WorldWideScience

Sample records for level family income

  1. 24 CFR 81.17 - Affordability-Income level definitions-family size and income known (owner-occupied units, actual...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... definitions-family size and income known (owner-occupied units, actual tenants, and prospective tenants). 81...—Income level definitions—family size and income known (owner-occupied units, actual tenants, and...-income families, where the unit is owner-occupied or, for rental housing, family size and income...

  2. 12 CFR 1282.17 - Affordability-Income level definitions-family size and income known (owner-occupied units, actual...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... GOALS AND MISSION Housing Goals § 1282.17 Affordability—Income level definitions—family size and income..., for rental housing, family size and income information for the dwelling unit is known to the... sizes: Number of persons in family Percentageof area median income 1 70 2 80 3 90 4 100 5 or more...

  3. 24 CFR 81.18 - Affordability-Income level definitions-family size not known (actual or prospective tenants).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... definitions-family size not known (actual or prospective tenants). 81.18 Section 81.18 Housing and Urban... CORPORATION (FREDDIE MAC) Housing Goals § 81.18 Affordability—Income level definitions—family size not known... moderate-income families where family size is not known to the GSE, income will be adjusted using unit size...

  4. State-level income inequality and family burden of U.S. families raising children with special health care needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, Susan L; Rose, Roderick A; Dababnah, Sarah; Yoo, Joan; Cassiman, Shawn A

    2012-02-01

    Growing evidence supports the hypothesis that income inequality within a nation influences health outcomes net of the effect of any given household's absolute income. We tested the hypothesis that state-level income inequality in the United States is associated with increased family burden for care and health-related expenditures for low-income families of children with special health care needs. We analyzed the 2005-06 wave of the National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs, a probability sample of approximately 750 children with special health care needs in each state and the District of Columbia in the US Our measure of state-level income inequality was the Gini coefficient. Dependent measures of family caregiving burden included whether the parent received help arranging or coordinating the child's care and whether the parent stopped working due to the child's health. Dependent measures of family financial burden included absolute burden (spending in past 12 months for child's health care needs) and relative burden (spending as a proportion of total family income). After controlling for a host of child, family, and state factors, including family income and measures of the severity of a child's impairments, state-level income inequality has a significant and independent association with family burden related to the health care of their children with special health care needs. Families of children with special health care needs living in states with greater levels of income inequality report higher rates of absolute and relative financial burden. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. 12 CFR 1282.18 - Affordability-Income level definitions-family size not known (actual or prospective tenants).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....18 Affordability—Income level definitions—family size not known (actual or prospective tenants). In... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Affordability-Income level definitions-family size not known (actual or prospective tenants). 1282.18 Section 1282.18 Banks and Banking FEDERAL...

  6. Levels and trends in the income mobility of U.S. families, 1977 - 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Bradbury, Katharine L.

    2016-01-01

    Much of America's promise is predicated on economic mobility - the possibility that people can move up and down the economic ladder during their lifetimes. Mobility is of particular consequence when economic disparities are increasing. Using panel data and mobility concepts and measures adapted from the literature, this paper examines 10-year income mobility levels and trends for U.S. working-age families during the time span 1977 - 2012. According to many measures, mobility, already limited ...

  7. Income pooling within families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Jens; Uldall-Poulsen, Hans

    This paper analyses the phenomenon of income-pooling by applying the Danish household expenditure survey, merged with authoritative register information. Responses to additional questions on income sharing among 1696 couples also allows us to analyses whether the intra-household distribution...

  8. Family networks and income hiding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekman, Gonne; Gatto, Marcel; Nillesen, Eleonora

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between family network density and income hiding in rural Liberia. We link people's behaviour in a modified lottery experiment and a time preference game to detailed information about their family networks. We find that individuals with a dense family

  9. Provincial-level spatial statistical modelling of the change in per capita disposable Family Income in Spain, 1975-1983

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Griffith

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available Computational simplifications for a space-time autoregressive response model specification are explored for the change in Spain's per capita disposable family income between 1975 and 1983. The geographic resolution for this analysis is the provincial partitioning of part of the Iberian peninsula into Spain's 47 coterminous provinces coupled with its 3 island clusters provinces. In keeping with the Paelinckian tradition of spatial econometrics, exploration focuses on both new spatial econometric estimators and model specifications that emphasize the capturing of spatial dependency effects in the mean response term. One goal of this analysis is to differentiate between spatial, temporal, and space-time interaction information contained in the per capita disposable family income data. A second objective of the application is to illustrate the utility of extending computational simplifications from the spatial to the space-time domain. And a third purpose is to gain some substantive insights into the economic development of one country in a changing Europe. A serendipitous outcome of this investigation is a detailed analysis of locational information latent in Spain's regionally disaggregated per capita disposable family income.

  10. Internal migration and income of immigrant families

    OpenAIRE

    Rashid, Saman

    2004-01-01

    Using a longitudinal dataset from the years 1995 and 2000, respectively, this study examines whether migration within the host country of Sweden generates higher total annual income for (two-earner) immigrant families. The empirical findings indicate that internal migration generates a positive outcome in terms of higher family income for newly arrived refugee-immigrant families. Further, with the length of residence in the host country, the monetary gain accruing from internal migration decr...

  11. Does Students' Financial Behaviour Differ Based on Their Family Income?

    OpenAIRE

    Dorjana Nano; Teuta Llukani

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the differences on Financial Behaviour among Albanian university students based on their family income. The main objectives of this study are: i) firstly, to assess the level of financial behaviour of Albanian university students; ii) to examine whether the financial behaviour differs based on the level of students family income; and ii) finally, , to provide some conclusions and policy implications with regard to financial behaviour. An instrument comprised of specifi...

  12. WORKING WIVES, THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO FAMILY INCOME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    DATA FROM THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AND THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR, 1964-66, DESCRIBE THE CONTRIBUTION OF WORKING WIVES TO FAMILY INCOME. NEARLY HALF OF ALL WOMEN 18-64 YEARS OF AGE WORK. ABOUT THREE OF FIVE OF THESE WOMEN ARE MARRIED AND LIVING WITH THEIR HUSBANDS. OF THE 42.1 MILLION HUSBAND-WIFE FAMILIES IN THE UNITED STATES IN MARCH…

  13. Generation of Domestic Solid Waste in Tikrit City and The Effects of Family Size and Incomes Level on the Rate of Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed M. Al Abed Raba

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available     This research included collection and analysis of (2800 samples from four different neighborhoods in Tikrit over the seasons of the year to cover seasonal changes in the generation rate of domestic solid waste. The generation rate of domestic solid waste is (0.460 kg / person / day. The results also showed that summer season is the most season that produced solid waste (0.487 kg / person / day. While winter is the lowest season (0.422 kg / person / day. The results indicated that Friday and Saturday are the most producing days (0.629 , 0.557 kg / person / days, respectively. The results showed the impact of rural character of Aalam region in reducing the rate of generation of domestic solid waste as the rate of generation of the neighborhoods of the four studied areas was (0.460 kg / person / day. SPSS program using has been adopted as a method of statistical analysis to study the effect of family size and income level have on the generation rate in the city, where the results showed that family size adversely affects the generation rate of solid waste, also the lowest generation rate was recorded for families with high income level.                                                                                                                                  

  14. Income and Child Maltreatment in Unmarried Families: Evidence from the Earned Income Tax Credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Lawrence M; Font, Sarah A; Slack, Kristen S; Waldfogel, Jane

    2017-12-01

    This study estimates the associations of income with both (self-reported) child protective services (CPS) involvement and parenting behaviors that proxy for child abuse and neglect risk among unmarried families. Our primary strategy follows the instrumental variables (IV) approach employed by Dahl and Lochner (2012), which leverages variation between states and over time in the generosity of the total state and federal Earned Income Tax Credit for which a family is eligible to identify exogenous variation in family income. As a robustness check, we also estimate standard OLS regressions (linear probability models), reduced form OLS regressions, and OLS regressions with the inclusion of a control function (each with and without family-specific fixed effects). Our micro-level data are drawn from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a longitudinal birth-cohort of relatively disadvantaged urban children who have been followed from birth to age nine. Results suggest that an exogenous increase in income is associated with reductions in behaviorally-approximated child neglect and CPS involvement, particularly among low-income single-mother families.

  15. Body Dissatisfaction and Self-Esteem in Female Students Aged 9-15: the Effects of Age, Family Income, Body Mass Index Levels and Dance Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monteiro Lilian A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the effects of age, family income, body mass index and dance practice on levels of body dissatisfaction and self-esteem in female students. The sample consisted of 283 female subjects attending a public school with a mean age of 11.51±1.60 years and a mean body mass index of 18.72 kg/m2 (SD=3.32. The instruments used were the Body Dissatisfaction Scale for Adolescents and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, both of which showed good internal consistency (0.77 and 0.81, respectively. The tests were applied (two-factor ANOVA to compare the students practicing and those not practicing dance; the differences in the levels of body dissatisfaction (p=0.104 and self-esteem (p=0.09 were considered significant. The results demonstrated that age negatively correlated with body dissatisfaction (r=-0.19; p<0.01 and that higher body mass index levels were associated with greater body dissatisfaction (r=0.15, p=0.016 and lower levels of self-esteem (r=-0.17, p<0.01 only in non-practitioners. The practice of dance had a significant effect on levels of body dissatisfaction (F=4.79; p=0.030; η2=0.02, but there was no significant difference in self-esteem (F=1.88; p=0.172; η2=0.02. It can be concluded that female children and adolescents practicing dance have higher self-esteem, and are more satisfied with their body weight and their appearance. Moreover, results showed that self-esteem and body dissatisfaction were influenced by the body mass index levels only in the nonpractitioners group.

  16. Body dissatisfaction and self-esteem in female students aged 9-15: the effects of age, family income, body mass index levels and dance practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Lilian A; Novaes, Jefferson S; Santos, Mara L; Fernandes, Helder M

    2014-09-29

    This study aimed to analyze the effects of age, family income, body mass index and dance practice on levels of body dissatisfaction and self-esteem in female students. The sample consisted of 283 female subjects attending a public school with a mean age of 11.51±1.60 years and a mean body mass index of 18.72 kg/m2 (SD=3.32). The instruments used were the Body Dissatisfaction Scale for Adolescents and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, both of which showed good internal consistency (0.77 and 0.81, respectively). The tests were applied (two-factor ANOVA) to compare the students practicing and those not practicing dance; the differences in the levels of body dissatisfaction (p=0.104) and self-esteem (p=0.09) were considered significant. The results demonstrated that age negatively correlated with body dissatisfaction (r=-0.19; pbody mass index levels were associated with greater body dissatisfaction (r=0.15, p=0.016) and lower levels of self-esteem (r=-0.17, pbody dissatisfaction (F=4.79; p=0.030; η(2)=0.02), but there was no significant difference in self-esteem (F=1.88; p=0.172; η(2)=0.02). It can be concluded that female children and adolescents practicing dance have higher self-esteem, and are more satisfied with their body weight and their appearance. Moreover, results showed that self-esteem and body dissatisfaction were influenced by the body mass index levels only in the non-practitioners group.

  17. EDUCATION AND FAMILY INCOME: CAN POOR CHILDREN SIGNAL THEIR TALENT?

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalo Olcina Vauteren; Luisa Escriche

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explain how financial constraints and family background characteristics affect the signalling educational investments of individuals born in low-income families. We show that talented students who are poor are unable to signal their talent, as the maximum level of education they can attain may also be achieved by less talented students who are rich. Under this approach, a de-crease in inequalities across generations cannot be expected. The paper also shows that an ...

  18. Assets among low-income families in the Great Recession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfinkel, Irwin

    2018-01-01

    This paper examines the association between the Great Recession and real assets among families with young children. Real assets such as homes and cars are key indicators of economic well-being that may be especially valuable to low-income families. Using longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 4,898), we investigate the association between the city unemployment rate and home and car ownership and how the relationship varies by family structure (married, cohabiting, and single parents) and by race/ethnicity (White, Black, and Hispanic mothers). Using mother fixed-effects models, we find that a one percentage point increase in the unemployment rate is associated with a -0.5 percentage point decline in the probability of home ownership and a -0.7 percentage point decline in the probability of car ownership. We also find that the recession was associated with lower levels of home ownership for cohabiting families and for Hispanic families, as well as lower car ownership among single mothers and among Black mothers, whereas no change was observed among married families or White households. Considering that homes and cars are the most important assets among middle and low-income households in the U.S., these results suggest that the rise in the unemployment rate during the Great Recession may have increased household asset inequality across family structures and race/ethnicities, limiting economic mobility, and exacerbating the cycle of poverty. PMID:29401482

  19. Assets among low-income families in the Great Recession.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Duque

    Full Text Available This paper examines the association between the Great Recession and real assets among families with young children. Real assets such as homes and cars are key indicators of economic well-being that may be especially valuable to low-income families. Using longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 4,898, we investigate the association between the city unemployment rate and home and car ownership and how the relationship varies by family structure (married, cohabiting, and single parents and by race/ethnicity (White, Black, and Hispanic mothers. Using mother fixed-effects models, we find that a one percentage point increase in the unemployment rate is associated with a -0.5 percentage point decline in the probability of home ownership and a -0.7 percentage point decline in the probability of car ownership. We also find that the recession was associated with lower levels of home ownership for cohabiting families and for Hispanic families, as well as lower car ownership among single mothers and among Black mothers, whereas no change was observed among married families or White households. Considering that homes and cars are the most important assets among middle and low-income households in the U.S., these results suggest that the rise in the unemployment rate during the Great Recession may have increased household asset inequality across family structures and race/ethnicities, limiting economic mobility, and exacerbating the cycle of poverty.

  20. Assets among low-income families in the Great Recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Valentina; Pilkauskas, Natasha V; Garfinkel, Irwin

    2018-01-01

    This paper examines the association between the Great Recession and real assets among families with young children. Real assets such as homes and cars are key indicators of economic well-being that may be especially valuable to low-income families. Using longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 4,898), we investigate the association between the city unemployment rate and home and car ownership and how the relationship varies by family structure (married, cohabiting, and single parents) and by race/ethnicity (White, Black, and Hispanic mothers). Using mother fixed-effects models, we find that a one percentage point increase in the unemployment rate is associated with a -0.5 percentage point decline in the probability of home ownership and a -0.7 percentage point decline in the probability of car ownership. We also find that the recession was associated with lower levels of home ownership for cohabiting families and for Hispanic families, as well as lower car ownership among single mothers and among Black mothers, whereas no change was observed among married families or White households. Considering that homes and cars are the most important assets among middle and low-income households in the U.S., these results suggest that the rise in the unemployment rate during the Great Recession may have increased household asset inequality across family structures and race/ethnicities, limiting economic mobility, and exacerbating the cycle of poverty.

  1. Paying for College: A New Look at Family Income Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Frank

    1989-01-01

    Income growth and stagnation is discussed, several trends in income inequality among American families are examined, and the notion of a vanishing middle class that may be losing the college cost race is addressed. (MSE)

  2. No More Second-Class Taxpayers: How Income Splitting Can Bring Fairness to Canada’s Single Income Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Krzepkowski

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Canadian personal income tax system does not pay much attention to whether the amount of money an individual brings home is supplemented by the income of a spouse or not. That means that families where one spouse earns more than the other get taxed at a higher rate than families where two working partners earn the same total income split evenly between two paycheques. In fact, a family with just a single earner making $70,000 a year pays 30 per cent more in taxes every year than a family with two partners making $35,000 a year. A single-earner family taking in $120,000 a year pays the same income tax as a dualearning couple making $141,000 between them. The federal Conservative government has at least suggested it wants to finally level that playing field — nearly six decades after a royal commission recommended that the income tax system be changed to recognize total family household income, rather than focusing on each individual’s income. Given that Canada’s income tax system aims to treat people in similar circumstances as equally as possible, it is certainly time to let couples split their income so they do not face a penalty in higher tax rates than those faced by couples bringing home the same amount of total pay. While couples with just a single earner enjoy some advantages, a dual-earning couple does not — namely the extra time the stay-at-home spouse is able to use to raise children and produce other unpaid, home-based benefits — that can be accounted for using other means. Specifically, cutting out the transferability of the unused portion of the basic personal tax exemption for couples splitting income — requiring couples splitting their income to each earn money in order to use this credit — is one way to account for the difference in unpaid benefits that single-income families do typically enjoy more than dual-income couples. That is one mechanism; there may still be others the government might consider. But the

  3. Timing of Family Income, Borrowing Constraints, and Child Achievement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humlum, Maria Knoth

    2011-01-01

    to many earlier studies, the results suggest that the timing of income does not matter for long-term child outcomes. This is a reasonable result given the setting in a Scandinavian welfare state with generous child and education subsidies. Actually, later family income (age 12–15) is a more important......I investigate the effects of the timing of family income on child achievement production. Detailed administrative data augmented with Programme for International Student Assessment test scores at age 15 are used to analyze the effects of the timing of family income on child achievement. Contrary...... determinant of child achievement than earlier income....

  4. Supporting and including children from low income families

    OpenAIRE

    Benoist, FD

    2017-01-01

    This chapter explores: • What we mean by low income and poverty and how poverty is defined • The families living on low income in the UK today and the impact of low income and poverty on children’s well-being, development and learning • Supporting children from low income families • The attainment gap between children from low income backgrounds and their peers • The pupil premium and how schools have used the extra funding to raise attainment • Key aspects of good practice and what schools c...

  5. Improving Strategies for Low-Income Family Children's Information Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiyan; Washington, Rodney; Yin, Jianjun

    2014-01-01

    This article discussed the significance of improving low-income family children's information literacy, which could improve educational quality, enhance children's self-esteem, adapt children to the future competitive world market, as well as the problems in improving low-income family children's information literacy, such as no home computer and…

  6. Minimum Wages and the Distribution of Family Incomes

    OpenAIRE

    Dube, Arindrajit

    2017-01-01

    Using the March Current Population Survey data from 1984 to 2013, I provide a comprehensive evaluation of how minimum wage policies influence the distribution of family incomes. I find robust evidence that higher minimum wages shift down the cumulative distribution of family incomes at the bottom, reducing the share of non-elderly individuals with incomes below 50, 75, 100, and 125 percent of the federal poverty threshold. The long run (3 or more years) minimum wage elasticity of the non-elde...

  7. Free tax assistance and the earned income tax credit: vital resources for social workers and low-income families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Younghee; DeJohn, Tara V; Murray, Drew

    2012-04-01

    As the United States' economy continues to experience challenges, more families at or near the poverty level fall prey to predatory financial practices. Their vulnerability to these operations is increased by a lack of knowledge of asset-building resources and alternative financial services. This article focuses on Volunteer Income Tax Assistance (VITA)--a free income tax preparation program, which is a vital resource available to low-income families. Unfortunately, VITA is largely underused and often unknown to economically strained families and to the social workers and other professionals to whom these families turn for assistance. This article concludes with policy and practice implications for social workers and other professionals engaged in providing services to financially vulnerable families.

  8. Cigarette smoking and food insecurity among low-income families in the United States, 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Brian S; Pitts, M Melinda; Lee, Chung-Won

    2008-01-01

    To quantify the association between food insecurity and smoking among low-income families. A retrospective study using data from the 2001 Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), a longitudinal study of a representative sample of U.S. men, women, and children and the family units in which they reside. Low-income families. Family income was linked with U.S. poverty thresholds to identify 2099 families living near or below 200% of the federal poverty level. Food insecurity (i.e., having insufficient funds to purchase enough food to maintain an active and healthy lifestyle) was calculated from the 18-core-item food security module of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Current smoking status was determined. Smoking prevalence was higher among low-income families who were food insecure compared with low-income families who were food secure (43.6% vs. 31.9%; p < .01). Multivariate analysis revealed that smoking was associated with an increase in food insecurity of approximately six percentage points (p < .01). Given our finding that families near the federal poverty level spend a large share of their income on cigarettes, perhaps it would be prudent for food-assistance and tobacco-control programs to work together to help low-income people quit smoking.

  9. Cigarette smoking and food insecurity among low-income families in the United States, 2001

    OpenAIRE

    Armour, Brian S.; Pitts, M. Melinda; Lee, Chung-won

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this research is to quantify the association between food insecurity and smoking among low-income families. This analysis is a retrospective study using data from the 2001 Panel Study of Income Dynamics, a longitudinal study of a representative sample of U.S. men, women, and children and the family units in which they reside. Family income is linked with U.S. poverty thresholds to identify 2,099 families living near or below 200 percent of the federal poverty level. Food insecurit...

  10. Dimensions of Family Functioning: Perspectives of Low-Income African American Single Parent Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccreary, Linda L.; Dancy, Barbara L.

    2004-01-01

    Family functioning is influenced by socio-economic status, culture, family structure, and developmental stage, and is assessed primarily using instruments developed for middle-income European American two-parent families. These instruments may not validly assess low-income African American single-parent families. This qualitative study was…

  11. Income, Family Context, and Self-Regulation in 5-Year-Old Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengying; Riis, Jenna L; Ghazarian, Sharon R; Johnson, Sara B

    Self-regulation (SR) is a core aspect of child development with enduring effects on health and wellbeing across the lifespan. Early childhood poverty may shape SR development. This study examined the cross-sectional relationship among family income, family context, and SR in 5-year-old children. A total of 140 five-year-old children and their mothers participated in the study. Children completed a battery of SR tasks; mothers completed questionnaires. Cognitive and emotional SR composite scores were generated based on a principal component analysis of the SR tasks. The SR scores were first regressed on family income (in 10 levels ranging from family context variables were subsequently added to the models. Controlling for age, sex, and race, each level increase in family income was associated with 0.04 SD increase in emotional SR (p = .32) and 0.08 SD increase in cognitive SR (p = .01). In fully adjusted models, exposure to household instability and experiencing 10 or more negative life events was associated with worse emotional SR; exposure to mother's depressive symptoms was associated with worse cognitive SR. Higher income buffered children's SR from some contextual risk factors. Family contextual variables explained 62% of the correlation between higher income and better cognitive SR scores. Income-based cognitive SR disparities were associated with family contextual factors. Screening for family adversity in pediatric care and linking families to needed resources may protect children's developing SR capacities, with benefits to health and well-being.

  12. Timing of Family Income, Borrowing Constraints and Child Achievement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humlum, Maria Knoth

    In this paper, I investigate the effects of the timing of family income on child achievement production. Detailed administrative data augmented with PISA test scores at age 15 are used to analyze the effects of the timing of family income on child achievement. Contrary to many earlier studies, te...... with generous child and education subsidies. Actually, later family income (age 12-15) is a more important determinant of child achievement than earlier income.......In this paper, I investigate the effects of the timing of family income on child achievement production. Detailed administrative data augmented with PISA test scores at age 15 are used to analyze the effects of the timing of family income on child achievement. Contrary to many earlier studies......, tests for early borrowing constraints suggest that parents are not constrained in early investments in their children's achievement, and thus that the timing of income does not matter for long-term child outcomes. This is a reasonable result given the setting in a Scandinavian welfare state...

  13. An Analysis of Arizona Individual Income Tax-Credit Scholarship Recipients' Family Income, 2009-10 School Year. Program on Education Policy and Governance Working Paper. PEPG 10-18

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Vicki E.

    2010-01-01

    In 2009, the "East Valley Tribune and the Arizona Republic" alleged that Arizona's individual income tax-credit scholarship program disproportionately serves privileged students from higher-income families over those from lower-income backgrounds. Yet neither paper collected the student-level, scholarship recipient family income data…

  14. Free Tax Assistance and the Earned Income Tax Credit: Vital Resources for Social Workers and Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Younghee; DeJohn, Tara V.; Murray, Drew

    2012-01-01

    As the United States' economy continues to experience challenges, more families at or near the poverty level fall prey to predatory financial practices. Their vulnerability to these operations is increased by a lack of knowledge of asset-building resources and alternative financial services. This article focuses on Volunteer Income Tax Assistance…

  15. Family processes as pathways from income to young children's development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linver, Miriam R; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Kohen, Dafna E

    2002-09-01

    A variety of family processes have been hypothesized to mediate associations between income and young children's development. Maternal emotional distress, parental authoritative and authoritarian behavior (videotaped mother-child interactions), and provision of cognitively stimulating activities (Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment [HOME] scales) were examined as possible mediators in a sample of 493 White and African American low-birth-weight premature infants who were followed from birth through age 5. Cognitive ability was assessed by standardized test, and child behavior problems by maternal report, when the children were 3 and 5 years of age. As expected, family income was associated with child outcomes. The provision of stimulating experiences in the home mediated the relation between family income and both children's outcomes; maternal emotional distress and parenting practices mediated the relation between income and children's behavior problems.

  16. Private Financial Transfers, Family Income, and the Great Recession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Aaron; Pilkauskas, Natasha; Garfinkel, Irwin

    2014-01-01

    Using longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 4,701; 1998–2010), the authors studied whether the unemployment rate was associated with private financial transfers (PFTs) among urban families with young children and whether family income moderated these associations. They found that an increase in the unemployment rate was associated with greater PFT receipt and that family income moderated the association. Poor and near-poor mothers experienced increases in PFT receipt when unemployment rates were high, whereas mothers with incomes between 2 and 3 times the poverty threshold experienced decreases. Simulations estimating the impact of the Great Recession suggest that moving from 5% to 10% unemployment is associated with a 9-percentage-point increase in the predicted probability of receiving a PFT for the sample as a whole, with greater increases in predicted probabilities among poor and near poor mothers. PMID:25505802

  17. Out-of-pocket financial burden for low-income families with children: socioeconomic disparities and effects of insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Alison A; Wong, Sabrina T; Kim, Sue E; Newacheck, Paul W

    2005-12-01

    To determine whether socioeconomic disparities exist in the financial burden of out-of-pocket (OOP) health care expenditures for families with children, and whether health insurance coverage decreases financial burden for low-income families. The Household Component of the 2001 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Cross-sectional family-level analysis. We used bivariate statistics to examine whether financial burden varied by poverty level. Multivariate regression models were used to assess whether family insurance coverage was associated with level of financial burden for low-income families. The main outcome was financial burden, defined as the proportion of family income spent on OOP health care expenditures, including premiums, for all family members. We aggregated annual OOP expenditures for all members of 4,531 families with a child members publicly insured all year, (2) all members privately insured all year, (3) all members uninsured all year, (4) partial coverage, or (5) mix of public and private with no uninsured periods. A regressive gradient was noted for financial burden across income groups, with families with incomes Poverty Level (FPL) spending a mean of 119.66 US dollars OOP per 1,000 US dollars of family income and families with incomes 100-199 percent FPL spending 66.30 US dollars OOP per 1,000 US dollars, compared with 37.75 US dollars for families with incomes >400 percent FPL. For low-income families (families with children. For low-income families, full-year public coverage provides significantly greater protection from financial burden than full-year private coverage.

  18. The effects of job and family conditions on cumulative fatigue of working mothers in double income family.

    OpenAIRE

    Hirono Ishikawa

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the factors in the workplace and in the home which may have effects on cumulative fatigue, and to examine the moderating effect of the quality of family life on the relationship between job related stress and cumulative fatigue. The subject is the sample of working mothers with young children in double income family. Two hypotheses were examined in this study. First, higher level of job related stress and family related stress are both associated ...

  19. How Medicaid Expansion Affected Out-of-Pocket Health Care Spending for Low-Income Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glied, Sherry; Chakraborty, Ougni; Russo, Therese

    2017-08-01

    ISSUE. Prior research shows that low-income residents of states that expanded Medicaid under the Affordable Care Act are less likely to experience financial barriers to health care access, but the impact on out-of-pocket spending has not yet been measured. GOAL. Assess how the Medicaid expansion affected out-of-pocket health care spending for low-income families compared to those in states that did not expand and consider whether effects differed in states that expanded under conventional Medicaid rules vs. waiver programs. METHODS. Analysis of the Consumer Expenditure Survey 2010–2015. KEY FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS. Compared to families in nonexpansion states, low-income families in states that did expand Medicaid saved an average of $382 in annual spending on health care. In these states, low-income families were less like to report any out-of-pocket spending on insurance premiums or medical care than were similar families in nonexpansion states. For families that did have some out-of-pocket spending, spending levels were lower in states that expanded Medicaid. Low-income families in Medicaid expansion states were also much less likely to have catastrophically high spending levels. The form of coverage expansion — conventional Medicaid or waiver rules — did not have a statistically significant effect on these outcomes.

  20. Rising Inequality in Family Incomes and Children's Educational Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg J. Duncan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Increases in family income inequality in the United States have translated into widening gaps in educational achievement and attainments between children from low- and high-income families. We describe the mechanisms that have produced this disturbing trend. We argue that the three dominant policy approaches states and the federal government have used to improve the education of the disadvantaged have had at best modest success in improving education for disadvantaged children. To conclude, we describe the building blocks for an American solution to the problem of growing inequality of educational outcomes.

  1. 76 FR 4550 - Income Level for Individuals Eligible for Assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ... LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION 45 CFR Part 1611 Income Level for Individuals Eligible for Assistance... (``Corporation'') is required by law to establish maximum income levels for individuals eligible for legal assistance. This document updates the specified income levels to reflect the annual amendments to the Federal...

  2. 77 FR 4909 - Income Level for Individuals Eligible for Assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION 45 CFR Part 1611 Income Level for Individuals Eligible for Assistance... (``Corporation'') is required by law to establish maximum income levels for individuals eligible for legal assistance. This document updates the specified income levels to reflect the annual amendments to the Federal...

  3. 78 FR 7679 - Income Level for Individuals Eligible for Assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION 45 CFR Part 1611 Income Level for Individuals Eligible for Assistance... (``Corporation'') is required by law to establish maximum income levels for individuals eligible for legal assistance. This document updates the specified income levels to reflect the annual amendments to the Federal...

  4. 76 FR 5289 - Income Level for Individuals Eligible for Assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ... LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION 45 CFR Part 1611 Income Level for Individuals Eligible for Assistance... Corporation (``Corporation'') is required by law to establish maximum income levels for individuals eligible for legal assistance. This document updates the specified income levels to reflect the annual...

  5. 75 FR 47487 - Income Level for Individuals Eligible for Assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION 45 CFR Part 1611 Income Level for Individuals Eligible for Assistance... (``Corporation'') is required by law to establish maximum income levels for individuals eligible for legal assistance. This document updates the specified income levels to reflect the annual amendments to the Federal...

  6. Understanding the Relation of Low Income to HPA-Axis Functioning in Preschool Children: Cumulative Family Risk and Parenting as Pathways to Disruptions in Cortisol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewski, Maureen; Lengua, Liliana J.; Kiff, Cara J.; Fisher, Philip A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relation of low income and poverty to cortisol levels, and tested potential pathways from low income to disruptions in cortisol through cumulative family risk and parenting. The sample of 306 mothers and their preschool children included 29 % families at or near poverty, 27 % families below the median income, and the…

  7. Harsh, Firm, and Permissive Parenting in Low-Income Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumow, Lee; Vandell, Deborah Lowe; Posner, Jill K.

    1998-01-01

    Parents' reports of their child-rearing expectations and intentions were measured for 184 low-income urban families when children were in the third and fifth grades. Parenting strategies were stable over time. Parenting strategies were related to measures of adjustment at school, behavior problems in the home, academic achievement, and…

  8. Helping Working Families: The Earned Income Tax Credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Saul D.; Seidman, Laurence S.

    The impact of the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) on working families was analyzed. The analysis established that the EITC is, on balance, a highly effective program that meets its primary objectives well. The following benefits of the EITC were identified: (1) it reduced the poverty rate in 1999 by an estimated 1.5 percentage points; (2) it is…

  9. Marginal Effects of a Gross Income Increase for a Single Parent Family in Six European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willumsen, Marie

    the contributions to the combined marginal rate, the marginal effective tax rate, METR, using the OECD term, from taxation, payment for childcare, tapering of housing benefits and sometimes child benefits, when the income varies from a low level to a high level for a single parent family. Six countries are included......High marginal tax rates constitute an issue in several countries because they are supposed to create barriers for increased labour supply. It is, however, often the case that relatively low income families with children face substantially higher combined marginal rates than even the highest...

  10. Financial management of low-income urban families

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnittgrund, K.P. (Univ. of California, Riverside); Baker, G.

    1983-09-01

    The major focus of this research was the difference in financial-management practices used by low-income urban white, black, and Mexican-American families. A random sample of 199 interviews was completed during the spring of 1980 in Phoenix, Arizona, USA. The sample consisted of 69 white, 70 black, and 60 Mexican-American families. Differences in financial behavior did occur for each race. In addition, they were optimistic regarding their own ability to handle money and resolve financial problems but generally negative toward the ability of other families to manage money, use credit, and plan purchases. 20 references, 3 tables.

  11. Environmental income improves household-level poverty assessments and dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walelign, Solomon Zena; Charlery, Lindy Callen; Smith-Hall, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Household-level poverty assessments and analyses of poverty dynamics in developing countries typically do not include environmental income. Using household (n = 427 in 2006, 2009 and 2012) total income panel data sets, with and without environmental income, from Nepal, we analysed the importance...... of environmental income in household-level poverty assessments (Foster-Greer-Thorbecke indices) and dynamics (movements in the Poverty Transition Matrix). Random effects logit and ordered logit models were applied to estimate variables covarying with poverty categories and compared for annual household incomes...... with and without environmental income. Using the without environmental income data set significantly changed the number of households classified as poor, as well as rates of movements in and out of poverty. Excluding household-level environmental income also distorted estimation of covariates of poverty incidence...

  12. Family income and child health in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apouey, Bénédicte; Geoffard, Pierre-Yves

    2013-07-01

    Recent studies examining the relationship between family income and child health in the UK have produced mixed findings. We re-examine the income gradient in child general health and its evolution with child age in this country, using a very large sample of British children. We find that there is no correlation between income and child general health at ages 0-1, that the gradient emerges around age 2 and is constant from age 2 to age 17. In addition, we show that the gradient remains large and significant when we reduce the endogeneity of income. Furthermore, our results indicate that the gradient in general health reflects a greater prevalence of chronic conditions among low-income children and a greater severity of these conditions. Taken together, these findings suggest that income does matter for child health in the UK and may play a role in the intergenerational transmission of socioeconomic status. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Family income affects children's altruistic behavior in the dictator game.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxiang Chen

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine how family income and social distance influence young rural Chinese children's altruistic behavior in the dictator game (DG. A total of 469 four-year-old children from eight rural areas in China, including many children left behind by parents who had migrated to urban areas for work, played the DG. Stickers comprised the resource, while recipients in the game were assumed to be either their friends or strangers, with the social distance (i.e., strangers compared to friends as a between-subjects variable. Children donated significantly more stickers to their friends than to strangers. Moreover, children from lower income families donated more stickers than children from higher income families. However, no gender and parental migrant status differences in children's prosocial behaviors were evident in this sample. Findings of this study suggest that children's altruistic behaviours to peers are influenced by family characteristics since preschool age. The probable influence of local socialization practices on development and the possible adaptive significance were discussed.

  14. Financial stress, parent functioning and adolescent problem behavior: an actor-partner interdependence approach to family stress processes in low-, middle-, and high-income families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnet, Koen

    2014-10-01

    The family stress model proposes that financial stress experienced by parents is associated with problem behavior in adolescents. The present study applied an actor-partner interdependence approach to the family stress model and focused on low-, middle-, and high-income families to broaden our understanding of the pathways by which the financial stress of mothers and fathers are related to adolescent outcomes. The study uses dyadic data (N = 798 heterosexual couples) from the Relationship between Mothers, Fathers and Children study in which two-parent families with an adolescent between 11 and 17 years of age participated. Path-analytic results indicated that in each of the families the association between parents' financial stress and problem behavior in adolescents is mediated through parents' depressive symptoms, interparental conflict, and positive parenting. Family stress processes also appear to operate in different ways for low-, middle-, and high-income families. In addition to a higher absolute level of financial stress in low-income families, financial stress experienced by mothers and fathers in these families had significant direct and indirect effects on problem behavior in adolescents, while in middle- and high-income families only significant indirect effects were found. The financial stress of a low-income mother also had a more detrimental impact on her level of depressive feelings than it had on mothers in middle-income families. Furthermore, the study revealed gender differences in the pathways of mothers and fathers. Implications for research, clinical practice, and policy are also discussed.

  15. Income Distribution and Economic Well-Being within European Families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Jens

    well-being declines and wives raises the more she earns relatively to him. However, the relationships are often of an inversed u-shaped form for both sexes with men getting the highest well-being at an earlier stage than women. Within the Scandinavian welfare state regime this preferred distribution......-shaped relationship between the distribution of income and men and women’s economic well-being.......The article analyses the distribution of income within European families and the consequences for the spouses’ economic well-being. Thus, many studies have shown that women nowadays participate on the labour market in an increasing number resulting in a more equal distribution of income within...

  16. The implications of selective attrition for estimates of intergenerational elasticity of family income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeni, Robert F; Wiemers, Emily E

    2015-09-01

    Numerous studies have estimated a high intergenerational correlation in economic status. Such studies do not typically attend to potential biases that may arise due to survey attrition. Using the Panel Study of Income Dynamics - the data source most commonly used in prior studies - we demonstrate that attrition is particularly high for low-income adult children with low-income parents and particularly low for high-income adult children with high-income parents. Because of this pattern of attrition, intergenerational upward mobility has been overstated for low-income families and downward mobility has been understated for high-income families. The bias among low-income families is greater than the bias among high-income families implying that intergenerational elasticity in family income is higher than previous estimates with the Panel Study of Income Dynamics would suggest.

  17. Empowering low-income black families of handicapped children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyanpur, M; Rao, S S

    1991-10-01

    A qualitative study of four black, low-income, single mothers used in-depth interviews and participant observation to evaluate their interactions with outreach agency professionals. Three perceived aspects (disrespect, focus on deficits, and discounting parenting style differences) were associated with exclusionary (unempowering) relationships. A reciprocal and supportive approach was associated with collaborative (empowering) relationships. Implications of these findings for professionals serving minority families are discussed.

  18. Family Income Reduces Risk of Obesity for White but Not Black Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although the protective effects of socioeconomic status (SES on obesity and cardiovascular disease are well established, these effects may differ across racial and ethnic groups. Aims: Using a national sample, this study investigated racial variation in the association between family income and childhood obesity in White and Black families. Methods: This cross-sectional study used data from the National Survey of Children’s Health (NSCH, 2003–2004, a nationally representative survey in the United States. This analysis included 76,705 children 2–17 years old who were either White (n = 67,610, 88.14% or Black (n = 9095, 11.86%. Family income to needs ratio was the independent variable. Childhood obesity was the outcome. Race was the focal moderator. Logistic regression was used for data analysis. Results: Overall, higher income to needs ratio was protective against childhood obesity. Race, however, interacted with income to needs ratio on odds of childhood obesity, indicating smaller effects for Black compared to White families. Race stratified logistic regressions showed an association between family income and childhood obesity for White but not Black families. Conclusions: The protective effect of income against childhood obesity is smaller for Blacks than Whites. Merely equalizing population access to SES and economic resources would not be sufficient for elimination of racial disparities in obesity and related cardiovascular disease in the United States. Policies should go beyond access to SES and address structural barriers in the lives of Blacks which result in a diminished health return of very same SES resources for them. As the likely causes are multi-level barriers, multi-level interventions are needed to eliminate racial disparities in childhood obesity.

  19. Influence of Parental Education and Family Income on Children's Education in Rural Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drajea, Alice J.; O'Sullivan, Carmel

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the effect of parents' literacy levels and family income in Uganda on the quality and nature of parents' involvement in their children's primary education. A mixed-methods study with an ethnographic element was employed to explore the views and opinions of 21 participants through a qualitative approach. Methods for data…

  20. Dual Income Family, Gender and Adolescents´ Self-Esteem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dual Income Family, Gender and Adolescents´ Self-Esteem. ... Abstract. This study examined the influence of dual income family and gender on adolescents' self-esteem in Enugu, Nigeria. ... AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  1. Estimates of Federal Tax Liabilities for Individuals and Families by Income Category and Family Type for 1995 and 1999

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    For several years, the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) has produced estimates of average pretax incomes, effective tax rates, and shares of taxes paid by income-related population groups at different income levels...

  2. Opportunity for All? Technology and Learning in Lower-Income Families. Appendix: Questionnaire and Topline Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rideout, Victoria; Katz, Vikki S.

    2016-01-01

    The data in this survey offer a unique perspective from low- and moderate-income families with school-age children in the United States. They reveal many of the nuances and complexities of digital life among lower income families today. Because lower-income parents are not usually the focus of studies on technology and learning, this report offers…

  3. The impact of retirement account distributions on measures of family income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iams, Howard M; Purcell, Patrick J

    2013-01-01

    In recent decades, employers have increasingly replaced defined benefit (DB) pensions with defined contribution (DC) retirement accounts for their employees. DB plans provide annuities, or lifetime benefits paid at regular intervals. The timing and amounts of DC distributions, however, may vary widely. Most surveys that provide data on the family income of the aged either collect no data on nonannuity retirement account distributions, or exclude such distributions from their summary measures of family income. We use Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) data for 2009 to estimate the impact of including retirement account distributions on total family income calculations. We find that about one-fifth of aged families received distributions from retirement accounts in 2009. Measured mean income for those families would be about 15 percent higher and median income would be 18 percent higher if those distributions were included in the SIPP summary measure of family income.

  4. Province-Level Income Inequality and Health Outcomes in Canadian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Jennifer J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the effects of provincial income inequality (disparity between rich and poor), independent of provincial income and family socioeconomic status, on multiple adolescent health outcomes. Methods Participants (aged 12–17 years; N = 11,899) were from the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth. Parental education, household income, province income inequality, and province mean income were measured. Health outcomes were measured across a number of domains, including self-rated health, mental health, health behaviors, substance use behaviors, and physical health. Results Income inequality was associated with injuries, general physical symptoms, and limiting conditions, but not associated with most adolescent health outcomes and behaviors. Income inequality had a moderating effect on family socioeconomic status for limiting conditions, hyperactivity/inattention, and conduct problems, but not for other outcomes. Conclusions Province-level income inequality was associated with some physical and mental health outcomes in adolescents, which has research and policy implications for this age-group. PMID:25324533

  5. Province-level income inequality and health outcomes in Canadian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quon, Elizabeth C; McGrath, Jennifer J

    2015-03-01

    To examine the effects of provincial income inequality (disparity between rich and poor), independent of provincial income and family socioeconomic status, on multiple adolescent health outcomes. Participants (aged 12-17 years; N = 11,899) were from the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth. Parental education, household income, province income inequality, and province mean income were measured. Health outcomes were measured across a number of domains, including self-rated health, mental health, health behaviors, substance use behaviors, and physical health. Income inequality was associated with injuries, general physical symptoms, and limiting conditions, but not associated with most adolescent health outcomes and behaviors. Income inequality had a moderating effect on family socioeconomic status for limiting conditions, hyperactivity/inattention, and conduct problems, but not for other outcomes. Province-level income inequality was associated with some physical and mental health outcomes in adolescents, which has research and policy implications for this age-group. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Income levels and income growth : some new cross-country evidence and some interpretative puzzles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castaldi, C.; Dosi, G.

    2004-01-01

    This work brings together two distinct ensembles of evidence concerning, at macro level, international distributions of incomes and their dynamics, and, at micro level, the size distributions of firms and the properties of their growth rates. Together, we also consider an intermediate level of

  7. Mothers’ Depression and Stress, Severity of Autism among Children and Family Income

    OpenAIRE

    Athari, Pegah; Department of educational psychology, Faculty of Education Universiti Teknologi Malaysia; Ghaedi, Leila; Department of educational psychology, Faculty of Education Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between mothers’ depression and stress compared with severity of autism in children and the effect of family income on the relationship between these two latter variables. Levels of depression and stress among mothers (n=250) were measured based on Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale of 42 items (DASS¬-42). The severity of autism among children was assessed by Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC) according to children’s teachers reports (n=2...

  8. Role of expendable income and price in food choice by low income families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Cate; Cook, Kay; Mavoa, Helen

    2013-12-01

    The public health literature suggests that the cheapness of energy-dense foods is driving the obesity epidemic. We examined food purchases in low-income families and its relationship to the price of food and availability of funds. In-depth interviews were conducted with 22 parents with children less than 15 years of age whose major source of income was a government pension. A photo taxonomy, where participants sorted 50 photos of commonly purchased foods, was used to explore food choice. The most common food groupings used by the participants were: basic, emergency, treat and comfort. The process of food purchase was described by participants as weighing up the attributes of a food in relation to price and money available. Shoppers nominated the basic unit of measurement as quantity per unit price and the heuristic for food choice when shopping as determining "value for money" in a process of triage relating to food purchase decisions. Participants stated satiation of hunger to be the most common "value" relative to price. Given that the foods nominated as filling tended to be carbohydrate-rich staples, we suggest that public health initiatives need to acknowledge this triage process and shape interventions to promote nutrition over satiation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Family planning, antenatal and delivery care: cross-sectional survey evidence on levels of coverage and inequalities by public and private sector in 57 low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Oona M R; Benova, Lenka; MacLeod, David; Baggaley, Rebecca F; Rodrigues, Laura C; Hanson, Kara; Powell-Jackson, Timothy; Penn-Kekana, Loveday; Polonsky, Reen; Footman, Katharine; Vahanian, Alice; Pereira, Shreya K; Santos, Andreia Costa; Filippi, Veronique G A; Lynch, Caroline A; Goodman, Catherine

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the role of the private sector in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We used Demographic and Health Surveys for 57 countries (2000-2013) to evaluate the private sector's share in providing three reproductive and maternal/newborn health services (family planning, antenatal and delivery care), in total and by socio-economic position. We used data from 865 547 women aged 15-49, representing a total of 3 billion people. We defined 'met and unmet need for services' and 'use of appropriate service types' clearly and developed explicit classifications of source and sector of provision. Across the four regions (sub-Saharan Africa, Middle East/Europe, Asia and Latin America), unmet need ranged from 28% to 61% for family planning, 8% to 22% for ANC and 21% to 51% for delivery care. The private-sector share among users of family planning services was 37-39% across regions (overall mean: 37%; median across countries: 41%). The private-sector market share among users of ANC was 13-61% across regions (overall mean: 44%; median across countries: 15%). The private-sector share among appropriate deliveries was 9-56% across regions (overall mean: 40%; median across countries: 14%). For all three healthcare services, women in the richest wealth quintile used private services more than the poorest. Wealth gaps in met need for services were smallest for family planning and largest for delivery care. The private sector serves substantial numbers of women in LMICs, particularly the richest. To achieve universal health coverage, including adequate quality care, it is imperative to understand this sector, starting with improved data collection on healthcare provision. © 2016 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The Role of Sand and Stone Mining to Increase Family Income in Progo Catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Ritohardoyo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The conzequence low income of the farmer household in agricultural sector is the increase in their activities as miner of sand and stone. It means for increasing of their household income. However, how important mining role on the increasing of household income has to be studied in deeply. The factual problem is the base for research aims, with the spesific stress on studying socio-economic characteristic of sand and stone miner, and the contribution of the mining income to household income. This research was carried out in Progo catchment area, Yogyakarta Special Region. Survey method was employed by data collecting from respondents. The respondents are head of households (HH working as sand and stone miner. Sampling technique was proportionally simple random sampling in which 120 HH was taken as respondents sample. They were representatives of upper part, middle part, and lower part of Progo catchments area. Data on socio-economic structure of the household and household income were collected by mean of structured interview. Data analysis was performed through descriptive technique in which frequencies and cross tabulation varians statistic, and multiple regression analysis were mostly used. The research shows that there are relatively similarities on socio-economic characteristic of sand and stone miners, between at lower part, middle part with upper part of Progo catchments area. This existing of sand and stone mining employs about 70% labours are local miners and 30% labours came from out of the area. Landless farmers who land own less than 500 m2 characterize them. The most of them are male, withlow formal education, and as small family (4 people evey HH. Some of them have been as sand and stone miners for more than 4 years. Generally, they work less than 8 hours for mining every day. This research is also finding that the income of the sand and stone miners are seasonal. The averages of mining income on dry season (Rp 571,880 per month

  11. The causal effect of family income on child health in the U.K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehnle, Daniel

    2014-07-01

    Recent studies examining the effect of family income on child health have been unable to account for the endogeneity of income. Using data from a British cohort study, we address this gap by exploiting exogenous variation in local labour market characteristics to instrument for family income. We estimate the causal effect of family income on different measures of child health and explore the role of potential transmission mechanisms. We find that income has a very small but significant causal effect on subjective child health and no significant effect on chronic health conditions, apart from respiratory illnesses. Using the panel structure, we show that the timing of income does not matter for young children. Moreover, our results provide further evidence that parental health does not drive a spurious relationship between family income and child health. Our study implies that financial transfers are unlikely to deliver substantial improvements in child health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Work, Family and Community Support as Predictors of Work-Family Conflict: A Study of Low-Income Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griggs, Tracy Lambert; Casper, Wendy J.; Eby, Lillian T.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines relationships between support from work, family and community domains with time- and strain-based work-family conflict in a sample of low-income workers. Results reveal significant within-domain and cross-domain relationships between support from all three life domains with work--family conflict. With respect to family support,…

  13. Childhood Family Structure and Intergenerational Income Mobility in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloome, Deirdre

    2017-04-01

    The declining prevalence of two-parent families helped increase income inequality over recent decades. Does family structure also condition how economic (dis)advantages pass from parents to children? If so, shifts in the organization of family life may contribute to enduring inequality between groups defined by childhood family structure. Using National Longitudinal Survey of Youth data, I combine parametric and nonparametric methods to reveal how family structure moderates intergenerational income mobility in the United States. I find that individuals raised outside stable two-parent homes are much more mobile than individuals from stable two-parent families. Mobility increases with the number of family transitions but does not vary with children's time spent coresiding with both parents or stepparents conditional on a transition. However, this mobility indicates insecurity, not opportunity. Difficulties maintaining middle-class incomes create downward mobility among people raised outside stable two-parent homes. Regardless of parental income, these people are relatively likely to become low-income adults, reflecting a new form of perverse equality. People raised outside stable two-parent families are also less likely to become high-income adults than people from stable two-parent homes. Mobility differences account for about one-quarter of family-structure inequalities in income at the bottom of the income distribution and more than one-third of these inequalities at the top.

  14. Shopping Behaviors of Low-income Families during a 1-Month Period of Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darko, Janice; Eggett, Dennis L.; Richards, Rickelle

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore food shopping behaviors among low-income families over the course of the month. Design: Two researchers conducted 13 90-minute focus groups. Setting: Two community organizations serving low-income populations and a university campus. Participants: Low-income adults (n = 72) who were the primary household food shoppers and who…

  15. Income Levels and Response to Contingency Management for Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Núñez, Carla; Secades-Villa, Roberto; Peña-Suárez, Elsa; Fernández-Artamendi, Sergio; Weidberg, Sara

    2017-06-07

    Contingency management (CM) has demonstrated its efficacy in treating many drug addictions, including nicotine. However, one of the most commonly perceived limitations with regard to its dissemination into community settings is whether this protocol could be equally effective for treating patients across different income levels. This study aimed to examine whether individuals' income levels affect treatment success in a cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) that included a voucher-based CM protocol for smoking cessation. A total of 92 treatment-seeking smokers in a community setting were randomly assigned to a CBT group (N = 49) or to a CBT plus CM group (N = 43). The CM procedure included a voucher program through which smoking abstinence was reinforced on a schedule of escalating magnitude of reinforcement with a reset contingency. We analyzed the impact of self-reported monthly income, alone and in combination with treatment condition, on short-term (treatment retention) and long-term (self-reported number of days of continuous smoking abstinence at 6-month follow-up) results. Income had no effect on treatment retention and continuous abstinence outcomes at 6-month follow-up in either treatment condition. Treatment modality emerged as the only significant predictor of treatment success. Our findings suggest that treatment-seeking smokers from the general population respond equally well to CM regardless of their income levels. The results of this randomized controlled trial support the generalizability of this evidenced-based program into community settings.

  16. Social Policy Trends- Housing Affordability for Families with Low Incomes Across Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita (Gres Wilkins

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available HOUSING AFFORDABILITY FOR FAMILIES WITH LOW INCOMES ACROSS CANADA Percentage of income devoted to paying lowest-priced rent in a city, by low-income family type, select years, 1990-2015 Much public attention has been directed towards the issue of a Canada-wide housing crisis. The focus has typically been on the cost of housing for an average income Canadian family. Less attention has been paid to families with incomes much lower than those of the average Canadian household, for which the housing crisis is far more severe. Households and individuals with particularly low incomes are at the highest risk of experiencing the worst effects of a lack of housing affordability, including homelessness.

  17. Income inequality and schizophrenia: increased schizophrenia incidence in countries with high levels of income inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jonathan K; Tomita, Andrew; Kapadia, Amy S

    2014-03-01

    Income inequality is associated with numerous negative health outcomes. There is evidence that ecological-level socio-environmental factors may increase risk for schizophrenia. The aim was to investigate whether measures of income inequality are associated with incidence of schizophrenia at the country level. We conducted a systematic review of incidence rates for schizophrenia, reported between 1975 and 2011. For each country, national measures of income inequality (Gini coefficient) along with covariate risk factors for schizophrenia were obtained. Multi-level mixed-effects Poisson regression was performed to investigate the relationship between Gini coefficients and incidence rates of schizophrenia controlling for covariates. One hundred and seven incidence rates (from 26 countries) were included. Mean incidence of schizophrenia was 18.50 per 100,000 (SD = 11.9; range = 1.7-67). There was a significant positive relationship between incidence rate of schizophrenia and Gini coefficient (β = 1.02; Z = 2.28; p = .02; 95% CI = 1.00, 1.03). Countries characterized by a large rich-poor gap may be at increased risk of schizophrenia. We suggest that income inequality impacts negatively on social cohesion, eroding social capital, and that chronic stress associated with living in highly disparate societies places individuals at risk of schizophrenia.

  18. The Role of Breakfast in the American Family Diet by Income Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Shanthy A.

    1998-01-01

    Examined data from Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (USDA) concerning breakfast consumption in families and the kinds of food chosen. Found that 85% of families reported having breakfast; most of those reporting no breakfast came from lowest income group. Consumption of cereals, fruits and juices increased with income; consumption…

  19. Family Investments in Low-Income Children's Achievement and Socioemotional Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Francesca; McPherran Lombardi, Caitlin; Dearing, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Family processes and parenting practices help explain developmental differences between children in low- versus higher-income households. There are, however, few studies addressing the question of: what are the key family processes and parenting practices for promoting low-income children's growth? We address this question in the present study,…

  20. Associations between family food behaviors, maternal depression, and child weight among low-income children

    OpenAIRE

    McCurdy, Karen; Gorman, Kathleen S.; Kisler, Tiffani; Metallinos-Katsaras, Metallinos-Katsaras

    2014-01-01

    Although low-income children are at greater risk for overweight and obesity than their higher income counterparts, the majority of poor children are not overweight. The current study examined why such variation exists among diverse young children in poor families. Cross-sectional data were collected on 164 low-income, preschool aged children and their mothers living in two Rhode Island cities. Over half of the sample was Hispanic (55%). Mothers completed measures of family food behaviors and ...

  1. Coping with Family Conflict: What's Helpful and What's Not for Low-Income Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Catherine DeCarlo; Wadsworth, Martha E.

    2009-01-01

    Family conflict is exacerbated by poverty-related stress and is detrimental to adolescent mental health. Adolescent coping with family conflict has the potential to buffer or exacerbate the negative effects of family conflict on internalizing symptoms. We examined coping with family conflict among 82 low-income adolescents (53.7% female, mean age…

  2. Review of quality assessment tools for family planning programmes in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprockett, Andrea

    2017-03-01

    Measuring and tracking the quality of healthcare is a critical part of improving service delivery, clinic efficiency and health outcomes. However, no standardized or widely accepted tool exists to assess the quality of clinic-based family planning services in low- and middle-income countries. The objective of this literature review was to identify widely used public domain quality assessment tools with existing or potential application in clinic-based family planning programmes. Using PubMed, PopLine, Google Scholar and Google, key terms such as ‘quality assessment tool’, ‘quality assessment method’, ‘quality measurement’, ‘LMIC’, ‘developing country’, ‘family planning’ and ‘reproductive health’ were searched for articles, identifying 20 relevant tools. Tools were assessed to determine the type of quality components assessed, divided into structure and process components, level of application (national or facility), health service domain that can be assessed by the tool, cost and current use of the tool. Tools were also assessed for shortcomings based on application in a low- and middle-income clinic-based family planning programme, including personnel required, re-assessment frequency, assessment of structure, process and outcome quality, comparability of data over time and across facilities and ability to benchmark clinic results to a national benchmark. No tools met all criteria, indicating a critical gap in quality assessment for low- and middle-income family planning programmes. To achieve Universal Health Coverage, agreed on in the Sustainable Development Goals and to improve system-wide healthcare quality, we must develop and widely adopt a standardized quality assessment tool.

  3. Early Childhood Caries and Body Mass Index in Young Children from Low Income Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Goretti Queiroz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between early childhood caries (ECC and obesity is controversial. This cross-sectional survey investigated this association in children from low-income families in Goiania, Goias, Brazil and considered the role of several social determinants. A questionnaire examining the characteristics of the children and their families was administered to the primary caregiver during home visits. In addition, children (approximately 6 years of age had their height, weight, and tooth condition assessed. The primary ECC outcome was categorized as one of the following: caries experience (decayed, missing, filled tooth: “dmft” index > 0, active ECC (decayed teeth > 0, or active severe ECC (decayed teeth ≥ 6. Descriptive, bivariate and logistic regression analyses were conducted. The participants in the current study consisted of 269 caregiver-child dyads, 88.5% of whom were included in the Family Health Program. Caregivers were mostly mothers (67.7%, were 35.3 ± 10.0 years old on average and had 9.8 ± 3.1 years of formal education. The mean family income was 2.3 ± 1.5 times greater than the Brazilian minimum wage. On average, the children in the current study were 68.7 ± 3.8 months old. Of these, 51.7% were boys, 23.4% were overweight or obese, 45.0% had active ECC, and 17.1% had severe ECC. The average body mass index (BMI of the children was 15.9 ± 2.2, and their dmft index was 2.5 ± 3.2. BMI was not associated with any of the three categories of dental caries (p > 0.05. In contrast, higher family incomes were significantly associated with the lack of caries experience in children (OR 1.22, 95%CI 1.01–1.50, but the mother’s level of education was not significantly associated with ECC.

  4. Income Distribution Over Educational Levels: A Simple Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinbergen, Jan

    An econometric model is formulated that explains income per person in various compartments of the labor market defined by three main levels of education and by education required. The model enables an estimation of the effect of increased access to education on that distribution. The model is based on a production for the economy as a whole; a…

  5. "So we would all help pitch in:" The family literacy practices of low-income African American mothers of preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Robin L; Hamilton, Megan-Brette; Coba-Rodriguez, Sarai

    2015-01-01

    The development of emergent literacy skills are important for the development of later literacy competencies and affect school readiness. Quantitative researchers document race- and social class-based disparities in emergent literacy competence between low-income African American and middle-income White children. Some researchers suggest that deficits in parenting practices account for limited literacy skills among low-income African American children. A small body of qualitative research on low-income African American families finds that despite economic challenges, some African American families were actively engaged in promoting child literacy development. Using qualitative interviews that emphasize family strengths, we add to this small body of research to highlight positive family practices obscured in many quantitative analyses that concentrate on family shortcomings. Specifically, we examine in-home literacy practices and child literacy development with a sample of low-income African American mothers (families) of preschoolers. Key findings include identification of various literacy activities promoting child literacy development and inclusion of multiple family members assisting in literacy activities. These findings add to substantive discussions of emergent literacy and resilience. Insights from the qualitative interviews also provide culturally-sensitive recommendations to childhood educators and speech-language pathologists (SLP) who work with low-income African American families and children. Reader should recognize that (1) there is not a 'right' phenotype and therefore not a right form of environmental input and (2) that context matters (at both the level of the cell and the individual organism). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Family Income Dynamics, Early Childhood Education and Care, and Early Child Behavior Problems in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachrisson, Henrik Daae; Dearing, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The sociopolitical context of Norway includes low poverty rates and universal access to subsidized and regulated Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC). In this context, the association between family income dynamics and changes in early child behavior problems was investigated, as well as whether high quality ECEC buffers children from the effects of income dynamics. In a population-based sample (N = 75,296), within-family changes in income-to-needs predicted changes in externalizing and internalizing problems (from age 18 to 36 months), particularly for lower-income children. For internalizing problems, ECEC buffered the effect of income-to-needs changes. These findings lend further support to the potential benefits of ECEC for children from lower-income families. PMID:25345342

  7. Who is affected by neighbourhood income mix? gender, age, family, employment and income differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galster, G.; Andersson, R.; Musterd, S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses the degree to which the mixture of low-, middle- and high-income males in the neighbourhood affects the subsequent earnings of individuals, and aims to test explicitly the degree to which these impacts vary across gender, age, presence of children, employment status or income at

  8. CDM pilot project to stimulate market for family-hydro for low-income households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Over 100,000 low-income households living in rural, rice-farming regions of Vietnam and China rely upon family-hydro (between 100 and 200W) as the only affordable means of obtaining electricity. These systems are used for domestic lighting, radio and, in some cases, televisions. The units are small, cheap and are usually installed and owned by a single family. Funding from the CDM could be utilised in order to reduce the cost of good quality equipment to provide low-income households living in isolated off-grid locations with an affordable and sustainable electricity supply which can meet their needs for lighting, educational, productive and recreational uses. Therefore research was needed to determine the level of carbon emission reductions resulting from their use. The successful acceptance by the Prototype Carbon Fund (PCF) of the methodology of establishing the benchmark developed during this project could then be used as a precedent by other project developers in the future, thus being of long-term support to the emerging family-hydro industry. (author)

  9. 76 FR 15342 - Workforce Investment Act; Lower Living Standard Income Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ... Standard Income Level AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Labor. ACTION: Notice of determination of Lower Living Standard Income Level. SUMMARY: Under Title I of the Workforce Investment Act (WIA... Income level (LLSIL) for uses described in the law. WIA defines the term ``Low Income Individual'' as one...

  10. 75 FR 25296 - Workforce Investment Act; Lower Living Standard Income Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... Standard Income Level AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Labor. ACTION: Notice of Determination of Lower Living Standard Income Level. SUMMARY: Under Title I of the Workforce Investment Act (WIA... Income Level (LLSIL) for uses described in the law. WIA defines the term ``Low Income Individual'' as one...

  11. Trajectory of Material Hardship and Income Poverty in Families of Children Undergoing Chemotherapy: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bona, Kira; London, Wendy B; Guo, Dongjing; Frank, Deborah A; Wolfe, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Poverty is correlated with negative health outcomes in pediatric primary care, and is emerging as a negative prognostic indicator in pediatric oncology. However, measures of poverty amenable to targeted intervention, such as household material hardship (HMH)--including food, energy, and housing insecurity--have not been described in pediatric oncology. We describe the trajectory of family reported HMH and income poverty at a pediatric oncology referral center in New England with high psychosocial supports. Single site, prospective cohort study including 99 English-speaking families of children receiving chemotherapy for primary cancer. Families completed face-to-face surveys at two time-points: (1) Within 30 days of child's diagnosis (T1) (N = 99, response rate 88%); (2) 6-months following diagnosis (T2) (N = 93, response rate 94%). HMH was assessed in three domains: food, energy, and housing insecurity. Twenty percent of families reported low-income (≤200% Federal Poverty Level) and at least one HMH prior to their child's diagnosis. At T2, 25% of families lost >40% annual household income secondary to treatment-related work disruptions, and 29% of families reported HMH despite utilization of psychosocial supports. Low-income and HMH are prevalent in a significant proportion of newly diagnosed pediatric oncology families at a large referral center. Despite psychosocial supports, the proportion of families experiencing unmet basic needs increases during chemotherapy to nearly one in three families. HMH provides a quantifiable and remediable measure of poverty in pediatric oncology. Interventions to ameliorate this concrete component of poverty could benefit a significant proportion of pediatric oncology families. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Life After Welfare Reform: Low-Income Single Parent Families, Pre- and Post-TANF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Janice; Song, Xue; Jones-DeWeever, Avis

    This study used data from the first and last waves of the 1996 U.S. Census Bureau's Survey of Income and Program Participation to compare the characteristics and wellbeing of low-income, single parent families before and after passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA), noting the characteristics and…

  13. Family Income Loss and Economic Hardship: Antecedents of Adolescents' Problem Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbereisen, Rainer K.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Results suggest that income loss leads to low family integration, which in turn increases adolescents' sensitivity to evaluation by peers. This can result in decreased self-esteem and an inclination to act against common rules and norms. (PCB)

  14. Money vs. time: Family income, maternal labor supply, and child development

    OpenAIRE

    Agostinelli, Francesco; Sorrenti, Giuseppe

    2018-01-01

    We study the effect of family income and maternal hours worked on child development. Our instrumental variable analysis suggests different results for cognitive and behavioral development. An additional 1,000 USD in family income improves cognitive development by 4.4 percent of a standard deviation but has no effect on behavioral development. A yearly increase of 100 work hours negatively affects both outcomes by approximately 6 percent of a standard deviation. The quality of parental investm...

  15. Community Stakeholders’ Perceptions of Barriers to Childhood Obesity Prevention in Low-Income Families, Massachusetts 2012–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Emmeline; Aftosmes-Tobio, Alyssa; Blaine, Rachel E.; Giannetti, Mary; Land, Thomas; Davison, Kirsten K.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The etiology of childhood obesity is multidimensional and includes individual, familial, organizational, and societal factors. Policymakers and researchers are promoting social–ecological approaches to obesity prevention that encompass multiple community sectors. Programs that successfully engage low-income families in making healthy choices are greatly needed, yet little is known about the extent to which stakeholders understand the complexity of barriers encountered by families. The objective of this study was to contextually frame barriers faced by low-income families reported by community stakeholders by using the Family Ecological Model (FEM). Methods From 2012 through 2013, we conducted semistructured interviews with 39 stakeholders from 2 communities in Massachusetts that were participating in a multisector intervention for childhood obesity prevention. Stakeholders represented schools; afterschool programs; health care; the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children; and early care and education. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, coded, and summarized. Results Stakeholder reports of the barriers experienced by low-income families had a strong degree of overlap with FEM and reflected awareness of the broader contextual factors (eg, availability of community resources, family culture, education) and social and emotional dynamics within families (eg, parent knowledge, social norms, distrust of health care providers, chronic life stressors) that could affect family adoption of healthy lifestyle behaviors. Furthermore, results illustrated a level of consistency in stakeholder awareness across multiple community sectors. Conclusion The congruity of stakeholder perspectives with those of low-income parents as summarized in FEM and across community sectors illustrates potential for synergizing the efforts necessary for multisector, multilevel community interventions for the prevention of childhood obesity. PMID

  16. Geographical Mobility, Income, Life Satisfaction and Family Size Preferences: An Empirical Study on Rural Households in Shaanxi and Henan Provinces in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiangsheng; Yang, Hong

    Employing data from the China rural-urban mobility survey conducted in 2010, this study investigates the influence of family demographic characteristics on the income, life satisfaction, and potential for rural-urban mobility at the rural household level of two provinces of China: Shaanxi and Henan. A larger labor force in a rural household was found to reduce a family's ability or inclination to move to a city. The findings reveal that family size negatively affects the average income per family member and reduces the marginal income of the labor force and that minor children can improve the life satisfaction of family members. We conclude that a larger family size does not translate to more benefits for a rural household. Family size preference is found to be a reflection of parents' concerns about elderly care and is deemed to be unfavorable for urbanization in P. R. China.

  17. Access to and use of paid sick leave among low-income families with children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemans-Cope, Lisa; Perry, Cynthia D; Kenney, Genevieve M; Pelletier, Jennifer E; Pantell, Matthew S

    2008-08-01

    The ability of employed parents to meet the health needs of their children may depend on their access to sick leave, especially for low-income workers, who may be afforded less flexibility in their work schedules to accommodate these needs yet also more likely to have children in poor health. Our goal was to provide rates of access to paid sick leave and paid vacation leave among low-income families with children and to assess whether access to these benefits is associated with parents' leave taking to care for themselves or others. We used a sample of low-income families (paid leave and characteristics of children, families, and parents' employer. Access to paid leave was lower among children in low-income families than among those in families with higher income. Within low-income families, children without >or=1 full-time worker in the household were especially likely to lack access to this benefit, as were children whose parents work for small employers. Among children whose parents had access to paid sick leave, parents were more likely to take time away from work to care for themselves or others. This relationship is even more pronounced among families with the highest need, such as children in fair or poor health and children with all parents in full-time employment. Legislation mandating paid sick leave could dramatically increase access to this benefit among low-income families. It would likely diminish gaps in parents' leave taking to care for others between families with and without the benefit. However, until the health-related consequences are better understood, the full impact of such legislation remains unknown.

  18. Income and Expenditures of Families with a Baby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lino, Mark

    1991-01-01

    Studies real household income after the birth of a baby reporting median child care expenses were zero in first and $6 in fourth quarter; mean expenses in fourth quarter were $210. Fertility rate of women aged 18-44 without high school education who had baby in 1988 was 87, compared to 63 for women with college degree. (LB)

  19. Racial Inequality Trends and the Intergenerational Persistence of Income and Family Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloome, Deirdre

    2015-01-01

    Racial disparity in family incomes remained remarkably stable over the past 40 years in the United States despite major legal and social reforms. Previous scholarship presents two primary explanations for persistent inequality through a period of progressive change. One highlights continuity: because socioeconomic status is transmitted from parents to children, disparities created through histories of discrimination and opportunity denial may dissipate slowly. The second highlights change: because family income results from joining individual earnings in family units, changing family compositions can offset individuals’ changing economic chances. I examine whether black-white family income inequality trends are better characterized by the persistence of existing disadvantage (continuity) or shifting forms of disadvantage (change). I combine cross-sectional and panel analysis using Current Population Survey, Panel Study of Income Dynamics, Census, and National Vital Statistics data. Results suggest that African Americans experience relatively extreme intergenerational continuity (low upward mobility) and discontinuity (high downward mobility); both helped maintain racial inequality. Yet, intergenerational discontinuities allow new forms of disadvantage to emerge. On net, racial inequality trends are better characterized by changing forms of disadvantage than by continuity. Economic trends were equalizing but demographic trends were disequalizing; as family structures shifted, family incomes did not fully reflect labor-market gains. PMID:26456973

  20. What could family income be if health insurance were more affordable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Richard A; Devoe, Jennifer E

    2012-10-01

    Adjusted for inflation, household income has been relatively flat since the mid-1990s, but the inflation rate of employer-sponsored health insurance has been greater than both household income growth and general inflation for 50 years. We estimated the effect on average family income if health insurance inflation matched the general inflation rate since 1996, and those savings were given to employees as income. We used data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, the Milliman Medical Index, and other federal sources to model the relationship between private health insurance costs and household income over the last 15 years. If the cost of family health care costs had kept pace with the Consumer Price Index (CPI) rate since 1996, the average family income could have been $8,410 higher in 2010 ($68,805 versus $60,395), 13.9% more than actual earnings. If health care costs had not exceeded the CPI rate since 1996 and if all the excess costs were converted into employee wages, median family income could be substantially higher today.

  1. Family Resources as Protective Factors for Low-Income Youth Exposed to Community Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardaway, Cecily R; Sterrett-Hong, Emma; Larkby, Cynthia A; Cornelius, Marie D

    2016-07-01

    Exposure to community violence is a risk factor for internalizing and externalizing problems; however, resources within the family can decrease the likelihood that adolescents will experience internalizing and externalizing problems as a result of such exposure. This study investigates the potential moderating effects of kinship support (i.e., emotional and tangible support from extended family) and parental involvement on the relation between exposure to community violence (i.e., witnessing violence and violent victimization) and socioemotional adjustment (i.e., internalizing and externalizing problems) in low-income adolescents. The sample included 312 (50 % female; 71 % African American and 29 % White) low-income youth who participated in a longitudinal investigation when adolescents were age 14 (M age = 14.49 years) and again when they were 16 (M age = 16.49 years). Exposure to community violence at age 14 was related to more internalizing and externalizing problems at age 16. High levels of kinship support and parental involvement appeared to function as protective factors, weakening the association between exposure to violence and externalizing problems. Contrary to prediction, none of the hypothesized protective factors moderated the association between exposure to violence and internalizing problems. The results from this study suggest that both kinship support and parental involvement help buffer adolescents from externalizing problems that are associated with exposure to community violence.

  2. Family Income, Cumulative Risk Exposure, and White Matter Structure in Middle Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J. Dufford

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Family income is associated with gray matter morphometry in children, but little is known about the relationship between family income and white matter structure. In this paper, using Tract-Based Spatial Statistics, a whole brain, voxel-wise approach, we examined the relationship between family income (assessed by income-to-needs ratio and white matter organization in middle childhood (N = 27, M = 8.66 years. Results from a non-parametric, voxel-wise, multiple regression (threshold-free cluster enhancement, p < 0.05 FWE corrected indicated that lower family income was associated with lower white matter organization [assessed by fractional anisotropy (FA] for several clusters in white matter tracts involved in cognitive and emotional functions including fronto-limbic circuitry (uncinate fasciculus and cingulum bundle, association fibers (inferior longitudinal fasciculus, superior longitudinal fasciculus, and corticospinal tracts. Further, we examined the possibility that cumulative risk (CR exposure might function as one of the potential pathways by which family income influences neural outcomes. Using multiple regressions, we found lower FA in portions of these tracts, including those found in the left cingulum bundle and left superior longitudinal fasciculus, was significantly related to greater exposure to CR (β = -0.47, p < 0.05 and β = -0.45, p < 0.05.

  3. Economic Evaluation of Family Planning Interventions in Low and Middle Income Countries : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zakiyah, Neily; van Asselt, Antoinette D. I.; Roijmans, Frank; Postma, Maarten J.

    2016-01-01

    Background A significant number of women in low and middle income countries (L-MICs) who need any family planning, experience a lack in access to modern effective methods. This study was conducted to review potential cost effectiveness of scaling up family planning interventions in these regions

  4. Family and Cultural Influences on Low-Income Latino Children's Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Catherine DeCarlo; Wadsworth, Martha E.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined family and cultural influences on adjustment among 90 low-income Latino middle school children (46% girls; average age = 11.38, SD = 0.66) and their primary caregivers (93% female; average age = 36.12, SD = 6.13). All participants identified as Hispanic/Latino, with 75% of families identifying as Mexican-origin Latino, and 77%…

  5. Childhood parental divorce and cortisol in young adulthood: evidence for mediation by family income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Amy J; Luecken, Linda J

    2009-10-01

    Childhood parental divorce has been linked with negative physical and psychological health in adulthood, potentially due to alterations in adrenocortical activity resulting from chronic stress. The current study evaluated cortisol in 94 young adults (mean age 19.9) from families characterized by parental divorce (n=43) or intact parental marriages (n=51). Salivary cortisol was assessed prior to and at 3 time points after a challenging speech task. Participants from divorced families had significantly lower cortisol across the experimental period than those from intact families, even after controlling for family conflict and current depression and anxiety. Lower family income was also associated with lower cortisol, and partially mediated the relationship between parental divorce and cortisol. Findings suggest that childhood parental divorce is associated with attenuated cortisol in young adulthood, which may be explained by lower income in divorced families.

  6. Family income and tooth decay in US children: does the association change with age?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabé, E; Delgado-Angulo, E K; Murasko, J E; Marcenes, W

    2012-01-01

    This study explored whether the association of family income with tooth decay changes with age among children in the United States. A second objective was to explore the role of access to dental health care services in explaining the interrelationships between family income, child age and tooth decay. Data from 7,491 2- to 15-year-old children who participated in the 1999-2004 National and Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. The association of family income with the prevalence of tooth decay in primary, permanent and primary or permanent teeth was first estimated in logistic regression models with all children, and then, separately in four age groups that reflect the development of the dentition (2-5, 6-8, 9-11 and 12-15 years, respectively). Findings showed that the income gradient in tooth decay attenuated significantly in 9- to 11-year-olds only to re-emerge in 12- to 15-year-olds. The age profile of the income gradient in tooth decay was not accounted for by a diverse set of family and child characteristics. This is the first study providing some evidence for age variations in the income gradient in tooth decay among children in the United States. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Parental education and family income affect birthweight, early longitudinal growth and body mass index development differently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramsved, Rebecka; Regber, Susann; Novak, Daniel; Mehlig, Kirsten; Lissner, Lauren; Mårild, Staffan

    2018-01-07

    This study investigated the effects of two parental socio-economic characteristics, education and income, on growth and risk of obesity in children from birth to 8 years of age. Longitudinal growth data and national register-based information on socio-economic characteristics were available for 3,030 Swedish children. The development of body mass index (BMI) and height was compared in groups dichotomised by parental education and income. Low parental education was associated with a higher BMI from 4 years of age, independent of income, immigrant background, maternal BMI and smoking during pregnancy. Low family income was associated with a lower birthweight, but did not independently predict BMI development. At 8 years of age, children from less educated families had a three times higher risk of obesity, independent of parental income. Children whose parents had fewer years of education but high income had significantly higher height than all other children. Parental education protected against childhood obesity, even after adjusting for income and other important parental characteristics. Income-related differences in height, despite similar BMIs, raise questions about body composition and metabolic risk profiles. The dominant role of education underscores the value of health literacy initiatives for the parents of young children. ©2018 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. EARLY HEAD START FAMILIES' EXPERIENCES WITH STRESS: UNDERSTANDING VARIATIONS WITHIN A HIGH-RISK, LOW-INCOME SAMPLE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hustedt, Jason T; Vu, Jennifer A; Bargreen, Kaitlin N; Hallam, Rena A; Han, Myae

    2017-09-01

    The federal Early Head Start program provides a relevant context to examine families' experiences with stress since participants qualify on the basis of poverty and risk. Building on previous research that has shown variations in demographic and economic risks even among qualifying families, we examined possible variations in families' perceptions of stress. Family, parent, and child data were collected to measure stressors and risk across a variety of domains in families' everyday lives, primarily from self-report measures, but also including assay results from child cortisol samples. A cluster analysis was employed to examine potential differences among groups of Early Head Start families. Results showed that there were three distinct subgroups of families, with some families perceiving that they experienced very high levels of stress while others perceived much lower levels of stress despite also experiencing poverty and heightened risk. These findings have important implications in that they provide an initial step toward distinguishing differences in low-income families' experiences with stress, thereby informing interventions focused on promoting responsive caregiving as a possible mechanism to buffer the effects of family and social stressors on young children. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  9. 42 CFR 435.236 - Individuals in institutions who are eligible under a special income level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... a special income level. 435.236 Section 435.236 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID... in institutions who are eligible under a special income level. (a) If the agency provides Medicaid... not institutionalized; but (2) Have income below a level specified in the plan under § 435.722. (See...

  10. Family Income and Child Cognitive and Noncognitive Development in Australia: Does Money Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanam, Rasheda; Nghiem, Son

    2016-06-01

    This article investigates whether family income affects children's cognitive and noncognitive development by exploiting comprehensive information from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. We include variables that represent parental investment, parental stress, and neighborhood characteristics to examine if these factors mediate the effects of income. Using dynamic panel data, we find that family income is significantly associated with children's cognitive skills but not with noncognitive skills. Mother's education, parent's physical and mental health, parenting styles, child's own health, and presence of both biological parents are the most important factors for children's noncognitive development. For cognitive development, income as well as parents' education, child's birth weight, and number of books that children have at home are highly significant factors. We also find strong evidence to support the skill formation theory that children's previous cognitive and noncognitive outcomes are significantly related to their current outcomes.

  11. [Influence of income on food expenditures away from home among Brazilian families, 2002-2003].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claro, Rafael Moreira; Levy, Renata Bertazzi; Bandoni, Daniel Henrique

    2009-11-01

    This study describes and evaluates the influence of income on the percentage of food expenditures away from home for Brazilian families. Food acquisition data from the National Household Budget Survey conducted from 2002 to 2003 (POF 2002/2003) by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) or National Census Bureau was used in the analysis. Information on food-and-drink expenditures away from home was analyzed. The influence of income on the share of food purchased away from home in the household budget, adjusted for socio-demographic variables, was analyzed through elasticity coefficients estimated in multiple linear regression. Food purchased away from home accounted for 21% of total food expenditures by Brazilian households. A 10% increase in income increased the share of food purchased away from home by 3%. Income elasticity was high, especially for the lowest income families. The results demonstrate an important influence of income on food expenditures away from home, and higher income is associated with a greater share of food purchased away from home.

  12. Income Trends of Residential PV Adopters: An analysis of household-level income estimates [PowerPoint presentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbose, Galen L.; Darghouth, Naim R.; Hoen, Ben; Wiser, Ryan H.

    2018-04-09

    The residential photovoltaic (PV) market has expanded rapidly over the past decade, but questions exist about how equitably that growth has occurred across income groups. Prior studies have investigated this question but are often limited by narrow geographic study regions, now-dated analysis timeframes, or coarse estimates of PV-adopter incomes. At the same time, a spate of new programs and initiatives, as well as innovations in business models and product design, have emerged in recent years with the aim of making solar more accessible and affordable to broader segments of the population. Yet, many of those efforts are proceeding without robust underlying information about the income characteristics of recent residential PV adopters. This work aims to establish basic factual information about income trends among U.S. residential solar adopters, with some emphasis on low- and moderate-income (LMI) households. The analysis is unique in its relatively extensive coverage of the U.S. solar market, relying on Berkeley Lab’s Tracking the Sun dataset, which contains project-level data for the vast majority of all residential PV systems in the country (a subset of which are ultimately included in the analysis sample). This analysis is also unique in its use of household-level income estimates that provide a more-precise characterization of PV-adopter incomes than in most prior studies.

  13. Stakeholder Perspectives on Barriers for Healthy Living for Low-income African American Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronnie Faye Jones

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood obesity is a growing problem for children in the United States, especially for children from low-income, African American families. Objective: The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand facilitators and barriers to engaging in healthy lifestyles faced by low-income African American children and their families. Methods: This qualitative study used semi-structured focus group interviews with eight African American children clinically identified as overweight or obese (BMI > 85 and their parents. An expert panel provided insights in developing culturally appropriate intervention strategies. Results: Child and parent focus group analysis revealed eleven barriers and no definitive facilitators for healthy eating and lifestyles. Parents reported confusion regarding what constitutes nutritional eating, varying needs of family members in terms of issues with weight, and difficulty in engaging the family in appropriate and safe physical activities; to name a few themes. Community experts independently suggested that nutritional information is confusing and, often, contradictory. Additionally, they recommended simple messaging and practical interventions such as helping with shopping lists, meal planning, and identifying simple and inexpensive physical activities.Conclusions: Childhood obesity in the context of low-resource families is a complex problem with no simple solutions. Culturally sensitive and family-informed interventions are needed to support low-income African American families in dealing with childhood obesity.

  14. Stakeholder perspectives on barriers for healthy living for low-income african american families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Veronnie Faye; Rowland, Michael L; Young, Linda; Atwood, Katherine; Thompson, Kirsten; Sterrett, Emma; Honaker, Sarah Morsbach; Williams, Joel E; Johnson, Knowlton; Davis, Deborah Winders

    2014-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a growing problem for children in the United States, especially for children from low-income, African American families. The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand facilitators and barriers to engaging in healthy lifestyles faced by low-income African American children and their families. This qualitative study used semi-structured focus group interviews with eight African American children clinically identified as overweight or obese (BMI ≥ 85) and their parents. An expert panel provided insights in developing culturally appropriate intervention strategies. Child and parent focus group analysis revealed 11 barriers and no definitive facilitators for healthy eating and lifestyles. Parents reported confusion regarding what constitutes nutritional eating, varying needs of family members in terms of issues with weight, and difficulty in engaging the family in appropriate and safe physical activities; to name a few themes. Community experts independently suggested that nutritional information is confusing and, often, contradictory. Additionally, they recommended simple messaging and practical interventions such as helping with shopping lists, meal planning, and identifying simple and inexpensive physical activities. Childhood obesity in the context of low-resource families is a complex problem with no simple solutions. Culturally sensitive and family informed interventions are needed to support low-income African American families in dealing with childhood obesity.

  15. The impacts of rapid demographic transition on family structure and income inequality in Brazil, 1981-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Alexandre Gori; Sakamoto, Camila Strobl

    2016-11-01

    This study analysed the impact of changing family structure on income distribution. Specifically, it analysed how changes in the proportions of different categories of family in the population contributed to increases in the income of the richest and poorest social strata in Brazil, and the consequent impacts on income inequality. Rural and urban families were compared in order to understand how these dynamics had different impacts on more developed (urban) and less developed (rural) areas. The results emphasize how changes observed in family structure are more pronounced among the richest families, contributing to an increase in (i) the income of the richest families and (ii) income inequality between the richest and poorest families, as well as between urban and rural areas.

  16. National income and income inequality, family affluence and life satisfaction among 13 year old boys and girls: a multilevel study in 35 countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levin, Kate; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Vollebergh, Wilma

    2011-01-01

    Adolescence is a critical period where many patterns of health and health behaviour are formed. The objective of this study was to investigate cross-national variation in the relationship between family affluence and adolescent life satisfaction, and the impact of national income and income inequ...

  17. National Income and Income Inequality, Family Affluence and Life Satisfaction among 13 Year Old Boys and Girls: A Multilevel Study in 35 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Kate Ann; Torsheim, Torbjorn; Vollebergh, Wilma; Richter, Matthias; Davies, Carolyn A.; Schnohr, Christina W.; Due, Pernille; Currie, Candace

    2011-01-01

    Adolescence is a critical period where many patterns of health and health behaviour are formed. The objective of this study was to investigate cross-national variation in the relationship between family affluence and adolescent life satisfaction, and the impact of national income and income inequality on this relationship. Data from the 2006…

  18. The Impact of Family Income on Child Achievement: Evidence from the Earned Income Tax Credit. Discussion Paper No. 1361-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Gordon; Lochner, Lance

    2009-01-01

    Past estimates of the effect of family income on child development have often been plagued by endogeneity and measurement error. In this paper, we use two simulated instrumental variables strategies to estimate the causal effect of income on children's math and reading achievement. Our identification derives from the large, non-linear changes…

  19. Cohabitating Partners and Domestic Labor in Low-Income Black Families

    OpenAIRE

    Reid, Megan; Golub, Andrew; Vazan, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the division of domestic labor in low-income cohabiting Black stepfamilies. We analyze survey data collected from 136 such families in order to understand how stepparent gender and relationship length impact the distribution of domestic labor. We hypothesize that women do more domestic work than men across all three family types, and that stepfathers are more involved in domestic labor in established relationships compared to new relationships. Findings indicate that coh...

  20. Associations among parental feeding styles and children's food intake in families with limited incomes

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Yan; Nicklas Theresa A; Fisher Jennifer O; Hughes Sheryl O; Hoerr Sharon L; Shewchuk Richard M

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Although general parenting styles and restrictive parental feeding practices have been associated with children's weight status, few studies have examined the association between feeding styles and proximal outcomes such as children's food intake, especially in multi-ethnic families with limited incomes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of parental feeding styles and young children's evening food intake in a multiethnic sample of families in Head S...

  1. [Differences in factors associated with health checkup participation between persons with differing income levels. A cross-sectional analysis using residential taxation as a measure of household income].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukishima, Eri; Takahashi, Kyoko; Yano, Koichi; Mori, Mitsuru

    2012-11-01

    Health insurers in Japan are required to provide health checkups specifically designed to detect signs of metabolic syndrome. Since National Health Insurance organizations have been increasing their numbers of low-income beneficiaries, this observational study was carried out to investigate the differences between persons with differing household income levels based on the factors associated with their participation in health checkups. The data source for this study was a database of scored answers in collected, unsigned questionnaires provided by the National Health Insurance of Sapporo City. The survey was conducted in 2009, approaching 3000 beneficiaries aged 40-74 years and sampling 4 groups divided by household income and participation in the 2008 health checkup. The survey included questions about demographics, awareness of the details of the health checkup, and knowledge of lifestyle-related diseases. Valid answers from 1656 respondents were analyzed using multiple logistic regression analysis. After analyzing the level of awareness of health checkup details among subjects and its association with checkup participation, knowledge of the locations where the checkups were held showed the highest adjusted odds ratios. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the following factors were associated with participation in checkups in both lower- and higher-income groups: previous and regular participation in health checkups, willingness to attend the next checkup, and status of family or friends regarding checkup participation. In addition, that a substantial out-of-pocket cost for the checkup was not levied had a significant relationship with checkup attendance in lower-income beneficiaries, while personal obligation to undergo regular health checkups regardless of the busyness of their schedules was found to have a significant relationship in higher-income beneficiaries. In addition, logistic models that excluded factors of previous and future health

  2. Understanding Barriers and Solutions Affecting Preschool Attendance in Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susman-Stillman, Amy; Englund, Michelle M.; Storm, Karen J.; Bailey, Ann E.

    2018-01-01

    Preschool attendance problems negatively impact children's school readiness skills and future school attendance. Parents are critical to preschoolers' attendance. This study explored parental barriers and solutions to preschool attendance in low-income families. School-district administrative data from a racially/ethnically diverse sample of…

  3. Process Evaluation of a Parenting Program for Low-Income Families in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachman, Jamie M.; Kelly, Jane; Cluver, Lucie; Ward, Catherine L.; Hutchings, Judy; Gardner, Frances

    2018-01-01

    Objective: This mixed-methods process evaluation examined the feasibility of a parenting program delivered by community facilitators to reduce the risk of child maltreatment in low-income families with children aged 3-8 years in Cape Town, South Africa (N = 68). Method: Quantitative measures included attendance registers, fidelity checklists,…

  4. School Readiness among Low-Income Black Children: Family Characteristics, Parenting, and Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bono, Katherine E.; Sy, Susan R.; Kopp, Claire B.

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on the associations between family variables and academic and social school readiness in low-income Black children. Analyses drew from the National Institute for Child Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development dataset. The participants included 122 children and their mothers. Data collection occurred…

  5. College Costs and Family Income: The Affordability Issue at UC and CSU. Report 11-02

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jessika

    2011-01-01

    Rising costs are putting an education at California's public universities out of reach for many Californians. Eroding state funding for higher education has meant that more costs are passed on to students and their families in the form of increased fees. Room and board and other costs have grown much faster than inflation. Incomes have not kept…

  6. Parental Mathematics Homework Involvement of Low-Income Families with Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Robyn Hackford; Chen, Yung-Chi; Fish, Marian C.

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the relationships between methods of parental assistance (i.e., provision of structure, direct assistance, and autonomy support) with mathematics homework for high-achieving and low-achieving students and children's achievement in mathematics in low-income families and examines the impact of parental efficacy on these…

  7. 24 CFR 982.516 - Family income and composition: Regular and interim examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... VOUCHER PROGRAM Rent and Housing Assistance Payment § 982.516 Family income and composition: Regular and... assistance payment. (For a voucher tenancy, the housing assistance payment shall be calculated in accordance... the housing assistance payment resulting from an interim redetermination. (2) At the effective date of...

  8. Relation Between Intelligence and Family Size, Position, and Income in Adolescent Girls in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Habab; Alahmadi, Maryam; Bakhiet, Salaheldin; Lynn, Richard

    2016-12-01

    Data are reported showing statistically significant negative correlations between intelligence and family size, position, and income in a sample of 604 adolescent girls in Saudi Arabia. There were no statistically significant correlations or associations between whether the mother or father were deceased or both parents were alive, and whether the parents were living together or were divorced. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Low-Income Children, Their Families and the Great Recession: What Next in Policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aber, Lawrence; Chaudry, Ajay

    2010-01-01

    Children and youth vary in their developmental health due to differences in family economic security and exposure to toxic stress. The economic downturn has increased the challenges facing low-income children. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) and the President's first budget made significant down-payments on investments in…

  10. Personal Empowerment in the Study of Home Internet Use by Low-Income Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bier, Melinda; Gallo, Michael; Nucklos, Eddy; Sherblom, Stephen; Pennick, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Describes a United States Department of Commerce (National Telecommunications and Information Administrations, NTIA, 1995) study of home Internet use by Low-income families. The study investigated the barriers, benefits (empowerment), and perceived worth of the Internet and concluded that home Internet access enabled powerful emotional and…

  11. ENRICHMENT PROGRAM FOR ACADEMICALLY TALENTED JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS FROM LOW INCOME FAMILIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PRESSMAN, HARVEY

    A PROPOSAL FOR AN ENRICHMENT PROGRAM FOR ACADEMICALLY TALENTED JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS FROM LOW-INCOME FAMILIES IN CERTAIN AREAS OF BOSTON IS PRESENTED. BASIC ASSUMPTIONS ARE THAT THERE IS AND OBVIOUS AND PRESSING NEED TO GIVE EXTRA HELP TO THE ABLE STUDENT FROM A DISADVANTAGED BACKGROUND, AND THAT A RELATIVELY BRIEF ENRICHMENT EXPERIENCE FOR…

  12. Bolsa Família (Family Grant) Programme: an analysis of Brazilian income transfer programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Mourao (Luciana); A. Macedo de Jesus (Anderson)

    2012-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Income transfer programmes are common in various countries and play an important role in combating poverty. This article presents a review of the results of the Bolsa Família (Family Grant) Programme, implemented in Brazil by the government of Lula da Silva in

  13. Maternal Correlates of Growth in Toddler Vocabulary Production in Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Barbara Alexander; Rowe, Meredith L.; Singer, Judith D.; Snow, Catherine E.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated predictors of growth in toddlers' vocabulary production between the ages of 1 and 3 years by analyzing mother-child communication in 108 low-income families. Individual growth modeling was used to describe patterns of growth in children's observed vocabulary production and predictors of initial status and between-person…

  14. Family Income Dynamics, Early Childhood Education and Care, and Early Child Behavior Problems in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachrisson, Henrik D.; Dearing, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The sociopolitical context of Norway includes low poverty rates and universal access to subsidized and regulated Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC). In this context, the association between family income dynamics and changes in early child behavior problems was investigated, as well as whether high-quality ECEC buffers children from the…

  15. Examining the implications of dental treatment costs for low-income families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Patrick; McNally, Mary E

    2010-01-01

    Dental disease is concentrated among those with low socioeconomic status. Dental care is not publicly funded, and many Canadians must therefore make difficult financial choices when accessing dental care. Families who live in poverty have difficulty meeting even their most basic household needs, so dental treatment may not be affordable. The objective of this study was to understand how the cost of dental treatment affects the monthly budgets of families with low incomes. A chart review was conducted for a sample of 213 new patients examined at the Dalhousie University dental clinic over a 1-year period. Costs for proposed treatment plans were averaged. The patients" ability to pay for proposed treatment was examined in the context of various income scenarios. Two hundred and one patients were included in the final analysis. Dental treatment costs per patient averaged approximately $1600 for the year, with 42% of the planned treatment completed within the first year. The estimated monthly cost of completed treatment was $55. When the cost of a healthy diet was included in the monthly budget, it was determined that families in Nova Scotia with parents working for minimum wage and those receiving income assistance would experience a 100% shortfall for dental expenses. Low-income families in Nova Scotia were unable to afford both a nutritious diet and dental care. This is disturbing, given the links between a healthy diet and both overall health and dental health. An understanding of the significance of income shortfalls for those with low incomes, especially as they affect even basic nutritional needs, will help dental professionals to appreciate the seriousness of this issue and the difficulties that many Canadians face when trying to access basic dental care.

  16. Expanding wallets and waistlines: the impact of family income on the BMI of women and men eligible for the Earned Income Tax Credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeiser, Maximilian D

    2009-11-01

    The rising rate of obesity has reached epidemic proportions and is now one of the most serious public health challenges facing the US. However, the underlying causes for this increase are unclear. This paper examines the effect of family income changes on body mass index (BMI) and obesity using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort. It does so by using exogenous variation in family income in a sample of low-income women and men. This exogenous variation is obtained from the correlation of their family income with the generosity of state and federal Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) program benefits. Income is found to significantly raise the BMI and probability of being obese for women with EITC-eligible earnings, and have no appreciable effect for men with EITC-eligible earnings. The results imply that the increase in real family income from 1990 to 2002 explains between 10 and 21% of the increase in sample women's BMI and between 23 and 29% of their increased obesity prevalence. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. 24 CFR 1000.110 - Under what conditions may non low-income Indian families participate in the program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Under what conditions may non low-income Indian families participate in the program? 1000.110 Section 1000.110 Housing and Urban... ACTIVITIES Affordable Housing Activities § 1000.110 Under what conditions may non low-income Indian families...

  18. Race, Poverty and SAT Scores: Modeling the Influences of Family Income on Black and White High School Students' SAT Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon-Roman, Ezekiel J.; Everson, Howard T.; McArdle, John J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Educational policy makers and test critics often assert that standardized test scores are strongly influenced by factors beyond individual differences in academic achievement such as family income and wealth. Unfortunately, few empirical studies consider the simultaneous and related influences of family income, parental education, and…

  19. Family income, food prices, and household purchases of fruits and vegetables in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claro, Rafael Moreira; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2010-12-01

    To analyze the influence of family income and food prices on the participation of fruits and vegetables in the food purchases of Brazilian households. Data analyzed refers to the Household Budget Survey conducted by the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística on a probabilistic sample of 48,470 Brazilian households between 2002 and 2003. Fruit and vegetable participation in total food purchases was expressed as a percentage of total calories purchased and as calories from fruit and vegetables adjusted for total calories purchased. A multiple regression analysis was employed to estimate elasticity coefficients, controlling for sociodemographic variables and price of other foods. Fruit and vegetable participation in total food purchases increased as the price of these foods decreased, or as income increased. A 1% decrease in the price of fruit and vegetables would increase their participation by 0.79%, whereas a 1% increase in family income would increase participation by 0.27%. The effect of income tended to be smaller among higher income strata. Reducing the price of fruit and vegetables, either by supporting their production or through fiscal measures, is a promising public policy instrument, capable of increasing the participation of these foods in the diet of the Brazilian population.

  20. Family obligation values as a protective and vulnerability factor among low-income adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan, Stephanie; Wortel, Sanne

    2015-06-01

    Adolescents' beliefs about family obligation often reflect cultural variations in their family context, and thus are important for understanding development among diverse youth. In this study, we test hypotheses about the role of family obligation values in risk behavior and mental health in a sample of 194 low-income adolescent girls (mean age = 15.2; 58% Latina, 28% African-American/Black). We hypothesized that family obligation values can be both a protective and vulnerability factor, depending on the type of outcome and the presence of other risk factors. Across the sample, higher family obligation values tended to occur with indicators of positive family functioning (e.g., more frequent communication, less maternal hostility) based on mother and adolescent reports. As hypothesized, family obligation values moderated the relationship between established risk factors and adjustment in distinct ways, such that high family obligation values decreased risk in some domains (i.e., a protective factor) but increased risk in other domains (i.e., a vulnerability factor). Specifically, high family obligation values diminished the relationship between peer norms for risky behavior (sex and substance use) and individual engagement in those behaviors. At the same time, high family obligation values magnified the relationship between exposure to negative life events and poor mental health (PTSD and depressive symptoms). The results suggest that family obligation is an important but complex aspect of development among diverse adolescent girls.

  1. Family Obligation Values as a Protective and Vulnerability Factor among Low-Income Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan, Stephanie; Wortel, Sanne

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents’ beliefs about family obligation often reflect cultural variations in their family context, and thus are important for understanding development among diverse youth. In this study, we test hypotheses about the role of family obligation values in risk behavior and mental health in a sample of 194 low-income adolescent girls (Mean age = 15.2; 58% Latina, 28% African-American/Black). We hypothesized that family obligation values can be both a protective and vulnerability factor, depending on the type of outcome and the presence of other risk factors. Across the sample, higher family obligation values tended to occur with indicators of positive family functioning (e.g., more frequent communication, less maternal hostility) based on mother and adolescent reports. As hypothesized, family obligation values moderated the relationship between established risk factors and adjustment in distinct ways, such that high family obligation values decreased risk in some domains (i.e., a protective factor) but increased risk in other domains (i.e., a vulnerability factor). Specifically, high family obligation values diminished the relationship between peer norms for risky behavior (sex and substance use) and individual engagement in those behaviors. At the same time, high family obligation values magnified the relationship between exposure to negative life events and poor mental health (PTSD and depressive symptoms). The results suggest that family obligation is an important but complex aspect of development among diverse adolescent girls. PMID:25351163

  2. ECONOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF CONTRIBUTION OF FAMILY POULTRY TO WOMEN’S INCOME IN NIGER-DELTA, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R ALABI

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This study shows that family poultry husbandry, business activities and paid employment contribute 35%, 30% and 18% respectively to the household income of women in Niger Delta, Nigeria. The average income from family poultry is N16, 784.53 ($124.33, which is about 25% and 50% of national minimum wage and per capita income in Nigeria respectively. The major constraints to the family poultry in the study area are disease and pest, pilfering and lack of capital. The econometric analysis indicates that wage, business and family poultry income are significant determinants of income of women in the study area. The estimated regression coefficients are, 0.35, 0.32 and 0.19 for wage, business and family poultry income respectively. This suggests that if wage income, business income and family poultry income increase by 100%, total income of the women will increase by 35%, 32% and 19% respectively. This indicates that family poultry husbandry has third rating in potentially influencing women income in the study area. It is recommended from the study that the contribution of family poultry to total income of the women can be improved through proper medication and vaccination of their birds with vaccines that are stable under tropical environment. It is also imperative that semi intensive, if not intensive, rearing technology should be considered as a reasonable option if the problem of pilfering is to be addressed. Improving the capital base of the women through formation of cooperating and micro-credit schemes should also be a welcome development in addressing the problem of lack of capital.

  3. Associations between family food behaviors, maternal depression, and child weight among low-income children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdy, Karen; Gorman, Kathleen S; Kisler, Tiffani; Metallinos-Katsaras, Elizabeth

    2014-08-01

    Although low-income children are at greater risk for overweight and obesity than their higher income counterparts, the majority of poor children are not overweight. The current study examined why such variation exists among diverse young children in poor families. Cross-sectional data were collected on 164 low-income, preschool aged children and their mothers living in two Rhode Island cities. Over half of the sample was Hispanic (55%). Mothers completed measures of family food behaviors and depression while trained assistants collected anthropometric data from children at seven day care centers and a Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program outreach project. Multivariate analysis of covariance revealed that higher maternal depression scores were associated with lower scores on maternal presence when child eats (P maternal control of child's eating routines (P maternal presence whenever the child ate was significantly associated with lower child BMI z scores (β = .166, P Maternal depression did not modify the relationship between family food behaviors and child weight. Overall, caregiver presence whenever a child eats, not just at meals, and better parental food resource management skills may promote healthier weights in low-income preschoolers. Further research is needed to identify the mechanisms that connect caregiver presence and food resource management skills to healthier weights for this age group. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Exploring Cumulative Risk and Family Literacy Practices in Low-Income Latino Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcella, Jennifer; Howes, Carollee; Fuligni, Allison Sidle

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: The home literacy environment and other early learning settings such as preschool play a role in children's language and literacy outcomes, yet research suggests that Latino, Spanish-speaking families are less likely than other families to participate in family literacy activities. This study explored the relations among…

  5. Level validity of self-report whole-family measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manders, Willeke A; Cook, William L; Oud, Johan H L; Scholte, Ron H J; Janssens, Jan M A M; De Bruyn, Eric E J

    2007-12-01

    This article introduces an approach to testing the level validity of family assessment instruments (i.e., whether a family instrument measures family functioning at the level of the system it purports to assess). Two parents and 2 adolescents in 69 families rated the warmth in each of their family relationships and in the family as a whole. Family members' ratings of whole-family warmth assessed family functioning not only at the family level (i.e., characteristics of the family as a whole) but also at the individual level of analysis (i.e., characteristics of family members as raters), indicating a lack of level validity. Evidence was provided for the level validity of a latent variable based on family members' ratings of whole-family warmth. The findings underscore the importance of assessing the level validity of individual ratings of whole-family functioning.

  6. "We Keep the Education Goin' at Home All the Time": Family Literacy in Low-Income African American Families of Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Robin L.; Coba-Rodriguez, Sarai

    2017-01-01

    Researchers have examined the impact of family on child literacy among low-income African American families and preschoolers considered to be at risk for not being ready for kindergarten. Quantitative studies identify family-parental variables associated with poorer literacy outcomes, whereas qualitative studies detail family practices that…

  7. Income disparities and their impact on the level and development of food expenditures of households in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľudmila Nagyová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper evaluates development and changes in the level of households food expenditures in Slovakia, which occurred after the accession of Slovakia to the European Union in 2004 and began to apply the rules of the Common Agricultural Policy and using of means of support. Free movement of goods, labor and capital has contributed to the increase of goods and services supply and living standards as well as to the increase in households income differentiation. Until 2012, households in the lowest income quartile possess on average with only 34.1 % per year of the revenue compared with income in the highest fourth quartile of income category. The results of the analysis show a different behavior in the food market. Most sensitive to the change in income and price levels of food expenditures for food responded in families with the lowest incomes (EI = 0.28. With the increase in prices of cereals (bread by one percentage unit-demand declined by an average by 0.49 % (Epi = −0.49, the demand for cheese by 0.65 % (Epi = −0.654 and the demand for meat by 0.275 % (Epi = −0.275.

  8. Parent-Child Interactions Among Low-Income Mexican American Parents and Preschoolers: Do Clinic-Referred Families Differ From Nonreferred Families?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Kristen; Yeh, May; Lau, Anna; Argote, Carolina Bertely; Liang, June

    2009-01-01

    This study compared low-income Mexican American parents of young children referred for behavior problems to their nonreferred counterparts on an observational measure of parent-child interactions. Referred Mexican American parents demonstrated more negative behaviors than their nonreferred counterparts in both nondirective and highly directive situations. However, no differences were found at moderate levels of directiveness. The most and least directive situations in the Dyadic Parent-Child Interaction Coding System best differentiated referred from nonreferred Mexican American families, and families differed more in their negative behaviors than positive behaviors. Many of the parenting behaviors that have been found to differ between referred and nonreferred Caucasian families were also observed to differ between their Mexican American counterparts. PMID:20171330

  9. The Relationship Between Education, Job, and Family Income with TB Medication Dropouts in Timor-Leste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valente Da Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background:  TB treatment dropout is one causes of treatment failure, which could increase drug resistant cases. Drug resistant cases of TB were reported by the Ministry of Health of East Timor in 2008 (3 cases, 2009 (3 cases, and in 2010 (6 cases. With drug resistant emerging, TB will require longer treatment time. According to the WHO report (2013 the results of pulmonary tuberculosis BTA (+ treatment were reported: Year 2010 the number of failure of treatment was (0.53%; Died of TB (3.53%; Drop out of treatment (4.05%; Outmigration (3.98%; In 2011 cases of treatment failure (0.50% Died of TB (3.36%; Drop out of treatment (3.36%; Outmigration (1.92%; In 2012 cases of treatment failure (1.03%; Died of TB (3.49% Drop out of treatment (4.59% and migration, (2.26%. According to the National Statistics Directorate (NSD in 2011, that the East Timorese people still live mostly 70.4% in the rural areas. While access to health services remains a challenge, since the people of Timor Leste proclaimed the restoration of its independence. Objective: This study aimed to determine whether there is a relationship between the variables of education, family income, and job with cases of TB medication discontinuation. Methods: This study was conducted using descriptive correlation method. The sample was determined by Ridwan & Akdon (2010 formula. The total of samples was 100 people who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria, and selected randomly. This research was conducted in District Manatuto and Liquica Timor-Leste on March 28, 2015. Results: The correlation test showed a strong positive relationship level if r = 0.51 until +1. Analysis of significance value of r xy = 0.671 and p = 0.000 indicates that there is a significant relationship between the variables of education, job and income with variable discontinuation of treatment. Conclusion: Based on the results of research and data analysis, it can be concluded that the results of this study are as

  10. Factors contributing to the psychological well-being for Hong Kong Chinese children from low-income families: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ka Yan; Li, William H C; Chung, Joyce Oi Kwan; Lam, Katherine Ka Wai; Chan, Sophia S C; Xia, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Despite compelling evidence demonstrating the negative impact of poverty and income disparity on children's psychological well-being, there has been a lack of qualitative information which addresses its contributing factors. This study aimed to shed light on this area by comparing the experiences toward daily life between children living in low- and high-income families. A qualitative study using a phenomenological approach was conducted from May 2012 to January 2013. A random sample of 42 children aged 10-13, with 25 from low- and 17 from high-income families were asked to voluntarily response to a demographic sheet and undergo individual semi-structured interviews which lasted about 25-30 min. Content analysis was used to analyze the data. Approval for the study was obtained from the Institutional Review Board of the University of Hong Kong/Hospital Authority Hong Kong West Cluster (reference UW 12-237). The findings of this study revealed that the living environment, physical health, social life and ability to function at school of children from low-income families are severely impaired. It fills a gap in the literature by showing how poverty and income disparity affect the daily lives of children from low-income families on different levels. Also, adopting a sedentary lifestyle and unhealthy eating habits are possible factors mediating the effects of poverty and income disparity on the psychological well-being of children from low-income families. It is vital for healthcare professionals going beyond their normal roles to give advice on healthy lifestyles and behaviors by building multidisciplinary partnerships with schools and the community. Additionally, healthcare professionals should also target on these two possible factors to develop and implement appropriate interventions for promoting the psychological well-being among children living in poverty. Trial registration NCT02877719. 19 August 2016 retrospectively registered.

  11. Tract- and county-level income inequality and individual risk of obesity in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jessie X; Wen, Ming; Kowaleski-Jones, Lori

    2016-01-01

    We tested three alternative hypotheses regarding the relationship between income inequality and individual risk of obesity at two geographical scales: U.S. Census tract and county. Income inequality was measured by Gini coefficients, created from the 2000 U.S. Census. Obesity was clinically measured in the 2003-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The individual measures and area measures were geo-linked to estimate three sets of multi-level models: tract only, county only, and tract and county simultaneously. Gender was tested as a moderator. At both the tract and county levels, higher income inequality was associated with lower individual risk of obesity. The size of the coefficient was larger for county-level Gini than for tract-level Gini; and controlling income inequality at one level did not reduce the impact of income inequality at the other level. Gender was not a significant moderator for the obesity-income inequality association. Higher tract and county income inequality was associated with lower individual risk of obesity, indicating that at least at the tract and county levels and in the context of cross-sectional data, the public health goal of reducing the rate of obesity is in line with anti-poverty policies of addressing poverty through mixed-income development where neighborhood income inequality is likely higher than homogeneous neighborhoods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. "Economic Development, Income Inequality and Social Stability in Prewar Japan: A Prefecture-level Analysis"

    OpenAIRE

    Tetsuji Okazaki

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses the relationship between economic development, income inequality and social stability, using the data of prewar Japan. We have made prefecture-level income inequality index, based on tax and wage statistics with respect to four data points, 1888, 1896, 1921 and 1935. Regression analyses of the prefecture-level panel data confirmed that there was an inverse-U shaped relationship between economic development and income inequality. At the same time thorough analyses of the d...

  13. Economic Evaluation of Family Planning Interventions in Low and Middle Income Countries; A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neily Zakiyah

    Full Text Available A significant number of women in low and middle income countries (L-MICs who need any family planning, experience a lack in access to modern effective methods. This study was conducted to review potential cost effectiveness of scaling up family planning interventions in these regions from the published literatures and assess their implication for policy and future research.A systematic review was performed in several electronic databases i.e Medline (Pubmed, Embase, Popline, The National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER, EBSCOHost, and The Cochrane Library. Articles reporting full economic evaluations of strategies to improve family planning interventions in one or more L-MICs, published between 1995 until 2015 were eligible for inclusion. Data was synthesized and analyzed using a narrative approach and the reporting quality of the included studies was assessed using the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS statement.From 920 references screened, 9 studies were eligible for inclusion. Six references assessed cost effectiveness of improving family planning interventions in one or more L-MICs, while the rest assessed costs and consequences of integrating family planning and HIV services, concerning sub-Saharan Africa. Assembled evidence suggested that improving family planning interventions is cost effective in a variety of L-MICs as measured against accepted international cost effectiveness benchmarks. In areas with high HIV prevalence, integrating family planning and HIV services can be efficient and cost effective; however the evidence is only supported by a very limited number of studies. The major drivers of cost effectiveness were cost of increasing coverage, effectiveness of the interventions and country-specific factors.Improving family planning interventions in low and middle income countries appears to be cost-effective. Additional economic evaluation studies with improved reporting quality are necessary

  14. Economic Evaluation of Family Planning Interventions in Low and Middle Income Countries; A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakiyah, Neily; van Asselt, Antoinette D I; Roijmans, Frank; Postma, Maarten J

    2016-01-01

    A significant number of women in low and middle income countries (L-MICs) who need any family planning, experience a lack in access to modern effective methods. This study was conducted to review potential cost effectiveness of scaling up family planning interventions in these regions from the published literatures and assess their implication for policy and future research. A systematic review was performed in several electronic databases i.e Medline (Pubmed), Embase, Popline, The National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER), EBSCOHost, and The Cochrane Library. Articles reporting full economic evaluations of strategies to improve family planning interventions in one or more L-MICs, published between 1995 until 2015 were eligible for inclusion. Data was synthesized and analyzed using a narrative approach and the reporting quality of the included studies was assessed using the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) statement. From 920 references screened, 9 studies were eligible for inclusion. Six references assessed cost effectiveness of improving family planning interventions in one or more L-MICs, while the rest assessed costs and consequences of integrating family planning and HIV services, concerning sub-Saharan Africa. Assembled evidence suggested that improving family planning interventions is cost effective in a variety of L-MICs as measured against accepted international cost effectiveness benchmarks. In areas with high HIV prevalence, integrating family planning and HIV services can be efficient and cost effective; however the evidence is only supported by a very limited number of studies. The major drivers of cost effectiveness were cost of increasing coverage, effectiveness of the interventions and country-specific factors. Improving family planning interventions in low and middle income countries appears to be cost-effective. Additional economic evaluation studies with improved reporting quality are necessary to generate

  15. Changes in Family Income around the Time of Birth of Children in Germany between 1985 and 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Schulze

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available While the course and the determinants of fertility behaviour have been investigated intensively, the monetary consequences of birth have hardly been considered empirically to date. Therefore, this paper focuses on the short-term (equivalent household income changes around the time of births in a longitudinal perspective and examines them for their causes. For the analyses of the longitudinal data (GSOEP-Data 1984-2005, fixed effects panel regression models were computed. The results show that the short-term socioeconomic consequences of birth have clearly increased in the last two decades and first births in particular are associated with disproportionately severe socioeconomic consequences, while further births are rarely accompanied by negative changes in the households’ socioeconomic situations. Furthermore, household income losses attributable to births only arise in double income households and increase gradually in line with a rising level of household income before birth. Hence, the analyses suggest the need for more adequate state assistance with respect to family support. Beside the provision of adequate infrastructural conditions which allow mothers to be employed, also the payments to compensate for child-related costs (“Kindergeld” should be – in contrast to the present practice in Germany – increased and re-adjusted with respect to the child’s position in the birth sequence.

  16. Family income trajectory during childhood is associated with adolescent cigarette smoking and alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poonawalla, Insiya B; Kendzor, Darla E; Owen, Margaret Tresch; Caughy, Margaret O

    2014-10-01

    Although childhood socioeconomic disadvantage has been linked with adolescent tobacco and alcohol use in cross-sectional research, less is known about the influence of changes in socioeconomic status during childhood. Upward socioeconomic mobility may attenuate the negative influence of earlier socioeconomic disadvantage on health, while downward mobility may counter the health benefits of earlier socioeconomic advantage. This study evaluated the influence of common trajectories of family income during childhood on smoking and alcohol use during adolescence. Data utilized were part of the 15-year longitudinal Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. A 5-class trajectory model (two stable, one downward, and two upward income trajectories) was developed previously with this sample (N=1356). Logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine whether children of the more disadvantaged income trajectories were more likely to engage in tobacco and alcohol use at age 15 relative to those of the most advantaged trajectory. Family income trajectory was significantly associated with ever-smoking (p=.02) and past-year alcohol use at age 15years (p=.008). Children from the less advantaged trajectories were more likely to have ever-smoked than children of the most advantaged trajectory (all p'schildhood socioeconomic disadvantage influences adolescent smoking, while downward socioeconomic mobility influences adolescent alcohol use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Exploring the Relationship between Assets and Family Stress among Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, David W.; Han, Chang-Keun

    2010-01-01

    The "hard times" resulting from the 2008 Great Recession represent an opportunity to re-examine the theoretical framework for how families use economic resources to manage stress. M. Sherraden's (1991) theory of assets and H. I. McCubbin and J. Patterson's (1983) family adjustment and adaptation response model informed this study of how assets…

  18. Racial Inequality Trends and the Intergenerational Persistence of Income and Family Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Bloome, Deirdre

    2014-01-01

    Racial disparity in family incomes remained remarkably stable over the past 40 years in the United States despite major legal and social reforms. Previous scholarship presents two primary explanations for persistent inequality through a period of progressive change. One highlights continuity: because socioeconomic status is transmitted from parents to children, disparities created through histories of discrimination and opportunity denial may dissipate slowly. The second highlights change: be...

  19. Area-level income inequality and oral health among Australian adults-A population-based multilevel study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur Singh

    Full Text Available A lack of evidence exists on the association between area-level income inequality and oral health within Australia. This study examined associations between area-level income inequality and oral health outcomes (inadequate dentition (<21 teeth and poor self-rated oral health among Australian adults. Variations in the association between area-level income inequality and oral health outcomes according to area-level mean income were also assessed. Finally, household-income gradients in oral health outcomes according to area-level income inequality were compared.For the analyses, data on Australian dentate adults (n = 5,165 nested in 435 Local Government Areas (LGAs was obtained from the National Dental Telephone Interview Survey-2013. Multilevel multivariable logistic regression models with random intercept and fixed slopes were fitted to test associations between area-level income inequality and oral health outcomes, examine variations in associations according to area-level mean income, and examine variations in household-income gradients in outcomes according to area-level income inequality. Covariates included age, sex, LGA-level mean weekly household income, geographic remoteness and household income.LGA-level income inequality was not associated with poor self-rated oral health and inversely associated with inadequate dentition (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.48, 0.87 after adjusting for covariates. Inverse association between income inequality and inadequate dentition at the individual level was limited to LGAs within the highest tertile of mean weekly household income. Household income gradients in both outcomes showed poorer oral health at lower levels of household income. The household income gradients for inadequate dentition varied according to the LGA-level income inequality.Findings suggest that income inequality at the LGA-level in Australia is not positively associated with poorer oral health outcomes. Inverse association between income

  20. The association of childhood asthma with mental health and developmental comorbidities in low-income families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Ahmed A; Korgaonkar, Purva

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the relationship of childhood asthma with mental health and developmental indicators in low-income families. Parents/guardians of approximately 400 children, aged 2-14 years, were recruited from a charity hospital serving low income neighborhoods in the outskirts of Karachi, Pakistan. Mothers of children were interviewed in their local language by a trained nurse. Eight self-reported comorbidities were grouped into two constructs based on factor analysis and conveniently labeled as mental health (anxiety, attention and behavioral problems) and developmental problems (learning, developmental delay, hearing impairment, sleep and speech problems). Data were analyzed using multiple logistic regression, adjusted for age, sex, presence of older siblings, number of people in the household, child birth weight, presence of mold, and family history of asthma or hay fever. Children with asthma had 18 times greater odds of mental health problems (adjusted OR = 18.0, 95% CI: 9.2, 35.1) as compared to children without asthma. The odds of developmental problems were more than 14 times greater for children with asthma (adjusted OR = 14.3, 95% CI: 7.8, 26.1) as compared to children without asthma. This study found mental and developmental adverse consequences of childhood asthma in low-income families. Identifying and treating asthma at an early age could reduce the burden of comorbidities in this population.

  1. THE EFFECTIVE LEVEL OF CORPORATE INCOME TAX IN THEEUROPEAN COUNTRIES

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    Adam Adamczyk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite of the factthat European Union economy is the subject to integrationprocess, there has been no harmonization of corporate income taxation. Nocompulsion to adapt to common tax law requirements makes that many,especially new member states of EU, tends to use corporate income tax to attractcapital flows. The tax competition often takes a form of so called “race to thebottom” and consists in reducing tax rates. At the same time fiscal authoritiesusually broaden their tax bases in favor to increase the neutrality of the corporateincome tax.The main goal of this article is to measure the combined effect ofreducing statutory tax rates and broadening of tax bases in selected MemberStates.

  2. Area-level income inequality and oral health among Australian adults-A population-based multilevel study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ankur; Harford, Jane; Antunes, José Leopoldo Ferreira; Peres, Marco A

    2018-01-01

    A lack of evidence exists on the association between area-level income inequality and oral health within Australia. This study examined associations between area-level income inequality and oral health outcomes (inadequate dentition (income inequality and oral health outcomes according to area-level mean income were also assessed. Finally, household-income gradients in oral health outcomes according to area-level income inequality were compared. For the analyses, data on Australian dentate adults (n = 5,165 nested in 435 Local Government Areas (LGAs)) was obtained from the National Dental Telephone Interview Survey-2013. Multilevel multivariable logistic regression models with random intercept and fixed slopes were fitted to test associations between area-level income inequality and oral health outcomes, examine variations in associations according to area-level mean income, and examine variations in household-income gradients in outcomes according to area-level income inequality. Covariates included age, sex, LGA-level mean weekly household income, geographic remoteness and household income. LGA-level income inequality was not associated with poor self-rated oral health and inversely associated with inadequate dentition (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.48, 0.87) after adjusting for covariates. Inverse association between income inequality and inadequate dentition at the individual level was limited to LGAs within the highest tertile of mean weekly household income. Household income gradients in both outcomes showed poorer oral health at lower levels of household income. The household income gradients for inadequate dentition varied according to the LGA-level income inequality. Findings suggest that income inequality at the LGA-level in Australia is not positively associated with poorer oral health outcomes. Inverse association between income inequality and inadequate dentition is likely due to the contextual differences between Australia and other high-income countries.

  3. Area-level income inequality and oral health among Australian adults—A population-based multilevel study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Background A lack of evidence exists on the association between area-level income inequality and oral health within Australia. This study examined associations between area-level income inequality and oral health outcomes (inadequate dentition (income inequality and oral health outcomes according to area-level mean income were also assessed. Finally, household-income gradients in oral health outcomes according to area-level income inequality were compared. Methods For the analyses, data on Australian dentate adults (n = 5,165 nested in 435 Local Government Areas (LGAs)) was obtained from the National Dental Telephone Interview Survey-2013. Multilevel multivariable logistic regression models with random intercept and fixed slopes were fitted to test associations between area-level income inequality and oral health outcomes, examine variations in associations according to area-level mean income, and examine variations in household-income gradients in outcomes according to area-level income inequality. Covariates included age, sex, LGA-level mean weekly household income, geographic remoteness and household income. Results LGA-level income inequality was not associated with poor self-rated oral health and inversely associated with inadequate dentition (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.48, 0.87) after adjusting for covariates. Inverse association between income inequality and inadequate dentition at the individual level was limited to LGAs within the highest tertile of mean weekly household income. Household income gradients in both outcomes showed poorer oral health at lower levels of household income. The household income gradients for inadequate dentition varied according to the LGA-level income inequality. Conclusion Findings suggest that income inequality at the LGA-level in Australia is not positively associated with poorer oral health outcomes. Inverse association between income inequality and inadequate dentition is likely due to the contextual differences between Australia

  4. Mental Health and Family Functioning as Determinants of A Sedentary Lifestyle among Low-Income Women with Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kaigang; Davison, Kirsten K.; Jurkowski, Janine M.

    2012-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined mental health and family environmental factors related to a sedentary lifestyle, including lack of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and high levels of television viewing, among low-income mothers/female guardians of preschool-aged children. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 131 mothers in 2010. Primary outcome measures included television viewing time (minutes/day) and LTPA (3 hours). Additionally, 36% of women engaged in less than the recommended 150-minute LTPA per week. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that greater depressive symptoms (B = 76.4, p<.01) and lower family functioning (B = 33.0, p < .05) were independently related to greater television viewing when controlling for other variables. No independent factors were identified for lack of LTPA when controlling for other covariates. Findings suggest that health promotion efforts to promote an active lifestyle among low-income women with young children should address mental health and family functioning factors, especially depressive symptoms. PMID:22860706

  5. Mental health and family functioning as correlates of a sedentary lifestyle among low-income women with young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kaigang; Davison, Kirsten K; Jurkowski, Janine M

    2012-01-01

    The authors in this cross-sectional study examined mental health and family environmental factors related to a sedentary lifestyle, including lack of leisure-time physical activity and high levels of television viewing, among low-income mothers/female guardians of preschool-aged children. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 131 mothers in 2010. Primary outcome measures included television viewing time (minutes/day) and leisure-time physical activity (3 hours). Additionally, 36% of women engaged in less than the recommended 150-minute leisure-time physical activity per week. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that greater depressive symptoms (B = 76.4, p < 0.01) and lower family functioning (B = 33.0, p < 0.05) were independently related to greater television viewing when controlling for other variables. No independent factors were identified for lack of leisure-time physical activity when controlling for other covariates. Findings suggest that health promotion efforts to promote an active lifestyle among low-income women with young children should address mental health and family functioning factors, especially depressive symptoms.

  6. Family income trajectory during childhood is associated with adiposity in adolescence: a latent class growth analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendzor, Darla E; Caughy, Margaret O; Owen, Margaret Tresch

    2012-08-05

    Childhood socioeconomic disadvantage has been linked with obesity in cross-sectional research, although less is known about how changes in socioeconomic status influence the development of obesity. Researchers have hypothesized that upward socioeconomic mobility may attenuate the health effects of earlier socioeconomic disadvantage; while downward socioeconomic mobility might have a negative influence on health despite relative socioeconomic advantages at earlier stages. The purpose of the current study was to characterize trajectories of family income during childhood, and to evaluate the influence of these trajectories on adiposity at age 15. Data were collected as part of the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD) between 1991 and 2007 at 10 sites across the United States. A latent class growth analysis (LCGA) was conducted to identify trajectories of family income from birth to 15 years of age. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) were conducted to determine whether measures of adiposity differed by trajectory, while controlling for relevant covariates. The LCGA supported a 5-class trajectory model, which included two stable, one downward, and two upward trajectories. ANCOVAs indicated that BMI percentile, waist circumference, and skinfold thicknesses at age 15 differed significantly by trajectory, such that those who experienced downward mobility or stable low income had greater adiposity relative to the more advantaged trajectories. Conversely, upwardly mobile children and those with consistently adequate incomes had similar and more positive outcomes relative to the most disadvantaged trajectories. Findings suggest that promoting upward socioeconomic mobility among disadvantaged families may have a positive impact on obesity-related outcomes in adolescence.

  7. Family income trajectory during childhood is associated with adiposity in adolescence: a latent class growth analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendzor Darla E

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood socioeconomic disadvantage has been linked with obesity in cross-sectional research, although less is known about how changes in socioeconomic status influence the development of obesity. Researchers have hypothesized that upward socioeconomic mobility may attenuate the health effects of earlier socioeconomic disadvantage; while downward socioeconomic mobility might have a negative influence on health despite relative socioeconomic advantages at earlier stages. The purpose of the current study was to characterize trajectories of family income during childhood, and to evaluate the influence of these trajectories on adiposity at age 15. Methods Data were collected as part of the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD between 1991 and 2007 at 10 sites across the United States. A latent class growth analysis (LCGA was conducted to identify trajectories of family income from birth to 15 years of age. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs were conducted to determine whether measures of adiposity differed by trajectory, while controlling for relevant covariates. Results The LCGA supported a 5-class trajectory model, which included two stable, one downward, and two upward trajectories. ANCOVAs indicated that BMI percentile, waist circumference, and skinfold thicknesses at age 15 differed significantly by trajectory, such that those who experienced downward mobility or stable low income had greater adiposity relative to the more advantaged trajectories. Conversely, upwardly mobile children and those with consistently adequate incomes had similar and more positive outcomes relative to the most disadvantaged trajectories. Conclusions Findings suggest that promoting upward socioeconomic mobility among disadvantaged families may have a positive impact on obesity-related outcomes in adolescence.

  8. Work-family conflict, health services and medication use among dual-income couples in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiaens, Wendy; Bracke, Piet

    2014-03-01

    Combination pressure or work-life imbalance is linked to adverse health. However, it remains unclear how work-family conflict is related to healthcare utilisation. Does work-family conflict function as a barrier or as a facilitator in relation to the use of health services and prescription medication? Lack of time may prevent people from visiting a doctor when they feel unwell. However, combination pressure can also be expected to intensify the use of health services, as the need for a quick fix is prioritised. Further, do women and men differ in their susceptibility to medicalisation and time pressure resulting from work-life imbalance? This article investigates the use of health services and prescription medication of dual-income couples with children, based on data from 23 countries in the European Social Survey round 2 (N(women) = 3755; N(men) = 3142). It was found that medical services and prescription medications are used more frequently in dual-income couples experiencing work-to-family spillover, but for women only this is irrespective of their self-reported health. Family-to-work spillover does not result in increased health service or medication use for either men or women. While women opt for a medical response to work-life imbalance, men's reluctance to seek formal health support is confirmed. © 2013 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2013 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The family context of low-income parents who restrict child screen time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampard, Amy M; Jurkowski, Janine M; Davison, Kirsten K

    2013-10-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that parents restrict child screen time to two hours per day, but many preschool-aged children exceed this viewing recommendation. Modifying children's viewing habits will require collaborating with parents, but little is known about the factors that influence parents' capacity for effective screen-related parenting. This study aimed to identify the demographic, family and community contextual factors associated with low-income parents' restriction of child screen time. Parents (N=146) of children (age 2-5 years) attending Head Start centers in the United States completed a self-report survey in 2010 assessing parent and child screen use (television, DVD, video, video games, and leisure-time computer use), parent restriction of child screen time, and family (parent stress, social support, and life pressures) and community (neighborhood safety and social capital) factors. Children were more likely to meet the American Academy of Pediatrics screen time recommendation if their parent reported high restriction of child screen time. Parent and child demographic characteristics were not associated with parents' restriction of child screen time. In multivariate analysis, less parent screen time, fewer parent life pressures, and greater social support were associated with parents' high restriction of screen time. Family contextual factors may play an important role in enabling low-income parents to restrict their children's screen time. When counseling low-income parents about the importance of restricting child screen time, practitioners should be sensitive to family contextual factors that may influence parents' capacity to implement this behavior change.

  10. Parenting in low-income families from the perspective of social work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banovcinova A.

    2018-01-01

    The goal of the study was to find how poverty affects parenting. For the data collection was used questionnaire Alabama Parenting Questionnaire (APQ, which measures parenthood through five dimensions (1 positive involvement with children, (2 Supervision and monitoring, (3 use of positive discipline techniques, (4 consistency in Theus of discipline chniques, (5 use of corporal punishment. The sample was divided into two groups, with the first group consisted of 188 parents living in poverty The reference group consisted of parents living in households with income standard (N−188.Analysis of the results showed differences between parents living in poverty and between parents with a standard rate of income especially in monitoring and supervision, and also in the use of positive disciplinary techniques. On the contrary, there were no significant differences in cooperation between the parents or the use of corporal punishment. Based on the results it is clear that poverty is one of the factors affecting parenting. Therefore, social worker who works with low-income families should focus attention on this area of family functioning.

  11. A prospective cohort study to investigate parental stress and child health in low-income Chinese families: protocol paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Rosa Sze Man; Yu, Esther Yee Tak; Guo, Vivian Yawei; Wan, Eric Yuk-Fai; Chin, Weng-Yee; Wong, Carlos King Ho; Fung, Colman Siu Cheung; Tung, Keith Tsz Suen; Wong, Wilfred Hing-Sang; Ip, Patrick; Tiwari, Agnes Fung Yee; Lam, Cindy Lo Kuen

    2018-02-22

    Chronic stress has adverse effects on health. Adults and children from low-income families are subject to multiple sources of stress. Existing literature about economic hardship mostly focuses on either adults or children but not both. Moreover, there is limited knowledge on the relationship between parental generalised stress and child health problems. This study aims to explore the bidirectional relationship between parental stress and child health in Chinese low-income families and to identify other modifiable factors influencing this relationship. This prospective cohort study will sample 254 low-income parent-child pairs and follow them up for 24 months with assessments at three time points (baseline, 12 and 24 months) on parental stress, health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and child health and behaviour using both subjective measures and objective physiological parameters. This study will collect data using standardised measures on HRQOL and behaviours of children as well as on HRQOL, mental health and stress levels of parents along with physiological tests of allostatic load and telomere length. The mediating or moderating effect of family harmony, parenting style and neighbourhood conditions will also be assessed. Data will be analysed using latent growth modelling and cross-lagged path analysis modelling to examine the bidirectional effect of parental stress and child health over time. Mediation and moderation analysis will also be conducted to examine the mechanism by which the variables relate. This study was approved by the institutional review board of the University of Hong Kong-the Hospital Authority Hong Kong West Cluster, reference no: UW 16-415. The study findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and international conferences. NCT03185273; Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise

  12. Obesity risk in children: The role of acculturation in the feeding practices and styles of low-income Hispanic families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent feeding has been associated with child overweight/obesity in low-income families. Because acculturation to the United States has been associated with increased adult obesity, our study aim was to determine whether acculturation was associated with feeding in these populations. Low-income Hisp...

  13. Family Income, Parent Education, and Perceived Constraints as Predictors of Observed Program Quality and Parent Rated Program Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torquati, Julia C.; Raikes, Helen H.; Huddleston-Casas, Catherine A.; Bovaird, James A.; Harris, Beatrice A.

    2011-01-01

    Observed child care quality and parent perceptions of child care quality received by children in poor (below Federal Poverty Line, FPL), low-income (between FPL and 200% of FPL), and non-low-income families were examined. Observations were completed in 359 center- and home-based child care programs in four Midwestern states and surveys were…

  14. The Interplay of Family Income, Campus Residency, and Student Retention (What Practitioners Should Know about Cultural Mismatch)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schudde, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    Students from low-income families consistently trail behind their peers in retention and degree attainment. Research on college student experiences suggests that low-income students experience "cultural mismatch" at college--they feel that their backgrounds are at odds with the middle-class values dominant on campus (Armstrong &…

  15. The Relationship between Socioeconomic Status, Family Income, and Measures of Muscular and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Colombian Schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandercock, Gavin R H; Lobelo, Felipe; Correa-Bautista, Jorge E; Tovar, Gustavo; Cohen, Daniel Dylan; Knies, Gundi; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2017-06-01

    To determine the associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and physical fitness in a sample of Colombian youth. Prueba SER is cross-sectional survey of schoolchildren in Bogota, Colombia. Mass, stature, muscular fitness (standing long-jump, handgrip), and cardiorespiratory fitness (20-m shuttle run) were measured in 52?187 schoolchildren 14-16 years of age. Area-level SES was categorized from 1 (very low) to 4 (high) and parent-reported family income was categorized as low, middle, or high. Converting measures into z scores showed stature, muscular, and cardiorespiratory fitness were significantly (z?=?0.3-0.7) below European values. Children in the mid- and high SES groups jumped significantly further than groups with very low SES. Differences were independent of sex but became nonsignificant when adjusted for anthropometric differences. Participants in the mid-SES and high-SES groups had better handgrip scores when adjusted for body dimension. There were, however, no significant between-group differences in cardiorespiratory fitness, which was strongly clustered by school and significantly greater in students from private schools. Area-level SES is associated with measures of muscular fitness in Colombian schoolchildren. These associations were largely explained by the large differences in body dimensions observed between SES groups. When area-level SES is considered, there was no evidence that family income influenced fitness. The clustering of outcomes reaffirms the potential importance of schools and area-level factors in promoting fitness through opportunities for physical activity. Interventions implemented in schools, can improve academic attainment; a factor likely to be important in promoting the social mobility of children from poorer families. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. 78 FR 63993 - ``Low-Income Levels'' Used for Various Health Professions and Nursing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... changes in the Consumer Price Index. The Secretary annually adjusts the low-income levels based on the... applicable programs. The income figures below have been updated to reflect increases in the Consumer Price... recognition of same-sex spouses and same-sex marriages, was unconstitutional. In light of this decision...

  17. Fathers' Early Emotion Talk: Associations with Income, Ethnicity, and Family Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett-Peters, Patricia; Mills-Koonce, Roger; Zerwas, Stephanie; Cox, Martha; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne

    2011-01-01

    Contextual, mother-, child-, and father-level variables were examined in association with fathers' emotion talk to infants during a shared picture book activity, in an ethnically diverse, low-income sample (N = 549). Significant main effects included the rate of emotion talk from fathers' romantic partners (i.e., the infant's mother), infant…

  18. Family planning advice and postpartum contraceptive use among low-income women in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Sarah L

    2007-03-01

    In Mexico, family planning advice has been incorporated into the clinical guidelines for prenatal care. However, the relationship between women's receipt of family planning advice during prenatal care and subsequent contraceptive use has not been evaluated. Data were collected in 2003 and 2004 in 17 Mexican states from 2,238 urban low-income women postpartum. Participating women reported on prenatal services received and contraceptive use. Logistic and multinomial logistic regression models evaluated whether receiving family planning advice during prenatal care predicted current contraceptive use, after quality of care in the community, service utilization, delivery characteristics, household socioeconomic characteristics, and maternal and infant characteristics were controlled for. Overall, 47% of women used a modern contraceptive method. Women who received family planning advice during prenatal care were more likely to use a contraceptive than were those who did not receive such advice (odds ratio, 2.2). Women who received family planning advice had a higher probability of using condoms (relative risk ratio, 2.3) and IUDs (5.2), and of undergoing sterilization (1.4), than of using no method. Integrating family planning advice into prenatal care may be an important strategy for reaching women when their demand for contraception is high.

  19. The Importance of Family Income in the Formation and Evolution of Non-Cognitive Skills in Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Jason M. Fletcher; Barbara Wolfe

    2012-01-01

    There is a well known positive association between family income and children's development, including health and academic performance. This relationship is a potentially importance factor in the intergenerational transmission of socioeconomic status and has been shown to be a robust finding across countries and time periods. In contrast, much less is known about the relationship between family income and other domains of children's development, such as noncognitive (or socio-emotional) skill...

  20. Contemporary Work and Family Issues Affecting Marriage and Cohabitation Among Low-Income Single Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Pamela; Quane, James M; Cherlin, Andrew J

    2009-12-01

    In this paper, we advance and test an integrative model of the effects of employment status, nonstandard work schedules, male employment, and women's perceptions of economic instability on union formation among low-income single mothers. Based on longitudinal data from 1,299 low-income mothers from the 3-city Welfare Study, results indicate that employment status alone is not significantly associated with whether women marry or cohabit. We find that nonemployed mothers and mothers working nonstandard schedules were less likely to marry compared to those working standard schedules. Mothers' perceptions of economic well-being were associated with marriage at Wave 2. In contrast, cohabitation outcomes were not explained by economic factors, but were related to the perception of child care support. The policy implications of these results are discussed, in particular, as they relate to welfare reform's work and family goals.

  1. Evaluating the pin money hypothesis: the relationship between women's labour market activity, family income and poverty in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkness, S; Machin, S; Waldfogel, J

    1997-01-01

    "In this paper we evaluate the hypothesis that the over-representation of women amongst the low paid is of little importance because women's earnings account for only a small proportion of total family income. Data from the [United Kingdom] General Household Survey (GHS), together with attitudinal evidence from three cross-sectional data sources, indicate that women's earnings are in fact an important and growing component of family income. The majority of the growth in the share of women's earnings occurs as a result of changing family labour structures; women's earnings are playing an increasingly important role in keeping their families out of poverty." excerpt

  2. Family Support and Family Negativity as Mediators of the Relation between Acculturation and Postpartum Weight in Low-Income Mexican-Origin Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewell, Shannon L; Letham-Hamlett, Kirsten; Hanna Ibrahim, Mariam; Luecken, Linda J; MacKinnon, David P

    2017-12-01

    Obesity presents a significant health concern among low-income, ethnic minority women of childbearing age. The study investigated the influence of maternal acculturation, family negativity, and family support on postpartum weight loss among low-income Mexican-origin women. Low-income Mexican-origin women (N=322; 14% born in the U.S.) were recruited from a prenatal clinic in an urban area of the Southwest U.S. Acculturation was assessed during a prenatal home visit (26-38 weeks gestation), and post-birth family support and general family negativity were assessed at 6 weeks postpartum. Objective maternal weight measures were obtained at five time points across the first postpartum year. Higher acculturation predicted higher family support and family negativity. Higher family support predicted decreasing weight across the first postpartum year, and higher family negativity predicted higher weight at 6 weeks postpartum and increasing weight across the first postpartum year. In combination, family negativity and support mediated the impact of acculturation on postpartum weight gain. Cultural and family-related factors play a significant role in postpartum weight gain and loss for low-income Mexican-origin women.

  3. The effects of parental education and family income on mother-child relationships, father-child relationships, and family environments in the People's Republic of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao

    2012-12-01

    Using a cross-sectional design with 407 Chinese children aged 3-5 years and their parents, this study examined the effects of socioeconomic status, specifically parents' education and family income, on the children's mother-child relationships, father-child relationships, and the social environment in their families. The results indicated that income negatively predicted conflict in father-child relationships and positively predicted family active-recreational environments. Income also positively predicted family cohesion among girls but not boys. Maternal education negatively predicted conflict in mother-child relationships and positively predicted closeness in mother-child and father-child relationships, family cohesion, and the intellectual-cultural and active-recreational environments in the family. Paternal education positively predicted family cohesion and intellectual-cultural and active-recreational environments. Income was found to partially mediate the effects of both maternal and paternal education on family active-recreational environments. Findings are discussed in the frameworks of the family stress model and the family investment model. © FPI, Inc.

  4. Nutritionally Optimized, Culturally Acceptable, Cost-Minimized Diets for Low Income Ghanaian Families Using Linear Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nykänen, Esa-Pekka A; Dunning, Hanna E; Aryeetey, Richmond N O; Robertson, Aileen; Parlesak, Alexandr

    2018-04-07

    The Ghanaian population suffers from a double burden of malnutrition. Cost of food is considered a barrier to achieving a health-promoting diet. Food prices were collected in major cities and in rural areas in southern Ghana. Linear programming (LP) was used to calculate nutritionally optimized diets (food baskets (FBs)) for a low-income Ghanaian family of four that fulfilled energy and nutrient recommendations in both rural and urban settings. Calculations included implementing cultural acceptability for families living in extreme and moderate poverty (food budget under USD 1.9 and 3.1 per day respectively). Energy-appropriate FBs minimized for cost, following Food Balance Sheets (FBS), lacked key micronutrients such as iodine, vitamin B12 and iron for the mothers. Nutritionally adequate FBs were achieved in all settings when optimizing for a diet cheaper than USD 3.1. However, when delimiting cost to USD 1.9 in rural areas, wild foods had to be included in order to meet nutritional adequacy. Optimization suggested to reduce roots, tubers and fruits and to increase cereals, vegetables and oil-bearing crops compared with FBS. LP is a useful tool to design culturally acceptable diets at minimum cost for low-income Ghanaian families to help advise national authorities how to overcome the double burden of malnutrition.

  5. Classification of Region’s Municipalities by Structure and Level of Incomes and Consumer Spending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav Yakovlevich Fokin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a classification of region’s municipalities that differ according to two criteria – the structure and level of incomes, and the level of consumer spending. The author investigated the combination of income sources (wages, pensions and unemployment benefits that form in the aggregate the amount of disposable money income of the people who live in the administrative-territorial units of Perm Krai. The author also analyzed the influence of people’s incomes on retail trade turnover in the region’s municipalities. The data were collected, grouped and analyzed; they show that the level of people’s income in large and medium cities, which are industrial centers, exceeds considerably the values of these indicators registered in rural municipalities, single-industry settlements and depressed areas. The reason for this lies in low wages of working population, a large proportion of retirees and the unemployed in the rural areas, single-industry settlements and depressed areas. The article defines nine types of territorial entities in the region that differ in level and structure of income and consumer spending in the municipalities. The author concludes that the territorial differentiation of municipal formations influences the formation of stratified population groups distinguished by the level of income and consumption. The solution to this problem requires joint efforts by the regional administration and municipal authorities to develop management actions with regard to specific features of each municipality

  6. Relationship between family history of alcohol addiction, parents' education level, and smartphone problem use scale scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beison, Ashley; Rademacher, David J

    2017-03-01

    Background and aims Smartphones are ubiquitous. As smartphones increased in popularity, researchers realized that people were becoming dependent on their smartphones. The purpose here was to provide a better understanding of the factors related to problematic smartphone use (PSPU). Methods The participants were 100 undergraduates (25 males, 75 females) whose ages ranged from 18 to 23 (mean age = 20 years). The participants completed questionnaires to assess gender, ethnicity, year in college, father's education level, mother's education level, family income, age, family history of alcoholism, and PSPU. The Family Tree Questionnaire assessed family history of alcoholism. The Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale (MPPUS) and the Adapted Cell Phone Addiction Test (ACPAT) were used to determine the degree of PSPU. Whereas the MPPUS measures tolerance, escape from other problems, withdrawal, craving, and negative life consequences, the ACPAT measures preoccupation (salience), excessive use, neglecting work, anticipation, lack of control, and neglecting social life. Results Family history of alcoholism and father's education level together explained 26% of the variance in the MPPUS scores and 25% of the variance in the ACPAT scores. The inclusion of mother's education level, ethnicity, family income, age, year in college, and gender did not significantly increase the proportion of variance explained for either MPPUS or ACPAT scores. Discussion and conclusions Family history of alcoholism and father's education level are good predictors of PSPU. As 74%-75% of the variance in PSPU scale scores was not explained, future studies should aim to explain this variance.

  7. Economic Stress and Cortisol Among Postpartum Low-Income Mexican American Women: Buffering Influence of Family Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewell, Shannon L; Luecken, Linda J; Gress-Smith, Jenna; Crnic, Keith A; Gonzales, Nancy A

    2015-01-01

    Low-income Mexican American women experience significant health disparities during the postpartum period. Contextual stressors, such as economic stress, are theorized to affect health via dysregulated cortisol output. However, cultural protective factors including strong family support may buffer the impact of stress. In a sample of 322 low-income Mexican American women (mother age 18-42; 82% Spanish-speaking; modal family income $10,000-$15,000), we examined the interactive influence of economic stress and family support at 6 weeks postpartum on maternal cortisol output (AUCg) during a mildly challenging mother-infant interaction task at 12 weeks postpartum, controlling for 6-week maternal cortisol and depressive symptoms. The interaction significantly predicted cortisol output such that higher economic stress predicted higher cortisol only among women reporting low family support. These results suggest that family support is an important protective resource for postpartum Mexican American women experiencing elevated economic stress.

  8. Individual Characteristics, Family Factors, and Classroom Experiences as Predictors of Low-Income Kindergarteners’ Social Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Shayl; Arnold, David; Voegler-Lee, Mary-Ellen; Kupersmidt, Janis

    2017-01-01

    There has been increasing awareness of the need for research and theory to take into account the intersection of individual characteristics and environmental contexts when examining predictors of child outcomes. The present longitudinal, multi-informant study examined the cumulative and interacting contributions of child characteristics (language skills, inattention/hyperactivity, and aggression) and preschool and family contextual factors in predicting kindergarten social skills in 389 low-income preschool children. Child characteristics and classroom factors, but not family factors, predicted teacher-rated kindergarten social skills, while child characteristics alone predicted change in teacher-rated social skills from preschool to kindergarten. Child characteristics and family factors, but not classroom factors, predicted parent-rated kindergarten social skills. Family factors alone predicted change in parent-rated social skills from preschool to kindergarten. Individual child characteristics did not interact with family or classroom factors in predicting parent- or teacher-rated social skills, and support was therefore found for an incremental, rather than an interactive, predictive model of social skills. The findings underscore the importance of assessing outcomes in more than one context, and of considering the impact of both individual and environmental contextual factors on children’s developing social skills when designing targeted intervention programs to prepare children for kindergarten. PMID:28804528

  9. Individual Characteristics, Family Factors, and Classroom Experiences as Predictors of Low-Income Kindergarteners' Social Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Shayl; Arnold, David; Voegler-Lee, Mary-Ellen; Kupersmidt, Janis

    2016-01-01

    There has been increasing awareness of the need for research and theory to take into account the intersection of individual characteristics and environmental contexts when examining predictors of child outcomes. The present longitudinal, multi-informant study examined the cumulative and interacting contributions of child characteristics (language skills, inattention/hyperactivity, and aggression) and preschool and family contextual factors in predicting kindergarten social skills in 389 low-income preschool children. Child characteristics and classroom factors, but not family factors, predicted teacher-rated kindergarten social skills, while child characteristics alone predicted change in teacher-rated social skills from preschool to kindergarten. Child characteristics and family factors, but not classroom factors, predicted parent-rated kindergarten social skills. Family factors alone predicted change in parent-rated social skills from preschool to kindergarten. Individual child characteristics did not interact with family or classroom factors in predicting parent- or teacher-rated social skills, and support was therefore found for an incremental, rather than an interactive, predictive model of social skills. The findings underscore the importance of assessing outcomes in more than one context, and of considering the impact of both individual and environmental contextual factors on children's developing social skills when designing targeted intervention programs to prepare children for kindergarten.

  10. Visual impairment in urban school children of low-income families in Kolkata, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sambuddha; Mukhopadhyay, Udayaditya; Maji, Dipankar; Bhaduri, Gautam

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate pattern of visual impairment in school children from low-income families in Kolkata, India, an institutional cross-sectional study was conducted among 2570 children of 10 primary schools. Ocular examination including refraction was done and pattern of visual impairment and refractive error was studied. The age range was 6-14 years. Refractive error was seen in 14.7%. Only 4 children were already wearing correction. Myopia and hypermetropia was present in 307 (11.9%) and 65 (2.5%) children, respectively. Visual acuity of less than 6/12 in better eye was present in 109 (4.2%) and 5 (0.2%) children pre- and post-correction, respectively. Eighteen children had amblyopia. Although prevalence of refractive error in this group is less compared to school children of all income categories reported from other cities of India, it is more compared to school children of all income categories from the same city. Refractive error mostly remains uncorrected in this group.

  11. Family income, maternal psychological distress and child socio-emotional behaviour: Longitudinal findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, Katharine; Burns, Richéal; Violato, Mara

    2018-04-01

    The association between low family income and socio-emotional behaviour problems in early childhood has been well-documented, and maternal psychological distress is highlighted as central in mediating this relationship. However, whether this relationship holds for older children, and the precise mechanisms by which income may influence child behaviour is unclear. This study investigated the relationship between family income and child socio-emotional behaviour at 11 years of age, and examined the mediating role of maternal psychological distress over time using the UK Millennium Cohort Study. The primary outcome was parent-reported behavioural problems, as captured by the Total Difficulties Score (TDS), derived from the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Secondary outcomes were the emotional, peer-related, conduct, and hyperactivity/inattention problems subscales of the SDQ; and teacher-reported TDS. Permanent family income was the primary exposure variable; frequency of poverty up to age 11 years was the secondary exposure variable. Maternal psychological distress was operationalised to reflect the trajectory from child birth to age 11. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate the effect of permanent family income on child behaviour at age 11, controlling for maternal psychological distress and other relevant covariates. Results showed a statistically significant protective effect of increased permanent family income on the likelihood of behavioural problems at age 11. This finding was consistent for all SDQ subscales apart from emotional problems, and was strongest for teacher-reported behavioural problems. Maternal distress was an important mediator in the income-child behaviour relationship for parent-reported, but not teacher-reported, behavioural problems. The results of this study strengthen empirical evidence that the child behaviour-income gradient is maintained in older childhood. Mother's psychological distress

  12. Does early-life family income influence later dental pain experience? A prospective 14-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, Z; Peres, M A; Liu, P; Mejia, G C; Armfield, J M; Peres, K G

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between early-life family income and dental pain experience from childhood to early adulthood. Data came from a 14-year prospective study (1991/1992-2005/2006) carried out in South Australia, which included children and adolescents aged 4-17 years (N = 9875) at baseline. The outcome was dental pain experience obtained at baseline, 14 years later in adulthood and at a middle point of time. The main explanatory variable was early-life family income collected at baseline. The prevalence of dental pain was 22.8% at baseline, 19.3% at 'middle time' and 39.3% at follow up. The proportion of people classified as 'poor' at baseline was 27.7%. Being poor early in life was significantly associated with dental pain at 14-year follow up (odds ratio = 1.45; 95% confidence interval = 1.27-1.66). Early-life relative poverty is associated with more frequent dental pain across the 14-year follow up and may be a key exposure variable for later dental conditions. © 2017 Australian Dental Association.

  13. Financial costs for families of children with Type 1 diabetes in lower-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogle, G D; Kim, H; Middlehurst, A C; Silink, M; Jenkins, A J

    2016-06-01

    To assess the direct costs of necessary consumables for minimal care of a child with Type 1 diabetes in countries where the public health system does not regularly provide such care. Supply costs were collected between January 2013 and February 2015 from questionnaires submitted by centres requesting International Diabetes Federation Life for a Child Program support. All 20 centres in 15 countries agreed to the use of their responses. Annual costs for minimal care were estimated for: 18 × 10 ml 100 IU/ml insulin, 1/3 cost of a blood glucose meter, two blood glucose test strips/day, two syringes/week, and four HbA1c tests/year. Costs were expressed in US dollars, and as % of gross national income (purchasing power parity) per capita. The ranges (median) for the minimum supply costs through the private system were: insulin 10 ml 100 IU/ml equivalent vial: $5.10-$25 ($8.00); blood glucose meter: $15-$121 ($33.33); test strip: $0.15-$1.20 ($0.50); syringe: $0.10-$0.56 ($0.20); and HbA1c : $4.90-$20 ($9.75). Annual costs ranged from $255 (Pakistan) to $1,185 (Burkina Faso), with a median of $553. Annual % gross national income costs were 12-370% (median 56%). For the lowest 20% income earners the annual cost ranged 20-1535% (median 153%). St Lucia and Mongolia were the only countries whose governments consistently provided insulin. No government provided meters and strips, which were the most expensive supplies (62% of total cost). In less-resourced countries, even minimal care is beyond many families' means. In addition, families face additional costs such as consultations, travel and indirect costs. Action to prevent diabetes-related death and morbidity is needed. © 2015 Diabetes UK.

  14. Work–family conflict and self-rated health among Japanese workers: How household income modifies associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tomoko; Honjo, Kaori; Eshak, Ehab Salah; Iso, Hiroyasu; Sawada, Norie; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2017-01-01

    To examine associations between work–family conflict and self-rated health among Japanese workers and to determine whether the associations differed by household income. Data was derived from the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study for the Next Generation in Saku area in 2011–2012 (7,663 men and 7,070 women). Multivariate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for poor self-rated health by work–family conflict consisting of two dimensions (work-to-family and family-to-work conflicts) were calculated by gender and household income. Multivariate ORs of high work-to-family and family-to-work conflicts for poor self-rated health were 2.46 (95% CI; 2.04–2.97) for men and 3.54 (95% CI; 2.92–4.30) for women, with reference to the low work-to-family and family-to-work conflicts (p-value for gender interaction = 0.02). Subgroup analysis indicated that health effects of work–family conflict were likely to be more evident in the low income group only among women. Work–family conflict was associated with poor self-rated health among middle-aged Japanese men and women; its health impact was relatively stronger among women, and particularly economically disadvantaged women. PMID:28207757

  15. Work-family conflict and self-rated health among Japanese workers: How household income modifies associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tomoko; Honjo, Kaori; Eshak, Ehab Salah; Iso, Hiroyasu; Sawada, Norie; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2017-01-01

    To examine associations between work-family conflict and self-rated health among Japanese workers and to determine whether the associations differed by household income. Data was derived from the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study for the Next Generation in Saku area in 2011-2012 (7,663 men and 7,070 women). Multivariate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for poor self-rated health by work-family conflict consisting of two dimensions (work-to-family and family-to-work conflicts) were calculated by gender and household income. Multivariate ORs of high work-to-family and family-to-work conflicts for poor self-rated health were 2.46 (95% CI; 2.04-2.97) for men and 3.54 (95% CI; 2.92-4.30) for women, with reference to the low work-to-family and family-to-work conflicts (p-value for gender interaction = 0.02). Subgroup analysis indicated that health effects of work-family conflict were likely to be more evident in the low income group only among women. Work-family conflict was associated with poor self-rated health among middle-aged Japanese men and women; its health impact was relatively stronger among women, and particularly economically disadvantaged women.

  16. Similarities and differences between families who have frequent and infrequent family meals: A qualitative investigation of low-income and minority households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M; Draxten, Michelle; Trofholz, Amanda; Hanson-Bradley, Carrie; Justesen, Kathryn; Slattengren, Andrew

    2018-04-01

    Numerous quantitative studies have examined the association between family meal frequency and child/adolescent weight and weight-related behaviors. However, limited qualitative research has been conducted to identify mealtime characteristics (e.g., child behavior during meals, rules/expectations, family dynamics) that occur during family meals that may explain why some families engage in frequent family meals and others do not. This is particularly important within racially/ethnically diverse households, as these demographic groups are at higher risk for weight-related problems. The current study aimed to identify similarities and differences in mealtime characteristics between households that have frequent and infrequent family meals within a low-income and minority population. This qualitative study included 118 parents who participated in Family Meals, LIVE!, a mixed-methods, cross-sectional study. Parents (90% female; mean age = 35) were racially/ethnically diverse (62% African American, 19% White, 4% Native American, 4% Asian, 11% Mixed/Other) and from low-income (73% eating, involving family members in meal preparation) between households having frequent and infrequent family meals. Additionally, several differences in mealtime characteristics were identified between households having frequent (i.e., importance of family meals, flexibility in the definition of family meals, family meal rules, no pressure-to-eat feeding practices) versus infrequent family meals (i.e., pressure-to-eat parent feeding practices, family meals are dinner meals only, and difficult meal time behaviors). Study findings may be useful for developing intervention targets for low-income and racially/ethnically diverse households so more families can benefit from the protective nature of family meals. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessing the Preparedness Level of Incoming Principles of Accounting Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imel, Phillip W.

    2000-01-01

    Reports that the introductory level Principles of Accounting classes at Southwest Virginia Community College (SVCC) had high unsuccessful grade rates between 1989 and 1999. Describes a study conducted to determine whether there was a statistical difference in the test scores and GPA of successful versus unsuccessful accounting students. Finds that…

  18. Models of consumer behavior of households depending on the income level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melnikova A.S.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available the consumer behavior of households is defined by a complex of internal and external factors: income of the population, motives and incentives of behavior, behavioral norms and personal preferences. As the example of structure analysis of the income and expenses of households of Sverdlovsk region during research models of consumer behavior of households are allocated, characteristics and structure of the population depending on their welfare are allocated. Author's approach allows forecasting of the consumer market, proceeding from the socio-economic factors forming the level of the population income in the region.

  19. Does longer duration of breastfeeding prevent childhood asthma in low-income families?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Ahmed A; Racine, Elizabeth F

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship of breastfeeding duration with childhood asthma among low-income families in Karachi, Pakistan. Mothers/caregivers of 200 children with asthma and an equal number of children without asthma were interviewed about breastfeeding duration. Based on the responses, 6 different binary variables were constructed: breastfeeding 3 months or less, 6 months or less, 9 months or less, 12 months or less, 18 months or less, and 24 months or less. Asthma status of the child was determined by clinical examination by a primary care physician. Data was analyzed using multiple logistic regression method, adjusted for age and sex of the child, household income, parental ethnicity, number of older siblings, family history of asthma or hay fever, presence of mold, parental smoking, number of people in the household, and body mass index of the child. The average duration of breastfeeding was 21.4 months (SD = 7.33 months). Breastfeeding for at least 24 months was associated with increased odds of asthma (aOR = 1.77, 95%CI: 0.99, 3.16). Whereas breastfeeding for 12 months or less, and to some extent 18 months or less, was protective against childhood asthma. There was some evidence this protective effect may be delayed in children with a family history of asthma or hay fever. This study found breastfeeding for 12 months or less may have a protective effect against asthma. The protective effect weans down after 18 months, and if continued 24 months or more may place the child at-risk of asthma.

  20. Introducing Family Tax Splitting in Germany: How Would It Affect the Income Distribution, Work Incentives and Household Welfare?

    OpenAIRE

    Viktor Steiner; Katharina Wrohlich

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the effects of three alternative proposals to reform the taxation of families relative to the current German system of joint taxation of couples and child allowances: a French-type family splitting and two full family splitting proposals. The empirical analysis of the effects of these proposals on the income distribution and on work incentives is based on a behavioral micro-simulation model which integrates an empirical household labor supply model into a detailed tax-benefit model...

  1. The Use of Refundable Tax Credits to Increase Low-Income Children's After-School Physical Activity Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunton, Genevieve; Ebin, Vicki J; Efrat, Merav W; Efrat, Rafael; Lane, Christianne J; Plunkett, Scott

    2015-06-01

    The current study investigates the extent to which a refundable tax credit could be used to increase low-income children's after-school physical activity levels. An experimental study was conducted evaluating the effectiveness of an intervention offering a simulated refundable tax credit to parents of elementary-school-age children (n = 130) for enrollment in after-school physical activity programs. A randomized controlled design was used, with data collected at baseline, immediately following the 4-month intervention (postintervention), and 6 weeks after the end of the intervention (follow-up). Evaluation measures included (1) enrollment rate, time spent, weekly participation frequency, duration of enrollment, and long-term enrollment patterns in after-school physical activity programs and (2) moderate to vigorous physical activity. The simulated tax credits did not significantly influence low-income children's rates of enrollment in after-school physical activity programs, frequency of participation, time spent in after-school physical activity programs, and overall moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity at postintervention or follow-up. The use of refundable tax credits as incentives to increase participation in after-school physical activity programs in low-income families may have limited effectiveness. Lawmakers might consider other methods of fiscal policy to promote physical activity such as direct payment to after-school physical activity program providers for enrolling and serving a low-income child in a qualified program, or improvements to programming and infrastructure.

  2. Factors that affect the ecological footprint depending on the different income levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Tung Chen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The ecological footprint provides a method for measuring how much lands can support the consumption of the natural resources. Development and biocapacity debates revolve mainly around the factors that affect the ecological footprint and the approaches to improve the environmental quality. Therefore, we conducted the panel analysis of data for 99 countries from 1981 to 2006 to determine what factors affect the ecological footprint. The empirical results show that the effect of GDP per capita on the ecological footprint varies for different income levels. The effect of urbanization is significantly positive across income levels, which means that the higher the rate of urbanization in high or low income country, the higher the ecological footprint. As developing countries pursue economic development, there will be an impact on the environment. The developed countries may seek to develop their economies through activities that are more detrimental to the environment. Additionally, the export of goods and services divided by GDP is significant, which means that the higher the volume of exports, the greater the burden on the environment. However, this effect is not significant across different income level models. The income effect may explain the diverse effects of export on the environment. Therefore, panel data analysis and income classification are necessary to discuss the effect of export on the environment.

  3. Accessibility of low-income family flats in North Jakarta city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feminin, T. A.; Wiranegara, H. W.; Supriatna, Y.

    2018-01-01

    The majority of relocated, low-income families in North Jakarta city who residing the flats, complained at decreasing their accessibility to the workplaces and to the social facilities. The aim of this research was to identify the changing of their accessibility before and after relocated, viewed from three dimensions: distance, travel time, and travel cost to the workplaces, educational facilities, and shopping areas. The research design was questionnaire survey containing the degree of accessibility before and after resided the flats. Five flats were chosen as cases. Their inhabitants were chosen as respondents which used simple random sampling. The result showed that their flats accessibility to the workplaces in all three dimensions was lower than when they resided in the slum area. Also, in distance and travel time accessibility to shopping areas was lower. Only accessibility to educational facilities measured in those three dimensions was higher after they moved. Supply for affordable public transport from their flats to reach their workplaces is needed to raise their accessibility. Also, they need subsidizeto rent of their flats so the burden to their income lesser.Using the ground space of their flats for retail activities was to make more accessible for their shopping activities.

  4. Childhood family income and life outcomes in adulthood: findings from a 30-year longitudinal study in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, Sheree J; Fergusson, David M; Horwood, L John

    2012-06-01

    The aims of this study were to use data gathered over the course of a 30-year longitudinal study to examine the linkages between economic circumstances in childhood and subsequent developmental outcomes spanning educational achievement; economic circumstances; crime; mental health; and teenage pregnancy. All of these outcomes have been linked with childhood economic conditions and it is frequently argued that reducing income inequalities will mitigate psychosocial risks of children reared in families facing economic hardship. Alternatively it may be suggested that the associations between childhood family economic circumstances and later outcomes are mediated by individual, family and social factors that are correlated with low family income and contribute to later outcomes. To examine these issues, data were drawn from a birth cohort of New Zealand children born in 1977 and followed to age 30. Declining childhood family income was associated with a range of negative outcomes in adulthood, including: lower educational achievement; poorer economic circumstances; higher rates of criminal offending; higher rates of mental health problems; and higher rates of teenage pregnancy. After covariate adjustment, childhood family income remained significantly associated with educational achievement and economic circumstances, but was no longer significantly associated with the mental health, offending and teenage pregnancy outcomes. These findings suggest that, after due allowance has been made for social, family and individual contextual factors, low family income during childhood is associated with a range of educational and economic disadvantages in adulthood but is not directly related to increased risks of crime, mental health problems or teen pregnancy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effectiveness of differing levels of support for family meals on obesity prevention among head start preschoolers: the simply dinner study

    OpenAIRE

    Holly E. Brophy-Herb; Mildred Horodynski; Dawn Contreras; Jean Kerver; Niko Kaciroti; Mara Stein; Hannah Jong Lee; Brittany Motz; Sheilah Hebert; Erika Prine; Candace Gardiner; Laurie A. Van Egeren; Julie C. Lumeng

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Despite slight decreases in obesity prevalence in children, nearly 25% of preschool-aged children are overweight or obese. Most interventions focused on promoting family meals as an obesity-prevention strategy target meal planning skills, knowledge and modeling of healthy eating without addressing the practical resources that enable implementation of family meals. There is a striking lack of evidence about what level of resources low-income parents need to implement family...

  6. Validation of a home food inventory among low-income Spanish- and Somali-speaking families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearst, Mary O; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Parke, Michelle; Martin, Lauren

    2013-07-01

    To refine and validate an existing home food inventory (HFI) for low-income Somali- and Spanish-speaking families. Formative assessment was conducted using two focus groups, followed by revisions of the HFI, translation of written materials and instrument validation in participants’ homes. Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota, USA. Thirty low-income families with children of pre-school age (fifteen Spanish-speaking; fifteen Somali-speaking) completed the HFI simultaneously with, but independently of, a trained staff member. Analysis consisted of calculation of both item-specific and average food group kappa coefficients, specificity, sensitivity and Spearman’s correlation between participants’ and staff scores as a means of assessing criterion validity of individual items, food categories and the obesogenic score. The formative assessment revealed the need for few changes/additions for food items typically found in Spanish-speaking households. Somali-speaking participants requested few additions, but many deletions, including frozen processed food items, non-perishable produce and many sweets as they were not typical food items kept in the home. Generally, all validity indices were within an acceptable range, with the exception of values associated with items such as ‘whole wheat bread’ (k = 0.16). The obesogenic score (presence of high-fat, high-energy foods) had high criterion validity with k = 0.57, sensitivity = 91.8%, specificity = 70.6% and Spearman correlation = 0.78. The revised HFI is a valid assessment tool for use among Spanish and Somali households. This instrument refinement and validation process can be replicated with other population groups.

  7. Reading and Comprehension Levels in a Sample of Urban, Low-Income Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Cheryl; Weitzel, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Because health literacy is related to healthcare outcomes, this study looked at reading and comprehension levels in a sample of urban, low-income persons. Design: This was a descriptive exploration of reading comprehension levels, controlled for medical problems that could impact on vision and therefore ability to read. Setting: Ninety…

  8. Moderating effect of gross family income on the association between demographic indicators and active commuting to work in Brazilian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Jaqueline Aragoni; da Silva, Kelly Samara; Del Duca, Giovani Firpo; Dos Santos, Priscila Cristina; Wolker, Sofia; de Oliveira, Elusa Santina Antunes; de Barros, Mauro Virgílio Gomes; Nahas, Markus Vinicius

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the moderating effect of gross family income on the association between demographic indicators and active commuting to work in Brazilian adults. Secondary analysis of the survey "Lifestyle and leisure habits of industry workers" (n=46,981), conducted in 24 Brazilian states (2006-2008). Self-reported information was collected with a previously tested questionnaire. Crude and adjusted logistic regression models were applied to analyze the association between sociodemographic variables (sex, age, marital status, number of children, education, country area and company size) and active commuting to work in different strata of gross family income. To test the moderating effect, an interaction analysis was applied. The proportion of active commuters among low-, medium- and high-income workers was 40.7% (95%CI:40.0%;41.5%), 27.0% (95%CI:26.3;27.6%) and 11.1%, (95%CI:10.5%;11.7%), respectively. The moderating effect of gross family income was confirmed. Men were more likely (OR:1.22 95%CI:1.12;1.32) to commute actively than women among low-income individuals. Active commuting was less likely among older workers in low-(OR30-39:0.90 95%CI: 0.83;0.98; OR≥40: 0.76 95%CI: 0.68;0.85) and medium-income strata (OR30-39:0.87 95%CI:0.80;0.95; OR≥40:0.84 95%CI:0.76;0.93) and among married individuals in high-income strata (OR:0.72 95%IC:0.61;0.84). Adults with lower education (ORhigh:10.80 95%CI:8.47;13.77), working in the south (ORhigh:1.93 95%CI:1.53;2.44) and in small companies (ORlow:2.50 95%CI:2.28;2.74) were more likely to commute actively; however, the magnitude of these associations differed at each income strata. There was an inverse association between gross family income and active commuting. Gross family income acts as a moderator of the association between demographic indicators and active commuting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Role of Sand and Stone Mining to Increase Family Income in Progo Catchment

    OpenAIRE

    Su Ritohardoyo

    2004-01-01

    The conzequence low income of the farmer household in agricultural sector is the increase in their activities as miner of sand and stone. It means for increasing of their household income. However, how important mining role on the increasing of household income has to be studied in deeply. The factual problem is the base for research aims, with the spesific stress on studying socio-economic characteristic of sand and stone miner, and the contribution of the mining income to household income. ...

  10. Insurance + Access ≠ Health Care: Typology of Barriers to Health Care Access for Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVoe, Jennifer E.; Baez, Alia; Angier, Heather; Krois, Lisa; Edlund, Christine; Carney, Patricia A.

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE Public health insurance programs have expanded coverage for the poor, and family physicians provide essential services to these vulnerable populations. Despite these efforts, many Americans do not have access to basic medical care. This study was designed to identify barriers faced by low-income parents when accessing health care for their children and how insurance status affects their reporting of these barriers. METHODS A mixed methods analysis was undertaken using 722 responses to an open-ended question on a health care access survey instrument that asked low-income Oregon families, “Is there anything else you would like to tell us?” Themes were identified using immersion/crystallization techniques. Pertinent demographic attributes were used to conduct matrix coded queries. RESULTS Families reported 3 major barriers: lack of insurance coverage, poor access to services, and unaffordable costs. Disproportionate reporting of these themes was most notable based on insurance status. A higher percentage of uninsured parents (87%) reported experiencing difficulties obtaining insurance coverage compared with 40% of those with insurance. Few of the uninsured expressed concerns about access to services or health care costs (19%). Access concerns were the most common among publicly insured families, and costs were more often mentioned by families with private insurance. Families made a clear distinction between insurance and access, and having one or both elements did not assure care. Our analyses uncovered a 3-part typology of barriers to health care for low-income families. CONCLUSIONS Barriers to health care can be insurmountable for low-income families, even those with insurance coverage. Patients who do not seek care in a family medicine clinic are not necessarily getting their care elsewhere. PMID:18025488

  11. Insurance + access not equal to health care: typology of barriers to health care access for low-income families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devoe, Jennifer E; Baez, Alia; Angier, Heather; Krois, Lisa; Edlund, Christine; Carney, Patricia A

    2007-01-01

    Public health insurance programs have expanded coverage for the poor, and family physicians provide essential services to these vulnerable populations. Despite these efforts, many Americans do not have access to basic medical care. This study was designed to identify barriers faced by low-income parents when accessing health care for their children and how insurance status affects their reporting of these barriers. A mixed methods analysis was undertaken using 722 responses to an open-ended question on a health care access survey instrument that asked low-income Oregon families, "Is there anything else you would like to tell us?" Themes were identified using immersion/crystallization techniques. Pertinent demographic attributes were used to conduct matrix coded queries. Families reported 3 major barriers: lack of insurance coverage, poor access to services, and unaffordable costs. Disproportionate reporting of these themes was most notable based on insurance status. A higher percentage of uninsured parents (87%) reported experiencing difficulties obtaining insurance coverage compared with 40% of those with insurance. Few of the uninsured expressed concerns about access to services or health care costs (19%). Access concerns were the most common among publicly insured families, and costs were more often mentioned by families with private insurance. Families made a clear distinction between insurance and access, and having one or both elements did not assure care. Our analyses uncovered a 3-part typology of barriers to health care for low-income families. Barriers to health care can be insurmountable for low-income families, even those with insurance coverage. Patients who do not seek care in a family medicine clinic are not necessarily getting their care elsewhere.

  12. Prediction of postpartum weight in low-income Mexican-origin women from childhood experiences of abuse and family conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luecken, Linda J.; Jewell, Shannon L.; MacKinnon, David P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The postpartum period represents a crucial transition period in which weight gain or loss can affect lifetime obesity risk. This study examined the prevalence of obesity and the influence of childhood abuse and family conflict on postpartum weight among low-income Mexican-origin women. Depressive symptoms and partner support were evaluated as mediators. Methods At a prenatal assessment, low-income Mexican-origin women (N=322; mean age = 27.8; SD = 6.5) reported on childhood abuse and family conflict. Weight was measured seven times between 6 weeks and 2 years postpartum and calculated as body mass index (BMI). Regression and growth models were used to estimate the impact of childhood abuse, childhood family conflict, partner support, and depressive symptoms on weight and weight change. Results Higher family conflict predicted higher weight across the first (β = .12, p = .037) and second (β = .16, p = .012) postpartum years. Family conflict (β = .17; p = .018) and low partner support (β = −.16, p = .028) also predicted increasing weight in the first year. Partner support partially mediated the effect of childhood abuse on weight change in the first year (p = .031). Depressive symptomatology mediated the effects of childhood abuse and family conflict on weight status in the second year (abuse: p = .005; conflict: p = .023). Conclusions For low-income Mexican-origin women with a history of childhood abuse or high family conflict, depression and low partner support may be important targets for obesity prevention efforts in the postpartum period. PMID:27583713

  13. Family income, maternal psychological distress and child socio-emotional behaviour: Longitudinal findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine Noonan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The association between low family income and socio-emotional behaviour problems in early childhood has been well-documented, and maternal psychological distress is highlighted as central in mediating this relationship. However, whether this relationship holds for older children, and the precise mechanisms by which income may influence child behaviour is unclear.This study investigated the relationship between family income and child socio-emotional behaviour at 11 years of age, and examined the mediating role of maternal psychological distress over time using the UK Millennium Cohort Study.The primary outcome was parent-reported behavioural problems, as captured by the Total Difficulties Score (TDS, derived from the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ. Secondary outcomes were the emotional, peer-related, conduct, and hyperactivity/inattention problems subscales of the SDQ; and teacher-reported TDS. Permanent family income was the primary exposure variable; frequency of poverty up to age 11 years was the secondary exposure variable. Maternal psychological distress was operationalised to reflect the trajectory from child birth to age 11. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate the effect of permanent family income on child behaviour at age 11, controlling for maternal psychological distress and other relevant covariates.Results showed a statistically significant protective effect of increased permanent family income on the likelihood of behavioural problems at age 11. This finding was consistent for all SDQ subscales apart from emotional problems, and was strongest for teacher-reported behavioural problems. Maternal distress was an important mediator in the income-child behaviour relationship for parent-reported, but not teacher-reported, behavioural problems.The results of this study strengthen empirical evidence that the child behaviour-income gradient is maintained in older childhood. Mother’s psychological

  14. Early Childhood Risk Factors for Mealtime TV Exposure and Engagement in Low-Income Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domoff, Sarah E; Lumeng, Julie C; Kaciroti, Niko; Miller, Alison L

    To identify whether child and mother characteristics in early childhood predict TV exposure and engagement during mealtime in middle childhood. A total of 220 low-income mother-child dyads participated. Children were 4.26 years old (SD = 0.51) at baseline and 5.94 years (SD = 0.68) at 2-year follow-up. Mothers completed baseline measures of child negative emotionality and parenting practices. Family mealtimes were video recorded and coded for background TV exposure and child TV engagement. Multinomial logistic regression tested whether child emotionality and parenting practices during early childhood predicted risk of child TV exposure or engagement during mealtime, relative to no TV use, 2 years later. Children with greater negative emotionality in early childhood were more likely to engage with TV during mealtime than to have no TV. Similarly, early parenting disciplinary practices characterized by over-reactivity and laxness increased the risk for child TV engagement versus no TV during mealtime approximately 2 years later. We identified 2 factors that associated with an increased risk for TV viewing during meals. Helping parents manage child negative emotionality using positive parenting strategies might reduce later child TV engagement and improve the quality of family mealtimes. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Associations among parental feeding styles and children's food intake in families with limited incomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerr, Sharon L; Hughes, Sheryl O; Fisher, Jennifer O; Nicklas, Theresa A; Liu, Yan; Shewchuk, Richard M

    2009-08-13

    Although general parenting styles and restrictive parental feeding practices have been associated with children's weight status, few studies have examined the association between feeding styles and proximal outcomes such as children's food intake, especially in multi-ethnic families with limited incomes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of parental feeding styles and young children's evening food intake in a multiethnic sample of families in Head Start. Participants were 715 Head Start children and their parents from Texas and Alabama representing three ethnic groups: African-American (43%), Hispanic (29%), and White (28%). The Caregivers Feeding Styles Questionnaire (Hughes) was used to characterize authoritative, authoritarian (referent), indulgent or uninvolved feeding styles. Food intake in several food groups was calculated from 3 days of dietary recalls for the child for evening food intakes from 3 PM until bedtime. Compared to children of authoritarian parents, intakes of fruits, juice and vegetables were lowest among children of indulgent or uninvolved parents (1.77 +/- 0.09 vs 1.45 +/- 0.09 and 1.42 +/- 0.11 cups) as were intakes of dairy foods (0.84 +/- 0.05 vs 0.67 +/- 0.05 and 0.63+0.06 cups), respectively. Findings suggest that permissive parent feeding styles like indulgent or uninvolved relate negatively to children's intake of nutrient-rich foods fruit, 100% fruit juice, vegetables and dairy foods from 3 PM until bedtime.

  16. The Well-Being of Maryland Parents and Their Children: Differences by Income Status and Family Structure. Research Brief. Publication #2009-22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertheimer, Richard; Moore, Kristin Anderson; Kahn, Jordan

    2009-01-01

    Research studies based on statistics for the United States as a whole have documented differences in child and family well-being between children in low-income families and children in more affluent families and between children in single-parent families and children in two-parent families. However, researchers have not explored differences in…

  17. Financial burden of colorectal cancer treatment among patients and their families in a middle-income country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzani, Meram; Roslani, April Camilla; Su, Tin Tin

    2016-10-01

    In Malaysia, the healthcare system consists of a government-run universal healthcare system and a co-existing private healthcare system. However, with high and ever rising healthcare spending on cancer management, cancer patients and their families are likely to become vulnerable to a healthcare-related financial burden. Moreover, they may have to reduce their working hours and lose income. To better understand this issue, this study aims to assess the financial burden of colorectal cancer patients and their families in the first year following diagnosis. Data on patient costs were collected prospectively in the first year following diagnosis by using a self-administered questionnaire and telephone interviews at three time points for all four stages of colorectal cancer. The patient cost data consisted of direct out-of-pocket payments for medical-related expenses such as hospital stays, tests and treatment and for non-medical items such as travel and food associated with hospital visits. In addition, indirect cost data related to the loss of productivity of the patient and caregiver(s) was assessed. The patient's perceived level of financial difficulty and types of coping strategy were also explored. The total 1-year patient cost (both direct and indirect) increased with the stage of colorectal cancer: RM 6544.5 (USD 2045.1) for stage I, RM 7790.1 (USD 2434.4) for stage II, RM 8799.1 (USD 2749.7) for stage III and RM 8638.2 (USD 2699.4) for stage IV. The majority of patients perceived paying for their healthcare as somewhat difficult. The most frequently used financial coping strategy was a combination of current income and savings. Despite the high subsidisation in public hospitals, the management of colorectal cancer imposes a substantial financial burden on patients and their families. Moreover, the majority of patients and their families perceive healthcare payments as difficult. Therefore, it is recommended that policy- and decision-makers should further

  18. Psychosocial interventions for addiction-affected families in Low and Middle Income Countries: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rane, Anil; Church, Sydney; Bhatia, Urvita; Orford, Jim; Velleman, Richard; Nadkarni, Abhijit

    2017-11-01

    To review the literature on psychosocial interventions for addiction affected family members in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMIC). A systematic review with a detailed search strategy focussing on psychosocial interventions directed towards people affected by addiction without any gender, year or language specifications was conducted. Identified titles and abstracts were screened; where needed full papers retrieved, and then independently reviewed. Data was extracted based on the aims of the study, to describe the modalities, acceptability, feasibility and effectiveness of the interventions. Four papers met our selection criteria. They were published between 2003 and 2014; the total sample size was 137 participants, and two studies were from Mexico and one each from Vietnam and Malaysia. The predominantly female participants comprised of parents, spouses and siblings. The common components of all the interventions included providing information regarding addiction, teaching coping skills, and providing support. Though preliminary these small studies suggests a positive effect on affected family members (AFM). There was lowering of psychological and physical distress, along with a better understanding of addictive behaviour. The interventions led to better coping; with improvements in self-esteem and assertive behaviour. The interventions, mostly delivered in group settings, were largely acceptable. The limited evidence does suggest positive benefits to AFMs. The scope of research needs to be extended to other addictions, and family members other than spouse and female relatives. Indigenous and locally adapted interventions are needed to address this issue keeping in mind the limited resources of LMIC. This is a field indeed in its infancy and this under recognised and under-served group needs urgent attention of researchers and policy makers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Predicting Child Protective Services (CPS) Involvement among Low-Income U.S. Families with Young Children Receiving Nutritional Assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, Kristen S; Font, Sarah; Maguire-Jack, Kathryn; Berger, Lawrence M

    2017-10-11

    This exploratory study examines combinations of income-tested welfare benefits and earnings, as they relate to the likelihood of child maltreatment investigations among low-income families with young children participating in a nutritional assistance program in one U.S. state (Wisconsin). Using a sample of 1065 parents who received the Special Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) benefits in late 2010 and early 2011, we find that relying on either work in the absence of other means-tested welfare benefits, or a combination of work and welfare benefits, reduces the likelihood of CPS involvement compared to parents who rely on welfare benefits in the absence of work. Additionally, we find that housing instability increases the risk of CPS involvement in this population. The findings from this investigation may be useful to programs serving low-income families with young children, as they attempt to identify safety net resources for their clientele.

  20. Future of family support: Projected living arrangements and income sources of older people in Hong Kong up to 2030.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Kok-Hoe

    2016-06-01

    The study aims to project future trends in living arrangements and access to children's cash contributions and market income sources among older people in Hong Kong. A cell-based model was constructed by combining available population projections, labour force projections, an extrapolation of the historical trend in living arrangements based on national survey datasets and a regression model on income sources. Under certain assumptions, the proportion of older people living with their children may decline from 59 to 48% during 2006-2030. Although access to market income sources may improve slightly, up to 20% of older people may have no access to either children's financial support or market income sources, and will not live with their children by 2030. Family support is expected to contract in the next two decades. Public pensions should be expanded to protect financially vulnerable older people. © 2015 AJA Inc.

  1. Incidence of Obesity Among Young US Children Living in Low-Income Families, 2008–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Liping; May, Ashleigh L.; Wethington, Holly; Dalenius, Karen; Grummer-Strawn, Laurence M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the incidence and reverse of obesity among young low-income children and variations across population subgroups. METHODS We included 1.2 million participants in federally funded child health and nutrition programs who were 0 to 23 months old in 2008 and were followed up 24 to 35 months later in 2010–2011. Weight and height were measured. Obesity at baseline was defined as gender-specific weight-for-length ≥95th percentile on the 2000 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth charts. Obesity at follow-up was defined as gender-specific BMI-for-age ≥95th percentile. We used a multivariable log-binomial model to estimate relative risk of obesity adjusting for gender, baseline age, race/ethnicity, duration of follow-up, and baseline weight-for-length percentile. RESULTS The incidence of obesity was 11.0% after the follow-up period. The incidence was significantly higher among boys versus girls and higher among children aged 0 to 11 months at baseline versus those older. Compared with non-Hispanic whites, the risk of obesity was 35% higher among Hispanics and 49% higher among American Indians (AIs)/Alaska Natives (ANs), but 8% lower among non-Hispanic African Americans. Among children who were obese at baseline, 36.5% remained obese and 63.5% were nonobese at follow-up. The proportion of reversing of obesity was significantly lower among Hispanics and AIs/ANs than that among other racial/ethnic groups. CONCLUSIONS The high incidence underscores the importance of early-life obesity prevention in multiple settings for low-income children and their families. The variations within population subgroups suggest that culturally appropriate intervention efforts should be focused on Hispanics and AIs/ANs. PMID:24276843

  2. Nutritional status of pre-school children from low income families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Oliveira Adriana G

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We evaluated growth and nutritional status of preschool children between 2 and 6 years old from low income families from 14 daycare centers. Methods Cross-sectional study with 1544 children from daycare centers of Santo Andre, Brazil. Body weight (W, height (H and body mass index (BMI were classified according to the 2000 National Center for Health Statistics (CDC/NCHS. Cutoff points for nutritional disorders: -2 z scores and 2.5 and 10 percentiles for malnutrition risk, 85 to 95 percentile for overweight and above BMI 95 percentile for obesity. Stepwise Forward Regression method was used including age, gender, birth weight, breastfeeding duration, age of mother at birth and period of time they attended the daycare center. Results Children presented mean z scores of H, W and BMI above the median of the CDC/NCHS reference. Girls were taller and heavier than boys, while we observed similar BMI between both genders. The z scores tended to rise with age. A Pearson Coefficient of Correlation of 0.89 for W, 0.93 for H and 0.95 for BMI was documented indicating positive association of age with weight, height and BMI. The frequency of children below -2 z scores was lower than expected: 1.5% for W, 1.75% for H and 0% for BMI, which suggests that there were no malnourished children. The other extremity of the distribution evidenced prevalence of overweight and obesity of 16.8% and 10.8%, respectively. Conclusion Low income preschool children are in an advanced stage of nutritional transition with a high prevalence of overweight.

  3. BOUNCE: A community-based mother–daughter healthy lifestyle intervention for low-income Latino families

    Science.gov (United States)

    The primary purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of a family-based exploratory community study titled BOUNCE (Behavior Opportunities Uniting Nutrition, Counseling, and Exercise), to increase physical fitness and activity in low-income Latino mothers and daughters. The BOUNCE study consis...

  4. Outcome of a Food Observational Study among Low-Income Preschool Children Participating in a Family-Style Meal Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treviño, Roberto P.; Vasquez, Liset; Shaw-Ridley, Mary; Mosley, Desiree; Jechow, Katherine; Piña, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In the United States, one out of every seven low-income children between the ages of 2 and 5 years is at risk for overweight and obesity. Formative research was conducted to determine if preschool children participating in family-style meals consumed the minimum food servings according to U.S. Department of Agriculture dietary…

  5. iPads Enhance Social Interaction Skills among Hearing-Impaired Children of Low Income Families in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahatheg, Raja Omar

    2015-01-01

    This research tries to investigate the technical contribution on improving the social interaction of hearing-impaired children from low income families in Saudi Arabia. It compares the social interaction skills of hearing-impaired children who do and do not have access to iPads. To achieve the goals of the study; seventeen children aged five years…

  6. Trends in Disparities in Low-Income Children's Health Insurance Coverage and Access to Care by Family Immigration Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarlenski, Marian; Baller, Julia; Borrero, Sonya; Bennett, Wendy L

    2016-03-01

    To examine time trends in disparities in low-income children's health insurance coverage and access to care by family immigration status. We used data from the National Survey of Children's Health in 2003 to 2011-2012, including 83,612 children aged 0 to 17 years with family incomes immigration status categories: citizen children with nonimmigrant parents; citizen children with immigrant parents; and immigrant children. We used multivariable regression analyses to obtain adjusted trends in health insurance coverage and access to care. All low-income children experienced gains in health insurance coverage and access to care from 2003 to 2011-2012, regardless of family immigration status. Relative to citizen children with nonimmigrant parents, citizen children with immigrant parents had a 5 percentage point greater increase in health insurance coverage (P = .06), a 9 percentage point greater increase in having a personal doctor or nurse (P Immigrant children had significantly lower health insurance coverage than other groups. However, the group had a 14 percentage point greater increase in having a personal doctor or nurse (P immigration status have lessened over time among children in low-income families, although large disparities still exist. Policy efforts are needed to ensure that children of immigrant parents and immigrant children are able to access health insurance and health care. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. An Emic, Mixed-Methods Approach to Defining and Measuring Positive Parenting among Low-Income Black Families

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    McWayne, Christine M.; Mattis, Jacqueline S.; Green Wright, Linnie E.; Limlingan, Maria Cristina; Harris, Elise

    2017-01-01

    Research Findings: This within-group exploratory sequential mixed-methods investigation sought to identify how ethnically diverse, urban-residing, low-income Black families conceptualize positive parenting. During the item development phase 119 primary caregivers from Head Start programs participated in focus groups and interviews. These…

  8. Fun & Fit, Phase I: A Program for Overweight African American and Hispanic American Children from Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meaney, Karen S.; Hart, Melanie A.; Griffin, L. Kent

    2009-01-01

    Fun & Fit is a program designed to create positive physical activity experiences and to promote healthy lifestyle choices among overweight children from low-income African American and Hispanic American families. The program is a collaborative project between Texas Tech University and the Lubbock Independent School District funded through a…

  9. Validation of a Multidimensional Assessment of Parenting Styles for Low-Income African-American Families with Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coolahan, Kathleen; McWayne, Christine; Fantuzzo, John; Grim, Suzanne

    2002-01-01

    Examined the construct and concurrent validity of the Parenting Behavior Questionnaire-Head Start (PBQ-HS) with low-income African-American families with preschoolers, and whether parenting styles differed by caregiver characteristics. Derived Active-Responsive, Active-Restrictive, and Passive-Permissive parenting dimensions; the last differed…

  10. The Link between Preschoolers' Phonological Awareness and Mothers' Book-Reading and Reminiscing Practices in Low-Income Families

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    Leyva, Diana; Sparks, Alison; Reese, Elaine

    2012-01-01

    The relation between preschoolers' phonological awareness and the frequency and quality of parents' book-reading and reminiscing practices were examined in 54 low-income and ethnically diverse families. Children's phonological awareness was assessed at the beginning and end of preschool. Mothers reported the frequency with which they read books…

  11. The Influence of Family on Educational and Occupational Achievement of Adolescents in Rural Low-Income Areas: An Ecological Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiamberg, Lawrence B.; Chin, Chong-Hee

    Focusing on the family as a context for the development of life plans by youth, this report summarizes findings of a 14-year longitudinal study on the educational and occupational life plans and achievement of youth in rural low-income areas in six southeastern states. Specific attention is given to (1) how parental educational and occupational…

  12. Feeding style differences in food parenting practices associated with fruit and vegetable intake in children fromlow-income families

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to examine the moderating effects of feeding styles on the relationship between food parenting practices and fruit and vegetable intake in low-income families with preschool-aged children. Focus group meetings with Head Start parents were conducted by using the nomina...

  13. Parent emotional distress and feeding styles in low-income families. The role of parent depression and parenting stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depression and other stressors have been associated with general parenting and child outcomes in low-income families. Given that parents shape child eating behaviors through their feeding interactions with their child, it is important to investigate factors that may influence parental feeding of you...

  14. Are Mothers Really "Gatekeepers" of Children?: Rural Mothers' Perceptions of Nonresident Fathers' Involvement in Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Yoshie; Richards, Leslie N.; Zvonkovic, Anisa M.

    2008-01-01

    Guided by symbolic interactionism, this qualitative study based on interviews with 83 rural mothers investigated mothers' perceptions of nonresident fathers' involvement in low-income families. Contrary to some fathers' claims that mothers "gatekeep" their access to children, the majority of mothers in our study wanted increased father…

  15. Predicting Infant Maltreatment in Low-Income Families: The Interactive Effects of Maternal Attributions and Child Status at Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugental, Daphne Blunt; Happaney, Keith

    2004-01-01

    Maternal attributions and child neonatal status at birth were assessed as predictors of infant maltreatment (harsh parenting and safety neglect). The population included low-income, low-education families who were primarily Hispanic. Child maltreatment during the 1st year of life (N = 73) was predicted by neonatal status (low Apgar scores, preterm…

  16. Municipal Solid Waste Characterization according to Different Income Levels: A Case Study

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    Huseyin Kurtulus Ozcan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Solid waste generation and characterization are some of the most important parameters which affect environmental sustainability. Municipal solid waste (MSW characterization depends on social structure and income levels. This study aims to determine the variations in waste components within MSW mass by income levels and seasonal conditions following the analysis conducted on the characterization of solid wastes produced in the Kartal district of the province of Istanbul, which is the research area of this study. To this end, 1.9 tons of solid waste samples were collected to represent four different lifestyles (high, medium, and low income levels, and downtown in the winter and summer periods, and characterization was made on these samples. In order to support waste characterization, humidity content and calorific value analyses were also conducted and various suggestions were brought towards waste management in line with the obtained findings. According to the results obtained in the study, organic waste had the highest rate of waste mass by 57.69%. Additionally, significant differences were found in municipal solid waste components (MSWC based on income level. Average moisture content (MC of solid waste samples was 71.1% in moisture analyses. The average of calorific (heating value (HHV was calculated as 2518.5 kcal·kg−1.

  17. Relationship between family history of alcohol addiction, parents’ education level, and smartphone problem use scale scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beison, Ashley; Rademacher, David J.

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims Smartphones are ubiquitous. As smartphones increased in popularity, researchers realized that people were becoming dependent on their smartphones. The purpose here was to provide a better understanding of the factors related to problematic smartphone use (PSPU). Methods The participants were 100 undergraduates (25 males, 75 females) whose ages ranged from 18 to 23 (mean age = 20 years). The participants completed questionnaires to assess gender, ethnicity, year in college, father’s education level, mother’s education level, family income, age, family history of alcoholism, and PSPU. The Family Tree Questionnaire assessed family history of alcoholism. The Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale (MPPUS) and the Adapted Cell Phone Addiction Test (ACPAT) were used to determine the degree of PSPU. Whereas the MPPUS measures tolerance, escape from other problems, withdrawal, craving, and negative life consequences, the ACPAT measures preoccupation (salience), excessive use, neglecting work, anticipation, lack of control, and neglecting social life. Results Family history of alcoholism and father’s education level together explained 26% of the variance in the MPPUS scores and 25% of the variance in the ACPAT scores. The inclusion of mother’s education level, ethnicity, family income, age, year in college, and gender did not significantly increase the proportion of variance explained for either MPPUS or ACPAT scores. Discussion and conclusions Family history of alcoholism and father’s education level are good predictors of PSPU. As 74%–75% of the variance in PSPU scale scores was not explained, future studies should aim to explain this variance. PMID:28316252

  18. Factors influencing healthy lifestyle changes: a qualitative look at low-income families engaged in treatment for overweight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cason-Wilkerson, Rochelle; Goldberg, Shauna; Albright, Karen; Allison, Mandy; Haemer, Matthew

    2015-04-01

    Childhood obesity disproportionately affects low-income minority populations, yet there is a paucity of literature about effective interventions in this population. This study sought to understand the experience of low-income majority Hispanic families engaged in obesity treatment. We conducted six focus groups (2=English, 4=Spanish) with families who completed a community-based, family-oriented obesity treatment program, using standard qualitative focus group interview methods. Transcripts were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed for thematic content. Two coders using the software program ATLAS.ti (v.7.0; Scientific Software Development GmbH, Berlin, Germany) coded each transcript independently; reflexive team analysis with three study team members was used to reach a consensus. Participants (n=37) indicated high program satisfaction. Parents reported buying less junk/fast food, increased consumption of fruits and vegetables, preparing and eating more meals as a family, and increasing their families' physical activity (PA). Four barrier and facilitator themes emerged. Barrier themes were time and financial cost, parent's lack of time and energy, influence of family members, and challenges regarding physical environment. Facilitator themes were skill building around healthy eating and parenting, family involvement, and long-term health concerns. Unanticipated findings, parents reported, were that changes resulted in children sleeping better, feeling happier, and less irritability. Despite low-income families experiencing barriers to lifestyle changes to manage obesity, they made positive dietary changes and increased PA by learning specific skills and including the whole family in those changes. Additionally, some unexpected benefits were noted, including improved sleep, less irritability, and children appearing happier. Future studies should consider using these parent-identified outcomes as secondary measures of program effectiveness.

  19. Associations among parental feeding styles and children's food intake in families with limited incomes

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    Liu Yan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although general parenting styles and restrictive parental feeding practices have been associated with children's weight status, few studies have examined the association between feeding styles and proximal outcomes such as children's food intake, especially in multi-ethnic families with limited incomes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of parental feeding styles and young children's evening food intake in a multiethnic sample of families in Head Start. Methods Participants were 715 Head Start children and their parents from Texas and Alabama representing three ethnic groups: African-American (43%, Hispanic (29%, and White (28%. The Caregivers Feeding Styles Questionnaire (Hughes was used to characterize authoritative, authoritarian (referent, indulgent or uninvolved feeding styles. Food intake in several food groups was calculated from 3 days of dietary recalls for the child for evening food intakes from 3 PM until bedtime. Results Compared to children of authoritarian parents, intakes of fruits, juice and vegetables were lowest among children of indulgent or uninvolved parents (1.77 ± 0.09 vs 1.45 ± 0.09 and 1.42 ± 0.11 cups as were intakes of dairy foods (0.84 ± 0.05 vs 0.67 ± 0.05 and 0.63+0.06 cups, respectively. Conclusion Findings suggest that permissive parent feeding styles like indulgent or uninvolved relate negatively to children's intake of nutrient-rich foods fruit, 100% fruit juice, vegetables and dairy foods from 3 PM until bedtime.

  20. Why poverty remains high: the role of income growth, economic inequality, and changes in family structure, 1949-1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iceland, John

    2003-08-01

    After dramatic declines in poverty from 1950 to the early 1970s in the United States, progress stalled. This article examines the association between trends in poverty and income growth, economic inequality, and changes in family structure using three measures of poverty: an absolute measure, a relative measure, and a quasi-relative one. I found that income growth explains most of the trend in absolute poverty, while inequality generally plays the most significant role in explaining trends in relative poverty. Rising inequality in the 1970s and 1980s was especially important in explaining increases in poverty among Hispanics, whereas changes in family structure played a significant role for children and African Americans through 1990. Notably, changes in family structure no longer had a significant association with trends in poverty for any group in the 1990s.

  1. Low income Russian families adopt effective behavioral strategies to maintain dietary stability in times of economic crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dore, Anna R; Adair, Linda S; Popkin, Barry M

    2003-11-01

    The social, political and economic reforms of 1992 in Russia led to a decade of rising income inequality, unemployment and economic crises, the most severe of which occurred in 1998. This study assesses dietary trends for children in low and high income households during this politically and economically unstable period from 1994 to 2000. Several possible food-related behaviors were also assessed to evaluate coping strategies adopted in the face of decreasing economic stability. Low income children maintained a steady energy intake per kilogram weight throughout the study period (251.0-259.4 kJ/kg), whereas intake for high income children increased significantly to a per capital average of 297.1 kJ/kg by 2000. At the food group level, the trend in per capita intake for all food groups was maintained for low income children except for a 22% decrease in meat and poultry consumption (P economic crisis.

  2. 24 CFR 1000.108 - How is HUD approval obtained by a recipient for housing for non low-income Indian families and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... recipient for housing for non low-income Indian families and model activities? 1000.108 Section 1000.108... AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES Affordable Housing Activities § 1000.108 How is HUD approval obtained by a.... Assistance to non low-income Indian families must be in accordance with § 1000.110. Proposals may be...

  3. "The Kids Still Come First": Creating Family Stability during Partnership Instability in Rural, Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Yoshie; Manoogian, Margaret M.; Ontai, Lenna L.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the nature of partnerships among 28 rural low-income mothers who experienced partnership transitions across three waves of annual interviews. Guided by "lens of uncertainty" and "boundary ambiguity theory," the authors specifically explored (a) how low-income mothers in rural communities experience partnership…

  4. Inclusive Development through Providing Vertical Housing for Low Income Family in Yogyakarta Urban Areas

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    Rini Rachmawati

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Inclusive development is mean to accommodate the marginalized people, most of whom are the poor with problem of fulfilling their need of housing. The government has tried hard to meet the need of housing by constructing rusunawa. This paper is aimed at describing about the provision and uses of rusunawa, both in cities and peri urban area by studying the cases in the City of Yogyakarta, Sleman Regency, and Bantul Regency. The study was conducted by doing observation and both structured and in-depth interviews. The research results show that rusunawa was viewed as one solutions to help low-income family in fulfilling their need of housing. In some cases in the City of Yogyakarta, rusunawa plays an important role in preventing the settlement along both sides of rivers from becoming slum areas. Rusunawa in both Regencies of Sleman and Bantul are located near the city so it is easy for the settlers to get to their workplace. The construction of rusunawa has also paid attention to the disabled by providing special facilities. The same case is providing playground for children and facilities for early education for young kids. However, there have not been special facilities for the elderly and pregnant women.

  5. Educational and home-environment asthma interventions for children in urban, low-income, minority families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welker, Kristen; Nabors, Laura; Lang, Myia; Bernstein, Jonathan

    2018-02-08

    This review examined the impact of environmental change and educational interventions targeting young children from minority groups living in urban environments and who were from low-income families. A scoping methodology was used to find research across six databases, including CINAHL, ERIC, PsycINFO, PubMed, MEDLINE, and EMBASE. 299 studies were identified. Duplicates were removed leaving 159 studies. After reviewing for inclusion and exclusion criteria, 23 manuscripts were identified for this study: 11 featured home-environment change interventions and 12 emphasized education of children. Studies were reviewed to determine key interventions and outcomes for children. Both environmental interventions and educational programs had positive outcomes. Interventions did not always impact health outcomes, such as emergency department visits. Results indicated many of the environmental change and education interventions improved asthma management and some symptoms. A multipronged approach may be a good method for targeting both education and change in the home and school environment to promote the well-being of young children in urban areas. New research with careful documentation of information about study participants, dose of intervention (i.e., number and duration of sessions, booster sessions) and specific intervention components also will provide guidance for future research.

  6. Bolsa Família (Family Grant Programme: an analysis of Brazilian income transfer programme

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    Luciana Mourão

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Income transfer programmes are common in various countries and play an important role in combating poverty. This article presents a review of the results of the Bolsa Família (Family Grant Programme, implemented in Brazil by the government of Lula da Silva in 2004. Over the last seven years many evaluations of the programme have been conducted, allowing an overview of its results and its strong and weak points to be mapped. Five central aspects relating to the programme are discussed in article five: (1 programme access, (2 hunger fighting results, (3 programme financial impacts, (4 conditioning factors of education and health, (5 supplementary programs and social mobility. The results of scientific research were presented for each of these aspects, and any of these believed to be convergent or divergent were discussed. As a general result it was concluded that the programme has generated significant results for the country, but there are still some issues that need to be reviewed, such as conditioning factors and the integrated management of the programme.

  7. Social class, politics, and the spirit level: why income inequality remains unexplained and unsolved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntaner, Caries; Rai, Nanky; Ng, Edwin; Chung, Haejoo

    2012-01-01

    Richard Wilkinson and Kate Pickett's latest book, The Spirit Level: Why Equality is Best for Everyone, has caught the attention of academics and policymakers and stimulated debate across the left-right political spectrum. Interest in income inequality has remained unabated since the publication of Wilkinson's previous volume, Unhealthy Societies: The Afflictions of Inequality. While both books detail the negative health effects of income inequality, The Spirit Level expands the scope of its argument to also include social issues. The book, however, deals extensively with the explanation of how income inequality affects individual health. Little attention is given to political and economic explanations on how income inequality is generated in the first place. The volume ends with political solutions that carefully avoid state interventions such as limiting the private sector's role in the production of goods and services (e.g., non-profit sector, employee-ownership schemes). Although well-intentioned, these alternatives are insufficient to significantly reduce the health inequalities generated by contemporary capitalism in wealthy countries, let alone around the world.

  8. Risk and Protective Factors for Family Violence among Low-Income Fathers: Implications for Violence Prevention and Fatherhood Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, R Anna; Honegger, Laura; Hammock, Amy Cristina

    2018-01-01

    Over the last decade there has been an increased focus on improving father engagement to improve child and family outcomes. Recent research suggests that child and family outcomes improve with increased fatherhood engagement. This exploratory study examined risk and protective factors associated with approval of family violence among a sample of low-income fathers (N = 686) enrolled in a responsible fatherhood program. The program goals include increasing father involvement and economic stability and encouraging healthy relationships-with a focus on preventing intimate partner violence. Toward these aims, this study explored factors associated with fathers' self-reported approval of family violence. Understanding the prevalence of risk and protective factors in this population and factors associated with fathers' potential for family violence is important in developing programs to address responsible fatherhood and healthy relationships. © 2017 National Association of Social Workers.

  9. [The right to share in the nation's wealth: from the Family Allowance Program to Basic Citizenship Income].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suplicy, Eduardo Matarazzo

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the positive outcomes of Brazil's Family Allowance Program, in terms of combating hunger and eradicating poverty, stressing that this is the first step towards introducing a Basic Income for Citizenship (RBC - Renda Básica de Cidadania) in Brazil, as established in 2004 through Law N degrees 10,835. This Basic Income for Citizenship will be phased in by stages at the discretion of the Executive Branch, starting with the neediest segments of the population. Everyone will be endowed with the unconditional right to receive an income that will be sufficient - as far as possible - to cover vital requirements. This is not a matter of charity or welfare, but rather an across-the-board right to share in the wealth of the nation. The rationality of this tool for ensuring real freedom and dignity for all is also examined here.

  10. Families at financial risk due to high ratio of out-of-pocket health care expenditures to total income.

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    Bennett, Kevin J; Dismuke, Clara E

    2010-05-01

    High out-of-pocket expenditures for health care can put individuals and families at financial risk. Several groups, including racial/ethnic minority groups, the uninsured, rural residents, and those in poorer health are at risk for this increased burden. The analysis utilized 2004-2005 MEPS data. The dependent variables were the out-of-pocket health care spending to total income ratios for total spending, office-based visits, and prescription drugs. Multivariate analyses with instrumental variables controlled for respondent characteristics. Gender, age, rurality, insurance coverage, health status, and health care utilization were all associated with higher out-of-pocket to income ratios. Certain groups, such as women, the elderly, those in poor health, and rural residents, are at a greater financial risk due to their higher out-of-pocket to total income spending ratios. Policymakers must be aware of these increased risks in order to provide adequate resources and targeted interventions to alleviate some of this burden.

  11. Home visits by family physicians during the end-of-life: Does patient income or residence play a role?

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    Johnston Grace

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With a growing trend for those with advanced cancer to die at home, there is a corresponding increase in need for primary medical care in that setting. Yet those with lower incomes and in rural regions are often challenged to have their health care needs met. This study examined the association between patient income and residence and the receipt of Family Physician (FP home visits during the end-of-life among patients with cancer. Methods Data Sources/Study Setting. Secondary analysis of linked population-based data. Information pertaining to all patients who died due to lung, colorectal, breast or prostate cancer between 1992 and 1997 (N = 7,212 in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia (NS was extracted from three administrative health databases and from Statistics Canada census records. Study Design. An ecological measure of income ('neighbourhood' median household income was developed using census information. Multivariate logistic regression was then used to assess the association of income with the receipt of at least one home visit from a FP among all subjects and by region of residency during the end-of-life. Covariates in the initial multivariate model included patient demographics and alternative health services information such as total days spent as a hospital inpatient. Data Extraction Methods. Encrypted patient health card numbers were used to link all administrative health databases whereas the postal code was the link to Statistics Canada census information. Results Over 45% of all subjects received at least one home visit (n = 3265. Compared to those from low income areas, the log odds of receiving at least one home visit was significantly greater among subjects who reside in middle to high income neighbourhoods (for the highest income quintile, adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.37, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.15, 1.64; for upper-middle income, adjusted OR = 1.19, 95%CI = 1.02, 1.39; for middle income

  12. The relationship between levels of income inequality and dental caries and periodontal diseases

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    Roger Keller Celeste

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between income inequality at a lagged time of 2 and 11 years with two short latency outcomes (untreated dental caries and gingivitis and two long latency outcomes (edentulism and periodontal attachment loss > 8mm. We used data from the Brazilian oral health survey in 2002-2003. Our analysis included 13,405 subjects aged 35-44 years. Different lagged Gini at municipal level were fitted using logistic and negative binomial multilevel analyses. Covariates included municipal per capita income, equivalized income, age, sex, time since last dental visit and place of residence (rural versus urban. Crude estimates showed that only untreated dental caries was associated with current and lagged Gini, but in adjusted models only current Gini remained significant with a ratio of 1.19 (95%CI: 1.09-1.30 for every ten-point increase in the Gini coefficient. We conclude that lagged Gini showed no association with oral health; and current income Gini was associated with current dental caries but not with periodontal disease.

  13. Maslow’s Needs Hierarchy and the Effect of Income on Happiness Levels

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    Drakopoulos, Stavros A.; Grimani, Katerina

    2013-01-01

    Abraham Maslow’s theory of hierarchical needs has been employed by a large variety of conceptual frameworks. The theory can also offer additional insights to the research field which investigates the relationship between income and reported happiness levels. The incorporation of needs hierarchy into a happiness framework implies that individuals have a priority approach to happiness. This means that the most important needs must be satisfied first before the secondary needs come into the pict...

  14. Infant and toddlers' feeding practices and obesity amongst low-income families in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Cruz, Arturo; Bacardi-Gascon, Montserrat; Pichardo-Osuna, Alexandra; Mandujano-Trujillo, Zally; Castillo-Ruiz, Octelina

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors of childhood obesity among infants and toddlers from low-income families from three cities in Mexico. This is a cross-sectional study of mothers and their infants and toddlers attending a vaccination centre at three primary care clinics in Tijuana, Tuxtla, and Reynosa. Anthropometric measurements of the mothers and children were conducted at the clinic and a questionnaire was administered to the mother. Eight-hundred and ten mothers and their 5 to 24 months old infants participated in the study. Average age for the mothers was 24 (21-28) years, and 57% of them were either overweight or obese. The children's average age was 12.7 (5-24) months. Overall overweight prevalence in this sample was 11% and obesity 8%, these increased with age, from 3% for overweight and 6 % for obesity before 6 months, to 13 and 10% between 12 to 24 months respectively. Thirty-five percent of infants were breastfed>or=6 month and 92% were introduced to other solid foods before 6 months. Introduction of high-fat content snacks (HFS) and carbonated and non-carbonated sweetened (CSD) drinks starts before 6 months and more than sixty percent of the children between 12 to 24 months of age were eating HFS and CSD sweetened drinks at least once a week. Consumption of snacks and CSD sweetened drinks (>or=1 week) was associated with being overweight and obese (crude), OR, 1.82; 95% CI=1.24-2.65 (p=0.002). These results suggest that preventive programs should be initiated during pregnancy and continued.

  15. Maternal depressive symptoms and child obesity in low-income urban families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Rachel S; Velazco, Nerissa K; Briggs, Rahil D; Racine, Andrew D

    2013-01-01

    To characterize the relationship between maternal depressive symptoms and child weight status, obesity-promoting feeding practices, and activity-related behaviors in low-income urban families. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of mothers with 5-year-old children receiving pediatric care at a federally qualified community health center. We used regression analyses to examine the relationship between maternal depressive symptoms (trichotomized: none, mild, moderate to severe) and 1) child weight status; 2) obesity-promoting feeding practices, including mealtime practices and feeding styles; and 3) activity-related behaviors, including sleep time, screen time, and outdoor playtime. The sample included 401 mother-child pairs (78.3% response rate), with 23.4% of mothers reporting depressive symptoms (15.7% mild, 7.7% moderate to severe). Mothers with moderate to severe depressive symptoms were more likely to have overweight and obese children than mothers without depressive symptoms (adjusted odds ratio 2.62; 95% confidence interval 1.02-6.70). Children of mildly depressed mothers were more likely to consume sweetened drinks and to eat out at restaurants and were less likely to eat breakfast than children of nondepressed mothers. Mothers with depressive symptoms were less likely to set limits, to use food as a reward, to restrict their child's intake, and to model healthy eating than nondepressed mothers. Children with depressed mothers had less sleep and outdoor playtime per day than children of nondepressed mothers. Maternal depressive symptoms are associated with child overweight and obese status and with several obesity-promoting practices. These results support the need for maternal depression screening in pediatric obesity prevention programs. Further research should explore how to incorporate needed mental health support. Copyright © 2013 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Growing gaps: The importance of income and family for educational inequalities in mortality among Swedish men and women 1990-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Östergren, Olof

    2015-08-01

    Although absolute levels of mortality have decreased among Swedish men and women in recent decades, educational inequalities in mortality have increased, especially among women. The aim of this study is to disentangle the role of income and family type in educational inequalities in mortality in Sweden during 1990-2009, focusing on gender differences. Data on individuals born in Sweden between the ages of 30 and 74 years were collected from total population registries, covering a total of 529,275 deaths and 729 million person-months. Temporary life expectancies (age 30-74 years) by education were calculated using life tables, and rate ratios were estimated with Poisson regression with robust standard errors. Temporary life expectancy improved among all groups except low educated women. Relative educational inequalities in mortality (RRs) increased from 1.79 to 1.98 among men and from 1.78 to 2.10 among women. Variation in family type explained some of the inequalities among men, but not among women, and did not contribute to the trend. Variation in income explained a larger part of the educational inequalities among men compared to women and also explained the increase in educational inequalities in mortality among men and women. Increasing educational inequalities in mortality in Sweden may be attributed to the increase in income inequalities in mortality. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  17. Child Disinhibition, Parent Restriction, and Child Body Mass Index in Low-Income Preschool Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Martha A.; Radnitz, Cynthia L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine both unique and interactive effects of parent restrictive feeding and child disinhibited eating behavior on child body mass index (BMI) in low-income Latino and African American preschoolers. Methods: The sample included 229 parent-child pairs, the majority of whom were low-income and Latino (57%) or African American (25%).…

  18. Contemporary Work and Family Issues Affecting Marriage and Cohabitation among Low-Income Single Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Pamela; Quane, James M.; Cherlin, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we advance and test an integrative model of the effects of employment status, nonstandard work schedules, male employment, and women's perceptions of economic instability on union formation among low-income single mothers. On the basis of the longitudinal data from 1,299 low-income mothers from the Three-City Welfare Study, results…

  19. Food prices and consumer demand: differences across income levels and ethnic groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cliona Ni Mhurchu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Targeted food pricing policies may improve population diets. To assess their effects on inequalities, it is important to determine responsiveness to price changes across income levels and ethnic groups. OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to estimate price elasticity (PE values for major commonly consumed food groups in New Zealand, by income and ethnicity. PE values represent percentage change in demand associated with 1% change in price of that good (own-PE or another good (cross-PE. DESIGN: We used food expenditure data from national household economic surveys in 2007/08 and 2009/10 and Food Price Index data from 2007 and 2010. Adopting an Almost Ideal Demand System approach, own-PE and cross-PE estimates were derived for 24 food categories, household income quintiles, and two ethnic groups (Māori and non-Māori. RESULTS: Own-PE estimates (with two exceptions ranged from -0.44 to -1.78. Cross-PE estimates were generally small; only 31% of absolute values were greater than 0.10. Excluding the outlier 'energy drinks', nine of 23 food groups had significantly stronger own-PEs for the lowest versus highest income quintiles (average regression-based difference across food groups -0.30 (95% CI -0.62 to 0.02. Six own-PEs were significantly stronger among Māori; the average difference for Māori: non-Māori across food groups was -0.26 (95% CI -0.52 to 0.00. CONCLUSIONS: Food pricing policies have potential to improve population diets. The greater sensitivity of low-income households and Māori to price changes suggests the beneficial effects of such policies on health would be greatest for these groups.

  20. Food Prices and Consumer Demand: Differences across Income Levels and Ethnic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Eyles, Helen; Schilling, Chris; Yang, Qing; Kaye-Blake, William; Genç, Murat; Blakely, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Background Targeted food pricing policies may improve population diets. To assess their effects on inequalities, it is important to determine responsiveness to price changes across income levels and ethnic groups. Objective Our goal was to estimate price elasticity (PE) values for major commonly consumed food groups in New Zealand, by income and ethnicity. PE values represent percentage change in demand associated with 1% change in price of that good (own-PE) or another good (cross-PE). Design We used food expenditure data from national household economic surveys in 2007/08 and 2009/10 and Food Price Index data from 2007 and 2010. Adopting an Almost Ideal Demand System approach, own-PE and cross-PE estimates were derived for 24 food categories, household income quintiles, and two ethnic groups (Māori and non-Māori). Results Own-PE estimates (with two exceptions) ranged from −0.44 to −1.78. Cross-PE estimates were generally small; only 31% of absolute values were greater than 0.10. Excluding the outlier ‘energy drinks’, nine of 23 food groups had significantly stronger own-PEs for the lowest versus highest income quintiles (average regression-based difference across food groups −0.30 (95% CI −0.62 to 0.02)). Six own-PEs were significantly stronger among Māori; the average difference for Māori: non-Māori across food groups was −0.26 (95% CI −0.52 to 0.00). Conclusions Food pricing policies have potential to improve population diets. The greater sensitivity of low-income households and Māori to price changes suggests the beneficial effects of such policies on health would be greatest for these groups. PMID:24098408

  1. Community-level income inequality and HIV prevalence among persons who inject drugs in Thai Nguyen, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Travis W; Frangakis, Constantine; Latkin, Carl; Ha, Tran Viet; Minh, Nguyen Le; Zelaya, Carla; Quan, Vu Minh; Go, Vivian F

    2014-01-01

    Socioeconomic status has a robust positive relationship with several health outcomes at the individual and population levels, but in the case of HIV prevalence, income inequality may be a better predictor than absolute level of income. Most studies showing a relationship between income inequality and HIV have used entire countries as the unit of analysis. In this study, we examine the association between income inequality at the community level and HIV prevalence in a sample of persons who inject drugs (PWID) in a concentrated epidemic setting. We recruited PWID and non-PWID community participants in Thai Nguyen, Vietnam, and administered a cross-sectional questionnaire; PWID were tested for HIV. We used ecologic regression to model HIV burden in our PWID study population on GINI indices of inequality calculated from total reported incomes of non-PWID community members in each commune. We also modeled HIV burden on interaction terms between GINI index and median commune income, and finally used a multi-level model to control for community level inequality and individual level income. HIV burden among PWID was significantly correlated with the commune GINI coefficient (r = 0.53, p = 0.002). HIV burden was also associated with GINI coefficient (β = 0.082, p = 0.008) and with median commune income (β = -0.018, p = 0.023) in ecological regression. In the multi-level model, higher GINI coefficient at the community level was associated with higher odds of individual HIV infection in PWID (OR = 1.46 per 0.01, p = 0.003) while higher personal income was associated with reduced odds of infection (OR = 0.98 per $10, p = 0.022). This study demonstrates a context where income inequality is associated with HIV prevalence at the community level in a concentrated epidemic. It further suggests that community level socioeconomic factors, both contextual and compositional, could be indirect determinants of HIV infection in PWID.

  2. Lagged Associations of Metropolitan Statistical Area- and State-Level Income Inequality with Cognitive Function: The Health and Retirement Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daniel; Griffin, Beth Ann; Kabeto, Mohammed; Escarce, José; Langa, Kenneth M; Shih, Regina A

    2016-01-01

    Much variation in individual-level cognitive function in late life remains unexplained, with little exploration of area-level/contextual factors to date. Income inequality is a contextual factor that may plausibly influence cognitive function. In a nationally-representative cohort of older Americans from the Health and Retirement Study, we examined state- and metropolitan statistical area (MSA)-level income inequality as predictors of individual-level cognitive function measured by the 27-point Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS-m) scale. We modeled latency periods of 8-20 years, and controlled for state-/metropolitan statistical area (MSA)-level and individual-level factors. Higher MSA-level income inequality predicted lower cognitive function 16-18 years later. Using a 16-year lag, living in a MSA in the highest income inequality quartile predicted a 0.9-point lower TICS-m score (β = -0.86; 95% CI = -1.41, -0.31), roughly equivalent to the magnitude associated with five years of aging. We observed no associations for state-level income inequality. The findings were robust to sensitivity analyses using propensity score methods. Among older Americans, MSA-level income inequality appears to influence cognitive function nearly two decades later. Policies reducing income inequality levels within cities may help address the growing burden of declining cognitive function among older populations within the United States.

  3. Community-Level Characteristics Associated With Variation in Rates of Homelessness Among Families and Single Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fargo, Jamison D.; Munley, Ellen A.; Byrne, Thomas H.; Montgomery, Ann Elizabeth; Culhane, Dennis P.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We modeled rates of family and single-adult homelessness in the United States in metropolitan and nonmetropolitan regions and as a function of community-level demographic, behavioral, health, economic, and safety net characteristics. Methods. We entered community-level characteristics and US Department of Housing and Urban Development point-in-time counts for a single night in January 2009 into separate mixed-effects statistical analyses that modeled homelessness rates for 4 subpopulations: families and single adults in metropolitan and nonmetropolitan regions. Results. Community-level factors accounted for 25% to 50% of the variance in homelessness rates across models. In metropolitan regions, alcohol consumption, social support, and several economic indicators were uniquely associated with family homelessness, and drug use and homicide were uniquely associated with single-adult homelessness. In nonmetropolitan regions, life expectancy, religious adherence, unemployment, and rent burden were uniquely associated with family homelessness, and health care access, crime, several economic indicators, and receipt of Supplemental Security Income were uniquely associated with single-adult homelessness. Conclusions. Considering homeless families and single adults separately enabled more precise modeling of associations between homelessness rates and community-level characteristics, indicating targets for interventions to reduce homelessness among these subpopulations. PMID:24148057

  4. Community-level characteristics associated with variation in rates of homelessness among families and single adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fargo, Jamison D; Munley, Ellen A; Byrne, Thomas H; Montgomery, Ann Elizabeth; Culhane, Dennis P

    2013-12-01

    We modeled rates of family and single-adult homelessness in the United States in metropolitan and nonmetropolitan regions and as a function of community-level demographic, behavioral, health, economic, and safety net characteristics. We entered community-level characteristics and US Department of Housing and Urban Development point-in-time counts for a single night in January 2009 into separate mixed-effects statistical analyses that modeled homelessness rates for 4 subpopulations: families and single adults in metropolitan and nonmetropolitan regions. Community-level factors accounted for 25% to 50% of the variance in homelessness rates across models. In metropolitan regions, alcohol consumption, social support, and several economic indicators were uniquely associated with family homelessness, and drug use and homicide were uniquely associated with single-adult homelessness. In nonmetropolitan regions, life expectancy, religious adherence, unemployment, and rent burden were uniquely associated with family homelessness, and health care access, crime, several economic indicators, and receipt of Supplemental Security Income were uniquely associated with single-adult homelessness. Considering homeless families and single adults separately enabled more precise modeling of associations between homelessness rates and community-level characteristics, indicating targets for interventions to reduce homelessness among these subpopulations.

  5. A model for scale up of family health innovations in low-income and middle-income settings: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Elizabeth H; Curry, Leslie A; Taylor, Lauren A; Pallas, Sarah Wood; Talbert-Slagle, Kristina; Yuan, Christina; Fox, Ashley; Minhas, Dilpreet; Ciccone, Dana Karen; Berg, David; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Many family health innovations that have been shown to be both efficacious and cost-effective fail to scale up for widespread use particularly in low-income and middle-income countries (LMIC). Although individual cases of successful scale-up, in which widespread take up occurs, have been described, we lack an integrated and practical model of scale-up that may be applicable to a wide range of public health innovations in LMIC. To develop an integrated and practical model of scale-up that synthesises experiences of family health programmes in LMICs. We conducted a mixed methods study that included in-depth interviews with 33 key informants and a systematic review of peer-reviewed and grey literature from 11 electronic databases and 20 global health agency web sites. We included key informants and studies that reported on the scale up of several family health innovations including Depo-Provera as an example of a product innovation, exclusive breastfeeding as an example of a health behaviour innovation, community health workers (CHWs) as an example of an organisational innovation and social marketing as an example of a business model innovation. Key informants were drawn from non-governmental, government and international organisations using snowball sampling. An article was excluded if the article: did not meet the study's definition of the innovation; did not address dissemination, diffusion, scale up or sustainability of the innovation; did not address low-income or middle-income countries; was superficial in its discussion and/or did not provide empirical evidence about scale-up of the innovation; was not available online in full text; or was not available in English, French, Spanish or Portuguese, resulting in a final sample of 41 peer-reviewed articles and 30 grey literature sources. We used the constant comparative method of qualitative data analysis to extract recurrent themes from the interviews, and we integrated these themes with findings from the

  6. A higher level of education amplifies the inverse association between income and disability in the Spanish elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abellán, Antonio; Rodríguez-Laso, Ángel; Pujol, Rogelio; Barrios, Laura

    2015-12-01

    This paper aims to estimate if the education level modifies the association of income with disability prevalence in the elderly. Education can have a confounding effect on income or interact with it as a health determinant. It is important to analyze the relationship between socio-economic status and disability in older people, because it helps to better understand health inequalities and organize appropriate social policies. The study is based on the Survey on Disability, Personal Autonomy and Dependency Situations (Spanish National Statistics Institute). Binary logistic regression models are adjusted (bivariate, adjusted for gender and age, with all variables and with the interaction between income and education levels). A bad adjustment of the model is detected and a scobit link is added, which helps to differentiate disabled and non-disabled individuals better. People with difficulty in carrying out activities of daily living are much older, frequently women and with low education and income levels. The significant interaction between education level and income means that the odds of being disabled is 43% less in people of high income compared with people of low income if they are well educated, while it is only 21%, among those with low education. A higher education level amplifies significantly the inverse association between income and disability in the Spanish elderly, what suggests that those with higher education will profit more than those with lower education from universal economic benefits policies aimed at the disabled, increasing health inequalities between groups.

  7. The global burden of child burn injuries in light of country level economic development and income inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengoelge, Mathilde; El-Khatib, Ziad; Laflamme, Lucie

    2017-06-01

    Child burn mortality differs widely between regions and is closely related to material deprivation, but reports on their global distribution are few. Investigating their country level distribution in light of economic level and income inequality will help assess the potential for macro-level improvements. We extracted data for child burn mortality from the Global Burden of Disease study 2013 and combined data into 1-14 years to calculate rates at country, region and income levels. We also compiled potential lives saved. Then we examined the relationship between country level gross domestic product per capita from the World Bank and income inequality (Gini Index) from the Standardized World Income Inequality Database and child burn mortality using Spearman coefficient correlations. Worldwide, the burden of child burn deaths is 2.5 per 100,000 across 103 countries with the largest burden in Sub-Saharan Africa (4.5 per 100,000). Thirty-four thousand lives could be saved yearly if all countries in the world had the same rates as the best performing group of high-income countries; the majority in low-income countries. There was a negative graded association between economic level and child burns for all countries aggregated and at regional level, but no consistent pattern existed for income inequality at regional level. The burden of child burn mortality varies by region and income level with prevention efforts needed most urgently in middle-income countries and Sub-Saharan Africa. Investment in safe living conditions and access to medical care are paramount to achieving further reductions in the global burden of preventable child burn deaths.

  8. The global burden of child burn injuries in light of country level economic development and income inequality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde Sengoelge

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Child burn mortality differs widely between regions and is closely related to material deprivation, but reports on their global distribution are few. Investigating their country level distribution in light of economic level and income inequality will help assess the potential for macro-level improvements. We extracted data for child burn mortality from the Global Burden of Disease study 2013 and combined data into 1–14 years to calculate rates at country, region and income levels. We also compiled potential lives saved. Then we examined the relationship between country level gross domestic product per capita from the World Bank and income inequality (Gini Index from the Standardized World Income Inequality Database and child burn mortality using Spearman coefficient correlations. Worldwide, the burden of child burn deaths is 2.5 per 100,000 across 103 countries with the largest burden in Sub-Saharan Africa (4.5 per 100,000. Thirty-four thousand lives could be saved yearly if all countries in the world had the same rates as the best performing group of high-income countries; the majority in low-income countries. There was a negative graded association between economic level and child burns for all countries aggregated and at regional level, but no consistent pattern existed for income inequality at regional level. The burden of child burn mortality varies by region and income level with prevention efforts needed most urgently in middle-income countries and Sub-Saharan Africa. Investment in safe living conditions and access to medical care are paramount to achieving further reductions in the global burden of preventable child burn deaths.

  9. Income inequality in today's China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yu; Zhou, Xiang

    2014-05-13

    Using multiple data sources, we establish that China's income inequality since 2005 has reached very high levels, with the Gini coefficient in the range of 0.53-0.55. Analyzing comparable survey data collected in 2010 in China and the United States, we examine social determinants that help explain China's high income inequality. Our results indicate that a substantial part of China's high income inequality is due to regional disparities and the rural-urban gap. The contributions of these two structural forces are particularly strong in China, but they play a negligible role in generating the overall income inequality in the United States, where individual-level and family-level income determinants, such as family structure and race/ethnicity, play a much larger role.

  10. Parent emotional distress and feeding styles in low-income families. The role of parent depression and parenting stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Sheryl O; Power, Thomas G; Liu, Yan; Sharp, Carla; Nicklas, Theresa A

    2015-09-01

    Depression and other stressors have been associated with general parenting and child outcomes in low-income families. Given that parents shape child eating behaviors through their feeding interactions with their child, it is important to investigate factors that may influence parental feeding of young children. The aim of this study was to examine how depressive symptoms and parenting stress might influence the nature of parent feeding styles in low-income families. Questionnaires were completed by 290 African-American and Hispanic parents residing in a large urban city in the southwestern United States. Twenty-six percent of the parents reported depressive symptoms above the clinical cutoff. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine how depressive symptoms and parenting stress might influence the nature of parent feeding styles. After adjusting for potential confounding variables (e.g., ethnicity, education, age), parents with an uninvolved feeding style reported less positive affect and more parenting stress than parents showing the other three feeding styles - authoritative, authoritarian, and indulgent. Because feeding styles tend to be associated with child obesity in low income samples, the results of this study provide important information regarding the parent-child eating dynamic that may promote less optimal child eating behaviors and the development of childhood obesity. This information could be useful for prevention studies aimed at changing parent behaviors that negatively impact the socialization of child eating behaviors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Ecological Factors Influencing Emotional/Behavioral Problems and Self-Concept in Adolescents from Low-Income Families in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Suyon; Yoo, Haewon

    2017-09-01

    In this study, we examined emotional/behavioral problems and self-concept in adolescents from low-income families in Korea; additionally, we identified ecological factors associated with these traits. This descriptive study employed an ecological model to analyze data from the Korean Children and Youth Panel Survey. A nationwide stratified multistage cluster sampling methodology was used. Overall, 2534 first-year middle school students were included in the survey, and the survey was conducted from 2010 to 2016. Hierarchical multiple regression models were generated. The mean score of emotional/behavioral problem has been changed from 2.20 (2011), 2.15 (2013), to 2.11 (2015) out of 4, and the mean score of self-concept has been changed from 2.73 (2012), 2.73 (2014), to 2.77 (2015) out of 4. Factors that influenced emotional/behavioral problems and self-concept among adolescents were health perception and academic achievement (only associated with self-concept) at the intrapersonal level and parenting style, peer attachment (only associated with self-concept), and relationships with teachers at the interpersonal level. These results may be used to inform the development of interventions designed to decrease emotional/behavioral problems and improve positive self-concept in adolescents from low-income families.

  12. Identification of the main problems in social work with low-income families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bánovčinová A.

    2016-01-01

    Poverty is a social problem that negatively affects all dimensions of family system functioning. In order to provide effective help and intervention to the family, it is essential that the social worker is able to correctly identify problem areas and appropriately choose methods and procedures aimed at restoration of family functioning.

  13. Changes in Income at Macro Level Predict Sex Ratio at Birth in OECD Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanninen, Ohto; Karhula, Aleksi

    2016-01-01

    The human sex ratio at birth (SRB) is approximately 107 boys for every 100 girls. SRB was rising until the World War II and has been declining slightly after the 1950s in several industrial countries. Recent studies have shown that SRB varies according to exposure to disasters and socioeconomic conditions. However, it remains unknown whether changes in SRB can be explained by observable macro-level socioeconomic variables across multiple years and countries. Here we show that changes in disposable income at the macro level positively predict SRB in OECD countries. A one standard deviation increase in the change of disposable income is associated with an increase of 1.03 male births per 1000 female births. The relationship is possibly nonlinear and driven by extreme changes. The association varies from country to country being particular strong in Estonia. This is the first evidence to show that economic and social conditions are connected to SRB across countries at the macro level. This calls for further research on the effects of societal conditions on general characteristics at birth.

  14. Psychosocial effects of stroke in low-income family context - doi: 10.5020/18061230.2010.p343

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Nilson Rodrigues de Menezes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To understand the psychosocial effects of stroke – cerebrovascular accident (CVA – in a low-income family context. Methods: A qualitative and descriptive research held in one of the units of Associação Beneficente Cearense de Reabilitação (ABCR in Fortaleza, Ceará, in the period from June to December, 2002. Six patients with sequel of CVA and their families joined in the study, regardless of age, with an average of six months of physiotherapy. For data collection we applied free observation and semi-structured interviews to patients and families, mediated by specific guiding questions for each group. From content analysis five categories emerged. Results: The difficulties of family life, the feelings of anguish and anxiety prevailed in the quest for rehabilitation, with the treatment being long, requiring determination and awareness of patient-family dyad. The fear of losing their jobs, the responsibility, the expenses and their family life were present in the discourse of patients and relatives, in addition to questions about the disease and concerns about recovery and / or healing. Final considerations: The stroke (CVA brings as psychological effects feelings of fear, anguish and limitation, contrasting with the determination of the quest for recovery. Socially, the unemployment, both physical and financial dependence and social isolation were highlighted.

  15. 78 FR 16871 - Workforce Investment Act of 1998 (WIA); Lower Living Standard Income Level (LLSIL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-19

    ..., urban and rural differences and family size) determined annually by the Secretary [of Labor] based on... higher level of the poverty line or 70 percent of the LLSIL. This issuance provides the Secretary's annual LLSIL for 2013 and references the current 2013 Health and Human Services ``Poverty Guidelines...

  16. Is the persistent gender gap in income and wages due to unequal family responsibilities?

    OpenAIRE

    Angelov, Nikolay; Johansson, Per; Lindahl, Erica

    2013-01-01

    We compare the income and wage trajectories of women in relation to their male partners before and after parenthood. Focusing on the within-couple gap allows us to control for both observed and unobserved attributes of the spouse and to estimate both short- and long-term effects of entering parenthood. Our main finding is that 15 years after the first child was born, the male-female gender gaps in income and wages have increased with 35 and 10 percentage points, respectively. In line with a c...

  17. Food insecurity, overweight and obesity among low-income African-American families in Baltimore City: associations with food-related perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedovato, Gabriela M; Surkan, Pamela J; Jones-Smith, Jessica; Steeves, Elizabeth Anderson; Han, Eunkyung; Trude, Angela Cb; Kharmats, Anna Y; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2016-06-01

    To examine associations between food insecurity, excess body weight, psychosocial factors and food behaviours among low-income African-American families. Cross-sectional survey of participants in the baseline evaluation of the B'More Healthy Communities for Kids (BHCK) obesity prevention trial. We collected data on socio-economic factors, food source destinations, acquiring food, preparation methods, psychosocial factors, beliefs and attitudes, participation in food assistance programmes, anthropometry and food security. We used principal component analysis to identify patterns of food source destinations and logistic regression to examine associations. Fourteen low-income, predominantly African-American neighbourhoods in Baltimore City, MD, USA. Two hundred and ninety-eight adult caregiver-child (10-14 years old) dyads. Of households, 41·6 % had some level of food insecurity and 12·4 % experienced some level of hunger. Food-insecure participants with hunger were significantly more likely to be unemployed and to have lower incomes. We found high rates of excess body weight (overweight and obesity) among adults and children (82·8 % and 37·9 % among food insecure without hunger, 89·2 % and 45·9 % among food insecure with hunger, respectively), although there were no significant differences by food security status. Food source usage patterns, food acquisition, preparation, knowledge, self-efficacy and intentions did not differ by food security. Food security was associated with perceptions that healthy foods are affordable and convenient. Greater caregiver body satisfaction was associated with food insecurity and excess body weight. In this setting, obesity and food insecurity are major problems. For many food-insecure families, perceptions of healthy foods may serve as additional barriers to their purchase and consumption.

  18. Food insecurity, overweight and obesity among low-income African-American families in Baltimore City: Associations with food-related perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedovato, Gabriela M.; Surkan, Pamela J.; Jones-Smith, Jessica; Steeves, Elizabeth Anderson; Han, Eunkyung; Trude, Angela C.B.; Kharmats, Anna Y.; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine associations between food insecurity, excess body weight, psychosocial factors and food behaviors among low-income African-American (AA) families. Design Cross-sectional survey of participants in the baseline evaluation of the B’More Healthy Communities for Kids (BHCK) obesity prevention trial. We collected data on socioeconomic factors, food source destinations, acquiring food, preparation methods, psychosocial factors, beliefs and attitudes, participation in food assistance programs, anthropometry and food security. We used principal component analysis to identify patterns of food source destinations and logistic regression to examine associations. Setting Fourteen low-income, predominantly AA neighborhoods in Baltimore City. Subjects 298 adult caregiver-child (10–14 years old) dyads. Results 41.6% of households had some level of food insecurity, and 12.4% experienced some level of hunger. Food insecure participants with hunger were significantly more likely to be unemployed and to have lower incomes. We found high rates of excess body weight (overweight and obese) among adults and children (82.8% and 37.9% food insecure without hunger; 89.2% and 45.9% with hunger, respectively), although there were no significant differences by security status. Food source usage patterns, food acquisition, preparation, knowledge, self-efficacy and intentions did not differ by food security. Food security was associated with perceptions that healthy foods are affordable and convenient. Greater caregiver body satisfaction was associated with food insecurity and excess body weight. Conclusions In this setting, obesity and food insecurity are major problems. For many food insecure families, perceptions of healthy foods may serve as additional barriers to their purchase and consumption. PMID:26441159

  19. Food preparation supplies predict children's family meal and home-prepared dinner consumption in low-income households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelhans, Bradley M; Waring, Molly E; Schneider, Kristin L; Pagoto, Sherry L

    2014-05-01

    Frequent family meals and home food preparation are considered important for children's nutritional health and weight maintenance. This cross-sectional study tested whether these parent-driven behaviors are related to the availability of food preparation supplies in low-income urban households. Caregivers of children ages 6-13 provided information on family meal frequency, child consumption of home-prepared dinners, household food insecurity, and attitudes towards cooking. Researchers used a newly developed Food Preparation Checklist (FPC) to assess the availability of 41 food preparation supplies during a physical audit of the home environment. Caregivers and children provided anthropometric measurements and jointly reported on child dietary intake. In ordinal logistic regression models, greater home availability of food preparation supplies was associated with more frequent family meals and child consumption of home-prepared dinners. Associations were independent of household financial strain, food insecurity, caregiver attitudes toward cooking, and sociodemographic characteristics. Fewer food preparation supplies were available in households characterized by greater food insecurity, lower income, and negative caregiver attitudes towards cooking, but did not differ by child or caregiver weight status. As in prior studies, more frequent family meals and consumption of home-prepared dinners were associated with healthier child dietary intake in several areas. We conclude that food preparation supplies are often limited in the most socioeconomically disadvantaged households, and their availability is related to the frequency with which children consume family meals and home-prepared dinners. The potential role of food preparation supplies as contributors to socioeconomic disparities in child nutritional health and obesity deserves further study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessing the Productive Vocabulary of Spanish-English Bilingual Toddlers from Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancilla-Martinez, Jeannette; Pan, Barbara Alexander; Vagh, Shaher Banu

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the utility and validity of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (CDI) for use with low-income parents and their 24- to 36-month-old Spanish-English bilingual children (n = 79). Issues in the interpretation of the integrated CDI/Inventarios del Desarrollo de Habilidades Comunicativas (IDHC) score to index…

  1. Who, What, Where: an analysis of private sector family planning provision in 57 low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Oona M R; Benova, Lenka; Macleod, David; Goodman, Catherine; Footman, Katharine; Pereira, Audrey L; Lynch, Caroline A

    2015-12-01

    Family planning service delivery has been neglected; rigorous analyses of the patterns of contraceptive provision are needed to inform strategies to address this neglect. We used 57 nationally representative Demographic and Health Surveys in low- and middle-income countries (2000-2013) in four geographic regions to estimate need for contraceptive services, and examined the sector of provision, by women's socio-economic position. We also assessed method mix and whether women were informed of side effects. Modern contraceptive use among women in need was lowest in sub-Saharan Africa (39%), with other regions ranging from 64% to 72%. The private sector share of the family planning market was 37-39% of users across the regions and 37% overall (median across countries: 41%). Private sector users accessed medical providers (range across regions: 30-60%, overall mean: 54% and median across countries 23%), specialised drug sellers (range across regions: 31-52%, overall mean: 36% and median across countries: 43%) and retailers (range across regions: 3-14%, overall mean: 6% and median across countries: 6%). Private retailers played a more important role in sub-Saharan Africa (14%) than in other regions (3-5%). NGOs and FBOs served a small percentage. Privileged women (richest wealth quintile, urban residents or secondary-/tertiary-level education) used private sector services more than the less privileged. Contraceptive method types with higher requirements (medical skills) for provision were less likely to be acquired from the private sector, while short-acting methods/injectables were more likely. The percentages of women informed of side effects varied by method and provider subtype, but within subtypes were higher among public than private medical providers for four of five methods assessed. Given the importance of private sector providers, we need to understand why women choose their services, what quality services the private sector provides, and how it can be improved

  2. Providing general and preconception health care to low income women in family planning settings: perception of providers and clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronstein, Janet M; Felix, Holly C; Bursac, Zoran; Stewart, M Kathryn; Foushee, H Russell; Klapow, Joshua

    2012-02-01

    This study examines both provider and client perceptions of the extent to which general health concerns are addressed in the context of publicly supported family planning care. A mail survey of family planning providers (n = 459) accepting Medicaid-covered clients in Arkansas and Alabama gathered data on reported actions and resource referral availability for ten categories of non-contraceptive health concerns. A telephone survey of recent family planning clients of these providers (n = 1991) gathered data on the presence of 16 health concerns and whether and how they were addressed by the family planning provider. Data were collected in 2006-2007. More than half (56%) of clients reported having one or more general health concerns. While 43% of those concerns had been discussed with the family planning providers, only 8% had been originally identified by these providers. Women with higher trust in physicians and usual sources of general health care were more likely to discuss their concerns. Of those concerns discussed, 39% were reportedly treated by the family planning provider. Similarly, over half of responding providers reported providing treatment for acute and chronic health conditions and counseling on health behaviors during family planning visits. Lack of familiarity with referral resources for uninsured clients was identified as a significant concern in the provision of care to these clients. Greater engagement by providers in identifying client health concerns and better integration of publicly supported family planning with other sources of health care for low income women could expand the existing potential for delivering preconception or general health care in these settings.

  3. Parental emotional competence and parenting in low-income families with adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliewer, Wendy; Borre, Alicia; Wright, Anna W; Jäggi, Lena; Drazdowski, Tess; Zaharakis, Nikola

    2016-02-01

    Ample research has demonstrated that alexithymia, which is characterized by difficulty processing emotions, is associated with disruptions in parenting infants and toddlers. Individuals suffering from alexithymia have among other negative outcomes difficulty building and maintaining interpersonal relationships. Research on emotional expression and recognition has documented the importance of these competencies for the quality of the parent-child relationship and for skills critical for parents of adolescents, such as effective monitoring. However, literature linking parental alexithymia to parenting behaviors and related constructs during adolescents is lacking. The present study closes this gap by examining how mothers' (M age = 39.42 years, SD = 7.62; Range = 23-67) alexithymia affects parent-reported behaviors of solicitation and control, as well as youths' (53.6% female; M age = 12.13 years, SD = 1.62; Range = 9-16) reported disclosure and felt acceptance by their mothers among a sample of 358 primarily urban, African American families. Structural equation models (SEM) revealed that mothers' alexithymia was prospectively related to less parental solicitation 2 years later for both males and females, and to lower levels of felt acceptance for males. Multiple group analyses revealed that these models fits equally well for younger and older youth. Contrary to hypotheses, alexithymia was not related to control or to disclosure. Taken together, these findings indicate that parents' difficulty in processing emotions contributes to parenting beyond early childhood. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. A Test of the Family Stress Model on Toddler-Aged Children's Adjustment among Hurricane Katrina Impacted and Nonimpacted Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaramella, Laura V.; Sohr-Preston, Sara L.; Callahan, Kristin L.; Mirabile, Scott P.

    2008-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina dramatically altered the level of social and environmental stressors for the residents of the New Orleans area. The Family Stress Model describes a process whereby felt financial strain undermines parents' mental health, the quality of family relationships, and child adjustment. Our study considered the extent to which the Family…

  5. Family Support Center Village: A Unique Approach for Low-Income Single Women with Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graber, Helen V.; Wolfe, Jayne L.

    2004-01-01

    The Family Support Center, recognizing the need for single women with children to maintain stability, has developed a program referred to as the Family Support Center Village, which incorporates a service enriched co-housing model. The "Village" will be the catalyst for these mothers' self-sufficiency and will provide opportunities to develop…

  6. Exploring the Effects of Financial Aid on the Gap in Student Dropout Risks by Income Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rong; DesJardins, Stephen L.

    2008-01-01

    Using national survey data and discrete-time logit modeling, this research seeks to understand whether student aid mediates the relationship between parental income and student dropout behavior. Our analysis confirms that there is a gap in dropout rates for low-income students compared with their upper income peers, and suggests that some types of…

  7. Family income, parental education and internalizing and externalizing psychopathology among 2-3-year-old Chinese children: the mediator effect of parent-child conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao

    2014-02-01

    Using a sample of 156 Chinese children aged 2-3 years and their parents, this study examined the effects of socio-economic status, specifically family income and parental education, on the children's internalizing and externalizing psychopathology and whether these effects were mediated by mother-child and father-child conflict. Results indicated that family income, maternal education and paternal education all negatively predicted externalizing symptoms. Income also negatively predicted internalizing symptoms among boys but not girls. Maternal education negatively predicted internalizing symptoms among girls but not boys. The effects of income on psychopathology were fully mediated by mother-child and father-child conflict. In contrast, the effects of education were not mediated or only partially mediated by conflict. Findings are discussed in the framework of the family stress model. © 2013 International Union of Psychological Science.

  8. Family Cohesion and Level of Communication Between Parents and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the level of communication between parents and their adolescent children and how such communication affects family cohesion. A sample of 200 subjects made up of adolescents and parents were selected through cluster, stratified and random sampling techniques from ten Local Government Areas ...

  9. CHILDHOOD DEPRESSION. Exploring the association between family violence and other psychosocial factors in low-income Brazilian schoolchildren

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Childhood depression affects the morbidity, mortality and life functions of children. Individual, family and environmental factors have been documented as psychosocial risk factors for childhood depression, especially family violence, which results in inadequate support, low family cohesion and poor communication. This study investigates the association between psychosocial depression factors in low-income schoolchildren and reveals the potential trouble spots, highlighting several forms of violence that take place within the family context. Methods The study was based on a cross-sectional analysis of 464 schoolchildren aged between 6 and 10, selected by random sampling from a city in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Socio-economic, family and individual variables were investigated on the strength of the caregivers’ information and organized in blocks for analysis. A binary logistic regression model was applied, according to hierarchical blocks. Results The final hierarchical regression analysis showed that the following variables are potential psychosocial factors associated with depression in childhood: average/poor relationship with the father (OR 3.24, 95% CI 1.32-7.94), high frequency of victimization by psychological violence (humiliation) (OR 6.13, 95% CI 2.06-18.31), parental divorce (OR 2.89, 95% CI 1.14-7.32) and externalizing behavior problems (OR 3.53 IC 1.51-8.23). Conclusions The results point to multiple determinants of depressive behavior in children, as well as the potential contribution of psychological family violence. The study also reveals potential key targets for early intervention, especially for children from highly vulnerable families. PMID:22776354

  10. CHILDHOOD DEPRESSION. Exploring the association between family violence and other psychosocial factors in low-income Brazilian schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avanci Joviana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood depression affects the morbidity, mortality and life functions of children. Individual, family and environmental factors have been documented as psychosocial risk factors for childhood depression, especially family violence, which results in inadequate support, low family cohesion and poor communication. This study investigates the association between psychosocial depression factors in low-income schoolchildren and reveals the potential trouble spots, highlighting several forms of violence that take place within the family context. Methods The study was based on a cross-sectional analysis of 464 schoolchildren aged between 6 and 10, selected by random sampling from a city in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Socio-economic, family and individual variables were investigated on the strength of the caregivers’ information and organized in blocks for analysis. A binary logistic regression model was applied, according to hierarchical blocks. Results The final hierarchical regression analysis showed that the following variables are potential psychosocial factors associated with depression in childhood: average/poor relationship with the father (OR 3.24, 95% CI 1.32-7.94, high frequency of victimization by psychological violence (humiliation (OR 6.13, 95% CI 2.06-18.31, parental divorce (OR 2.89, 95% CI 1.14-7.32 and externalizing behavior problems (OR 3.53 IC 1.51-8.23. Conclusions The results point to multiple determinants of depressive behavior in children, as well as the potential contribution of psychological family violence. The study also reveals potential key targets for early intervention, especially for children from highly vulnerable families.

  11. Community-Level Income Inequality and HIV Prevalence among Persons Who Inject Drugs in Thai Nguyen, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Travis W.; Frangakis, Constantine; Latkin, Carl; Ha, Tran Viet; Minh, Nguyen Le; Zelaya, Carla; Quan, Vu Minh; Go, Vivian F.

    2014-01-01

    Socioeconomic status has a robust positive relationship with several health outcomes at the individual and population levels, but in the case of HIV prevalence, income inequality may be a better predictor than absolute level of income. Most studies showing a relationship between income inequality and HIV have used entire countries as the unit of analysis. In this study, we examine the association between income inequality at the community level and HIV prevalence in a sample of persons who inject drugs (PWID) in a concentrated epidemic setting. We recruited PWID and non-PWID community participants in Thai Nguyen, Vietnam, and administered a cross-sectional questionnaire; PWID were tested for HIV. We used ecologic regression to model HIV burden in our PWID study population on GINI indices of inequality calculated from total reported incomes of non-PWID community members in each commune. We also modeled HIV burden on interaction terms between GINI index and median commune income, and finally used a multi-level model to control for community level inequality and individual level income. HIV burden among PWID was significantly correlated with the commune GINI coefficient (r = 0.53, p = 0.002). HIV burden was also associated with GINI coefficient (β = 0.082, p = 0.008) and with median commune income (β = −0.018, p = 0.023) in ecological regression. In the multi-level model, higher GINI coefficient at the community level was associated with higher odds of individual HIV infection in PWID (OR = 1.46 per 0.01, p = 0.003) while higher personal income was associated with reduced odds of infection (OR = 0.98 per $10, p = 0.022). This study demonstrates a context where income inequality is associated with HIV prevalence at the community level in a concentrated epidemic. It further suggests that community level socioeconomic factors, both contextual and compositional, could be indirect determinants of HIV infection in PWID. PMID

  12. Study of the relationship between the development level and degree of income inequality in the Russian regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Yuryevna Malkina

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this article is the types of relationship between economic development and degree of income inequality in the regions of the Russian Federation. Research methods: testing the modified Kuznets hypothesis; relative deflating of regional parameters; calculating the differentiation and localization coefficients; constructing the Lorentz curves; correlation and regression analysis. Obtained results: 1 for Russian regions author discovered significant direct statistical relationship between the Gini and funds coefficients and the level of real per capita income with increasing returns, as well as less strong direct relationship between coefficients of differentiation mentioned above and the real GDP per capita with diminishing returns; 2 the “social wellbeing” coefficient is proposed and calculated for the regions, which based on localization index of real per capita income relative to the differentiation coefficient, and 3 the degree of interregional disparities in the Russian Federation is evaluated on the basis of the Gini coefficient, coefficient of variation and relative entropy for the nominal and real income and GRP per capita, and Lorenz curves for them are constructed. In this paper, author concluded: 1 presently the level of economic development of the Russian Federation regions negatively affects their income equality due to most of them are on the ascending branch of the S. Kuznets curve, 2 “social welfare” coefficient changes the positions of the middle-income regions more, than that of other regions, and 3 two factors have a positive impact on reducing the regional disparities: more ratio of total personal income to GRP in poor regions relative to rich ones (i.e. greater “social orientation” of poor regions, and positive correlation between income and the cost of living in the regions. The obtained results can be used by researchers in further testing the modified Kuznets hypothesis, as well as by local

  13. Risk of poor development in young children in low-income and middle-income countries: an estimation and analysis at the global, regional, and country level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chunling; Black, Maureen M; Richter, Linda M

    2018-01-01

    Summary Background A 2007 study published in The Lancet estimated that approximately 219 million children aged younger than 5 years were exposed to stunting or extreme poverty in 2004. We updated the 2004 estimates with the use of improved data and methods and generated estimates for 2010. Methods We used country-level prevalence of stunting in children younger than 5 years based on the 2006 Growth Standards proposed by WHO and poverty ratios from the World Bank to estimate children who were either stunted or lived in extreme poverty for 141 low-income and middle-income countries in 2004 and 2010. To avoid counting the same children twice, we excluded children jointly exposed to stunting and extreme poverty from children living in extreme poverty. To examine the robustness of estimates, we also used moderate poverty measures. Findings The 2007 study underestimated children at risk of poor development. The estimated number of children exposed to the two risk factors in low-income and middle-income countries decreased from 279·1 million (95% CI 250·4 million–307·4 million) in 2004 to 249·4 million (209·3 million–292·6 million) in 2010; prevalence of children at risk fell from 51% (95% CI 46–56) to 43% (36–51). The decline occurred in all income groups and regions with south Asia experiencing the largest drop. Sub-Saharan Africa had the highest prevalence in both years. These findings were robust to variations in poverty measures. Interpretation Progress has been made in reducing the number of children exposed to stunting or poverty between 2004 and 2010, but this is still not enough. Scaling up of effective interventions targeting the most vulnerable children is urgently needed. Funding National Institutes of Health, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Hilton Foundation, and WHO. PMID:27717632

  14. State-level public policy as a predictor of individual and family well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, S L

    1987-01-01

    This exploratory study examines the relationship between state-level public policy and individual and family well-being and factors that affect it. The inquiry, based on exchange and choice theories, assumes that state-level public policy reflects states' awareness of the needs of individuals and families, their ability to predict the future in failing to meet them, and the extent to which the norm of reciprocity prevails in the 50 states. Measures of states' collective choices were states' per capita expenditures for public welfare, education, and health, and per capita taxes in 1980; measures of states' individual and well- or ill-being, or social malaise, were states' teenage birthrates, infant death rates, and suicide rates. Taken into account as antecedent and intervening variables were age, gender, and racial composition, income distribution, marital, socioeconomic, and employment status of states' populations, and attitudes toward public spending. The findings show that higher state expenditures for public welfare and for education indeed contribute to individual and family well-being as measured by lower state rates of suicide and teenage births. States per capita spending for education, which together with state per capita spending for public welfare was a positive predictor of school completion rates and positively associated with states' income level, accounted for almost all of the variance in states' per capita taxes. State spending for public welfare was not a predictor of state per capita taxes. These findings are cause for considerable concern given the reduced role of the federal government in human affairs, particularly in states whose choices violate the assumptions underlying exchange and choice theories and the norm of reciprocity which says that people should help, not hurt, others.

  15. Social Support May Buffer the Effect of Intrafamilial Stressors on Preschool Children's Television Viewing Time in Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurkowski, Janine M.; Davison, Kirsten K.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background: Excessive television (TV) viewing in preschool children has been linked to negative outcomes during childhood, including childhood obesity. In a sample of low-income families, this study examined associations between intrafamilial factors and preschool children's TV-viewing time and the moderating effect of social support from nonfamily members on this association. Methods: In 2010, 129 mothers/female guardians of 2- to 5-year-old children enrolled at five Head Start centers in Rensselaer County, New York, completed a self-report survey. The survey assessed child TV-viewing time (including TV, DVDs, and videos) and intrafamilial risk factors, including maternal perceived stress, depressive symptoms, TV viewing, leisure-time physical activity (inactivity), and family functioning. Social support from nonfamily members (nonfamily social support) was also measured and examined as an effect modifier. Results: Children watched TV an average of 160 minutes per day. Moderate depressive symptoms (Personal Health Questionnaire depression scale scores ≥10), higher perceived stress, poorer family functioning, and higher maternal TV-viewing were significantly and independently associated with greater minutes of child TV viewing, controlling for covariates. In all instances, nonfamily social support moderated these associations, such that negative experiences within the family environment were linked with higher child TV-viewing time under conditions of low nonfamily social support, but not high nonfamily support. Conclusions: Social support from nonfamily members may buffer potentially negative effects of intrafamilial factors on preschool children's TV-viewing time. PMID:24168754

  16. Social support may buffer the effect of intrafamilial stressors on preschool children's television viewing time in low-income families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kaigang; Jurkowski, Janine M; Davison, Kirsten K

    2013-12-01

    Excessive television (TV) viewing in preschool children has been linked to negative outcomes during childhood, including childhood obesity. In a sample of low-income families, this study examined associations between intrafamilial factors and preschool children's TV-viewing time and the moderating effect of social support from nonfamily members on this association. In 2010, 129 mothers/female guardians of 2- to 5-year-old children enrolled at five Head Start centers in Rensselaer County, New York, completed a self-report survey. The survey assessed child TV-viewing time (including TV, DVDs, and videos) and intrafamilial risk factors, including maternal perceived stress, depressive symptoms, TV viewing, leisure-time physical activity (inactivity), and family functioning. Social support from nonfamily members (nonfamily social support) was also measured and examined as an effect modifier. Children watched TV an average of 160 minutes per day. Moderate depressive symptoms (Personal Health Questionnaire depression scale scores ≥10), higher perceived stress, poorer family functioning, and higher maternal TV-viewing were significantly and independently associated with greater minutes of child TV viewing, controlling for covariates. In all instances, nonfamily social support moderated these associations, such that negative experiences within the family environment were linked with higher child TV-viewing time under conditions of low nonfamily social support, but not high nonfamily support. Social support from nonfamily members may buffer potentially negative effects of intrafamilial factors on preschool children's TV-viewing time.

  17. Low-income families' perceptions on the use of drugs by one of their members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Mayra; Santos, Manoel Antonio Dos; Pillon, Sandra Cristina

    2008-01-01

    Families who are socially excluded are vulnerable to problems related to the use of psychoactive substances. This study aimed to identify the perception regarding drugs use among families that lived in extreme poverty and participated in a social-educational group in the suburbs of a city in the interior of São Paulo State. A survey-like quantitative study was conducted involving 70 members of families who participated in the social-educational groups of the Program for Integral Assistance to the Family. Results indicated that 67 (95.7%) of the subjects were married, at an average age of 37, most of them had not completed grade school, and were unemployed. Fifty five (78.6%) had a family member who used alcohol, fifty two (74,3%) smoked, and twenty three (32.9%) used some kind of illicit drug. The results also showed that living with a relative who was a drug user was perceived as problem that elicited feelings resentment, but also conformism on the part of other family members.

  18. The Question Of Balance Work - Family And Reconciliation Regime Work - Family At European Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Cimpeanu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Under the conditions of the continuous change of the work patterns and of the alert liferhythm, there is a real challenge to keep a favourable equilibrium between work and family life. Oneof the value orientations manifested on a major scale on the whole European continent, is the humanorientation able to give substance to the European social politics, oriented to permanent improvementof his life quality by the increasing of the life level, the improvement of the work conditions, the workflexibility support qt the European level, national and organizational by the elaboration etimplementation of the politics of the work conciliation with family, or of the family/friendly politics,in order to keep an optimal equilibrium between family life as well as in the professional one.According to the European Commission, the reconciliation politics represent key responses to thelong term economic and demographic challenges. A better family life reconciliation is supported bythe objectives of the European strategy for the economical growth and of the workforce occupationfamily life represents the building stone of the modern familypolitics

  19. Diet quality of Americans differs by age, sex, race/ethnicity, income, and education level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiza, Hazel A B; Casavale, Kellie O; Guenther, Patricia M; Davis, Carole A

    2013-02-01

    An index that assesses the multidimensional components of the diet across the lifecycle is useful in describing diet quality. The purpose of this study was to use the Healthy Eating Index-2005, a measure of diet quality in terms of conformance to the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, to describe the diet quality of Americans by varying sociodemographic characteristics in order to provide insight as to where diets need to improve. The Healthy Eating Index-2005 scores were estimated using 1 day of dietary intake data provided by participants in the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Mean daily intakes of foods and nutrients, expressed per 1,000 kilocalories, were estimated using the population ratio method and compared with standards that reflect the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Participants included 3,286 children (2 to 17 years), 3,690 young and middle-aged adults (18 to 64 years), and 1,296 older adults (65+ years). Results are reported as percentages of maximum scores and tested for significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) by age, sex, race/ethnicity, income, and education levels. Children and older adults had better-quality diets than younger and middle-aged adults; women had better-quality diets than men; Hispanics had better-quality diets than blacks and whites; and diet quality of adults, but not children, generally improved with income level, except for sodium. The diets of Americans, regardless of socioeconomic status, are far from optimal. Problematic dietary patterns were found among all sociodemographic groups. Major improvements in the nutritional health of the American public can be made by improving eating patterns. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Astronomy for Special Needs Children (Low-income and/or Serious Medical Conditions) and Their Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubowich, Donald

    2015-08-01

    I present the results of two NASA-IDEAS/STScI* sponsored and one IAU OAD grant for astronomy outreach programs for seriously ill or traumatically injured children and their families staying at the Ronald McDonald Houses of Long Island (New Hyde Park, NY) and Chicago or for children hospitalized at the Winthrop University Hospital Children’s Medical Center, (Mineola, NY). An astronomy program was also created for the five Fresh Air Fund Charity summer camps (low-income and special needs) and for a Hofstra summer camp for developmentally challenged youths.These programs are designed for children of all ages include” STSCi’s “Tonight’s Sky” (monthly guide to the sky); telescope observations of the Moon, Sun, planets, nebulae, and stars; and hands-on activities. During cloudy weather remote/robotic telescope observations are shown to the children.The staff and volunteers at the Ronald McDonald House and Children’s Medical Center are trained to use the telescope and to do astronony demonstrations. I created an Activity Book for the staff with demonstrations, participatory hands-on activities, and edible demonstrations using chocolate, marshmallows, and popcorn are to stimulate interest.These educational activities help children and their families learn about astronomy while providing a diversion to take their minds off their illness during a stressful time. The RMHs provide free or low-cost housing in a comfortable, supportive alternative atmosphere where family members sleep, eat, relax and find support from other families in similar situations. Families are kept united when mutual support is as critical as the medical treatment itself. The ill children and their families may stay for a few days or months because of chemotherapy, dialysis, or rehabilitative therapy. Children from 50 states and 50 countries stay the Chicago RMHs and there are 260 RMHs in the US and 65 worldwide.

  1. Poverty and involuntary engagement stress responses: examining the link to anxiety and aggression within low-income families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Brian C; Santiago, Catherine DeCarlo; Wadsworth, Martha E

    2009-05-01

    Families living with the burdens of poverty-related stress are at risk for developing a range of psychopathology. The present study examines the year-long prospective relationships among poverty-related stress, involuntary engagement stress response (IESR) levels, and anxiety symptoms and aggression in an ethnically diverse sample of 98 families (300 individual family members) living at or below 150% of the US federal poverty line. Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) moderator model analyses provided strong evidence that IESR levels moderated the influence of poverty-related stress on anxiety symptoms and provided mixed evidence for the same interaction effect on aggression. Higher IESR levels, a proxy for physiological stress reactivity, worsened the impact of stress on symptoms. Understanding how poverty-related stress and involuntary stress responses affect psychological functioning has implications for efforts to prevent or reduce psychopathology, particularly anxiety, among individuals and families living in poverty.

  2. Academic success across the transition from primary to secondary schooling among lower-income adolescents: understanding the effects of family resources and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serbin, Lisa A; Stack, Dale M; Kingdon, Danielle

    2013-09-01

    Successful academic performance during adolescence is a key predictor of lifetime achievement, including occupational and social success. The present study investigated the important transition from primary to secondary schooling during early adolescence, when academic performance among youth often declines. The goal of the study was to understand how risk factors, specifically lower family resources and male gender, threaten academic success following this "critical transition" in schooling. The study involved a longitudinal examination of the predictors of academic performance in grades 7-8 among 127 (56 % girls) French-speaking Quebec (Canada) adolescents from lower-income backgrounds. As hypothesized based on transition theory, hierarchical regression analyses showed that supportive parenting and specific academic, social and behavioral competencies (including spelling ability, social skills, and lower levels of attention problems) predicted success across this transition among at-risk youth. Multiple-mediation procedures demonstrated that the set of compensatory factors fully mediated the negative impact of lower family resources on academic success in grades 7-8. Unique mediators (social skills, spelling ability, supportive parenting) also were identified. In addition, the "gender gap" in performance across the transition could be attributed statistically to differences between boys and girls in specific competencies observed prior to the transition, as well as differential parenting (i.e., support from mother) towards girls and boys. The present results contribute to our understanding of the processes by which established risk factors, such as low family income and gender impact development and academic performance during early adolescence. These "transitional" processes and subsequent academic performance may have consequences across adolescence and beyond, with an impact on lifetime patterns of achievement and occupational success.

  3. Association of Demanding Kin Relations With Psychological Distress and School Achievement Among Low-Income, African American Mothers and Adolescents: Moderating Effects of Family Routine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ronald D

    2016-12-01

    Association of demanding kin relations and family routine with adolescents' psychological distress and school achievement was assessed among 200 low-income, African American mothers and adolescents. Demanding kin relations were significantly associated with adolescents' psychological distress. Family routine was significantly related to adolescents' school achievement. Demanding kin relations were negatively associated with school achievement for adolescents from families low in routine, but unrelated to achievement for adolescents in families high in routine. Additional research is needed on poor families and their social networks. © 2015 The Author. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2015 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  4. Urban Income Inequality and the Great Recession in Sunbelt Form: Disentangling Individual and Neighborhood-Level Change in Los Angeles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Sampson

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available New social transformations within and beyond the cities of classic urban studies challenge prevailing accounts of spatial inequality. This paper pivots from the Rust Belt to the Sunbelt accordingly, disentangling persistence and change in neighborhood median income and concentrated income extremes in Los Angeles County. We first examine patterns of change over two decades starting in 1990 for all Los Angeles neighborhoods. We then analyze an original longitudinal study of approximately six hundred Angelenos from 2000 to 2013, assessing the degree to which contextual changes in neighborhood income arise from neighborhood-level mobility or individual residential mobility. Overall we find deep and persistent inequality among both neighborhoods and individuals. Contrary to prior research, we also find that residential mobility does not materially alter neighborhood economic conditions for most race, ethnic, and income groups. Our analyses lay the groundwork for a multilevel theoretical framework capable of explaining spatial inequality across cities and historical eras.

  5. Effects of Early and Recent Maternal Employment on Children from Low-Income Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandell, Deborah Lowe; Ramanan, Janaki

    1992-01-01

    Early (during the child's first three years) and recent (during the previous three years) maternal employment were associated with less family poverty and higher scores on measures of home environment. Early maternal employment predicted second grade children's math achievement, and recent maternal employment predicted their reading achievement.…

  6. Strengthening Low-Income Families: A Research Agenda for Parenting, Relationship, and Fatherhood Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    MDRC, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Policymakers need to decide how to invest in strengthening the most basic foundation for early childhood development: family relationships. The challenges: (1) help parents provide the responsive and stimulating environments that will prepare young children for school; and (2) support fathers' engagement with their children regardless of whether…

  7. Education Tax Credits: Refundability Critical to Making Credits Helpful to Low-Income Students and Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Katherine; Lower-Basch, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Half of all non-loan federal student aid is now offered as tax benefits for educational costs in the form of credits, deductions, and college savings accounts. These benefits help students and families offset the costs of their postsecondary education with tax savings. Yet, as explained in the 2013 report, "Reforming Student Aid: How to…

  8. Perspective of patients, patients' families, and healthcare providers towards designing and delivering hospice care services in a middle income Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azami-Aghdash, Saber; Ghojazadeh, Morteza; Aghaei, Mir Hossein; Naghavi-Behzad, Mohammad; Asgarlo, Zoleikha

    2015-01-01

    In view of the recent surge in chronic disease rates and elderly population in the developing countries, there is an urgent felt need for palliative and hospice care services. The present study investigates the views and attitudes of patients and their families, physicians, nurses, healthcare administrators, and insurers regarding designing and delivering hospice care service in a middle income country. In this qualitative study, the required data was collected using semi structured interviews and was analyzed using thematic analysis. Totally 65 participants from hospitals and Tabriz University of Medical Sciences were selected purposively to achieve data saturation. Analyzing the data, five main themes (barriers, facilitators, strategies, attitudes, and service provider) were extracted. Barriers included financial issues, cultural-religious beliefs, patient and family-related obstacles, and barriers related to healthcare system. Facilitators included family-related issues, cultural-religious beliefs, as well as facilitators associated with patients, healthcare status, and benefits of hospice service. Most participants (79%) had positive attitude towards hospice care service. Participant suggested 10 ways to design and deliver effective and efficient hospice care service. They thought the presence of physicians, nurses, and psychologists and other specialists and clergy were necessary in the hospice care team. Due to lack of experience in hospice care in developing countries, research for identifying probable barriers and appropriate management for reducing unsuccessfulness in designing and delivering hospice care service seems necessary. Input from the facilitators and their suggested solutions can be useful in planning the policy for hospice care system.

  9. Washington State recreational marijuana legalization: parent and adolescent perceptions, knowledge, and discussions in a sample of low-income families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, W A; Hanson, Koren; Fleming, Charles B; Ringle, Jay L; Haggerty, Kevin P

    2015-04-01

    In November 2012, Washington State and Colorado became the first states in the United States to legalize recreational marijuana use for adults, and Uruguay became the first country to allow the cultivation, distribution, possession, and use of marijuana. One possible consequence of these changes is increased adolescent marijuana use. Parents may mitigate this adverse consequence; however, whether parents and adolescents have accurate knowledge about the laws and are discussing marijuana use in light of the law changes is unknown. We examine perceptions, knowledge, and parent-child discussions about Washington State's recreational marijuana law in a sample of low-income families. Participants were a subset of families (n = 115) in an ongoing study that originally recruited parents and adolescents from middle schools in Tacoma, Washington. In summer 2013, when students were entering the 11(th) grade, students and their parents were asked questions about the recreational marijuana law. Participants perceived that their marijuana-related attitudes and behaviors changed little as a result of the law, and displayed uncertainty about what is legal and illegal. Most parents reported discussing the new law with their children but only occasionally, and conversations emphasized household rules, particularly among parent lifetime marijuana users compared to non-users. Conclusions/Importance: Results suggest that there should be a public health campaign focused on families that provides clear information about the recreational marijuana laws.

  10. Impact of growing income inequality on sustainable development in China: a provincial-level analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerink, N.B.M.; Ma, J.

    2006-01-01

    A growing body of literature has documented the rapidly increasing income disparities that accompanied China's economic growth in the 1980s and 1990s, and the driving factors behind this. Growing income inequality in its turn may have important implications for the accumulation of physical capital,

  11. Poverty Levels and Debt Indicators among Low-Income Households before and after the Great Recession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung Tae; Wilmarth, Melissa J.; Henager, Robin

    2017-01-01

    This study analyzed the debt profile of low-income households before and after the Great Recession using the 2007, 2010, and 2013 Survey of Consumer Finances (SCF). We used Heckman selection models to investigate three debt characteristics: (a) the amount of debt, (b) debt-to-income ratio, and (c) debt delinquency. Before and after the Great…

  12. Food subsidy programs and the health and nutritional status of disadvantaged families in high income countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Andrew P; Brimblecombe, Julie; Eyles, Helen; Morris, Peter; Vally, Hassan; O Dea, Kerin

    2012-12-21

    Less healthy diets are common in high income countries, although proportionally higher in those of low socio-economic status. Food subsidy programs are one strategy to promote healthy nutrition and to reduce socio-economic inequalities in health. This review summarises the evidence for the health and nutritional impacts of food subsidy programs among disadvantaged families from high income countries. Relevant studies reporting dietary intake or health outcomes were identified through systematic searching of electronic databases. Cochrane Public Health Group guidelines informed study selection and interpretation. A narrative synthesis was undertaken due to the limited number of studies and heterogeneity of study design and outcomes. Fourteen studies were included, with most reporting on the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children in the USA. Food subsidy program participants, mostly pregnant or postnatal women, were shown to have 10-20% increased intake of targeted foods or nutrients. Evidence for the effectiveness of these programs for men or children was lacking. The main health outcome observed was a small but clinically relevant increase in mean birthweight (23-29g) in the two higher quality WIC studies. Limited high quality evidence of the impacts of food subsidy programs on the health and nutrition of adults and children in high income countries was identified. The improved intake of targeted nutrients and foods, such as fruit and vegetables, could potentially reduce the rate of non-communicable diseases in adults, if the changes in diet are sustained. Associated improvements in perinatal outcomes were limited and most evident in women who smoked during pregnancy. Thus, food subsidy programs for pregnant women and children should aim to focus on improving nutritional status in the longer term. Further prospective studies and economic analyses are needed to confirm the health benefits and justify the investment in food subsidy

  13. Mothers’ and Fathers’ Sensitivity and Children's Cognitive Development in Low-Income, Rural Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Willoughby, Michael T.; Zvara, Bharathi; Barnett, Melissa; Gustafsson, Hanna; Cox, Martha J

    2015-01-01

    This study examines associations between maternal and paternal sensitive parenting and child cognitive development across the first 3 years of life using longitudinal data from 630 families with co-residing biological mothers and fathers. Sensitive parenting was measured by observational coding of parent-child interactions and child cognitive development was assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development and the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scales of Intelligence. There were multiple direct and indirect associations between parenting and cognitive development across mothers and fathers, suggesting primary effects, carry-forward effects, spillover effects across parents, and transactional effects across parents and children. Associations between parenting and cognitive development were statistically consistent across mothers and fathers, and the cumulative effects of early parenting on later cognitive development were comparable to the effects of later parenting on later cognitive development. As interpreted through a family systems framework, findings suggest additive and interdependent effects across parents and children. PMID:25954057

  14. Obesity Risk in Children: The Role of Acculturation in the Feeding Practices and Styles of Low-Income Hispanic Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Thomas G; O'Connor, Teresia M; Orlet Fisher, Jennifer; Hughes, Sheryl O

    2015-12-01

    Parent feeding has been associated with child overweight/obesity in low-income families. Because acculturation to the United States has been associated with increased adult obesity, our study aim was to determine whether acculturation was associated with feeding in these populations. Low-income Hispanic mothers of preschoolers were recruited to participate in a longitudinal study examining child eating behaviors. At baseline, mothers completed questionnaires on feeding styles, feeding practices, and acculturation. Regression analyses compared feeding styles and food parenting practices of first-generation, immigrant mothers born outside the United States (n = 138) and mothers born in the United States (n = 31). The correlates of acculturation with these same constructs were also examined. Immigrant mothers reported using highly directive food parenting practices more often than mothers born in the United States, including pressuring their child to consume more food, using food as a reward, and controlling child food intake by limiting less-healthy foods. First-generation mothers were more likely to show authoritarian, and less likely to show indulgent, feeding styles. Greater maternal acculturation was associated with less restriction of food for weight reasons. Although first-generation, immigrant mothers reported using highly controlling food parenting practices with their children, those born in the United States were more indulgent with their children in the feeding context. Mechanisms that promote greater indulgence in more-acculturated mothers need to be identified.

  15. 24 CFR 5.611 - Adjusted income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adjusted income. 5.611 Section 5... Serving Persons with Disabilities: Family Income and Family Payment; Occupancy Requirements for Section 8 Project-Based Assistance Family Income § 5.611 Adjusted income. Adjusted income means annual income (as...

  16. A meta-analysis of development aid allocation:  The effects of income level and population size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Martin

    The effect on aid allocation of the income level and population size in the recipient country is  analyzed. The data show that both variables have a significant and robust negative effect, but  they explain only a small part of the variation. The main thrust of the paper is a meta-analysis of the......The effect on aid allocation of the income level and population size in the recipient country is  analyzed. The data show that both variables have a significant and robust negative effect, but  they explain only a small part of the variation. The main thrust of the paper is a meta...

  17. US State-level income inequality and risks of heart attack and coronary risk behaviors: longitudinal findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabayo, Roman; Kawachi, Ichiro; Gilman, Stephen E

    2015-07-01

    To examine prospectively the association between US state income inequality and incidence of heart attack. We used data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (n = 34,445). Respondents completed interviews at baseline (2001-2002) and follow-up (2004-2005). Weighted multilevel modeling was used to determine if US state-level income inequality (measured by the Gini coefficient) at baseline was a predictor of heart attack during follow-up, controlling for individual-level and state-level covariates. In comparison to residents of US states in the lowest quartile of income inequality, those living in the second [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 1.71, 95 % CI 1.16-2.53)], third (AOR = 1.81, 95 % CI 1.28-2.57), and fourth (AOR = 2.04, 95 % CI 1.26-3.29) quartiles were more likely to have a heart attack. Similar findings were obtained when we excluded those who had a heart attack prior to baseline. This study is one of the first to empirically show the longitudinal relationship between income inequality and coronary heart disease. Living in a state with higher income inequality increases the risk for heart attack among US adults.

  18. Risk of poor development in young children in low-income and middle-income countries: an estimation and analysis at the global, regional, and country level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chunling; Black, Maureen M; Richter, Linda M

    2016-12-01

    A 2007 study published in The Lancet estimated that approximately 219 million children aged younger than 5 years were exposed to stunting or extreme poverty in 2004. We updated the 2004 estimates with the use of improved data and methods and generated estimates for 2010. We used country-level prevalence of stunting in children younger than 5 years based on the 2006 Growth Standards proposed by WHO and poverty ratios from the World Bank to estimate children who were either stunted or lived in extreme poverty for 141 low-income and middle-income countries in 2004 and 2010. To avoid counting the same children twice, we excluded children jointly exposed to stunting and extreme poverty from children living in extreme poverty. To examine the robustness of estimates, we also used moderate poverty measures. The 2007 study underestimated children at risk of poor development. The estimated number of children exposed to the two risk factors in low-income and middle-income countries decreased from 279·1 million (95% CI 250·4 million-307·4 million) in 2004 to 249·4 million (209·3 million-292·6 million) in 2010; prevalence of children at risk fell from 51% (95% CI 46-56) to 43% (36-51). The decline occurred in all income groups and regions with south Asia experiencing the largest drop. Sub-Saharan Africa had the highest prevalence in both years. These findings were robust to variations in poverty measures. Progress has been made in reducing the number of children exposed to stunting or poverty between 2004 and 2010, but this is still not enough. Scaling up of effective interventions targeting the most vulnerable children is urgently needed. National Institutes of Health, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Hilton Foundation, and WHO. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Early Language and Reading Development of Bilingual Preschoolers From Low-Income Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Carol Scheffner; Miccio, Adele W

    2006-01-01

    Learning to read is a complex process and a number of factors affect a child's success in beginning reading. This complexity increases when a child's home language differs from that of the school and when the child comes from a home with limited economic resources. This article discusses factors that have been shown to contribute to children's success in early reading, namely-phonological awareness, letter-word identification, oral language, and the home literacy environment. Preliminary evidence suggests that bilingual children from low-income backgrounds initially perform poorly on phonological awareness and letter identification tasks, but appear to acquire these abilities quickly in kindergarten once these abilities are emphasized in early reading instruction. In addition, the findings show that bilingual preschoolers' receptive language abilities in English and Spanish positively impact their early letter-word identification abilities at the end of kindergarten. A positive relationship between bilingual preschoolers' home literacy environment and early reading outcomes has not been found to date. Educational implications for serving young, bilingual children from programs such as Head Start are discussed.

  20. THE ZAKAH RECIPIENTS SATISFACTORY AMONG LOW LEVEL INCOME SOCIETY IN YOGYAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zein Muttaqin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Since its emergence in the last decade, zakah has become a new hope for the low-level income society to improve their opportunity to break through the poverty line. However, the potential of zakah to eradicate the poverty is yet to be achieved, it happens due to three reasons, they are (1 the proportion of zakah fund that has been distributed into the economy sectors has not become a major program; (2 the regulation regarding zakat still hanging; (3 the consumptive behavior still become the driving factors in the society. This paper is attempted to measure mustahiqs’ satisfaction over zakah distribution, which is affecting they opportunities to improve their living standard. By presenting the data in form of field research and using regression found that the service quality mentoring is influencing the satisfaction of mustahiqs. =========================================== Perkembangan zakat dalam dekade terakhir ini menjadikannya sebagai sebuah harapan baru bagi masyarakat berpendapatan rendah untuk meningkatkan kesempatannya untuk keluar dari garis kemiskinan. Namun, potensi zakat dalam mengurangi kemiskinan masih belum dapat dicapai, hal ini terjadi karena tiga alasan, (1 proporsi dana zakat yang didistribusikan kepada sektor- sektor ekonomi bukanlah menjadi program utama; (2 Aturan yang berkaitan dengan zakat masih belum berjalan dengan baik; (3 Perilaku konsumtif masih menjadi faktor yang berpengaruh di dalam masyarakat. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengukur kepuasan mustahiq melalui distribusi zakat yang dapat mempengaruhi kesempatan guna meningkatkan standar hidup mereka. Dengan memaparkan data dalam bentuk riset lapangan dan menggunakan regresi maka ditemukan bahwa kualitas pelayanan, mentoring dapat mempengaruhi kepuasan mustahiq.

  1. Long-term housing subsidies and SSI/SSDI income: Creating health-promoting contexts for families experiencing housing instability with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glendening, Zachary S; McCauley, Erin; Shinn, Marybeth; Brown, Scott R

    2018-04-01

    Though disability and housing instability are discussed separately in public health literature, few studies address families at their intersection. As a result, little is known about families who experience both homelessness and disability, how many receive disability benefits like SSI and SSDI, or the influence of those benefits on health-promoting outcomes like housing stability and self-sufficiency. Moreover, no previous research compares the ability of different housing and service interventions to increase disability benefit access. We examine relationships between disabilities and SSI/SSDI income reported when families enter emergency shelters and later health-promoting outcomes (housing stability and self-sufficiency) and how housing interventions affect SSI/SSDI receipt. Families in the (name removed) Study (N = 1857) were interviewed in emergency shelters, randomly offered of one of three housing interventions or usual care (i.e., no immediate referral to any intervention beyond shelter), and re-interviewed 20 months later. A third of families reported a disability at shelter entry. SSI/SSDI coverage of these families increased nearly 10% points over 20 months but never exceeded 40%. Disabilities predicted greater housing instability, food insecurity, and economic stress and less work and income. Among families reporting disabilities, SSI/SSDI receipt predicted fewer returns to emergency shelter, and more income despite less work. Offers of long-term housing subsidies increased SSI/SSDI receipt. Many families experiencing homelessness have disabilities; those receiving SSI/SSDI benefits have better housing and income outcomes. Providing families experiencing homelessness with long-term housing subsidies and SSI/SSDI could improve public health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Race-ethnic, family income, and education differentials in nutritional and lipid biomarkers in US children and adolescents: NHANES 2003-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Ashima K; Graubard, Barry I

    2012-09-01

    Children from ethnic minority and low-income families in the United States have higher rates of poor health and higher mortality rates. Diet, an acknowledged correlate of health, may mediate the known race-ethnic and socioeconomic differentials in the health of US children. The objective was to examine the independent association of race-ethnicity, family income, and education with nutritional and lipid biomarkers in US children. We used data from the NHANES 2003-2006 to examine serum concentrations of vitamins A, D, E, C, B-6, and B-12; serum concentrations of folate, carotenoids, and lipids; and dietary intakes of corresponding nutrients for 2-19-y-old children (n = ~2700-7500). Multiple covariate-adjusted regression methods were used to examine the independent and joint associations of race-ethnicity, family income, and education with biomarker status. Non-Hispanic blacks had lower mean serum concentrations of vitamins A, B-6, and E and α-carotene than did non-Hispanic whites. Both non-Hispanic blacks and Mexican Americans had higher mean serum vitamin C, β-cryptoxanthin, and lutein + zeaxanthin but lower folate and vitamin D concentrations compared with non-Hispanic whites. In comparison with non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks were less likely to have low serum HDL cholesterol or high triglycerides. Family income and education predicted few biomarker or dietary outcomes, and the observed associations were weak. Moreover, modification of race-ethnic differentials by income or education (or vice versa) was noted for very few biomarkers. Race-ethnicity, but not family income or education, was a strong independent predictor of serum nutrient concentrations and dietary micronutrient intakes in US children and adolescents.

  3. Food-choice motives of adolescents in Jakarta, Indonesia: the roles of gender and family income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulida, Rizka; Nanishi, Keiko; Green, Joseph; Shibanuma, Akira; Jimba, Masamine

    2016-10-01

    The aims of the present study were to assess the reliability and validity of the Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ) and to determine the factors associated with food-choice motives in public junior-high-school students in Jakarta, Indonesia. Cross-sectional study with self-administered questionnaires. Trained research assistants measured height and weight of the participants on the day of the data collection. Settings Fourteen randomly selected public junior-high schools in East Jakarta, Indonesia. Public junior-high-school students (n 681) in grades 7 and 8, aged 13-14 years (377 girls and 304 boys). Three food-choice motives (subscales) were obtained from factor analysis and reliability testing: (i) comfort; (ii) convenience and price; and (iii) health. The subscale with the greatest mean value was health. Family affluence was inversely associated with the convenience and price subscale (β=-0·05, P=0·01) and with the health subscale (β=-0·04; P=0·02). Females were less likely than males to consider health when choosing foods (β=-0·16; P=0·03). While its factor structure differed from those found in previous studies of adults, the FCQ can provide reliable measures of food-choice motives among these adolescents. Students from less affluent families placed more importance on food's convenience and price, but more affluent students did not necessarily make healthier choices. Compared with females, males were more likely to choose healthy foods. Future interventions should be tailored based on the socio-economic status of the target group.

  4. Vulnerability and adaptation of European farmer: a multi-level analysis of yield and income responses to climate variability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reidsma, P.; Ewert, F.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Leemans, R.

    2009-01-01

    Climate change will affect crop yields and consequently farmers¿ income. The underlying relationships are not well understood, particularly the importance of crop management and related factors at the farm and regional level. We analyze the impacts of trends and variability in climatic conditions

  5. Sandwiching it in: spillover of work onto food choices and family roles in low- and moderate-income urban households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Carol M; Connors, Margaret M; Sobal, Jeffery; Bisogni, Carole A

    2003-02-01

    Lower status jobs, high workloads and lack of control at work have been associated with less healthful diets, but the ways through which work is connected to food choices are not well understood. This analysis was an examination of workers' experience of the relationship of their jobs to their food choices. Fifty-one multi-ethnic, urban, low- and moderate-income adults living in Upstate New York in 1995 participated in a qualitative interview study of fruit and vegetable choices and discussed employment and food choices. The workers who participated in this study described a dynamic relationship between work and food choices that they experienced in the context of their other roles and values. These workers presented a relationship that was characterized by positive and negative spillover between their jobs and their ability to fulfill family roles and promote personal health, linked by a spectrum of food choice strategies. Participants' narratives fit into three different domains: characterizations of work and their resources for food choice, strategies used to manage food choices within the constraints of work, and affect related to the negative and positive spillover of these strategies on family roles and on personal food choices. Characterizations of work as demanding and limiting or demanding and manageable differentiated participants who experienced their food choice strategies as a source of guilt and dissatisfaction (negative spillover) from those who experienced food choices as a source of pride and satisfaction (positive spillover). Ideals and values related to food choice and health were balanced against other values for family closeness and nurturing and personal achievement. Some participants found work unproblematic. These findings direct attention to a broad conceptualization of the relationship of work to food choices in which the demands and resources of the work role are viewed as they spill over into the social and temporal context of other

  6. The Moderating Role of Dysfunctional Parent-Child Relationships on the Association Between Outward Anger Expression and Physical Health in Youth From Low-Income Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, Kassie D; Van Dyk, Tori R; Kidwell, Katherine M; Nelson, Timothy D

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the role of outward anger expression on physical health outcomes (number of illnesses in the past year, 2-year medical service utilization, and health-related quality of life) while also expanding on previous research by assessing the moderating effect of parent-child dysfunction. An ethnically diverse sample of 125 children, ages 8 to 11 years, was recruited from a family medicine practice serving a low-income population. High levels of outward anger expression were related to a greater number of illnesses, greater medical service utilization, and lower health-related quality of life. Additionally, worse parent-child dysfunction exacerbated this relationship for a number of illnesses and medical service utilization. Results suggest that health care providers should consider the influence of environmental and familial factors on the physical health of children with anger. Recommendations for identifying at-risk youth and improving anger expression as well as parent-child relationships are provided. Copyright © 2016 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Influence of Child Behavioral Problems and Parenting Stress on Parent-Child Conflict among Low-Income Families: The Moderating Role of Maternal Nativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Aileen S.; Ren, Lixin; Esteraich, Jan M.; Raikes, Helen H.

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to examine whether parenting stress and child behavioral problems are significant predictors of parent-child conflict in the context of low-income families and how these relations are moderated by maternal nativity. The authors conducted multiple regression analyses to examine relations between teachers' report of…

  8. The Effect of an Out-of-School Enrichment Program on the Academic Achievement of High-Potential Students from Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Jaret; McIntosh, Jason; Gentry, Marcia

    2017-01-01

    High-potential students from low-income families are at an academic disadvantage compared with their more affluent peers. To address this issue, researchers have suggested novel approaches to mitigate gaps in student performance, including out-of-school enrichment programs. Longitudinal mixed effects modeling was used to analyze the growth of…

  9. THE RELATIONSHIP OF MEASURES OF ATTAINMENT VALUE AND ACHIEVEMENT EXPECTANCY TO THE READING ACHIEVEMENT OF FIRST-GRADE CHILDREN FROM LOW-INCOME FAMILIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    WOOD, FRANK H.

    THIS INVESTIGATION FOCUSED ON THE USEFULNESS OF A PROCEDURE FOR OBTAINING MEASURES OF THE MOTIVATION OF FIRST-GRADE CHILDREN FROM LOW-INCOME FAMILIES TO ACHIEVE IN READING WHICH DID NOT REQUIRE WRITTEN OR ORAL VERBAL RESPONSES FROM THE SUBJECTS. MEASURES OF ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION WERE CORRELATED WITH TEACHER RATINGS OF EFFORTS TO ACHIEVE IN…

  10. Family Incomes: Will Your Children Be as Well Off as Your? = Les revenue familiaux: vos enfants s'en tireront-ils aussi bien que vous?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theilheimer, Ish, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    Against the background of recent radical changes in the Canadian economy, this issue of the Canadian journal "Transition" examines the question of parents' concerns for their children's economic futures. "Changes in Family Incomes and Labour Market Participation in Post-War Canada" (David Ross and Clarence Lochhead) charts…

  11. The Relations of Early Television Viewing to School Readiness and Vocabulary of Children from Low-Income Families: The Early Window Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, John C.; Auston, Aletha C.; Murphy, Kimberlee C.; St. Peters, Michelle; Pinon, Ronda Scantlin; Kotler, Jennifer

    2001-01-01

    Collected time-use diaries of television viewing from two cohorts of children (ages 2-5 and 4-7) from low-income families and gave annual tests of reading, math, receptive vocabulary, and school readiness. Found that viewing of child-audience informative programs between ages 2 and 3 predicted higher academic performance. Frequent viewers of…

  12. Performance of African American Preschool Children from Low-Income Families on Expressive Language Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Cathy H.; Kaiser, Ann P.; Marley, Scott C.; Milan, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    The purposes of the study were to determine (a) the ability of two spontaneous language measures, mean length of utterance in morphemes (MLU-m) and number of different words (NDW), to identify African American preschool children at low and high levels of language ability; (b) whether child chronological age was related to the performance of either…

  13. Prevalence of Obesity Among Youths by Household Income and Education Level of Head of Household - United States 2011-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Cynthia L; Carroll, Margaret D; Fakhouri, Tala H; Hales, Craig M; Fryar, Cheryl D; Li, Xianfen; Freedman, David S

    2018-02-16

    Obesity prevalence varies by income and education level, although patterns might differ among adults and youths (1-3). Previous analyses of national data showed that the prevalence of childhood obesity by income and education of household head varied across race/Hispanic origin groups (4). CDC analyzed 2011-2014 data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to obtain estimates of childhood obesity prevalence by household income (≤130%, >130% to ≤350%, and >350% of the federal poverty level [FPL]) and head of household education level (high school graduate or less, some college, and college graduate). During 2011-2014 the prevalence of obesity among U.S. youths (persons aged 2-19 years) was 17.0%, and was lower in the highest income group (10.9%) than in the other groups (19.9% and 18.9%) and also lower in the highest education group (9.6%) than in the other groups (18.3% and 21.6%). Continued progress is needed to reduce disparities, a goal of Healthy People 2020. The overall Healthy People 2020 target for childhood obesity prevalence is <14.5% (5).

  14. Inter-Provincial Migration Intentions of Family Physicians in Canada: The Roles of Income and Community Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Haizhen; Olfert, M Rose

    2015-11-01

    The inter-provincial migration patterns of family physicians in canada show that some provinces like newfoundland and saskatchewan experience persistent net out-migration, while others, including ontario and british columbia, are destinations more often than origins of migrants. Governments in provinces exhibiting net out-migration have responded with a number of incentive and recruitment programs. In this study, we investigate the determinants of the stated interprovincial migration intentions of 3,995 rural and urban family physicians in the 2010 wave of the national physician survey. We consider a range of physician characteristics, community attributes and working conditions. We find that in the intention to move, higher compensation has a modest effect, while the community characteristics have a consistently important influence. Our results suggest that policy and program designers should acknowledge the critical role of community-level living and working conditions in their family physician recruitment and retention efforts. Copyright © 2015 Longwoods Publishing.

  15. Income inequality in today’s China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yu; Zhou, Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Using multiple data sources, we establish that China's income inequality since 2005 has reached very high levels, with the Gini coefficient in the range of 0.53–0.55. Analyzing comparable survey data collected in 2010 in China and the United States, we examine social determinants that help explain China’s high income inequality. Our results indicate that a substantial part of China’s high income inequality is due to regional disparities and the rural-urban gap. The contributions of these two structural forces are particularly strong in China, but they play a negligible role in generating the overall income inequality in the United States, where individual-level and family-level income determinants, such as family structure and race/ethnicity, play a much larger role. PMID:24778237

  16. Is wealthier always healthier? The impact of national income level, inequality, and poverty on public health in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Brian; King, Lawrence; Basu, Sanjay; Stuckler, David

    2010-07-01

    Despite findings indicating that both national income level and income inequality are each determinants of public health, few have studied how national income level, poverty and inequality interact with each other to influence public health outcomes. We analyzed the relationship between gross domestic product (GDP) per capita in purchasing power parity, extreme poverty rates, the gini coefficient for personal income and three common measures of public health: life expectancy, infant mortality rates, and tuberculosis (TB) mortality rates. Introducing poverty and inequality as modifying factors, we then assessed whether the relationship between GDP and health differed during times of increasing, decreasing, and decreasing or constant poverty and inequality. Data were taken from twenty-two Latin American countries from 1960 to 2007 from the December 2008 World Bank World Development Indicators, World Health Organization Global Tuberculosis Database 2008, and the Socio-Economic Database for Latin America and the Caribbean. Consistent with previous studies, we found increases in GDP have a sizable positive impact on population health. However, the strength of the relationship is powerfully influenced by changing levels of poverty and inequality. When poverty was increasing, greater GDP had no significant effect on life expectancy or TB mortality, and only led to a small reduction in infant mortality rates. When inequality was rising, greater GDP had only a modest effect on life expectancy and infant mortality rates, and no effect on TB mortality rates. In sharp contrast, during times of decreasing or constant poverty and inequality, there was a very strong relationship between increasing GDP and higher life expectancy and lower TB and infant mortality rates. Finally, inequality and poverty were found to exert independent, substantial effects on the relationship between national income level and health. Wealthier is indeed healthier, but how much healthier depends on how

  17. The rich get richer and the poor get poorer: Country- and state-level income inequality moderates the job insecurity-burnout relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lixin; Probst, Tahira M

    2017-04-01

    Despite the prevalence of income inequality in today's society, research on the implications of income inequality for organizational research is scant. This study takes the first step to explore the contextual role of national- and state- level income inequality as a moderator in the relationship between individual-level job insecurity (JI) and burnout. Drawing from conservation of resource (COR) theory, we argue that income inequality at the country-level and state-level threatens one's obtainment of object (i.e., material coping) and condition (i.e., nonmaterial coping) resources, thus serving as an environmental stressor exacerbating one's burnout reactions to JI. The predicted cross-level interaction effect of income inequality was tested in 2 studies. Study 1 consisting of 23,778 individuals nested in 30 countries explored the moderating effect of country-level income inequality on the relationship between individual JI and exhaustion. Study 2 collected data from 402 employees residing in 48 states in the United States, and tested the moderating effect of state-level income inequality on the relationship between JI and burnout (i.e., emotional exhaustion and cynicism). Results of both studies converge to support the exacerbating role of higher-level income inequality on the JI -burnout relationship. Our findings contribute to the literature on psychological health disparities by exploring the contextual role of income inequality as a predictor of differential reactions to JI. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Child, family, and school characteristics related to English proficiency development among low-income, dual language learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoon Kyong; Curby, Timothy W; Winsler, Adam

    2014-12-01

    Little is known about 2nd language development among young, low-income, language-minority children. This article examined the longitudinal English development of low-income, dual language learners (DLLs) in Miami (n = 18,532) from kindergarten through 5th grade. Growth curve modeling indicated that social skills, good behavior, Spanish (L1) competence in preschool, having a mother born in the United States, and attending larger schools with fewer DLLs were associated with higher initial levels of English proficiency in kindergarten and/or steeper growth over time. Survival analyses indicated that it took about 2 years for half of the sample to become proficient in English according to the school district's criterion. Higher initial proficiency in kindergarten, not receiving free/reduced lunch, not being Hispanic or Black, strong cognitive, language, and socioemotional skills at age 4, and maternal education were associated with faster attainment of English proficiency. It is important for teachers, parents, researchers, and policy makers to understand that DLL students come from diverse backgrounds and that poverty and other factors influence the speed of English language development for DLLs. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Poverty and health-related quality of life of people living in Hong Kong: comparison of individuals from low-income families and the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Cindy Lo Kuen; Guo, Vivian Yawei; Wong, Carlos King Ho; Yu, Esther Yee Tak; Fung, Colman Siu Cheung

    2017-06-01

    To assess health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among Chinese adults from low-income households in Hong Kong, and to explore any threshold of household income that impaired HRQOL. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted on 298 adults from low-income families when they enrolled into a cohort study between 2012 and 2014. HRQOL was measured by the 12-item Short-Form Health Survey-version 2 (SF-12v2). Their mean SF-12v2 subscale and summary scores were compared with those of 596 age-sex-matched subjects randomly selected from a database of 2763 adults from the Hong Kong general population (ratio = 1:2). Multiple linear regressions were conducted to determine any association between monthly household income and HRQOL. Subjects from low-income households had significantly lower SF-12v2 bodily pain, general health, vitality and physical component summary (PCS) scores than the age-sex matched subjects from the general population. Subgroup analysis showed that a household income income in Hong Kong (HK$10 000 ≈ US$1290, i.e. poverty line in Hong Kong) was independently associated with poorer PCS and mental component summary (MCS) scores after adjustment for socio-demographics and co-morbidities. Chinese adults from low-income households had poorer HRQOL, and income seems to be the threshold for impairment of both physical and mental HRQOL. The findings support the current definition of the poverty line. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Perfil de consulta en niños alérgicos provenientes de familias de bajos ingresos Profile of consultation of allergic children from low income families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Raimundo Rodríguez-Orozco

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Las enfermedades alérgicas son una de las principales causas de atención médica en la infancia y su impacto se acentúa más en las familias de bajos ingresos. En un estudio descriptivo analítico se caracterizó el perfil de consulta del niño alérgico proveniente de familias mexicanas de bajos recursos económicos. Las enfermedades alérgicas predominaron en el sexo masculino y la edad escolar; el 71 % de los enfermos provenía de localidades urbanas. El asma fue el diagnóstico más frecuente (64 %, seguido de la rinitis alérgica (30 %, dermatitis atópica (6 % y urticaria (3 %. Las reactividades encontradas con más frecuencia en la prueba cutánea fueron Dermatofagoides farinae (77 %, Dermatofagoides pteronyssinus (60 %, Phleum pratense (20 %, gato (17 %, perro (14 % y Cynodon dactylon (11 %. El alto grado de disfunción familiar y la poca adhesión a tratamientos prolongados posibilitan la perpetuidad de los síntomas y el pronóstico incierto en este grupo de niños.Allergic diseases are one of the main causes for seeing the doctor in childhood and their impact is more acute in low income families. An analytical descriptive study characterized the profile of medical consultation of the allergic child from Mexican low income families. Allergic diseases prevailed in males and at school age, and 71 % of the sick children lived in urban settings. Asthma was the most frequent diagnosis (64 % followed by allergic rhinitis (30%, atopic dermatitis (6 % and urticaria (3 %. The most commom reactivity rates in the cutaneous test were Dermatofagoides farinae (77 %, Dermatofagoides pteronyssinus (60 %, Phleum pratense (20 %, cat (17 %, dog (14 % and Cynodon dactylon (11 %. The high level of family dysfunction and low adhesion to long therapies make it possible the persistence of symptoms and the uncertain prognosis in this group of children.

  1. State-level income inequality and meeting physical activity guidelines; differential associations among US men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabayo, Roman; Fuller, Daniel; Lee, Eun Young; Horino, Masako; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2017-07-23

    Previous work has identified a relationship between income inequality and risk for obesity and heart attack. We investigated the relationship between state-level income inequality and physical activity among US adults. We used Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) cross-sectional data from a population based and representative sample of n = 428 828 US adults. Multilevel models were used to determine the association between state-level income inequality and participation in physical activity and strengthening exercises in the previous month. In comparison to males, females were significantly more likely to report being physically inactive (OR = 1.07, 95% CI = 1.04, 1.11), and less likely to meet aerobic activity requirements (OR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.88, 0.93), meet strengthening activities (OR = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.69, 0.74), and meet overall physical activity recommendations (OR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.88, 0.94). Cross-level Gini × sex interactions indicated that income inequality was associated with increased odds for participating in no physical activity (OR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.05, 1.12), decreased odds in participating in strengthening physical activity (OR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.89, 0.96), aerobic activity (OR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.93, 0.99), and in meeting overall physical activity recommendations (OR = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.91, 0.95) among women only. Future studies are needed to identify mechanisms in which income inequality leads to physical activity behavior among US women. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  2. Gender Differences in How Family Income and Parental Education Relate to Reading Achievement in China: The Mediating Role of Parental Expectation and Parental Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin Guo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The impact of social economic status (SES on children's academic outcomes has been well documented. However, the mechanisms underlying this relationship remain poorly understood. Furthermore, the process by which SES relates to academic achievement needs to be studied separately for boys and girls. Using a sample of 598 Chinese children (299 boys, 299 girls in grades 4 to 6 and their parents, this study examined the process of how family SES, specifically family income and parental education, indirectly relates to children's reading achievement through parental expectation and parental involvement and whether this process differs between boys and girls. The results revealed that parental expectation and specific parental involvement behaviors played critical mediating roles between family SES and reading achievement. Moreover, the exact nature of these links differed by the gender of children. For boys, both the effect of parental education and the effect of family income were partially mediated by parental expectation and parent-child communication orderly. For girls, the effect of parental education was partially mediated by three separate pathways: (1 home monitoring; (2 parent-child communication; and (3 parental expectation followed by parent-child communication, while the effect of family income was fully mediated by parent-child communication. These findings suggest a process through which SES factors are related to children's academic development and identify a context under which these associations may differ. The practical implications of these findings are discussed, along with possible future research directions.

  3. Gender Differences in How Family Income and Parental Education Relate to Reading Achievement in China: The Mediating Role of Parental Expectation and Parental Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaolin; Lv, Bo; Zhou, Huan; Liu, Chunhui; Liu, Juan; Jiang, Kexin; Luo, Liang

    2018-01-01

    The impact of social economic status (SES) on children's academic outcomes has been well documented. However, the mechanisms underlying this relationship remain poorly understood. Furthermore, the process by which SES relates to academic achievement needs to be studied separately for boys and girls. Using a sample of 598 Chinese children (299 boys, 299 girls) in grades 4 to 6 and their parents, this study examined the process of how family SES, specifically family income and parental education, indirectly relates to children's reading achievement through parental expectation and parental involvement and whether this process differs between boys and girls. The results revealed that parental expectation and specific parental involvement behaviors played critical mediating roles between family SES and reading achievement. Moreover, the exact nature of these links differed by the gender of children. For boys, both the effect of parental education and the effect of family income were partially mediated by parental expectation and parent-child communication orderly. For girls, the effect of parental education was partially mediated by three separate pathways: (1) home monitoring; (2) parent-child communication; and (3) parental expectation followed by parent-child communication, while the effect of family income was fully mediated by parent-child communication. These findings suggest a process through which SES factors are related to children's academic development and identify a context under which these associations may differ. The practical implications of these findings are discussed, along with possible future research directions.

  4. Demand for family planning satisfied with modern methods among sexually active women in low- and middle-income countries: who is lagging behind?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewerling, Fernanda; Victora, Cesar G; Raj, Anita; Coll, Carolina V N; Hellwig, Franciele; Barros, Aluisio J D

    2018-03-06

    Family planning is key for reducing unintended pregnancies and their health consequences and is also associated with improvements in economic outcomes. Our objective was to identify groups of sexually active women with extremely low demand for family planning satisfied with modern methods (mDFPS) in low- and middle-income countries, at national and subnational levels to inform the improvement and expansion of programmatic efforts to narrow the gaps in mDFPS coverage. Analyses were based on Demographic and Health Survey and Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey data. The most recent surveys carried out since 2000 in 77 countries were included in the analysis. We estimated mDFPS among women aged 15-49 years. Subgroups with low coverage (mDFPS below 20%) were identified according to marital status, wealth, age, education, literacy, area of residence (urban or rural), geographic region and religion. Overall, only 52.9% of the women with a demand for family planning were using a modern contraceptive method, but coverage varied greatly. West & Central Africa showed the lowest coverage (32.9% mean mDFPS), whereas South Asia and Latin America & the Caribbean had the highest coverage (approximately 70% mean mDFPS). Some countries showed high reliance on traditional contraceptive methods, markedly those from Central and Eastern Europe, and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CEE & CIS). Albania, Azerbaijan, Benin, Chad and Congo Democratic Republic presented low mDFPS coverage (planning method. Subgroups requiring special attention include women who are poor, uneducated/illiterate, young, and living in rural areas. Efforts to increase mDFPS must address not only the supply side but also tackle the need to change social norms that might inhibit uptake of contraception.

  5. Feeding style differences in food parenting practices associated with fruit and vegetable intake in children from low-income families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaioannou, Maria A; Cross, Matthew B; Power, Thomas G; Liu, Yan; Qu, Haiyan; Shewchuk, Richard M; Hughes, Sheryl O

    2013-01-01

    To examine the moderating effects of feeding styles on the relationship between food parenting practices and fruit and vegetable (F & V) intake in low-income families with preschool-aged children. Focus group meetings with Head Start parents were conducted by using the nominal group technique. Parents completed information on food parenting practices and feeding styles. Three dietary recalls were collected on each child. Parents completed measures in Head Start centers and/or over the telephone. 667 parents of preschool-aged children participated. Food parenting practices and F & V intake. Mean differences in the food parenting practices across the 4 feeding styles were established through multivariate general linear modeling using MANOVA. Moderated multiple regression analysis was conducted to examine the moderating role of feeding style on food parenting practices and child F & V intake. The indulgent feeding style moderated the relationship between food parenting practices and child F & V intake. This study indicates that parents' feeding styles have a moderating effect on the relationship between the food parenting practices and children's F & V intake. This finding can facilitate the development of interventions aimed at reducing childhood overweight. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Women's preferences for testing and management of sexually transmitted infections among low-income New York City family planning clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, H E; Holloway, I W; Pressman, E; Meier, J; Westhoff, C L

    2013-06-01

    High prevalence of chlamydia in the USA persists despite efforts to annually screen women under the age of 26. Tailoring sexually transmitted infection (STI) services to client preferences may strengthen existing programmes. We report women's preferences for STI services from a family planning clinic in New York City serving low-income women. Seventy-eight percent (995/1275) of eligible women participated, with a mean age of 26 (SD±7). Ninety-one percent self-identified as Latina. Nineteen percent reported a past STI. Women preferred self-collection (65%) for testing to a speculum exam (20%); 15% had no preference. Women with a previous STI were more likely to prefer a pelvic exam to women with no previous STI (50% versus 32%, P preferred informing a sex partner about a positive STI test themselves, but 88% were willing to bring expedited partner therapy to a partner. Women were more likely to prefer third party partner notification if their last partner was casual rather than a main partner (14% versus 3%, respectively, P partner notification. Self-collecting specimens for screening was widely acceptable. Partner notification strategies should be based on understanding partnership status, including fears of violence.

  7. Influence of school-level and family-level variables on Chinese college students' aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiawei; Yang, Jiarun; Yu, Yunmiao; Wang, Lin; Han, Dong; Zhu, Xiongzhao; He, Jincai; Qiu, Xiaohui; Yang, Xiuxian; Qiao, Zhengxue; Sui, Hong; Yang, Yanjie

    2017-08-01

    With the frequent occurrence of campus violence, scholars have devoted increasing attention to college students' aggression. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of aggression in Chinese university students and identify factors that could influence their aggression. We can thus find methods to reduce the incidence of college students' aggression in the future. A multi-stage stratified sampling procedure was used to select university students (N = 4565) aged 16-25 years in Harbin. The Aggression Questionnaire, the Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Checklist and the Social Support Revalued Scale were used to collect data. Females reported lower levels of aggression than males (p aggression, and the model was highly significant (R 2  = .233, Ad R 2  = .230, p aggression is affected by gender, family-level and school-level variables. Aggression scores are significantly correlated with not only family-level or school-level variables independently, but their combination as well. We find that the risk factors for aggression include a dissatisfying profession, higher levels of study pressure, poor parental relationships, poor interpersonal relationships, the presence of siblings, punishment, health maladjustment, less subjective support, and lower levels of utilization of social support.

  8. Family income and young adolescents' perceived social position: associations with self-esteem and life satisfaction in the UK Millennium Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannink, Rienke; Pearce, Anna; Hope, Steven

    2016-10-01

    Self-esteem and life satisfaction are important aspects of positive mental health in young people, and both are socially distributed. However, the majority of evidence is based on socioeconomic characteristics of the family. As children enter adolescence and gain independence, perceptions of their own social position are likely to influence mental health. Using data on 11-year-olds from the UK Millennium Cohort Study, we investigated associations of both family income and young adolescents' perception of their social position with self-esteem and life satisfaction. We hypothesised that there would be differences in the impact of perceived social position on positive mental health when investigating the full scale scoring distribution or the bottom of the distribution. Therefore, we estimated proportional odds for having greater positive mental health (across the distribution of scores) and ORs for poor outcomes (lowest 10% scores). The likelihood of greater self-esteem and life satisfaction increased with income; similarly, the risk of having poor self-esteem and life satisfaction increased as income decreased. Young adolescents who perceived their family as poorer than their friends (instead of about the same) were less likely to have greater self-esteem and life satisfaction and were more likely to have poor outcomes. Young adolescents who perceived their family as richer were more likely to have poor self-esteem, but were not less likely to have greater self-esteem. For life satisfaction, young adolescents who perceived their families as richer were less likely to have greater and more likely to have poor life satisfaction. Policies to redistribute income in families with children are likely to benefit the mental health of young people. However, it is also important to consider the impact of social comparison on young people's mental health as they enter adolescence. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted

  9. Family income and young adolescents’ perceived social position: associations with self-esteem and life satisfaction in the UK Millennium Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannink, Rienke; Pearce, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Background Self-esteem and life satisfaction are important aspects of positive mental health in young people, and both are socially distributed. However, the majority of evidence is based on socioeconomic characteristics of the family. As children enter adolescence and gain independence, perceptions of their own social position are likely to influence mental health. Design and objectives Using data on 11-year-olds from the UK Millennium Cohort Study, we investigated associations of both family income and young adolescents’ perception of their social position with self-esteem and life satisfaction. We hypothesised that there would be differences in the impact of perceived social position on positive mental health when investigating the full scale scoring distribution or the bottom of the distribution. Therefore, we estimated proportional odds for having greater positive mental health (across the distribution of scores) and ORs for poor outcomes (lowest 10% scores). Results The likelihood of greater self-esteem and life satisfaction increased with income; similarly, the risk of having poor self-esteem and life satisfaction increased as income decreased. Young adolescents who perceived their family as poorer than their friends (instead of about the same) were less likely to have greater self-esteem and life satisfaction and were more likely to have poor outcomes. Young adolescents who perceived their family as richer were more likely to have poor self-esteem, but were not less likely to have greater self-esteem. For life satisfaction, young adolescents who perceived their families as richer were less likely to have greater and more likely to have poor life satisfaction. Conclusions Policies to redistribute income in families with children are likely to benefit the mental health of young people. However, it is also important to consider the impact of social comparison on young people's mental health as they enter adolescence. PMID:26957529

  10. City Level of Income and Urbanization and Availability of Food Stores and Food Service Places in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chunxiao; Tan, Yayun; Wu, Chaoqun; Wang, Shengfeng; Yu, Canqing; Cao, Weihua; Gao, Wenjing; Lv, Jun; Li, Liming

    2016-01-01

    Objective The contribution of unhealthy dietary patterns to the epidemic of obesity has been well recognized. Differences in availability of foods may have an important influence on individual eating behaviors and health disparities. This study examined the availability of food stores and food service places by city characteristics on city level of income and urbanization. Methods The cross-sectional survey was comprised of two parts: (1) an on-site observation to measure availability of food stores and food service places in 12 cities of China; (2) an in-store survey to determine the presence of fresh/frozen vegetables or fruits in all food stores. Trained investigators walked all the streets/roads within study tracts to identify all the food outlets. An observational survey questionnaire was used in all food stores to determine the presence of fresh/frozen vegetables or fruits. Urbanization index was determined for each city using a principal components factor analysis. City level of income and urbanization and numbers of each type of food stores and food service places were examined using negative binomial regression models. Results Large-sized supermarkets and specialty retailers had higher number of fresh/frozen vegetables or fruits sold compared to small/medium-sized markets. High-income versus low-income, high urbanized versus low urbanized areas had significantly more large-sized supermarkets and fewer small/medium-sized markets. In terms of restaurants, high urbanized cities had more western fast food restaurants and no statistically significant difference in the relative availability of any type of restaurants was found between high- and low-income areas. Conclusions The findings suggested food environment disparities did exist in different cities of China. PMID:26938866

  11. City Level of Income and Urbanization and Availability of Food Stores and Food Service Places in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chunxiao; Tan, Yayun; Wu, Chaoqun; Wang, Shengfeng; Yu, Canqing; Cao, Weihua; Gao, Wenjing; Lv, Jun; Li, Liming

    2016-01-01

    The contribution of unhealthy dietary patterns to the epidemic of obesity has been well recognized. Differences in availability of foods may have an important influence on individual eating behaviors and health disparities. This study examined the availability of food stores and food service places by city characteristics on city level of income and urbanization. The cross-sectional survey was comprised of two parts: (1) an on-site observation to measure availability of food stores and food service places in 12 cities of China; (2) an in-store survey to determine the presence of fresh/frozen vegetables or fruits in all food stores. Trained investigators walked all the streets/roads within study tracts to identify all the food outlets. An observational survey questionnaire was used in all food stores to determine the presence of fresh/frozen vegetables or fruits. Urbanization index was determined for each city using a principal components factor analysis. City level of income and urbanization and numbers of each type of food stores and food service places were examined using negative binomial regression models. Large-sized supermarkets and specialty retailers had higher number of fresh/frozen vegetables or fruits sold compared to small/medium-sized markets. High-income versus low-income, high urbanized versus low urbanized areas had significantly more large-sized supermarkets and fewer small/medium-sized markets. In terms of restaurants, high urbanized cities had more western fast food restaurants and no statistically significant difference in the relative availability of any type of restaurants was found between high- and low-income areas. The findings suggested food environment disparities did exist in different cities of China.

  12. City Level of Income and Urbanization and Availability of Food Stores and Food Service Places in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxiao Liao

    Full Text Available The contribution of unhealthy dietary patterns to the epidemic of obesity has been well recognized. Differences in availability of foods may have an important influence on individual eating behaviors and health disparities. This study examined the availability of food stores and food service places by city characteristics on city level of income and urbanization.The cross-sectional survey was comprised of two parts: (1 an on-site observation to measure availability of food stores and food service places in 12 cities of China; (2 an in-store survey to determine the presence of fresh/frozen vegetables or fruits in all food stores. Trained investigators walked all the streets/roads within study tracts to identify all the food outlets. An observational survey questionnaire was used in all food stores to determine the presence of fresh/frozen vegetables or fruits. Urbanization index was determined for each city using a principal components factor analysis. City level of income and urbanization and numbers of each type of food stores and food service places were examined using negative binomial regression models.Large-sized supermarkets and specialty retailers had higher number of fresh/frozen vegetables or fruits sold compared to small/medium-sized markets. High-income versus low-income, high urbanized versus low urbanized areas had significantly more large-sized supermarkets and fewer small/medium-sized markets. In terms of restaurants, high urbanized cities had more western fast food restaurants and no statistically significant difference in the relative availability of any type of restaurants was found between high- and low-income areas.The findings suggested food environment disparities did exist in different cities of China.

  13. Recalibrating the spirit level: An analysis of the interaction of income inequality and poverty and its effect on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambotti, Simone

    2015-08-01

    The publication of The Spirit Level (Wilkinson and Pickett, 2009) marked a paramount moment in the analysis of health and inequality, quickly attracting a remarkable degree of attention, both positive and negative, both in academic and in public discourse. Following at least 20 years of research, the book proposes a simple and powerful argument: inequality per se, more specifically income inequality, is harmful to every aspect of social life. In order to confirm this idea, the authors present a series of bivariate, cross-sectional associations showing comparisons across countries and within the United States. Despite the methodological limitations of this approach, the authors advance causal claims concerning the detrimental effects of income inequality. They also rule out poverty as a plausible alternative explanation, without directly measuring it. Meanwhile, over the last decade stratification scholars have demonstrated the nonlinear effect of economic factors, especially income, on health. The results suggest that a relative approach is best for analyzing dynamics at the top of the income distribution, whereas an absolute approach seems most appropriate for studying the bottom of the distribution. Consistent with this perspective, here I reanalyze data from The Spirit Level, adding a measure of poverty, in order to control the effect of inequality and explore its interaction with poverty. The findings show that inequality and poverty-which I contend are two interdependent but nonetheless distinct phenomena-interact across countries, such that the detrimental effects of inequality are present or stronger in countries with high poverty, and absent or weaker in countries with low poverty; poverty replaces inequality as the favored explanation of health and social ills across states. The new evidence suggests that income distributions are characterized by a complex interplay between inequality and poverty, whose interaction deserves further analysis. Copyright

  14. Shoulder Activity Level is Associated With Type of Employment and Income in the Normative Population Without Shoulder Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, Robert H; Lin, Kenneth M; Skillington, S Andrew; Hepper, C Tate; Smith, Matthew V

    2016-10-01

    Socioeconomic variables influence various healthcare issues in different ways. The effect of socioeconomic variables on the shoulder has not been well studied. Because activity level, defined by how much a patient actually does, is an important patient outcome measure and prognostic factor for the shoulder, studying its association with occupation and income will advance our understanding of how these variables relate to shoulder disorders, treatments, and outcomes. We asked: (1) Does shoulder activity score correlate with income level, stratified by gender? (2) Do different employment groups-heavy, moderate, light, student, retired-have different shoulder activity scores, as stratified by gender? (3) Is type of sports participation (contact or overhead) associated with income level, employment type, race, or household size? A survey collected the Brophy and Marx shoulder activity score and demographic information, such as age, gender, race, income, type of employment, and household size from 1625 individuals 18 years and older with no current or previous shoulder pain or injury who are members of a research panel matched to the United States population by age, gender, household income and size, race/ethnicity, and geography. Men and women were analyzed separately. Activity level was controlled for age. Shoulder activity correlated with income level among men (R = 0.03; p employment had the highest Shoulder Activity Scale (SAS) level (12.1 ± 4.9), which was more than SAS levels in sedentary (9.1 ± 4.5; mean difference, 3.0; 95% CI, 2.5-3.6; p = 0.001), student (8.8 ± 5.1; mean difference, 3.3; 95% CI, 3.0-3.7; p = 0.007), retired (8.0 ± 4.6; mean difference, 4.1; 95% CI, 3.6-4.7; p = 0.0001), and not working (7.5 ± 5.3; mean difference, 4.6; 95% CI, 4.6-4.6; p employment had the highest SAS level (12.0 ± 5.8). However, as there were few women working in heavy labor, the only significant difference in women was between moderate employment (8.8 ± 4.2) and

  15. The relationship between energy intensity and income levels: Forecasting long term energy demand in Asian emerging countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galli, R.; Univ. della Svizzera Italiana, Lugano

    1998-01-01

    This paper analyzes long-term trends in energy intensity for ten Asian emerging countries to test for a non-monotonic relationship between energy intensity and income in the author's sample. Energy demand functions are estimated during 1973--1990 using a quadratic function of log income. The long-run coefficient on squared income is found to be negative and significant, indicating a change in trend of energy intensity. The estimates are then used to evaluate a medium-term forecast of energy demand in the Asian countries, using both a log-linear and a quadratic model. It is found that in medium to high income countries the quadratic model performs better than the log-linear, with an average error of 9% against 43% in 1995. For the region as a whole, the quadratic model appears more adequate with a forecast error of 16% against 28% in 1995. These results are consistent with a process of dematerialization, which occurs as a result of a reduction of resource use per unit of GDP once an economy passes some threshold level of GDP per capita

  16. County level socioeconomic position, work organization and depression disorder: a repeated measures cross-classified multilevel analysis of low-income nursing home workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntaner, Carles; Li, Yong; Xue, Xiaonan; Thompson, Theresa; O'Campo, Patricia; Chung, Haejoo; Eaton, William W

    2006-12-01

    This study simultaneously tests the effect of county, organizational, workplace, and individual level variables on depressive disorders among low-income nursing assistants employed in US nursing homes. A total of 482 observations are used from two waves of survey data collection, with an average two-year interval between initial and follow-up surveys. The overall response rate was 62 percent. The hierarchically structured data was analyzed using multilevel modeling to account for cross-classifications across levels of data. Nursing assistants working in nursing homes covered by a single union in three states were asked about aspects of their working conditions, job stress, physical and mental health status, individual and family health-care needs, household economics and household strain. The 241 nursing assistants who participated in this study were employed in 34 nursing homes and lived in 49 counties of West Virginia, Ohio and Kentucky. The study finds that emotional strain, related to providing direct care to elderly and disabled clients, is associated with depressive disorder, as is nursing home ownership type (for-profit versus not-for-profit). However, when controlling for county level socioeconomic variables (Gini index and proportion of African Americans living in the county), neither workplace nor organizational level variables were found to be statistically significant associated with depressive disorder. This study supports previous findings that emotional demand in health-care environments is an important correlate of mental health. It also adds empirical evidence to support a link between financial strain and depression in US women. While this study does not find that lack of a seniority wage benefits--a factor that can conceivably exacerbate financial strain over time--is associated with depressive disorder among low-income health-care workers, it does find county level measures of poverty to be statistically significant predictors of depressive

  17. Income level and chronic ambulatory care sensitive conditions in adults: a multicity population-based study in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forastiere Francesco

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A relationship between quality of primary health care and preventable hospitalizations has been described in the US, especially among the elderly. In Europe, there has been a recent increase in the evaluation of Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions (ACSC as an indicator of health care quality, but evidence is still limited. The aim of this study was to determine whether income level is associated with higher hospitalization rates for ACSC in adults in a country with universal health care coverage. Methods From the hospital registries in four Italian cities (Turin, Milan, Bologna, Rome, we identified 9384 hospital admissions for six chronic conditions (diabetes, hypertension, congestive heart failure, angina pectoris, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and asthma among 20-64 year-olds in 2000. Case definition was based on the ICD-9-CM coding algorithm suggested by the Agency for Health Research and Quality - Prevention Quality Indicators. An area-based (census block income index was used for each individual. All hospitalization rates were directly standardised for gender and age using the Italian population. Poisson regression analysis was performed to assess the relationship between income level (quintiles and hospitalization rates (RR, 95% CI separately for the selected conditions controlling for age, gender and city of residence. Results Overall, the ACSC age-standardized rate was 26.1 per 10.000 inhabitants. All conditions showed a statistically significant socioeconomic gradient, with low income people being more likely to be hospitalized than their well off counterparts. The association was particularly strong for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (level V low income vs. level I high income RR = 4.23 95%CI 3.37-5.31 and for congestive heart failure (RR = 3.78, 95% CI = 3.09-4.62. With the exception of asthma, males were more vulnerable to ACSC hospitalizations than females. The risks were higher among 45-64 year

  18. TAXATION AND INTERNAL MIGRATION - EVIDENCE FROM THE SWISS CENSUS USING COMMUNITY-LEVEL VARIATION IN INCOME TAX RATES

    OpenAIRE

    Liebig, Thomas; Puhani, Patrick A.; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between income tax rate variation and internal migration for the unique case of Switzerland, whose system of determining tax rates primarily at the community level results in enough variation to permit analysis of their influence on migration. Specifically, using Swiss census data, we analyze migratory responses to tax rate variations for various groups defined by age, education, and nationality/residence permit. The results suggest that young Swiss college gra...

  19. Field Test Evaluation of Conservation Retrofits of Low-Income Single Family Buildings in Wisconsin: Summary Report; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ternes, M.P.

    2001-01-01

    During the winter of 1985-86, a retrofit field test was performed in 66 occupied, low-income, single-family homes in Madison, Wisconsin. The primary objectives of the field test were to (1) determine the measured energy savings and the relative benefits of a combination of envelope and mechanical equipment retrofits that were selected following a new audit-directed retrofit procedure, (2) determine the energy savings and benefits due to performing infiltration reduction work following a recently developed infiltration reduction procedure, and (3) study general occupant behavior and house thermal characteristics and their possible change following retrofit installation. This report provides an overview of the project and summarizes the findings which will be presented in detail in separate reports. Major findings from the field test include: (1) The audit-directed retrofit procedure produced an average savings of 207 therms/year/house. The procedure also more than doubled the overall cost-effectiveness of the low-income weatherization assistance program as compared with the priority system formerly used in Wisconsin. Wall insulation and condensing furnaces were the major retrofits (predicted annual energy savings greater than 100 therms/year) most often selected under the procedure. The respective average energy savings of the houses receiving wall insulation and condensing furnace. s was 14.6 and 14.3 therms/year for each$100 spent on them under the program. (2) The blower-door-guided infiltration reduction procedure reduced expenditures for infiltration reduction to about one-fourth of previous program costs (from$570/house to$106/house). The procedure also reduced the average air leakage rate in the treated houses by 16%, whereas, in a previous study, no significant reduction was found following the installation of typical infiltration reduction measures. (3) Twenty to 60% of the deviation between predicted and measured savings can be attributed to incorrect

  20. Cross-national injury mortality differentials by income level: the possible role of age and ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moniruzzaman, S; Andersson, R

    2008-11-01

    To examine age- and cause-specific injury mortality differentials between low-income (LICs), middle-income (MICs) and high-income countries (HICs), and to discuss their implications in explaining changing injury mortality patterns with economic development against the background of general health transition theory. Cross-sectional study. The World Health Organization's mortality database was used as the source of injury mortality data. The grouping into LICs, MICs and HICs was based on data from World Development Indicator. Unintentional injury mortality (UIM) rates in children and adults are highest in LICs and MICs, respectively. UIM rates in the elderly population, however, increase with higher economic conditions and are highest in HICs. Based on these findings, it is hypothesized that ageing and injury interplay mutually with regard to health transition; declining rates in child UIM with economic development contributes to the ageing process, while increasing UIM among the elderly, in combination with ageing populations, boosts the absolute number of injury deaths in this segment.

  1. Effectiveness of differing levels of support for family meals on obesity prevention among head start preschoolers: the simply dinner study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly E. Brophy-Herb

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite slight decreases in obesity prevalence in children, nearly 25% of preschool-aged children are overweight or obese. Most interventions focused on promoting family meals as an obesity-prevention strategy target meal planning skills, knowledge and modeling of healthy eating without addressing the practical resources that enable implementation of family meals. There is a striking lack of evidence about what level of resources low-income parents need to implement family meals. This study will identify resources most effective in promoting family meals and, subsequently, test associations among the frequency of family meals, dietary quality and children’s adiposity indices among children enrolled in Head Start. Methods The Multiphase Optimization Strategy, employed in this study, is a cutting-edge approach to maximizing resources in behavioral interventions by identifying the most effective intervention components. We are currently testing the main, additive and interactive effects of 6 intervention components, thought to support family meals, on family meal frequency and dietary quality (Primary Outcomes as compared to Usual Head Start Exposure in a Screening Phase (N = 512 low-income families. Components yielding the most robust effects will be bundled and evaluated in a two-group randomized controlled trial (intervention and Usual Head Start Exposure in the Confirming Phase (N = 250, testing the effects of the bundled intervention on children’s adiposity indices (Primary Outcomes; body mass index and skinfolds. The current intervention components include: (1 home delivery of pre-made healthy family meals; (2 home delivery of healthy meal ingredients; (3 community kitchens in which parents make healthy meals to cook at home; (4 healthy eating classes; (5 cooking demonstrations; and (6 cookware/flatware delivery. Secondary outcomes include cooking self-efficacy and family mealtime barriers. Moderators of the

  2. Effectiveness of differing levels of support for family meals on obesity prevention among head start preschoolers: the simply dinner study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy-Herb, Holly E; Horodynski, Mildred; Contreras, Dawn; Kerver, Jean; Kaciroti, Niko; Stein, Mara; Lee, Hannah Jong; Motz, Brittany; Hebert, Sheilah; Prine, Erika; Gardiner, Candace; Van Egeren, Laurie A; Lumeng, Julie C

    2017-02-10

    Despite slight decreases in obesity prevalence in children, nearly 25% of preschool-aged children are overweight or obese. Most interventions focused on promoting family meals as an obesity-prevention strategy target meal planning skills, knowledge and modeling of healthy eating without addressing the practical resources that enable implementation of family meals. There is a striking lack of evidence about what level of resources low-income parents need to implement family meals. This study will identify resources most effective in promoting family meals and, subsequently, test associations among the frequency of family meals, dietary quality and children's adiposity indices among children enrolled in Head Start. The Multiphase Optimization Strategy, employed in this study, is a cutting-edge approach to maximizing resources in behavioral interventions by identifying the most effective intervention components. We are currently testing the main, additive and interactive effects of 6 intervention components, thought to support family meals, on family meal frequency and dietary quality (Primary Outcomes) as compared to Usual Head Start Exposure in a Screening Phase (N = 512 low-income families). Components yielding the most robust effects will be bundled and evaluated in a two-group randomized controlled trial (intervention and Usual Head Start Exposure) in the Confirming Phase (N = 250), testing the effects of the bundled intervention on children's adiposity indices (Primary Outcomes; body mass index and skinfolds). The current intervention components include: (1) home delivery of pre-made healthy family meals; (2) home delivery of healthy meal ingredients; (3) community kitchens in which parents make healthy meals to cook at home; (4) healthy eating classes; (5) cooking demonstrations; and (6) cookware/flatware delivery. Secondary outcomes include cooking self-efficacy and family mealtime barriers. Moderators of the intervention include family functioning and

  3. 75 FR 3847 - Weatherization Assistance Program for Low-Income Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ... that is occupied by a family unit (1) whose income is at or below 200 percent of the poverty level, (2... whose income is at or below 200 percent of the poverty level would meet the minimum income eligibility... programs being considered eligible meet the 200 percent above poverty line requirement stated in the public...

  4. Improving productivity levels: family planning services for factory workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmokusumo, H V

    1989-10-01

    In May 1984, the Minister of Manpower in Indonesia, the Chairman of the BKKBN, and representatives of the employers' and workers' organizations of Indonesia issued a joint decree pledging that they would work together to enhance the implementation of the family planning program among workers in the organized sector. 1 objective of the decree is to improve workers' productivity and the standard of living of workers and their families by implementing a family planning program. 1 baseline survey and a clinic-based survey in 5 provinces revealed that 90% of women workers are between 21-40, or are of reproductive age, and are sexually active. Only about 50% are practicing family planning; the other 50% are afraid to practice family planning due to potential side effects of various methods. This fear was most often caused by negative rumors spread by unsatisfied family planning clients. Placing materials for family planning promotion such as instructional posters and video programs advertising contraceptive services in the work setting may increase knowledge and help alleviate some of this fear. Other studies of family planning services show that employees prefer female medical doctors or midwives as service providers, employees are willing to pay for services (but can only afford a small fee), and family planning service points should be near employees' work sites.

  5. Exploring How the Home Environment Influences Eating and Physical Activity Habits of Low-Income, Latino Children of Predominantly Immigrant Families: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Ana Cristina; Wallington, Sherrie F; Lees, Faith D; Greaney, Mary L

    2018-05-14

    Latinos are the largest and fastest growing minority population group in the United States, and children in low-income Latino families are at elevated risk of becoming overweight or having obesity. A child’s home is an important social environment in which he/she develops and maintains dietary and physical activity (PA) habits that ultimately impact weight status. Previous research suggests the parents are central to creating a home environment that facilitates or hinders the development of children’s early healthy eating and PA habits. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore low-income Latino parents’ beliefs, parenting styles, and parenting practices related to their children’s eating and PA behaviors while at home. Qualitative study using focus group discussions (FGDs) with 33 low-income Latino parents of preschool children 2 to 5 years of age. FGDs were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using thematic analysis. Data analyses revealed that most parents recognize the importance of healthy eating and PA for their children and themselves. However, daily life demands including conflicting schedules, long working hours, financial constraints, and neighborhood safety concerns, etc., impact parents’ ability to create a home environment supportive of these behaviors. This study provides information about how the home environment may influence low-income Latino preschool children’s eating and PA habits, which may be useful for health promotion and disease prevention efforts targeting low-income Latino families with young children, and for developing home-based and parenting interventions to prevent and control childhood obesity among this population group. Pediatric healthcare providers can play an important role in facilitating communication, providing education, and offering guidance to low-income Latino parents that support their children’s development of early healthy eating and PA habits, while taking into account daily life barriers faced

  6. About one-half of adults with active epilepsy and seizures have annual family incomes under $25,000: The 2010 and 2013 US National Health Interview Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Us Centers For Disease Control And Prevention Epilepsy Program

    2016-05-01

    People with active epilepsy are those who reported being told that they have epilepsy or a seizure disorder and either take antiseizure medication or have had a seizure during the past 12months. We used combined 2010 and 2013 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data on US adults with active epilepsy to examine whether taking medications and seizure frequency differed by sex, age, race/ethnicity, and reported or imputed annual family income. Of adults with active epilepsy, 45.5% reported taking medication and having at least one seizure, 41.3% reported taking medication and having no seizures, and 13.2% reported not taking any medication and having at least one seizure. About one-half of adults with active epilepsy and seizures have annual family incomes of less than $25,000. Promoting self-management supports and improved access to specialty care may reduce the burden of uncontrolled seizures in adults with epilepsy. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Levels of Interventions for MFTs Working with Family Businesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distelberg, Brian; Castanos, Carolina

    2012-01-01

    Family businesses (FBs) are a significant population in the world and therefore part of most practicing marriage and family therapists (MFTs) clientele; however, little is mentioned about FBs in the training of MFTs. This article offers some guidance to practicing MFTs who service this population, as well as MFTs who wish to expand their practice…

  8. CONFLICTS IN THE FAMILY AND SCHOOL ENVIRONMENTS SUPERIOR MIDDLE LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Manuel Linares-Sevilla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents partial results of the dissertation enrolled in the Master of peace education and school life. It aims to analyze the family conflicts that significantly affect academic performance of students in higher secondary education. Since the paradigm of education for peace, through the ethnographic method aims to identify risk factors in family dynamics of new students.

  9. Neighbourhood income level and outcomes of extremely preterm neonates: protection conferred by a universal health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Gary; Shah, Prakesh; Kovacs, Lajos; Ojah, Cecil; Riley, Patricia; Lee, Shoo K

    2012-11-07

    To determine the impact of neighbourhood income and maternal residence population density on mortality and various morbidities at discharge or transfer from the NICU among extremely preterm neonates (<27 weeks gestation) in Canada. Neighbourhood income level and residential status was derived using a postal code conversion file and census data. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the risk-adjusted odds ratio (AOR) of mortality and survival without major morbidities (chronic lung disease, necrotizing enterocolitis, severe intraventricular hemorrhage, and retinopathy of prematurity) among 2,752 extremely preterm infants admitted to 25 tertiary level neonatal intensive care units in Canada between 2007 and 2008. There were no significant differences between mothers from different neighbourhood income quintiles (Q1 = low; Q5 = high) and neonatal mortality AOR (95% confidence interval): Q1: 1.10 (0.74-1.62), Q2: 1.00 (0.67-1.49), Q3: 1.39 (0.93-2.07), Q4: 1.01 (0.67-1.52), Q5: 1 (reference); or survival without major morbidity: Q1: 1.01 (0.70-1.44), Q2: 0.84 (0.58-1.23), Q3: 0.85 (0.58-1.24), Q4: 0.92 (0.63-1.35), Q5: 1 (reference). There were no significant differences in mortality (AOR 1.14 [0.83-1.57]) or in survival without major morbidity (AOR 0.92 [0.67-1.26]) between infants of mothers residing in sparsely populated areas compared to densely populated areas. Maternal residence in a low-income neighbourhood or sparsely populated area was not associated with higher odds of mortality or survival free of major morbidities in extremely preterm infants.

  10. Effect of Soft Drink, Electronic Media Exposure, Family Income, Pocket Money, and Nutritional Status, on Age at Menarche Among Adolescents in Surakarta

    OpenAIRE

    Mirzawati Latifah; Bhisma Murti; Yulia Lanti Retno Dewi

    2017-01-01

    Background: Age at menarche has become earlier for the last 100 years. This situation poses worrying problem as it may be lead to an increased risk of premarital sex, teenage pregnancy, mental unpreparedness, and increased risk of Malignant diseases such as ovarial cancer and breast cancer. This study aimed to determine the effect of soft drink, electronic media exposure, family income, pocket money, and nutritional status, on age at menarche among adolescents in Surakarta. Subjects and Metho...

  11. Epidemics of overweight and obesity among growing childhood in China between 1997 and 2009: Impact of Family Income, Dietary Intake, and Physical Activity Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chang; Zhang, Bing; Wang, You-Fa; Jia, Xiao-Fang; Xue, Hong; Wang, Hui-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Background: Obesity has become a major health problem among children and adolescents worldwide. This study aimed to examine the trends of overweight and obesity among childhood in China and assess their associations with family income, dietary intake, and physical activity (PA) between 1997 and 2009. Methods: Two waves of cross-sectional data of Chinese children and adolescents aged 7–17 years from the China Health and Nutrition Survey were used. Weight and height were measured following standardized procedures. Dietary intake was assessed by 3 consecutive 24-h recalls. Childhood overweight and obesity were defined using the International Obesity Task Force-recommended body mass index cut-offs. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to examine the associations of family income with diet intakes and PA. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the associations of overweight and obesity with family income, dietary intake, and PA. Results: The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity increased from 12.6% in 1997 to 22.1% in 2009, particularly in the medium- and high-family income groups, which increased by 102.7% and 90.3%, respectively. Higher fat intake (% energy), and moderate and vigorous PA were significantly associated with overweight and obesity in final model (odds ratio [OR] = 1.01, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.00–1.02, P = 0.004; and OR = 0.99, 95% CI: 0.98–1.00, P = 0.036, respectively). Conclusions: The prevalence of overweight and obesity among Chinese children and adolescents has increased between 1997 and 2009. Reducing fat intake and increasing PA may help obesity prevention. PMID:26168826

  12. Husband's Alcohol Use, Intimate Partner Violence, and Family Maltreatment of Low-Income Postpartum Women in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagman, Jennifer A; Donta, Balaiah; Ritter, Julie; Naik, D D; Nair, Saritha; Saggurti, Niranjan; Raj, Anita; Silverman, Jay G

    2018-07-01

    Husbands' alcohol use has been associated with family-level stress and intimate partner violence (IPV) against women in India. Joint family systems are common in India and IPV often co-occurs with non-violent family maltreatment of wives (e.g., nutritional deprivation, deprivation of sleep, blocking access to health care). Alcohol use increases for some parents following the birth of a child. This study examined 1,038 postpartum women's reports of their husbands' alcohol use and their own experiences of IPV (by husband) and non-violent maltreatment from husbands and/or in-laws. We analyzed cross-sectional, quantitative data collected in 2008, from women (ages 15-35) seeking immunizations for their infants Mumbai, India. Crude and adjusted logistic regression models estimated associations between the independent variable (husbands' past month use of alcohol) and two dependent variables (postpartum IPV and maltreatment). Overall, 15% of husbands used alcohol, ranging from daily drinkers (10%) to those who drank one to two times per week (54%). Prevalence of postpartum IPV and family maltreatment was 18% and 42%, respectively. Prevalence of IPV among women married to alcohol users was 27%. Most abused women's husbands always (27%) or sometimes (37%) drank during violent episodes. Risk for IPV increased with a man's increasing frequency of consumption. Women who lived with a husband who drank alcohol, relative to non-drinkers, were more likely to report postpartum IPV, aOR = 2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) = [1.3, 3.1]. Husbands' drinking was marginally associated with increased risk for family maltreatment, aOR = 1.4, 95% CI = [1.0, 2.1]. Our findings suggest that men's alcohol use is an important risk factor for postpartum IPV and maltreatment. Targeted services for Indian women contending with these issues are implicated. Postpartum care offers an ideal opportunity to screen for IPV, household maltreatment, and other health risks, such as husband's use of alcohol

  13. Breast Cancer Screening Programmes across the WHO European Region: Differences among Countries Based on National Income Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altobelli, Emma; Rapacchietta, Leonardo; Angeletti, Paolo Matteo; Barbante, Luca; Profeta, Filippo Valerio; Fagnano, Roberto

    2017-04-23

    Breast cancer (BC) is the most frequent tumour affecting women all over the world. In low- and middle-income countries, where its incidence is expected to rise further, BC seems set to become a public health emergency. The aim of the present study is to provide a systematic review of current BC screening programmes in WHO European Region to identify possible patterns. Multiple correspondence analysis was performed to evaluate the association among: measures of occurrence; GNI level; type of BC screening programme; organization of public information and awareness campaigns regarding primary prevention of modifiable risk factors; type of BC screening services; year of screening institution; screening coverage and data quality. A key difference between High Income (HI) and Low and Middle Income (LMI) States, emerging from the present data, is that in the former screening programmes are well organized, with approved screening centres, the presence of mobile units to increase coverage, the offer of screening tests free of charge; the fairly high quality of occurrence data based on high-quality sources, and the adoption of accurate methods to estimate incidence and mortality. In conclusion, the governments of LMI countries should allocate sufficient resources to increase screening participation and they should improve the accuracy of incidence and mortality rates.

  14. Intake of Seafood in the US Varies by Age, Income, and Education Level but Not by Race-Ethnicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Jahns

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Current US federal dietary guidance recommends regular consumption of seafood (fish + shellfish to promote health; however, little is known about how well Americans meet the guideline, particularly population subgroups that may be at risk for inadequate intake. The purposes of this study were to describe the prevalence of seafood consumption and, among consumers, the amounts of seafood eaten by sex, age group, income and education level, and race-ethnicity. Data from 15,407 adults aged 19+ participating in the 2005–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were analyzed using methods to account for sporadic intake of seafood. Over 80% of Americans reported consuming any seafood over the past 30 days, 74% reported consuming fish, and 54% reported eating shellfish. The percentages varied by socio-demographic group. Younger age and lower income and education levels were associated with lower odds of being a seafood consumer (p < 0.0001. Among those who reported eating seafood, the average amount eaten of any seafood was 158.2 ± 5.6 g/week. Among seafood consumers, women and individuals of lower age and education levels consumed less seafood. Approximately 80%–90% of seafood consumers did not meet seafood recommendations when needs were estimated by energy requirements. A great deal of work remains to move Americans toward seafood consumption at current recommended levels.

  15. Income dynamics and the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore-Sheppard, Lara D

    2014-12-01

    To examine the sources of family income dynamics leading to movement into and out of Medicaid expansion and subsidy eligibility under the Affordable Care Act. Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP): 1996, 2001, 2004, 2008 panels. Considering four broad subsidy eligibility categories for monthly Modified Adjusted Gross Income (MAGI) (400 percent FPL), I use duration analysis to examine determinants of movements between categories over the course of a year. Using detailed monthly data, I determine the members of tax-filing units and calculate an approximation of MAGI at the monthly level. The analysis sample is adults ages 22-64 years. Incomes are highly variable within a year, particularly at the lower end of the income distribution. Employment transitions, including transitions not involving a period of nonemployment, and family structure changes strongly predict sufficient income volatility to trigger a change in subsidy category. Income volatility arising from employment and family structure changes is likely to trigger changes in subsidy eligibility within the year, but the sources and effects of the volatility differ substantially depending on the individual's position in the income distribution. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  16. The Function of Credit Scheme to Improve Family Income among Beef Cattle Farmers in Central Java Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyo, E.; Ekowati, T.; Roessali, W.; Gayatri, S.

    2018-02-01

    The aims of study were: (i) identify of beef cattle fattening credit scheme, (ii) calculating and analyze of beef cattle farmers’ income, (iii) analyze of factors influencing beef cattle credit scheme towards farmer’s income. The research was held in five regencies in Central Java Province. Beef cattle fattening farm was standardized as an elementary unit. Survey method was used, while Two Stage Cluster Purposive Sampling was used for determining of sample. Data were analyzed using statistical method of quantitative descriptive and inferential statistics in term of income analysis and multiple linear regression models. The result showed that farmers used their own capital to run the farm. The average amount was IDR 10,769,871. Kredit Ketahanan Pangan dan Energi was credit scheme which was dominantly access by farmers. The average credit was IDR 23,312,200/farmer with rate of credit equal to 6.46%, the time of credit returning equal to 24.60 monthand the prediction of average collateral equal to IDR 35,800,00. The average of farmers’ income was IDR 4,361,611.60/2.96 head of beef cattle/fattening period. If the labour cost did not calculate as a cost production, hence the farmer’ income was IDR 7,608,630.41 or in other word the farmer’ income increase 74.44%. Factors of credit scheme which partially significant influence to the farmers’ income were number of own capital usage and value of credit collateral. Meanwhile, name of credit scheme, financing institution as a creditor, amount of credit, rate of credit scheme and time of returning credit were not significantly influence towards farmers’ income.

  17. Race, Income, and Education: Associations with Patient and Family Ratings of End-of-Life Care and Communication Provided by Physicians-in-Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelberg, Ruth A.; Downey, Lois; Kross, Erin K.; Reinke, Lynn F.; Cecere Feemster, Laura; Dotolo, Danae; Ford, Dee W.; Back, Anthony L.; Curtis, J. Randall

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Minority race and lower socioeconomic status are associated with poorer patient ratings of health care quality and provider communication. Objective: To examine the association of race/ethnicity or socioeconomic status with patients' and families' ratings of end-of-life care and communication about end-of-life care provided by physicians-in-training. Methods: As a component of a randomized trial evaluating a program designed to improve clinician communication about end-of-life care, patients and patients' families completed preintervention survey data regarding care and communication provided by internal medicine residents and medical subspecialty fellows. We examined associations between patient and family race or socioeconomic status and ratings they gave trainees on two questionnaires: the Quality of End-of-Life Care (QEOLC) and Quality of Communication (QOC). Results: Patients from racial/ethnic minority groups, patients with lower income, and patients with lower educational attainment gave trainees higher ratings on the end-of-life care subscale of the QOC (QOCeol). In path models, patient educational attainment and income had a direct effect on outcomes, while race/ethnicity did not. Lower family educational attainment was also associated with higher trainee ratings on the QOCeol, while family non-white race was associated with lower trainee ratings on the QEOLC and general subscale of the QOC. Conclusions: Patient race is associated with perceptions of the quality of communication about end-of-life care provided by physicians-in-training, but the association was opposite to our hypothesis and appears to be mediated by socioeconomic status. Family member predictors of these perceptions differ from those observed for patients. Further investigation of these associations may guide interventions to improve care delivered to patients and families. PMID:24592958

  18. Race, income, and education: associations with patient and family ratings of end-of-life care and communication provided by physicians-in-training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Ann C; Engelberg, Ruth A; Downey, Lois; Kross, Erin K; Reinke, Lynn F; Cecere Feemster, Laura; Dotolo, Danae; Ford, Dee W; Back, Anthony L; Curtis, J Randall

    2014-04-01

    Minority race and lower socioeconomic status are associated with poorer patient ratings of health care quality and provider communication. To examine the association of race/ethnicity or socioeconomic status with patients' and families' ratings of end-of-life care and communication about end-of-life care provided by physicians-in-training. As a component of a randomized trial evaluating a program designed to improve clinician communication about end-of-life care, patients and patients' families completed preintervention survey data regarding care and communication provided by internal medicine residents and medical subspecialty fellows. We examined associations between patient and family race or socioeconomic status and ratings they gave trainees on two questionnaires: the Quality of End-of-Life Care (QEOLC) and Quality of Communication (QOC). Patients from racial/ethnic minority groups, patients with lower income, and patients with lower educational attainment gave trainees higher ratings on the end-of-life care subscale of the QOC (QOCeol). In path models, patient educational attainment and income had a direct effect on outcomes, while race/ethnicity did not. Lower family educational attainment was also associated with higher trainee ratings on the QOCeol, while family non-white race was associated with lower trainee ratings on the QEOLC and general subscale of the QOC. Patient race is associated with perceptions of the quality of communication about end-of-life care provided by physicians-in-training, but the association was opposite to our hypothesis and appears to be mediated by socioeconomic status. Family member predictors of these perceptions differ from those observed for patients. Further investigation of these associations may guide interventions to improve care delivered to patients and families.

  19. Impact of income and income inequality on infant health outcomes in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Maren E; Diekema, Douglas; Elliott, Barbara A; Renier, Colleen M

    2010-12-01

    The goal was to investigate the relationships of income and income inequality with neonatal and infant health outcomes in the United States. The 2000-2004 state data were extracted from the Kids Count Data Center. Health indicators included proportion of preterm births (PTBs), proportion of infants with low birth weight (LBW), proportion of infants with very low birth weight (VLBW), and infant mortality rate (IMR). Income was evaluated on the basis of median family income and proportion of federal poverty levels; income inequality was measured by using the Gini coefficient. Pearson correlations evaluated associations between the proportion of children living in poverty and the health indicators. Linear regression evaluated predictive relationships between median household income, proportion of children living in poverty, and income inequality for the 4 health indicators. Median family income was negatively correlated with all birth outcomes (PTB, r = -0.481; LBW, r = -0.295; VLBW, r = -0.133; IMR, r = -0.432), and the Gini coefficient was positively correlated (PTB, r = 0.339; LBW, r = 0.398; VLBW, r = 0.460; IMR, r = 0.114). The Gini coefficient explained a significant proportion of the variance in rate for each outcome in linear regression models with median family income. Among children living in poverty, the role of income decreased as the degree of poverty decreased, whereas the role of income inequality increased. Both income and income inequality affect infant health outcomes in the United States. The health of the poorest infants was affected more by absolute wealth than relative wealth.

  20. Parental coping, depressive symptoms, and children's asthma control and school attendance in low-income, racially, and ethnically diverse urban families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Erin M; Kumar, Harsha; Alba-Suarez, Juliana; Sánchez-Johnsen, Lisa

    2017-10-01

    Low-income urban children of color are at elevated risk for poor asthma control. This cross-sectional study examined associations among parents' coping (primary control, secondary control, and disengagement), parental depressive symptoms, and children's asthma outcomes (asthma control and school attendance) in a predominantly low-income, racially/ethnically diverse sample of families. Parents (N = 78; 90% female) of children (33% female; 46% Black; 38% Latino) aged 5-17 years (M = 9.5 years) reported on their own coping and depressive symptoms, their child's asthma control, and full and partial days of school missed due to asthma. Parents' secondary control coping (i.e., coping efforts to accommodate/adapt to asthma-related stressors) was negatively correlated, and disengagement coping (i.e. coping efforts to avoid/detach from stressors) was positively correlated, with their depressive symptoms. Secondary control coping was also correlated with fewer partial days of school missed. Primary control coping (i.e., coping efforts to change stressors) was not associated with depressive symptoms or asthma outcomes. Parents' depressive symptoms were also positively correlated with poorer asthma control and partial days of school missed. Regression models showed direct and indirect effects of secondary control and disengagement coping on asthma outcomes via depressive symptoms, after controlling for demographic factors. Parents' secondary control and disengagement coping are related to children's asthma outcomes. Secondary control coping may support parents' mental health and children's asthma control in low-income urban families.

  1. Job Level, Demands, and Resources as Antecedents of Work-Family Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiRenzo, Marco S.; Greenhaus, Jeffrey H.; Weer, Chisty H.

    2011-01-01

    Although substantial research has examined the conflict that employees experience between their work and family roles, the literature has not investigated the prevalence and antecedents of work-family conflict for individuals who work at different levels of an organization. This study examines differences in work-family conflict (work interference…

  2. Risk, Conflict, Mothers' Parenting, and Children's Adjustment in Low-Income, Mexican Immigrant, and Mexican American Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumka, Larry E.; Roosa, Mark W.; Jackson, Kristina M.

    1997-01-01

    Reports on a test of a risk-stress process model. Examines the influence of mothers' supportive parenting and inconsistent discipline practices on risk factors and family conflict as these affect children's conduct disorder and depression. Tests on 121 families indicate that mothers' supportive patenting partially mediated family conflict effects…

  3. The relative importance of community forests, government forests, and private forests for household-level incomes in the Middle Hills of Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oli, Bishwa Nath; Treue, Thorsten; Smith-Hall, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the household-level economic importance of income from forests under different tenure arrangements, data were collected from 304 stratified randomly sampled households within 10 villages with community forest user groups in Tanahun District, Western Nepal. We observed that forest...... realisation of community forestry's poverty reduction and income equalizing potential requires modifications of rules that govern forest extraction and pricing at community forest user group level....

  4. MEASURING LEVEL OF ACCEPTANCE OF PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIESAND THEIR FAMILIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HARAZ Svetlana

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The group of persons with disabilities represents a group at immediate risk of social exclusion. Different researchers offer us analyses of the phenomenon of exclusion of different groups of population, but we can find very few studies regarding the measurement of social distance towards the groups at risk of exclusion. We set the goal to measure the Indices of Social Distance (ISD towards the following groups: family that cares the child with disabilities; adult person with disabilities and the child with disabilities. The measurement was performed using the instrument – Bogardus Scale. According to this technique, we have: if the distance is bigger, than the social group is lesser accepted. The minimum ISD counted for our researched groups: the family caring child/ children with disabilities; adult persons with disabilities and children/adolescents with disabilities, confirms the fact that the social distance expressed by people towards these groups is minimal respectively the groups are accepted.

  5. Social Determinants of Active Aging: Differences in Mortality and the Loss of Healthy Life between Different Income Levels among Older Japanese in the AGES Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Hirai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the relationship between income, mortality, and loss of years of healthy life in a sample of older persons in Japan. We analyzed 22,829 persons aged 65 or older who were functionally independent at baseline as a part of the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study (AGES. Two outcome measures were adopted, mortality and loss of healthy life. Independent variables were income level and age. The occurrence of mortality and need for care during these 1,461 days were tracked. Cox regressions were used to calculate the hazard ratio for mortality and loss of healthy life by income level. We found that people with lower incomes were more likely than those with higher incomes to report worse health. For the overall sample, using the governmental administrative data, the hazard ratios of mortality and loss of healthy life-years comparing the lowest to the highest income level were 3.50 for men and 2.48 for women for mortality and 3.71 for men and 2.27 for women for loss of healthy life. When only those who responded to questions about income on the mail survey were included in the analysis, the relationships became weaker and lost statistical significance.

  6. Do racial inequities in infant mortality correspond to variations in societal conditions? A study of state-level income inequality in the U.S., 1992-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Arjumand; Jones, Marcella K; Bruce, Donald J; Erwin, Paul C

    2016-09-01

    Prior studies have examined the association between income inequality and overall infant mortality rates (IMR). We examine effects of income inequality on racial inequities in IMR over the period 1992-2007 in the U.S. Race-specific state IMR data were obtained from 1992 to 2007, from which absolute and relative IMR inequities were calculated. Fixed and random effects models, adjusted for state-level median income, percent poverty, percent high school graduates, and unemployment rate, were used to determine contemporaneous and lagged state-level associations between income inequality and racial IMR inequities. Racial IMR inequities varied significantly across the U.S. Contemporaneous income inequality was negatively associated with white IMR only. Two-year lagged income inequality was negatively associated with black IMR and had the most pronounced effect on racial inequities in IMR. Future studies should consider lagged effects of income inequality on IMR and other health outcomes, and should examine other potential societal conditions that may account for state-level variations in racial IMR inequities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Neighbourhood Deprivation, Individual-Level Familial and Socio-Demographic Factors and Diagnosed Childhood Obesity: A Nationwide Multilevel Study from Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinjun Li

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To examine whether there is an association between neighbourhood deprivation and diagnosed childhood obesity, after accounting for family- and individual-level socio-demographic characteristics. Methods: An open cohort of all children aged 0-14 years was followed between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2010. Childhood residential locations were geocoded and classified according to neighbourhood deprivation. Data were analysed by multilevel logistic regression, with family- and individual-level characteristics at the first level and level of neighbourhood deprivation at the second level. Results: During the study period, among a total of 948,062 children, 10,799 were diagnosed with childhood obesity. Age-adjusted cumulative incidence for diagnosed childhood obesity increased with increasing level of neighbourhood deprivation. Incidence of diagnosed childhood obesity increased with increasing neighbourhood-level deprivation across all family and individual-level socio-demographic categories. The odds ratio (OR for diagnosed childhood obesity for those living in high-deprivation neighbourhoods versus those living in low-deprivation neighbourhoods was 2.44 (95% confidence interval (CI = 2.22-2.68. High neighbourhood deprivation remained significantly associated with higher odds of diagnosed childhood obesity after adjustment for family- and individual-level socio-demographic characteristics (OR = 1.70, 95% CI = 1.55-1.89. Age, middle level family income, maternal marital status, low level education, living in large cities, advanced paternal and maternal age, family history of obesity, parental history of diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, alcoholism and personal history of diabetes were all associated with higher odds of diagnosed childhood obesity. Conclusions: Our results suggest that neighbourhood characteristics affect the odds of diagnosed childhood obesity independently of family- and individual-level socio

  8. College Affordability for Low-Income Adults: Improving Returns on Investment for Families and Society. Report #C412

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gault, Barbara; Reichlin, Lindsey; Román, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    This report examines how efforts to understand and improve college affordability can be informed by the experiences and circumstances of low-income adults, students of color, and students with dependent children. The report discusses how the time and financial demands associated with financial independence, parenthood, and work affect a student's…

  9. Multi-level intervention to prevent influenza infections in older low income and minority adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schensul, Jean J; Radda, Kim; Coman, Emil; Vazquez, Elsie

    2009-06-01

    In this paper we describe a successful multi-level participatory intervention grounded in principles of individual and group empowerment, and guided by social construction theory. The intervention addressed known and persistent inequities in influenza vaccination among African American and Latino older adults, and associated infections, hospitalizations and mortality. It was designed to increase resident ability to make informed decisions about vaccination, and to build internal and external infrastructure to support sustainability over time. The intervention brought a group of social scientists, vaccine researchers, geriatricians, public health nurses, elder services providers and advocates together with senior housing management and activist African American and Latino residents living in public senior housing in a small east coast city. Two buildings of equal size and similar ethnic composition were randomized as intervention and control buildings. Pre and post intervention surveys were conducted in both buildings, measuring knowledge, attitudes and peer norms. Processes and outcomes were documented at four levels: Influenza Strategic Alliance (macro and exo levels), building management (meso level), building resident committee (meso level) and individual residents. The Influenza Strategic Alliance (I.S.A.) provided ongoing resources, information and vaccine; the building management provided economic and other in-kind resources and supported residents to continue flu clinics in the building. The V.I.P. Resident Committee conducted flu campaigns with flu clinics in English and Spanish. The vaccination rate in the intervention building at post test exceeded the study goal of 70% and showed a significant improvement over the control building. The intervention achieved desired outcomes at all four levels and resulted in a significant increase in influenza vaccination, and improvements in pro-vaccination knowledge, beliefs, and understanding of health consequences.

  10. Trends and Divergences in Childhood Income Dynamics, 1970-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Heather D

    2018-01-01

    Earnings and income variability have increased since the 1970s, particularly at the bottom of the income distribution. Considerable evidence suggests that childhood income levels-captured as average or point-in-time yearly income-are associated with numerous child and adult outcomes. The importance to child development of stable proximal processes during childhood suggests that income variability may also be important, particularly if it is unpredictable, unintentional, or does not reflect an upward trend in family income. Using the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, this study documents trends since the 1970s in three dimensions of childhood income dynamics: level, variability, and growth (n=7991). The analysis reveals that income variability during childhood has grown over time, while income growth rates have not. In addition, the economic context of childhood has diverged substantially by socioeconomic status, race, and family structure, with the most disadvantaged children facing a double-whammy of low income and high variability. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. 42 CFR 435.622 - Individuals in institutions who are eligible under a special income level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... THE STATES, DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA, THE NORTHERN MARIANA ISLANDS, AND AMERICAN SAMOA General Financial..., nursing facilities, and intermediate care facilities for the mentally retarded who would not be eligible... (hospital, nursing facility, or intermediate level care for the mentally retarded), or by other factors...

  12. Perceptions of Family Among Low-Income Patients With Diabetes in a Text-Based Mobile Health Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burner, Elizabeth R E; Menchine, Michael D; Kubicek, Katrina; Robles, Marisela; Kagawa Singer, Marjorie; Arora, Sanjay

    2018-04-01

    Diabetes disproportionately affects the US Latino population, due to socioeconomic pressures, genetics, reduced access to care and cultural practices. While efforts to improve self-care through interventions incorporating family are highly rated by Latinos, family can be both supportive and obstructive. To develop effective interventions, this role needs clarification. We conducted group interviews in Spanish and English with 24 participants with diabetes from a mobile health diabetes self-care intervention. We imported transcripts into Dedoose, a qualitative computer analysis program and analyzed them with a modified grounded theory technique. Utilizing an iterative process, we reexamined transcripts with new codes derived in each round of analysis until saturation was reached. We employed techniques to improve trustworthiness (co-coding, member checking). Broad categorical themes arose from the initial codes and were developed into a conceptual model of barriers to and strategies for diabetes management. Family and family responsibilities emerged as both a supportive and obstructive force for diabetes self-care. While the desire to care for family motivated patients, food at family gatherings and pressure from managing multiple family responsibilities contributed to poor diet choices. Yet, some patients believed their diabetes caused their immediate family to make healthier choices. Among these predominantly Latino patients, family and family responsibilities were key motivators as well as obstacles to self-care, particularly regarding nutrition. Finding the ideal design for social support mHealth-based interventions will require careful study and creation of culturally based programs to match the needs of specific populations, and may require educating family members to provide effective social support.

  13. Family-Level Coparenting Processes and Child Gender as Moderators of Family Stress and Toddler Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolak, Amy M.; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this multi-method study was to examine how child gender and coparenting processes influence associations between family stress and toddlers' social adjustment. The participants, 104 dual-earner couples and their 2-year-old children, were videotaped in their home during a freeplay activity. Mothers and fathers completed questionnaires…

  14. And still WE rise: Parent-child relationships, resilience, and school readiness in low-income urban Black families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Riana Elyse

    2018-02-01

    The Family Stress Model acknowledges forms of resilience in the face of hardship; however, few studies have emerged on the potentially positive role of familial relationships in the academic, psychological, and prosocial success of impoverished Black children. The current study evaluates how parent-child relationship conflict and financial stress are associated with children's school readiness (i.e., academic, psychosocial, and socioemotional indicators). Latent profile analyses, incorporating financial stress, general stress, and parent-child relationship variables were used to test whether varying family stress profiles differentially predicted children's school readiness in Black families with children entering kindergarten (N = 292). Findings revealed 4 latent classifications with profiles of low, moderate, moderate/high, and high/moderate stress and conflict variables, respectively. Whereas the low-profile was associated with the most desirable school readiness indicators overall, children in the high/moderate-profile were rated as significantly more psychosocially and socioemotionally prepared for school than their moderate/high-profile counterparts. Families with less conflictual parent-child relationships had more optimal school readiness relative to families with higher conflict and less financial strain. The findings of the current study have the potential to contribute to theories of poverty and parent-child relationships, as well as guide therapeutic services focused on family relationships through school- and community-related programs for impoverished urban Black youth and their families. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Fiscal and accounting policies on the income taxes. Conciliation between accounting and taxation at the company’s level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Elena ANTON

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to develop commercial relations, the harmonization of the tax system with the accountancy of the company is oriented towards the elaboration of accounting policies pursuing the interest of the management to enforce the development strategies and sending the necessary information to the shareholders in order to underlie the economic decisions. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the relation accounting – taxation and the tendency in the approach of this relation showed by the managers of the companies from the point of view of income tax. The research methods took into consideration qualitative methods. The reading and systematization of the specialty literature enabled an overview of the accounting – taxation and shaped an action direction for the harmonization process intensification at the company’s level.

  16. The Relations among Maternal Health Status, Parenting Stress, and Child Behavior Problems in Low-Income, Ethnic-Minority Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    BeLue, Rhonda; Halgunseth, Linda C.; Abiero, Beatrice; Bediako, Phylicia

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Minimal attention has been given to understanding parenting stress among low-income, ethnically diverse mothers of children with conduct problems. Maternal health and parenting hassles may serve as important risk factors for parenting stress. This study examined whether parenting hassles moderated the relations between maternal physical and mental health and parenting stress in a sample of low-income, ethnically diverse mothers of children with behavioral problems. Methods The sample included 177 low-income Black, Latina, and White mothers of kindergartners with behavior problems. PATH analysis was employed to assess the associations between maternal mental and physical health and parenting stress, as well as the moderating role of parenting hassles in this cross-sectional study. Results After adjusting for covariates, we found that parenting hassles mediates the relationship between social support and parenting stress as well as maternal health and parenting stress. Conclusion Findings suggest that promoting coping resources for daily parenting hassles and supporting the physical and mental health of minority mothers may have important implications for parenting children with high behavior problems. PMID:26863556

  17. A Supermarket Double-Dollar Incentive Program Increases Purchases of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables Among Low-Income Families With Children: The Healthy Double Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polacsek, Michele; Moran, Alyssa; Thorndike, Anne N; Boulos, Rebecca; Franckle, Rebecca L; Greene, Julie C; Blue, Dan J; Block, Jason P; Rimm, Eric B

    2018-03-01

    To carry out a pilot study to determine whether a supermarket double-dollar fruit and vegetable (F&V) incentive increases F&V purchases among low-income families. Randomized controlled design. Purchases were tracked using a loyalty card that provided participants with a 5% discount on all purchases during a 3-month baseline period followed by the 4-month intervention. A supermarket in a low-income rural Maine community. A total of 401 low-income and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) supermarket customers. Same-day coupon at checkout for half-off eligible fresh, frozen, or canned F&V over 4 months. Weekly spending in dollars on eligible F&V. A linear model with random intercepts accounted for repeated transactions by individuals to estimate change in F&V spending per week from baseline to intervention. Secondary analyses examined changes among SNAP-eligible participants. Coupons were redeemed among 53% of eligible baskets. Total weekly F&V spending increased in the intervention arm compared with control ($1.83; 95% confidence interval [CI], $0.29 to $3.88). The largest increase was for fresh F&V ($1.97; 95% CI, $0.49 to $3.44). Secondary analyses revealed greater increases in F&V spending among SNAP-eligible participants who redeemed coupons ($5.14; 95% CI, $1.93 to $8.34) than among non-SNAP eligible participants who redeemed coupons ($3.88; 95% CI, $1.67 to $6.08). A double-dollar pricing incentive increased F&V spending in a low-income community despite the moderate uptake of the coupon redemption. Customers who were eligible for SNAP saw the greatest F&V spending increases. Financial incentives for F&V are an effective strategy for food assistance programs to increase healthy purchases and improve dietary intake in low-income families. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Family firms and earnings management in Brazil: an analysis under the perspective of the take a bath and of the income smoothing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio Almeida-Santos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the characteristics of family businesses, these are different from not-familiar companies, especially regarding its centralizing power and conservative, long-term strategic plans for the purpose of perpetuation of its business, while safeguarding the capital of the family group. For these and other reasons, family businesses have drawn the attention of researchers, especially in identifying the level of relationship between family ownership and the results of these companies. Opportunely, the purpose of this article theoretical-empirical, quantitative, documentary and descriptive, is to identify whether family-properties companies differ from other companies as not-familiar average production discretionary accruals, and as the coefficient of variation of profits on the change in sales; and identify the level of respect of family ownership with the practice of take a bath (production of negative discretionary accruals and smoothing (smoothing results among public companies Brazilian listed on the BM&FBOVESPA® in the period 2000-2010 . The results initially showed that family businesses tend to produce more negative discretionary accruals, as well as coefficients of variation of the ratio of profits on sales markedly more negative, causing them to differentiate themselves from other non-family businesses. Results obtained through logistic regression (logit and probit models, shows that family ownership is positively related to both the practice of take a bath as with smoothing, with the latter being a more statistically significant relationship.

  19. Salário mínimo, benefício previdenciário e as famílias de baixa renda Minimum wage, social security benefits and low-income families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Salvadori Dedecca

    2006-12-01

    the fragility of the income of these families and the consequences of the gap between their income and the minimum wage for this pattern of income. Characteristics of the members of low-income families showed that, in view of the structural changes in the production process and the current juncture of the Brazilian economy, persons of active working age lack the pre-requisites for participating with dignity in the world of labor. A study of the composition of the income of the poorest families shows that the income of inactive members (retired persons and pension receivers is essential in preventing these families from falling below the poverty line. The profile of the members of such families is analyzed on the basis of microdata from the National Household Survey by Sample (PNAD/IBGE of 2004, according to age, educational level, color or ethnic group, and participation in the labor market, strictly speaking. Factors studied include the type of work exercised and the position in the occupation. The comparison of the profile of members of the poorest families with that of all families shows that the income of retired members and pension receivers are essential not only in reducing the fall in inequality, but basically in reducing poverty itself.

  20. The Emergence of Family-specific Support Constructs: Cross-level Effects of Family-supportive Supervision and Family-Supportive Organization Perceptions on Individual Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Rachel T; Matthews, Russell A; Walsh, Benjamin M

    2016-12-01

    Implicit to the definitions of both family-supportive supervision (FSS) and family-supportive organization perceptions (FSOP) is the argument that these constructs may manifest at a higher (e.g. group or organizational) level. In line with these conceptualizations, grounded in tenants of conservation of resources theory, we argue that FSS and FSOP, as universal resources, are emergent constructs at the organizational level, which have cross-level effects on work-family conflict and turnover intentions. To test our theoretically derived hypotheses, a multilevel model was examined in which FSS and FSOP at the unit level predict individual work-to-family conflict, which in turn predicts turnover intentions. Our hypothesized model was generally supported. Collectively, our results point to FSOP serving as an explanatory mechanism of the effects that mutual perceptions of FSS have on individual experiences of work-to-family conflict and turnover intentions. Lagged (i.e. overtime) cross-level effects of the model were also confirmed in supplementary analyses. Our results extend our theoretical understanding of FSS and FSOP by demonstrating the utility of conceptualizing them as universal resources, opening up a variety of avenues for future research. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Impact of the Bolsa Família program on food availability of low-income Brazilian families: a quasi experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Ana Paula Bortoletto; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2016-08-19

    The Bolsa Família Program was created in Brazil in 2003, by the joint of different social programs aimed at poor or very poor families with focus on income transfer to promote immediate poverty relief, conditionalities and complementary programs. Given the contributions of conditional cash transfer programs to poverty alleviation and their potential effects on nutrition and health, the objective of this study was to assess the impact of the Bolsa Família Program on food purchases of low-income households in Brazil. Representative data from the Household Budget Survey conducted in 2008-2009 were studied, with probabilistic sample of 55,970 households. 11,282 households were eligible for this study and 48.5 % were beneficiaries of the BFP. Food availability indicators were compared among paired blocks of households (n = 100), beneficiaries or non-beneficiaries of the Bolsa Família Program, with monthly per capita income up to R$ 210.00. Blocks of households were created based on the propensity score of each household to have beneficiaries and were homogeneous regarding potential confounding variables. The food availability indicators were weekly per capita expenditure and daily energy consumption, both calculated considering all food items and four food groups based on the extent and purpose of the industrial food processing. The comparisons between the beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries blocks of households were conducted through paired 't' tests. Compared to non-beneficiaries, the beneficiaries households had 6 % higher food expenditure (p = 0.015) and 9.4 % higher total energy availability (p = 0.010). It was found a 7.3 % higher expenditure on in natura or minimally processed foods and 10.4 % higher expenditure on culinary ingredients among the Bolsa Família Program families. No statistically significant differences were found regarding the expenditure and the availability of processed and ultra-processed food and drink products. In the in

  2. The effects of family income on the relationship of various anthropometric parameters with blood pressure in male population of Multan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, T.H.; Rana, S.A.; Mahmud, Z.

    2003-01-01

    A randomly selected sample of 497 human males, ageing from 18 to 90 years and representing different ethnic and socio-economic groups of Multan was taken. Income (Rs.), height (cm), weight(kg), BMI (kg m/sup -2), circumferences and blood pres one of the six different income groups i.e., 25000.Mean values plus minus SEM of income, weight, height, BMI, arm, neck, waist, hips and total circumferences, were 13881.6 plus minus 1835.6, 64.0 plus minus 0.5, 171.6 plus minus 2.9, 21.5 plus minus 0.2, 26.5 plus minus 0.1, 36.2 plus minus 0.1, 81.4 plus minus 0.5, 93.0 plus minus 0.4 and 237.2 plus minus 0.9 respectively. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), pulse pressure (PP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were 122.2 plus minus 0.5, 80.7 plus minus 0.4, 41.5 plus minus 0.5 and 94.5 plus minus 0.4 respectively. All these parameters were also recorded and analysed in different income groups. The prevalence of obesity and hypertension was found to be 3.6% and 11.4% in the total sample. The correlation and regression coefficients between different independent (income, weight, height, BMI, circumferences) and dependent (SBP, DBP, PP and MAP) parameters were calculated and it was observed that there was a strong association between different parameters (P<0.01 or P<0.05). The regression coefficients of BMI with SBP, DBP, PP and MAP were 0.744 mmHg, 0.449 mmHg, 0.296 mmHg and 0.551 per unit of BMI, respectively (P<0.001). The arm, neck, waist, hip and total circumference had regression coefficients with SBP, DBP, and MAP as, arm 0.879, 0.547, 0.667, neck 1.020, 0.660, 0.788, waist 0.244, 0.162, 0.149, hip 0.348, 0.181, 0.238 and total 0.142, 0.855, 0.105 (P<0.01) respectively. It was found that weight and BMI are more important for the prediction of blood pressure whereas all the circumferences had weak association with blood pressure. (author)

  3. Optimum level of salt in French-type bread. Influence of income status, salt level in daily bread consumption, and test location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, M; Flores, A; Hough, G; Apro, N; Ferreyra, V; Orbea, M M

    2008-10-01

    The objectives of the present study were to measure the ideal salt concentration in French-type bread among Argentine consumers in a home-usage-test (HUT) considering income status and salt content of daily bread consumption as covariables, and to compare the ideal salt concentrations measured in a HUT and a central-location test (CLT). For the HUT, 420 consumers each received a sample of bread with a single salt concentration, and for the CLT, 100 consumers each received 7 samples with different salt concentrations. For each sample, consumers responded if they found the bread "not-salty-enough,"okay," or "too-salty." Neither income level nor salt content of daily bread influenced probability of rejection. The optimum sodium concentrations (milligrams per 100 g of bread dry basis) +/- 95% confidence limits for the HUT and CLT were 980 +/- 74 and 1157 +/- 87, respectively. These values are substantially higher than 628, the mean sodium content of the bread sampled from the bakery shops where consumers bought their daily bread.

  4. The Level of Shyness among Talented Students in Light of Socio-Economic Level of the Family in Riyadh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asi, Khaled Yousef

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to identify the level of shyness among talented students in the city of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and detect differences according to the variable of socio-economic level of the family. The sample consisted of (101) students, who randomly chosen from centers of talented students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Shyness scale utilized…

  5. Rural eHealth nutrition education for limited-income families: an iterative and user-centered design approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Nancy L; Saperstein, Sandra L; Desmond, Sharon M; Gold, Robert S; Billing, Amy S; Tian, Jing

    2009-06-22

    Adult women living in rural areas have high rates of obesity. Although rural populations have been deemed hard to reach, Internet-based programming is becoming a viable strategy as rural Internet access increases. However, when people are able to get online, they may not find information designed for them and their needs, especially harder to reach populations. This results in a "content gap" for many users. User-centered design is a methodology that can be used to create appropriate online materials. This research was conducted to apply a user-centered approach to the design and development of a health promotion website for low-income mothers living in rural Maryland. Three iterative rounds of concept testing were conducted to (1) identify the name and content needs of the site and assess concerns about registering on a health-related website; (2) determine the tone and look of the website and confirm content and functionality; and (3) determine usability and acceptability. The first two rounds involved focus group and small group discussions, and the third round involved usability testing with individual women as they used the prototype system. The formative research revealed that women with limited incomes were enthusiastic about a website providing nutrition and physical activity information targeted to their incomes and tailored to their personal goals and needs. Other priority content areas identified were budgeting, local resources and information, and content that could be used with their children. Women were able to use the prototype system effectively. This research demonstrated that user-centered design strategies can help close the "content gap" for at-risk audiences.

  6. Scaling-up access to family planning may improve linear growth and child development in low and middle income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Günther; Sudfeld, Christopher R; Danaei, Goodarz; Ezzati, Majid; Fawzi, Wafaie W

    2014-01-01

    A large literature has indicated a robust association between birth spacing and child survival, but evidence on the association of birth timing with physical growth in low and middle income countries (LMICs) remains limited. Data from 153 cross-sectional Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) across 61 LMICs conducted between 1990 and 2011 were combined to assess the association of birth timing with child stunting (height-for-age z-score Middle East and North Africa sample. Postponing the age of first birth and increasing inter-pregnancy intervals has the potential to significantly reduce the prevalence of stunting and improve child development in LMICs.

  7. Farm Fresh Foods for Healthy Kids (F3HK: An innovative community supported agriculture intervention to prevent childhood obesity in low-income families and strengthen local agricultural economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca A. Seguin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity persists in the United States and is associated with serious health problems. Higher rates of obesity among children from disadvantaged households may be, in part, attributable to disparities in access to healthy foods such as fruits and vegetables. Community supported agriculture can improve access to and consumption of fresh produce, but the upfront payment structure, logistical barriers, and unfamiliarity with produce items may inhibit participation by low-income families. The aim of this project is to assess the impact of subsidized, or “cost-offset,” community supported agriculture participation coupled with tailored nutrition education for low-income families with children. Methods/design The Farm Fresh Foods for Healthy Kids community-based, randomized intervention trial will build on formative and longitudinal research to examine the impact of cost-offset community supported agriculture on diet and other health behaviors as well as the economic impacts on local economies. The intervention will involve reduced-price community supported agriculture shares which can be paid for on a weekly basis, nine skill-based and seasonally-tailored healthy eating classes, and the provision of basic kitchen tools. Low income families with at least one child aged 2–12 years will be recruited to join existing community supported agriculture programs in New York, North Carolina, Vermont, and Washington. In each program, families will be randomized 1:1 to intervention or delayed intervention groups. Data will be collected at baseline, and in the fall and spring for 3 years. The primary outcomes are children’s intake of fruits and vegetables and foods high in sugar and/or (solid fat, as well as diet quality; secondary outcomes include physical, behavioral, psychosocial, and environmental variables. Cost-effectiveness and economic impact at the farm and community levels also will be assessed. Discussion This

  8. O Bolsa Família: problematizando questões centrais na política de transferência de renda no Brasil The Family Allowance Program: reflecting on core issues in Brazil's income transfer policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ozanira da Silva e Silva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O Programa Bolsa Família foi criado em 2003 com o objetivo de unificar os Programas de Transferência de Renda iniciados em nível municipal, estadual e federal desde 1995. É concebido como uma expressão do processo de desenvolvimento desses programas no Brasil. Transferência de renda é entendida enquanto uma transferência monetária direta efetuada a indivíduos ou a famílias. O pressuposto central é de que articular uma transferência de renda com políticas e programas estruturantes, principalmente no campo da educação, saúde e trabalho, direcionados a famílias pobres, pode interromper o ciclo vicioso da pobreza do presente e sua reprodução no futuro. Portanto, uma articulação entre uma transferência monetária com políticas e programas estruturantes, direcionados a famílias pobres, pode possibilitar a construção de uma política de enfrentamento à pobreza e à desigualdade social. Nesse artigo, é apresentado o desenvolvimento histórico dos Programas de Transferência de Renda, no Brasil, orientado por um esforço problematizador do significado e do alcance desses programas no âmbito das políticas sociais brasileiras, considerando suas potencialidades e limites enquanto política de inclusão social.Introduced in 2003, Brazil's Family Allowance Program was intended to unite several Income Transfer Programs run at the Municipal, State and Federal levels since 1995. Designed as an expression of the development of direct monetary transfers to families or individuals, its key assumption is that linking income transfers to poor families with structural policies and programs (mainly in the fields of education, healthcare and jobs could break through the vicious cycle of poverty in the present and halt its future replication. Linking cash transfers to structuring policies and programs for poor families might well underpin a policy combating poverty and social inequality. This paper presents a retrospective of these Income

  9. Farm Fresh Foods for Healthy Kids (F3HK): An innovative community supported agriculture intervention to prevent childhood obesity in low-income families and strengthen local agricultural economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguin, Rebecca A; Morgan, Emily H; Hanson, Karla L; Ammerman, Alice S; Jilcott Pitts, Stephanie B; Kolodinsky, Jane; Sitaker, Marilyn; Becot, Florence A; Connor, Leah M; Garner, Jennifer A; McGuirt, Jared T

    2017-04-08

    Childhood obesity persists in the United States and is associated with serious health problems. Higher rates of obesity among children from disadvantaged households may be, in part, attributable to disparities in access to healthy foods such as fruits and vegetables. Community supported agriculture can improve access to and consumption of fresh produce, but the upfront payment structure, logistical barriers, and unfamiliarity with produce items may inhibit participation by low-income families. The aim of this project is to assess the impact of subsidized, or "cost-offset," community supported agriculture participation coupled with tailored nutrition education for low-income families with children. The Farm Fresh Foods for Healthy Kids community-based, randomized intervention trial will build on formative and longitudinal research to examine the impact of cost-offset community supported agriculture on diet and other health behaviors as well as the economic impacts on local economies. The intervention will involve reduced-price community supported agriculture shares which can be paid for on a weekly basis, nine skill-based and seasonally-tailored healthy eating classes, and the provision of basic kitchen tools. Low income families with at least one child aged 2-12 years will be recruited to join existing community supported agriculture programs in New York, North Carolina, Vermont, and Washington. In each program, families will be randomized 1:1 to intervention or delayed intervention groups. Data will be collected at baseline, and in the fall and spring for 3 years. The primary outcomes are children's intake of fruits and vegetables and foods high in sugar and/or (solid) fat, as well as diet quality; secondary outcomes include physical, behavioral, psychosocial, and environmental variables. Cost-effectiveness and economic impact at the farm and community levels also will be assessed. This integrated project will provide important information and contribute to the

  10. INCOME Family Income in 1999 NMSD 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  11. INCOME Family Income in 1999 COS 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  12. INCOME Family Income in 1999 BGs 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  13. 24 CFR 92.203 - Income determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... accordance with § 92.252(h): (i) Examine the source documents evidencing annual income (e.g., wage statement... annual income; or alternatively, the statement must indicate the current dollar limit for very low- or low-income families for the family size of the tenant and state that the tenant's annual income does...

  14. Parental Divorce and Family Functioning: Effects on Differentiation Levels of Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Patrick; Throngren, Jill M.; Smith, Adina J.

    2001-01-01

    Study examines the effect of parental divorce and various dimensions of functioning in the family of origin on young adult development. Results indicate that parental divorce and family functioning significantly affect differentiation levels of young adults. Implications of the results for counselors and future researchers are provided. (Contains…

  15. Work-family balance and energy : a day-level study on recovery conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanz-Vergel, A.I.; Demerouti, E.; Moreno-Jiménez, B.; Mayo, M.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examines whether daily recovery inhibiting and enhancing conditions predict day-levels of work-family conflict (WFC), work-family facilitation (WFF), exhaustion and vigor. Forty-nine individuals from various professional backgrounds in Spain provided questionnaire and daily survey

  16. Work-Family Balance and Energy: A Day-Level Study on Recovery Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Vergel, Ana Isabel; Demerouti, Evangelia; Moreno-Jimenez, Bernardo; Mayo, Margarita

    2010-01-01

    The present study examines whether daily recovery inhibiting and enhancing conditions predict day-levels of work-family conflict (WFC), work-family facilitation (WFF), exhaustion and vigor. Forty-nine individuals from various professional backgrounds in Spain provided questionnaire and daily survey measures over a period of five working days.…

  17. Levels of Distress in Women With a Family History of Ovarian Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kash, Kathryn

    2005-01-01

    The overall goal of this study is to determine the levels of distress in women with a family history of ovarian cancer and to identify the mediating factors between risk of developing ovarian cancer...

  18. Levels of Distress in Women With a Family History of Ovarian Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kash, Kathryn

    2001-01-01

    The overall goal of this study is to determine the levels of distress in women with a family history of ovarian cancer and to identify the mediating factors between risk of developing ovarian cancer and distress...

  19. Mother–Child Communication and Maternal Depressive Symptoms in Families of Children With Cancer: Integrating Macro and Micro Levels of Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Madeleine J.; Zuckerman, Teddi; Hughart, Leighann; Vannatta, Kathryn; Gerhardt, Cynthia A.; Saylor, Megan; Schuele, C. Melanie; Compas, Bruce E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study examines associations between maternal depressive symptoms and macro- and micro-level aspects of mothers’ communication about their children’s cancer. Methods Mothers reported depressive symptoms after diagnosis or relapse (child mean age = 10.4 years; 53% male). Mother–child dyads (N = 94) were subsequently observed discussing the child’s cancer and maternal communication was coded. Results Macro-level indicators (positive and negative communication) were associated with certain micro-level indicators of communication (topic maintenance, reflections, reframes, and imperatives). Higher depressive symptoms predicted lower positive communication and higher negative communication. Maternal reflections and imperatives predicted positive communication, and topic maintenance and reframes predicted negative communication, beyond child age, family income, and depressive symptoms. Conclusions Findings suggest concrete targets for improving communication in families after diagnosis or relapse. PMID:23616622

  20. "Doing our best to keep a routine:" How low-income mothers manage child feeding with unpredictable work and family schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Tara; Farrell, Tracy Jean; Wethington, Elaine; Devine, Carol M

    2018-01-01

    Significant changes in work and family conditions over the last three decades have important implications for understanding how young children are fed. The new conditions of work and family have placed pressures on families. The aim of this study was to explore the work and family pressures shaping the ways parents feed their young children on a day-to-day basis. Twenty-two purposively recruited low-income employed mothers of 3-4 year old children from a rural county Head Start program in Upstate New York reported details about the context of their children's eating episodes in a 24-h qualitative dietary recall. Participating mothers were employed and/or in school at least 20 h a week and varied in partner and household characteristics. Interview transcripts were open coded using the constant comparative method for usual ways of feeding children. A typology of three emergent child feeding routines was identified based on mothers' accounts of the recurring ways they fed their child. Mothers' feeding routines were distinguished by a combination of four recurring key strategies - planning ahead, delegating, making trade-offs, and coordinating. Work schedule predictability and other adults helped mothers maintain feeding routines. Unexpected daily events, such as working overtime or waking up late, disrupted child feeding routines and required modifications. These findings suggest that understanding how young children are fed requires recognizing the socio-ecological environments that involve working mothers' daily schedules and household conditions and the multiple ways that mothers manage food and feeding to fit environmental constraints. There is a need to look at more than just family meals to understand parents' daily strategies for feeding young children and their implications for child nutrition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Multiple Levels of Family Factors and Oppositional Defiant Disorder Symptoms Among Chinese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiuyun; Li, Longfeng; Heath, Melissa A; Chi, Peilian; Xu, Shousen; Fang, Xiaoyi

    2018-03-01

    Family factors are closely associated with child developmental outcomes. This study examined the relationship of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms and factors at whole family, dyadic, and individual levels in Chinese children. Participants, who were recruited from 14 primary schools in north, east, and south-west China, included 80 father-child dyads and 169 mother-child dyads. Children in the participating dyads were previously diagnosed with ODD. Results revealed that family cohesion/adaptability was indirectly associated with ODD symptoms via parent-child relationship and child emotion regulation. Parent-child relationship affected ODD symptoms directly and indirectly through child emotion regulation. In addition, the effects of family cohesion/adaptability on parent emotion regulation and child emotion regulation were mediated by the parent-child relationship. The tested model provides a comprehensive framework of how family factors at multiple levels are related to child ODD symptoms and highlights the importance of understanding child emotional and behavioral problems within the family context, more specifically within the multiple levels of family relationships. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  2. Capturing Complexities of Relationship-Level Family Planning Trajectories in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnas, Hannah E

    2016-09-01

    In a transitioning fertility climate, preferences and decisions surrounding family planning are constantly in flux. Malawi provides an ideal case study of family planning complexities as fertility preferences are flexible, the relationship context is unstable, and childbearing begins early. I use intensive longitudinal data from Tsogolo la Thanzi-a research project in Malawi that follows young adults in romantic partnerships through the course of their relationship. I examine two questions: (1) What are the typical patterns of family planning as young adults transition through a relationship? (2) How are family planning trajectories related to individual and relationship-level characteristics? I use sequence analysis to order family planning across time and to contextualize it within each relationship. I generate and cluster the family planning trajectories and find six distinct groups of young adults who engage in family planning in similar ways. I find that family planning is complex, dynamic, and unique to each relationship. I argue that (a) family planning research should use the relationship as the unit of analysis and (b) family planning behaviors and preferences should be sequenced over time for a better understanding of key concepts, such as unmet need. © 2016 The Population Council, Inc.

  3. Donor funding for family planning: levels and trends between 2003 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grollman, Christopher; Cavallaro, Francesca L; Duclos, Diane; Bakare, Victoria; Martínez Álvarez, Melisa; Borghi, Josephine

    2018-05-01

    The International Conference on Population and Development in 1994 set targets for donor funding to support family planning programmes, and recent initiatives such as FP2020 have renewed focus on the need for adequate funding to rights-based family planning. Disbursements supporting family planning disaggregated by donor, recipient country and year are not available for recent years. We estimate international donor funding for family planning in 2003-13, the period covering the introduction of reproductive health targets to the Millennium Development Goals and up to the beginning of FP2020, and compare funding to unmet need for family planning in recipient countries. We used the dataset of donor disbursements to support reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health developed by the Countdown to 2015 based on the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development Creditor Reporting System. We assessed levels and trends in disbursements supporting family planning in the period 2003-13 and compared this to unmet need for family planning. Between 2003 and 2013, disbursements supporting family planning rose from under $400 m prior to 2008 to $886 m in 2013. More than two thirds of disbursements came from the USA. There was substantial year-on-year variation in disbursement value to some recipient countries. Disbursements have become more concentrated among recipient countries with higher national levels of unmet need for family planning. Annual disbursements of donor funding supporting family planning are far short of projected and estimated levels necessary to address unmet need for family planning. The reimposition of the US Global Gag Rule will precipitate an even greater shortfall if other donors and recipient countries do not find substantial alternative sources of funding.

  4. Influence of maternal and socioeconomic factors on breast milk fatty acid composition in urban, low‐income families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Uma; Kanungo, Suman; Zhang, Dadong; Ross Colgate, E.; Carmolli, Marya P.; Dey, Ayan; Alam, Masud; Manna, Byomkesh; Nandy, Ranjan Kumar; Kim, Deok Ryun; Paul, Dilip Kumar; Choudhury, Saugato; Sahoo, Sushama; Harris, William S.; Wierzba, Thomas F.; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Kirkpatrick, Beth D.; Haque, Rashidul; Petri, William A.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The lipid composition of breast milk may have a significant impact on early infant growth and cognitive development. Comprehensive breast milk data is lacking from low‐income populations in the Indian subcontinent impeding assessment of deficiencies and limiting development of maternal nutritional interventions. A single breast milk specimen was collected within 6 weeks postpartum from two low‐income maternal cohorts of exclusively breastfed infants, from Dhaka, Bangladesh (n = 683) and Kolkata, India (n = 372) and assayed for percentage composition of 26 fatty acids. Mature milk (>15 days) in Dhaka (n = 99) compared to Kolkata (n = 372) was higher in total saturated fatty acid (SFA; mean 48% vs. 44%) and disproportionately lower in ω3‐polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), hence the ω6‐ and ω3‐PUFA ratio in Dhaka were almost double the value in Kolkata. In both sites, after adjusting for days of lactation, increased maternal education was associated with decreased SFA and PUFA, and increasing birth order or total pregnancies was associated with decreasing ω6‐PUFA or ω3‐PUFA by a factor of 0.95 for each birth and pregnancy. In Dhaka, household prosperity was associated with decreased SFA and PUFA and increased ω6‐ and ω3‐PUFA. Maternal height was associated with increased SFA and PUFA in Kolkata (1% increase per 1 cm), but body mass index showed no independent association with either ratio in either cohort. In summary, the socioeconomic factors of maternal education and household prosperity were associated with breast milk composition, although prosperity may only be important in higher cost of living communities. Associated maternal biological factors were height and infant birth order, but not adiposity. Further study is needed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of these effects. PMID:28198164

  5. Quality-quantity decomposition of income elasticity of U.S. hospital care expenditure using state-level panel data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weiwei; Okunade, Albert; Lubiani, Gregory G

    2014-11-01

    Economic theory suggests that income growth could lead to changes in consumption quantity and quality as the spending on a commodity changes. Similarly, the volume and quality of healthcare consumption could rise with incomes because of demographic changes, usage of innovative medical technologies, and other factors. Hospital healthcare spending is the largest component of aggregate US healthcare expenditures. The novel contribution of our paper is estimating and decomposing the income elasticity of hospital care expenditures (HOCEXP) into its quantity and quality components. By using a 1999-2008 panel dataset of the 50 US states, results from the seemingly unrelated regressions model estimation reveal the income elasticity of HOCEXP to be 0.427 (std. error=0.044), with about 0.391 (calculated std. error=0.044) arising from care quality improvements and 0.035 (std. error=0.050) emanating from the rise in usage volume. Our novel research findings suggest the following: (i) the quantity part of hospital expenditure is inelastic to income change; (ii) almost the entire income-induced rise in hospital expenditure comes from care quality changes; and (iii) the 0.427 income elasticity of HOCEXP, the largest component of total US healthcare expenditure, makes hospital care a normal commodity and a much stronger technical necessity than aggregate healthcare. Policy implications are discussed. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Gender disparities among the association between cumulative family-level stress & adolescent weight status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Daphne C; Pressler, Emily

    2015-04-01

    To investigate precursors to gender-related obesity disparities by examining multiple family-level stress indices. Analyses was based on adolescents born between 1975 and 1991 to women from the 1979 National Longitudinal Study of Youth data set (N=4762). Three types of family-level stressors were captured from birth to age 15: family disruption and conflict, financial strain, and maternal risky health behaviors, along with a total cumulative risk index. Body mass index was constructed on reference criteria for children outlined by the Centers for Disease Control. Multivariate logistic regressions were conducted for the three types of family stressors and for the total cumulative index. The accumulation of family disruption and conflict and financial stress was positively related to female adolescents being overweight/obese. Childhood exposure to maternal risky health behaviors was positively associated with higher weight status for male adolescents. Total cumulative stress was related to overweight/obesity for females, but not males. Different family-level stress indices are associated with the weight status of female and male adolescents. Combining types of family-level stress into one cumulative index appears to mask these differences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Developmental screening tools: feasibility of use at primary healthcare level in low- and middle-income settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Vinicius Jobim; Morris, Jodi; Martines, José

    2014-06-01

    An estimated 150 million children have a disability. Early identification of developmental disabilities is a high priority for the World Health Organization to allow action to reduce impairments through Gap Action Program on mental health. The study identified the feasibility of using the developmental screening and monitoring tools for children aged 0-3 year(s) by non-specialist primary healthcare providers in low-resource settings. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to identify the tools, assess their psychometric properties, and feasibility of use in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Key indicators to examine feasibility in LMICs were derived from a consultation with 23 international experts. We identified 426 studies from which 14 tools used in LMICs were extracted for further examination. Three tools reported adequate psychometric properties and met most of the feasibility criteria. Three tools appear promising for use in identifying and monitoring young children with disabilities at primary healthcare level in LMICs. Further research and development are needed to optimize these tools.

  8. Family Income and Material Deprivation: Do They Matter for Sleep Quality and Quantity in Early Life? Evidence From a Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barazzetta, Marta; Ghislandi, Simone

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate the determinants of sleeping patterns in children up to age 9 on a large and geographically homogeneous sample of British children and parents, focusing in particular on the role of economic and social factors, specifically on income. The data of this study come from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a long-term health research project that recruited over 14000 pregnant women who were due to give birth between April 1991 and December 1992 in Bristol and its surrounding areas, including some of Somerset and Gloucestershire. Logistic regression models for the sleep problem dummies and log-linear models for the sleep quantity. One additional item in the material deprivation index is associated to an increase of around 10-20% in the odds of having at least 1 sleep problem. Similarly, children from the richest families are less likely to have any sleep problem up to 115 months (around 20% reduction in the odds). Mother's characteristics (i.e., education and mental health in the pregnancy period) are also significant predictors. Sleep quantity does not vary much and is not sensitive to socioeconomic factors. Exposure to income-related inequalities affects child sleep. Further research is needed to understand if sleep in early life influences future health and economic trajectories. © Sleep Research Society 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Global Education Review is a publication of The School of Education at Mercy College, New York. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 3.0 Unported License, permitting all non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.Citation: Drajea, Alice J.& O’Sullivan, Carmel (2014. Influence of parental education and family income on children’s education in rural Uganda, 1 (3. 149-166. Influence of Parental Education and Family Income on Children’s Education in Rural Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice J. Drajea

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the effect of parents’ literacy levels and family income in Uganda on the quality and nature of parents’ involvement in their children’s primary education. A mixed-methods study with an ethnographic element was employed to explore the views and opinions of 21 participants through a qualitative approach. Methods for data collection included observation of family routines and practices, semi-structured interviews with parents and children, and review of relevant documents. Vygotsky’s socio-cultural historical theory and the Feinsteinian concept of intergenerational transmission of educational success offer the basis for the investigation. Findings indicated a significant relationship between parents’ income and literacy levels and the quality of support to their children’s education. Household poverty emerged as a major obstacle to educational success for children across the three socio-economic categories of family studied. Compromised lack of time for parent-child interaction proved to be the main obstacle as parents spent significant hours in non-academic matters for the day-to-day survival of their families. Parental illiteracy showed negative associations with children’s literacy competence and subsequent success in primary school.

  10. Income tax consequences of individuals for income citizens in modern Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damiran Suvdaa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Government of Mongolia has a policy to improve the standard of living and employment, as well as to increase employment at the macroeconomic level. In today's world, the personal income tax is an instrument of regulation of family and personal consumption, savings, employment, marriage, and population growth, as well as the redistribution of income. Over the last 20 years, the country's membership in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD for creation of a safe environment increase investments and carry out tax reform in order to maintain employment and financial competition. The author considers the practice of income tax in different countries and examines the practice of the personal income tax in Mongolia, identifies problem areas and suggests solutions. Also, there are assessed the objectives of the Government of Mongolia to the changes in the tax on personal income

  11. Educator Perceptions of Low-Income Elementary Students and Their Effects on Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenske, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    The correlation between income level and achievement has led some educators to believe that low-income students cannot learn at the same level as can middle-class and affluent peers. This problem is significant because as more families become impoverished, more students may be at risk for failure. Many studies have identified challenges facing…

  12. SPEAR indicates pesticide effects in streams - Comparative use of species- and family-level biomonitoring data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beketov, M.A.; Foit, K.; Schaefer, R.B.; Schriever, C.A.; Sacchi, A.; Capri, E.; Biggs, J.; Wells, C.; Liess, M.

    2009-01-01

    To detect effects of pesticides on non-target freshwater organisms the Species at risk (SPEAR pesticides ) bioindicator based on biological traits was previously developed and successfully validated over different biogeographical regions of Europe using species-level data on stream invertebrates. Since many freshwater biomonitoring programmes have family-level taxonomic resolution we tested the applicability of SPEAR pesticides with family-level biomonitoring data to indicate pesticide effects in streams (i.e. insecticide toxicity of pesticides). The study showed that the explanatory power of the family-level SPEAR(fm) pesticides is not significantly lower than the species-level index. The results suggest that the family-level SPEAR(fm) pesticides is a sensitive, cost-effective, and potentially European-wide bioindicator of pesticide contamination in flowing waters. Class boundaries for SPEAR pesticides according to EU Water Framework Directive are defined to contribute to the assessment of ecological status of water bodies. - We show that SPEAR pesticides can be based on family-level biomonitoring data and is applicable for large-scale monitoring programmes to detect and quantify pesticide contamination.

  13. SPEAR indicates pesticide effects in streams - Comparative use of species- and family-level biomonitoring data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beketov, M.A., E-mail: mikhail.beketov@ufz.d [UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department System Ecotoxicology, Permoserstrasse 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Foit, K.; Schaefer, R.B.; Schriever, C.A. [UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department System Ecotoxicology, Permoserstrasse 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Sacchi, A.; Capri, E. [Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Istituto di Chimica Agraria ed Ambientale, Piacenza (Italy); Biggs, J. [Pond Conservation, c/o Oxford Brookes University, Headington (United Kingdom); Wells, C. [Environment Agency of England and Wales, Science Department, Bristol (United Kingdom); Liess, M. [UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department System Ecotoxicology, Permoserstrasse 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    To detect effects of pesticides on non-target freshwater organisms the Species at risk (SPEAR{sub pesticides}) bioindicator based on biological traits was previously developed and successfully validated over different biogeographical regions of Europe using species-level data on stream invertebrates. Since many freshwater biomonitoring programmes have family-level taxonomic resolution we tested the applicability of SPEAR{sub pesticides} with family-level biomonitoring data to indicate pesticide effects in streams (i.e. insecticide toxicity of pesticides). The study showed that the explanatory power of the family-level SPEAR(fm){sub pesticides} is not significantly lower than the species-level index. The results suggest that the family-level SPEAR(fm){sub pesticides} is a sensitive, cost-effective, and potentially European-wide bioindicator of pesticide contamination in flowing waters. Class boundaries for SPEAR{sub pesticides} according to EU Water Framework Directive are defined to contribute to the assessment of ecological status of water bodies. - We show that SPEAR{sub pesticides} can be based on family-level biomonitoring data and is applicable for large-scale monitoring programmes to detect and quantify pesticide contamination.

  14. The Middle Income Squeeze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Steve

    1978-01-01

    Complaints about a middle income family's hardships in sending their children to private colleges and universities are examined. The difficulty may be attributable to a progressive College Scholarship Service (CSS) taxation rate schedule that causes larger proportionate reductions in the standard of living for some families than others.…

  15. Suicide rates across income levels: Retrospective cohort data on 1 million participants collected between 2003 and 2013 in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Uk; Oh, In-Hwan; Jeon, Hong Jin; Roh, Sungwon

    2017-06-01

    The relation of income and socioeconomic status with suicide rates remains unclear. Most previous studies have focused on the relationship between suicide rates and macroeconomic factors (e.g., economic growth rate). Therefore, we aimed to identify the relationship between individuals' socioeconomic position and suicide risk. We analyzed suicide mortality rates across socioeconomic positions to identify potential trends using observational data on suicide mortality collected between January 2003 and December 2013 from 1,025,340 national health insurance enrollees. We followed the subjects for 123.5 months on average. Socioeconomic position was estimated using insurance premium levels. To examine the hazard ratios of suicide mortality in various socioeconomic positions, we used Cox proportional hazard models. We found that the hazard ratios of suicide showed an increasing trend as socioeconomic position decreased. After adjusting for gender, age, geographic location, and disability level, Medicaid recipients had the highest suicide hazard ratio (2.28; 95% CI, 1.87-2.77). Among the Medicaid recipients, men had higher hazard ratios than women (2.79; 95% CI, 2.17-3.59 vs. 1.71; 95% CI, 1.25-2.34). Hazard ratios also varied across age groups. The highest hazard ratio was found in the 40-59-year-old group (3.19; 95% CI, 2.31-4.43), whereas the lowest ratio was found in those 60 years and older (1.44; 95% CI, 1.09-1.87). Our results illuminate the relationship between socioeconomic position and suicide rates and can be used to design and implement future policies on suicide prevention. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Suicide rates across income levels: Retrospective cohort data on 1 million participants collected between 2003 and 2013 in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Uk Lee

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The relation of income and socioeconomic status with suicide rates remains unclear. Most previous studies have focused on the relationship between suicide rates and macroeconomic factors (e.g., economic growth rate. Therefore, we aimed to identify the relationship between individuals' socioeconomic position and suicide risk. Methods: We analyzed suicide mortality rates across socioeconomic positions to identify potential trends using observational data on suicide mortality collected between January 2003 and December 2013 from 1,025,340 national health insurance enrollees. We followed the subjects for 123.5 months on average. Socioeconomic position was estimated using insurance premium levels. To examine the hazard ratios of suicide mortality in various socioeconomic positions, we used Cox proportional hazard models. Results: We found that the hazard ratios of suicide showed an increasing trend as socioeconomic position decreased. After adjusting for gender, age, geographic location, and disability level, Medicaid recipients had the highest suicide hazard ratio (2.28; 95% CI, 1.87–2.77. Among the Medicaid recipients, men had higher hazard ratios than women (2.79; 95% CI, 2.17–3.59 vs. 1.71; 95% CI, 1.25–2.34. Hazard ratios also varied across age groups. The highest hazard ratio was found in the 40–59-year-old group (3.19; 95% CI, 2.31–4.43, whereas the lowest ratio was found in those 60 years and older (1.44; 95% CI, 1.09–1.87. Conclusions: Our results illuminate the relationship between socioeconomic position and suicide rates and can be used to design and implement future policies on suicide prevention.

  17. An examination of interventions to reduce respiratory health and injury hazards in homes of low-income families

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, Sherry L.; Fowler, Cecile; Harris, Judy; Moffat, Sally; Martinez, Yolanda; Walton, Heather; Ruiz, Bernice; Jacobs, David E.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated whether combining asthma trigger reduction with housing structural repairs, device disbursement and education in low-income households with children would improve self-reported respiratory health and reduce housing-related respiratory health and injury hazards (convenience sample of n=67 homes with 63 asthmatic and 121 non-asthmatic children). At baseline, a visual assessment of the home environment and a structured occupant interview were used to examine 29 potential injury hazards and 7 potential respiratory health hazards. A home-specific intervention was designed to provide the children's parents or caretakers with the knowledge, skills, motivation, supplies, equipment, and minimum housing conditions necessary for a healthy and safe home. The enrolled households were primarily Hispanic and owned their homes. On average, 8 injury hazards were observed in the homes at baseline. Four months following intervention, the average declined to 2.2 hazards per home (p<0.001), with 97% of the parents reporting that their homes were safer following the interventions. An average of 3.3 respiratory health hazards were observed in the homes at baseline. Four months following intervention, the average declined to 0.9 hazards per home (p<0.001), with 96% of parents reporting that the respiratory health of their asthmatic children improved. A tailored healthy homes improvement package significantly improves self-reported respiratory health and safety, reduces respiratory health and injury hazards, and can be implemented in concert with a mobile clinical setting

  18. Child Maltreatment and Allostatic Load: Consequences for Physical and Mental Health in Children from Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogosch, Fred A.; Dackis, Melissa N.; Cicchetti, Dante

    2012-01-01

    Child maltreatment and biomarkers of allostatic load were investigated in relation to child health problems and psychological symptomatology. Participants attended a summer research day camp and included 137 maltreated and 110 nonmaltreated low-income children, who were aged 8 to 10 years (M = 9.42) and racially and ethnically diverse; 52% were male. Measurements obtained included salivary cortisol and DHEA, body-mass index, waist-hip ratio, and blood pressure; these indicators provided a composite index of allostatic load. Child self-report and camp adult-rater reports of child symptomatology were obtained; mothers provided information on health problems. The results indicated that higher allostatic load and child maltreatment status independently predicted poorer health outcomes and greater behavior problems. Moderation effects indicated that allostatic load was related to somatic complaints, attention problems, and thought problems only among maltreated children. Risks associated with high waist-hip ratio, low morning cortisol, and high morning DHEA also were related to depressive symptoms only for maltreated children. The results support an allostatic load conceptualization of the impact of high environmental stress and child abuse and neglect on child health and behavioral outcomes and have important implications for long-term physical and mental health. PMID:22018084

  19. The Effects of Mother Education Programs on the Functionality, Anger Management and Conflict Solution Levels of Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabasakal, Zekavet

    2013-01-01

    Problem Statement: Studies carried out in recent years both in Turkey and abroad indicate that child and teenage violence has increased and become widespread. Annually, 91.1% of deaths due to violence in the world occur in low and middle-income countries. Family life is an important element in understanding violent behavior as it relates to family…

  20. Trends in overweight by educational level in 33 low- and middle-income countries: The role of parity, age at first birth and breastfeeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.L. López Arana (Sandra Liliana); A. Burdorf (Alex); M. Avendano Pabon (Mauricio)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis study examined trends in overweight among women of reproductive age by educational level in 33 low- and middle-income countries, and estimated the contribution of parity, age at first birth and breastfeeding to these trends. We used repeated cross-sectional Demographic Health

  1. Prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors among a Nigerian adult population: Relationship with income level and accessibility to CVD risks screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oguoma, Victor Maduabuchi; Nwose, Ezekiel Uba; Nwose, Ezekiel Uba

    2015-01-01

    males and 273 females) had mean age (± standard deviation) of 38.3 ± 20.5 and 42.9 ± 20.7 year s, respectively. Only total cholesterol (p = 0.001), triglyceride (p = 0.005), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) (p index (BMI) (p = 0.03) and average income rate (p = 0...... (p = 0.017), other CVD risk factors did not show a statistical significance across income levels. Participants with 'university and postgraduate education' had higher access to blood pressure and blood glucose screening compared to other educational groups; and this showed a statistical significance...

  2. Job Satisfaction, Retirement Attitude and Intended Retirement Age: A Conditional Process Analysis across Workers’ Level of Household Income

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Eleanor M. M.; Van der Heijden, Beatrice I. J. M.; Flynn, Matt

    2017-01-01

    In the contemporary workplace, insight into retirement behaviors is of crucial importance. Previous empirical evidence has found mixed results regarding the relationship between work attitudes, such as job satisfaction, and retirement behaviors, suggesting that further scholarly examination incorporating moderating and mediating variables into retirement models is needed. Drawing on comparative models of attitude to retirement, we hypothesized a direct relationship between job satisfaction and intended retirement age for workers with a high household income and an indirect relationship between job satisfaction and intended retirement age, via retirement attitude, for workers with a low or mean household income. We collected data from a sample of 590 United Kingdom workers aged 50+. Using conditional process analysis, we found that the underlying mechanisms in our research model differ according to socio-economic status. We found no direct effect between job satisfaction and intended retirement age. However, an indirect effect was observed between job satisfaction and intended retirement age, via retirement attitude, for both low- and mean-household income individuals. Specifically, the relationship between job satisfaction and retirement attitude differed according to socio-economic group: for high-household income older workers, there was no relationship between job satisfaction and retirement attitude. However, for low- and mean-household income older workers, we observed a negative relationship between job satisfaction and retirement attitude. Otherwise stated, increases in job satisfaction for mean and low household income workers are likely to make the prospect of retirement less attractive. Therefore, we argue that utmost care must be taken around the conditions under which lower income employees will continue their work when getting older in order to protect their sustainable employability. PMID:28620329

  3. Job Satisfaction, Retirement Attitude and Intended Retirement Age: A Conditional Process Analysis across Workers’ Level of Household Income

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor M. M. Davies

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary workplace, insight into retirement behaviors is of crucial importance. Previous empirical evidence has found mixed results regarding the relationship between work attitudes, such as job satisfaction, and retirement behaviors, suggesting that further scholarly examination incorporating moderating and mediating variables into retirement models is needed. Drawing on comparative models of attitude to retirement, we hypothesized a direct relationship between job satisfaction and intended retirement age for workers with a high household income and an indirect relationship between job satisfaction and intended retirement age, via retirement attitude, for workers with a low or mean household income. We collected data from a sample of 590 United Kingdom workers aged 50+. Using conditional process analysis, we found that the underlying mechanisms in our research model differ according to socio-economic status. We found no direct effect between job satisfaction and intended retirement age. However, an indirect effect was observed between job satisfaction and intended retirement age, via retirement attitude, for both low- and mean-household income individuals. Specifically, the relationship between job satisfaction and retirement attitude differed according to socio-economic group: for high-household income older workers, there was no relationship between job satisfaction and retirement attitude. However, for low- and mean-household income older workers, we observed a negative relationship between job satisfaction and retirement attitude. Otherwise stated, increases in job satisfaction for mean and low household income workers are likely to make the prospect of retirement less attractive. Therefore, we argue that utmost care must be taken around the conditions under which lower income employees will continue their work when getting older in order to protect their sustainable employability.

  4. Job Satisfaction, Retirement Attitude and Intended Retirement Age: A Conditional Process Analysis across Workers' Level of Household Income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Eleanor M M; Van der Heijden, Beatrice I J M; Flynn, Matt

    2017-01-01

    In the contemporary workplace, insight into retirement behaviors is of crucial importance. Previous empirical evidence has found mixed results regarding the relationship between work attitudes, such as job satisfaction, and retirement behaviors, suggesting that further scholarly examination incorporating moderating and mediating variables into retirement models is needed. Drawing on comparative models of attitude to retirement, we hypothesized a direct relationship between job satisfaction and intended retirement age for workers with a high household income and an indirect relationship between job satisfaction and intended retirement age, via retirement attitude, for workers with a low or mean household income. We collected data from a sample of 590 United Kingdom workers aged 50+. Using conditional process analysis, we found that the underlying mechanisms in our research model differ according to socio-economic status. We found no direct effect between job satisfaction and intended retirement age. However, an indirect effect was observed between job satisfaction and intended retirement age, via retirement attitude, for both low- and mean-household income individuals. Specifically, the relationship between job satisfaction and retirement attitude differed according to socio-economic group: for high-household income older workers, there was no relationship between job satisfaction and retirement attitude. However, for low- and mean-household income older workers, we observed a negative relationship between job satisfaction and retirement attitude. Otherwise stated, increases in job satisfaction for mean and low household income workers are likely to make the prospect of retirement less attractive. Therefore, we argue that utmost care must be taken around the conditions under which lower income employees will continue their work when getting older in order to protect their sustainable employability.

  5. Scaling-up access to family planning may improve linear growth and child development in low and middle income countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günther Fink

    Full Text Available A large literature has indicated a robust association between birth spacing and child survival, but evidence on the association of birth timing with physical growth in low and middle income countries (LMICs remains limited.Data from 153 cross-sectional Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS across 61 LMICs conducted between 1990 and 2011 were combined to assess the association of birth timing with child stunting (height-for-age z-score <-2. A total of 623,789 children of birth order 1-5 contributed to the maternal age analysis, while the birth spacing dataset consisted of 584,226 children of birth order 2 and higher. Compared to 27-34 year old mothers, maternal age under 18 years was associated with a relative stunting risk of 1.35 (95% CI: 1.29-1.40 for firstborn children, whereas the relative risk was 1.24 (95% CI: 1.19-1.29 for mothers aged 18-19 years. The association of young maternal age with stunting was significantly greater for urban residents and those in the top 50% of household wealth. Birth intervals less than 12 months and 12-23 months had relative risks for stunting of 1.09 (95% CI: 1.06-1.12 and 1.06 (95% CI: 1.05-1.06 as compared to a 24-35 month inter-pregnancy interval, respectively. The strength of both teenage pregnancy and short birth interval associations showed substantial variation across WHO region. We estimate that 8.6% (6.9-10.3% of stunted cases in the South Asian DHS sample would have been averted by jointly eliminating teen pregnancies and birth intervals less than 24 months, while only 3.6% (1.5-5.7% of stunting cases would have prevented in the Middle East and North Africa sample.Postponing the age of first birth and increasing inter-pregnancy intervals has the potential to significantly reduce the prevalence of stunting and improve child development in LMICs.

  6. Corporal Punishment and Child Aggression: Ethnic-Level Family Cohesion as a Moderator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoona; Watson, Malcolm W

    2017-04-01

    Ethnicity has been examined as a putative moderator between parents' use of corporal punishment and children's externalizing behaviors. Yet, the reasons for this potential ethnic-level moderator have not been fully examined. The primary objective of this study was to examine whether the effect of corporal punishment on aggression is ethnic-specific using major racial groups inside and outside the U.S. samples and how the mean levels of cohesion in family relationships as found in different ethnic groups moderate the association between mothers' use of corporal punishment and children's aggression. A total of 729 mothers who had children aged 7 to 13 years were sampled from five ethnic groups (i.e., European American, African American, Hispanic American, Korean, and Chinese). Several hypotheses were tested to examine the moderating effect of ethnic-level, family cohesion on the relation of corporal punishment to children's aggression. As expected, the mean level of family cohesion was significantly different across ethnicities. Consistent results across parallel multilevel and fixed effect models showed that high corporal punishment was associated with more aggression in all ethnicities, but there was a significant variation in the association across ethnicities, and the variation was explained by ethnic-level family cohesion. There were weaker associations between corporal punishment and child aggression among ethnic groups with high family cohesion and stronger associations among ethnic groups with low family cohesion. Ethnic/cultural variation in this study emphasizes the importance of understanding family environment of diverse ethnic groups when evaluating the influence of corporal punishment on child behavior in different ethnic/cultural contexts.

  7. Maternal mental quality of life mediates the associations between intimate partner abuse against mothers and their children's behaviours and quality of life in low-income Chinese families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Vivian Yawei; Yu, Esther Yee Tak; Wong, Rosa Sze Man; Ip, Patrick; Tiwari, Agnes Fung Yee; Wong, Carlos King Ho; Fung, Colman Siu Cheung; Wong, Wilfred Hing Sang; Lam, Cindy Lo Kuen

    2017-12-01

    To explore the association between maternal intimate partner abuse (IPA) and their children's health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and behavioural problem, and to establish a mediation model and investigate the mediating role of mothers' HRQOL on this association. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 197 mothers of 227 children (112 boys and 115 girls) from low-income Chinese families. The mothers were asked to complete the 5-item abuse assessment screen questionnaire for the presence of IPA, the Chinese (Hong Kong) version of 12-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12) for their HRQOL and a structured socio-demographics questionnaire. One of the parents completed the Child Health Questionnaire-Parent Form-50 (CHQ-PF50) and the strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ) to report on their children's HRQOL and behavioural problems, respectively. The mediating effect of the maternal HRQOL on the relationship between maternal IPA status and their children's behavioural problems and HRQOL was tested using Baron and Kenney's multistage regression approach and bootstrapping method. Thirty-five of the 197 mothers reported IPA (17.8%). Children whose mothers had experienced IPA had lower scores in the CHQ-PF50 mental health, parental impact-emotional, family activities and family cohesion subscales, and the psychosocial summary score compared to children of mothers who reported no IPA; they also had more emotional, conduct and hyperactivity/inattention problems and higher total difficulties scores measured by the SDQ. Maternal mental HRQOL was a mediator on the relationship between maternal IPA status and their children's behavioural problems and psychosocial HRQOL. IPA experienced by mothers had significant negative impacts on their children's HRQOL and behaviours, which was mediated by maternal mental HRQOL.

  8. Calculation of the probability of overlapping one family of nuclear levels with resonances of an independent family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Difilippo, F.C.

    1982-01-01

    Calculations of the resonance integrals of particular isotopes in a mixture of isotopes show that the overlapping of the resonances of one isotope by resonances of other isotopes affects the final values of effective cross sections. The same effect might adversely influence those nondestructive techniques which assay fissile materials on the basis of resonance effects. Of relevance for these applications is the knowledge of the probability of overlapping resonances of a family of nuclear levels (class 1) with resonances of an independent family (class 2). For the sequence of class 1 resonances we calculate the probability distribution, p(delta), to find a class 2, first-neighbor resonance at distance (in energy) delta from a class 1 resonance; integration of p(delta) over the average finite width of the resonances would give the aforementioned probability of overlapping. Because a class 1 resonance can have a class 1 or a class 2 resonance as a first neighbor, the resultant p(delta) is not given by the distribution of spacings of the composite family

  9. Community- and family-level factors influence care-giver choice to screen blood lead levels of children in a mining community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodie, S M; Tsui, E K; Silbergeld, E K

    2010-07-01

    Bunker Hill, in Kellogg, Idaho, formerly a lead mine (1884-1981) and smelter (1917-1981), is now a Superfund site listed on the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) National Priorities List. Lead contamination from the site is widespread due to past smelter discharges to land, water, and air, placing children at risk for both exposure to lead and resultant health effects of lead. Since 1983, the EPA has used child blood lead levels to inform the clean-up standards for the Bunker Hill Superfund site. This study was undertaken to examine factors that have contributed to the significant fall-off in the rates and numbers of children being screened for blood lead in Kellogg (number screened decreased from 195 to 8 from 2002 to 2007). The goal of this research project was to define community- and family-level factors which influence care-giver choice to screen blood lead levels of their children in this environment. This formative research study used mixed methods and was comprised of three research components: (1) preliminary interviews using community-based participatory research methods to define key research questions of relevance to community members, government and NGOs working in relation to the Bunker Hill clean-up; (2) a quantitative analysis of a cross-sectional household survey conducted with adult care-givers about child blood lead screening in Kellogg; and (3) ethnographic community rapid assessment methods formed the in-depth interview process and qualitative analysis. The survey showed the likelihood of blood lead screening that for children under the age of 18 years increases 34% with each one-year increase in current age of the child (95% CI, 1.08-1.67, p-value=0.009), and decreases 45% with annual household income greater than $10,000 (95% CI, 0.35-0.88, p-value=0.013). Sibling birth order increased the likelihood of blood lead screening by 61% (95% CI, 1.04-2.48, p-value=0.032) for each successive child. Female children were rated by their care

  10. Mobile Phone Surveys for Collecting Population-Level Estimates in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Dustin G; Pereira, Amanda; Farrenkopf, Brooke A; Labrique, Alain B; Pariyo, George W; Hyder, Adnan A

    2017-05-05

    National and subnational level surveys are important for monitoring disease burden, prioritizing resource allocation, and evaluating public health policies. As mobile phone access and ownership become more common globally, mobile phone surveys (MPSs) offer an opportunity to supplement traditional public health household surveys. The objective of this study was to systematically review the current landscape of MPSs to collect population-level estimates in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Primary and gray literature from 7 online databases were systematically searched for studies that deployed MPSs to collect population-level estimates. Titles and abstracts were screened on primary inclusion and exclusion criteria by two research assistants. Articles that met primary screening requirements were read in full and screened for secondary eligibility criteria. Articles included in review were grouped into the following three categories by their survey modality: (1) interactive voice response (IVR), (2) short message service (SMS), and (3) human operator or computer-assisted telephone interviews (CATI). Data were abstracted by two research assistants. The conduct and reporting of the review conformed to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. A total of 6625 articles were identified through the literature review. Overall, 11 articles were identified that contained 19 MPS (CATI, IVR, or SMS) surveys to collect population-level estimates across a range of topics. MPSs were used in Latin America (n=8), the Middle East (n=1), South Asia (n=2), and sub-Saharan Africa (n=8). Nine articles presented results for 10 CATI surveys (10/19, 53%). Two articles discussed the findings of 6 IVR surveys (6/19, 32%). Three SMS surveys were identified from 2 articles (3/19, 16%). Approximately 63% (12/19) of MPS were delivered to mobile phone numbers collected from previously administered household surveys. The majority of MPS (11

  11. Determining the satisfaction levels of the family members of patients with advanced-stage cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcelik, Hanife; Cakmak, Deniz Ezgi; Fadiloglu, Cicek; Yildirim, Yasemin; Uslu, Ruchan

    2015-06-01

    The objective of our study was to determine the satisfaction levels of family members of patients with advanced-stage cancer. This descriptive study was conducted in the palliative care and medical oncology clinics of a university hospital in the province of Izmir between April of 2011 and January of 2012. The study sample consisted of a total of 145 family members, who were selected from among the family members of patients with advanced-stage cancer receiving palliative treatment. The study data were obtained using the Patient Description Form and Family Satisfaction Scale during face-to-face interviews with patients. Some 67% of patients were female and 33% male, 70% were married, 35% were high school graduates, and 34.5% were housewives. The average total family satisfaction score was 76.87 ± 1.14, and the average scores for the component variables were as follows: information giving 74.37 ± 1.28, availability of care 78.40 ± 1.17, physical care 78.99 ± 1.09, and psychosocial care 74.52 ± 1.30. We found a relationship between the level of satisfaction of family members and (1) gender, (2) occupation, (3) presence of someone supporting the care, and (4) possession of sufficient information about the patient (p Satisfaction levels of participants were determined to be high. We found that family member satisfaction levels were affected by gender and occupation, the existence of someone supporting the care, and possession of sufficient information about the patient.

  12. Predictors of Adolescents' Pornography: Level of Sexual Behavior and Family Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahbobe Ghavidel-Heidari

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate on relationship among family environment, pornography and sexual behavior ofadolescents. Pornography may start from early youth along with starting of sexual behavior. Therefore itis important that the role of family factors in pornography be studied.Materials and methods: The sample includes 362 students who were chosen by Proportional Clustermethod from the first grade of High School (14 and 15 years old. The research instruments wereSchaefer’s Family Environment Scales (FES, a researcher made Sexual Behaviors Scale (SBS, andPornography Scale (PS.Results: The results indicate that there is a positive significant relationship between sexual BehaviorsScale (SBS and pornography and there is a positive significant relationship between levels of coldnessin family relationship and adolescents’ Freedom. Also the result of stepwise regression shows, in thefirst step, level of sexual behavior is the strongest variable that predicts .42 of variance of adolescent'spornography. In the second step, Coldness in family relationship determines .05 of variances ofpornography of adolescents. Gender differentiates shows that boys' pornography is more than for girls.Conclusion: Therefore coldness in family relationship is related with pornography and sexual behavior ofadolescents.

  13. Relationship Between the Remaining Years of Healthy Life Expectancy in Older Age and National Income Level, Educational Attainment, and Improved Water Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong In; Kim, Gukbin

    2016-10-01

    The remaining years of healthy life expectancy (RYH) at age 65 years can be calculated as RYH (65) = healthy life expectancy-aged 65 years. This study confirms the associations between socioeconomic indicators and the RYH (65) in 148 countries. The RYH data were obtained from the World Health Organization. Significant positive correlations between RYH (65) in men and women and the socioeconomic indicators national income, education level, and improved drinking water were found. Finally, the predictors of RYH (65) in men and women were used to build a model of the RYH using higher socioeconomic indicators (R(2 )= 0.744, p educational attainment, national income level, and improved water quality influenced the RYH at 65 years. Therefore, policymaking to improve these country-level socioeconomic factors is expected to have latent effects on RYH in older age. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Adolescent Family Experiences and Educational Attainment during Early Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melby, Janet N.; Conger, Rand D.; Fang, Shu-Ann; Wickrama, K. A. S.; Conger, Katherine J.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the degree to which a family investment model would help account for the association between family of origin socioeconomic characteristics and the later educational attainment of 451 young adults (age 26) from 2-parent families. Parents' educational level, occupational prestige, and family income in 1989…

  15. A Research Project on Successful Single-Parent Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Ann

    1979-01-01

    Studies variables associated with successful single-parent families. Single parents volunteered to share their positive family experiences. Information was sought on ages of family members and length of single-parent family status, education level and income, relations with absent parent, and relations with children. A hypothesis and counseling…

  16. Infant communication and subsequent language development in children from low-income families: the role of early cognitive stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cates, Carolyn Brockmeyer; Dreyer, Benard P; Berkule, Samantha B; White, Lisa J; Arevalo, Jenny A; Mendelsohn, Alan L

    2012-09-01

    To explore the relationship between early cognitive stimulation in the home, 6-month infant communication, and 24-month toddler language in a low-socioeconomic status sample. Longitudinal analyses of mother-child dyads participating in larger study of early child development were performed. Dyads enrolled postpartum in an urban public hospital. Cognitive stimulation in the home at 6 months was assessed using StimQ-lnfant, including provision of toys, shared reading, teaching, and verbal responsivity. Early infant communication was assessed at 6 months including the following: (1) Emotion and eye gaze (Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scale DP-CSBS DP), (2) Communicative bids (CSBS DP), and (3) Expression of emotion (Short Temperament Scale for Infants). Toddler language was assessed at 24 months using the Preschool Language Scale-4, including the following: (1) expressive language and (2) auditory comprehension. Three hundred twenty families were assessed. In structural equation models, cognitive stimulation in the home was strongly associated with early infant communication (β = 0.63, p cognitive stimulation on 24-month language was mediated through early impacts on infant communication (Indirect β = 0.28, p =.001). Reading, teaching, availability of learning materials, and other reciprocal verbal interactions were all related directly to infant communication and indirectly to language outcomes. The impact of early cognitive stimulation on toddler language is manifested through early associations with infant communication. Pediatric primary care providers should promote cognitive stimulation beginning in early infancy and support the expansion and dissemination of intervention programs such as Reach Out and Read and the Video Interaction Project.

  17. Levels, trends and correlates of unmet need for family planning among postpartum women in Indonesia: 2007-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilopo, Siswanto Agus; Setyawan, Althaf; Pinandari, Anggriyani Wahyu; Prihyugiarto, Titut; Juliaan, Flourisa; Magnani, Robert J

    2017-11-28

    Although Indonesia has relatively high contraceptive prevalence, postpartum family planning (PP-FP) has not been a particular point of emphasis. This article reports the results of analyses undertaken in order to (1) better understand levels and trends in unmet need for family planning among postpartum women, (2) assess the extent to which unmet need is concentrated among particular population sub-groups, and (3) assess the policy priority that PP-FP should have in relation to other interventions. The analyses were based on data from the 2007 and 2012 Indonesia Demographic and Health Surveys (IDHS) and the 2015 PMA2020 survey. Postpartum contraceptive use and unmet need were analyzed for fecund women who had given birth in the 3-5 years of preceding the respective surveys who were in the extended postpartum period at the time of the respective surveys. Factors associated with contraceptive use and unmet were assessed via multivariable logistic regressions using merged data from all three surveys. A wide range of biologic, demographic, socio-economic, geographic and programmatic factors were considered. Contraceptive use during the extended postpartum period is high in Indonesia, with more than 74% of post-partum women reporting currently using a family planning method in the 2015 PMA2020 survey. This is up from 68% in 2007 and 70% in 2012. Total unmet need was 28% in 2007, falling slightly to 23% in 2012 and 24% in 2015. However, the timing of contraceptive initiation is less than optimal. By six months postpartum, only 50% of mothers had begun contraceptive use. Unmet need was highest among older women, women with 4+ children, with limited knowledge of contraceptive methods, making fewer ANC visits, from poor families and residents of islands other than Java and Bali. Unmet need for family planning among postpartum women in Indonesia is low in comparison with other low- and middle-income countries. However, because of limited durations of exclusive breastfeeding

  18. Facilitating learning and action for food sovereignty on family and community levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst, Mette

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on strengthening local communities in West Uganda, where an approach focusing on building up social capital and sharing responsibilities for own development within and between families. We see it as an approach to reach food sovereignty because it takes its roots within...... in reaching food sovereignty, - Building social capital in local communities is a key to control over food, - Context-specific learning and knowledge in combination with an organizational and institutional capacity in local CBOs or NGOs all are paramount for strengthening food sovereignty on a local level...... the family itself, where the responsibility for both family food and cash crops exists and is not always shared equally. When families start working together and use the resources in a group of both men and women, elders and youth, a local community becomes stronger and can match the capacities within...

  19. The Impact of Parental Level of Income on Students' Academic Performance in High School in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machebe, Chioma Henrietta; Ezegbe, Bernedeth N.; Onuoha, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    The socioeconomic status of a child parent impacts on the educational development and achievement of the child. This study evaluated the effect of socioeconomic status, specifically parents income and parents-child relationship on student's academic performance in Senior High School in Japan. Three hundred students of Senior High Schools in Osaka…

  20. Income inequality and adolescent fertility in low-income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Castro

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The well-known socioeconomic gradient in health does not imply that income inequality by itself has any effect on well-being. However, there is evidence of a positive association between income inequality and adolescent fertility across countries. Nevertheless, this key finding is not focused on low-income countries. This study applies a multilevel logistic regression of country-level adolescent fertility on country-level income inequality plus individual-level income and controls to the Demographic and Health Surveys data. A negative association between income inequality and adolescent fertility was found among low-income countries, controlling for income (OR = 0.981; 95%CI: 0.963-0.999. Different measures and different subsamples of countries show the same results. Therefore, the international association between income inequality and adolescent fertility seems more complex than previously thought.

  1. Income inequality and adolescent fertility in low-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Ruben; Fajnzylber, Eduardo

    2017-09-28

    : The well-known socioeconomic gradient in health does not imply that income inequality by itself has any effect on well-being. However, there is evidence of a positive association between income inequality and adolescent fertility across countries. Nevertheless, this key finding is not focused on low-income countries. This study applies a multilevel logistic regression of country-level adolescent fertility on country-level income inequality plus individual-level income and controls to the Demographic and Health Surveys data. A negative association between income inequality and adolescent fertility was found among low-income countries, controlling for income (OR = 0.981; 95%CI: 0.963-0.999). Different measures and different subsamples of countries show the same results. Therefore, the international association between income inequality and adolescent fertility seems more complex than previously thought.

  2. Technology Components as Adjuncts to Family-Based Pediatric Obesity Treatment in Low-Income Minority Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripicchio, Gina L; Ammerman, Alice S; Neshteruk, Cody; Faith, Myles S; Dean, Kelsey; Befort, Christie; Ward, Dianne S; Truesdale, Kimberly P; Burger, Kyle S; Davis, Ann

    2017-12-01

    Strategies to treat pediatric obesity are needed, especially among high-need populations. Technology is an innovative approach; however, data on technology as adjuncts to in-person treatment programs are limited. A total of 64 children [body mass index (BMI) ≥85th percentile, mean age = 9.6 ± 3.1 years, 32.8% female, 84.4% Hispanic] were recruited to participate in one of three cohorts of a family-based behavioral group (FBBG) treatment program: FBBG only, TECH1, and TECH2. Rolling, nonrandomized recruitment was used to enroll participants into three cohorts from May 2014 to February 2015. FBBG began in May 2014 and received the standard, in-person 12-week treatment only (n = 21); TECH1 began in September 2014 and received FBBG plus a digital tablet equipped with a fitness app (FITNET) (n = 20); TECH2 began in February 2015 and received FBBG and FITNET, plus five individually tailored TeleMed health-coaching sessions delivered via Skype (n = 23). Child BMI z-score (BMI-z) was assessed at baseline and postintervention. Secondary aims examined weekly FBBG attendance, feasibility/acceptability of FITNET and Skype, and the effect of technology engagement on BMI-z. FBBG and TECH1 participants did not show significant reductions in BMI-z postintervention [FBBG: β = -0.05(0.04), p = 0.25; TECH1: β = -0.006(0.06), p = 0.92], but TECH2 participants did [β = -0.09(0.02), p < 0.001] and TeleMed session participation was significantly associated with BMI-z reduction [β = -0.04(0.01), p = 0.01]. FITNET use and FBBG attendance were not associated with BMI-z in any cohort. Overall, participants rated the technology as highly acceptable. Technology adjuncts are feasible, used by hard-to-reach participants, and show promise for improving child weight status in obesity treatment programs.

  3. Stateless Income

    OpenAIRE

    Edward D Kleinbard

    2012-01-01

    This paper and its companion, The Lessons of Stateless Income, together comprehensively analyze the tax consequences and policy implications of the phenomenon of “stateless income.” Stateless income comprises income derived for tax purposes by a multinational group from business activities in a country other than the domicile of the group’s ultimate parent company, but which is subject to tax only in a jurisdiction that is not the location of the customers or the factors of production through...

  4. Broadband Internet and Income Inequality

    OpenAIRE

    HOUNGBONON , Georges Vivien; Liang , Julienne

    2017-01-01

    Policy makers are aiming for a large coverage of high-speed broadband Internet. However , there is still a lack of evidence about its effects on income distribution. In this paper, we investigate the effects of fixed broadband Internet on mean income and income inequality using a unique town-level data on broadband adoption and quality in France. We find that broadband adoption and quality raise mean income and lower income inequality. These results are robust to initial conditions, and yield...

  5. Consumo infantil de alimentos industrializados e renda familiar na cidade de São Paulo Association of children's consumption of processed foods and family income in the city of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia de Aquino

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever o consumo infantil de alimentos industrializados e a relação com a renda familiar per capita, com base em inquérito domiciliar. MÉTODOS: O consumo alimentar de uma amostra probabilística da população infantil residente na cidade de São Paulo, entre zero e 59 meses de idade (n=718, foi estudado em 1995/1996 por meio de inquérito recordatório de 24h. Analisou-se a relação entre o consumo de 24 alimentos industrializados e a renda familiar per capita, distribuída em quartis. RESULTADOS: O consumo de açúcar foi maior entre as crianças de menor renda, enquanto achocolatados, chocolates, iogurte, leite em pó modificado e refrigerantes foram mais consumidos por crianças de maior renda familiar per capita (pOBJECTIVE: To describe children's consumption of processed foods and its relationship with per capita family income based on a household survey. METHODS: Food consumption was studied in a statistical sample of 718 children living in the city of São Paulo in the period 1995-1996. A 24-hour dietary recall was used. Data regarding the association of children's consumption of 24 processed foods and per capita family income (arranged in quartiles was analyzed. RESULTS: Consumption of sugar was higher among children of low income families whereas the consumption of chocolate powder, chocolate, yogurt, infant formula and soft drinks was higher among children of high income families (p< 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: It seems that per capita family income affects the consumption of some processed foods.

  6. Fine particles in homes of predominantly low-income families with children and smokers: Key physical and behavioral determinants to inform indoor-air-quality interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepeis, Neil E; Bellettiere, John; Hughes, Suzanne C; Nguyen, Benjamin; Berardi, Vincent; Liles, Sandy; Obayashi, Saori; Hofstetter, C Richard; Blumberg, Elaine; Hovell, Melbourne F

    2017-01-01

    Children are at risk for adverse health outcomes from occupant-controllable indoor airborne contaminants in their homes. Data are needed to design residential interventions for reducing low-income children's pollutant exposure. Using customized air quality monitors, we continuously measured fine particle counts (0.5 to 2.5 microns) over a week in living areas of predominantly low-income households in San Diego, California, with at least one child (under age 14) and at least one cigarette smoker. We performed retrospective interviews on home characteristics, and particle source and ventilation activities occurring during the week of monitoring. We explored the relationship between weekly mean particle counts and interview responses using graphical visualization and multivariable linear regression (base sample n = 262; complete cases n = 193). We found associations of higher weekly mean particle counts with reports of indoor smoking of cigarettes or marijuana, as well as with frying food, using candles or incense, and house cleaning. Lower particle levels were associated with larger homes. We did not observe an association between lower mean particle counts and reports of opening windows, using kitchen exhaust fans, or other ventilation activities. Our findings about sources of fine airborne particles and their mitigation can inform future studies that investigate more effective feedback on residential indoor-air-quality and better strategies for reducing occupant exposures.

  7. Fine particles in homes of predominantly low-income families with children and smokers: Key physical and behavioral determinants to inform indoor-air-quality interventions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil E Klepeis

    Full Text Available Children are at risk for adverse health outcomes from occupant-controllable indoor airborne contaminants in their homes. Data are needed to design residential interventions for reducing low-income children's pollutant exposure. Using customized air quality monitors, we continuously measured fine particle counts (0.5 to 2.5 microns over a week in living areas of predominantly low-income households in San Diego, California, with at least one child (under age 14 and at least one cigarette smoker. We performed retrospective interviews on home characteristics, and particle source and ventilation activities occurring during the week of monitoring. We explored the relationship between weekly mean particle counts and interview responses using graphical visualization and multivariable linear regression (base sample n = 262; complete cases n = 193. We found associations of higher weekly mean particle counts with reports of indoor smoking of cigarettes or marijuana, as well as with frying food, using candles or incense, and house cleaning. Lower particle levels were associated with larger homes. We did not observe an association between lower mean particle counts and reports of opening windows, using kitchen exhaust fans, or other ventilation activities. Our findings about sources of fine airborne particles and their mitigation can inform future studies that investigate more effective feedback on residential indoor-air-quality and better strategies for reducing occupant exposures.

  8. The Distribution of Payroll and Income Tax Burdens, 1979-99

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrusi, Andrew; Poterba, James M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents new evidence on the level and distribution of income and payroll tax burdens for U.S. families over the 1979-99 period. During this period, payroll taxes have become an increasingly important component of the tax burden for many low- and middle-income families. This paper uses a new and expanded version of the National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) TAXSIM program to analyze the impact of legislative changes in income and payroll taxes. Averaged over all families, the ...

  9. A first-level evaluation of a family intervention for adolescent social ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study is a first-level evaluation of a family intervention targeted at adolescents with social, emotional and behavioural difficulties (SEBD) attending Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) in Ireland. It is a combined implementation of the Working Things Out adolescent programmeand the Parents Plus ...

  10. Relationship between Job Statisfaction Levels and Work-Family Conflicts of Physical Education Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulucan, Hakki

    2017-01-01

    Study aims to examine the relationship between perceived job satisfaction levels and work-family conflicts of the physical education teachers. Research group consists of 154 volunteer physical education teachers that work full time in governmental institutions in Kirsehir city and its counties. To acquire the job satisfaction datum; the Minnesota…

  11. Suicide rates across income levels: Retrospective cohort data on 1 million participants collected between 2003 and 2013 in South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sang-Uk; Oh, In-Hwan; Jeon, Hong Jin; Roh, Sungwon

    2017-01-01

    Background: The relation of income and socioeconomic status with suicide rates remains unclear. Most previous studies have focused on the relationship between suicide rates and macroeconomic factors (e.g., economic growth rate). Therefore, we aimed to identify the relationship between individuals' socioeconomic position and suicide risk. Methods: We analyzed suicide mortality rates across socioeconomic positions to identify potential trends using observational data on suicide mortality co...

  12. The Relationship between Gender Inequality Index and Indicators Related to Children in Countries with Different Income Levels: An Ecologic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Hatam

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: Increase in gender inequality can enhance the mortality of infants and children less than five years; it also can decrease the percentage of vaccination coverage in children. However, gender inequality happens more in countries with less income. Therefore, to reduce child mortality, not only health interventions, but also socio-cultural and economic activities are required. Hence, Cross-sectoral policies should be developed and implemented.

  13. Mothers' power assertion; children's negative, adversarial orientation; and future behavior problems in low-income families: early maternal responsiveness as a moderator of the developmental cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sanghag; Kochanska, Grazyna

    2015-02-01

    Parental power assertion, a key dimension of family environment, generally sets in motion detrimental developmental cascades; however, evidence suggests that other qualities of parenting, such as responsiveness, can significantly moderate those processes. Mechanisms that account for such moderating effects are not fully understood. We propose a conceptual model of processes linking parental power assertion, parental responsiveness, children's negative, adversarial, rejecting orientation toward the parent, and behavior problems. We test that model in a short-term longitudinal design involving 186 low-income, ethnically diverse mothers and their toddlers. When children were 30 months, the dyads were observed in multiple, lengthy, naturalistic laboratory interactions to assess behaviorally mothers' responsiveness and their power-assertive control style. At 33 months, we observed behavioral indicators of children's negative, adversarial, rejecting orientation toward the mothers in several naturalistic and standardized paradigms. At 40 months, mothers rated children's behavior problems. The proposed moderated mediation sequence, tested using a new approach, PROCESS (Hayes, 2013), was supported. The indirect effect from maternal power assertion to children's negative, adversarial orientation to future behavior problems was present when mothers' responsiveness was either low or average but absent when mothers were highly responsive. This study elucidates a potential process that may link parental power assertion with behavior problems and highlights how positive aspects of parenting can moderate this process and defuse maladaptive developmental cascades. It also suggests possible targets for parenting intervention and prevention efforts. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Mothers’ Power Assertion, Children’s Negative, Adversarial Orientation, and Future Behavior Problems in Low-Income Families: Early Maternal Responsiveness as a Moderator of the Developmental Cascade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sanghag; Kochanska, Grazyna

    2014-01-01

    Parental power assertion, a key dimension of family environment, generally sets in motion detrimental developmental cascades; however, evidence suggests that other qualities of parenting, such as responsiveness, can significantly moderate those processes. Mechanisms that account for such moderating effects are not fully understood. We propose a conceptual model of processes linking parental power assertion, parental responsiveness, children’s negative, adversarial, rejecting orientation toward the parent, and behavior problems. We test that model in a short-term longitudinal design involving 186 low-income, ethnically diverse mothers and their toddlers. When children were 30 months, the dyads were observed in multiple, lengthy, naturalistic laboratory interactions to assess behaviorally mothers’ responsiveness and their power-assertive control style. At 33 months, we observed behavioral indicators of children’s negative, adversarial, rejecting orientation toward the mothers in several naturalistic and standardized paradigms. At 40 months, mothers rated children’s behavior problems. The proposed moderated mediation sequence, tested using a new approach, PROCESS (Hayes, 2013), was supported. The indirect effect from maternal power assertion to children’s negative, adversarial orientation to future behavior problems was present when mothers’ responsiveness was either low or average but absent when mothers were highly responsive. This study elucidates a potential process that may link parental power assertion with behavior problems and highlights how positive aspects of parenting can moderate this process and defuse maladaptive developmental cascades. It also suggests possible targets for parenting intervention and prevention efforts. PMID:25401483

  15. Can Family Planning Service Statistics Be Used to Track Population-Level Outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnani, Robert J; Ross, John; Williamson, Jessica; Weinberger, Michelle

    2018-03-21

    The need for annual family planning program tracking data under the Family Planning 2020 (FP2020) initiative has contributed to renewed interest in family planning service statistics as a potential data source for annual estimates of the modern contraceptive prevalence rate (mCPR). We sought to assess (1) how well a set of commonly recorded data elements in routine service statistics systems could, with some fairly simple adjustments, track key population-level outcome indicators, and (2) whether some data elements performed better than others. We used data from 22 countries in Africa and Asia to analyze 3 data elements collected from service statistics: (1) number of contraceptive commodities distributed to clients, (2) number of family planning service visits, and (3) number of current contraceptive users. Data quality was assessed via analysis of mean square errors, using the United Nations Population Division World Contraceptive Use annual mCPR estimates as the "gold standard." We also examined the magnitude of several components of measurement error: (1) variance, (2) level bias, and (3) slope (or trend) bias. Our results indicate modest levels of tracking error for data on commodities to clients (7%) and service visits (10%), and somewhat higher error rates for data on current users (19%). Variance and slope bias were relatively small for all data elements. Level bias was by far the largest contributor to tracking error. Paired comparisons of data elements in countries that collected at least 2 of the 3 data elements indicated a modest advantage of data on commodities to clients. None of the data elements considered was sufficiently accurate to be used to produce reliable stand-alone annual estimates of mCPR. However, the relatively low levels of variance and slope bias indicate that trends calculated from these 3 data elements can be productively used in conjunction with the Family Planning Estimation Tool (FPET) currently used to produce annual m

  16. Regional features of the individual income tax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Demina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tax on income of physical persons according to the method of establishing refers to federal taxes, however, is the establishment of a regional peculiarities. Currently, in accordance with the distribution of taxes between the budgets of the order, the share of this tax in the regional budgets is directly dependent on the level and income level received by the population, to carry on activity in a particular area of the country. The article discusses the possibility of impact on the taxation of income of different categories of individuals from the regions. Since the tax on personal income has expressed toms-social orientation, in the Tax Code of the Russian Federation provided for the regions eligible for the establishment of a number of benefits for certain categories of taxpayers. This article describes the possible impact on the taxation of income of different categories of individuals from the regions by establishing incentives. The issues of granting tariff preferences income owners of private farms on the example of the Moscow region. An important social task of the state related to the support of family and birth rate increase, which is be implemented in the Russian Federation in the framework of the tax on personal income, is exemption from personal income tax funds regional maternal (family capital. The regional legislation can be traced virtually the same position on the determination of the number of children in the case of birth (adoption of which the inhabitants of the region there is a right to additional measures of state support and tax benefits. The data on the size of the analysis of the results of the regional maternity capital and the terms of its provision. We describe the benefits that the regions were able to provide 2016 individuals - payers of personal income tax on income from the sale of real estate. We consider the benefits that are currently install or may be establish by laws of subjects of federation in the

  17. Pobreza e desigualdade de renda entre famílias da zona rural de Mato Grosso de 2004 a 2006 Poverty and income inequality among families in rural areas of Mato Grosso from 2004 to 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito Dias Pereira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigou-se a desigualdade da distribuição de renda e a pobreza das famílias residentes nas áreas rurais de Mato Grosso em 2004 e 2006, com base nos microdados da PNAD (IBGE. Em especial, o coeficiente de Gini foi decomposto por fonte de renda, para se identificar a contribuição relativa de determinada fonte de renda na desigualdade da renda total. Dentre os principais resultados encontrados, verificou-se que há elevada desigualdade na distribuição de renda entre as famílias rurais mato-grossenses, que a renda das atividades agrícolas contribui para aumentar essa desigualdade e que essa renda se constitui em variável importante e estratégica para a economia do Estado. Os indicadores também sugerem que houve incremento da pobreza entre as famílias rurais do Estado entre 2004 e 2006.Investigates on income distribution inequality and poverty of families living in rural areas of Mato Grosso in 2004 and 2006, based on the microdata of PNAD (IBGE. In particular, the Gini coefficient was broken by source of income to identify the relative contribution of a particular source of income inequality in total income. Among the key findings, it appears that there is high inequality in the income distribution among households in Mato Grosso, that the agriculture income contributes to increasing inequality and that this income is one important and strategic variable for the economy of the state. The indicators also suggest that there was an increase in poverty among rural families of the state between 2004 and 2006.

  18. A comparison of families of children with autism spectrum disorders in family daily routines, service usage, and stress levels by regionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuliffe, Tomomi; Vaz, Sharmila; Falkmer, Torbjörn; Cordier, Reinie

    2017-11-01

    To explore whether family routines, service usage, and stress levels in families of children with autism spectrum disorder differ as a function of regionality. Secondary analysis of data was undertaken from 535 surveys. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to investigate differences between families living in densely populated (DP) areas and less densely populated (LDP) areas. Families living in LDP areas were found to: (1) have reduced employment hours (a two-parent household: Exp (B) = 3.48, p single-parent household: Exp (B) = 3.32, p = .011); (2) travel greater distance to access medical facilities (Exp (B) = 1.27, p = .006); and (3) report less severe stress levels (Exp (B) = 0.22, p = .014). There were no differences in family routines; however, flexible employment opportunities and travel distance to medical services need to be considered in families living in LDP areas.

  19. [Effect of mass communication media in food purchasing at the family level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya de Sifontes, M Z; Dehollain, P L

    1986-03-01

    The main purpose of this study was to determine the effect of mass media advertisement of food products (TV, radio and the press), particularly in pre-school and school-age children, as well as the concomitant impact these age groups have on the family food buying patterns. To test the hypothesis that the impact of mass media advertising on foods varied in the different socioeconomic levels of a community, a stratified sample of all children below 13 years of age, who attended the Francisco Fajardo school in the central coast of Venezuela, was drawn. Mass media contact, food and nutrition knowledge and other socioeconomic characteristics were related to the family's food-buying patterns. More specifically, the age, working status and educational level of the mother in regard to beliefs concerning the nutritional value of advertized food products, were related. A semi-structured questionnaire was designed, tested and applied to the housewife or whoever performed this role within the family. Findings revealed that families of low socioeconomic status are prone to be most influenced by mass media food product advertising. This is reflected not only in food purchasing practices but also in food consumption patterns at the family level. Chocolate drinks, cereals, jello, sausages, and ice cream are the most popular products among pre-school and school-aged children, without social class distinction. Furthermore, results revealed that the degree of exposure to mass communication media--television, radio and newspapers--is a determining factor in children's food preferences at all socioeconomic levels, and that television is the media exerting the greatest influence.

  20. Income and children's behavioral functioning: a sequential mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelleby, Elizabeth C; Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth; Shaw, Daniel S; Dishion, Thomas J; Wilson, Melvin N; Gardner, Frances

    2014-12-01

    Children from low-income households tend to exhibit higher levels of conduct problems and emotional problems, yet the pathways linking economic disadvantage to children's behavioral functioning are not well understood. This study uses data from the Early Steps Multisite (ESM) project (N = 731) to investigate associations between family income in early childhood and children's conduct problems and emotional problems in middle childhood. The study explores whether the associations from income to child conduct problems and emotional problems operate through maternal depressive symptoms and 3 family risk factors in early childhood-harsh parenting, parenting hassles, and chaos in the home environment. Results of a sequential mediation model revealed significant indirect effects of family income on children's conduct problems operating through maternal depressive symptoms and parenting hassles and indirect effects of family income on children's emotional problems operating through maternal depressive symptoms, chaos in the home environment, and parenting hassles. Implications of these findings for understanding processes through which income influences child functioning are discussed.

  1. Measuring HIV stigma at the family level: psychometric assessment of the Chinese Courtesy Stigma Scales (CCSSs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongjie; Xu, Yongfang; Sun, Yehuan; Dumenci, Levent

    2014-01-01

    Courtesy stigma is the stigmatization a person perceives or experiences due to their association with a stigmatized individual or group. Most HIV-related stigma scales have been developed for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs), but not for their HIV-uninfected family members. To date, few measurement scales have been designed to measure the degree of stigma among both PLWHAs and their HIV-uninfected family members at the family level. We developed a set of courtesy stigma scales and estimated their reliability and validity from 256 PLWHAs and 256 of their HIV-uninfected family members. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed in two independent samples: a development sample (N = 216) and a validation sample (N = 296), respectively. Two factors ("public stigma" and "self-perceived stigma") had high internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha coefficient between 0.83-0.90) and good construct validity (standardized factor loading range: 0.37-0.95) in both samples. These findings document that the newly developed brief instrument is a psychometrically sound measure of HIV-related stigma among both PLWHAs and their HIV-uninfected family members.

  2. Reproductive goals and family planning attitudes in Pakistan: a couple-level analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, N

    1998-01-01

    This paper examined reproductive goals and family planning attitudes at the couple level in Pakistan. Data were based on the responses of the 1260 matched couples in the 1990-91 Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey. The questions integrated in the interview were on desired fertility, family size ideas, son preference, and family planning attitude. Findings of the analysis showed that about 60% of the couples have given similar responses (agreeing either positively or negatively) to several fertility-related questions, whereas the remaining 40% differ in their attitudes. This divergence may partly be of the environmental factors such as spouse rural background, lack of education, and minimal communication between spouses. This implies that a couple's joint approval, discussion of family planning, and husband's desire for no more children have the strongest effect on promoting contraceptive use. Thus, it is concluded that the role of couple agreement is important in promoting the use of family planning, and men should be made equal targets of such programs in Pakistan.

  3. The Daily Events and Emotions of Master's-Level Family Therapy Trainees in Off-Campus Practicum Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Todd M.; Patterson, Jo Ellen

    2012-01-01

    The Day Reconstruction Method (DRM) was used to assess the daily events and emotions of one program's master's-level family therapy trainees in off-campus practicum settings. This study examines the DRM reports of 35 family therapy trainees in the second year of their master's program in marriage and family therapy. Four themes emerged from the…

  4. Marital and Family Satisfaction as a Function of Work-Family Demands and Community Resources: Individual- and Couple-Level Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostetler, Andrew J.; Desrochers, Stephan; Kopko, Kimberly; Moen, Phyllis

    2012-01-01

    This study uses individual- and couple-level analyses to examine the influence of work-family demands and community resources on marital and family satisfaction within a sample of dual-earner parents with dependent children (N = 260 couples, 520 individuals). Total couple work hours were strongly negatively associated with marital satisfaction for…

  5. Pattern and levels of spending allocated to HIV prevention programs in low- and middle-income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amico Peter

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background AIDS continues to spread at an estimated 2.6 new million infections per year, making the prevention of HIV transmission a critical public health issue. The dramatic growth in global resources for AIDS has produced a steady scale-up in treatment and care that has not been equally matched by preventive services. This paper is a detailed analysis of how countries are choosing to spend these more limited prevention funds. Methods We analyzed prevention spending in 69 low- and middle-income countries with a variety of epidemic types, using data from national domestic spending reports. Spending information was from public and international sources and was analyzed based on the National AIDS Spending Assessment (NASA methods and classifications. Results Overall, prevention received 21% of HIV resources compared to 53% of funding allocated to treatment and care. Prevention relies primarily on international donors, who accounted for 65% of all prevention resources and 93% of funding in low-income countries. For the subset of 53 countries that provided detailed spending information, we found that 60% of prevention resources were spent in five areas: communication for social and behavioral change (16%, voluntary counselling and testing (14%, prevention of mother-to-child transmission (13%, blood safety (10% and condom programs (7%. Only 7% of funding was spent on most-at-risk populations and less than 1% on male circumcision. Spending patterns did not consistently reflect current evidence and the HIV specific transmission context of each country. Conclusions Despite recognition of its importance, countries are not allocating resources in ways that are likely to achieve the greatest impact on prevention across all epidemic types. Within prevention spending itself, a greater share of resources need to be matched with interventions that approximate the specific needs and drivers of each country's epidemic.

  6. The Impact of a Multi-Level Multi-Component Childhood Obesity Prevention Intervention on Healthy Food Availability, Sales, and Purchasing in a Low-Income Urban Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittelsohn, Joel; Trude, Angela C; Poirier, Lisa; Ross, Alexandra; Ruggiero, Cara; Schwendler, Teresa; Anderson Steeves, Elizabeth

    2017-11-10

    The multifactorial causes of obesity require multilevel and multicomponent solutions, but such combined strategies have not been tested to improve the community food environment. We evaluated the impact of a multilevel (operating at different levels of the food environment) multicomponent (interventions occurring at the same level) community intervention. The B'more Healthy Communities for Kids (BHCK) intervention worked at the wholesaler ( n = 3), corner store ( n = 50), carryout ( n = 30), recreation center ( n = 28), household ( n = 365) levels to improve availability, purchasing, and consumption of healthier foods and beverages (low-sugar, low-fat) in low-income food desert predominantly African American zones in the city of Baltimore (MD, USA), ultimately intending to lead to decreased weight gain in children (not reported in this manuscript). For this paper, we focus on more proximal impacts on the food environment, and measure change in stocking, sales and purchase of promoted foods at the different levels of the food system in 14 intervention neighborhoods, as compared to 14 comparison neighborhoods. Sales of promoted products increased in wholesalers. Stocking of these products improved in corner stores, but not in carryouts, and we did not find any change in total sales. Children more exposed to the intervention increased their frequency of purchase of promoted products, although improvement was not seen for adult caregivers. A multilevel food environment intervention in a low-income urban setting improved aspects of the food system, leading to increased healthy food purchasing behavior in children.

  7. The Impact of a Multi-Level Multi-Component Childhood Obesity Prevention Intervention on Healthy Food Availability, Sales, and Purchasing in a Low-Income Urban Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Gittelsohn

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The multifactorial causes of obesity require multilevel and multicomponent solutions, but such combined strategies have not been tested to improve the community food environment. We evaluated the impact of a multilevel (operating at different levels of the food environment multicomponent (interventions occurring at the same level community intervention. The B’more Healthy Communities for Kids (BHCK intervention worked at the wholesaler (n = 3, corner store (n = 50, carryout (n = 30, recreation center (n = 28, household (n = 365 levels to improve availability, purchasing, and consumption of healthier foods and beverages (low-sugar, low-fat in low-income food desert predominantly African American zones in the city of Baltimore (MD, USA, ultimately intending to lead to decreased weight gain in children (not reported in this manuscript. For this paper, we focus on more proximal impacts on the food environment, and measure change in stocking, sales and purchase of promoted foods at the different levels of the food system in 14 intervention neighborhoods, as compared to 14 comparison neighborhoods. Sales of promoted products increased in wholesalers. Stocking of these products improved in corner stores, but not in carryouts, and we did not find any change in total sales. Children more exposed to the intervention increased their frequency of purchase of promoted products, although improvement was not seen for adult caregivers. A multilevel food environment intervention in a low-income urban setting improved aspects of the food system, leading to increased healthy food purchasing behavior in children.

  8. Perspective of Family Members of Transitions to Alternative Levels of Care in Anglo-Saxon Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merla, C; Wickson-Griffiths, A; Kaasalainen, S; Dal Bello-Haas, V; Banfield, L; Hadjistavropoulos, T; Di Sante, E

    2018-01-01

    This scoping review explores circumstances surrounding the decision about, and eventual experience of, transitioning older adults into alternative levels of housing (ALH), such as long-term care. This topic is examined from a family member perspective, given their exposure and involvement in the care of older adult relatives during this transitional period. The scoping review methodology is based on the framework of Arksey and O'Malley and subsequent recommendations from Levac, Colquhoun, and O'Brien. Approximately 470 articles were reviewed covering the period between 2000 and November 2014; 37 articles met inclusion criteria. A temporal organization of themes was used to describe the experiences of family members in the pretransition, active transition, and posttransition periods of moving older adult relatives into ALH. This paper highlights the transitional period as a time of crisis, with a lack of planning, support, and transparent discussion. This study identifies a need for future research on the potential benefits of family support groups, interim transitional housing options, different models of ALH, changing roles in the posttransition period, and the need for a comprehensive list of housing options for older adults. Results have the potential to inform policy/practice and improve the lives of older adults and their family.

  9. Comorbidity of depression with levels of smoking: an exploration of the shared familial risk hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Eric O; Rhee, Soo Hyun; Chase, Gary A; Breslau, Naomi

    2004-12-01

    Comorbidity of depression and smoking is well recognized, but results from studies that have assessed alternative explanations have varied by the level of smoking and the study method. We examined all 13 etiology models of comorbidity described by Neale and Kendler (American Journal of Genetics, 57, 935-953, 1995) for depression and each of four levels of smoking to shed light on the role that differing definitions might have played in generating the conflicting findings. Data came from 979 young adults aged 26-35 years who participated in an epidemiological cohort study in southeastern Michigan. Respondent and family history data on parental smoking and depression were analyzed using the biometric modeling method for family data, which Rhee and colleagues (Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 44, 612-636, 2003; Behavior Genetics, 34, 251-265, 2004) have shown to be valid more frequently than traditional prevalence analyses. Results of the biometric model fitting suggested that for ever smoking, the comorbidity with depression may be related to chance or a high liability threshold for smoking only. In contrast, a correlated liabilities model fit the data best for the comorbidity of depression with daily, heavy, and nicotine-dependent smoking. The familial correlations accounted for 73%-95% of the total variance shared between depression and these levels of smoking. These results differ from analyses of these data using a traditional prevalence approach, which found no evidence of shared familial liability. The conflicting findings of the studies that have examined the relationship between smoking and depression may be attributable to differences in definition of the disorders and the methods used to analyze them.

  10. Influence of Leisure Competence and Level of Leisure Activity on Life Satisfaction in Low-Income Older Adults in Rural South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jihea; Choi, Jung A

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate the relationships among leisure competence, level of leisure activity, and life satisfaction in low-income older adults in rural South Korea. A sample of 137 older adults answered the study questionnaire, and significant differences in leisure competence were noted depending on age, religion, and perceived health status as well as level of leisure activity based on perceived health status and type of leisure activities. There were also notable differences in life satisfaction regarding religion and perceived health status, and a correlation among leisure competence, level of leisure activity, and life satisfaction; the influencing power of leisure competence and level of leisure activity on life satisfaction was 47%. The findings suggest that enhancement of older adults' leisure competence may increase participation in leisure activities. [Res Gerontol Nurs. 2017; 10(2):67-75.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. Family Resources and Mid-Life Level of Education: A Longitudinal Study of the Mediating Influence of Childhood Parental Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Otter, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    This paper draws on the concept of parental involvement, popular among educators and policy-makers, in investigating differences in level of attained education by family background. The question is if parental involvement in children's schooling at age 14 acts as a mediator between family resources and mid-life level of attained education. Using…

  12. Protocol for a randomized controlled trial testing the impact of feedback on familial risk of chronic diseases on family-level intentions to participate in preventive lifestyle behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlene J. Wilson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common disease risk clusters in families due to shared genetics, exposure to environmental risk factors, and because many health behaviours are established and maintained in family environments. This randomised controlled trial will test whether the provision of a family health history (FHH risk assessment tool increases intentions and engagement in health behaviors. Message distribution and collective behavior change within family networks will be mapped using social network analysis. The relative intervention impact will be compared between families from different ethnic backgrounds. Methods One hundred and fifty mothers (50 Anglo-Australian, 50 Italian-Australian, 50 Vietnamese-Australian will be recruited, with four or more other family members across three generations, including a child (aged 10–18 years. Each family is randomly assigned to intervention or control. At baseline and 6-month follow-up, all participants complete surveys to assess dietary and physical activity intentions and behaviors, attitudes towards food, and perceived disease risk. Intervention families receive a visual pedigree detailing their FHH of diabetes, heart disease, breast and bowel cancer, a health education workbook to ascertain members’ disease risk (i.e. average or above average risk, and screening and primary prevention recommendations. After completion of follow-up assessments, controls will receive their pedigree and workbook. The primary hypothesis is that attitudes and lifestyle behaviors will improve more within families exposed to FHH feedback, although the extent of this improvement may vary between families from different ethnic backgrounds. Additionally, the extent of improvement in the treatment group will be moderated by the level of family disease risk, with above-average risk leading to greater improvement. A secondary aim will explore different family members’ roles in message distribution and collective responses to

  13. Protocol for a randomized controlled trial testing the impact of feedback on familial risk of chronic diseases on family-level intentions to participate in preventive lifestyle behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Carlene J; de la Haye, Kayla; Coveney, John; Hughes, Donna L; Hutchinson, Amanda; Miller, Caroline; Prichard, Ivanka; Ward, Paul; Koehly, Laura M

    2016-09-13

    Common disease risk clusters in families due to shared genetics, exposure to environmental risk factors, and because many health behaviours are established and maintained in family environments. This randomised controlled trial will test whether the provision of a family health history (FHH) risk assessment tool increases intentions and engagement in health behaviors. Message distribution and collective behavior change within family networks will be mapped using social network analysis. The relative intervention impact will be compared between families from different ethnic backgrounds. One hundred and fifty mothers (50 Anglo-Australian, 50 Italian-Australian, 50 Vietnamese-Australian) will be recruited, with four or more other family members across three generations, including a child (aged 10-18 years). Each family is randomly assigned to intervention or control. At baseline and 6-month follow-up, all participants complete surveys to assess dietary and physical activity intentions and behaviors, attitudes towards food, and perceived disease risk. Intervention families receive a visual pedigree detailing their FHH of diabetes, heart disease, breast and bowel cancer, a health education workbook to ascertain members' disease risk (i.e. average or above average risk), and screening and primary prevention recommendations. After completion of follow-up assessments, controls will receive their pedigree and workbook. The primary hypothesis is that attitudes and lifestyle behaviors will improve more within families exposed to FHH feedback, although the extent of this improvement may vary between families from different ethnic backgrounds. Additionally, the extent of improvement in the treatment group will be moderated by the level of family disease risk, with above-average risk leading to greater improvement. A secondary aim will explore different family members' roles in message distribution and collective responses to risk using social network approaches and to compare

  14. Family environmental and dietary implications for low-level prenatal lead exposure in Wujiang City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jin; Gao, Zhenyan; Wang, Ju; Ma, Wenjuan; Ying, Xiaolan; Zhou, Cancan; Yan, Chonghuai

    2018-05-01

    To explore the potential environmental and dietary factors during pregnancy affecting low-level prenatal lead exposure, we conducted a longitudinal study in Wujiang City, China. A total of 1976 mother-infant pairs were included from 2009 to 2010. An interviewed questionnaire was conducted and cord blood samples were collected. The geometric means of cord blood lead level was 30.3 μg/L (95% CI, 29.8-30.8) with 99.24% below 100 μg/L. Maternal age, passive smoking, and living in the countryside were significantly associated with cord blood lead concentrations. Multiple logistic models showed that some family environmental factors including using firewood and electricity as kitchen fuel were positively correlated with increased cord blood lead levels. Among dietary sources recorded in this study, meat consumption (> 3 times/week), fish consumption (1-3 times/week), vegetables consumption (> 1 times/day), and fruit intake (> 1 times/day) had inverse relationship with cord blood lead levels. In general, our findings may have important implications for family environmental and dietary direction during pregnancy to decrease prenatal lead exposure.

  15. Influence of family and school-level factors on age of sexual initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Candace N; Warner, Lynn A

    2015-02-01

    This study examined the association of individual, family, and school-level characteristics with age of sexual initiation (ASI) and focused specifically on school context as a moderator of known predictors of ASI. Data are from Waves I and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 10,596). Predictors include grade point average, physical development, attitudes about sex, likelihood of higher education, alcohol use, delinquency, family structure, parents' education level, childhood abuse, maternal approval of sex, parental monitoring, and parent-child relationship quality. School-level predictors are averages of adolescents' attitudes about sex and likelihood of higher education and parents' education. Hierarchical linear models run separately by sex were used to predict ASI. When school-level attitudes about sex are more favorable, both boys and girls report younger ASI, and school mean parental education attainment moderates the influence of individual adolescents' attitudes about sex on ASI. More of the predictors are significant for girls than boys, whereas perception of maternal and peer approval of sexual activity are the most salient predictors of younger ASI for boys. Results highlight the importance of school context for understanding adolescents' motivations for early ASI. Findings support the need for school-wide prevention interventions that engage adolescents, peers, and parents in addressing attitudes about early sex. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Relationships between Family Levels of Socioeconomic Status and Distribution of Breast Cancer Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohaghegh, Pegah; Yavari, Parvin; Akbari, Mohammad Esmaeil; Abadi, Alireza; Ahmadi, Farzaneh; Shormeij, Zeinab

    2015-01-01

    Not only the expand development of knowledge for reducing risk factors, but also the improvement in early diagnosis and treatment of cancer, and socioeconomic inequalities could affect cancer incidence, diagnosis stage, and mortality. The aim of this study was investigation the relationships between family levels of socioeconomic status and distribution of breast cancer risk factors. This descriptive cross-sectional study has conducted on 526 patients who were suffering from breast cancer, and have registered in Cancer Research Center of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences from March 2008 to December 2013. A reliable and valid questionnaire about family levels of socioeconomic status has filled by interviewing the patients via phone. For analyzing the data, Multinomial logistic regression, Kendal tau-b correlation coefficient and Contingency Coefficient tests have executed by SPSS19. The mean age of the patients was 48.30 (SD=11.41). According to the results of this study, there was a significant relationship between family socioeconomic status and patient's age at diagnosis of breast cancer (p valuesocioeconomic status and number of pregnancies, and duration of breast feeding were significant (p value> 0.001). In the multiple logistic regressions, the relationship between excellent socioeconomic status and number of abortions was significant (p value> 0.007). Furthermore, the relationships between moderate and good socioeconomic statuses and smoking were significant (p value=0.05 and p value=0.02, respectively). The results have indicated that among those patients having better socioeconomic status, age at cancer diagnosis, number of pregnancies and duration of breast feeding was lower, and then number of abortions was more than the others. According to the results of this study, it was really important to focus on family socioeconomic status as a critical and effective variable on breast cancer risk factors among the Iranian women.

  17. Effects of state-level Earned Income Tax Credit laws in the U.S. on maternal health behaviors and infant health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, Sara; Komro, Kelli A; Livingston, Melvin D; Lenhart, Otto; Wagenaar, Alexander C

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of state-level Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) laws in the U.S. on maternal health behaviors and infant health outcomes. Using multi-state, multi-year difference-in-differences analyses, we estimated effects of state EITC generosity on maternal health behaviors, birth weight and gestation weeks. We find little difference in maternal health behaviors associated with state-level EITC. In contrast, results for key infant health outcomes of birth weight and gestation weeks show small improvements in states with EITCs, with larger effects seen among states with more generous EITCs. Our results provide evidence for important health benefits of state-level EITC policies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Social Capital and Determinants of Immigrant Family Educational Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Family educational involvement has been identified as a particularly beneficial practice for the achievement and behavioral outcomes of all students, including ethnic-minority students from families who have low levels of income, education, and English language proficiency. Despite the associated benefits, however, not all families are involved in…

  19. Fine particles in homes of predominantly low-income families with children and smokers: Key physical and behavioral determinants to inform indoor-air-quality interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Klepeis, Neil E.; Bellettiere, John; Hughes, Suzanne C.; Nguyen, Benjamin; Berardi, Vincent; Liles, Sandy; Obayashi, Saori; Hofstetter, C. Richard; Blumberg, Elaine; Hovell, Melbourne F.

    2017-01-01

    Children are at risk for adverse health outcomes from occupant-controllable indoor airborne contaminants in their homes. Data are needed to design residential interventions for reducing low-income children's pollutant exposure. Using customized air quality monitors, we continuously measured fine particle counts (0.5 to 2.5 microns) over a week in living areas of predominantly low-income households in San Diego, California, with at least one child (under age 14) and at least one cigarette smok...

  20. A Family with γ-Thalassemia and High Hb A2 Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmeggiani, Giulia; Gualandi, Francesca; Selvatici, Rita; Rimessi, Paola; Bigoni, Stefania; Taddei Masieri, Marina; Dolcini, Bernadetta; Venturoli, Anna; Cappabianca, Maria P; Ferlini, Alessandra; Ravani, Anna

    2016-06-01

    We describe a family carrying a γ-globin gene deletion associated with an increase of Hb A2 level beyond the normal range. The family included the proband, his sister and their father, all with increased Hb A2 and normal Hb F levels. The proband and his sister showed borderline values of mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and reduced values of mean corpuscular hemoglobin (Hb) (MCH). The proband was referred to our Medical Genetics Service for preconception counseling together with his partner, a typical β-thalassemia (β-thal) carrier. The results were negative for the most frequent α-thalassemia (α-thal) mutations, and had no significant sequence variations of the coding sequences and promoter of the β- and δ-globin genes. Quantitative analysis by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MPLA) of the β-globin gene cluster detected a heterozygous deletion, ranging between 2.1 and 4.7 kb, in the proband, his sister and the father. The deletion involved the (G)γ gene and (G)γ-(A)γ intergenic region, whereas the 3' region of the (A)γ gene was preserved. A subsequent gap-polymerase chain reaction (gap-PCR) showed that a hybrid (GA)γ fusion gene was present. The deletion segregated with the elevation of Hb A2. The MLPA analysis of the β-globin gene cluster in 150 control alleles excluded a common polymorphism. Despite stronger evidence being needed, the described family suggests a possible role of this γ-globin gene deletion in contributing to Hb A2 elevation, possibly by altering the transcription regulation of the cluster. We propose γ-globin gene dosage analysis to be performed in patients with unexplained elevated Hb A2 levels.