euclidean world-sheet instanton technique, the analogue of the world-line instanton for particles. In the first case the string is suspended between two D-branes in flat space-time, in the second case the string lives in AdS and terminates on one D-brane (this realizes the holographic Schwinger effect). In some regions of parameter space the result is well approximated by the known analytical formulas, either the particle pair production in non-homogeneous background or the string pair production in homogeneous background. In other cases we see effects which are intrinsically stringy and related to the non-homogeneity of the background. The pair production is enhanced already for particles in time dependent electric field backgrounds. The string nature enhances this even further. For spacial varying electrical background fields the string pair production is less suppressed than the rate of particle pair production. We discuss in some detail how the critical field is affected by the non-homogeneity, for both time and space dependent electric field backgrouds. We also comment on what could be an interesting new prediction for the small field limit. The third case we consider is pair production in holographic confining backgrounds with homogeneous and non-homogeneous fields.

  10. String pair production in non homogeneous backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolognesi, S.; Rabinovici, E.; Tallarita, G.

    2016-01-01

    We consider string pair production in non homogeneous electric backgrounds. We study several particular configurations which can be addressed with the Euclidean world-sheet instanton technique, the analogue of the world-line instanton for particles. In the first case the string is suspended between two D-branes in flat space-time, in the second case the string lives in AdS and terminates on one D-brane (this realizes the holographic Schwinger effect). In some regions of parameter space the result is well approximated by the known analytical formulas, either the particle pair production in non-homogeneous background or the string pair production in homogeneous background. In other cases we see effects which are intrinsically stringy and related to the non-homogeneity of the background. The pair production is enhanced already for particles in time dependent electric field backgrounds. The string nature enhances this even further. For spacial varying electrical background fields the string pair production is less suppressed than the rate of particle pair production. We discuss in some detail how the critical field is affected by the non-homogeneity, for both time and space dependent electric field backgrouds. We also comment on what could be an interesting new prediction for the small field limit. The third case we consider is pair production in holographic confining backgrounds with homogeneous and non-homogeneous fields.

  11. Benchmarking homogenization algorithms for monthly data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. C. Venema

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology Action ES0601: advances in homogenization methods of climate series: an integrated approach (HOME has executed a blind intercomparison and validation study for monthly homogenization algorithms. Time series of monthly temperature and precipitation were evaluated because of their importance for climate studies and because they represent two important types of statistics (additive and multiplicative. The algorithms were validated against a realistic benchmark dataset. The benchmark contains real inhomogeneous data as well as simulated data with inserted inhomogeneities. Random independent break-type inhomogeneities with normally distributed breakpoint sizes were added to the simulated datasets. To approximate real world conditions, breaks were introduced that occur simultaneously in multiple station series within a simulated network of station data. The simulated time series also contained outliers, missing data periods and local station trends. Further, a stochastic nonlinear global (network-wide trend was added.

    Participants provided 25 separate homogenized contributions as part of the blind study. After the deadline at which details of the imposed inhomogeneities were revealed, 22 additional solutions were submitted. These homogenized datasets were assessed by a number of performance metrics including (i the centered root mean square error relative to the true homogeneous value at various averaging scales, (ii the error in linear trend estimates and (iii traditional contingency skill scores. The metrics were computed both using the individual station series as well as the network average regional series. The performance of the contributions depends significantly on the error metric considered. Contingency scores by themselves are not very informative. Although relative homogenization algorithms typically improve the homogeneity of temperature data, only the best ones improve

  12. Hybrid RANS/LES applied to complex terrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Andreas; Sørensen, Niels N.

    2011-01-01

    Large Eddy Simulation (LES) of the wind in complex terrain is limited by computational cost. The number of computational grid points required to resolve the near-ground turbulent structures (eddies) are very high. The traditional solution to the problem has been to apply a wall function...... aspect ratio in the RANS layer and thereby resolve the mean near-wall velocity profile. The method is applicable to complex terrain and the benefits of traditional LES are kept intact. Using the hybrid method, simulations of the wind over a natural complex terrain near Wellington in New Zealand...... that accounts for the whole near-wall region. Recently, a hybrid method was proposed in which the eddies close to the ground were modelled in a Reynolds-averaged sense (RANS) and the eddies above this region were simulated using LES. The advantage of the approach is the ability to use shallow cells of high...

  13. Landsat analysis of tropical forest succession employing a terrain model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barringer, T. H.; Robinson, V. B.; Coiner, J. C.; Bruce, R. C.

    1980-01-01

    Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) data have yielded a dual classification of rain forest and shadow in an analysis of a semi-deciduous forest on Mindonoro Island, Philippines. Both a spatial terrain model, using a fifth side polynomial trend surface analysis for quantitatively estimating the general spatial variation in the data set, and a spectral terrain model, based on the MSS data, have been set up. A discriminant analysis, using both sets of data, has suggested that shadowing effects may be due primarily to local variations in the spectral regions and can therefore be compensated for through the decomposition of the spatial variation in both elevation and MSS data.

  14. Terrain Mapping and Obstacle Detection Using Gaussian Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Morten; Massaro, Alessandro Salvatore; Bayramoglu, Enis

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we consider a probabilistic method for extracting terrain maps from a scene and use the information to detect potential navigation obstacles within it. The method uses Gaussian process regression (GPR) to predict an estimate function and its relative uncertainty. To test the new...... show that the estimated maps follow the terrain shape, while protrusions are identified and may be isolated as potential obstacles. Representing the data with a covariance function allows a dramatic reduction of the amount of data to process, while maintaining the statistical properties of the measured...... and interpolated features....

  15. Are Titan's radial Labyrinth terrains surface expressions of large laccoliths?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurmeier, L.; Dombard, A. J.; Malaska, M.; Radebaugh, J.

    2017-12-01

    The Labyrinth terrain unit may be the one of the best examples of the surface expression of Titan's complicated history. They are characterized as highly eroded, dissected, and elevated plateaus and remnant ridges, with an assumed composition that is likely organic-rich based on radar emissivity. How these features accumulated organic-rich sediments and formed topographic highs by either locally uplifting or surviving pervasive regional deflation or erosion is an important question for understanding the history of Titan. There are several subsets of Labyrinth terrains, presumably with differing evolutionary histories and formation processes. We aim to explain the formation of a subset of Labyrinth terrain units informally referred to as "radial Labyrinth terrains." They are elevated and appear dome-like, circular in planform, have a strong radial dissection pattern, are bordered by Undifferentiated Plains units, and are found in the mid-latitudes. Based on their shape, clustering, and dimensions, we suggest that they may be the surface expression of large subsurface laccoliths. A recent study by Manga and Michaut (Icarus, 2017) explained Europa's lenticulae (pits, domes, spots) with the formation of saucer-shaped sills that form laccoliths around the brittle-ductile transition depth within the ice shell (1-5 km). Here, we apply the same scaling relationships and find that the larger size of radial labyrinth terrains with Titan's higher gravity implies deeper intrusion depths of around 20-40 km. This intrusion depth matches the expected brittle-ductile transition on Titan based on our finite element simulations and yield strength envelope analyses. We hypothesize that Titan's radial labyrinth terrains formed as cryovolcanic (water) intrusions that rose to the brittle-ductile transition within the ice shell where they spread horizontally, and uplifted the overlying ice. The organic-rich sedimentary cover also uplifted, becoming more susceptible to pluvial and fluvial

  16. Poisson-Jacobi reduction of homogeneous tensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabowski, J; Iglesias, D; Marrero, J C; Padron, E; Urbanski, P

    2004-01-01

    The notion of homogeneous tensors is discussed. We show that there is a one-to-one correspondence between multivector fields on a manifold M, homogeneous with respect to a vector field Δ on M, and first-order polydifferential operators on a closed submanifold N of codimension 1 such that Δ is transversal to N. This correspondence relates the Schouten-Nijenhuis bracket of multivector fields on M to the Schouten-Jacobi bracket of first-order polydifferential operators on N and generalizes the Poissonization of Jacobi manifolds. Actually, it can be viewed as a super-Poissonization. This procedure of passing from a homogeneous multivector field to a first-order polydifferential operator can also be understood as a sort of reduction; in the standard case-a half of a Poisson reduction. A dual version of the above correspondence yields in particular the correspondence between Δ-homogeneous symplectic structures on M and contact structures on N

  17. Computational Method for Atomistic-Continuum Homogenization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chung, Peter

    2002-01-01

    The homogenization method is used as a framework for developing a multiscale system of equations involving atoms at zero temperature at the small scale and continuum mechanics at the very large scale...

  18. Homogenization and Control of Lattice Structures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blankenship, G. L

    1985-01-01

    ...., trusses may be modeled by beam equations). Using a technique from the mathematics of asymptotic analysis called "homogenization," the author shows how such approximations may be derived in a systematic way that avoids errors made using...

  19. Homogenization of High-Contrast Brinkman Flows

    KAUST Repository

    Brown, Donald L.; Efendiev, Yalchin R.; Li, Guanglian; Savatorova, Viktoria

    2015-01-01

    , Homogenization: Methods and Applications, Transl. Math. Monogr. 234, American Mathematical Society, Providence, RI, 2007, G. Allaire, SIAM J. Math. Anal., 23 (1992), pp. 1482--1518], although a powerful tool, are not applicable here. Our second point

  20. TopoSCALE v.1.0: downscaling gridded climate data in complex terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiddes, J.; Gruber, S.

    2014-02-01

    Simulation of land surface processes is problematic in heterogeneous terrain due to the the high resolution required of model grids to capture strong lateral variability caused by, for example, topography, and the lack of accurate meteorological forcing data at the site or scale it is required. Gridded data products produced by atmospheric models can fill this gap, however, often not at an appropriate spatial resolution to drive land-surface simulations. In this study we describe a method that uses the well-resolved description of the atmospheric column provided by climate models, together with high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs), to downscale coarse-grid climate variables to a fine-scale subgrid. The main aim of this approach is to provide high-resolution driving data for a land-surface model (LSM). The method makes use of an interpolation of pressure-level data according to topographic height of the subgrid. An elevation and topography correction is used to downscale short-wave radiation. Long-wave radiation is downscaled by deriving a cloud-component of all-sky emissivity at grid level and using downscaled temperature and relative humidity fields to describe variability with elevation. Precipitation is downscaled with a simple non-linear lapse and optionally disaggregated using a climatology approach. We test the method in comparison with unscaled grid-level data and a set of reference methods, against a large evaluation dataset (up to 210 stations per variable) in the Swiss Alps. We demonstrate that the method can be used to derive meteorological inputs in complex terrain, with most significant improvements (with respect to reference methods) seen in variables derived from pressure levels: air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and incoming long-wave radiation. This method may be of use in improving inputs to numerical simulations in heterogeneous and/or remote terrain, especially when statistical methods are not possible, due to lack of

  1. Homogenized thermal conduction model for particulate foods

    OpenAIRE

    Chinesta , Francisco; Torres , Rafael; Ramón , Antonio; Rodrigo , Mari Carmen; Rodrigo , Miguel

    2002-01-01

    International audience; This paper deals with the definition of an equivalent thermal conductivity for particulate foods. An homogenized thermal model is used to asses the effect of particulate spatial distribution and differences in thermal conductivities. We prove that the spatial average of the conductivity can be used in an homogenized heat transfer model if the conductivity differences among the food components are not very large, usually the highest conductivity ratio between the foods ...

  2. Layout optimization using the homogenization method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Katsuyuki; Kikuchi, Noboru

    1993-01-01

    A generalized layout problem involving sizing, shape, and topology optimization is solved by using the homogenization method for three-dimensional linearly elastic shell structures in order to seek a possibility of establishment of an integrated design system of automotive car bodies, as an extension of the previous work by Bendsoe and Kikuchi. A formulation of a three-dimensional homogenized shell, a solution algorithm, and several examples of computing the optimum layout are presented in this first part of the two articles.

  3. Wind Tunnel Modeling Of Wind Flow Over Complex Terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, D.; Cochran, B.

    2010-12-01

    This presentation will describe the finding of an atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) wind tunnel study conducted as part of the Bolund Experiment. This experiment was sponsored by Risø DTU (National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark) during the fall of 2009 to enable a blind comparison of various air flow models in an attempt to validate their performance in predicting airflow over complex terrain. Bohlund hill sits 12 m above the water level at the end of a narrow isthmus. The island features a steep escarpment on one side, over which the airflow can be expected to separate. The island was equipped with several anemometer towers, and the approach flow over the water was well characterized. This study was one of only two only physical model studies included in the blind model comparison, the other being a water plume study. The remainder were computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations, including both RANS and LES. Physical modeling of air flow over topographical features has been used since the middle of the 20th century, and the methods required are well understood and well documented. Several books have been written describing how to properly perform ABL wind tunnel studies, including ASCE manual of engineering practice 67. Boundary layer wind tunnel tests are the only modelling method deemed acceptable in ASCE 7-10, the most recent edition of the American Society of Civil Engineers standard that provides wind loads for buildings and other structures for buildings codes across the US. Since the 1970’s, most tall structures undergo testing in a boundary layer wind tunnel to accurately determine the wind induced loading. When compared to CFD, the US EPA considers a properly executed wind tunnel study to be equivalent to a CFD model with infinitesimal grid resolution and near infinite memory. One key reason for this widespread acceptance is that properly executed ABL wind tunnel studies will accurately simulate flow separation

  4. A method for separation of the terrain and non-terrain from Vehicle-borne Laser Scanning Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Jiangxia; Zhong, Ruofei

    2014-01-01

    Half the points from vehicle-borne laser scanning data are terrain data. If you want to extract features such as trees, street lights and buildings, terrain points must be removed. Nowadays, either airborne or vehicle-borne laser data, are mostly used to set an elevation threshold based on the scanning line or POS data to determine whether the point is a terrain point or not, but the disadvantage is part of low buildings or other feature objects will be lost. If the study area has high differences in the horizontal or the forward direction, this method is not applicable. This paper investigates a new methodology to extract the terrain points, which has great significance for data reduction and classification. The procedure includes the following steps: 1)Pre-processing: to remove discrete points and abnormal points. 2) Divided all the points into grid, calculating the average value of the XY and the minimum value of the Z of all the points in the same grid as the central point of the grid.3) Choose nearest six points which are close to the centre point to fitting the quadratic surface.4)Compare the normal vector of the fitting surface of the grid to the normal vector of the 8-neighborhood, if the difference is too big, it will be smoothed.5) Determine whether the point in the grid is on the surface, if the point belongs to the surface, it will be classified as terrain point. The results and evaluation have shown the effectiveness of the method and its potential in separation of the terrain of various areas

  5. Diffusion piecewise homogenization via flux discontinuity ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Richard; Dante, Giorgio; Zmijarevic, Igor

    2013-01-01

    We analyze piecewise homogenization with flux-weighted cross sections and preservation of averaged currents at the boundary of the homogenized domain. Introduction of a set of flux discontinuity ratios (FDR) that preserve reference interface currents leads to preservation of averaged region reaction rates and fluxes. We consider the class of numerical discretizations with one degree of freedom per volume and per surface and prove that when the homogenization and computing meshes are equal there is a unique solution for the FDRs which exactly preserve interface currents. For diffusion sub-meshing we introduce a Jacobian-Free Newton-Krylov method and for all cases considered obtain an 'exact' numerical solution (eight digits for the interface currents). The homogenization is completed by extending the familiar full assembly homogenization via flux discontinuity factors to the sides of regions laying on the boundary of the piecewise homogenized domain. Finally, for the familiar nodal discretization we numerically find that the FDRs obtained with no sub-mesh (nearly at no cost) can be effectively used for whole-core diffusion calculations with sub-mesh. This is not the case, however, for cell-centered finite differences. (authors)

  6. Hexographic Method of Complex Town-Planning Terrain Estimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khudyakov, A. Ju

    2017-11-01

    The article deals with the vital problem of a complex town-planning analysis based on the “hexographic” graphic analytic method, makes a comparison with conventional terrain estimate methods and contains the method application examples. It discloses a procedure of the author’s estimate of restrictions and building of a mathematical model which reflects not only conventional town-planning restrictions, but also social and aesthetic aspects of the analyzed territory. The method allows one to quickly get an idea of the territory potential. It is possible to use an unlimited number of estimated factors. The method can be used for the integrated assessment of urban areas. In addition, it is possible to use the methods of preliminary evaluation of the territory commercial attractiveness in the preparation of investment projects. The technique application results in simple informative graphics. Graphical interpretation is straightforward from the experts. A definite advantage is the free perception of the subject results as they are not prepared professionally. Thus, it is possible to build a dialogue between professionals and the public on a new level allowing to take into account the interests of various parties. At the moment, the method is used as a tool for the preparation of integrated urban development projects at the Department of Architecture in Federal State Autonomous Educational Institution of Higher Education “South Ural State University (National Research University)”, FSAEIHE SUSU (NRU). The methodology is included in a course of lectures as the material on architectural and urban design for architecture students. The same methodology was successfully tested in the preparation of business strategies for the development of some territories in the Chelyabinsk region. This publication is the first in a series of planned activities developing and describing the methodology of hexographical analysis in urban and architectural practice. It is also

  7. On the vertical exchange of heat, mass and momentum over complex, mountainous terrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Walter Rotach

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The role of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL in the atmosphere-climate system is the exchange of heat, mass and momentum between ‘the earth’s surface’ and the atmosphere. Traditionally, it is understood that turbulent transport is responsible for this exchange and hence the understanding and physical description of the turbulence structure of the boundary layer is key to assess the effectiveness of earth-atmosphere exchange. This understanding is rooted in the (implicit assumption of a scale separation or spectral gap between turbulence and mean atmospheric motions, which in turn leads to the assumption of a horizontally homogeneous and flat (HHF surface as a reference, for which both physical understanding and model parameterizations have successfully been developed over the years. Over mountainous terrain, however, the ABL is generically inhomogeneous due to both thermal (radiative and dynamic forcing. This inhomogeneity leads to meso-scale and even sub-meso-scale flows such as slope and valley winds or wake effects. It is argued here that these (submeso-scale motions can significantly contribute to the vertical structure of the boundary layer and hence vertical exchange of heat and mass between the surface and the atmosphere. If model grid resolution is not high enough the latter will have to be parameterized (in a similar fashion as gravity wave drag parameterizations take into account the momentum transport due to gravity waves in large-scale models. In this contribution we summarize the available evidence of the contribution of (submeso-scale motions to vertical exchange in mountainous terrain from observational and numerical modeling studies. In particular, a number of recent simulation studies using idealized topography will be summarized and put into perspective – so as to identify possible limitations and areas of necessary future research.

  8. Exploring cosmic homogeneity with the BOSS DR12 galaxy sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ntelis, Pierros; Hamilton, Jean-Christophe; Busca, Nicolas Guillermo; Aubourg, Eric [APC, Université Paris Diderot-Paris 7, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA, Observatoire de Paris, 10, rue A. Domon and L. Duquet, Paris (France); Goff, Jean-Marc Le; Burtin, Etienne; Laurent, Pierre; Rich, James; Bourboux, Hélion du Mas des; Delabrouille, Nathalie Palanque [CEA, Centre de Saclay, IRFU/SPP, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Tinker, Jeremy [Department of Physics and Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York University, 726 Broadway, New York (United States); Bautista, Julian [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Delubac, Timothée [Laboratoire d' astrophysique, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Observatoire de Sauverny, CH-1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Eftekharzadeh, Sarah; Myers, Adam [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Hogg, David W. [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, Meyer Hall of Physics, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Vargas-Magaña, Mariana [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apdo. Postal 20-364, México (Mexico); Pâris, Isabelle [Aix Marseille Universite, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, 13388, Marseille (France); Petitjean, Partick [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, CNRS-UPMC, UMR7095, 98bis bd Arago, Paris, 75014 France (France); Rossi, Graziano, E-mail: pntelis@apc.in2p3.fr, E-mail: jchamilton75@gmail.com [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Sejong University, Seoul, 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we probe the transition to cosmic homogeneity in the Large Scale Structure (LSS) of the Universe using the CMASS galaxy sample of BOSS spectroscopic survey which covers the largest effective volume to date, 3 h {sup −3} Gpc{sup 3} at 0.43 ≤ z ≤ 0.7. We study the scaled counts-in-spheres, N(< r ), and the fractal correlation dimension, D{sub 2}( r ), to assess the homogeneity scale of the universe using a Landy and Szalay inspired estimator. Defining the scale of transition to homogeneity as the scale at which D{sub 2}( r ) reaches 3 within 1%, i.e. D{sub 2}( r )>2.97 for r >R {sub H} , we find R {sub H} = (63.3±0.7) h {sup −1} Mpc, in agreement at the percentage level with the predictions of the ΛCDM model R {sub H} =62.0 h {sup −1} Mpc. Thanks to the large cosmic depth of the survey, we investigate the redshift evolution of the transition to homogeneity scale and find agreement with the ΛCDM prediction. Finally, we find that D{sub 2} is compatible with 3 at scales larger than 300 h {sup −1} Mpc in all redshift bins. These results consolidate the Cosmological Principle and represent a precise consistency test of the ΛCDM model.

  9. TERRAIN Submission for VAN BUREN COUNTY, IA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This is collection level metadata for LAS and ASCII data files from the statewide Iowa Lidar Project. The Iowa Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) Project collects...

  10. New formulation for interferometric synthetic aperture radar for terrain mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakowatz, Charles V., Jr.; Wahl, Daniel E.; Eichel, Paul H.; Thompson, Paul A.

    1994-06-01

    The subject of interferometric synthetic aperture radar (IFSAR) for high-accuracy terrain elevation mapping continues to gain importance in the arena of radar signal processing. Applications to problems in precision terrain-aided guidance and automatic target recognition, as well as a variety of civil applications, are being studied by a number of researchers. Not unlike many other areas of SAR processing, the subject of IFSAR can, at first glance, appear to be somewhat mysterious. In this paper we show how the mathematics of IFSAR for terrain elevation mapping using a pair of spotlight mode SAR collections can be derived in a very straightforward manner. Here, we employ an approach that relies entirely on Fourier transforms, and utilizes no reference to range equations or Doppler concepts. The result is a simplified explanation of the fundamentals of interferometry, including an easily-seen link between image domain phase difference and terrain elevation height. The derivation builds upon previous work by the authors in which a framework for spotlight mode SAR image formation based on an analogy to 3D computerized axial tomography (CAT) was developed. After outlining the major steps in the mathematics, we show how a computer simulator which utilizes 3D Fourier transforms can be constructed that demonstrates all of the major aspects of IFSAR from spotlight mode collections.

  11. Group Dynamics and Decision Making: Backcountry Recreationists in Avalanche Terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Leslie Shay

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe and determine the prevalence of decision-making characteristics of recreational backcountry groups when making a decision of where to travel and ride in avalanche terrain from the perspective of individuals. Decision-making characteristics encompassed communication, decision-making processes, leadership,…

  12. The retrieval of land surface albedo in rugged terrain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, B.; Jia, L.; Menenti, M.

    2012-01-01

    Land surface albedo may be derived from the satellite data through the estimation of a bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) model and angular integration. However many BRDF models do not consider explicitly the topography. In rugged terrain, the topography influences the observed

  13. 14 CFR 91.223 - Terrain awareness and warning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to the terrain awareness and warning system audio and visual warnings. (d) Exceptions. Paragraphs (a... after March 29, 2002. Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, no person may operate a... minimum meets the requirements for Class B equipment in Technical Standard Order (TSO)-C151. (b) Airplanes...

  14. Integrating land cover and terrain characteristics to explain plague ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Literature suggests that higher resolution remote sensing data integrated in Geographic Information System (GIS) can provide greater possibility to refine the analysis of land cover and terrain characteristics for explanation of abundance and distribution of plague hosts and vectors and hence of health risk hazards to ...

  15. Planning Routes Across Economic Terrains: Maximizing Utility, Following Heuristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hang; Maddula, Soumya V.; Maloney, Laurence T.

    2010-01-01

    We designed an economic task to investigate human planning of routes in landscapes where travel in different kinds of terrain incurs different costs. Participants moved their finger across a touch screen from a starting point to a destination. The screen was divided into distinct kinds of terrain and travel within each kind of terrain imposed a cost proportional to distance traveled. We varied costs and spatial configurations of terrains and participants received fixed bonuses minus the total cost of the routes they chose. We first compared performance to a model maximizing gain. All but one of 12 participants failed to adopt least-cost routes and their failure to do so reduced their winnings by about 30% (median value). We tested in detail whether participants’ choices of routes satisfied three necessary conditions (heuristics) for a route to maximize gain. We report failures of one heuristic for 7 out of 12 participants. Last of all, we modeled human performance with the assumption that participants assign subjective utilities to costs and maximize utility. For 7 out 12 participants, the fitted utility function was an accelerating power function of actual cost and for the remaining 5, a decelerating power function. We discuss connections between utility aggregation in route planning and decision under risk. Our task could be adapted to investigate human strategy and optimality of route planning in full-scale landscapes. PMID:21833269

  16. Simulation of Wind Farms in Flat & Complex terrain using CFD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prospathopoulos, John; Cabezon, D.; Politis, E.S.

    2010-01-01

    , the combination of the induction factor method along with the turbulence correction provides satisfactory results. In the complex terrain case, there are some significant discrepancies with the measurements, which are discussed. In this case, the induction factor method does not provide satisfactory results....

  17. PLANNING ROUTES ACROSS ECONOMIC TERRAINS: MAXIMIZING UTILITY, FOLLOWING HEURISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang eZhang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We designed an economic task to investigate human planning of routes in landscapes where travel in different kinds of terrain incurs different costs. Participants moved their finger across a touch screen from a starting point to a destination. The screen was divided into distinct kinds of terrain and travel within each kind of terrain imposed a cost proportional to distance traveled. We varied costs and spatial configurations of terrains and participants received fixed bonuses minus the total cost of the routes they chose. We first compared performance to a model maximizing gain. All but one of 12 participants failed to adopt least-cost routes and their failure to do so reduced their winnings by about 30% (median value. We tested in detail whether participants’ choices of routes satisfied three necessary conditions (heuristics for a route to maximize gain. We report failures of one heuristic for 7 out of 12 participants. Last of all, we modeled human performance with the assumption that participants assign subjective utilities to costs and maximize utility. For 7 out 12 participants, the fitted utility function was an accelerating power function of actual cost and for the remaining 5, a decelerating power function. We discuss connections between utility aggregation in route planning and decision under risk. Our task could be adapted to investigate human strategy and optimality of route planning in full-scale landscapes.

  18. Scalable Algorithms for Large High-Resolution Terrain Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølhave, Thomas; Agarwal, Pankaj K.; Arge, Lars Allan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate that the technology required to perform typical GIS computations on very large high-resolution terrain models has matured enough to be ready for use by practitioners. We also demonstrate the impact that high-resolution data has on common problems. To our knowledge, so...

  19. 1 Integrating land cover and terrain characteristics to explain plague ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    influence of land cover and terrain factors on the abundance and spatial distribution ... factors operating at diverse scales, including climate (Debien et al., 2009; Ben Ari .... A cloud free three-band SPOT 5 image captured on 27 February 2007, ...

  20. Modeling Air-Quality in Complex Terrain Using Mesoscale and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Air-quality in a complex terrain (Colorado-River-Valley/Grand-Canyon Area, Southwest U.S.) is modeled using a higher-order closure mesoscale model and a higher-order closure dispersion model. Non-reactive tracers have been released in the Colorado-River valley, during winter and summer 1992, to study the ...