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Sample records for level extension agents

  1. Personality Characteristics and Level of Performance of Male County Extension Agents in Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Dasharathrai Navnitrai

    The major purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between selected personality characteristics and attitudes of male extension agents in Wisconsin, and their level of job performance. The relationships between selected background factors and the level of agent's job performance were also studied. Subjects were 79 male county agents…

  2. Level Of Extension Agents Motivation And Effectiveness In Abia State Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machiadikwe N. Benjamin Agbarevo Nwogu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Motivation is known to affect effectiveness of workers but the level of extension agents motivation and how this has affected their effectiveness in Abia state is apparently unknown. A study was therefore conducted to determine the effect of motivation on effectiveness of extension agents in Abia State Nigeria. Two blocks were selected from each of the three zones in the state at the first stage giving total of 6 blocks. The second stage involved the selection of two sub-circles from each of the 6 blocks selected giving a total of 12 extension sub-circles. At the third stage 10 extension agents from each of the sub-circles were randomly selected giving a sample size of 120 extension agents. The data for the study was collected with use of a structured questionnaire. The extension agents level of motivation and effectiveness were measured with the aid of a 5 point Likert rating scale. Data collected was analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Descriptive statistics used were the mean frequencies and the Pearsons Product Moment Correlation Co-efficient which was used to determine the coefficient of correlation r . The inferential statistic used was the t-test of significance of relationship. The study found a significant relationship between the level of motivation and effectiveness of extension agents. Hence the null hypothesis which stated that there is no significant relationship between the level of motivation and effectiveness of extension agents was rejected and the alternative hypothesis accepted at 95 confidence level and 119 degrees of freedom.

  3. Status of Job Motivation and Job Performance of Field Level Extension Agents in Ogun State: Implications for Agricultural Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabusoro, E.; Awotunde, J. A.; Sodiya, C. I.; Alarima, C. I.

    2008-01-01

    The field level extension agents (FLEAs) are the lifeline of the agricultural extension system in Nigeria. Their motivation and job performance are therefore important to achieving faster agricultural development in Nigeria. The study identified the factors motivating the FLEAs working with Ogun State Agricultural development programme (OGADEP)…

  4. Identification of Current Proficiency Level of Extension Competencies and the Competencies Needed for Extension Agents to Be Successful in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dona Lakai

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this era of globalization, competency is an issue of concern to any field of professionals and their clients. Competency is an integrated set of skills, knowledge, and attitudes that allow one to effectively carry out the activities of a given work to the standards expected in the employment context. The purpose of this descriptive survey study was to determine the current proficiency level of North Carolina Cooperative Extension agents’ competencies and the other competencies they need to develop to be successful in Cooperative Extension. Findings indicate that the current proficiency level of competency for Extension agents in North Carolina Cooperative Extension varies from moderate to high in all 42 items listed in the survey. Multiple regression analysis confirmed that Extension agents’ years of Extension experience and age were major determinants of their overall proficiency level. Extension agents’ proficiency levels did not vary with gender, level of education, professional association affiliation, job position, or area of job responsibility. The research revealed that emotional intelligence, interpersonal skills, flexibility for adapting to changing environments, and ability to manage resources were the most significant other competencies needed for Extension agents to be successful in current context.

  5. Why Do Extension Agents Resign?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manton, Linda Nunes; van Es, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    Past and current Illinois extension agents were surveyed via mail questionnaires as to reasons for staying or leaving extension programs. Reasons for leaving included family changes, family moves, opportunity to advance, better salary/benefits, dissatisfaction with administration, and too much time away from family. (CT)

  6. Improving Disability Awareness among Extension Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadevan, Lakshmi; Peterson, Rick L.; Grenwelge, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    Increasing prevalence rates and legislative mandates imply that educators, parents, and Extension agents will need better tools and resources to meet the needs of special populations. The Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service addresses this issue by using e-learning tools. Extension agents can take advantage of these courses to gain critical…

  7. Turning an Extension Aide into an Extension Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seevers, Brenda; Dormody, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    For any organization to remain sustainable, a renewable source of faculty and staff needs to be available. The Extension Internship Program for Juniors and Seniors in High School is a new tool for recruiting and developing new Extension agents. Students get "hands on" experience working in an Extension office and earn college credit…

  8. Extension agents and conflict narratives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bond, Jennifer Lauren

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This work investigated the narratives of development extensionists in relation to natural resource conflict, in order to understand the competing discourses surrounding the wicked problems of natural resource management in Laikipia County, Kenya. Methodology: Q methodology was used...... to elicit the conflict narratives present among extension professionals. A concourse of 221 statements were devised from interviews and group discussions with key informants and a final sample of 49 statements was used for the sorting. Thirteen Q-sorts were undertaken with among rural extension...... professionals from government, non-government, faith-based and private organizations. Findings: Four factors were elicited from the data, labelled—A: ‘Improved Leadership’; B: ‘Resource-centred conflict’; C: ‘Improved Governance’; and D: ‘Improved Management’. Practical Implications: Narratives of neo...

  9. newspapers' agricultural agenda setting and extension agents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2333147

    Keywords: Newspapers', agricultural, extension agents' agenda setting. ABSTRACT ... from the priorities of political or other interest groups to the news priorities of media ... people. The questions that arise are-: what are the sources operating for ... The ADPs presently adopt the training and visit (T & V) system of extension.

  10. Job satisfaction of extension agents towards innovation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed job satisfaction of extension agents towards innovation dissemination to fish farmers in Lagos State, Nigeria. A simple random sampling technique was used to select 44 extension officers from which data were collected. A structured questionnaire consisting of 6 personal characteristics, 23 management ...

  11. motivational needs assessment of extension agents of abia state

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2333147

    and Douglas McGregors' theory X and theory Y), on the extension agents were collected .... any need level but a reasonable amount of gratification of first priority ... creatively use their initiatives in manners that may suit the local farmers.

  12. Extension agents' technical knowledge requirements for effective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Technical knowledge requirements of extension agents were investigated in this study. Data for the study was collected with the aid of structured questionnaire administered to the 78 respondents. It was found that respondents were mainly males, were married, were in the middle age category, had BSc/HND, made ...

  13. Public extension agents' need for new competencies: evidence from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Small yield differences between Extension service-recipients and non-recipients indicate that Extension support has minimal effect on farmers' production. Agents need new competencies regarding correct application conservation agriculture. The study recommends the involvement of extension agents, scientists and ...

  14. Extension agents\\' marketing related services: The relevance to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the marketing related services provided to farmers by extension agents in Osun State, Nigeria. Data were collected from the extension agents in the services of Osun State Agricultural Development Projects, which is the government outfit to provide such services to farmers on one hand and their ...

  15. assessment of extension agents' communication methods

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    communication, therefore, requires a balance between homophily and heterophily. ... Networks are structured fabrics of the organization made up of lines, .... work life affect work performance among government agriculture extension officers?

  16. What Influences Agents to Pursue a Career in Extension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Shannon; Place, Nick

    2010-01-01

    The qualitative study reported here explored why agricultural agents pursue an Extension career. A purposive sample was used to select twelve Florida agricultural agents. Interviews investigated positive and negative influences that affected agents' employment decisions. Grounded theory was used as the primary data analysis method (Strauss &…

  17. Enzymes and other agents that enhance cell wall extensibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, D. J.

    1999-01-01

    Polysaccharides and proteins are secreted to the inner surface of the growing cell wall, where they assemble into a network that is mechanically strong, yet remains extensible until the cells cease growth. This review focuses on the agents that directly or indirectly enhance the extensibility properties of growing walls. The properties of expansins, endoglucanases, and xyloglucan transglycosylases are reviewed and their postulated roles in modulating wall extensibility are evaluated. A summary model for wall extension is presented, in which expansin is a primary agent of wall extension, whereas endoglucanases, xyloglucan endotransglycosylase, and other enzymes that alter wall structure act secondarily to modulate expansin action.

  18. Use of Internet for Innovation Management by Extension Agents in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    This study examined extension agents' perception of the use of the Internet for ... Internet platform can .... items. It ranged from always, occasionally and never, which were assigned 3, 2 and .... Market location 's to help farmers sell produce.

  19. Stress coping strategies among agricultural extension agents in Oyo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stress coping strategies among agricultural extension agents in Oyo State, Nigeria. ... Journal Home > Vol 20, No 1 (2016) >. Log in or ... Employees should have control over work flow to reduce work stress and increase work efficiency.

  20. Utilization pattern of extension tools and methods by Agricultural Extension Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Surudhi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in Krishnagiri district of Tamil Nadu state to understand the utilization pattern of extension tools and methods by the agricultural extension agents. As ICT revolution is slowly conquering the rural sector, it becomes imperative that the agricultural extension agents transform themselves to the changing times and develop competencies in utilizing these ICTs.  The study explored the usage of various extension tools and methods by the change agents and the constraints faced in utilizing them. The findings revealed that the extension functionaries frequently used the individual contact methods viz., telephone, office calls and farm and home visits in the process of transfer of technology. Least efforts were shown in sending SMS based communication. Meetings were the common and frequently adopted group contact method. Demonstrations, farmer field school, farmer’s interest groups, field trips and farmer training programmes were moderately adopted. Posters, leaflets and pre-season campaigns were the widely adopted mass contact methods. They possess least skill in utilizing farm magazines, presenting television and radio programmes, which are among the most popular and most efficient mass contact methods. The extension functionaries need to be trained adequately on the wider use of electronic communication methods like e mails, and SMS in the local language. Efforts should be taken up to sensitize the importance and train the extension agents in the usage of different group and mass contact methods.

  1. The Effects of Leader-Member Exchanges on the Relationships Between Extension Agents and County Extension Directors in Florida

    OpenAIRE

    Matt Benge; Amy Harder

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between a supervisor and employee has a direct effect on the employee’s job satisfaction, work productivity, and efficiency. Understanding the interactions between Extension agents and County Extension Directors is critical to maintaining positive relationships and providing adequate support to Extension supervisors through professional development and training opportunities. This article examined the dyadic relationships between Extension agents and County Extension Direc...

  2. Rural Child Labour: Views of Extension Agents in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Una

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Whilst children working in agriculture and domestic work is an inherent part of growing up and essential for survival, if boys and girls lose out on education they are less equipped to respond to inevitable environmental shocks and to negotiate agri-food value chains. This article investigates views of extension agents on children…

  3. Assessment of extension agents' use of communication methods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Findings from correlation analysis revealed that there was significant relationship between linkage and communication methods between institute (r =-0.377), linkage and communication methods among extension agents (r =0.379). However, the relationship between communication within and between institute was highly ...

  4. Use of internet for innovation management by extension agents in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined extension agents' perception of the use of the Internet for sourcing and disseminating agricultural innovation in Oyo state. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 80 respondents. Data collected with a questionnaire were subjected to descriptive and Pearson product moment correlation ...

  5. A Needs Assessment of Aquaculture Extension Agents, Specialists, and Program Administrators in Extension Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Michael H.; Gibson, Jerry

    2010-01-01

    The study reported here identified continuing education and training needs of aquaculture Extension agents, specialists, and program administrators in 10 competency areas relating to the need for continuing education or training. Fourteen resources on the AquaNIC Web site were also evaluated, as was the efficacy of the AQUA-EXT listserv. Data were…

  6. The Effects of Leader-Member Exchanges on the Relationships Between Extension Agents and County Extension Directors in Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Benge

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between a supervisor and employee has a direct effect on the employee’s job satisfaction, work productivity, and efficiency. Understanding the interactions between Extension agents and County Extension Directors is critical to maintaining positive relationships and providing adequate support to Extension supervisors through professional development and training opportunities. This article examined the dyadic relationships between Extension agents and County Extension Directors in Florida. The majority of Florida Extension agents have high-quality relationship with their County Extension Directors. In addition, over half of relationships of five years or less are in the partner phase, suggesting new employees of the Florida Cooperative Extension Service progress through the leadership making process in a relatively short amount of time. UF/IFAS Extension Administration should provide increased leadership training for County Extension Directors to ensure all dyads progress through the leadership-making process to the partner phase, such as relationship building, and management and supervisory training.

  7. Barriers and Effective Educational Strategies to Develop Extension Agents' Professional Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakai, Dona; Jayaratne, K. S. U.; Moore, Gary E.; Kistler, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    The study reported here determined the barriers and effective educational strategies to develop Extension agents' professional competencies. This was a descriptive survey research conducted with a random sample of Extension agents. Increased workload and lack of time and funding were identified as the most constraining barriers of Extension agents…

  8. evaluation of job performance of village extension agents in lagos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFINNI IMAM

    A Case For Participatory (Cost Sharing) Approach to Agricultural. Extension ... designed and implemented in the past towards the benefit of hand picked ... farmers, of which 95% is carried out by public extension (Rivera and Cary, 1997).

  9. Job burnout and coping strategies among extension agents in south ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need to maintain a non-mineral dependent economy and daunting food import bills have been the drive for the provision of extension services, which is dependent on motivated extension work force.. Extension personnel will not stay motivated under circumstances where the risk of job burnout is high. A simple random ...

  10. Solutions to Burnout and Retention as Perceived by County Extension Agents of the Colorado State University Extension System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Benge

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study explored solutions to the issue of burnout and retention of Extension agents. Extension agents experience burnout for reasons such as long hours, stress, and organizational factors. As Extension administration addresses job satisfaction and performance of Extension employees, burnout and retention issues identified in this study can facilitate efforts to enhance the effectiveness of a statewide Extension program. Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory was the theoretical framework for this study. Researchers used the constant-comparative method of analysis to identify recurring themes from the open-ended items of an online-administered survey. Twelve primary themes emerged, including (a compensation, (b hiring practices, (c promotion and advancement within Extension, (d organizational support regarding agent development, (e organizational support regarding administration, (f organizational support regarding colleagues, (g reporting, (h recognition, (i resources, (j personnel and staffing, (k evaluation of administration and specialists, and (l workload. Results suggest that Extension administration should focus on the maintenance factors of compensation, workload, and internal promotion and advancement, as well as motivating factors, to improve retention of Extension agents.

  11. Analysis of effects of extension teaching methods on farmers' level of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study analyzed the effects of extension teaching methods used by Ogun State (Nigeria) Agricultural Development Programme's extension agents on farmers' level of production in maize and cassava. The sample included 210 randomly selected farmers, comprising adopters and non-adopters of introduced agricultural ...

  12. evaluation of job performance of village extension agents in lagos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFINNI IMAM

    ... Olaleye, R. S. and Umar, I. S.. Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension Technology ... objectives are to determine the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents ..... Essentials of Agricultural Economics. Impact Publishers.

  13. evaluation of job performance of village extension agents in lagos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFINNI IMAM

    media sources (P<0.05).However ... should assist farmers in the area by sponsoring adult education so that farmers can make ... experience (World Bank, 1990), since the purpose of communication is to bring about change of attitude ..... (television, news papers, extension bulletin exhibition, talking drum, and film and slide.

  14. Extension Agents' Awareness of Climate Change in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abegaz, Dagmawi M.; Wims, Padraig

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The fact that highly vulnerable countries like Ethiopia face far greater challenges from climate change makes agricultural adaptation a top priority. Even though the public agriculture extension system in Ethiopia plays a central role in facilitating and supporting adaptation, very limited information is available on how aware the actual…

  15. Stress Coping Strategies among Agricultural Extension Agents in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Therefore, managing job stress with various coping strategies in an organization such as Oyo ... level of relationship between job stressors and coping strategies. ..... Behavior. 2nd(Ed). Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc. pp295-31. ... Lietal, Y. X., Yang, X., &Shen, J. L. (2007). The relationship between teachers'.

  16. Extension-based semantics of argumentation frameworks for agent interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gratie, C.

    2012-01-01

    Argumentation plays an important part in human interaction, whether it is used for persuasion, negotiation or simply for sharing one's point of view on a certain topic. Even at the abstract level, choosing the acceptable arguments from a given set of conflicting arguments is a challenging problem,

  17. Determinants and Levels of Agricultural Development Agents Job ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    between development agents and their jobs, such that extension work is a personally .... appraisal, equality of male and female agents, job security, resource availability ... over the 1994 census, of whom 94,187 are men and 91,994 women; 19,810 or. 10.64% are ..... IOSR Journal of Business and Management (IOSR-JBM),.

  18. Perspectives of Extension Agents and Farmers toward Multifunctional Agriculture in the United States Corn Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doudna, John W.; O'Neal, Matthew E.; Tyndall, John C.; Helmers, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    We surveyed the perspectives of farmers, crop professionals, and Extension agents and found that they have positive perspectives concerning multifunctional agriculture, including a positive effect of a nearby prairie to cropland productivity. The survey was conducted in central Iowa and included individuals predominantly from Iowa involved in…

  19. Extension Agent Knowledge and Programming Behaviors Regarding Healthy Lifestyles Education in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Dana R.; Fuhrman, Nicholas E.; Duncan, Dennis W.; Hanula, Gail M.

    2015-01-01

    Healthy lifestyles education (HLE) is defined as nutrition and physical activity education aimed at controlling or preventing serious health issues. The purpose of the study reported here was to determine knowledge and behaviors of Extension Family and Consumer Sciences (FACS) and 4-H agents concerning HLE. Eighty-five and 86% of FACS and 4-H…

  20. Competencies in Entomology Needed by Agribusiness Teachers and Extension Agents in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, William H.; Walker, Leon

    1975-01-01

    The analysis of the data from an 84.2 percent questionnaire response by Indiana extension agents and agribusiness teachers provides 12 conclusions regarding their competency needs and five recommendations regarding inservice teacher training and courses needed in the areas of entomology. (BP)

  1. Coping behaviour of extension agents in role conflict situations : a case study in Xinji county, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, R.Q.

    1998-01-01

    This book is about the coping behaviour of extension agents in role conflict situations in a changing environment in China. The study presents the case of cotton production in Xinji county, China.

    Chapter 1 gives background information on Chinese agricultural and rural

  2. Reaching High Interactive Levels with Situated Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guzmán-Obando J.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El documento presenta un proceso coordinado a través del cual los agentes situados son capaces de trabajar en forma conjunta con el conocimiento de sus habilidades para interactuar con otras entidades similares. Una buena coordinación se deriva de que cada agente situado es capaz de representar sus tasas de idoneidad para llevar a cabo cualquier acción de una manera eficaz. Además de utilizar dichas tasas, un agente puede coordinar sus acciones con otros agentes. En este sentido, cada agente situado trata de seleccionar y realizar sólo las acciones con los mayores índices de ejecución. Algunos experimentos en un verdadero fútbol robótico banco de pruebas están diseñadas para poner en práctica el enfoque coordinado propuesto. Observaciones finales concluir la eficacia y las ventajas de la obra presentada con el fin de aumentar el rendimiento de un equipo integrado por agentes situados cuando tienen que resolver tareas complejas en un escenario dinámico, competitivo e impredecible.

  3. Determinants of E-learning Acceptance among Agricultural Extension Agents in Malaysia: A Conceptual Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Mangir, Safaie; Othman, Zakirah; Udin, Zulkifli Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to develop a framework on e-learning acceptance among agricultural extension agents in Malaysian agricultural sector. E-learning is viewed as a solution in response to the increasing need for learning and training. This paper will review past literatures for the relevant factors that influence behavioral intention for e-learning acceptance as well as the relevant behavioral theories that provide the foundation for developing research framework to illustrate the ...

  4. Agricultural Extension Agents' Perceptions of Effective Teaching Strategies for Adult Learners in the Master Beef Producer Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Robert; Harder, Amy; Carter, Hannah

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study reported here was to explore and describe how Extension agents selected teaching strategies for adult audiences. Andragogy is hypotheses concerning the attributes of adult learners (Knowles, Swanson, & Holton III, 2005). Extension agents responsible for teaching the Master Beef Producer (MBP) program were purposively…

  5. An Analysis of Construct Validity of Motivation As It Relates to North Carolina County Agricultural Extension Service Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calloway, Pauline Frances

    This study investigated the construct validity of the Herzberg (1964) theory of motivation as it relates to county Extension agents; and developed an inventory to measure the job satisfaction of county agents in North Carolina. The inventory was administered to 419 agents in 79 counties. Factor analysis was used to determine the number of job…

  6. Determinants and Levels of Agricultural Development Agents Job ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Job Satisfaction: The Case of Kalu Woreda, South Wollo Zone of the Amhara ... the form of “Agricultural Technology Scaling Up” as part of the national initiative of ... information and skill development, input supply, credit and saving, marketing ... and managed to increase the number of extension agents to more than 60,000.

  7. Determinants and Levels of Agricultural Development Agents Job ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted with an objective of assessing the level of job satisfaction and its determinants among agricultural development agents working in different kebeles of Kalu Woreda, South Wollo Zone of the Amhara National Regional State. A total of 100 development agents were selected and interviewed using ...

  8. Analysis of the role and level of job performance among extension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study analysed the role performance and job satisfaction of extension agents in technology delivery in Imo State. The multistage random sampling technique was adopted in the selection of farmers and simple random sampling for the selection of extension agents. The instruments for data collection were four sets of ...

  9. Extension of TFTR operations to higher toroidal field levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woolley, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    For the past year, TFTR has sometimes operated at extended toroidal field (TF) levels. The extension to 5.6 Tesla (79 kA) was crucial for TFTR's November 1994 10.7 MW DT fusion power record. The extension to 6.0 Tesla (85 kA) was commissioned on 9 September 1995. There are several reasons that one could expect the TF coils to survive the higher stresses that develop at higher fields. They were designed to operate at 5.2 Tesla with a vertical field of 0.5 Tesla, whereas the actual vertical field needed for the plasma does not exceed 0.35 Tesla. Their design specification explicitly required they survive some pulses at 6.0 Tesla. TF coil mechanical analysis computer models available during coil design were crude, leading to conservative design. And design analyses also had to consider worst-case misoperations that TFTR's real time Coil Protection Calculators (CPCs) now positively prevent from occurring

  10. Teaching Couple Relationship Education: The Influence on Regional Extension Agents and Family Life Educators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julianne McGill

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Couple Relationship Education (CRE programs are a prevention resource used to assist adult individuals, couples, and families reduce relationship distress and improve prosocial behaviors. Regional Extension agents (REAs and other community family life educators (FLEs who teach CRE are involved in a facilitation process that develops relationships and rapport with their participants similar to other helping relationships. To date, no published research has focused on how CRE may affect the REAs/FLEs who provide the programs through community adult education programs. Informed by relational-cultural theory and the ecological systems perspective, the current study focused on assessing change in ten outcomes measuring REAs/FLEs’ (N = 54 individual, couple, and co-parenting functioning and whether that change differed by gender. Results from repeated measure ANCOVAs indicate REAs/FLEs experience gains across several domains of functioning. There were no differences by gender. Implications for REAs/FLEs and suggestions for future research are described.

  11. Low-level radioactive waste associated with plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sciacca, F.; Zigler, G.; Walsh, R.

    1992-01-01

    Many utilities operating nuclear power plants are expected to seek to extend the useful life of their plants through license renewal. These US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensees are expected to implement enhanced inspection, surveillance, testing, and monitoring (ISTM) as needed to detect and mitigate age-related degradation of important structures, systems, and components (SSCs). In addition, utilities may undertake various refurbishment and upgrade activities at these plants to better assure economic and reliable power generation. These activities performed for safety and/or economic reasons can result in radioactive waste generation, which is incremental to that generated in the original licensing term. Work was performed for the NRC to help define and characterize potential environmental impacts associated with nuclear plant license renewal and plant life extension. As part of this work, projections were made of the types and quantities of low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) likely to be generated by licensee programs. These projections were needed to estimate environmental impacts related to the disposal of such wastes

  12. Low levels of extraneous agents in vaccine starting materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouby, Jean-Claude

    2010-05-01

    There are different ways to define the concept of 'low levels' of extraneous agents in vaccines and vaccine starting materials, based on the amount of extraneous agents as such, the sensitivity of the detection method and the probability approach linked to the sampling method. None of these approaches, however, is entirely satisfactory--a general definition of a 'low level' cannot be provided. Since the main point is the safety of medicinal products, the risk analysis approach to 'low level' contaminations can be considered as a way to overcome the above mentioned deadlock. But as too many variables impact the risk analysis, it cannot be properly performed either. In practice, seeds are tested to show freedom from extraneous agents, the other raw materials are inactivated through a validated method. However, there are technical and regulatory limits in both cases, and neither testing nor inactivation entirely guarantees freedom from extraneous agents. Despite this unsatisfactory situation, it should be acknowledged that no truly significant disease outbreak linked to an extraneous agent has been identified until today. Regulatory actions are mainly undertaken when a sanitary problem occurs. In the end, companies remain responsible for their products. 2010 The International Association for Biologicals. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Shelf-life extension of gilthead seabream fillets by osmotic treatment and antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsironi, T N; Taoukis, P S

    2012-02-01

    The objectives of the study were to evaluate the effect of selected antimicrobial agents on the shelf life of osmotically pretreated gilthead seabream and to establish reliable kinetic equations for shelf-life determination validated in dynamic conditions. Fresh gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) fillets were osmotically treated with 50% high dextrose equivalent maltodextrin (HDM, DE 47) plus 5% NaCl and 0·5% carvacrol, 0·5% glucono-δ-lactone or 1% Citrox (commercial antimicrobial mix). Untreated and treated slices were aerobically packed and stored isothermally (0-15°C). Microbial growth and quality-related chemical indices were modelled as functions of temperature. Models were validated at dynamic storage conditions. Osmotic pretreatment with the use of antimicrobials led to significant shelf-life extension of fillets, in terms of microbial growth and organoleptic deterioration. The shelf life was 7 days for control samples at 5°C. The osmotic pretreatment with carvacrol, glucono-δ-lactone and Citrox allowed for shelf-life extension by 8, 10 and 5 days at 5°C, respectively. The results of the study show the potential of adding carvacrol, glucono-δ-lactone or Citrox in the osmotic solution to extend the shelf life and improve commercial value of chilled osmotically pretreated fish products. The developed models can be a reliable tool for predicting the shelf life of fresh or minimally processed gilthead seabream fillets in the real chill chain. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Organic complexing agents in low and medium level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allard, B.; Persson, G.

    1985-11-01

    Low and medium level radioactive wastes will contain various organic agents, such as ion exchange resins (mainly in the operational wastes), plastics and cellulose (mainly in the reprocessing wastes and in the decommissioning wastes) and bitumen (mainly in the reprocessing wastes). The degradation of these organics will lead to the formation of complexing agents that possibly could affect the release of radionuclides from an underground repository and the subsequent transport of these nuclides. The solution chemistry of the actinides may be totally dominated by the presence of such organic degradation products within the repository. However, hydrolysis and formation of carbonates (and possibly humates) will most likely dominate solubility and speciation outside the immediate vicinity of the repository. The minor quantities of strong complexing agents (in the reprocessing waste), notably aminopolycarboxylic acids (EDTA, DTPA) and possibly organic phosphates (DBP) could significantly affect speciation and sorption behaviour of primarily the trivalent actinides even outside the repository. (author)

  15. CalfScience: Extension Education at Many Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Dale A.; Tellessen, Kathlyn; Sischo, William M.

    2010-01-01

    The issue of antimicrobial resistance in food animal agriculture was addressed by conducting clinical trials to assess alternatives to antimicrobials in dairy calf-raising and developing outreach to three different audiences. Current research was integrated into Extension programs for calf-raisers, animal science and veterinary students, and food…

  16. A High Level Model of a Conscious Embodied Agent

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wiedermann, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 3 (2010), s. 62-78 ISSN 1942-9045 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP202/10/1333 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : embodied agent * internal world models * higher cognitive function Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science http://www.igi-global.com/article/high-level-model-conscious-embodied/46147

  17. Balancing Work and Family Responsibilities as an Extension 4-H Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhea, Joseph Richard, Jr.

    2009-01-01

    A career with Extension can be very rewarding, but also very demanding, as employees have to balance job stress and time demands with family goals and demands. The very nature of Extension work brings some tension between the job and family, and employees need to be equipped to make decisions about personal and work time. If the Extension System…

  18. Value of mental health first aid training of advisory and extension agents in supporting farmers in rural Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, D; Gorman, D; Eley, R; Coutts, J

    2010-01-01

    This study was a pilot project responding to the increasing levels of stress, depression and other mental health issues in Australian rural areas resulting from prolonged drought and a changing economic and social environment. Thirty-two Advisory and Extension Agents (AEAs) attended a training course held in 2007 and 2008 in Queensland, Australia. A year after the training, data was collected to determine its value. Interviews were conducted with course participants and their supervisors and focus groups were held with stakeholders (farmers, agency staff and health professionals). The findings show that Mental Health First Aid training improved the participants' confidence level and their knowledge of mental health issues and increased their empathy toward persons with mental health problems. Furthermore, providing training on mental health issues to AEAs was perceived by stakeholders to be beneficial to both farmers and AEAs. This study demonstrated that stakeholders and course participants see this type of training as very much needed and highly beneficial. Further, providing training in mental health issues to rural service providers can be very beneficial to their farmer clients and their social network.

  19. Estendendo extensões:a computação como agente integrador | Extending extensions: computing as an integrating agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cafezeiro

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Este artigo conceitua “extensão universitária” e discute algumas características importantes acerca desta atividade principalmente no que se refere às áreas tecnológicas. Apresenta também um  projeto de extensão desenvolvido no Instituto de Computação da Universidade Federal Fluminense que tem como objetivo específico  estender a outros projetos de extensão da UF conhecimentos computacionais e acesso a recursos computacionais. Discute-se de que maneira o Projeto Incluir materializa a atividade de extensão universitária. Palavras-chave extensão universitária; transdisciplinaridade; inclusão digital; novas tecnologias de informação e comunicação Abstract This article presents the concept of “extension” as a university activity and discusses some important points about this activity mainly with respect to technological areas. It is also presented an extension project developed in the Instituto de Computação da Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF that aims to  provide to other projects computational knowledge  and access to computational resources. It is also discussed the way that the present project materializes extension activities. Keywords university extension; transdisciplinarity; digital divide; information and communication technology

  20. 1997 N-Basin Administrative Control Level Dose Extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nellesen, A.L.

    1997-04-01

    This document provides justification for extending the Administrative Control Level of 500 mrem per year to 1,000 mrem per year Total Effective Dose Equivalent for workers involved with N-Reactor Basin Deactivation in accordance with established procedures

  1. Identifying the Factors Influencing Professional Volunteer Leadership in the National Association of Extension 4-H Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamm, Alexa; Nistler, Debbie; Stedman, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Many Extension professional associations have had trouble getting members to participate in national leadership opportunities. The study reported here examined the perception of members of a national Extension professional organization (NAE4-HA) regarding specific leadership actions. It found the single act of taking on a leadership position…

  2. An Agent-based Extensible Climate Control System for Sustainable Greenhouse Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jan Corfixen; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard; Klein, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The slow adoption pace of new control strategies for sustainable greenhouse climate control by industrial growers is mainly due to the complexity of identifying and resolving potentially conflicting climate control requirements. In this paper, we present a multi-agent-based climate control system....... Negotiation is done using a novel multi-issue negotiation protocol that uses a generic algorithm to find an optimized solution within the search space. The Multi-Agent control system has been empirically evaluated in an ornamental floriculture research facility in Denmark. The evaluation showed...... that it is realistic to implement the climate control requirements as individual agents, thereby opening greenhouse climate control systems for integration of independently produced control strategies....

  3. An extensible agent architecture for a competitive market-based allocation of consumer attention space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. 't Hoen (Pieter Jan); S.M. Bohte (Sander); E.H. Gerding (Enrico); J.A. La Poutré (Han)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractA competitive distributed recommendation mechanism is introduced based on adaptive software agents for efficiently allocating the ``customer attention space'', or banners. In the example of an electronic shopping mall, the task of correctly profiling and analyzing the customers is

  4. Tidal extension and sea-level rise: recommendations for a research agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensign, Scott H.; Noe, Gregory

    2018-01-01

    Sea-level rise is pushing freshwater tides upstream into formerly non-tidal rivers. This tidal extension may increase the area of tidal freshwater ecosystems and offset loss of ecosystem functions due to salinization downstream. Without considering how gains in ecosystem functions could offset losses, landscape-scale assessments of ecosystem functions may be biased toward worst-case scenarios of loss. To stimulate research on this concept, we address three fundamental questions about tidal extension: Where will tidal extension be most evident, and can we measure it? What ecosystem functions are influenced by tidal extension, and how can we measure them? How do watershed processes, climate change, and tidal extension interact to affect ecosystem functions? Our preliminary answers lead to recommendations that will advance tidal extension research, enable better predictions of the impacts of sea-level rise, and help balance the landscape-scale benefits of ecosystem function with costs of response.

  5. Double Level Extension-Distraction Thoracic Spine Injuries with Concomitant Double Level Sternal Fractures: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CK Lee

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Extension-distraction injury of the spine is rare. A majority of these cases occur in the cervical region and at an isolated level. Rare instances of this injury have been described in an ankylosed or fused spine. This case report describes a rare two level extension-distraction thoracic spine injury in an otherwise healthy adult resulting from a motor vehicle accident.

  6. Trust Level and Routing Selection for Mobile Agents in a Smart Home

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nasution, Sandy; Hartel, Pieter H.; Suryana, Nanna; Azman, Nur; Shahib, Shahrin

    The central security concern for systems where agents roam is how to establish trust in the agent. We present a Fuzzy Logic mechanism to calculate a level of trust and an optimal route for a mobile agent system in a smart home. The mechanism consists of two parts. The first part calculates a trust

  7. Trust Level and Routing Selection for Mobile Agents in a Smart Home (Extended version)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nasution, S.; Hartel, Pieter H.; Suryana, N.; Azman, N.; Shahib, S.

    The central security concern for systems where agents roam is how to establish trust in the agent. We present a Fuzzy Logic mechanism to calculate a level of trust and an optimal route for a mobile agent system in a smart home. The mechanism consists of two parts. The first part calculates a trust

  8. Analyzing the Required Professional Qualification for Agricultural Extension Experts in Operational Level in the Mazandaran Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Ahmadpour

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Extension experts who play an active role at the operational level are required to have some indispensable competencies to enable them to provide the rural community with some high quality, ­applicable and important educational programs. Accordingly, the study sought to analyze the components of professional qualifications for agricultural extension experts’ operational level. This study is a descriptive and survey research. The statistical population (Agricultural Extension Experts in Operational Levels was comprised of 290 persons. And the proportional stratified sampling using Krejcie-Morgan Table was applied and 165 subjects were selected. The data collection tool was a researcher-made questionnaire, and its content validity was approved by agricultural extension experts and by using KMO coefficient and Bartlett’s Test giving a reliability of KMO=0.737(. The data analysis results showed that seven extracted factors of (research factors, technical-professional factors, teaching factors, managerial factors, personality factors, communication factors and virtual technology factors explain 63.691% of the total variance of the professional competencies for agriculture extension experts’ operational levels in the province. The  findings indicate that based on scientific methods of research,  assessment of needs, planning and assessment, and in-service training workshops implementation for experts seem to be necessary. Distinctive attention should be practiced by Agriculture Organization to improve agents’ skills in a variety of crops cultivation and in working with software and agricultural applications.

  9. Identifying Assets Associated with Quality Extension Programming at the Local Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Harder

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available County Extension offices are responsible for the majority of programming delivered in the United States. The purpose of this study was to identify and explore assets influencing the quality of county Extension programs. A basic qualitative research design was followed to conduct constant comparative analysis of five Extension county program review reports. Using the appreciative inquiry process as the lens through which to view the county program review reports revealed multiple assets leading to quality programming. Assets of the reviewed county Extension programs were found to cluster within the following themes: competent and enthusiastic Extension faculty, community partnerships, engaged and supportive stakeholders, effective resource management, sufficient and stable workforce, meeting stakeholder needs, positive reputation, access to facilities, positive relationships between county and state faculty, and innovative practices. The use of both needs-based and assets-based paradigms will provide Extension organizations with a more holistic understanding of its assets and a research-based foundation from which to make decisions about strengthening the organization at all levels.

  10. Future extension of the Swedish repository for low and intermediate level waste (SFR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, Jan

    2006-01-01

    The existing Swedish repository for low and intermediate level waste (SFR) is licensed for disposal of short-lived waste originated from operation and maintenance of Swedish nuclear power plants. The repository is foreseen to be extended to accommodate short-lived waste from the future decommissioning of the Nuclear Power Plants. Long-lived waste from operation, maintenance and eventually decommissioning will be stored some years before disposal in a geological repository. This repository can be build either as a further extension of the SFR facility or as a separate repository. This paper discusses the strategy of a step-wise extended repository where the extensions are performed during operation of the existing parts of the repository. It describes the process for licensing new parts of the repository (and re-license of the existing parts). (author)

  11. Prevalence, extension and characteristics of fluid-fluid levels in bone and soft tissue tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyck, P. van; Venstermans, C.; Gielen, J.; Parizel, P.M. [University Hospital Antwerp, Department of Radiology, Edegem (Belgium); Vanhoenacker, F.M. [University Hospital Antwerp, Department of Radiology, Edegem (Belgium); AZ St-Maarten, Department of Radiology, Duffel/Mechelen (Belgium); Vogel, J. [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Orthopedics, Leiden (Netherlands); Kroon, H.M.; Bloem, J.L. [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands); Schepper, A.M.A. de [University Hospital Antwerp, Department of Radiology, Edegem (Belgium); Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2006-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence, extension and signal characteristics of fluid-fluid levels in a large series of 700 bone and 700 soft tissue tumors. Out of a multi-institutional database, MRI of 700 consecutive patients with a bone tumor and MRI of 700 consecutive patients with a soft tissue neoplasm were retrospectively reviewed for the presence of fluid-fluid levels. Extension (single, multiple and proportion of the lesion occupied by fluid-fluid levels) and signal characteristics on magnetic resonance imaging of fluid-fluid levels were determined. In all patients, pathologic correlation was available. Of 700 patients with a bone tumor, 19 (10 male and 9 female; mean age, 29 years) presented with a fluid-fluid level (prevalence 2.7%). Multiple fluid-fluid levels occupying at least one half of the total volume of the lesion were found in the majority of patients. Diagnoses included aneurysmal bone cyst (ten cases), fibrous dysplasia (two cases), osteoblastoma (one case), simple bone cyst (one case), telangiectatic osteosarcoma (one case), ''brown tumor'' (one case), chondroblastoma (one case) and giant cell tumor (two cases). Of 700 patients with a soft tissue tumor, 20 (9 males and 11 females; mean age, 34 years) presented with a fluid-fluid level (prevalence 2.9%). Multiple fluid-fluid levels occupying at least one half of the total volume of the lesion were found in the majority of patients. Diagnoses included cavernous hemangioma (12 cases), synovial sarcoma (3 cases), angiosarcoma (1 case), aneurysmal bone cyst of soft tissue (1 case), myxofibrosarcoma (1 case) and high-grade sarcoma ''not otherwise specified'' (2 cases). In our series, the largest reported in the literature to the best of our knowledge, the presence of fluid-fluid levels is a rare finding with a prevalence of 2.7 and 2.9% in bone and soft tissue tumors, respectively. Fluid-fluid levels remain a non-specific finding and can

  12. Evaluation of the properties of cemented low level radioactive wastes through an extensive characterization programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caropreso, G.; De Angelis, G.

    1990-01-01

    The immobilized radioactive wastes have to fulfill the demands for packing, interim storage, trasportation and final disposal. For this purpose the possession of various properties, more or less relevant, are required by authorized agencies. In addition to transport regulations the attention is generally focused on physico-chemical and mechanical properties, thermal, radiation and water stability, as well as confinement ability. The assessment of such requirements needs the set up of experimental procedured. With this in mind an extensive programme for the characterization of cemented low level wastes has been undertaken at ENEA Casaccia in the frame of the Third (1985-1989) Europen Communities Programme on Radioactive Waste Management (Contract No. FI1W-0101-I(A)). Three types of waste streams of general interest have been taken into account: bead ion-exchange resins, BWR evaporator concentrates (Sulphates) and filter sludges. Both labo. and full scale experiments have been carried out

  13. An Analysis of the Priority Needs of Cooperative Extension at the County Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, Amy; Lamm, Alexa; Strong, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Cooperative Extension's role as a relevant provider of nonformal education is dependent upon its ability to improve and adjust in response to internal and external pressures. Periodically conducting needs assessments focused on the Extension organization can aid in Extension's efforts to deliver quality educational programs by pinpointing priority…

  14. Reevaluation of 1999 Health-Based Environmental Screening Levels (HBESLs) for Chemical Warfare Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Annetta Paule [ORNL; Dolislager, Fredrick G [ORNL

    2007-05-01

    This report evaluates whether new information and updated scientific models require that changes be made to previously published health-based environmental soil screening levels (HBESLs) and associated environmental fate/breakdown information for chemical warfare agents (USACHPPM 1999). Specifically, the present evaluation describes and compares changes that have been made since 1999 to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) risk assessment models, EPA exposure assumptions, as well as to specific chemical warfare agent parameters (e.g., toxicity values). Comparison was made between screening value estimates recalculated with current assumptions and earlier health-based environmental screening levels presented in 1999. The chemical warfare agents evaluated include the G-series and VX nerve agents and the vesicants sulfur mustard (agent HD) and Lewisite (agent L). In addition, key degradation products of these agents were also evaluated. Study findings indicate that the combined effect of updates and/or changes to EPA risk models, EPA default exposure parameters, and certain chemical warfare agent toxicity criteria does not result in significant alteration to the USACHPPM (1999) health-based environmental screening level estimates for the G-series and VX nerve agents or the vesicant agents HD and L. Given that EPA's final position on separate Tier 1 screening levels for indoor and outdoor worker screening assessments has not yet been released as of May 2007, the study authors find that the 1999 screening level estimates (see Table ES.1) are still appropriate and protective for screening residential as well as nonresidential sites. As such, risk management decisions made on the basis of USACHPPM (1999) recommendations do not require reconsideration. While the 1999 HBESL values are appropriate for continued use as general screening criteria, the updated '2007' estimates (presented below) that follow the new EPA protocols currently under development

  15. Phylum-Level Conservation of Regulatory Information in Nematodes despite Extensive Non-coding Sequence Divergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Kacy L.; Arthur, Robert K.; Ruvinsky, Ilya

    2015-01-01

    Gene regulatory information guides development and shapes the course of evolution. To test conservation of gene regulation within the phylum Nematoda, we compared the functions of putative cis-regulatory sequences of four sets of orthologs (unc-47, unc-25, mec-3 and elt-2) from distantly-related nematode species. These species, Caenorhabditis elegans, its congeneric C. briggsae, and three parasitic species Meloidogyne hapla, Brugia malayi, and Trichinella spiralis, represent four of the five major clades in the phylum Nematoda. Despite the great phylogenetic distances sampled and the extensive sequence divergence of nematode genomes, all but one of the regulatory elements we tested are able to drive at least a subset of the expected gene expression patterns. We show that functionally conserved cis-regulatory elements have no more extended sequence similarity to their C. elegans orthologs than would be expected by chance, but they do harbor motifs that are important for proper expression of the C. elegans genes. These motifs are too short to be distinguished from the background level of sequence similarity, and while identical in sequence they are not conserved in orientation or position. Functional tests reveal that some of these motifs contribute to proper expression. Our results suggest that conserved regulatory circuitry can persist despite considerable turnover within cis elements. PMID:26020930

  16. Phylum-Level Conservation of Regulatory Information in Nematodes despite Extensive Non-coding Sequence Divergence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kacy L Gordon

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Gene regulatory information guides development and shapes the course of evolution. To test conservation of gene regulation within the phylum Nematoda, we compared the functions of putative cis-regulatory sequences of four sets of orthologs (unc-47, unc-25, mec-3 and elt-2 from distantly-related nematode species. These species, Caenorhabditis elegans, its congeneric C. briggsae, and three parasitic species Meloidogyne hapla, Brugia malayi, and Trichinella spiralis, represent four of the five major clades in the phylum Nematoda. Despite the great phylogenetic distances sampled and the extensive sequence divergence of nematode genomes, all but one of the regulatory elements we tested are able to drive at least a subset of the expected gene expression patterns. We show that functionally conserved cis-regulatory elements have no more extended sequence similarity to their C. elegans orthologs than would be expected by chance, but they do harbor motifs that are important for proper expression of the C. elegans genes. These motifs are too short to be distinguished from the background level of sequence similarity, and while identical in sequence they are not conserved in orientation or position. Functional tests reveal that some of these motifs contribute to proper expression. Our results suggest that conserved regulatory circuitry can persist despite considerable turnover within cis elements.

  17. Immunohistopathology in the Guinea Pig Following Chronic Low-Level Exposure to Chemical Warfare Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-11-01

    U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense USAMRICD-TR-05-09 Immunohistopathology in the Guinea Pig Following Chronic Low...2005 2. REPORT TYPE Technical Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) May 2003 to April 2005 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Immunohistopathology in the Guinea Pig Following...release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Guinea pigs exposed repeatedly to low levels of chemical warfare nerve agents

  18. Should we adjust erythropoiesis-stimulating agent dosage to postdialysis hemoglobin levels? A pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo Nieves; García-García Patricia; Rivero Antonio; Jiménez-Sosa Alejandro; Macía Manuel; Getino María; Méndez María; García-Pérez Javier; Navarro-González Juan F

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Predialysis hemoglobin (Hb) may overestimate the true erithropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA) requeriments. We tested whether predialysis Hb is a reliable predictor of the postdialysis level to better control ESA dosage, and evaluated the relation between ESA, Hb and cardiovascular events (CVE). Methods Cohort study including 67 stable hemodialysis patients. Pre- and post-dialysis Hb concentrations were measured, and ESA doses were calculated. A model to predict post-dialy...

  19. Effects of anesthetic agents on brain blood oxygenation level revealed with ultra-high field MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Ciobanu

    Full Text Available During general anesthesia it is crucial to control systemic hemodynamics and oxygenation levels. However, anesthetic agents can affect cerebral hemodynamics and metabolism in a drug-dependent manner, while systemic hemodynamics is stable. Brain-wide monitoring of this effect remains highly challenging. Because T(2*-weighted imaging at ultra-high magnetic field strengths benefits from a dramatic increase in contrast to noise ratio, we hypothesized that it could monitor anesthesia effects on brain blood oxygenation. We scanned rat brains at 7T and 17.2T under general anesthesia using different anesthetics (isoflurane, ketamine-xylazine, medetomidine. We showed that the brain/vessels contrast in T(2*-weighted images at 17.2T varied directly according to the applied pharmacological anesthetic agent, a phenomenon that was visible, but to a much smaller extent at 7T. This variation is in agreement with the mechanism of action of these agents. These data demonstrate that preclinical ultra-high field MRI can monitor the effects of a given drug on brain blood oxygenation level in the absence of systemic blood oxygenation changes and of any neural stimulation.

  20. Effects of anesthetic agents on brain blood oxygenation level revealed with ultra-high field MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciobanu, Luisa; Reynaud, Olivier; Le Bihan, Denis; Uhrig, Lynn; Jarraya, Bechir

    2012-01-01

    During general anesthesia it is crucial to control systemic hemodynamics and oxygenation levels. However, anesthetic agents can affect cerebral hemodynamics and metabolism in a drug-dependent manner, while systemic hemodynamics is stable. Brain-wide monitoring of this effect remains highly challenging. Because T2'*-weighted imaging at ultra-high magnetic field strengths benefits from a dramatic increase in contrast to noise ratio, we hypothesized that it could monitor anesthesia effects on brain blood oxygenation. We scanned rat brains at 7 T and 17.2 T under general anesthesia using different anesthetics (isoflurane, ketamine-xylazine, medetomidine). We showed that the brain/vessels contrast in T2'*- weighted images at 17.2 T varied directly according to the applied pharmacological anesthetic agent, a phenomenon that was visible, but to a much smaller extent at 7 T. This variation is in agreement with the mechanism of action of these agents. These data demonstrate that preclinical ultra-high field MRI can monitor the effects of a given drug on brain blood oxygenation level in the absence of systemic blood oxygenation changes and of any neural stimulation. (authors)

  1. PHYSICAL ACTIVITY STAGES OF CHANGE, SELF-EFFICACY, AND PERCEIVED NEEDS AND INTERESTS OF COOPERATIVE EXTENSION FAMILY AND CONSUMER SCIENCES AGENTS AND CLIENTELE.

    OpenAIRE

    Stimpson, Tara Spruce

    2000-01-01

    Extensive research has clearly revealed that people of all ages can enhance their health by simply incorporating moderate levels of physical activity into their daily routine. Physical activity significantly reduces the risk of morbidity and mortality from coronary heart disease while providing protective benefits from hypertension, diabetes mellitus, osteoporosis, and colon cancer. Physical activity can lead to positive psychological improvements by decreasing levels of anxiety and depress...

  2. Agent-based model with multi-level herding for complex financial systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun-Jie; Tan, Lei; Zheng, Bo

    2015-02-01

    In complex financial systems, the sector structure and volatility clustering are respectively important features of the spatial and temporal correlations. However, the microscopic generation mechanism of the sector structure is not yet understood. Especially, how to produce these two features in one model remains challenging. We introduce a novel interaction mechanism, i.e., the multi-level herding, in constructing an agent-based model to investigate the sector structure combined with volatility clustering. According to the previous market performance, agents trade in groups, and their herding behavior comprises the herding at stock, sector and market levels. Further, we propose methods to determine the key model parameters from historical market data, rather than from statistical fitting of the results. From the simulation, we obtain the sector structure and volatility clustering, as well as the eigenvalue distribution of the cross-correlation matrix, for the New York and Hong Kong stock exchanges. These properties are in agreement with the empirical ones. Our results quantitatively reveal that the multi-level herding is the microscopic generation mechanism of the sector structure, and provide new insight into the spatio-temporal interactions in financial systems at the microscopic level.

  3. Survey of agents and techniques applicable to the solidification of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuhrmann, M.; Neilson, R.M. Jr.; Colombo, P.

    1981-12-01

    A review of the various solidification agents and techniques that are currently available or potentially applicable for the solidification of low-level radioactive wastes is presented. An overview of the types and quantities of low-level wastes produced is presented. Descriptions of waste form matrix materials, the wastes types for which they have been or may be applied and available information concerning relevant waste form properties and characteristics follow. Also included are descriptions of the processing techniques themselves with an emphasis on those operating parameters which impact upon waste form properties. The solidification agents considered in this survey include: hydraulic cements, thermoplastic materials, thermosetting polymers, glasses, synthetic minerals and composite materials. This survey is part of a program supported by the United States Department of Energy's Low-Level Waste Management Program (LLWMP). This work provides input into LLWMP efforts to develop and compile information relevant to the treatment and processing of low-level wastes and their disposal by shallow land burial

  4. Survey of agents and techniques applicable to the solidification of low-level radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuhrmann, M.; Neilson, R.M. Jr.; Colombo, P.

    1981-12-01

    A review of the various solidification agents and techniques that are currently available or potentially applicable for the solidification of low-level radioactive wastes is presented. An overview of the types and quantities of low-level wastes produced is presented. Descriptions of waste form matrix materials, the wastes types for which they have been or may be applied and available information concerning relevant waste form properties and characteristics follow. Also included are descriptions of the processing techniques themselves with an emphasis on those operating parameters which impact upon waste form properties. The solidification agents considered in this survey include: hydraulic cements, thermoplastic materials, thermosetting polymers, glasses, synthetic minerals and composite materials. This survey is part of a program supported by the United States Department of Energy's Low-Level Waste Management Program (LLWMP). This work provides input into LLWMP efforts to develop and compile information relevant to the treatment and processing of low-level wastes and their disposal by shallow land burial.

  5. Fabric tensile strength as affected by different anti pilling agents at various concentration and ph levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tusief, M.Q.; Mahmood, N.; Saleem, M.

    2013-01-01

    Pilling is a phenomenon that has a long cause trouble in textile industry. It is the formation of pills or knops on the surface of woven or knitted fabrics caused by friction and abrasion. If fabric has a pronounced tendency to pilling, their appearances suffer severely after a short period of use. The pilling of fabrics is a serious problem for the apparel industry. The use of anti pilling finishes is one of the best techniques to control the pilling of the fabric. In this method fabric is treated with special anti pilling agents to prevent pilling that promote adhesion of the fibres in the yarn or the fabric. This paper endeavors to optimize the application of different anti pilling agents at different concentration and pH levels on the Tensile Strength of P/C fabric for best results. The results exposed that different anti pilling finishes have significant effects on the Tensile Strength of fabric at different concentration level however different pH levels have no considerable effects. (author)

  6. Utilization of critical periods during development to study the effects of low levels of environmental agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, L.B.

    1981-01-01

    This chapter shows how careful definition of critical periods in the development of selected characters can result in experimental systems that may be highly useful in studying risk at low levels of exposure. Presents 3 systems that utilize critical periods to study low-level effects: 1) cell kinetics as an indicator of nervous-system maldevelopment; 2) oocyte depletion; and 3) homeotic shifts in the skeleton. Discusses application of the sensitive systems to the testing of chemicals and the role of sensitive stages in estimating risk. Suggests that tests such as the 3 discussed in this paper, which are developed with strict attention to specific critical periods, can provide rapid and sensitive means for revealing whether an agent is capable of causing developmental interference. Concludes that epidemiological investigations can lose much of their value unless critical periods are known for the endpoints being studied

  7. High performance cellular level agent-based simulation with FLAME for the GPU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Paul; Walker, Dawn; Coakley, Simon; Romano, Daniela

    2010-05-01

    Driven by the availability of experimental data and ability to simulate a biological scale which is of immediate interest, the cellular scale is fast emerging as an ideal candidate for middle-out modelling. As with 'bottom-up' simulation approaches, cellular level simulations demand a high degree of computational power, which in large-scale simulations can only be achieved through parallel computing. The flexible large-scale agent modelling environment (FLAME) is a template driven framework for agent-based modelling (ABM) on parallel architectures ideally suited to the simulation of cellular systems. It is available for both high performance computing clusters (www.flame.ac.uk) and GPU hardware (www.flamegpu.com) and uses a formal specification technique that acts as a universal modelling format. This not only creates an abstraction from the underlying hardware architectures, but avoids the steep learning curve associated with programming them. In benchmarking tests and simulations of advanced cellular systems, FLAME GPU has reported massive improvement in performance over more traditional ABM frameworks. This allows the time spent in the development and testing stages of modelling to be drastically reduced and creates the possibility of real-time visualisation for simple visual face-validation.

  8. Stress, depression, quality of life and salivary cortisol levels in community health agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuth, Berenice Scaletzky; Cocco, Rafaela Abreu; Radtke, Vinicius Augusto; Medeiros, João Ricardo Carvalho; Oses, Jean Pierre; Wiener, Carolina David; Jansen, Karen

    2016-06-01

    To determine the prevalence of and factors associated with depression and stress with perceived quality of life and the salivary cortisol levels in Community Health Agent (CHA). Materials and Methods Cross-sectional descriptive study of CHAs in Pelotas-RS, Brazil. Data collection, including sociodemographic information and factors related to work and health. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) II was used to assess depressive symptoms, Inventory of Stress Symptoms Lipp (ISSL) was used for the analysis of stress and the WHOQOL-BREF was used to investigate quality of life. Salivary cortisol was quantified via ELISA test. The assessments showed that 71.0% are in a state of stress resistance, 30.5% were in the alert state of stress and 32.8% were in the stress state of exhaustion. Depressive episodes (BDI≥12) were observed in 28.2%. The environmental domain had the lowest score for quality of life. We observed significantly higher salivary cortisol levels in CHAs with less than 1 year of service and with the lowest quality of life scores in the environmental subsection. A high prevalence of stress and depression was observed in this sample of CHAs. In addition, the worst levels of quality of life were identified in the environmental subsection. Cortisol levels corroborate these findings regarding quality of life within the environmental domain and began working less than a year previously.

  9. Relationship between intracranial pressure and antifungal agents levels in the CSF of patients with cryptococcal meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Fernanda; de Azevedo, Maria Isabel; Pilla, Carmen; Aquino, Valério Rodrigues; Neto, Gustavo Wissmann; Goldani, Luciano Zubaran

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of intracranial hypertension in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of amphotericin B and fluconazole levels of patients with cryptococcal meningitis. CSF samples and intracranial pressure were obtained by means of routine punctures performed at days 1, 7, and 14 of therapy, respectively. Amphotericin B and fluconazole CSF levels were measured by HPLC method as previously described. The minimum inhibitory concentration for amphotericin B, fluconazole, 5΄flucytosine, and voriconazole of each Cryptococcus isolate was performed according to CLSI. The predominant Cryptococcus species found was C. neoformans, and the major underlying condition was AIDS. Only one CSF sample had a detectable level for amphotericin B during the 14 days of therapy. Fluconazole CSF levels progressively increased from day 1 to day 14 of therapy for most cases. Fluconazole levels in the CSF were above the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for Cryptococcus during the initial 14 days of antifungal therapy. Variations of intracranial pressure did not affect amphotericin B and fluconazole levels in the CSF. The generalized estimating correlation (GEE) and Spearman correlation test (SCT) showed no significant correlation between the amphotericin B or fluconazole concentrations in the CSF and intracranial pressure (P = .953 and P = .093, respectively for GEE test and P = .477 and P = .847, respectively, for SCT). Combination therapy of amphotericin B with fluconazole was effective in 60% of the patients considering CSF cultures were negative in 9 of 15 patients after 14 days of therapy. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the role of intracranial hypertension on the therapeutic efficacy of different antifungal agents in patients with cryptococcal meningitis.

  10. Hybrid POMDP-BDI Agent Architecture with Online Stochastic Planning and Desires with Changing Intensity Levels

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rens, GB

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors propose an agent architecture which combines Partially observable Markov decision processes (POMDPs) and the belief-desire-intention (BDI) framework have several complementary strengths. The authors propose an agent architecture, which...

  11. Sulfur polymer cement, a new stabilization agent for mixed and low- level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darnell, G.R.

    1991-01-01

    Solidification and stabilization agents for radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes are failing to pass governmental tests at alarming rates. The Department of Energy's National Low-Level Waste Management Program funded testing of Sulfur Polymer Cement (SPC) by Brookhaven National Laboratory during the 1980s. Those tests and tests by the US Bureau of Mines (the original developer of SPC), universities, states, and the concrete industry have shown SPC to be superior to hydraulic cements in most cases. Superior in what wastes can be successfully combined and in the quantity of waste that can be combined and still pass the tests established by the US Environmental Protection Agency and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission

  12. Effective description of general extensions of the Standard Model: the complete tree-level dictionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Blas, J.; Criado, J. C.; Pérez-Victoria, M.; Santiago, J.

    2018-03-01

    We compute all the tree-level contributions to the Wilson coefficients of the dimension-six Standard-Model effective theory in ultraviolet completions with general scalar, spinor and vector field content and arbitrary interactions. No assumption about the renormalizability of the high-energy theory is made. This provides a complete ultraviolet/infrared dictionary at the classical level, which can be used to study the low-energy implications of any model of interest, and also to look for explicit completions consistent with low-energy data.

  13. Practical extensions to a minimum cost flow model for level of repair analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basten, Robertus Johannes Ida; van der Heijden, Matthijs C.; Schutten, Johannes M.J.

    2011-01-01

    The level of repair analysis (LORA) gives answers to three questions that are posed when deciding on how to maintain capital goods: (1) which components to repair upon failure and which to discard, (2) at which locations in the repair network to perform each type of repairs, and (3) at which

  14. Practical extensions to a minimum cost flow model for level op repair analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basten, R.J.I.; Heijden, van der M.C.; Schutten, J.M.J.

    2011-01-01

    The level of repair analysis (LORA) gives answers to three questions that are posed when deciding on how to maintain capital goods: (1) which components to repair upon failure and which to discard, (2) at which locations in the repair network to perform each type of repairs, and (3) at which

  15. Extension of the activities of the Israeli SSDL down to the low level region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuszpet, M.

    1981-11-01

    The report describes the actions taken at the Israeli Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories SSDL in order to carry out low level calibrations. The reference instrument (a NE balloon chamber) was calibrated against the therapy level secondary standard, using a PTW 30 cm 3 chamber as a link instrument. A check of the stability of the reference instrument over an eight months period, showed a drift of 1.5+-1.5%. Thus, routine instrument's calibration should be carried out to keep the accuracy below acceptable limits. An analysis of the uncertainties introduced by the transfer of the calibration shows that the accuracy can be kept within acceptable limits (less than +-2% at a 92% confidence level). Calibrations are carried out using three different series: 50 mrad/h, 500 mrad/h and 5000 mrad/h. Before routine calibrations were carried out, preliminary measurements were made to check the proper operation of the set-up. These measurements included beam homogeneity, reproducibility of distance, reproducibility and energy dependence of the transmission monitor chamber, HVL determinations, etc. An estimation of the uncertainties introduced by the calibration process led to a figure of +-4% at the 92% confidence level, which is considered adequate for routine calibrations of field instruments

  16. Anemia in kidney transplants without erythropoietic agents: levels of erythropoietin and iron parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florit, E A; Hadad, F; Rodriguez Cubillo, B; De la Flor, J C; Valga, F; Perez Flores, I; Calvo Romero, N; Valero San Cecilio, R; Barrientos Guzman, A; Sanchez Fructuoso, A

    2012-11-01

    To study the association between hemoglobin, endogenous erythropoietin (EPO) levels and ferric parameters in kidney recipients not treated with EPO-stimulating agents. Transverse study of 219 kidney transplant outpatients. The median time after transplantation was 54 months (P(25-75), 23-107). We assessed blood counts, ferric parameters, EPO levels, renal function (MDRD-4), and adjuvant treatment. We performed a linear regression analysis to predict hemoglobin. Median EPO values were 14.05 mUI/mL (P(25-75) = 10.2-19.7). Applying the formulas described by Beguin, kidney transplant recipients showed a low observed/expected ratio of erythropoietin and of transferrin. Considering anemia to be an hemoglobin of calculate hemoglobin was: hemoglobin = 11829-0909 log (EPG level) - 0455 (if female) + 0.010 0.013 transferrin + 0.013 creatinine clearance (r = .424, P < .001). Treatment with ACEI and/or ARBs seemed to produce a defect in the synthesis of EPO, while those treated with mTORi, a hyporesponsive state. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Moderate variations in CDC25B protein levels modulate the response to DNA damaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aressy, B.; Bugler, B.; Valette, A.; Ducommun, B.; Biard, D.

    2008-01-01

    CDC25B, one of the three members of the CDC25 dual-specificity phosphatase family, plays a critical role in the control of the cell cycle and in the checkpoint response to DNA damage. CDC25B is responsible for the initial dephosphorylation and activation of the cyclin-dependent kinases, thus initiating the train of events leading to entry into mitosis. The critical role played by CDC25B is illustrated by the fact that it is specifically required for checkpoint recovery and that unscheduled accumulation of CDC25B is responsible for illegitimate entry into mitosis. Here, we report that in p53 colon carcinoma cells, a moderate increase in the CDC25B level is sufficient to impair the DNA damage checkpoint, to increase spontaneous mutagenesis, and to sensitize cells to ionising radiation and genotoxic agents. Using a tumour cell spheroid assay as an alternative to animal studies, we demonstrate that the level of CDC25B expression modulates growth inhibition and apoptotic death. Since CDC25B overexpression has been observed in a significant number of human cancers, including colon carcinoma, and is often associated with high grade tumours and poor prognosis, our work suggests that the expression level of CDC25B might be a potential key parameter of the cellular response to cancer therapy. (authors)

  18. EXTENSION OF RTKLIB FOR THE CALCULATION AND VALIDATION OF PROTECTION LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Takács

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available System integrity (i.e. the capability of self-monitoring and the reliability of the positions provided need to be ensured within all safety critical applications of the GPS technology. For the sake of such applications, GPS augmentations, for example Space Based Augmentation Systems (SBAS are to be applied to achieve the required level of integrity. SBAS provides integrity in a multi-step procedure that is laid out in the Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics (RTCA Minimum Operational Performance Standards (MOPS for airborne navigation equipment using GPS. Besides integrity, SBAS also improves accuracy of positioning via broadcasting corrections to reduce the most important systematic errors on standalone positioning. To quantify integrity, the protection level is defined, which is calculated from the standard deviation of the models broadcast in SBAS. Air Navigation Service Providers, airspace users and aviation authorities need to evaluate the performance of GPS systems and their augmentations. This is a necessary step to define the conditions under which GPS systems can be operationally used and which operations can be supported. For this evaluation two proprietary software are used widely in Europe: Pegasus from Eurocontrol (Butzmühlen et al., 2001 and magicGemini from GMV. Both tools provide several functionalities such as computation of position simulating MOPS-compliant receivers and determination of GNSS augmentation attributes like accuracy, integrity, continuity and availability. RTKLIB is an open source GNSS data processing and analysis tool (Takasu, 2009. The actual version (2.4.3 of RTKLIB has SBAS augmented positioning mode, but no protection level calculation is included. There is an open source project on GitHub3, a fork of RTKLIB 2.4.2 version with an option for WAAS MOPS compliant position calculation, including protection level calculation, too. This was developed by the Houghton Associates, Inc. and tested on Cygwin

  19. Raetrad model extensions for radon entry into multi-level buildings with basements or crawl spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, K K; Rogers, V C; Rogers, V; Holt, R B

    1997-10-01

    The RAETRAD model was generalized to characterize radon generation and movement from soils and building materials into multi-level buildings with basements or crawl spaces. With the generalization, the model retains its original simplicity and ease of use. The model calculates radon entry rates that are consistent with measurements published for basement test structures at Colorado State University, confirming approximately equal contributions from diffusion and pressure-driven air flow at indoor-outdoor air pressure differences of deltaP(i-o) = -3.5 Pa. About one-fourth of the diffusive radon entry comes from concrete slabs and three-fourths comes from the surrounding soils. Calculated radon entry rates with and without a barrier over floor-wall shrinkage cracks generally agree with Colorado State University measurements when a sustained pressure of deltaP(i-o) = -2 Pa is used to represent calm wind (<1 m s(-1)) conditions. Calculated radon distributions in a 2-level house also are consistent with published measurements and equations.

  20. The adaptive response of E. coli to low levels of alkylating agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeggo, P.; Defais, M.; Samson, L.; Schendel, P.

    1978-01-01

    In an attempt to characterise which gene products may be involved in the repair system induced in E. coli by growth on low levels of alkylating agent (the adaptive response) we have analysed mutants deficient in other known pathways of DNA repair for the ability to adapt to MNNG. Adaptive resistance to the killing effects of MNNG seems to require a functional DNA polymerase I whereas resistance to the mutagenic effects can occur in polymerase I deficient strains; similarly killing adaptation could not be observed in a dam3 mutant, which was nonetheless able to show mutational adaptation. These results suggest that these two parts of the adaptive response must, at least to some extent, be separable. Both adaptive responses can be seen in the absence of uvrD + uvrE + -dependent mismatch repair, DNA polymerase II activity, or recF-mediated recombination and they are not affected by decreased levels of adenyl cyclase. The data presented support our earlier conclusion that adaptive resistance to the killing and mutagenic effect of MNNG is the result of previously uncharacterised repair pathways. (orig.) [de

  1. No change in lower limb extension power during a hospital stay in geriatric patients, despite improved functional level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Anders; Loeb, Mads Rohde; Turtumoeygaard, Ida Fanny

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate changes in lower limb extension power (LLEP) during hospitalization in older medical patients. LLEP was measured in a PowerRig at admission (day 2 to 4; mean ± SD: day 2.5 ± 0.8) and before discharge (day 5-11; mean ± SD: day 8.4 ± 2.2) in 33 older med...... improvements in older geriatric patients occur in the absence of improvements in LLEP. Individual changes in LLEP were not related to the changes in function or to the daily activity level in the patients....

  2. Feedback of Interface Agents on Student Perception: Level, Dialogue, and Emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-Hong; Chou, Chih-Yueh; Tseng, Shu-Fen; Su, Ying-Chu

    2018-01-01

    Although feedback from interface agents has recently attracted increasing research attention, most studies emphasize the cognitive influences. Thus, the effect of each feedback type on student perception remains unclear. This study focuses on three types of feedback from interface agents to clarify student perception of single feedback and…

  3. Does Semi-Rigid Instrumentation Using Both Flexion and Extension Dampening Spacers Truly Provide an Intermediate Level of Stabilization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip Sengupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional posterior dynamic stabilization devices demonstrated a tendency towards highly rigid stabilization approximating that of titanium rods in flexion. In extension, they excessively offload the index segment, making the device as the sole load-bearing structure, with concerns of device failure. The goal of this study was to compare the kinematics and intradiscal pressure of monosegmental stabilization utilizing a new device that incorporates both a flexion and extension dampening spacer to that of rigid internal fixation and a conventional posterior dynamic stabilization device. The hypothesis was the new device would minimize the overloading of adjacent levels compared to rigid and conventional devices which can only bend but not stretch. The biomechanics were compared following injury in a human cadaveric lumbosacral spine under simulated physiological loading conditions. The stabilization with the new posterior dynamic stabilization device significantly reduced motion uniformly in all loading directions, but less so than rigid fixation. The evaluation of adjacent level motion and pressure showed some benefit of the new device when compared to rigid fixation. Posterior dynamic stabilization designs which both bend and stretch showed improved kinematic and load-sharing properties when compared to rigid fixation and when indirectly compared to existing conventional devices without a bumper.

  4. Should we adjust erythropoiesis-stimulating agent dosage to postdialysis hemoglobin levels? A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castillo Nieves

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Predialysis hemoglobin (Hb may overestimate the true erithropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA requeriments. We tested whether predialysis Hb is a reliable predictor of the postdialysis level to better control ESA dosage, and evaluated the relation between ESA, Hb and cardiovascular events (CVE. Methods Cohort study including 67 stable hemodialysis patients. Pre- and post-dialysis Hb concentrations were measured, and ESA doses were calculated. A model to predict post-dialysis Hb is proposed. During 18 months follow-up, CVE, hospitalizations and mortality were collected. Results After dialysis, Hb cocentration rise by 6.1 ± 5.6%. Using postdialysis Hb, the weight-adjusted ESA dosage would be lower respect to the prescription using predialysis Hb: 104 ± 120 vs 128 ± 124 U/kg/week (P P = 0.001. The prediction model is: Postdialysis Hb (g/dL = 1.636 + 0.871 x predialysis Hb* (g/dL + 0.099 x UF rate** (mL/kg/h - 0.39 for women***. [R2 = 0.74; *P P = 0.001; ***P = 0.03. Conclusions Postdialysis Hb can be a better reflect of the real Hb level in hemodialysis patients. Using postdialysis Hb would avoid the use of inappropriately high ESA doses. The prediction of postdialysis Hb with an adjusted model would help us to identify those patients at risk for ESA overdosification.

  5. Should we adjust erythropoiesis-stimulating agent dosage to postdialysis hemoglobin levels? A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Nieves; García-García, Patricia; Rivero, Antonio; Jiménez-Sosa, Alejandro; Macía, Manuel; Getino, María Adela; Méndez, María Luisa; García-Pérez, Javier; Navarro-González, Juan F

    2012-07-16

    Predialysis hemoglobin (Hb) may overestimate the true erithropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA) requirements. We tested whether predialysis Hb is a reliable predictor of the postdialysis level to better control ESA dosage, and evaluated the relation between ESA, Hb and cardiovascular events (CVE). Cohort study including 67 stable hemodialysis patients. Pre- and post-dialysis Hb concentrations were measured, and ESA doses were calculated. A model to predict post-dialysis Hb is proposed. During 18 months follow-up, CVE, hospitalizations and mortality were collected. After dialysis, Hb concentration rise by 6.1 ± 5.6%. Using postdialysis Hb, the weight-adjusted ESA dosage would be lower respect to the prescription using predialysis Hb: 104 ± 120 vs 128 ± 124 U/kg/week (P < 0.001). Using predialysis Hb, 40.2% of subjects had a Hb level above 12 g/dL, whereas this percent increased to 70.1% using postdialysis Hb. During the follow-up, 15 patients had a CVE, without differences in Hb levels respect to subjects without CVE. However, patients with CVE had received higher ESA doses: 186 ± 180 vs 111 ± 98 U/Kg/week (P = 0.001). The prediction model is: Postdialysis Hb (g/dL) = 1.636 + 0.871 x predialysis Hb* (g/dL) + 0.099 x UF rate** (mL/kg/h) - 0.39 for women***. [R2 = 0.74; *P < 0,001; **P = 0.001; ***P = 0.03). Postdialysis Hb can be a better reflect of the real Hb level in hemodialysis patients. Using postdialysis Hb would avoid the use of inappropriately high ESA doses. The prediction of postdialysis Hb with an adjusted model would help us to identify those patients at risk for ESA overdosification.

  6. Theory of agent-based market models with controlled levels of greed and anxiety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadopoulos, P; Coolen, A C C [Department of Mathematics, King' s College London, The Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom)], E-mail: panagiotis.2.papadopoulos@kcl.ac.uk, E-mail: ton.coolen@kcl.ac.uk

    2010-01-15

    We use generating functional analysis to study minority-game-type market models with generalized strategy valuation updates that control the psychology of agents' actions. The agents' choice between trend-following and contrarian trading, and their vigor in each, depends on the overall state of the market. Even in 'fake history' models, the theory now involves an effective overall bid process (coupled to the effective agent process) which can exhibit profound remanence effects and new phase transitions. For some models the bid process can be solved directly, others require Maxwell-construction-type approximations.

  7. Theory of agent-based market models with controlled levels of greed and anxiety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papadopoulos, P; Coolen, A C C

    2010-01-01

    We use generating functional analysis to study minority-game-type market models with generalized strategy valuation updates that control the psychology of agents' actions. The agents' choice between trend-following and contrarian trading, and their vigor in each, depends on the overall state of the market. Even in 'fake history' models, the theory now involves an effective overall bid process (coupled to the effective agent process) which can exhibit profound remanence effects and new phase transitions. For some models the bid process can be solved directly, others require Maxwell-construction-type approximations.

  8. [Effects of prophylactic antibiotic agent on interleukin-6 level in open chest surgery--comparison between imipenem and flomoxef].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohma, A; Kitaura, K; Toda, S; Satoh, S; Wada, Y; Yamagishi, H; Oka, T; Fujita, N

    1998-09-01

    Cytokines are known to increase in the patients subjected to open chest surgery. Those patients are usually administered with antibiotic agents for prophylaxis, while some of antibiotic agents might yield significantly higher level of cytokines than other agents especially in patients suffering from severe infections. It is believed that imipenem may yield lower interleukin-6 (IL6) level than cephem antibiotics. To study whether such difference could be observed in the patients who show no sign of severe infections, a total of 13 patients underwent scheduled open chest surgery were allocated at random into two groups, the imipenem-group and the flomoxef-group. The cytokine levels of the patients in the two groups were compared, while the prophylactic administration of imipenem or flomoxef. In both groups, IL6 increased immediately after the operation while endotoxin remained unchanged. Thereafter IL6 decreased gradually in both groups, however, the decrease of IL6 in the imipenem-group was faster and greater than the flomoxef-group resulting in the significantly lower level of IL6 on the 4th day after operation. One week after the operation, there existed no difference in the IL6 levels between these two groups. In conclusion, it was suggested that, depending on the choice of a prophylactic antibiotic agent, some invasive burden could be added to those patients underwent open chest surgery, a certain number of whom would develop severe infection.

  9. Brief communication: Structural monitoring for lifetime extension of offshore wind monopiles: can strain measurements at one level tell us everything?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ziegler

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Operators need accurate knowledge on structural reserves to decide about lifetime extension of offshore wind turbines. Load monitoring enables us to directly compare design loads with real loading histories of the support structure in order to calculate its remaining useful lifetime. Monitoring of every hot spot is technically and financially not feasible. This paper presents a novel idea for load monitoring of monopiles. It requires strain measurements at only one level convenient for sensor installation, such as tower bottom. Measurements are converted into damage equivalent loads for 10 min time intervals. Damage equivalent loads are extrapolated to other locations of the structure with a simulation model and statistical algorithm. For this, structural loads at all locations of the monopile are calculated with aero-hydro-elastic software and updated finite element models. Damage equivalent loads at unmeasured locations are predicted from the simulation results with a k-nearest neighbor regression algorithm. The extrapolation was tested with numerical simulations of an 8 MW offshore wind turbine. Results show that damage can be predicted with an error of 1–3 % if this is done conditional on mean wind speed, which is very promising. The load monitoring concept is simple, cheap and easy to implement. This makes it ideal for making decisions on lifetime extension of monopiles.

  10. Utilization of critical periods during development to study the effects of low levels of environmental agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, L.B.

    1982-01-01

    Our development of the homeotic-shift method as a sensitive and quantitative prescreen for teratogenesis has illustrated the advantages of using sensitive subpopulations. We have surveyed the teratology literature, particularly with regard to radiation, and find that the frequent lack of definition of subpopulations has led to a loss in sensitivity in the measurement of risk. An example is provided by the microcephaly data for Hiroshima. When we focused on the data for exposures during weeks 6 to 11 of pregnancy, the plot showed a steep dose-response curve (albeit with wide error bars due to the smallness of the samples). By contrast, the plot for exposure at any time during pregnancy (with different mixes of stages at each dose point) indicates a much shallower curve, of different shape at the lower end. Extrapolation to low doses could presumably be different from the two tabulations. This epidemiological study was a very large one, and the sample size and dose range are not likely to be duplicated for other agents. It is thus improbable that one will be able to deduce, from human data alone, critical periods for other endpoints. If one cannot do so - and therefore has to work with an array of exposed stages - the low-dose extrapolation will always be an underestimate as far as the real sensitive subpopulation is concerned. For experimental studies, careful definition of critical periods in the development of selected characters can result in systems that may be highly useful in studying risk at low levels of exposure

  11. N-alkylvaline levels in globin as a new type of biomarker in risk assessment of alkylating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewalter, J

    1996-01-01

    Adducts with the N-terminal valine of erythrocyte globin can serve as individual biomarkers of systemic and cellular exposure to endogenous and exogenous alkylating agents. In contrast to "detoxification markers" of this kind of mecapturic acids derived from alkylation of glutathione, individual N-alkylations of valine in globin reflect the formally "toxifying" part of the stress due to alkylating agents transformed into the ultimate toxicant. Thus, in contrast to the traditional methods of biological monitoring this approach enables a better evaluation of systemic exposure to reactive agents, adapted more sensibly to the exposure situation over the whole life span of erythrocytes, and it can serve as a specific biomarker of exposure for the purpose of health surveillance in occupational medicine. An individual evaluation of exposures in comparison with the range of corresponding background levels is discussed from the point of view of supplementary risk assessment in medical surveillance of occupationally exposed persons.

  12. Design of a Two-level Adaptive Multi-Agent System for Malaria Vectors driven by an ontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etang Josiane

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The understanding of heterogeneities in disease transmission dynamics as far as malaria vectors are concerned is a big challenge. Many studies while tackling this problem don't find exact models to explain the malaria vectors propagation. Methods To solve the problem we define an Adaptive Multi-Agent System (AMAS which has the property to be elastic and is a two-level system as well. This AMAS is a dynamic system where the two levels are linked by an Ontology which allows it to function as a reduced system and as an extended system. In a primary level, the AMAS comprises organization agents and in a secondary level, it is constituted of analysis agents. Its entry point, a User Interface Agent, can reproduce itself because it is given a minimum of background knowledge and it learns appropriate "behavior" from the user in the presence of ambiguous queries and from other agents of the AMAS in other situations. Results Some of the outputs of our system present a series of tables, diagrams showing some factors like Entomological parameters of malaria transmission, Percentages of malaria transmission per malaria vectors, Entomological inoculation rate. Many others parameters can be produced by the system depending on the inputted data. Conclusion Our approach is an intelligent one which differs from statistical approaches that are sometimes used in the field. This intelligent approach aligns itself with the distributed artificial intelligence. In terms of fight against malaria disease our system offers opportunities of reducing efforts of human resources who are not obliged to cover the entire territory while conducting surveys. Secondly the AMAS can determine the presence or the absence of malaria vectors even when specific data have not been collected in the geographical area. In the difference of a statistical technique, in our case the projection of the results in the field can sometimes appeared to be more general.

  13. Towards Believable Crowds : A Generic Multi-Level Framework for Agent Navigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Toll, Wouter; Jaklin, Norman; Geraerts, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Path planning and crowd simulation are important computational tasks in computer games and applications of high social relevance, such as crowd management and safety training. Virtual characters (agents) need to autonomously find a path from their current position to a designated goal position. This

  14. Case Managers for High-Risk, High-Cost Patients as Agents and Street-Level Bureaucrats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Jeffrey; Weissert, William G

    2017-08-01

    Case management programs often designate a nurse or social worker to take responsibility for guiding care when patients are expected to be expensive or risk a major decline. We hypothesized that though an intuitively appealing idea, careful program design and faithful implementation are essential if case management programs are to succeed. We employed two theory perspectives, principal-agent framework and street-level bureaucratic theory to describe the relationship between program designers (principals) and case managers (agents/street-level bureaucrats) to review 65 case management studies. Most programs were successful in limited program-specific process and outcome goals. But there was much less success in cost-saving or cost-effectiveness-the original and overarching goal of case management. Cost results might be improved if additional ideas of agency and street-level theory were adopted, specifically, incentives, as well as "green tape," clear rules, guidelines, and algorithms relating to resource allocation among patients.

  15. Emergent group level navigation: an agent-based evaluation of movement patterns in a folivorous primate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler R Bonnell

    Full Text Available The foraging activity of many organisms reveal strategic movement patterns, showing efficient use of spatially distributed resources. The underlying mechanisms behind these movement patterns, such as the use of spatial memory, are topics of considerable debate. To augment existing evidence of spatial memory use in primates, we generated movement patterns from simulated primate agents with simple sensory and behavioral capabilities. We developed agents representing various hypotheses of memory use, and compared the movement patterns of simulated groups to those of an observed group of red colobus monkeys (Procolobus rufomitratus, testing for: the effects of memory type (Euclidian or landmark based, amount of memory retention, and the effects of social rules in making foraging choices at the scale of the group (independent or leader led. Our results indicate that red colobus movement patterns fit best with simulated groups that have landmark based memory and a follow the leader foraging strategy. Comparisons between simulated agents revealed that social rules had the greatest impact on a group's step length, whereas the type of memory had the highest impact on a group's path tortuosity and cohesion. Using simulation studies as experimental trials to test theories of spatial memory use allows the development of insight into the behavioral mechanisms behind animal movement, developing case-specific results, as well as general results informing how changes to perception and behavior influence movement patterns.

  16. The Effects of an Extensive Reading Program on Improving English as Foreign Language Proficiency in University Level Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzu'bi, Mohammad Akram

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the impact of extensive reading on improving reading proficiency. The study tried to find the effect of ER on EFL student's reading, vocabulary and grammar. The researcher designed two instruments; a program based on the extensive reading strategy and general test. Forty-one university students who study English…

  17. Effects of Clove Oil as a Euthanasia Agent on Blood Collection Efficiency and Serum Cortisol Levels in Danio rerio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Daniel J; Klug, Jenna; Hankins, Miriam; Doerr, Holly M; Monticelli, Stephanie R; Song, Ava; Gillespie, Catherine H; Bryda, Elizabeth C

    2015-09-01

    Zebrafish are an important laboratory animal model for biomedical research and are increasingly being used for behavioral neuroscience. Tricaine methanesulfonate (MS222) is the standard agent used for euthanasia of zebrafish. However, recent studies of zebrafish behavior suggest that MS222 may be aversive, and clove oil might be a possible alternative. In this study, we compared the effects of MS222 or clove oil as a euthanasia agent in zebrafish on the volume of blood collected and on serum levels of cortisol. Greater amounts of serum could be collected and lower serum levels of cortisol were present in fish euthanized with clove oil compared with equipotent dose of MS222. Euthanasia with clove oil did not blunt the expected elevation of serum cortisol levels elicited by an acute premortem stress. According to our findings, clove oil is a fast-acting agent that minimizes the cortisol response to euthanasia in zebrafish and allows the collection of large volumes of blood postmortem. These results represent a significant refinement in euthanasia methods for zebrafish.

  18. Radical treatment of extensive nevoid hyperkeratosis of the areola and breast with surgical excision after mild response to topical agents: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Tocco-Tussardi, MD

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Indications for surgical treatment of NHNA can be: unsatisfying response to topical agents; young patients who want to restore the aesthetic appearance of the breast; and patients with concomitant indication for corrective surgery of the breast. Advantages are: predictable time of healing; predictable final result; radical excision of the affected tissue; and possibility of histologic analysis of the whole areola. In rare cases of lesions extending to the breast, preliminary treatment with topical agents can limit the extent of excision. Management and treatment should always be tailor-made for each individual case.

  19. The effect of resistance level and stability demands on recruitment patterns and internal loading of spine in dynamic flexion and extension using a simple trunk model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeinali-Davarani, Shahrokh; Shirazi-Adl, Aboulfazl; Dariush, Behzad; Hemami, Hooshang; Parnianpour, Mohamad

    2011-07-01

    The effects of external resistance on the recruitment of trunk muscles in sagittal movements and the coactivation mechanism to maintain spinal stability were investigated using a simple computational model of iso-resistive spine sagittal movements. Neural excitation of muscles was attained based on inverse dynamics approach along with a stability-based optimisation. The trunk flexion and extension movements between 60° flexion and the upright posture against various resistance levels were simulated. Incorporation of the stability constraint in the optimisation algorithm required higher antagonistic activities for all resistance levels mostly close to the upright position. Extension movements showed higher coactivation with higher resistance, whereas flexion movements demonstrated lower coactivation indicating a greater stability demand in backward extension movements against higher resistance at the neighbourhood of the upright posture. Optimal extension profiles based on minimum jerk, work and power had distinct kinematics profiles which led to recruitment patterns with different timing and amplitude of activation.

  20. Agent Communications using Distributed Metaobjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldsmith, Steven Y.; Spires, Shannon V.

    1999-06-10

    There are currently two proposed standards for agent communication languages, namely, KQML (Finin, Lobrou, and Mayfield 1994) and the FIPA ACL. Neither standard has yet achieved primacy, and neither has been evaluated extensively in an open environment such as the Internet. It seems prudent therefore to design a general-purpose agent communications facility for new agent architectures that is flexible yet provides an architecture that accepts many different specializations. In this paper we exhibit the salient features of an agent communications architecture based on distributed metaobjects. This architecture captures design commitments at a metaobject level, leaving the base-level design and implementation up to the agent developer. The scope of the metamodel is broad enough to accommodate many different communication protocols, interaction protocols, and knowledge sharing regimes through extensions to the metaobject framework. We conclude that with a powerful distributed object substrate that supports metaobject communications, a general framework can be developed that will effectively enable different approaches to agent communications in the same agent system. We have implemented a KQML-based communications protocol and have several special-purpose interaction protocols under development.

  1. Polysaccharide-thickened aqueous fluoride solutions for rapid destruction of the nerve agent VX. Introducing the opportunity for extensive decontamination scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Shlomi; Saphier, Sigal; Columbus, Ishay; Zafrani, Yossi

    2014-01-01

    Among the chemical warfare agents, the extremely toxic nerve agent VX (O-ethyl S-2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl methylphosphonothioate) is a target of high importance in the development of decontamination methods, due to its indefinite persistence on common environmental surfaces. Liquid decontaminants are mostly characterized by high corrosivity, usually offer poor coverage, and tend to flow and accumulate in low areas. Therefore, the development of a noncorrosive decontaminant, sufficiently viscous to resist dripping from the contaminated surface, is necessary. In the present paper we studied different polysaccharides-thickened fluoride aqueous solutions as noncorrosive decontaminants for rapid and efficient VX degradation to the nontoxic product EMPA (ethyl methylphosphonic acid). Polysaccharides are environmentally benign, natural, and inexpensive. Other known decontaminants cannot be thickened by polysaccharides, due to the sensitivity of the latter toward basic or oxidizing agents. We found that the efficiency of VX degradation in these viscous solutions in terms of kinetics and product identity is similar to that of KF aqueous solutions. Guar gum (1.5 wt %) with 4 wt % KF was chosen for further evaluation. The benign nature, rheological properties, adhering capabilities to different surfaces, and decontamination from a porous matrix were examined. This formulation showed promising properties for implementation as a spray decontaminant for common and sensitive environmental surfaces.

  2. A Proposed Extension to the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity Level 2 Algorithm for Mixed Forest and Moderate Vegetation Pixels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panciera, Rocco; Walker, Jeffrey P.; Kalma, Jetse; Kim, Edward

    2011-01-01

    The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS)mission, launched in November 2009, provides global maps of soil moisture and ocean salinity by measuring the L-band (1.4 GHz) emission of the Earth's surface with a spatial resolution of 40-50 km.Uncertainty in the retrieval of soilmoisture over large heterogeneous areas such as SMOS pixels is expected, due to the non-linearity of the relationship between soil moisture and the microwave emission. The current baseline soilmoisture retrieval algorithm adopted by SMOS and implemented in the SMOS Level 2 (SMOS L2) processor partially accounts for the sub-pixel heterogeneity of the land surface, by modelling the individual contributions of different pixel fractions to the overall pixel emission. This retrieval approach is tested in this study using airborne L-band data over an area the size of a SMOS pixel characterised by a mix Eucalypt forest and moderate vegetation types (grassland and crops),with the objective of assessing its ability to correct for the soil moisture retrieval error induced by the land surface heterogeneity. A preliminary analysis using a traditional uniform pixel retrieval approach shows that the sub-pixel heterogeneity of land cover type causes significant errors in soil moisture retrieval (7.7%v/v RMSE, 2%v/v bias) in pixels characterised by a significant amount of forest (40-60%). Although the retrieval approach adopted by SMOS partially reduces this error, it is affected by errors beyond the SMOS target accuracy, presenting in particular a strong dry bias when a fraction of the pixel is occupied by forest (4.1%v/v RMSE,-3.1%v/v bias). An extension to the SMOS approach is proposed that accounts for the heterogeneity of vegetation optical depth within the SMOS pixel. The proposed approach is shown to significantly reduce the error in retrieved soil moisture (2.8%v/v RMSE, -0.3%v/v bias) in pixels characterised by a critical amount of forest (40-60%), at the limited cost of only a crude estimate of the

  3. Triage and management of accidental laboratory exposures to biosafety level-3 and -4 agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahrling, Peter; Rodak, Colleen; Bray, Mike; Davey, Richard T

    2009-06-01

    The recent expansion of biocontainment laboratory capacity in the United States has drawn attention to the possibility of occupational exposures to BSL-3 and -4 agents and has prompted a reassessment of medical management procedures and facilities to deal with these contingencies. A workshop hosted by the National Interagency Biodefense Campus was held in October 2007 and was attended by representatives of all existing and planned BSL-4 research facilities in the U.S. and Canada. This report summarizes important points of discussion and recommendations for future coordinated action, including guidelines for the engineering and operational controls appropriate for a hospital care and isolation unit. Recommendations pertained to initial management of exposures (ie, immediate treatment of penetrating injuries, reporting of exposures, initial evaluation, and triage). Isolation and medical care in a referral hospital (including minimum standards for isolation units), staff recruitment and training, and community outreach also were addressed. Workshop participants agreed that any unit designated for the isolation and treatment of laboratory employees accidentally infected with a BSL-3 or -4 pathogen should be designed to maximize the efficacy of patient care while minimizing the risk of transmission of infection. Further, participants concurred that there is no medically based rationale for building care and isolation units to standards approximating a BSL-4 laboratory. Instead, laboratory workers accidentally exposed to pathogens should be cared for in hospital isolation suites staffed by highly trained professionals following strict infection control procedures.

  4. Using Agent-Based Modeling to Enhance System-Level Real-time Control of Urban Stormwater Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimer, S.; Mullapudi, A. M.; Kerkez, B.

    2017-12-01

    The ability to reduce combined-sewer overflow (CSO) events is an issue that challenges over 800 U.S. municipalities. When the volume of a combined sewer system or wastewater treatment plant is exceeded, untreated wastewater then overflows (a CSO event) into nearby streams, rivers, or other water bodies causing localized urban flooding and pollution. The likelihood and impact of CSO events has only exacerbated due to urbanization, population growth, climate change, aging infrastructure, and system complexity. Thus, there is an urgent need for urban areas to manage CSO events. Traditionally, mitigating CSO events has been carried out via time-intensive and expensive structural interventions such as retention basins or sewer separation, which are able to reduce CSO events, but are costly, arduous, and only provide a fixed solution to a dynamic problem. Real-time control (RTC) of urban drainage systems using sensor and actuator networks has served as an inexpensive and versatile alternative to traditional CSO intervention. In particular, retrofitting individual stormwater elements for sensing and automated active distributed control has been shown to significantly reduce the volume of discharge during CSO events, with some RTC models demonstrating a reduction upwards of 90% when compared to traditional passive systems. As more stormwater elements become retrofitted for RTC, system-level RTC across complete watersheds is an attainable possibility. However, when considering the diverse set of control needs of each of these individual stormwater elements, such system-level RTC becomes a far more complex problem. To address such diverse control needs, agent-based modeling is employed such that each individual stormwater element is treated as an autonomous agent with a diverse decision making capabilities. We present preliminary results and limitations of utilizing the agent-based modeling computational framework for the system-level control of diverse, interacting

  5. The co-evolution of cultures, social network communities, and agent locations in an extension of Axelrod’s model of cultural dissemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfau, Jens; Kirley, Michael; Kashima, Yoshihisa

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a variant of the Axelrod model of cultural dissemination in which agents change their physical locations, social links, and cultures. Numerical simulations are used to investigate the evolution of social network communities and the cultural diversity within and between these communities. An analysis of the simulation results shows that an initial peak in the cultural diversity within network communities is evident before agents segregate into a final configuration of culturally homogeneous communities. Larger long-range interaction probabilities facilitate the initial emergence of culturally diverse network communities, which leads to a more pronounced initial peak in cultural diversity within communities. At equilibrium, the number of communities, and hence cultures, increases when the initial cultural diversity increases. However, the number of communities decreases when the lattice size or population density increases. A phase transition between two regimes of initial cultural diversity is evident. For initial diversities below a critical value, a single network community and culture emerges that dominates the population. For initial diversities above the critical value, multiple culturally homogeneous communities emerge. The critical value of initial diversity at which this transition occurs increases with increasing lattice size and population density and generally with increasing absolute population size. We conclude that larger initial diversities promote cultural heterogenization, while larger lattice sizes, population densities, and in fact absolute population sizes promote homogenization.

  6. Utilization of critical periods during development to study the effects of low levels of environmental agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, L.B.

    1980-01-01

    Careful definition of critical periods in the development of selected characters can result in experimental systems that may be highly useful in studying risk at low levels of exposure. Three examples are presented. Epidemiological investigations can lose much of their value unless critical periods are known for the end points being studied

  7. Evaluation of Chitosan/Fructose Model as an Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Agent for Shelf Life Extension of Beef Meat During Freezing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaheen Mohmed S.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the effect of chitosan/fructose Maillard reaction products (CF-MRPs as antioxidant and antimicrobial agents was evaluated and applied on minced beef meat during frozen storage. Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of chitosan-fructose complexes were tested. Anti-oxidant properties were measured by the DPPH, β-carotene and ABTS methods. These three methods showed the same profile of antioxidant activity. Chitosan with 4% fructose autoclaved for 45 min (CF9 showed to have the most effective antioxidant activity. It was demonstrated that the browning product exhibited antioxidant activity. For antimicrobial activity, most chitosan-fructose complexes were less effective than chitosan. Thus, MRPs derived from chitosan-sugar model system can be promoted as a novel antioxidant to prevent lipid oxidation in minced beef. Chitosan-sugar complex could be a potential alternative natural product for synthetic food additive replacement that would additionally meet consumer safety requirement.

  8. Modelling the Interaction Levels in HCI Using an Intelligent Hybrid System with Interactive Agents: A Case Study of an Interactive Museum Exhibition Module in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Rosales

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Technology has become a necessity in our everyday lives and essential for completing activities we typically take for granted; technologies can assist us by completing set tasks or achieving desired goals with optimal affect and in the most efficient way, thereby improving our interactive experiences. This paper presents research that explores the representation of user interaction levels using an intelligent hybrid system approach with agents. We evaluate interaction levels of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI with the aim of enhancing user experiences. We consider the description of interaction levels using an intelligent hybrid system to provide a decision-making system to an agent that evaluates interaction levels when using interactive modules of a museum exhibition. The agents represent a high-level abstraction of the system, where communication takes place between the user, the exhibition and the environment. In this paper, we provide a means to measure the interaction levels and natural behaviour of users, based on museum user-exhibition interaction. We consider that, by analysing user interaction in a museum, we can help to design better ways to interact with exhibition modules according to the properties and behaviour of the users. An interaction-evaluator agent is proposed to achieve the most suitable representation of the interaction levels with the aim of improving user interactions to offer the most appropriate directions, services, content and information, thereby improving the quality of interaction experienced between the user-agent and exhibition-agent.

  9. Extensive extraosseous localization of bone imaging agent in a patient with renal failure and rhabdomyolysis accompanied by combined hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, W.J.; Flueck, J.; O'Connor, W.; Domstad, P.A.

    1989-01-01

    Four sequential Tc-99m pyrophosphate (PYP) imaging studies were performed in a 28-year-old man with high fever and exudate pharyngitis associated with renal failure. Radiotracer localization in the left ventricle (LV), lungs, kidneys, and skeletal muscles were seen in two, initial imaging studies. In the second and third imaging studies, area of increase in activity was seen in the left-sided bowel. In studies done two months later (in the third study), the radioactivity in the skeletal muscles was no longer seen. Studies obtained nine months (in the fourth study) after the first imaging showed less radiotracer localization in the LV, lungs, and kidneys as compared to that seen in the initial study. Myocardial necrosis and microcalcification were proved by LV biopsy. The exact mechanism of extraosseous bone-imaging agent localization is unknown. However, this phenomenon may be related to renal failure, rhabdomyolysis, hypercalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, or elevated parathyroid hormone. The Tc-99m PYP imaging study is useful and sensitive in the detection of extraosseous tissue calcification and monitoring of the disease process

  10. Characterization of radionuclide-chelating agent complexes found in low-level radioactive decontamination waste. Literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serne, R.J.; Felmy, A.R.; Cantrell, K.J.; Krupka, K.M.; Campbell, J.A.; Bolton, H. Jr.; Fredrickson, J.K.

    1996-03-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is responsible for regulating the safe land disposal of low-level radioactive wastes that may contain organic chelating agents. Such agents include ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), picolinic acid, oxalic acid, and citric acid, and can form radionuclide-chelate complexes that may enhance the migration of radionuclides from disposal sites. Data from the available literature indicate that chelates can leach from solidified decontamination wastes in moderate concentration (1--100 ppm) and can potentially complex certain radionuclides in the leachates. In general it appears that both EDTA and DTPA have the potential to mobilize radionuclides from waste disposal sites because such chelates can leach in moderate concentration, form strong radionuclide-chelate complexes, and can be recalcitrant to biodegradation. It also appears that oxalic acid and citric acid will not greatly enhance the mobility of radionuclides from waste disposal sites because these chelates do not appear to leach in high concentration, tend to form relatively weak radionuclide-chelate complexes, and can be readily biodegraded. In the case of picolinic acid, insufficient data are available on adsorption, complexation of key radionuclides (such as the actinides), and biodegradation to make definitive predictions, although the available data indicate that picolinic acid can chelate certain radionuclides in the leachates

  11. Characterization of radionuclide-chelating agent complexes found in low-level radioactive decontamination waste. Literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serne, R.J.; Felmy, A.R.; Cantrell, K.J.; Krupka, K.M.; Campbell, J.A.; Bolton, H. Jr.; Fredrickson, J.K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-03-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is responsible for regulating the safe land disposal of low-level radioactive wastes that may contain organic chelating agents. Such agents include ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), picolinic acid, oxalic acid, and citric acid, and can form radionuclide-chelate complexes that may enhance the migration of radionuclides from disposal sites. Data from the available literature indicate that chelates can leach from solidified decontamination wastes in moderate concentration (1--100 ppm) and can potentially complex certain radionuclides in the leachates. In general it appears that both EDTA and DTPA have the potential to mobilize radionuclides from waste disposal sites because such chelates can leach in moderate concentration, form strong radionuclide-chelate complexes, and can be recalcitrant to biodegradation. It also appears that oxalic acid and citric acid will not greatly enhance the mobility of radionuclides from waste disposal sites because these chelates do not appear to leach in high concentration, tend to form relatively weak radionuclide-chelate complexes, and can be readily biodegraded. In the case of picolinic acid, insufficient data are available on adsorption, complexation of key radionuclides (such as the actinides), and biodegradation to make definitive predictions, although the available data indicate that picolinic acid can chelate certain radionuclides in the leachates.

  12. Test Results of Level A Suits to Challenge by Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents and Simulants: Summary Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Belmonte, Richard B

    1998-01-01

    ...) terrorism incidents. As part of an effective response, people who are responding to an incident will use personal protective equipment to protect them from exposure to chemical agents or biological agents...

  13. Inventories of organic materials and complexing agents in intermediate-level long-lived parcels (Report PNGMDR 2013-2015)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This report presents an inventory of organic materials and of complexing agents they may produce within parcels of alpha wastes which are to be produced or are being currently produced. The report proposes the results of campaigns of measurements of degassing, and comparison with results of modelling studies. The assessment of degassing rates of parcels of alpha wastes is completed by an assessment of hydrogen produced by radiolysis of interstitial water within the concrete container. Thus, after a presentation of the main parcels used by the CEA for intermediate-level long-lived wastes, and of an inventory of wastes containing organic materials, this report describes the consequences of radiolysis on polymers, and describes the objectives of R and D studies. It reports measurements and presents simulation tools for heterogeneous wastes, homogeneous wastes, production of water-soluble degradation products, and transfer and adsorption of these products in the storage site argillite

  14. arXiv Effective description of general extensions of the Standard Model: the complete tree-level dictionary

    CERN Document Server

    de Blas, J.; Perez-Victoria, M.; Santiago, J.

    2018-03-19

    We compute all the tree-level contributions to the Wilson coefficients of the dimension-six Standard-Model effective theory in ultraviolet completions with general scalar, spinor and vector field content and arbitrary interactions. No assumption about the renormalizability of the high-energy theory is made. This provides a complete ultraviolet/infrared dictionary at the classical level, which can be used to study the low-energy implications of any model of interest, and also to look for explicit completions consistent with low-energy data.

  15. Level of Education as a Risk Factor for Extensive Prevalence of Cervical Intervertebral Disc Degenerative Changes and Chronic Neck Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markotić, Vedran; Zubac, Damir; Miljko, Miro; Šimić, Goran; Zalihić, Amra; Bogdan, Gojko; Radančević, Dorijan; Šimić, Ana Dugandžić; Mašković, Josip

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to document the prevalence of degenerative intervertebral disc changes in the patients who previously reported symptoms of neck pain and to determine the influence of education level on degenerative intervertebral disc changes and subsequent chronic neck pain. One hundred and twelve patients were randomly selected from the University Hospital in Mostar, Bosna and Herzegovina, (aged 48.5±12.7 years) and submitted to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the cervical spine. MRI of 3.0 T (Siemens, Skyrim, Erlangen, Germany) was used to obtain cervical spine images. Patients were separated into two groups based on their education level: low education level (LLE) and high education level (HLE). Pfirrmann classification was used to document intervertebral disc degeneration, while self-reported chronic neck pain was evaluated using the previously validated Oswestry questionnaire. The entire logistic regression model containing all predictors was statistically significant, (χ 2 (3)=12.2, p=0.02), and was able to distinguish between respondents who had chronic neck pain and vice versa. The model explained between 10.0% (Cox-Snell R 2 ) and 13.8% (Nagelkerke R 2 ) of common variance with Pfirrmann classification, and it had the strength to discriminate and correctly classify 69.6% of patients. The probability of a patient being classified in the high or low group of degenerative disc changes according to the Pfirrmann scale was associated with the education level (Wald test: 5.5, p=0.02). Based on the Pfirrmann assessment scale, the HLE group was significantly different from the LLE group in the degree of degenerative changes of the cervical intervertebral discs (U=1,077.5, p=0.001). A moderate level of intervertebral disc degenerative changes (grade II and III) was equally matched among all patients, while the overall results suggest a higher level of education as a risk factor leading to cervical disc degenerative changes, regardless of age

  16. Identifying extensions required by RUP (Rational Unified Process) to comply with CMM (Capability Maturity Model) levels 2 and 3

    OpenAIRE

    Manzoni, Lisandra Vielmo; Price, Roberto Tom

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes an assessment of the Rational Unified Process (RUP) based on the Capability Maturity Model (CMM). For each key practice (KP) identified in each key process area (KPA) of CMM levels 2 and 3, the Rational Unified Process was assessed to determine whether it satisfied the KP or not. For each KPA, the percentage of the key practices supported was calculated, and the results were tabulated. The report includes considerations about the coverage of each key process area, describ...

  17. Effectiveness Of Communication Outreach Strategies Of Extension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Communication is a major component of agricultural extension and extension agents utilize various methods to deliver messages to their clienteles. The paper focused on the effectiveness of communication outreach strategies of extension agents in Imo State, Nigeria. Data for the study was collected with the aid of ...

  18. Journal of Agricultural Extension Vol.17 (2) December, 2013 ISSN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONIKOYI

    National Agricultural Extension Research Liaison Services (NAERGLS), ... agricultural extension, the organization is meant to serve the extension, ... farm families ratio, extension agents (EAs) training, and the likely causes of the problem.

  19. The Application of Fuzzy Logic Controller to Compute a Trust Level for Mobile Agents in a Smart Home

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nasution, S.; Suryana, N.; Shahib, S.; Abu, N.A.; Hartel, Pieter H.; Gómez Chova, L.; Martí Belenguer, D.; Candel Torres, I.

    Agents that travel through many hosts may cause a threat on the security of the visited hosts. Assets, system resources, and the reputation of the host are few possible targets for such an attack. The possibility for multi-hop agents to be malicious is higher compared to the one-hop or two-hop

  20. Hydrologic record extension of water-level data in the Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN), 1991-99

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrads, Paul; Petkewich, Matthew D.; O'Reilly, Andrew M.; Telis, Pamela A.

    2015-01-01

    The real-time Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN) has been established to support a variety of scientific and water management purposes. The expansiveness of the Everglades, limited number of gaging stations, and extreme sensitivity of the ecosystem to small changes in water depth have created a need for accurate water-level and water-depth maps. The EDEN water-surface elevation model uses data from approximately 240 gages in the Everglades to create daily continuous interpolations of the water-surface elevation and water depth for the freshwater portion of the Everglades from 2000 to the present (2014). These maps provide hydrologic data previously unavailable for assessing biological and ecological studies.

  1. Equation level matching: An extension of the method of matched asymptotic expansion for problems of wave propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Luiz; Rosales, Rodolfo

    2017-11-01

    We introduce an alternative to the method of matched asymptotic expansions. In the ``traditional'' implementation, approximate solutions, valid in different (but overlapping) regions are matched by using ``intermediate'' variables. Here we propose to match at the level of the equations involved, via a ``uniform expansion'' whose equations enfold those of the approximations to be matched. This has the advantage that one does not need to explicitly solve the asymptotic equations to do the matching, which can be quite impossible for some problems. In addition, it allows matching to proceed in certain wave situations where the traditional approach fails because the time behaviors differ (e.g., one of the expansions does not include dissipation). On the other hand, this approach does not provide the fairly explicit approximations resulting from standard matching. In fact, this is not even its aim, which to produce the ``simplest'' set of equations that capture the behavior. Ruben Rosales work was partially supported by NSF Grants DMS-1614043 and DMS-1719637.

  2. Extension of a Kinetic Approach to Chemical Reactions to Electronic Energy Levels and Reactions Involving Charged Species with Application to DSMC Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liechty, Derek S.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to compute rarefied, ionized hypersonic flows is becoming more important as missions such as Earth reentry, landing high mass payloads on Mars, and the exploration of the outer planets and their satellites are being considered. Recently introduced molecular-level chemistry models that predict equilibrium and nonequilibrium reaction rates using only kinetic theory and fundamental molecular properties are extended in the current work to include electronic energy level transitions and reactions involving charged particles. These extensions are shown to agree favorably with reported transition and reaction rates from the literature for near-equilibrium conditions. Also, the extensions are applied to the second flight of the Project FIRE flight experiment at 1634 seconds with a Knudsen number of 0.001 at an altitude of 76.4 km. In order to accomplish this, NASA's direct simulation Monte Carlo code DAC was rewritten to include the ability to simulate charge-neutral ionized flows, take advantage of the recently introduced chemistry model, and to include the extensions presented in this work. The 1634 second data point was chosen for comparisons to be made in order to include a CFD solution. The Knudsen number at this point in time is such that the DSMC simulations are still tractable and the CFD computations are at the edge of what is considered valid because, although near-transitional, the flow is still considered to be continuum. It is shown that the inclusion of electronic energy levels in the DSMC simulation is necessary for flows of this nature and is required for comparison to the CFD solution. The flow field solutions are also post-processed by the nonequilibrium radiation code HARA to compute the radiative portion.

  3. Extension of a Kinetic Approach to Chemical Reactions to Electronic Energy Levels and Reactions Involving Charged Species With Application to DSMC Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liechty, Derek S.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to compute rarefied, ionized hypersonic flows is becoming more important as missions such as Earth reentry, landing high mass payloads on Mars, and the exploration of the outer planets and their satellites are being considered. Recently introduced molecular-level chemistry models that predict equilibrium and nonequilibrium reaction rates using only kinetic theory and fundamental molecular properties are extended in the current work to include electronic energy level transitions and reactions involving charged particles. These extensions are shown to agree favorably with reported transition and reaction rates from the literature for nearequilibrium conditions. Also, the extensions are applied to the second flight of the Project FIRE flight experiment at 1634 seconds with a Knudsen number of 0.001 at an altitude of 76.4 km. In order to accomplish this, NASA's direct simulation Monte Carlo code DAC was rewritten to include the ability to simulate charge-neutral ionized flows, take advantage of the recently introduced chemistry model, and to include the extensions presented in this work. The 1634 second data point was chosen for comparisons to be made in order to include a CFD solution. The Knudsen number at this point in time is such that the DSMC simulations are still tractable and the CFD computations are at the edge of what is considered valid because, although near-transitional, the flow is still considered to be continuum. It is shown that the inclusion of electronic energy levels in the DSMC simulation is necessary for flows of this nature and is required for comparison to the CFD solution. The flow field solutions are also post-processed by the nonequilibrium radiation code HARA to compute the radiative portion of the heating and is then compared to the total heating measured in flight.

  4. A New Generation of Thermal Desorption Technology Incorporating Multi Mode Sampling (NRT/DAAMS/Liquid Agent) for Both on and off Line Analysis of Trace Level Airbone Chemical Warfare Agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, G. M.

    2007-01-01

    A multi functional, twin-trap, electrically-cooled thermal desorption (TD) system (TT24-7) will be discussed for the analysis of airborne trace level chemical warfare agents. This technology can operate in both military environments (CW stockpile, or destruction facilities) and civilian locations where it is used to monitor for accidental or terrorist release of acutely toxic substances. The TD system interfaces to GC, GCMS or direct MS analytical platforms and provides for on-line continuous air monitoring with no sampling time blind spots and within a near real time (NRT) context. Using this technology enables on-line sub ppt levels of agent detection from a vapour sample. In addition to continuous sampling the system has the capacity for off-line single (DAAMS) tube analysis and the ability to receive an external liquid agent injection. The multi mode sampling functionality provides considerable flexibility to the TD system, allowing continuous monitoring of an environment for toxic substances plus the ability to analyse calibration standards. A calibration solution can be introduced via a conventional sampling tube on to either cold trap or as a direct liquid injection using a conventional capillary split/splitless injection port within a gas chromatograph. Low level (linearity) data will be supplied showing the TT24-7 analyzing a variety of CW compounds including free (underivitised) VX using the three sampling modes described above. Stepwise changes in vapor generated agent concentrations will be shown, and this is cross referenced against direct liquid agent introduction, and the tube sampling modes. This technology is in use today in several geographies around the world in both static and mobile analytical laboratories. (author)

  5. Agentes globais e esfera local: o pólo automobilístico de Gravataí Global agents and the local level: the Gravataí automotive complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Ruduit Garcia

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available O artigo tenta discutir aspectos das relações global-local, focalizando o processo de formação e desenvolvimento do pólo automobilístico de Gravataí e suas implicações sociais no âmbito das relações de trabalho e emprego em empresas locais. Ao reconhecer a recente formação do sistema global, supõe-se que a presença de agentes globais em contextos locais tenderia a criar novas dinâmicas sociais que dependeriam de articulações específicas entre conjunturas econômico-institucionais, níveis e tipos de recursos econômicos e sociais disponíveis, e estratégias mobilizadas pelos agentes sociais. Os agentes globais imporiam novas referências competitivas e tecnológicas aos agentes locais, que se achariam, com frequência, despreparados para acompanhar tais exigências. Por outro lado, poderiam ser criadas, com diferentes configurações, chances de acesso a capitais, mercados, tecnologias e conhecimentos, estimulando mudanças nas relações de trabalho e emprego na esfera local. A assimetria nas relações de poder econômico não impediria a reação dos agentes locais, nas possibilidades de seus recursos e nos horizontes de seus valores, às novas regras e condições do sistema internacional. A relação global-local teria, portanto, implicações distintas entre os agentes sociais.This article discusses aspects of the global-local relations, focusing on the process of formation and development of the Gravataí automotive complex and its social implications as related to the labor relations and employment in local companies. In accordance with the recent formation of the global system, it is assumed that the presence of global agents in local contexts creates new social dynamics that depend on specific arrangements between economic and institutional circumstances, levels and types of available social and economic resources, and strategies mobilized by social agents. The global agents would impose new competitive and

  6. Volunteers: A Challenge For Extension Workers: Developing Volunteer Leaders From Disadvantaged Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partin, Minerva O.; And Others

    A series of guidelines for use by Extension agents, as they involve socially and economically disadvantaged youth and adults in volunteer leadership roles in rural and urban Extension programs, is presented. Section headings are: Know Your Audience, Establish Rapport, Levels of Leadership, Leader Development, Leadership Roles, Volunteer…

  7. Effects of Clove Oil as a Euthanasia Agent on Blood Collection Efficiency and Serum Cortisol Levels in Danio rerio

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Daniel J; Klug, Jenna; Hankins, Miriam; Doerr, Holly M; Monticelli, Stephanie R; Song, Ava; Gillespie, Catherine H; Bryda, Elizabeth C

    2015-01-01

    Zebrafish are an important laboratory animal model for biomedical research and are increasingly being used for behavioral neuroscience. Tricaine methanesulfonate (MS222) is the standard agent used for euthanasia of zebrafish. However, recent studies of zebrafish behavior suggest that MS222 may be aversive, and clove oil might be a possible alternative. In this study, we compared the effects of MS222 or clove oil as a euthanasia agent in zebrafish on the volume of blood collected and on serum ...

  8. LED and low level laser therapy association in tooth bleaching using a novel low concentration H2O2/N-doped TiO2 bleaching agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra Dias, Hércules; Teixeira Carrera, Emanuelle; Freitas Bortolatto, Janaína; Ferrarezi de Andrade, Marcelo; Nara de Souza Rastelli, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Since low concentration bleaching agents containing N-doped TiO2 nanoparticles have been introduced as an alternative to conventional agents, it is important to verify their efficacy and the hypersensitivity effect in clinical practice. Six volunteer patients were evaluated for color change and hypersensitivity after bleaching using 35% H2O2 (one session of two 12 min applications) and 6% H2O2/N-doped TiO2 (one session of three 12 min applications) and after low level laser therapy application (LLLT) (780 nm, 40 mW, 10 J.cm-2, 10 s). Based on this case study, the nanobleaching agent provided better or similar aesthetic results than the conventional agent under high concentration, and its association with LLLT satisfactorily decreased the hypersensitivity. The 6% H2O2/N-doped TiO2 agent could be used instead of conventional in-office bleaching agents under high concentrations to fulfill the rising patient demand for aesthetics.

  9. Levels of Organisation in agent-based modelling for renewable resources management. Agricultural water management collective rules enforcement in the French Drome River Valley Case Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrami, G.

    2004-11-01

    Levels of Organisation in agent-based modelling for renewable resources management. Agricultural water management collective rules enforcement in the French Dr me River Valley Case Study. In the context of Agent-Based Modelling for participative renewable resources management, this thesis is concerned with representing multiple tangled levels of organisation of a system. The Agent-Group-Role (AGR) formalism is borrowed from computer science research. It has been conceptually specified to handle levels of organisation, and behaviours within levels of organisation. A design methodology dedicated to AGR modelling has been developed, together with an implementation of the formalism over a multi-agent platform. AGR models of agricultural water management in the French Dr me River Valley have been built and tested. This experiment demonstrates the AGR formalism ability to (1) clarify usually implicit hypothesis on action modes, scales or viewpoints (2) facilitate the definition of scenarios with various collective rules, and various rules in enforcement behaviours (3) generate bricks for generic irrigated catchment models. (author)

  10. Motor units in vastus lateralis and in different vastus medialis regions show different firing properties during low-level, isometric knee extension contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Leonardo Mendes Leal; Cabral, Hélio Veiga; de Oliveira, Liliam Fernandes; Vieira, Taian Martins

    2018-04-01

    Architectural differences along vastus medialis (VM) and between VM and vastus lateralis (VL) are considered functionally important for the patellar tracking, knee joint stability and knee joint extension. Whether these functional differences are associated with a differential activity of motor units between VM and VL is however unknown. In the present study, we, therefore, investigate neuroanatomical differences in the activity of motor units detected proximo-distally from VM and from the VL muscle. Nine healthy volunteers performed low-level isometric knee extension contractions (20% of their maximum voluntary contraction) following a trapezoidal trajectory. Surface electromyograms (EMGs) were recorded from VM proximal and distal regions and from VL using three linear adhesive arrays of eight electrodes. The firing rate and recruitment threshold of motor units decomposed from EMGs were then compared among muscle regions. Results show that VL motor units reached lower mean firing rates in comparison with VM motor units, regardless of their position within VM (P motor units (P = .997). Furthermore, no significant differences in the recruitment threshold were observed for all motor units analysed (P = .108). Our findings possibly suggest the greater potential of VL to generate force, due to its fibres arrangement, may account for the lower discharge rate observed for VL then either proximally or distally detected motor units in VM. Additionally, the present study opens new perspectives on the importance of considering muscle architecture in investigations of the neural aspects of motor behaviour. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Skin barrier integrity and natural moisturising factor levels after cumulative dermal exposure to alkaline agents in atopic dermatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angelova-Fischer, Irena; Dapic, Irena; Hoek, Anne-Karin; Jakasa, Ivone; Fischer, Tobias W.; Zillikens, Detlef; Kezic, Sanja

    2014-01-01

    Dermal exposure to alkaline agents may lead to skin barrier damage and irritant contact dermatitis. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of cumulative exposure to 0.5% sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) and 0.15% NaOH on the barrier function and natural moisturising factor (NMF)

  12. Physical models implemented in the Geant4-DNA extension of the Geant-4 toolkit for calculating initial radiation damage at the molecular level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villagrasa, C.; Francis, Z.; Incerti, S.

    2011-01-01

    The ROSIRIS project aims to study the radiobiology of integrated systems for medical treatment optimisation using ionising radiations and evaluate the associated risk. In the framework of this project, one research focus is the interpretation of the initial radio-induced damage in DNA created by ionising radiation (and detected by γH2AX foci analysis) from the track structure of the incident particles. In order to calculate the track structure of ionising particles at a nano-metric level, the Geant4 Monte Carlo toolkit was used. Geant4 (Object Oriented Programming Architecture in C++) offers a common platform, available free to all users and relatively easy to use. Nevertheless, the current low-energy threshold for electromagnetic processes in GEANT4 is set to 1 keV (250 eV using the Livermore processes), which is an unsuitable value for nano-metric applications. To lower this energy threshold, the necessary interaction processes and models were identified, and the corresponding available cross sections collected from the literature. They are mostly based on the plane-wave Born approximation (first Born approximation, or FBA) for inelastic interactions and on semi-empirical models for energies where the FBA fails (at low energies). In this paper, the extensions that have been introduced into the 9.3 release of the Geant4 toolkit are described, the so-called Geant4-DNA extension, including a set of processes and models adapted in this study and permitting the simulation of electron (8 eV -1 MeV), proton (100 eV-100 MeV) and alpha particle (1 keV-10 MeV) interactions in liquid water. (authors)

  13. Simulation of the time structure of Extensive Air Showers with CORSIKA initiated by various primary particles at Alborz-I observatory level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahmanabadi, Mahmud; Moghaddam, Saba Mortazavi

    2018-05-01

    A detailed simulation of showers with various zenith angles in atmosphere produced by different primary particles including gamma, proton, carbon, and iron at Alborz-I observatory level (35∘43‧N, 51∘20‧E, 1200 m a.s.l= 890 gcm-2), in the energy range 3 × 1013 eV-3 × 1015 eV, has been performed by means of the CORSIKA Monte Carlo code. The aim of this study is to examine the time structure of secondary particles in Extensive Air Showers (EAS) produced by the different primary particles. For each primary particle, the distribution of the mean values of the time delays of secondary particles relative to the first particle hitting the ground level in each EAS, = , and the distribution of their mean standard deviations, in terms of distance from the shower core are obtained. The mean thickness and profile of showers as a function of their energy, primary mass, and zenith angle is described.

  14. Modification of carotenoid levels by abscission agents and expression of carotenoid biosynthetic genes in 'valencia' sweet orange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alferez, Fernando; Pozo, Luis V; Rouseff, Russell R; Burns, Jacqueline K

    2013-03-27

    The effect of 5-chloro-3-methyl-4-nitro-1H-pyrazole (CMNP) and ethephon on peel color, flavedo carotenoid gene expression, and carotenoid accumulation was investigated in mature 'Valencia' orange ( Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) fruit flavedo at three maturation stages. Abscission agent application altered peel color. CMNP was more effective than ethephon in promoting green-to-red (a) and blue-to-yellow (b) color at the middle and late maturation stages and total carotenoid changes at all maturation stages. Altered flow of carotenoid precursors during maturation due to abscission agents was suggested by changes in phytoene desaturase (Pds) and ζ-carotene desaturase (Zds) gene expression. However, each abscission agent affected downstream expression differentially. Ethephon application increased β-carotene hydroxilase (β-Chx) transcript accumulation 12-fold as maturation advanced from the early to middle and late stages. CMNP markedly increased β- and ε-lycopene cyclase (Lcy) transcript accumulation 45- and 15-fold, respectively, at midmaturation. Patterns of carotenoid accumulation in flavedo were supported in part by gene expression changes. CMNP caused greater accumulation of total flavedo carotenoids at all maturation stages when compared with ethephon or controls. In general, CMNP treatment increased total red carotenoids more than ethephon or the control but decreased total yellow carotenoids at each maturation stage. In control fruit flavedo, total red carotenoids increased and yellow carotenoids decreased as maturation progressed. Trends in total red carotenoids during maturation were consistent with measured a values. Changes in carotenoid accumulation and expression patterns in flavedo suggest that regulation of carotenoid accumulation is under transcriptional, translational, and post-translational control.

  15. Use of reiterative primer extension methodology to map UV-induced photoproducts at the nucleotide level in the laci gene from genomic DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasekhar, D.; Houten, B. Van

    1994-01-01

    A newly developed reiterative primer extension assay has been employed to examine photoproduct formation and repair at the nucleotide level. Analysis of UV-induced DNA photoproduct hotspots in the first 184 base pairs of the laci genes of genomic E. coli DNA has revealed that photoproducts are formed linearly with dose and display a sequence-dependent increase. Generally, pyrimdine dimers were twice as frequent as all other UV-induced photoproducts. However, specific sites showed differing distributions. A post-irradiation recovery period revealed differences in the repair efficiency at individual nucleotides. Repair of photoproducts on the transcribed strand was generally twice as efficient as repair of photoproducts on the nontranscribed strand, indicating that strand-specific DNA repair occurs in the constitutively transcribed laci gene of E. coli. The UV-induced DNA photoproduct distribution following repair was well correlated with an established UV-induced mutation spectrum for wild-type E. coli cells. This analysis revealed that photoproduct hotspots on the efficiently repaired transcribed strand did not correlate with mutagenic hotspots. These data strongly support the hypothesis that mutations arise at inefficiently repaired sites on the nontranscribed strand

  16. User contributions and public extension delivery modes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The high recurrent costs faced by the public extension service constraint the number of visits farmers receive. This study examined a number of extension communication channels through which farmers received farm management services/information from the public extension agent. The idea was, first, to find out the ...

  17. Biological Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... E-Tools Safety and Health Topics / Biological Agents Biological Agents This page requires that javascript be enabled ... 202) 693-2300 if additional assistance is required. Biological Agents Menu Overview In Focus: Ebola Frederick A. ...

  18. Applicability of the Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (Modified) in a community sample with low education level: association with an extensive neuropsychological battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanho, Teresa Costa; Portugal-Nunes, Carlos; Moreira, Pedro Silva; Amorim, Liliana; Palha, Joana Almeida; Sousa, Nuno; Correia Santos, Nadine

    2016-02-01

    To explore the applicability of a Portuguese (PT) version of the Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS), with a delayed recall item [modified (M)], here termed TICSM-PT, against an extensive (in-person) battery of neuropsychological instruments, in a sample of older individuals with low educational level and without clinically manifest/diagnosed cognitive impairment. Following translation/back-translation and pilot testing in 33 community dwellers, 142 community dwellers aged 52 to 84 years (mean = 67.45, SD = 7.91) were selected from local health care centres for the study (convenience sampling; stratified age and gender). Cronbach's alpha was used to assess internal consistency, and convergent validity was evaluated through the correlation between TICSM-PT and the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), as well as with a comprehensive battery of cognitive instruments. Divergent/discriminant validity was assessed through a battery of psychological instruments. The receiver operating curve was determined for TICSM-PT to classify participants with and without possible indication of cognitive impairment. TICSM-PT showed a satisfactory internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.705), convergent validity and discriminant validity. TICSM-PT presented a positive association with the global cognitive measures Mini Mental State Examination and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, and also with most neuropsychological parameters. Receiver operating curve curves presented a sensitivity of 90.6% and specificity of 73.7%. The area under the curve statistic yielded a threshold score equal or below 13.5 for cognitive impairment. TICSM-PT is a practical tool for rapid cognitive assessment among older individuals with low educational background. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. FIPA agent based network distributed control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Abbott; V. Gyurjyan; G. Heyes; E. Jastrzembski; C. Timmer; E. Wolin

    2003-03-01

    A control system with the capabilities to combine heterogeneous control systems or processes into a uniform homogeneous environment is discussed. This dynamically extensible system is an example of the software system at the agent level of abstraction. This level of abstraction considers agents as atomic entities that communicate to implement the functionality of the control system. Agents' engineering aspects are addressed by adopting the domain independent software standard, formulated by FIPA. Jade core Java classes are used as a FIPA specification implementation. A special, lightweight, XML RDFS based, control oriented, ontology markup language is developed to standardize the description of the arbitrary control system data processor. Control processes, described in this language, are integrated into the global system at runtime, without actual programming. Fault tolerance and recovery issues are also addressed.

  20. FIPA agent based network distributed control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, D.; Gyurjyan, V.; Heyes, G.; Jastrzembski, E.; Timmer, C.; Wolin, E.

    2003-01-01

    A control system with the capabilities to combine heterogeneous control systems or processes into a uniform homogeneous environment is discussed. This dynamically extensible system is an example of the software system at the agent level of abstraction. This level of abstraction considers agents as atomic entities that communicate to implement the functionality of the control system. Agents' engineering aspects are addressed by adopting the domain independent software standard, formulated by FIPA. Jade core Java classes are used as a FIPA specification implementation. A special, lightweight, XML RDFS based, control oriented, ontology markup language is developed to standardize the description of the arbitrary control system data processor. Control processes, described in this language, are integrated into the global system at runtime, without actual programming. Fault tolerance and recovery issues are also addressed

  1. Patients' oral hydration levels and incidence of immediate to short-term mild side-effects in contrast agent enhanced MRI diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonker, Leon; Fallahi, Farshid

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Gadolinium-based contrast agents for radiodiagnostic purposes can lead to side effects, including nephrotoxicity in patients with renal insufficiency. This study evaluated whether the occurrence of mild side effects from gadolinium-based contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) correlates to patients' oral hydration levels. Methods: Oral fluid intake levels 24 h pre- and 24 h post-MRI, as well as incidence of mild side-effects experienced 30 min and 24 h post-MRI were recorded by using a patient self-reporting questionnaire. Results: A total of 174 patients, 29 controls, 98 administered Prohance and 47 receiving Dotarem, were enrolled. Overall, the most frequently reported side-effect was headache; nausea only occurred in patients receiving contrast agent. One or more side-effects experienced 24 h following the MRI scan were reported by 10% (controls), 24% (Prohance) and 22% (Dotarem) of patients, respectively. Multivariate ordinal regression analysis showed that only male gender (OR 0.24, 95% CI 0.11–0.53) was statistically significantly associated with a decreased incidence of side-effects 30 min after MRI. At 24-h post MRI, a lack of contrast agent (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.09–1.74) and male gender (OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.19–1.09) were associated with fewer side-effects. Conclusions: The level oral fluid intake before and after undergoing gadolinium-based contrast-enhanced MRI does not appear to markedly affect the incidence of common undesirable mild symptoms experienced shortly after the procedure. Confounding differences between patients in reporting side-effects may contribute to these findings. - Highlights: • We assess the incidence of patient-reported side-effects after contrast-enhanced MRI. • We examine the potential impact of oral hydration levels on side-effects. • Patient reported side-effects are high compared to those reported by clinicians. • Female gender and contrast agent itself are associated with increased side

  2. Performance of purified grape pomace as a fining agent to reduce the levels of some contaminants from wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Martínez, María Dolores; Gil-Muñoz, Rocío; Gómez-Plaza, Encarna; Bautista-Ortín, Ana Belén

    2018-03-30

    The quality of red wine depends on the absence of compounds which may affect its safety and/or stability such as ochratoxin A, biogenic amines and some metals and trace compounds. The presence of ochratoxin A in musts and wines is due to fungal contamination of the grapes and has been classified as a possible human carcinogen. Biogenic amines are formed by the microbiological descarboxylation of the corresponding amino acid precursors during the fermentation or aging and storage, and, at high concentrations, they may induce adverse reactions in sensitive people. Trace elements may have both a nutritional and a toxic effect on health, but also can cause turbidity and stability problems. Their presence is affected mainly by natural factors such as soil mineral content and direct contact with tank surfaces and metallic tubing during winemaking. One of the best options to remove these compounds when present in excess in wine is fining. However, some fining agents commonly used may themselves present problems related with their allergenic properties or with their propensity to increase the protein content, which can cause turbidity problems. In an attempt to avoid such these problems, purified grape pomace was tested as a fining alternative since it has been seen to have a high capacity to reduce the astringency, turbidity and also the ochratoxin A content. The main aim of this work, therefore, was to study if this material can limit the presence of ochratoxin A, biogenic amines and metals and some trace elements in a Monastrell red wine, thus increasing the value and safety of this product.

  3. Neonatal nosocomial sepsis in a level-III NICU: evaluation of the causative agents and antimicrobial susceptibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalaz, Mehmet; Cetin, Hasan; Akisu, Mete; Aydemir, Söhret; Tunger, Alper; Kültürsay, Nilgün

    2006-01-01

    Despite advances in supportive care and use of antibiotics, sepsis preserves its importance due to its high mortality and morbidity for neonates. Identifying the causative agents and antibiotic resistance yearly in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) helps the physician to choose the most appropriate empirical therapy. In this study we aimed to evaluate positive blood cultures and antibiotic susceptibilities of newborns with proven sepsis during the years 2000-2002 in our NICU. The charts of babies with sepsis were evaluated for clinical characteristics, positive cultures and antimicrobial susceptibilities, retrospectively. Although most of the admitted patients were premature (76.5%), the frequency of proven sepsis was quite low, at 9.1% among 909 newborns. Mortality rate in sepsis was 16%. The most commonly isolated micro-organisms were coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) (31.3%), fungi (19.2%), Staphylococcus aureus (13%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (10.5%). Methicillin resistance for CoNS was 92.3% and for S. aureus was 72.7%. In the last year, a significant increase in the frequency of Klebsiella pneumoniae (8.3 vs 14.2%), CoNS (27.1 vs 37.1%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2.1 vs 8.6%) and fungal infections (18.8 vs 20%) was observed compared to the previous years. An initial empirical antibiotic therapy for late-onset sepsis was designed with teicoplanin + piperacillin-tazobactam/meropenem + antifungal (fluconazole or amphotericin B) as the best combination to cover this spectrum until the culture results arrive. However, this combination is only compatible with our results and may not be applied in all units. Every unit must follow the bacterial spectrum and antibacterial resistance patterns to choose their specific empirical treatment strategy for nosocomial infections.

  4. Alterations in polyamine levels induced by phorbol diesters and other agents that promote differentiation in human promyelocytic leukemia cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huberman, E.; Weeks, C.; Herrmann, A.; Callaham, M.; Slaga, T.

    1981-02-01

    Polyamine levels were evaluated in human HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cells after treatment with inducers of terminal differentiation. Differentiation in these cells was determined by increases in the percentage of morphologically mature cells and in lysozyme activity. Treatment of the HL-60 cells with phorbol 12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA), phorbol 12,13-didecanoate or other inducers of terminal differentiation such as dimethylsulfoxide and retinoic acid resulted in increased levels of putrescine. However, no increase in putrescine could be detected after PMA treatment of a HL-60 cell variant that exhibited a decreased susceptibility to PMA-induced terminal differentiation. Similarly, no increase in putrescine was observed with two nontumor-promoters (phorbol 12,13-diacetate and 4-O-methyl-PMA) or with anthralin, a non-phorbol tumor promoter. In addition to enhancing putrescine levels, PMA also increased the amount of spermidine and decreased the amount of spermine. The increase in putrescine and spermidine preceded the expression of the various differentiation markers. Unlike the changes observed in the polyamine levels after PMA treatment, the activities of ornithine and S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylases, which are polyamine biosynthetic enzymes, did not significantly change. ..cap alpha..-Methylornithine and ..cap alpha..-difluoromethylornithine and methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone), which are inhibitors of the polyamine biosynthetic enzymes, did not affect differentiation in control or PMA-treated cells. Because of these observations, we suggest that the change in polyamine levels involve biochemical pathways other than the known biosynthetic ones. By-products of these pathways may perhaps be the controlling factors involved in the induction of terminal differentiation in the HL-60 and other cell types as well.

  5. The effect of verapamil as an adjuvant agent with local anesthetic on sensory block level, hemodynamic and postoperative pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabaeizavareh, M.H.; Omranifard, M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Coadministration of verapamil with local anesthetics could potentiate the sensory block of peripheral nerve, increase the duration of sensory nerve block and reduce postoperative pain and analgesic consumption. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of verapamil as an adjuvant with bupivacaine on level of sensory block, post-operative pain and analgesic consumption among patients undergone elective surgery in Isfahan. Methodology: In this prospective randomized interventional clinical double-blind study ASA physical status I or II male patients referred for elective lower abdominal surgery were enrolled. They randomized in group A (20 cc of 0.5% bupivacaine plus 5 mg verapamil) and B(20 cc of 0.5% bupivacaine plus 2 cc normal saline). The sensory level block, postoperative pain, opioid consumption and vomiting and nausa and hemodynamic state was recorded and compared in two groups. Results: Sixty two patients were studied. Mean of the sensory level block 20 minutes after stating epidural anesthesia and immediately after surgery, postoperative pain score, opioid consumption and nausea and vomiting and fluid intake was not significantly different in two groups (P>0.05). Mean of systolic and diastolic blood pressure and pulse rate changes was not significantly different in two groups (P>0.05). Conclusion: Verapamil as an adjuvant with bupivacaine could not significantly increase the level of sensory block and attenuate post-operative pain and analgesic consumption and hemodynamic condition of the patients. For more accurate results it is recommended to determine the effect of different dose of verapamil in larger sample size of the patients. Studying the effect of other Ca channel blockers would be favorable in this regard. (author)

  6. Acute effects of nitroglycerin depend on both plasma and intracellular sulfhydryl compound levels in vivo. Effect of agents with different sulfhydryl-modulating properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesgaard, S; Poulsen, H E; Aldershvile, J

    1993-01-01

    in SH group concentrations (cysteine and glutathione [GSH]) affect the responsiveness to NTG in vivo. METHODS AND RESULTS: GSH and cysteine levels in plasma, vena cava, and aorta were measured after administration of N-acetylserine (placebo, n = 6), N-acetylcysteine (NAC, extracellular and intracellular......BACKGROUND: Changes in sulfhydryl (SH) compound availability may alter the hemodynamic effect of nitroglycerin (NTG). Data on the relation between NTG effect and thiol levels are, however, limited to in vitro experiments. The present study investigates how intracellular and extracellular changes...... SH donor, n = 6), oxothiazolidine (OXO, intracellular SH donor, n = 6), buthionine sulfoximine (BSO, intracellular GSH-depleting agent, n = 6), BSO+NAC (n = 6), and BSO+OXO (n = 6) in chronically catheterized conscious rats. In addition, the effect of 2.5 mg NTG/kg i.v. on mean arterial pressure (MAP...

  7. Agricultural extension and mass media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perraton, H

    1983-12-01

    To learn more about the use of the mass media for agricultural extension, the World Bank has considered the efforts of 2 units: INADES-formation in West Africa and the Extension Aids Branch of Malawi. The INADES-formation study focuses on Cameroon but also considers work in Rwanda and the Ivory Coast. Some general conclusions emerge from a comparison of the 2 organizations. Malawi operates an extension service which reaches farmers through extension agents, through farmer training centers, and through mass media. The Extension Aids Branch (EAB) has responsibility for its media work and broadcasts 4 1/2 hours of radio each week. Its 6 regular radio programs include a general program which interviews farmers, a music request program in which the music is interspersed with farming advice, a farming family serial, and a daily broadcast of agricultural news and information. The 17 cinema vans show some agricultural films, made by EAB, some entertainment films, and some government information films from departments other than the ministry of agriculture. EAB also has a well-developed program of research and evaluation of its own work. INADES-formation, the training section of INADES, works towards social and economic development of the population. It teaches peasant farmers and extension agents and does this through running face-to-face seminars, by publishing a magazine, "Agripromo," and through correspondence courses. In 1978-79 INADES-formation enrolled some 4500 farmers and extension agents as students. Both of these organizations work to teach farmers better agriculture techniques, and both were created in response to the fact that agricultural extension agents cannot meet all the farmers in their area. Despite the similarity of objective, there are differences in methods and philosophy. The EAB works in a single country and uses a variety of mass media, with print playing a minor role. INADES-formation is an international and nongovernmental organization and its

  8. Diarylpyrimidine-dihydrobenzyloxopyrimidine hybrids: new, wide-spectrum anti-HIV-1 agents active at (sub)-nanomolar level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotili, Dante; Tarantino, Domenico; Artico, Marino; Nawrozkij, Maxim B; Gonzalez-Ortega, Emmanuel; Clotet, Bonaventura; Samuele, Alberta; Esté, José A; Maga, Giovanni; Mai, Antonello

    2011-04-28

    Here, we describe a novel small series of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) that combine peculiar structural features of diarylpyrimidines (DAPYs) and dihydro-alkoxy-benzyl-oxopyrimidines (DABOs). These DAPY-DABO hybrids (1-4) showed a characteristic SAR profile and a nanomolar anti-HIV-1 activity at both enzymatic and cellular level. In particular, the two compounds 4d and 2d, with a (sub)nanomolar activity against wild-type and clinically relevant HIV-1 mutant strains, were selected as lead compounds for next optimization studies.

  9. Paramedic Initiation of Neuroprotective Agent Infusions: Successful Achievement of Target Blood Levels and Attained Level Effect on Clinical Outcomes in the FAST-MAG Pivotal Trial (Field Administration of Stroke Therapy - Magnesium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkirkova, Kristina; Starkman, Sidney; Sanossian, Nerses; Eckstein, Marc; Stratton, Samuel; Pratt, Frank; Conwit, Robin; Hamilton, Scott; Sharma, Latisha; Liebeskind, David; Restrepo, Lucas; Valdes-Sueiras, Miguel; Saver, Jeffrey L

    2017-07-01

    Paramedic use of fixed-size lumen, gravity-controlled tubing to initiate intravenous infusions in the field may allow rapid start of neuroprotective therapy for acute stroke. In a large, multicenter trial, we evaluated its efficacy in attaining target serum levels of candidate neuroprotective agent magnesium sulfate and the relation of achieved magnesium levels to outcome. The FAST-MAG phase 3 trial (Field Administration of Stroke Therapy - Magnesium) randomized 1700 patients within 2 hours of onset to paramedic-initiated, a 15-minute loading intravenous infusion of magnesium or placebo followed by a 24-hour maintenance dose. The drug delivery strategy included fixed-size lumen, gravity-controlled tubing for field drug administration, and a shrink-wrapped ambulance kit containing both the randomized field loading and hospital maintenance doses for seamless continuation. Among patient randomized to active treatment, magnesium levels in the first 72 hours were assessed 987 times in 572 patients. Mean patient age was 70 years (SD±14 years), and 45% were women. During the 24-hour period of active infusion, mean achieved serum level was 3.91 (±0.8), consistent with trial target. Mg levels were increased by older age, female sex, lower weight, height, body mass index, and estimated glomerular filtration rate, and higher blood urea nitrogen, hemoglobin, and higher hematocrit. Adjusted odds for clinical outcomes did not differ by achieved Mg level, including disability at 90 days, symptomatic hemorrhage, or death. Paramedic infusion initiation using gravity-controlled tubing permits rapid achievement of target serum levels of potential neuroprotective agents. The absence of association of clinical outcomes with achieved magnesium levels provides further evidence that magnesium is not biologically neuroprotective in acute stroke. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Literature review of levels and determinants of exposure to potential carcinogens and other agents in the road construction industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstyn, I; Kromhout, H; Boffetta, P

    2000-01-01

    Workers in the road construction industry include asphalt plant, ground construction, and road paving workers. These individuals can be exposed to a wide range of potentially hazardous substances. A summary of levels of exposure to different substances measured during road construction is presented. In modern road paving, workers typically are exposed to 0.1 to 2 mg/m3 of bitumen fume, which includes 10 to 200 ng/m3 of benzo(a)pyrene. Sampling strategies and analytical methods employed in each reviewed survey are described briefly. The published reports provide some insight into the identity of factors that influence exposure to bitumen among road construction workers: type of work performed, meteorological conditions, temperature of paved asphalt. However, there is a lack of (a) comprehensive and well-designed studies that evaluate determinants of exposure to bitumen in road construction, and (b) standard methods for bitumen sampling and analysis. Information on determinants of other exposures in road construction is either absent or limited. It is concluded that data available through published reports have limited value in assessing historical exposure levels in the road construction industry.

  11. Mobilization and Involvement of Students and Teachers in Implementing the Adult and Extension Education Programmes at the Grass-Root Level with Special Reference to Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirapalli, India: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarthy, K.; Balasaravanan, T.

    India has made considerable progress toward universal primary education but has the dubious distinction of having the highest illiteracy rates in the world. Stringent endeavors are being made at the national, state, and district levels to eradicate illiteracy through mass approaches and programs. Extension is recognized as the third dimension of…

  12. Expansion of the Gaming Industry: Opportunities for Cooperative Extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borden, George W.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    All but two states have some form of legalized gaming. However, survey responses from 28 of 50 extension agents indicated that only 2 have extension programming on the economic, social, and moral issues involved in gambling. (SK)

  13. Retrospective review of hemoglobin and/or hematocrit levels with occurrence of thrombosis in cancer patients treated with erythropoiesis stimulating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullmer, Amber C; Miller, Rickey

    2009-09-01

    No data exists that directly compares hemoglobin and hematocrit levels between cancer patients with and without occurrence of thrombosis during treatment with erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESAs). To determine the association of hemoglobin and hematocrit levels with the occurrence of thrombosis in cancer patients treated with ESAs. A retrospective case-control study approved by the Institutional Review Board was conducted on cancer patients billed for epoetin or darbepoetin between 1 July 2002 and 30 June 2007. Cases were defined as patients billed for thrombosis while controls were defined as patients not billed for thrombosis. Sixteen patients had an occurrence of thrombosis (cases) and were matched to 16 patients that did not have an occurrence of thrombosis (controls) based on age, sex, and cancer type. The mean peak hemoglobin levels for cases and controls were 12.6 +/- 1.2 g/dL versus 12.6 +/- 1.4 g/dL (p = 0.9). The mean peak hematocrit levels for cases and controls were 37.3 +/- 3.8% versus 37.9 +/- 4.3% (p = 0.8). For the 16/586 (2.7%) patients with thrombosis, the mean hemoglobin and hematocrit at time of thrombosis were 9.6 +/- 1.0 g/dL and 28.9 +/- 3.1%. A significant identifiable risk factor for thrombosis between the cases and controls was history of thrombosis 31.3% versus 0% (p = 0.04). There was no statistical difference in peak hemoglobin and hematocrit levels between patients with thrombosis and those without thrombosis. Further study is warranted to determine if these levels are true risk factors for thrombosis.

  14. Level of carbon dioxide diffuse degassing from the ground of Vesuvio: comparison between extensive surveys and inferences on the gas source

    OpenAIRE

    Domenico Granieri; Maria Luisa Carapezza; Rosario Avino; Stefano Caliro; Carlo Cardellini; Giovanni Chiodini; Marco Donnini; Carmine Minopoli; Massimo Ranaldi; Tullio Ricci; Luca Tarchini

    2013-01-01

    An extensive campaign of diffuse CO2 soil flux was carried out at the cone of Vesuvio in October 2006 with two main objectives: 1) to provide an estimation of CO2 diffusely discharged through the soils in the summit area and 2) to evidence those sectors of the volcano where structural and morphological conditions could favour the gas output. The survey consisted of 502 measurements of soil CO2 flux homogenously distributed over an area of about 1.8 km2. Results of this survey were compared wi...

  15. Level of carbon dioxide diffuse degassing from the ground of Vesuvio: comparison between extensive surveys and inferences on the gas source

    OpenAIRE

    Granieri, D.; Carapezza, M. L.; Avino, R.; Caliro, S.; Cardellini, C.; Chiodini, G.; Donnini, M.; Minopoli, C.; Ranaldi, M.; Ricci, T.; Tarchini, L.

    2013-01-01

    An extensive campaign of diffuse CO2 soil flux was carried out at the cone of Vesuvio in October 2006 with two main objectives: 1) to provide an estimation of CO2 diffusely discharged through the soils in the summit area and 2) to evidence those sectors of the volcano where structural and morphological conditions could favour the gas output. The survey consisted of 502 measurements of soil CO2 flux homogenously distributed over an area of about 1.8 km2. Results of this surve...

  16. A Comparative Study of Cardioprotective Effect of Three Anesthetic Agents by Measuring Serum Level of Troponin-T after Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vali Imantalab

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiac surgery is associated with some degree of myocardial injury. Preconditioning first described in 1986 was pharmacologic and non- pharmacologic. Among the long list of anesthetic drugs, isoflurane as an inhaling agent along with midazolam and propofol as injectable substances have been documented to confer some preconditioning effects on myocardium. Objectives: In this study cardiac Troponin T (cTnT ,as a reliable marker, was used for evaluating myocardial injury. Methods: This prospective double blind study was comprised of 60 patients scheduled for CABG and were randomly assigned into three groups who received infusion of propofol or midazolam or isoflorane. Surgical procedures and anesthetics were similar for 3 groups. cTnT measured preoperatively and at 12, 24 and 36hr after arrival in ICU. Results: There were no statistically significant differences in mean cTnT levels between three groups in the preoperative period and 12-24 hours after arrival in ICU. However, mean cTnT in 3 groups at 36 hours after arrival in ICU were different (P< 0.013 and cTnT level was significantly higher in midazolam group (P<0.001 and lowest in isoflurane group (P=0.002. Conclusion: There were significant differences on cTnT levels between anesthetic groups of isofluran, midazolam and propofol at 36 hr after surgery. Preconditioning effect of isoflurane was higher than the other two groups.

  17. Travel Agent Course Outline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    Written for college entry-level travel agent training courses, this course outline can also be used for inservice training programs offered by travel agencies. The outline provides information on the work of a travel agent and gives clear statements on what learners must be able to do by the end of their training. Material is divided into eight…

  18. Radiation sensitizations at DNA-level by chemical and biological agents. Coordinated programme on improvement of radiotherapy of cancer using modifiers of radiosensitivity of cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altmann, H.

    1982-01-01

    Radiation sensitization by chemical agents at DNA level is discussed. Procaine, Halothan and Metronidazole showed no significant effect on unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) in mouse spleen cells, investigated by autoradiography and no effect on rejoining of DNA single strand breaks after gamma or UV irradiation. Oxyphenbutazon and prednisolone reduced the replicative DNA synthesis in vitro and in vivo but there was only little effect on DNA repair in the in vivo experiments. These two substances showed also a small reduction in poly(ADP-ribose) synthesis (PAR synthesis). 5-methoxypsoralen (5-MOP) and 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) in combination with UV irradiation showed that 5-MOP was more toxic than mutagen, but induced much less DNA crosslinks than 8-MOP. Autoradiographic studies of radiation sensitization by biological agents showed significant inhibition of UDS in Yoshida tumor cells after acute mycoplasma infection in rats. Nucleoid sedimentation studies showed only in the case of Yoshida tumor cells after mycoplasma infection a dramatic effect in the sedimentation behaviour. Sensitization of cells by changing chromatin structure was also studied. Benzamide, 3-NH 2 -benzamide, 3-Methoxybenzamide, Spermine, Theophyllin and Caffeine were tested in different concentrations on replicative DNA synthesis, UDS after UV irradiation and PAR synthesis Chinese hamster ovary cells. 5-Methoxybenzamide was the strongest sensitizer and inhibitor of the PAR synthesis, and was used in further experiments. Results of KFA Juelich on sensitization of a mamma-adenocarcinoma EO 771 on C57 B1 mice are given. Replicative DNA synthesis, DNA repair and PAR synthesis were compared in spleen cells and adenocarcinoma cells after treatment with 5-Methoxybenzamide. An inhibitory effect on UDS could be shown only in adenocarcinoma cells but not in the mice spleen cells

  19. Level of carbon dioxide diffuse degassing from the ground of Vesuvio: comparison between extensive surveys and inferences on the gas source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Granieri

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available An extensive campaign of diffuse CO2 soil flux was carried out at the cone of Vesuvio in October 2006 with two main objectives: 1 to provide an estimation of CO2 diffusely discharged through the soils in the summit area and 2 to evidence those sectors of the volcano where structural and morphological conditions could favour the gas output. The survey consisted of 502 measurements of soil CO2 flux homogenously distributed over an area of about 1.8 km2. Results of this survey were compared with those obtained during a similar campaign carried out by Frondini et al. in 2000, from which we have taken and reinterpreted a subset of data belonging to the common investigated area. Graphical statistical analysis showed three overlapping populations in both surveys, evidencing the contribution of three different sources feeding the soil CO2 degassing process. The overall CO2 emission pattern of 2006 is coherent with that observed in 2000 and suggests that a value between 120 and 140 t/day of CO2 is representative of the total CO2 discharged by diffuse degassing from the summit area of Vesuvio. The preferential exhaling area lies in the inner crater, whose contribution resulted in 45.3% of the total CO2 emission in 2006 (with 62.8 t/day and in 57.4% (with 70.3 t/day in 2000, although its extension is only 13% of the investigated area. This highly emissive area correlated closely with the structural discontinuities of Vesuvio cone, mainly suggesting that the NW-SE trending tectonic line is actually an active fault leaking deep gas to the bottom of the crater. The drainage action of the fault could be enhanced by the “aspiration” effect of the volcanic conduit.

  20. Tampa Bay Extension Agents’ Views of Urban Extension: Philosophy and Program Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Harder

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article was to explore the concept of urban Extension as perceived by Extension agents within the Tampa Bay area, one of Florida’s fastest growing metropolitan areas. From a theoretical perspective, it is critical to understand Extension agents’ beliefs about urban Extension because behaviors are directly related to attitudes (Ajzen, 2012. In 2016, a qualitative investigation was undertaken to explore the perspectives of 23 agents working within the Tampa Bay area. Results showed the majority of agents believed that context and client needs are unique for urban Extension, and that to a lesser extent, unique agent expertise is required. Further, these beliefs impacted how agents reported their approach to programming, with an emphasis on providing convenience and seeking partnerships. Difficulties were identified related to identifying the role of Extension in a resource-rich environment of service providers, which contributed to the existence of a perceived disconnect between urban audiences and Extension. Opportunities exist for Extension leadership to provide strategic organizational support that will enhance agents’ abilities to succeed in the metropolitan environment.

  1. Agent control of cooperating satellites

    OpenAIRE

    Lincoln, N.K.; Veres, S.M.; Dennis, Louise; Fisher, Michael; Lisitsa, Alexei

    2011-01-01

    A novel, hybrid, agent architecture for (small)swarms of satellites has been developed. The software architecture for each satellite comprises ahigh-level rational agent linked to a low-level control system. The rational agent forms dynamicgoals, decides how to tackle them and passes theactual implementation of these plans to the control layer. The rational agent also has access to aMatLabmodel of the satellite dynamics, thus allowing it to carry out selective hypothetical reasoningabout pote...

  2. An Agent-Based Model for Zip-Code Level Diffusion of Electric Vehicles and Electricity Consumption in New York City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Ahkamiraad

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Current power grids in many countries are not fully prepared for high electric vehicle (EV penetration, and there is evidence that the construction of additional grid capacity is constantly outpaced by EV diffusion. If this situation continues, then it will compromise grid reliability and cause problems such as system overload, voltage and frequency fluctuations, and power losses. This is especially true for densely populated areas where the grid capacity is already strained with existing old infrastructure. The objective of this research is to identify the zip-code level electricity consumption that is associated with large-scale EV adoption in New York City, one of the most densely populated areas in the United States (U.S.. We fuse the Fisher and Pry diffusion model and Rogers model within the agent-based simulation to forecast zip-code level EV diffusion and the required energy capacity to satisfy the charging demand. The research outcomes will assist policy makers and grid operators in making better planning decisions on the locations and timing of investments during the transition to smarter grids and greener transportation.

  3. [Alkylating agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourquier, Philippe

    2011-11-01

    With the approval of mechlorethamine by the FDA in 1949 for the treatment of hematologic malignancies, alkylating agents are the oldest class of anticancer agents. Even though their clinical use is far beyond the use of new targeted therapies, they still occupy a major place in specific indications and sometimes represent the unique option for the treatment of refractory diseases. Here, we are reviewing the major classes of alkylating agents and their mechanism of action, with a particular emphasis for the new generations of alkylating agents. As for most of the chemotherapeutic agents used in the clinic, these compounds are derived from natural sources. With a complex but original mechanism of action, they represent new interesting alternatives for the clinicians, especially for tumors that are resistant to conventional DNA damaging agents. We also briefly describe the different strategies that have been or are currently developed to potentiate the use of classical alkylating agents, especially the inhibition of pathways that are involved in the repair of DNA lesions induced by these agents. In this line, the development of PARP inhibitors is a striking example of the recent regain of interest towards the "old" alkylating agents.

  4. Sociologists in Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, James A.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The article describes the work activities of the extension sociologist, the relative advantage and disadvantage of extension roles in relation to teaching/research roles, and the relevance of sociological training and research for extension work. (NQ)

  5. Workplace Issues in Extension--A Delphi Study of Extension Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroth, Michael; Peutz, Joey

    2011-01-01

    Using the Delphi technique, expert Extension educators identified and prioritized those workplace issues they believe will be the most important to attract, motivate, and retain Extension educators/agents over the next 5 to 7 years. Obtaining and then utilizing a talented, highly motivated workforce during a period when many will be retiring will…

  6. Tree-level equivalence between a Lorentz-violating extension of QED and its dual model in electron-electron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toniolo, Giuliano R.; Fargnoli, H.G.; Brito, L.C.T. [Universidade Federal de Lavras, Departamento de Fisica, Caixa Postal 3037, Lavras, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Scarpelli, A.P.B. [Setor Tecnico-Cientifico, Departamento de Policia Federal, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2017-02-15

    S-matrix amplitudes for the electron-electron scattering are calculated in order to verify the physical equivalence between two Lorentz-breaking dual models. We begin with an extended Quantum Electrodynamics which incorporates CPT-even Lorentz-violating kinetic and mass terms. Then, in a process of gauge embedding, its gauge-invariant dual model is obtained. The physical equivalence of the two models is established at tree level in the electron-electron scattering and the unpolarized cross section is calculated up to second order in the Lorentz-violating parameter. (orig.)

  7. Tree-level equivalence between a Lorentz-violating extension of QED and its dual model in electron-electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toniolo, Giuliano R.; Fargnoli, H.G.; Brito, L.C.T.; Scarpelli, A.P.B.

    2017-01-01

    S-matrix amplitudes for the electron-electron scattering are calculated in order to verify the physical equivalence between two Lorentz-breaking dual models. We begin with an extended Quantum Electrodynamics which incorporates CPT-even Lorentz-violating kinetic and mass terms. Then, in a process of gauge embedding, its gauge-invariant dual model is obtained. The physical equivalence of the two models is established at tree level in the electron-electron scattering and the unpolarized cross section is calculated up to second order in the Lorentz-violating parameter. (orig.)

  8. Chemical Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CR) see Riot Control Agents Digitalis Distilled mustard (HD) see Sulfur mustard E Ethylene glycol F Fentanyls and other opioids H Hydrazine Hydrofluoric acid (hydrogen fluoride) Hydrogen chloride Hydrogen cyanide (AC) Hydrogen ...

  9. Timeability in Extensive-Form Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Sune K.; Sørensen, Troels Bjerre; Conitzer, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Extensive-form games constitute the standard representation scheme for games with a temporal component. But do all extensive-form games correspond to protocols that we can implement in the real world? We often rule out games with imperfect recall, which prescribe that an agent forget something...... that she knew before. In this paper, we show that even some games with perfect recall can be problematic to implement. Specifically, we show that if the agents have a sense of time passing (say, access to a clock), then some extensive-form games can no longer be implemented; no matter how we attempt...... to time the game, some information will leak to the agents that they are not supposed to have. We say such a game is not exactly timeable. We provide easy-to-check necessary and sufficient conditions for a game to be exactly timeable. Most of the technical depth of the paper concerns how to approximately...

  10. Serum 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin levels and their association with age, body mass index, smoking, military record-based variables, and estimated exposure to Agent Orange in Korean Vietnam veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Sang-Wook; Ohrr, Heechoul; Won, Jong-Uk; Song, Jae-Seok; Hong, Jae-Seok

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the levels of serum 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and evaluate their association with age, body mass index, smoking, military record-based variables, and estimated exposure to Agent Orange in Korean Vietnam veterans. Serum levels of TCDD were analyzed in 102 Vietnam veterans. Information on age, body mass index, and smoking status were obtained from a self-reported questionnaire. The perceived exposure was assessed by a 6-item questionnaire. Two proximity-based exposures were constructed by division/brigade level and battalion/company level unit information using the Stellman exposure opportunity index model. The mean and median of serum TCDD levels was 1.2 parts per trillion (ppt) and 0.9 ppt, respectively. Only 2 Vietnam veterans had elevated levels of TCDD (>10 ppt). The levels of TCDD did not tend to increase with the likelihood of exposure to Agent Orange, as estimated from either proximity-based exposure or perceived self-reported exposure. The serum TCDD levels were not significantly different according to military unit, year of first deployment, duration of deployment, military rank, age, body mass index, and smoking status. The average serum TCDD levels in the Korean Vietnam veterans were lower than those reported for other occupationally or environmentally exposed groups and US Vietnam veterans, and their use as an objective marker of Agent Orange exposure may have some limitations. The unit of deployment, duration of deployment, year of first deployment, military rank, perceived self-reported exposure, and proximity-based exposure to Agent Orange were not associated with TCDD levels in Korean Vietnam veterans. Age, body mass index and smoking also were not associated with TCDD levels.

  11. Monitoring interseismic activity on the Ilan Plain (NE Taiwan) using Small Baseline PS-InSAR, GPS and leveling measurements: partitioning from arc-continent collision and backarc extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhe; Hu, Jyr-Ching; Wang, Erchie; Li, Yongsheng; Yang, Yinghui; Wang, Pei-Ling

    2018-01-01

    The Ilan Plain, located in Northeast Taiwan, represents a transition zone between oblique collision (between the Luzon Arc and the Eurasian Plate) and backarc extension (the Okinawa Trough). The mechanism for this abrupt transition from arc-continent collision to backarc extension remains uncertain. We used Global Positioning System (GPS), leveling and multi-interferogram Small Baseline Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (SBAS-PSI) data to monitor the interseismic activity in the basin. A common reference site was selected for the data sets. The horizontal component of GPS and the vertical measurements of the leveling data were converted to line-of-sight (LOS) data and compared with the SBAS-PSI data. The comparison shows that the entire Ilan Plain is undergoing rapid subsidence at a maximum rate of -11 ± 2 mm yr-1 in the LOS direction. We speculate that vertical deformation and anthropogenic activity may play important roles in this deformation. We also performed a joint inversion modeling that combined both the DInSAR and strong motion data to constrain the source model of the 2005 Ilan earthquake. The best-fitting model predicts that the Sansing fault caused the 2005 Ilan earthquake. The observed transtensional deformation is dominated by the normal faulting with a minor left-lateral strike-slip motion. We compared our SBAS-PSI results with the short-term (2005-2009) groundwater level changes. The results indicate that although pumping-induced surface subsidence cannot be excluded, tectonic deformation, including rapid southward movement of the Ryukyu arc and backarc extension of the Okinawa Trough, characterizes the opening of the Ilan Plain. Furthermore, a series of normal and left-lateral strike-slip transtensional faults, including the Choshui and Sansing faults, form a bookshelf-like structure that accommodates the extension of the plain. Although situated in a region of complex structural interactions, the Ilan Plain is primarily controlled by extension

  12. Lake Urmia (Iran): can future socio-ecologically motivated river basin management restore lake water levels in an arid region with extensive agricultural development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazel, Nasim; Berndtsson, Ronny; Bertacchi Uvo, Cintia; Klove, Bjorn; Madani, Kaveh

    2015-04-01

    Lake Urmia, one of the world's largest hyper saline lakes located in northwest of Iran, is a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve and Ramsar site, protected as a national park and, supports invaluable and unique biodiversity and related ecosystem services for the region's 6.5 million inhabitants. Due to increased development of the region's water resources for agriculture and industry and to a certain extent climate change, the lake has started to shrink dramatically since 1995 and now is holding less than 30 percent of its volume. Rapid development in agricultural sector and land-use changes has resulted in immense construction of dams and water diversions in almost all lake feeding rivers, intensifying lake shrinking, increasing salinity and degrading its ecosystem. Recently, lake's cultural and environmental importance and social pressure has raised concerns and brought government attention to the lake restoration plans. Along with poor management, low yield agriculture as the most water consuming activity in the region with, rapid, insufficient development is one of the most influential drivers in the lake desiccation. Part of the lake restoration plans in agricultural sector is to restrict the agricultural areas in the main feeding river basins flowing mostly in the southern part of the lake and decreasing the agricultural water use in this area. This study assess the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed plans and its influence on the lake level rise and its impacts on economy in the region using a system dynamics model developed for the Lake consist of hydrological and agro-economical sub-systems. The effect of decrease in agricultural area in the region on GDP and region economy was evaluated and compared with released water contribution in lake level rise for a five year simulation period.

  13. Ethics and morals in the extension work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Lourdes Morales Intriago

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the main discussions about agents that provide rural extension is the lack of adequate proposals for the reality of farmers. The exyensionists work according to ethics and morals. Was carried out a theoretical search by made analyzing concepts about these terms and that are applied by extension agents. In This paper discusses how agents act with respect to the aforementioned notions and the conflicts they can cause with rural communities. It was found that the extensionist’s behavior is based on its values, norms and sanctions formation that can be object, which determines the changes that occur in the communities served. On the other hand, farmers do not receive appropriate attention by organisms that facilitate the Rural Extension, ignoring their interests and priorities. In addition, agents, as servants of institutions that provide assistance and extension, lose autonomy during the contact with communities. It was concluded that agents act correctly according to morality, as well as what concerns to ethics, since lowing the rules of the institution to which they belong, which does not always match with what rural people pursued.

  14. Origin and higher-level diversification of acariform mites - evidence from nuclear ribosomal genes, extensive taxon sampling, and secondary structure alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepato, A R; Klimov, P B

    2015-09-02

    traditionally regarded as the sister-group to Bdelloidea (Eupodina), but our analyses show their close relationships to Parasitengona. Non-trivial relationships recovered by our analyses with high support (i.e., basal arrangement of endeostigmatid lineages, the position of marine mites, polyphyly of Eupodina) had been proposed by previous underappreciated morphological studies. Thus, we update currently the accepted taxonomic classification to reflect these results: the superfamily Halacaroidea Murray, 1877 is moved from the infraorder Eupodina Krantz, 1978 to Anystina van der Hammen, 1972; and the subfamily Erythracarinae Oudemans, 1936 (formerly in Anystidae Oudemans, 1902) is elevated to family rank, Erythracaridae stat. ressur., leaving Anystidae only with the nominal subfamily. Our study also shows that a clade comprising early derivative Endeostigmata (Alycidae, Nanorchestidae, Nematalycidae, and maybe Alicorhagiidae) should be treated as a taxon with the same rank as Sarcoptiformes and Trombidiformes, and the scope of the superfamily Bdelloidea should be changed. Before turning those findings into nomenclatural changes, however, we consider that our study calls for (i) finding shared apomorphies of the early derivative Endeostigmata clade and the clade including the remaining Acariformes; (ii) a well-supported hypothesis for Alicorhagiidae placement; (iii) sampling the families Proterorhagiidae, Proteonematalycidae and Grandjeanicidae not yet included in molecular analyses; (iv) undertake a denser sampling of clades traditionally placed in Eupodina, Anystina (Trombidiformes) and Palaeosomata (Sarcoptiformes), since consensus networks and Internode certainty (IC) and IC All (ICA) indices indicate high levels of conflict in these tree regions. Our study shows that regions of ambiguous alignment may provide useful phylogenetic signal when secondary structure information is used to guide the alignment procedure and provides an R implementation to the Bayesian Relative Rates

  15. Purdue Extension: Employee Engagement and Leadership Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Angela R.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to assess the Purdue Extension county directors' level of engagement and leadership style and to examine the relationship between these two variables. The study aimed to inform a professional development training program for all Purdue Extension county extension directors. Survey data were collected from…

  16. A Novel Security Approach in Mobile Agent Using Encryption

    OpenAIRE

    Nidhi Gupta; Dr. Anurag Dixit

    2012-01-01

    The appearance of software agents has given rise too much discussion of what such an agent is and how it differs from programs in general. An agent is anything that can be viewed as perceiving its environment through sensors & acting upon that environment through actuators. The existing systems can be classified in the context of singleagent systems and multi-agent systems. Mobile agents cantransport themselves from one host to another. Mobile agents have been developed as an extension to and...

  17. Incorporating BDI Agents into Human-Agent Decision Making Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphorst, Bart; van Wissen, Arlette; Dignum, Virginia

    Artificial agents, people, institutes and societies all have the ability to make decisions. Decision making as a research area therefore involves a broad spectrum of sciences, ranging from Artificial Intelligence to economics to psychology. The Colored Trails (CT) framework is designed to aid researchers in all fields in examining decision making processes. It is developed both to study interaction between multiple actors (humans or software agents) in a dynamic environment, and to study and model the decision making of these actors. However, agents in the current implementation of CT lack the explanatory power to help understand the reasoning processes involved in decision making. The BDI paradigm that has been proposed in the agent research area to describe rational agents, enables the specification of agents that reason in abstract concepts such as beliefs, goals, plans and events. In this paper, we present CTAPL: an extension to CT that allows BDI software agents that are written in the practical agent programming language 2APL to reason about and interact with a CT environment.

  18. [Biological agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Koichi

    2009-03-01

    There are two types of biological agents for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA); monoclonal antibodies and recombinant proteins. Among the latter, etanercept, a recombinant fusion protein of soluble TNF receptor and IgG was approved in 2005 in Japan. The post-marketing surveillance of 13,894 RA patients revealed the efficacy and safety profiles of etanercept in the Japanese population, as well as overseas studies. Abatacept, a recombinant fusion protein of CTLA4 and IgG, is another biological agent for RA. Two clinical trials disclosed the efficacy of abatacept for difficult-to-treat patients: the AIM for MTX-resistant cases and the ATTAIN for patients who are resistant to anti-TNF. The ATTEST trial suggested abatacept might have more acceptable safety profile than infliximab. These biologics are also promising for the treatment of RA for not only relieving clinical symptoms and signs but retarding structural damage.

  19. Alteration of serum thymus and activation-regulated chemokine level during biologic therapy for psoriasis: Possibility as a marker reflecting favorable response to anti-interleukin-17A agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuya, Takashi; Honma, Masaru; Iinuma, Shin; Iwasaki, Takeshi; Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Ishida-Yamamoto, Akemi

    2018-06-01

    Biologics show great efficacy in treating psoriasis, a chronic inflammatory skin disease. The high cost and side-effects of biologics, dose-reduction, elongation of administration interval and suspension are possible options. However, there has been no reliable biomarker we can use when we consider these moderations in therapy. This study was conducted to test the possibility of using serum thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) level as an indicator for step down of biologic therapy. Serum TARC level was measured in 70 psoriatic patients at Asahikawa Medical University, and a correlation of TARC and severity of skin lesions was analyzed. Referring to serum TARC level, psoriatic patients can be divided into two groups. One is a population in which serum TARC level is positively correlated with severity of skin lesions, and the other is a population with low psoriatic severity and high TARC level. Serum TARC level was higher in the group that achieved PASI-clear with biologics than in the group which did not achieve PASI-clear. Among biologics, the group treated with secukinumab, an anti-interleukin (IL)-17A agent, showed significantly higher TARC level compared with the group treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor agents. In certain populations achieving PASI-clear, serum TARC level may be a potent marker reflecting better response to IL-17A inhibitors, and in this case step down of treatment for psoriasis is possible. © 2018 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  20. evaluation of job performance of village extension agents in lagos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFINNI IMAM

    This paper highlights the attitude of farmers towards the Second National ... specifically target vulnerable sub-groups such as widows, the elderly, castes and ... Agricultural development aimed at poverty reduction requires technologies, organizational .... (c) Evidence of viable and active Fadama Resource Users Groups or ...

  1. evaluation of job performance of village extension agents in lagos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFINNI IMAM

    full time farmers and are having personal lands with more than twenty one (21) years of farming ... (ii) determine the agricultural enterprise of the farmers. ... The wide difference in sex between male to female ratio in agricultural activities can be.

  2. evaluation of job performance of village extension agents in lagos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFINNI IMAM

    and orientation and had higher socio-economic impacts on their beneficiaries than the CPRA. The study recommends restructuring the CPRA and CIRDDC as well as streamlining their activities in line with workable public-private partnership to work with other rural-oriented organizations. The conclusion is that sustainable.

  3. evaluation of job performance of village extension agents in lagos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFINNI IMAM

    financial management, maintenance of fadama investments and proffering conflict mitigation measures. .... a wide range of participative techniques (World Bank, 2003b). The labour, materials ..... better service to farmers ( x =3.07) and cost sharing of fadama II project will reduce the financial burden of government and ...

  4. evaluation of job performance of village extension agents in lagos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFINNI IMAM

    a total of 140 women farmers were purposively selected from 10 wards of the. LGA. ... by the women farmers were discrimination against them and poor rural roads. ... percent of all agricultural production activities are carried out by women in the .... 70. 50.0. Both. 30. 21.4. Total. 140. 100.0. Frequency of access to fertilizer.

  5. evaluation of job performance of village extension agents in lagos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFINNI IMAM

    Effect of Dry Season Tomato Farming on Poverty Alleviation .... and income earning capabilities can be improved on sustainable basis. ... women tomato farmers (household size, education and farming experience) and the ... plays a role in family size because farmers with higher income are more able to afford additional.

  6. evaluation of job performance of village extension agents in lagos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFINNI IMAM

    Nigeria is that of inability to access credit facilities for agricultural production. It is envisaged that ... They equally engage in storage, marketing processing of she abutter, rice, groundnut, ... number of people eating from the same pot. The farm ...

  7. evaluation of job performance of village extension agents in lagos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFINNI IMAM

    electricity, houses, and water pipe lines, destruction of crops and even live .... communities, 17 respondents were selected through simple random sampling technique ... member (72.4%), desire for autonomous community (68.6%), unevenly ...

  8. Job burnout and coping strategies among extension agents in south ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Burnout symptoms manifest mostly as depression (48%), insomnia (40%), headaches (43%), and weight loss (44%). Popular coping strategies are keeping positive attitude at all times, setting self-realistic goals, and maintaining healthy relationship with co-workers. A significant difference exists in burnout symptoms ...

  9. evaluation of job performance of village extension agents in lagos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFINNI IMAM

    The World Bank reports that global food prices rose. 83% over the last ... application of modern technology (Adisa, 2005). The agricultural ... combination of the following farming activities: pre-planting, post-planting, harvest and post- harvest.

  10. evaluation of job performance of village extension agents in lagos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFINNI IMAM

    economy by employing more than 6 million fisher folks in Nigeria (Fish for All Summit, 2005) in ... thereby leading to a cycle of low production, low income, and poverty and being food in- ... characteristic grouped into classes. .... in the high sea; but the Ilaje women who are immigrant fishing families from Ondo State where.

  11. evaluation of job performance of village extension agents in lagos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFINNI IMAM

    The Role of Communication in Dissemination of Improved. Agricultural .... The results presented in table 2.0 indicate that the pearson goodness of fit x2 is 239.049. It ... Communication is synonymous with Human Existence and it permetes all.

  12. Trading Agents

    CERN Document Server

    Wellman, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Automated trading in electronic markets is one of the most common and consequential applications of autonomous software agents. Design of effective trading strategies requires thorough understanding of how market mechanisms operate, and appreciation of strategic issues that commonly manifest in trading scenarios. Drawing on research in auction theory and artificial intelligence, this book presents core principles of strategic reasoning that apply to market situations. The author illustrates trading strategy choices through examples of concrete market environments, such as eBay, as well as abst

  13. Cooperative Extension as a Framework for Health Extension: The Michigan State University Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Jeffrey W; Contreras, Dawn; Eschbach, Cheryl L; Tiret, Holly; Newkirk, Cathy; Carter, Erin; Cronk, Linda

    2017-10-01

    The Affordable Care Act charged the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality to create the Primary Care Extension Program, but did not fund this effort. The idea to work through health extension agents to support health care delivery systems was based on the nationally known Cooperative Extension System (CES). Instead of creating new infrastructure in health care, the CES is an ideal vehicle for increasing health-related research and primary care delivery. The CES, a long-standing component of the land-grant university system, features a sustained infrastructure for providing education to communities. The Michigan State University (MSU) Model of Health Extension offers another means of developing a National Primary Care Extension Program that is replicable in part because of the presence of the CES throughout the United States. A partnership between the MSU College of Human Medicine and MSU Extension formed in 2014, emphasizing the promotion and support of human health research. The MSU Model of Health Extension includes the following strategies: building partnerships, preparing MSU Extension educators for participation in research, increasing primary care patient referrals and enrollment in health programs, and exploring innovative funding. Since the formation of the MSU Model of Health Extension, researchers and extension professionals have made 200+ connections, and grants have afforded savings in salary costs. The MSU College of Human Medicine and MSU Extension partnership can serve as a model to promote health partnerships nationwide between CES services within land-grant universities and academic health centers or community-based medical schools.

  14. The Effects of Remineralization via Fluoride Versus Low-Level Laser IR810 and Fluoride Agents on the Mineralization and Microhardness of Bovine Dental Enamel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Lara-Carrillo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the mineralization and microhardness of bovine dental enamel surfaces treated with fluoride, tri-calcium phosphate, and infrared (IR 810 laser irradiation. The study used 210 bovine incisors, which were divided into six groups (n = 35 in each: Group A: Untreated (control, Group B: Fluoride (Durapath-Colgate, Group C: Fluoride+Tri-calcium phosphate (Clin-Pro White-3 M, Group D: Laser IR 810 (Quantum, Group E: Fluoride+laser, and Group F: Fluoride+tri-calcium phosphate+laser. Mineralization was measured via UV-Vis spectroscopy for phosphorus and via atomic absorption spectroscopy for calcium upon demineralization and remineralization with proven agents. Microhardness (SMH was measured after enamel remineralization. Mineral loss data showed differences between the groups before and after the mineralizing agents were placed (p < 0.05. Fluoride presented the highest remineralization tendency for both calcium and phosphate, with a Vickers microhardness of 329.8 HV0.1/11 (p < 0.05. It was observed that, if remineralization solution contained fewer minerals, the microhardness surface values were higher (r = −0.268 and −0.208; p < 0.05. This study shows that fluoride has a remineralizing effect compared with calcium triphosphate and laser IR810. This in vitro study imitated the application of different remineralizing agents and showed which one was the most efficient for treating non-cavitated injuries. This can prevent the progression of lesions in patients with white spot lesions.

  15. Agent independent task planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, William S.

    1990-01-01

    Agent-Independent Planning is a technique that allows the construction of activity plans without regard to the agent that will perform them. Once generated, a plan is then validated and translated into instructions for a particular agent, whether a robot, crewmember, or software-based control system. Because Space Station Freedom (SSF) is planned for orbital operations for approximately thirty years, it will almost certainly experience numerous enhancements and upgrades, including upgrades in robotic manipulators. Agent-Independent Planning provides the capability to construct plans for SSF operations, independent of specific robotic systems, by combining techniques of object oriented modeling, nonlinear planning and temporal logic. Since a plan is validated using the physical and functional models of a particular agent, new robotic systems can be developed and integrated with existing operations in a robust manner. This technique also provides the capability to generate plans for crewmembers with varying skill levels, and later apply these same plans to more sophisticated robotic manipulators made available by evolutions in technology.

  16. Journal of Agricultural Extension

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scope of journal The Journal of Agricultural Extension" is devoted to the advancement of knowledge of agricultural extension services and practice through the publication of original and empirically based research, ... Vol 22, No 1 (2018) ... Symbol recognition and interpretation of HIV/AIDS pictorial messages among rural ...

  17. Priorities for Extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, J. A.

    Agricultural extension is one component in an array including research, training, education, marketing, international trade, etc. which develop together to bring about growth, and sustained growth determines the priorities for extension. These priorities depend inevitably on the stage of development of a country or region, and on the current…

  18. Report on the evaluation under the Act No 24/2006 of Coll. Environmental Impact Assessment Law Extension of National Radioactive Waste Repository in Mochovce for disposal low-level radioactive waste and construction of very low-level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanusik, V.; Moravek, J.; Kusovska, Z.

    2011-01-01

    The report elaborated assessment of the environmental impact of extension of the National Radioactive Waste Repository in Mochovce for disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes. Within this repository also the premises for very low level radioactive waste deposition should be built. The assessment report was prepared according to the Act no. 24/2006 Coll, as amended 'On the assessment of environmental impacts' Annex No. 11 upon The scope of assessment issued by the competent authority on the basis of assessment of Intent for this action. The report was prepared in VUJE, Inc. Trnava for Nuclear and Decommissioning Company, Inc. Bratislava (JAVYS).

  19. Nuclear plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negin, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    The nuclear power industry's addressing of life extension is a natural trend in the maturation of this technology after 20 years of commercial operation. With increasing emphasis on how plants are operated, and less on how to build them, attention is turning on to maximizing the use of these substantial investments. The first studies of life extension were conducted in the period from 1978 and 1982. These were motivated by the initiation, by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), of studies to support decommissioning rulemaking. The basic conclusions of those early studies that life extension is feasible and worth pursuing have not been changed by the much more extensive investigations that have since been conducted. From an engineering perspective, life extension for nuclear plants is fundamentally the same as for fossil plants

  20. Design extension conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bujor, A.; Harwood, C.; Lei, Q.; Viktorov, A., E-mail: christopher.harwood@cnsc-ccsn.gc.ca [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    The CNSC has introduced the term Design Extension Conditions (DEC) in regulatory document RD-337 version 2, 'Design of New Nuclear Power Plants' which was issued for public consultation in July 2012. The primary drivers for this change compared with the earlier version of RD-337 are to maintain alignment with the equivalent International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safety standard and to introduce changes resulting from lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi accident. RD-337 version 2 and the accompanying guidance document GD-337 establish high level design requirements and expectations for new Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs), including those pertaining to DEC. Other regulatory documents provide requirements for safety analysis and accident management as well as other aspect relevant to DEC. Nevertheless, the currently available guidance specific to DEC is not comprehensive, while the practices just begin to emerge. CNSC and industry stakeholders are actively discussing how the high level requirements and expectations will be applied in various fields. This paper is a summary of a CNSC discussion paper that is being developed to encourage substantive stakeholder discussions. The topic of DEC is being advanced rapidly both nationally and internationally. With this in mind, this paper does not intend to provide a final established position, but rather to stimulate discussion on the subject of DEC. This paper provides the definition of DEC, gives background information relating to the adoption of the term, describes the identification of DECs and the underlying principles associated with design, analysis, operational and procedural requirements. As described in this paper, DEC and associated requirements apply to new NPPs. Applicability to existing NPPs is also discussed. (author)

  1. Radioprotective Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilker Kelle

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Since1949, a great deal of research has been carried out on the radioprotective activity of various chemical substances. Thiol compounds, compounds which contain –SH radical, different classes of pharmacological agents and other compounds such as vitamine C and WR-2721 have been shown to reduce mortality when administered prior to exposure to a lethal dose of radiation. Recently, honey bee venom as well as that of its components melittin and histamine have shown to be valuable in reduction of radiation-induced damage and also provide prophylactic alternative treatment for serious side effects related with radiotherapy. It has been suggested that the radioprotective activity of bee venom components is related with the stimulation of the hematopoetic system.

  2. High improvement in trap level density and direct current breakdown strength of block polypropylene by doping with a β-nucleating agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chong; Zha, Jun-Wei; Yan, Hong-Da; Li, Wei-Kang; Dang, Zhi-Min

    2018-02-01

    Polypropylene is one kind of eco-friendly insulating material, which has attracted more attention for use in high voltage direct current (HVDC) insulation due to the long-distance transmission, low loss, and recyclability. In this work, the morphology and thermal and electrical properties of the block polypropylene with various β-nucleating agent (β-NA) contents were investigated. The relative fraction of the β-crystal can reach 64.7% after adding 0.05 wt. % β-NA. The β-NA also greatly reduced the melting point and improved the crystallization temperature. The electrical property results showed that the alternating and direct current breakdown strength and conduction current were obviously improved. In addition, space charge accumulation was significantly suppressed by introducing the β-NA. This work provides an attractive strategy of design and fabrication of polypropylene for HVDC application.

  3. Dettol: Managing Brand Extensions

    OpenAIRE

    Anand Kumar Jaiswal; Arpita Srivastav; Dhwani Kothari

    2009-01-01

    This case is about evolution of a parent brand and its subsequent extensions into different product categories. Dettol as a brand has immense trust and loyalty from the consumers. Since the 1930s when Dettol was introduced in India, it has occupied a distinct position in the mind of its consumers. To achieve fast growth and leverage the strong brand equity of Dettol, Reckitt Benckiser India Limited (RBIL) rolled out a number of brand extensions. Some of these extensions such as Dettol soap an...

  4. Perceived Factors Affecting Performance Of Extension Workers In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study focused on perceived factors affecting performance of extension workers in Imo State, Nigeria. Data for the study was collected from 83 Extension agents from the Imo State Agricultural Development Programme (ADP). Results of the study revealed that the organizational factors that affect performance are ...

  5. Use of Demonstration Gardens in Extension: Challenges and Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glen, Charlotte D.; Moore, Gary E.; Jayaratne, K. S. U.; Bradley, Lucy K.

    2014-01-01

    Extension agents' use of demonstration gardens was studied to determine how gardens are employed in horticultural programming, perceived benefits and challenges of using gardens for Extension programming, and desired competencies. Gardens are primarily used to enhance educational efforts by providing hands-on learning experiences. Greatest…

  6. Assessment of veterinary extension services to livestock farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined operational modes of providing veterinary extension services to livestock farmers in Egba-Division, Ogun-State Nigeria. Information was obtained from 120 livestock farmers and 8 extension agents selected through multi-stage random sampling technique with the use of both structured questionnaire ...

  7. Challenges and agricultural extension needs of urban and peri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... management (M=2.00), among others. Extension agents should regularly disseminate information on livestock production to urban and peri-urban livestock keepers via training, demonstration sessions or other extension teaching methods. Keywords: Animals, Constraints, dissemination, Farmers, Information, Production ...

  8. Spacetime extensions Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racz, I.

    1991-09-01

    The problem of the existence of local extensions of spacetime is considered. It is shown that for a spacetime including an incomplete inextendible non-coiling causal geodesic curve there exists a particular C k (resp. C k- ) local extension provided that the curvature and its covariant derivatives are well behaved up to order k + 1 (resp. k) along a family of causal geodetics (around the chosen one). (R.P.) 15 refs

  9. Type extension trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    We introduce type extension trees as a formal representation language for complex combinatorial features of relational data. Based on a very simple syntax this language provides a unified framework for expressing features as diverse as embedded subgraphs on the one hand, and marginal counts...... of attribute values on the other. We show by various examples how many existing relational data mining techniques can be expressed as the problem of constructing a type extension tree and a discriminant function....

  10. The Java Management Extensions (JMX) Is Your Cluster Ready for Evolution?

    CERN Document Server

    Jaén-Martínez, J

    2000-01-01

    The arrival of commodity hardware configurations with performance rivaling that offered by RISC workstations is resulting in important advances in the state of the art of building and running very large scalable clusters at "mass market" pricing levels. However, cluster middleware layers are still considered as static infrastructures which are not ready for evolution. In this paper, we claim that middleware layers based on both agent and Java technologies offer new opportunities to support clusters where services can be dynamically added, removed and reconfigured. To support this claim, we present the Java Management Extensions (JMX), a new Java agent based technology, and its application to implement two disjoint cluster management middleware services (a remote reboot service and a distributed infrastructure for collecting Log events) which share a unique agent-based infrastructure.

  11. Less extensive surgery compared to extensive surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauszus, Finn F; Petersen, Astrid C; Neumann, Gudrun

    2014-01-01

    -up by hospital data files, general practitioner, death certificate, and autopsy report. Revision of histopathology by a single pathologist. Main outcome measures: Survival and relapse by clinical data, stage, and type of surgery. RESULTS: The incidence of AGCT was 1.37 per year per 100,000 women (95% CI: 1.08, 1.......68). The median follow-up time was 15 years and for the 79 surviving women 22 years. Stage I was found in 94% of cases. Relapse occurred in 24% of women in stage I and 100% of the other stages. Survival in stage I was 95%, 89% and 84% after 5, 10 and 20 years respectively. Increased survival of stage I......: The survival of women was better in AGCT than in epithelial ovarian tumor. Age and type of surgery, besides stage, influenced survival. Total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy is the recommended treatment with advancing age. At younger age less extensive surgery was associated...

  12. Clustering recommendations to compute agent reputation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedi, Punam; Kaur, Harmeet

    2005-03-01

    Traditional centralized approaches to security are difficult to apply to multi-agent systems which are used nowadays in e-commerce applications. Developing a notion of trust that is based on the reputation of an agent can provide a softer notion of security that is sufficient for many multi-agent applications. Our paper proposes a mechanism for computing reputation of the trustee agent for use by the trustier agent. The trustier agent computes the reputation based on its own experience as well as the experience the peer agents have with the trustee agents. The trustier agents intentionally interact with the peer agents to get their experience information in the form of recommendations. We have also considered the case of unintentional encounters between the referee agents and the trustee agent, which can be directly between them or indirectly through a set of interacting agents. The clustering is done to filter off the noise in the recommendations in the form of outliers. The trustier agent clusters the recommendations received from referee agents on the basis of the distances between recommendations using the hierarchical agglomerative method. The dendogram hence obtained is cut at the required similarity level which restricts the maximum distance between any two recommendations within a cluster. The cluster with maximum number of elements denotes the views of the majority of recommenders. The center of this cluster represents the reputation of the trustee agent which can be computed using c-means algorithm.

  13. Transferrin-polycation-mediated introduction of DNA into human leukemic cells: Stimulation by agents that affect the survival of transfected DNA or modulate transferrin receptor levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotten, M.; Laengle-Rouault, F.; Kirlappos, H.; Wagner, E.; Mechtler, K.; Zenke, M.; Beug, H.; Birnstiel, M.L.

    1990-01-01

    The authors have subverted a receptor-mediated endocytosis event to transport genes into human leukemic cells. By coupling the natural iron-delivery protein transferrin to the DNA-binding polycations polylysine or protamine, they have created protein conjugates that bind nucleic acids and carry them into the cell during the normal transferrin cycle. They demonstrate here that this procedure is useful for a human leukemic cell line. They enhanced the rate of gene delivery by (i) increasing the transferrin receptor density through treatment of the cells with the cell permeable iron chelator desferrioxamine, (ii) interfering with the synthesis of heme with succinyl acetone treatment, or (iii) stimulating the degradation of heme with cobalt chloride treatment. Consistent with gene delivery as an endocytosis event, they show that the subsequent expression in K-562 cells of a gene included in the transported DNA depends upon the cellular presence of the lysosomotropic agent chloroquine. By contrast, monensin blocks transferrinfection, as does incubation of the cells at 18 degree C

  14. The antitumour activity of alkylating agents is not correlated with the levels of glutathione, glutathione transferase and O6-alkylguanine-DNA-alkyltransferase of human tumour xenografts. EORTC SPG and PAMM Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Incalci, M; Bonfanti, M; Pifferi, A; Mascellani, E; Tagliabue, G; Berger, D; Fiebig, H H

    1998-10-01

    Twenty-three human xenografts, including five colon, five gastric, nine lung (three small cell lung cancer) and four breast carcinomas, were investigated for their sensitivity to nitrosoureas, dacarbazine (DTIC), cyclophosphamide (CTX) and cisplatin (DDP). In 12 cases, at least one of the drugs produced complete or partial remission, in 2, a minor regression was observed and in the other 9, treatment was ineffective. The level of sensitivity to each drug, using a score from 1 to 5, was correlated to three biochemical parameters reported to be involved in resistance to alkylating agents: glutathione (GSH), glutathione transferase (GST) and O6-alkylguanine-DNA-alkyltransferase (AGT). A wide variability was found in these parameters in the xenografts investigated. No correlation was found between any of the three parameters and sensitivity to the drugs used or between sensitivity to one drug and to any of the other drugs tested. These results illustrate the complexity of the question of resistance to alkylating agents and indicate that, at least in xenografts, the biochemical parameters examined are not predictive of response to alkylating agents.

  15. Improving Multi-Agent Systems Using Jason

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester, Steen; Boss, Niklas Skamriis; Jensen, Andreas Schmidt

    2011-01-01

    We describe the approach used to develop the multi-agent system of herders that competed as the Jason-DTU team at the Multi-Agent Programming Contest 2010. We also participated in 2009 with a system developed in the agentoriented programming language Jason which is an extension of AgentSpeak. We ...... used the implementation from 2009 as a foundation and therefore much of the work done this year was on improving that implementation. We present a description which includes design and analysis of the system as well as the main features of our agent team strategy. In addition we discuss...

  16. Assessment of stabilized hydrogen peroxide as an antimicrobial agent for use in reducing Campylobacter prevalence and levels on chicken broiler wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service requires samples of raw broiler parts for performance standard verification for the detection of Campylobacter. Poultry processors must maintain process controls with Campylobacter prevalence levels below 7.7%. Establishments utilize antimicrobial processi...

  17. Extensive Reading in Enhancing Lexical Chunks Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereyra, Nilsa

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this action research was to investigate the effect of extensive reading and related activities on the acquisition of lexical chunks in EFL students. Seven adult EFL learners with an Intermediate level volunteered to take part in the 16 week project following Extensive Reading principles combined with tasks based on the Lexical…

  18. Applications of inorganic nanoparticles as therapeutic agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taeho; Hyeon, Taeghwan

    2014-01-01

    During the last decade, various functional nanostructured materials with interesting optical, magnetic, mechanical and chemical properties have been extensively applied to biomedical areas including imaging, diagnosis and therapy. In therapeutics, most research has focused on the application of nanoparticles as potential delivery vehicles for drugs and genes, because nanoparticles in the size range of 2-100 nm can interact with biological systems at the molecular level, and allow targeted delivery and passage through biological barriers. Recent investigations have even revealed that several kinds of nanomaterials are intrinsically therapeutic. Not only can they passively interact with cells, but they can also actively mediate molecular processes to regulate cell functions. This can be seen in the treatment of cancer via anti-angiogenic mechanisms as well as the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases by effectively controlling oxidative stress. This review will present recent applications of inorganic nanoparticles as therapeutic agents in the treatment of disease.

  19. Simulating partially illegal markets of private tanker water providers on the country level: A multi-agent, hydroeconomic case-study of Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassert, C. J. A.; Yoon, J.; Gawel, E.; Klauer, B.; Sigel, K.; Talozi, S.; Lachaut, T.; Selby, P. D.; Knox, S.; Gorelick, S.; Tilmant, A.; Harou, J. J.; Mustafa, D.; Medellin-Azuara, J.; Rajsekhar, D.; Avisse, N.; Zhang, H.

    2016-12-01

    In arid countries around the world, markets of private small-scale water providers, mostly delivering water via tanker trucks, have emerged to balance the shortcomings of public water supply systems. While these markets can provide substantial contributions to meeting customers' water demands, they often partially rely on illegal water abstractions, thus imposing an unregulated and unmonitored strain on ground and surface water resources. Despite their important impacts on water users' welfare and resource sustainability, these markets are still poorly understood. We use a multi-agent, hydroeconomic simulation model, developed as part of the Jordan Water Project, to investigate the role of these markets in a country-wide case-study of Jordan. Jordan's water sector is characterized by a severe and growing scarcity of water resources, high intermittency in the public water network, and a strongly increasing demand due to an unprecedented refugee crisis. The tanker water market serves an important role in providing water from rural wells to households and commercial enterprises, especially during supply interruptions. In order to overcome the lack of direct data about this partially illegal market, we simulate demand and supply for tanker water. The demand for tanker water is conceptualized as a residual demand, remaining after a water user has depleted all available cheap and qualitatively reliable piped water. It is derived from residential and commercial demand functions on the basis of survey data. Tanker water supply is determined by farm simulation models calculating the groundwater pumping cost and the agricultural opportunity cost of tanker water. A market algorithm is then used to match rural supplies with users' demands, accounting for survey data on tanker operators' transport costs and profit expectations. The model is used to gain insights into the size of the tanker markets in all 89 subdistricts of Jordan and their responsiveness to various policy

  20. Android Access Control Extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Baláž

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work is to analyze and extend security model of mobile devices running on Android OS. Provided security extension is a Linux kernel security module that allows the system administrator to restrict program's capabilities with per-program profiles. Profiles can allow capabilities like network access, raw socket access, and the permission to read, write, or execute files on matching paths. Module supplements the traditional Android capability access control model by providing mandatory access control (MAC based on path. This extension increases security of access to system objects in a device and allows creating security sandboxes per application.

  1. Life extension economic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smithling, A.P.

    1992-01-01

    Life extension economic analyses of fossil fueled power plants need the development of consistent methods which consider the capital costs associated with component replacement or repair and estimates of normal station capital expenditures over the units remaining life. In order to link capital and production costs, Niagra Mohawk Power Corp. develops most and worst cases. A most case includes capital components that would definitely need replacement or modification for life extension. The worst case scenario contains must case capital costs plus various components which may need replacement or modification. In addition, two forecasted conditions are used, base case capacity and low capacity

  2. Mobile Applications for Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drill, Sabrina L.

    2012-01-01

    Mobile computing devices (smart phones, tablets, etc.) are rapidly becoming the dominant means of communication worldwide and are increasingly being used for scientific investigation. This technology can further our Extension mission by increasing our power for data collection, information dissemination, and informed decision-making. Mobile…

  3. Gene expression levels of matrix metalloproteinases in human atherosclerotic plaques and evaluation of radiolabeled inhibitors as imaging agents for plaque vulnerability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Müller, Adrienne; Krämer, Stefanie D.; Meletta, Romana; Beck, Katharina; Selivanova, Svetlana V.; Rancic, Zoran; Kaufmann, Philipp A.; Vos, Bernhard; Meding, Jörg; Stellfeld, Timo; Heinrich, Tobias K.; Bauser, Marcus; Hütter, Joachim; Dinkelborg, Ludger M.; Schibli, Roger; Ametamey, Simon M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Atherosclerotic plaque rupture is the primary cause for myocardial infarction and stroke. During plaque progression macrophages and mast cells secrete matrix-degrading proteolytic enzymes, such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). We studied levels of MMPs and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-3 (TIMP-3) in relation to the characteristics of carotid plaques. We evaluated in vitro two radiolabeled probes targeting active MMPs towards non-invasive imaging of rupture-prone plaques. Methods: Human carotid plaques obtained from endarterectomy were classified into stable and vulnerable by visual and histological analysis. MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-8, MMP-9, MMP-10, MMP-12, MMP-14, TIMP-3, and CD68 levels were investigated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Immunohistochemistry was used to localize MMP-2 and MMP-9 with respect to CD68-expressing macrophages. Western blotting was applied to detect their active forms. A fluorine-18-labeled MMP-2/MMP-9 inhibitor and a tritiated selective MMP-9 inhibitor were evaluated by in vitro autoradiography as potential lead structures for non-invasive imaging. Results: Gene expression levels of all MMPs and CD68 were elevated in plaques. MMP-1, MMP-9, MMP-12 and MMP-14 were significantly higher in vulnerable than stable plaques. TIMP-3 expression was highest in stable and low in vulnerable plaques. Immunohistochemistry revealed intensive staining of MMP-9 in vulnerable plaques. Western blotting confirmed presence of the active form in plaque lysates. In vitro autoradiography showed binding of both inhibitors to stable and vulnerable plaques. Conclusions: MMPs differed in their expression patterns among plaque phenotypes, providing possible imaging targets. The two tested MMP-2/MMP-9 and MMP-9 inhibitors may be useful to detect atherosclerotic plaques, but not the vulnerable lesions selectively

  4. Social Factors That Influence Use of ICT in Agricultural Extension in Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyous S. Tata

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Farmbook is a novel information communication technology (ICT tool for agricultural extension that is currently being field tested by the Catholic Relief Services (CRS in Southern and East Africa. Farmbook enables extension agents to assess productivity and profitability of farming enterprises in a faster and more reliable manner, so as to increase farmer incomes and achieve food security. This study looked at the relationship between challenges faced by extension agents testing the Farmbook application and select socio-economic indicators influencing their work. Specific objectives were to identify and categorize the challenges facing extension agents in the field as they used Farmbook, assess gender differences in the use of Farmbook by extension agents, understand the relationship between socio-economic status of extension agents and the challenges faced in using Farmbook. Data were collected through document reviews, administration of a structured questionnaire and focus group meetings with field agents. Descriptive statistics and multivariate techniques were used to analyze data. The results show that personal and wider socio-economic conditions do have an impact on the proficiency of extension agents using Farmbook. The study goes on to recommend measures to improve the training and ICT proficiency of extension agents adopting Farmbook.

  5. Cognitive Support using BDI Agent and Adaptive User Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hossain, Shabbir

    2012-01-01

    -known framework to measure the individual health status and functioning level. The third goal is to develop an approach for supporting for users with irrational behaviour due to cognitive impairment. To deal with this challenge, a Belief, Desire and Intention (BDI) agent based approach is proposed due to its...... mentalistic characteristics, such as autonomy, adaptivity, extensibility, and human like reasoning capability. Although, BDI is unable to reason about plans, which is important for generating plans based on the current situation to handle the irrational behaviour of the user. An integration of Partially...... Observable Markov Decision Process (POMDP) in the BDI agent is proposed in this thesis to handle the irrational behaviour of the user. The fourth goal represents the implementation of the research approaches and performs validation of the system through experiments. The empirical results of the experiments...

  6. Interacting agents in finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommes, C.; Durlauf, S.N.; Blume, L.E.

    2008-01-01

    Interacting agents in finance represent a behavioural, agent-based approach in which financial markets are viewed as complex adaptive systems consisting of many boundedly rational agents interacting through simple heterogeneous investment strategies, constantly adapting their behaviour in response

  7. Riot Control Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Facts About Riot Control Agents Interim document Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir What riot control agents are Riot control agents (sometimes referred to ...

  8. Agents that affect cAMP levels or protein kinase A activity modulate memory consolidation when injected into rat hippocampus but not amygdala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bevilaqua

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Male Wistar rats were trained in one-trial step-down inhibitory avoidance using a 0.4-mA footshock. At various times after training (0, 1.5, 3, 6 and 9 h for the animals implanted into the CA1 region of the hippocampus; 0 and 3 h for those implanted into the amygdala, these animals received microinfusions of SKF38393 (7.5 µg/side, SCH23390 (0.5 µg/side, norepinephrine (0.3 µg/side, timolol (0.3 µg/side, 8-OH-DPAT (2.5 µg/side, NAN-190 (2.5 µg/side, forskolin (0.5 µg/side, KT5720 (0.5 µg/side or 8-Br-cAMP (1.25 µg/side. Rats were tested for retention 24 h after training. When given into the hippocampus 0 h post-training, norepinephrine enhanced memory whereas KT5720 was amnestic. When given 1.5 h after training, all treatments were ineffective. When given 3 or 6 h post-training, 8-Br-cAMP, forskolin, SKF38393, norepinephrine and NAN-190 caused memory facilitation, while KT5720, SCH23390, timolol and 8-OH-DPAT caused retrograde amnesia. Again, at 9 h after training, all treatments were ineffective. When given into the amygdala, norepinephrine caused retrograde facilitation at 0 h after training. The other drugs infused into the amygdala did not cause any significant effect. These data suggest that in the hippocampus, but not in the amygdala, a cAMP/protein kinase A pathway is involved in memory consolidation at 3 and 6 h after training, which is regulated by D1, ß, and 5HT1A receptors. This correlates with data on increased post-training cAMP levels and a dual peak of protein kinase A activity and CREB-P levels (at 0 and 3-6 h in rat hippocampus after training in this task. These results suggest that the hippocampus, but not the amygdala, is involved in long-term storage of step-down inhibitory avoidance in the rat.

  9. Complex responses to alkylating agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samson, L.D.

    2003-01-01

    Using Affymetrix oligonucleotide GeneChip analysis, we previously found that, upon exposure to the simple alkylating agent methylmethane sulfonate, the transcript levels for about one third of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome (∼2,000 transcripts) are induced or repressed during the first hour or two after exposure. In order to determine whether the responsiveness of these genes has any relevance to the protection of cells against alkylating agents we have undertaken several follow-up studies. First, we explored the specificity of this global transcriptional response to MMS by measuring the global response of S. cerevisiae to a broad range of agents that are known to induce DNA damage. We found that each agent produced a very different mRNA transcript profile, even though the exposure doses produced similar levels of toxicity. We also found that the selection of genes that respond to MMS is highly dependent upon what cell cycle phase the cells are in at the time of exposure. Computational clustering analysis of the dataset derived from a large number of exposures identified several promoter motifs that are likely to control some of the regulons that comprise this large set of genes that are responsive to DNA damaging agents. However, it should be noted that these agents damage cellular components other than DNA, and that the responsiveness of each gene need not be in response to DNA damage per se. We have also begun to study the response of other organisms to alkylating agents, and these include E. coli, cultured mouse and human cells, and mice. Finally, we have developed a high throughput phenotypic screening method to interrogate the role of all non-essential S. cerevisiae genes (about 4,800) in protecting S. cerevisiae against the deleterious effects of alkylating agents; we have termed this analysis 'genomic phenotyping'. This study has uncovered a plethora of new pathways that play a role in the recovery of eukaryotic cells after exposure to toxic

  10. Inhibition of para-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate Dioxygenase by Analogues of the Herbicide Nitisinone As a Strategy to Decrease Homogentisic Acid Levels, the Causative Agent of Alkaptonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laschi, Marcella; Bernardini, Giulia; Dreassi, Elena; Millucci, Lia; Geminiani, Michela; Braconi, Daniela; Marzocchi, Barbara; Botta, Maurizio; Manetti, Fabrizio; Santucci, Annalisa

    2016-04-05

    Alkaptonuria (AKU) is a rare multisystem metabolic disease caused by deficient activity of homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase (HGD), which leads to the accumulation of homogentisic acid (HGA). Currently, there is no treatment for AKU. The sole drug with some beneficial effects is the herbicide nitisinone (1), an inhibitor of p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (4-HPPD). 1 has been used as a life-saving drug in infants with type I tyrosinemia despite severe side effects due to the buildup of tyrosine. Four clinical trials of nitisinone to treat AKU have shown that 1 consistently decreases HGA levels, but also caused the accumulation of tyrosine in blood serum. Moreover, the human preclinical toxicological data for 1 are incomplete. In this work, we performed pharmacodynamics and toxicological evaluations of 1, providing the first report of LD50 values in human cells. Intracellular tyrosinemia was also evaluated. Three additional 4-HPPD inhibitors with a more favorable profile than that of 1 in terms of IC50, LD50, and tyrosine accumulation were also identified among commercially available compounds. These may be promising starting points for the development of new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of AKU. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Extension without Cut

    OpenAIRE

    Straßburger , Lutz

    2012-01-01

    International audience; In proof theory one distinguishes sequent proofs with cut and cut-free sequent proofs, while for proof complexity one distinguishes Frege-systems and extended Frege-systems. In this paper we show how deep inference can provide a uniform treatment for both classifications, such that we can define cut-free systems with extension, which is neither possible with Frege-systems, nor with the sequent calculus. We show that the propositional pigeon-hole principle admits polyno...

  12. Dimension and extensions

    CERN Document Server

    Aarts, JM

    1993-01-01

    Two types of seemingly unrelated extension problems are discussed in this book. Their common focus is a long-standing problem of Johannes de Groot, the main conjecture of which was recently resolved. As is true of many important conjectures, a wide range of mathematical investigations had developed, which have been grouped into the two extension problems. The first concerns the extending of spaces, the second concerns extending the theory of dimension by replacing the empty space with other spaces. The problem of de Groot concerned compactifications of spaces by means of an adjunction of a set of minimal dimension. This minimal dimension was called the compactness deficiency of a space. Early success in 1942 lead de Groot to invent a generalization of the dimension function, called the compactness degree of a space, with the hope that this function would internally characterize the compactness deficiency which is a topological invariant of a space that is externally defined by means of compact extensions of a...

  13. Commerce, Research and Education: Contributions and Challenges of Marine Extension Work in NOAA Sea Grant Program-Puerto Rico, Michigan and National office

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman Diaz, A.

    2006-12-01

    The National Sea Grant program represents NOAA's nationwide university-based program in support of coastal resource use and conservation. This program is composed of 30 university-based programs that work with local coastal communities. This study focuses on a historical and multi-sited ethnographic approach that analyzes two Sea Grant Programs and their connection to the overarching NOAA national goals from 1980- 2000.The project aims to offer insight on how the extension agent position facilitates the resolution of coastal and marine management and tourism issues. The extension agents are staff who have an extensive knowledge of available coastal resources and have the role of translating this information to coastal stakeholders. Additionally, these agents assess the needs of coastal communities and report back to the program making their role into a position that can effectively alter and/or contribute to institutional and environmental management programs at broader, cross-country and global levels. The extension programs in Michigan and Puerto Rico were examined to understand how local programs respond to cultural and regional processes shaping marine extension and the management of issues faced by coastal stakeholders. A total of 36 semi- structured in-depth interviews were completed at each site, to address the following questions: (1) How do extension agents view their role at the Puerto Rico and Michigan offices and in the Sea Grant program? How do they view the conditions of their work? (2) How do their views compare to the accomplishments by each Sea Grant administration and internal inquiries? How do their views reveal conditions documented in Puerto Rico and Michigan (e.g., social, cultural, political, economic, etc)? (3) What kind of strategies do agents develop for the management of specific coastal and tourism related projects? (4) How do the Puerto Rico and Michigan offices coordinate their work, and collaborate with other "college" programs and

  14. Continuous multivariate exponential extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, H.W.

    1975-01-01

    The Freund-Weinman multivariate exponential extension is generalized to the case of nonidentically distributed marginal distributions. A fatal shock model is given for the resulting distribution. Results in the bivariate case and the concept of constant multivariate hazard rate lead to a continuous distribution related to the multivariate exponential distribution (MVE) of Marshall and Olkin. This distribution is shown to be a special case of the extended Freund-Weinman distribution. A generalization of the bivariate model of Proschan and Sullo leads to a distribution which contains both the extended Freund-Weinman distribution and the MVE

  15. Extensive air showers

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, M V S

    1997-01-01

    Ultrahigh energy cosmic rays carry information about their sources and the intervening medium apart from providing a beam of particles for studying certain features of high energy interactions currently inaccessible at man-made accelerators. They can at present be studied only via the extensive air showers (EAS's) they generate while passing through the Earth's atmosphere, since their fluxes are too low for the experiments of limited capability flown in balloons and satellites. The EAS is generated by a series of interactions of the primary cosmic ray and its progeny with the atmospheric nucle

  16. Reasoning about emotional agents

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, J.-J.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the role of emotions in artificial agent design, and the use of logic in reasoning about the emotional or affective states an agent can reside in. We do so by extending the KARO framework for reasoning about rational agents appropriately. In particular we formalize in this framework how emotions are related to the action monitoring capabilities of an agent.

  17. Bridging humans via agent networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Toru

    1994-01-01

    Recent drastic advance in telecommunication networks enabled the human organization of new class, teleorganization, which differ from any existing organization in that the organization which is easy to create by using telecommunication networks is virtual and remote, that people can join multiple organizations simultaneously, and that the organization can involve people who may not know each other. In order to enjoy the recent advance in telecommunication, the agent networks to help people organize themselves are needed. In this paper, an architecture of agent networks, in which each agent learns the preference or the utility functioin of the owner, and acts on behalf of the owner in maintaining the organization, is proposed. When an agent networks supports a human organization, the conventional human interface is divided into personal and social interfaces. The functionalities of the social interface in teleconferencing and telelearning were investigated. In both cases, the existence of B-ISDN is assumed, and the extension to the business meeting scheduling using personal handy phone (PHS) networks with personal digital assistant (PDA) terminals is expected. These circumstances are described. Mutual selection protocols (MSP) and their dynamic properties are explained. (K.I.)

  18. Analyzing the natural resource extension needs of Spanish-speakers: A perspective from Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miriam Wyman; Francisco Escobedo; Sebastian Varela; Cesar Asuaje; Henry Mayer; Mickie Swisher; Annie Hermansen

    2011-01-01

    Hispanics are the country's fastest growing minority group. The study reported here surveyed and assessed Extension agents from two demographically different regions in Florida on perceptions and attitudes about the need, quality, and dissemination of Spanish Extension materials. Results showed Extension programs are important sources of information for Spanish-...

  19. Defining Audience Segments for Extension Programming Using Reported Water Conservation Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Paul; Ott, Emily; Wilber, Wendy; Gouldthorpe, Jessica; Racevskis, Laila

    2013-01-01

    A tool from social marketing can help Extension agents understand distinct audience segments among their constituents. Defining targeted audiences for Extension programming is a first step to influencing behavior change among the public. An online survey was conducted using an Extension email list for urban households receiving a monthly lawn and…

  20. Learning from induced changes in opponent (re)actions in multi-agent games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. 't Hoen (Pieter Jan); S.M. Bohte (Sander); J.A. La Poutré (Han)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractMulti-agent learning is a growing area of research. An important topic is to formulate how an agent can learn a good policy in the face of adaptive, competitive opponents. Most research has focused on extensions of single agent learning techniques originally designed for agents in more

  1. Multispace Behavioral Model for Face-Based Affective Social Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DiPaola Steve

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a behavioral model for affective social agents based on three independent but interacting parameter spaces: knowledge, personality, and mood. These spaces control a lower-level geometry space that provides parameters at the facial feature level. Personality and mood use findings in behavioral psychology to relate the perception of personality types and emotional states to the facial actions and expressions through two-dimensional models for personality and emotion. Knowledge encapsulates the tasks to be performed and the decision-making process using a specially designed XML-based language. While the geometry space provides an MPEG-4 compatible set of parameters for low-level control, the behavioral extensions available through the triple spaces provide flexible means of designing complicated personality types, facial expression, and dynamic interactive scenarios.

  2. Multispace Behavioral Model for Face-Based Affective Social Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Arya

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a behavioral model for affective social agents based on three independent but interacting parameter spaces: knowledge, personality, and mood. These spaces control a lower-level geometry space that provides parameters at the facial feature level. Personality and mood use findings in behavioral psychology to relate the perception of personality types and emotional states to the facial actions and expressions through two-dimensional models for personality and emotion. Knowledge encapsulates the tasks to be performed and the decision-making process using a specially designed XML-based language. While the geometry space provides an MPEG-4 compatible set of parameters for low-level control, the behavioral extensions available through the triple spaces provide flexible means of designing complicated personality types, facial expression, and dynamic interactive scenarios.

  3. Ground System Extensibility Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S. W.; Greene, E.

    2017-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). The Joint Polar Satellite System will replace the afternoon orbit component and ground processing system of the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA. The JPSS satellites will carry a suite of sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological and geophysical observations of the Earth. The ground processing system for JPSS is known as the JPSS Common Ground System (JPSS CGS). Developed and maintained by Raytheon Intelligence, Information and Services (IIS), the CGS is a multi-mission enterprise system serving NOAA, NASA and their national and international partners, such as NASA's Earth Observation System (EOS), NOAA's current POES, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA) Global Change Observation Mission - Water (GCOM-W1), and DoD's Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP). The CGS provides a wide range of support to a number of national and international missions, including command and control, mission management, data acquisition and routing, and environmental data processing and distribution. The current suite of CGS-supported missions has demonstrated the value of interagency and international partnerships to address global observation needs. With its established infrastructure and existing suite of missions, the CGS is extensible to a wider array of potential new missions. This paper will describe how the inherent scalability and extensibility of the CGS enables the addition of these new missions, with an eye on global enterprise needs in the 2020's and beyond.

  4. 社会中介参与村级会计委托代理服务的演化博弈分析%Analysis of Social Intermediaries Involved in Village-Level Accounting Principal-Agent Services

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅黎瑛; 杨银川

    2014-01-01

    我国村级会计委托代理制存在两种现实模式:一是以浙江省为代表并在全国范围内普遍推广的“村账镇代理”模式,另有广东佛山市推行的由会计师事务所代理村会计核算的“村账所代理”模式。本文运用演化博弈论原理,对社会中介参与村级会计委托代理的可行性、优势及其运行模式作出分析,提出“村账所代理”即由社会中介(如会计师事务所)代理村级会计更符合我国农村财务管理的现实和发展趋势。%In China, the village accounting principal-agent system has two modes: one is the “village accounting by township agent” mode that is a representative practice in Zhejiang Province and is promoted widely in the whole country ;the other is the“village accounting by firm agent” mode that is adopted by Foshan City , Guangdong Province , in which village ac-counting services are provided by accounting firms . This article , using principles of evolutionary game theory , analyzes the feasibility and advantages of the participation of social intermediaries in the village-level accounting principal-agent operation , and proposes that the “village accounting by firm agent” mode with social intermediaries ( such as accounting firms ) is more in line with the reality and trend of financial management in rural China .

  5. Chemical warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuca, Kamil; Pohanka, Miroslav

    2010-01-01

    Chemical warfare agents are compounds of different chemical structures. Simple molecules such as chlorine as well as complex structures such as ricin belong to this group. Nerve agents, vesicants, incapacitating agents, blood agents, lung-damaging agents, riot-control agents and several toxins are among chemical warfare agents. Although the use of these compounds is strictly prohibited, the possible misuse by terrorist groups is a reality nowadays. Owing to this fact, knowledge of the basic properties of these substances is of a high importance. This chapter briefly introduces the separate groups of chemical warfare agents together with their members and the potential therapy that should be applied in case someone is intoxicated by these agents.

  6. What makes virtual agents believable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanovych, Anton; Trescak, Tomas; Simoff, Simeon

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the concept of believability and make an attempt to isolate individual characteristics (features) that contribute to making virtual characters believable. As the result of this investigation we have produced a formalisation of believability and based on this formalisation built a computational framework focused on simulation of believable virtual agents that possess the identified features. In order to test whether the identified features are, in fact, responsible for agents being perceived as more believable, we have conducted a user study. In this study we tested user reactions towards the virtual characters that were created for a simulation of aboriginal inhabitants of a particular area of Sydney, Australia in 1770 A.D. The participants of our user study were exposed to short simulated scenes, in which virtual agents performed some behaviour in two different ways (while possessing a certain aspect of believability vs. not possessing it). The results of the study indicate that virtual agents that appear resource bounded, are aware of their environment, own interaction capabilities and their state in the world, agents that can adapt to changes in the environment and exist in correct social context are those that are being perceived as more believable. Further in the paper we discuss these and other believability features and provide a quantitative analysis of the level of contribution for each such feature to the overall perceived believability of a virtual agent.

  7. Strategic Directions for Extension Health and Wellness Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Michelle; Braun, Bonnie

    2015-01-01

    The new Cooperative Extension National Framework for Health and Wellness is a tool to help Extension systematically address the programmatic area of health and wellness at the individual, community, environmental, and policy levels. Key strategies of the framework tool are provided and suggestions for ways that Extension can use this framework…

  8. Economic modeling for life extension decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farber, M.A.; Harrison, D.L.; Carlson, D.D.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for the economic and financial analysis of nuclear plant life extension under uncertainty and demonstrates its use in a case analysis. While the economic and financial evaluation of life extension does not require new analytical tools, such studies should be based on the following three premises. First, the methodology should examine effects at the level of the company or utility system, because the most important economic implications of life extension relate to the altered generation system expansion plan. Second, it should focus on the implications of uncertainty in order to understand the factors that most affect life extension benefits and identify risk management efforts. Third, the methodology should address multiple objectives, at a minimum, both economic and financial objectives

  9. CHI: A General Agent Communication Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldsmith, S.Y.; Phillips, L.R.; Spires, S.V.

    1998-12-17

    We have completed and exercised a communication framework called CHI (CLOS to HTML Interface) by which agents can communicate with humans. CHI follows HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol) and produces HTML (HyperText Markup Language) for use by WWW (World-Wide Web) browsers. CHI enables the rapid and dynamic construction of interface mechanisms. The essence of CHI is automatic registration of dynamically generated interface elements to named objects in the agent's internal environment. The agent can access information in these objects at will. State is preserved, so an agent can pursue branching interaction sequences, activate failure recovery behaviors, and otherwise act opportunistically to maintain a conversation. The CHI mechanism remains transparent in multi-agent, multi-user environments because of automatically generated unique identifiers built into the CHI mechanism. In this paper we discuss design, language, implementation, and extension issues, and, by way of illustration, examine the use of the general CHI/HCHI mechanism in a specific international electronic commerce system. We conclude that the CHI mechanism is an effective, efficient, and extensible means of the agent/human communication.

  10. Design of Collaborative Information Agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, C.M.; Klusch, M.; Treur, J.; Klusch, M.; Kerschberg, L.

    2000-01-01

    Effective development of nontrivial systems of collaborative information agents requires that an in-depth analysis is made resulting in (1) specification of requirements at different levels of the system, (2) specification of design structures, and (3) a systematic verification. To support a

  11. Spacetime extensions II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Racz, Istvan, E-mail: iracz@rmki.kfki.h [RMKI, H-1121 Budapest, Konkoly Thege Miklos ut 29-33 (Hungary)

    2010-08-07

    The global extendibility of smooth causal geodesically incomplete spacetimes is investigated. Denote by {gamma} one of the incomplete non-extendible causal geodesics of a causal geodesically incomplete spacetime (M, g{sub ab}). First, it is shown that it is always possible to select a synchronized family of causal geodesics {Gamma} and an open neighbourhood U of a final segment of {gamma} in M such that U comprises members of {Gamma}, and suitable local coordinates can be defined everywhere on U provided that {gamma} does not terminate either on a tidal force tensor singularity or on a topological singularity. It is also shown that if, in addition, the spacetime (M, g{sub ab}) is globally hyperbolic, and the components of the curvature tensor, and its covariant derivatives up to order k - 1 are bounded on U, and also the line integrals of the components of the kth-order covariant derivatives are finite along the members of {Gamma}-where all the components are meant to be registered with respect to a synchronized frame field on U-then there exists a C{sup k-} extension {Phi} : (M,g{sub ab}) {yields}(M,g{sub ab}) so that for each {gamma}-bar from {Gamma}, which is inextendible in (M, g{sub ab}), the image, {Phi}{gamma}-bar, is extendible in (M,g{sub ab}). Finally, it is also proved that whenever {gamma} does terminate on a topological singularity (M, g{sub ab}) cannot be generic.

  12. Web Extensible Display Manager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slominski, Ryan [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Larrieu, Theodore L. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2018-02-01

    Jefferson Lab's Web Extensible Display Manager (WEDM) allows staff to access EDM control system screens from a web browser in remote offices and from mobile devices. Native browser technologies are leveraged to avoid installing and managing software on remote clients such as browser plugins, tunnel applications, or an EDM environment. Since standard network ports are used firewall exceptions are minimized. To avoid security concerns from remote users modifying a control system, WEDM exposes read-only access and basic web authentication can be used to further restrict access. Updates of monitored EPICS channels are delivered via a Web Socket using a web gateway. The software translates EDM description files (denoted with the edl suffix) to HTML with Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) following the EDM's edl file vector drawing rules to create faithful screen renderings. The WEDM server parses edl files and creates the HTML equivalent in real-time allowing existing screens to work without modification. Alternatively, the familiar drag and drop EDM screen creation tool can be used to create optimized screens sized specifically for smart phones and then rendered by WEDM.

  13. A common signaling pathway is activated in erythroid cells expressing high levels of fetal hemoglobin: a potential role for cAMP-elevating agents in β-globin disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikuta T

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tohru Ikuta,1 Yuichi Kuroyanagi,1 Nadine Odo,1 Siyang Liu21Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, 2Department of Physiology, Medical College of Georgia, Georgia Regents University, Augusta, GA, USABackground: Although erythroid cells prepared from fetal liver, cord blood, or blood from β-thalassemia patients are known to express fetal hemoglobin at high levels, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. We previously showed that cyclic nucleotides such as cAMP and cGMP induce fetal hemoglobin expression in primary erythroid cells. Here we report that cAMP signaling contributes to high-level fetal hemoglobin expression in erythroid cells prepared from cord blood and β-thalassemia.Methods: The status of the cAMP signaling pathway was investigated using primary erythroid cells prepared from cord blood and the mononuclear cells of patients with β-thalassemia; erythroid cells from adult bone marrow mononuclear cells served as the control.Results: We found that intracellular cAMP levels were higher in erythroid cells from cord blood and β-thalassemia than from adult bone marrow. Protein kinase A activity levels and cAMP-response element binding protein phosphorylation were higher in erythroid cells from cord blood or β-thalassemia than in adult bone marrow progenitors. Mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways, which play a role in fetal hemoglobin expression, were not consistently activated in cord blood or β-thalassemia erythroid cells. When cAMP signaling was activated in adult erythroid cells, fetal hemoglobin was induced at high levels and associated with reduced expression of BCL11A, a silencer of the β-globin gene.Conclusion: These results suggest that activated cAMP signaling may be a common mechanism among erythroid cells with high fetal hemoglobin levels, in part because of downregulation of BCL11A. Activation of the cAMP signaling pathway with cAMP-elevating agents may prove to be an important signaling mechanism to

  14. Radiopharmaceutical scanning agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This invention is directed to dispersions useful in preparing radiopharmaceutical scanning agents, to technetium labelled dispersions, to methods for preparing such dispersions and to their use as scanning agents

  15. Taskable Reactive Agent Communities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Myers, Karen

    2002-01-01

    The focus of Taskable Reactive Agent Communities (TRAC) project was to develop mixed-initiative technology to enable humans to supervise and manage teams of agents as they perform tasks in dynamic environments...

  16. Assurance in Agent-Based Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilliom, Laura R.; Goldsmith, Steven Y.

    1999-05-10

    Our vision of the future of information systems is one that includes engineered collectives of software agents which are situated in an environment over years and which increasingly improve the performance of the overall system of which they are a part. At a minimum, the movement of agent and multi-agent technology into National Security applications, including their use in information assurance, is apparent today. The use of deliberative, autonomous agents in high-consequence/high-security applications will require a commensurate level of protection and confidence in the predictability of system-level behavior. At Sandia National Laboratories, we have defined and are addressing a research agenda that integrates the surety (safety, security, and reliability) into agent-based systems at a deep level. Surety is addressed at multiple levels: The integrity of individual agents must be protected by addressing potential failure modes and vulnerabilities to malevolent threats. Providing for the surety of the collective requires attention to communications surety issues and mechanisms for identifying and working with trusted collaborators. At the highest level, using agent-based collectives within a large-scale distributed system requires the development of principled design methods to deliver the desired emergent performance or surety characteristics. This position paper will outline the research directions underway at Sandia, will discuss relevant work being performed elsewhere, and will report progress to date toward assurance in agent-based systems.

  17. Assurance in Agent-Based Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilliom, Laura R.; Goldsmith, Steven Y.

    1999-01-01

    Our vision of the future of information systems is one that includes engineered collectives of software agents which are situated in an environment over years and which increasingly improve the performance of the overall system of which they are a part. At a minimum, the movement of agent and multi-agent technology into National Security applications, including their use in information assurance, is apparent today. The use of deliberative, autonomous agents in high-consequence/high-security applications will require a commensurate level of protection and confidence in the predictability of system-level behavior. At Sandia National Laboratories, we have defined and are addressing a research agenda that integrates the surety (safety, security, and reliability) into agent-based systems at a deep level. Surety is addressed at multiple levels: The integrity of individual agents must be protected by addressing potential failure modes and vulnerabilities to malevolent threats. Providing for the surety of the collective requires attention to communications surety issues and mechanisms for identifying and working with trusted collaborators. At the highest level, using agent-based collectives within a large-scale distributed system requires the development of principled design methods to deliver the desired emergent performance or surety characteristics. This position paper will outline the research directions underway at Sandia, will discuss relevant work being performed elsewhere, and will report progress to date toward assurance in agent-based systems

  18. Assessment of training needs of extension staff of agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study identified strong training needs for Edo State extension agents on communication skills (X= 4.60), planning demonstration (X=4.60), evaluation of trials (X= 4.57) and farmers training (X=4.56). The correlation analysis showed that education had significant relationship many areas of the respondents' training ...

  19. 12 CFR 725.17 - Applications for extensions of credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL LIQUIDITY FACILITY § 725.17 Applications for extensions of credit. (a) A Regular member may apply for a Facility advance to meet its liquidity needs by filing an... Agent by its member natural person credit unions for pending loans to meet liquidity needs; or (ii...

  20. Approaches of Extension Specialists to Teaching Community and Economic Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leones, Julie

    1995-01-01

    Responses from 64 of 80 extension agents specializing in community resources and economic development identified the "Journal of the Community Development Society" as the primary source of ideas and information. Frequently cited program topics were entrepreneurship, fiscal policy, budgeting, strategic planning, and leadership development. Among…

  1. Users, Bystanders and Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krummheuer, Antonia Lina

    2015-01-01

    Human-agent interaction (HAI), especially in the field of embodied conversational agents (ECA), is mainly construed as dyadic communication between a human user and a virtual agent. This is despite the fact that many application scenarios for future ECAs involve the presence of others. This paper...

  2. Asymptotically Optimal Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Lattimore, Tor; Hutter, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    Artificial general intelligence aims to create agents capable of learning to solve arbitrary interesting problems. We define two versions of asymptotic optimality and prove that no agent can satisfy the strong version while in some cases, depending on discounting, there does exist a non-computable weak asymptotically optimal agent.

  3. Reasoning about emotional agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, J.-J.

    In this paper we discuss the role of emotions in artificial agent design, and the use of logic in reasoning about the emotional or affective states an agent can reside in. We do so by extending the KARO framework for reasoning about rational agents appropriately. In particular we formalize in

  4. A Classification of BPEL Extensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Kopp

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Business Process Execution Language (BPEL has emerged as de-facto standard for business processes implementation. This language is designed to be extensible for including additional valuable features in a standardized manner. There are a number of BPEL extensions available. They are, however, neither classified nor evaluated with respect to their compliance to the BPEL standard. This article fills this gap by providing a framework for classifying BPEL extensions, a classification of existing extensions, and a guideline for designing BPEL extensions.

  5. Radiographic scanning agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevan, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    This invention relates to radiodiagnostic agents and more particularly to a composition and method for preparing a highly effective technetium-99m-based bone scanning agent. One deficiency of x-ray examination is the inability of that technique to detect skeletal metastases in their incipient stages. It has been discovered that the methanehydroxydiphosphonate bone mineral-seeking agent is unique in that it provides the dual benefits of sharp radiographic imaging and excellent lesion detection when used with technetium-99m. This agent can also be used with technetium-99m for detecting soft tissue calcification in the manner of the inorganic phosphate radiodiagnostic agents

  6. Agente adaptable y aprendizaje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Angel Lara Rivero

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se contrasta el concepto de agente programado con el de agente complejo adaptable, se presenta una nueva visión ligada al aprendizaje y la estructura del agente. La imagen del agente se analiza considerando los modelos internos, la práctica, el concepto de rutina y la influencia en su comportamiento, y la importancia del aprendizaje ex ante y ex post. Por último se muestra que la resolución de problemas está sujeta a restricciones del agente y se describen las formas de explorar el espacio de soluciones mediante tres tipos de exploración: exhaustiva, aleatoria y selectiva.

  7. Monitoring presence of chemical agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preston, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    The specification describes a case for use with a hand-portable chemical agent detector for continuously monitoring an atmosphere for the presence of predetermined chemical agents. The detector having means for ionizing air samples and providing at an output terminal electrical signals representative of the mobility spectrum of ionized chemical vapours produced by the ionizing means. The case comprises means for defining a chamber in the case for supporting and removably enclosing the detector, means for communicating ambient atmosphere to the chamber, electrical circuit means in the case, the circuit means being adapted to be detachably connected to the detector output terminal when the detector is positioned in the chamber and being responsive to the electrical signals for producing an alarm signal when the signals detect a chemical agent concentration in the atmosphere exceeding a predetermined concentration level, and alarm means responsive to the alarm signal. (author)

  8. Prophylaxis and Therapy Against Chemical Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    Hematopoietic Consequences F. Dorandeu 5) pH Dependent Toxicity of Sulphur Mustard In Vitro J. Mikler Nerve Agents / Scavengers 1) Mutagenesis...symptoms such as salivation or shortness of breath and lower level exposures could be rendered inconsequential. B.2 CURRENT THERAPY FOR NERVE AGENT

  9. Trials and Triumphs of Expanded Extension Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavengood, Scott; Love, Bob

    1998-01-01

    Oregon extension faced challenges in presenting programs in the wood products industry. Several traditional tactics, revised to suit a new audience, have proved successful: personal coaching, building partnerships, and providing a high level of service. Newer methods, such as database marketing and distance learning, are also proving to be…

  10. Report on the evaluation under the Act No 24/2006 of Coll. Environmental Impact Assessment Law Extension of National Radioactive Waste Repository in Mochovce for disposal low-level radioactive waste and construction of very low-level radioactive waste repository; Sprava o hodnoteni v zmysle zakona NR SR c.24/2006 o posudzovani vplyvov na ZP. Rozsirenie RU RAO v Mochovciach pre ukladanie NSAO a vybudovanie uloziska pre VNAO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanusik, V; Moravek, J; Kusovska, Z [VUJE, a.s., 91864 Trnava (Slovakia)

    2011-11-30

    The report elaborated assessment of the environmental impact of extension of the National Radioactive Waste Repository in Mochovce for disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes. Within this repository also the premises for very low level radioactive waste deposition should be built. The assessment report was prepared according to the Act no. 24/2006 Coll, as amended 'On the assessment of environmental impacts' Annex No. 11 upon The scope of assessment issued by the competent authority on the basis of assessment of Intent for this action. The report was prepared in VUJE, Inc. Trnava for Nuclear and Decommissioning Company, Inc. Bratislava (JAVYS).

  11. Moral actor, selfish agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimer, Jeremy A; Schaefer, Nicola K; Oakes, Harrison

    2014-05-01

    People are motivated to behave selfishly while appearing moral. This tension gives rise to 2 divergently motivated selves. The actor-the watched self-tends to be moral; the agent-the self as executor-tends to be selfish. Three studies present direct evidence of the actor's and agent's distinct motives. To recruit the self-as-actor, we asked people to rate the importance of various goals. To recruit the self-as-agent, we asked people to describe their goals verbally. In Study 1, actors claimed their goals were equally about helping the self and others (viz., moral); agents claimed their goals were primarily about helping the self (viz., selfish). This disparity was evident in both individualist and collectivist cultures, attesting to the universality of the selfish agent. Study 2 compared actors' and agents' motives to those of people role-playing highly prosocial or selfish exemplars. In content (Study 2a) and in the impressions they made on an outside observer (Study 2b), actors' motives were similar to those of the prosocial role-players, whereas agents' motives were similar to those of the selfish role-players. Study 3 accounted for the difference between the actor and agent: Participants claimed that their agent's motives were the more realistic and that their actor's motives were the more idealistic. The selfish agent/moral actor duality may account for why implicit and explicit measures of the same construct diverge, and why feeling watched brings out the better angels of human nature.

  12. Mathematics for common entrance three (extension) answers

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, Serena

    2015-01-01

    This book contains answers to all exercises featured in the accompanying textbook Mathematics for Common Entrance Three (Extension) , which provides essential preparation for Level 3 of the ISEB 13+ Mathematics exam, as well as for CASE and other scholarship exams. - Clean, clear layout for easy marking. - Includes examples of high-scoring answers with diagrams and workings. Also available to purchase from the Galore Park website www.galorepark.co.uk :. - Mathematics for Common Entrance Three (Extension). - Mathematics for Common Entrance One. - Mathematics for Common Entrance One Answers. - M

  13. Think - Baltic Extension / Kalle Kask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kask, Kalle

    2002-01-01

    Tallinna TÜ Rehabilitatsiooni tehnoloogia keskus korraldas pressikonverentsi, kus tutvustati osalemist EL V raamprogrammis Think - Baltic Extension, mis on suunatud puuetega inimeste tööhõive tagamisele

  14. Robotic hand with modular extensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, Curt Michael; Quigley, Morgan

    2015-01-20

    A robotic device is described herein. The robotic device includes a frame that comprises a plurality of receiving regions that are configured to receive a respective plurality of modular robotic extensions. The modular robotic extensions are removably attachable to the frame at the respective receiving regions by way of respective mechanical fuses. Each mechanical fuse is configured to trip when a respective modular robotic extension experiences a predefined load condition, such that the respective modular robotic extension detaches from the frame when the load condition is met.

  15. Agent Architectures for Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgemeestre, Brigitte; Hulstijn, Joris; Tan, Yao-Hua

    A Normative Multi-Agent System consists of autonomous agents who must comply with social norms. Different kinds of norms make different assumptions about the cognitive architecture of the agents. For example, a principle-based norm assumes that agents can reflect upon the consequences of their actions; a rule-based formulation only assumes that agents can avoid violations. In this paper we present several cognitive agent architectures for self-monitoring and compliance. We show how different assumptions about the cognitive architecture lead to different information needs when assessing compliance. The approach is validated with a case study of horizontal monitoring, an approach to corporate tax auditing recently introduced by the Dutch Customs and Tax Authority.

  16. The histopathologic reaction of rabbit lungs after intrabronchial application of contrast agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Hyo Soon; Kim, Jae Kyu; Shen, Yu Lan; Oh, Jeong Won; Chang, Nam Kyu; Shin, Sang Soo; Park, Jin Gyoon; Kang, Heoung Keun

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine a safe gastrointestinal contrast agent that could be used in various clinical situations where there is a risk of aspiration using a rabbit model. 30 healthy white rabbits were used. The rabbits were divided into 5 groups containing six animals each, one control group (anesthesia only) and 4 groups receiving various contrast agents [Solotop (Barium sulphate suspension), Gastrografin (sodium and meglumine amidotrizoate), and Telebrix (Meglumine ioxitalamate), Visipaque (Iodixanol)]. The contrast agents were injected selectively into a main bronchus via a catheter inserted under fluoroscopy guidance. The rabbits were sacrificed either 1 day or 7 days after injecting the contrast agents, and the tissue reaction of the bronchi and lungs were examined both macro-and microscopically. The level of alveolar septal thickening, peribronchiolar lymphocytic infiltration, pulmonary congestion and edema, inflammatory exudate in the alveoli or bronchiolar lumina, microabscess formation, necrosis, pigmentation of materials injected, and fibropurulent pleurisy were evaluated and graded according to the severity as follows: no change, mild, moderate, marked in degree. The common microscopic findings were alveolar septal thickening and peribronchiolar lymphocytic infiltration. Pulmonary congestion and edema, inflammatory exudate in the alveoli of bronchiolar lumina were observed in 21 out of 24 rabbits receiving the contrast agents. Pigmentation of the materials injected was observed only in the group receiving Solotop. An inflammatory exudate in the alveoli and bronchiolar/bronchial lumina, microabscess formation, and necrosis were noted in most groups, but was more frequent and severe in the group receiving Gastrografin. The histopathological reactions of the rabbit lungs after the intrabronchial application of a contrast agent showed variable degrees of inflammatory reaction. Gastrografin produced most severe and extensive reaction, Solotop

  17. Stabilized radiographic scanning agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawzi, M.B.

    1982-01-01

    Stable compositions useful as technetium 99m-based scintigraphic agents comprise gentisic acid or a pharmaceutically-acceptable salt or ester thereof in combination with a pertechnetate reducing agent or dissolved in pertechnetate-99m (sup(99m)TcOsub(4)sup(-)) solution. The compositions are especially useful in combination with a phosphate or phosphonate material that carries the radionuclide to bone, thus providing a skeletal imaging agent

  18. Economic modelling for life extension decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farber, M.A.; Harrison, D.L.; Carlson, D.D.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for the economic and financial analysis of nuclear plant life extension under uncertainty and demonstrates its use in a case analysis. While the economic and financial evaluation of life extension does not require new analytical tools, such studies should be based on the following three premises. First, the methodology should examine effects at the level of the company or utility system, because the most important economic implications of life extension relate to the altered generation system expansion plan. Second, it should focus on the implications of uncertainty in order to understand the factors that most affect life extension benefits and identify risk management efforts. Third, the methodology should address multiple objectives, at a minimum, both economic and financial objectives. An analysis of the role of life extension for Virginia Power's generating system was performed using the MIDAS model, developed by the Electric Power Research Institute. MIDAS is particularly well suited to this type of study because of its decision analysis framework. The model incorporates modules for load analysis, capacity expansion, production costing, financial analysis, and rates. The decision tree structure facilitates the multiple-scenario analysis of uncertainty. The model's output includes many economic and financial measures, including capital expenditures, fuel and purchases power costs, revenue requirements, average rates, external financing requirements, and coverage ratio. Based on findings for Virginia Power's Surry 1 plant, nuclear plant life extension has economic benefits for a utility's customers and financial benefits for the utility's investors. These benefits depend on a number of economic, technical and regulatory factors. The economic analysis presented in this paper identifies many of the key factors and issues relevant to life extension planning

  19. Contrast agents for MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnemain, B.

    1994-01-01

    Contrast agents MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) have been developed to improve the diagnostic information obtained by this technic. They mainly interact on T1 and T2 parameters and increase consequently normal to abnormal tissues contrast. The paramagnetic agents which mainly act on longitudinal relaxation rate (T1) are gadolinium complexes for which stability is the main parameter to avoid any release of free gadolinium. The superparamagnetic agents that decrease signal intensity by an effect on transversal relaxation rate (T2) are developed for liver, digestive and lymph node imaging. Many area of research are now opened for optimal use of present and future contrast agents in MRI. (author). 28 refs., 4 tabs

  20. Decontamination Data - Blister Agents

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Decontamination efficacy data for blister agents on various building materials using various decontamination solutions. This dataset is associated with the following...

  1. Examining Extension's Capacity in Community Resource and Economic Development: Viewpoints of Extension Administrators on the Role of Community Resource and Economic Development in the Extension Portfolio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanowitz, Seth C.; Wilcox, Michael D., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The survey-based research reported here offers insights on community, resource, and economic development (CRED) Extension programming at the national and regional level. The results present a national picture of CRED programming, research, and potential future programming opportunities that Extension could capitalize on. The research shows that…

  2. Repeat Customer Success in Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bess, Melissa M.; Traub, Sarah M.

    2013-01-01

    Four multi-session research-based programs were offered by two Extension specialist in one rural Missouri county. Eleven participants who came to multiple Extension programs could be called "repeat customers." Based on the total number of participants for all four programs, 25% could be deemed as repeat customers. Repeat customers had…

  3. Frames and extension problems I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole

    2014-01-01

    In this article we present a short survey of frame theory in Hilbert spaces. We discuss Gabor frames and wavelet frames and set the stage for a discussion of various extension principles; this will be presented in the article Frames and extension problems II (joint with H.O. Kim and R.Y. Kim)....

  4. Quotient semigroups and extension semigroups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Introduction. Abelian groups and semigroups play an important role in the classification of C. ∗. -algebras and their extensions. ... -algebra extension theory and K K-theory, it is crucial to study the theory of quotient semigroups from the ...

  5. Universal extensions to simulate specifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, Wim H.

    A previous paper introduced eternity variables as an alternative to the prophecy variables of Abadi and Lamport and proved the formalism to be semantically complete: every simulation F. K -> L that preserves quiescence contains a composition of a history extension, an extension with eternity

  6. A twin purification/enrichment procedure based on two versatile solid/liquid extracting agents for efficient uptake of ultra-trace levels of lorazepam and clonazepam from complex bio-matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmati, Maryam; Rajabi, Maryam; Asghari, Alireza

    2017-11-17

    In this research work, two consecutive dispersive solid/liquid phase microextractions based on efficient extraction media were developed for the influential and clean pre-concentration of clonazepam and lorazepam from complicated bio-samples. The magnetism nature of the proposed nanoadsorbent proceeded the clean-up step conveniently and swiftly (∼5min), pursued by a further enrichment via a highly effective and rapid emulsification microextraction process (∼4min) based on a deep eutectic solvent (DES). Finally, the instrumental analysis step was practicable via high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection. The solid phase used was an adequate magnetic nanocomposite termed as polythiophene-sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate/iron oxide (PTh-DBSNa/Fe 3 O 4 ), easily and cost-effectively prepared by the impressive co-precipitation method followed by the efficient in situ sonochemical oxidative polymerization approach. The identification techniques viz. FESEM, XRD, and EDX certified the supreme physico-chemical properties of this effective nanosorbent. Also the powerful liquid extraction agent, DES, based on bio-degradable choline chloride, possessed a high efficiency, tolerable safety, low cost, and facile and mild synthesis route. The parameters involved in this versatile hyphenated procedure, efficiently evaluated via the central composite design (CCD), showed that the best extraction conditions consisted of an initial pH value of 7.2, 17mg of the PTh-DBSNa/Fe 3 O 4 nanocomposite, 20 air-agitation cycles (first step), 245μL of methanol, 250μL of DES, 440μL of THF, and 8 air-agitation cycles (second step). Under the optimal conditions, the understudied drugs could be accurately determined in the wide linear dynamic ranges (LDRs) of 4.0-3000ngmL -1 and 2.0-2000ngmL -1 for clonazepam and lorazepam, respectively, with low limits of detection (LODs) ranged from 0.7 to 1.0ngmL -1 . The enrichment factor (EF) and percentage extraction recovery (%ER

  7. Mobile agents affect worm spreading in wireless ad hoc networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Zi-Gang; Sun, Jin-Tu; Wang, Ying-Hai; Wang, Sheng-Jun; Xu, Xin-Jian

    2009-01-01

    Considering the dynamic nature of portable computing devices with wireless communication capability, an extended model is introduced for worm spreading in the wireless ad hoc network, with a population of mobile agents in a planar distribution, starting from an initial infected seed. The effect of agents' mobility on worm spreading is investigated via extensive Monte Carlo simulations. The threshold behavior and the dynamics of worm epidemics in the wireless networks are greatly affected by both agents' mobility and spatial and temporal correlations. The medium access control mechanism for the wireless communication promotes the sensitivity of the spreading dynamics to agents' mobility

  8. Behavior acquisition in artificial agents

    OpenAIRE

    Thurau, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Computational skill acquisition in robots and simulated agents has been a topic of increasing popularity throughout the last years. Despite impressive progress, autonomous behavior at a level of animals and humans are not yet replicated by machines. Especially when a complex environment demands versatile, goal-oriented behavior, current artificial systems show shortcomings. Consider for instance modern 3D computer games. Despite their key role for more emersive game experience, surprisingly l...

  9. BSL-3 laboratory practices in the United States: comparison of select agent and non-select agent facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Stephanie L; Pompei, Victoria C; Anderson, Alice

    2014-01-01

    New construction of biosafety level 3 (BSL-3) laboratories in the United States has increased in the past decade to facilitate research on potential bioterrorism agents. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention inspect BSL-3 facilities and review commissioning documentation, but no single agency has oversight over all BSL-3 facilities. This article explores the extent to which standard operating procedures in US BSL-3 facilities vary between laboratories with select agent or non-select agent status. Comparisons are made for the following variables: personnel training, decontamination, personal protective equipment (PPE), medical surveillance, security access, laboratory structure and maintenance, funding, and pest management. Facilities working with select agents had more complex training programs and decontamination procedures than non-select agent facilities. Personnel working in select agent laboratories were likely to use powered air purifying respirators, while non-select agent laboratories primarily used N95 respirators. More rigorous medical surveillance was carried out in select agent workers (although not required by the select agent program) and a higher level of restrictive access to laboratories was found. Most select agent and non-select agent laboratories reported adequate structural integrity in facilities; however, differences were observed in personnel perception of funding for repairs. Pest management was carried out by select agent personnel more frequently than non-select agent personnel. Our findings support the need to promote high quality biosafety training and standard operating procedures in both select agent and non-select agent laboratories to improve occupational health and safety.

  10. Change Agent Survival Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Folwell L.

    2011-01-01

    Consulting is a rough racket. Only a tarantula hair above IRS agents, meter maids and used car sales people, the profession is a prickly burr for slings and arrows. Throw in education, focus on dysfunctional schools and call oneself a "change agent," and this bad rap all but disappears. Unfortunately, though, consulting/coaching/mentoring in…

  11. Teaching Tourism Change Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stilling Blichfeldt, Bodil; Kvistgaard, Hans-Peter; Hird, John

    2017-01-01

    course that is part of a Tourism Master’s program, where a major challenge is not only to teach students about change and change agents, but to teach them how change feels and ho w to become change agents. The c hange management course contains an experiment inspired by experiential teaching literature...... change in tourism in the future....

  12. Radiographic scintiscanning agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevan, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    A new technetium-based scintiscanning agent has been prepared comprising a water soluble sup(99m)Tc-methanehydroxydiphosphonate in combination with a reducing agent selected from stannous, ferrous, chromous and titanous salts. As an additional stabilizer salts and esters of gentisic or ascorbic acids have been used. (E.G.)

  13. Radiographic scanning agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tofe, A.J.

    1976-01-01

    A stable radiographic scanning agent on a sup(99m)Tc basis has been developed. The substance contains a pertechnetate reduction agent, tin(II)-chloride, chromium(II)-chloride, or iron(II)-sulphate, as well as an organospecific carrier and ascorbic acid or a pharmacologically admissible salt or ester of ascorbic acid. (VJ) [de

  14. Stable radiographic scanning agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Stable compositions which are useful in the preparation of Technetium-99m-based scintigraphic agents are discussed. They are comprised of ascorbic acid or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester thereof in combination with a pertechnetate reducing agent or dissolved in oxidized pertechnetate-99m (sup(99m)TcO 4 - ) solution

  15. Journal of Agricultural Extension submitted to Agricultural Extension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. MADUKWE

    ... typically confront narrower range of labour markets than men, and lower wage ... capabilities of women and by extension the household, female household ..... gap in accessibility to productive resources between male and female heads of.

  16. Hyperthermia and chemotherapy agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roizin-Towle, L.; Hall, E.J.

    1981-01-01

    The use of chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of cancer dates back to the late 19th century, but the modern era of chemotherapy drugs was ushered in during the 1940's with the development of the polyfunctional alkylating agent. Since then, numerous classes of drugs have evolved and the combined use of antineoplastic agents with other treatment modalities such as radiation or heat, remains a large relatively unexplored area. This approach, combining local hyperthermia with chemotherapy agents affords a measure of targeting and selective toxicity not previously available for drugs. In this paper, the effects of adriamycin, bleomycin and cis-platinum are examined. The adjuvant use of heat may also reverse the resistance of hypoxic cells noted for some chemotherapy agents

  17. Applications of inorganic nanoparticles as therapeutic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Taeho; Hyeon, Taeghwan

    2014-01-01

    During the last decade, various functional nanostructured materials with interesting optical, magnetic, mechanical and chemical properties have been extensively applied to biomedical areas including imaging, diagnosis and therapy. In therapeutics, most research has focused on the application of nanoparticles as potential delivery vehicles for drugs and genes, because nanoparticles in the size range of 2–100 nm can interact with biological systems at the molecular level, and allow targeted delivery and passage through biological barriers. Recent investigations have even revealed that several kinds of nanomaterials are intrinsically therapeutic. Not only can they passively interact with cells, but they can also actively mediate molecular processes to regulate cell functions. This can be seen in the treatment of cancer via anti-angiogenic mechanisms as well as the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases by effectively controlling oxidative stress. This review will present recent applications of inorganic nanoparticles as therapeutic agents in the treatment of disease. (topical review)

  18. Learning Joomla! 3 extension development

    CERN Document Server

    Plummer, Tim

    2013-01-01

    A practical guide with step-by-step examples that build on each other so you can learn by doing and get hands-on knowledge about creating your plugins, modules, and components in Joomla.""Learning Joomla! 3 Extension Development, Third Edition"" is for developers who want to create their own Joomla extensions. It is assumed you will have some basic PHP, HTML, and CSS knowledge, but you don't need any prior Joomla programming experience. This book will also be useful to people who just want to make minor customizations to existing Joomla extensions and build on the work of others in the open so

  19. Programming Reactive Extensions and LINQ

    CERN Document Server

    Liberty, Jesse

    2011-01-01

    Pro Reactive Extensions and LINQ is a deep dive into the next important technology for .NET developers: Reactive Extensions. This in-depth tutorial goes beyond what is available anywhere else to teach how to write WPF, Silverlight, and Windows Phone applications using the Reactive Extensions (Rx) to handle events and asynchronous method calls. Reactive programming allows you to turn those aspects of your code that are currently imperative into something much more event-driven and flexible. For this reason, it's sometimes referred to as LINQ for Events. Reactive programming hinges on the concep

  20. Extensions of the Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    Zwirner, Fabio

    1996-01-01

    Rapporteur talk at the International Europhysics Conference on High Energy Physics, Brussels (Belgium), July 27-August 2, 1995. This talk begins with a brief general introduction to the extensions of the Standard Model, reviewing the ideology of effective field theories and its practical implications. The central part deals with candidate extensions near the Fermi scale, focusing on some phenomenological aspects of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model. The final part discusses some possible low-energy implications of further extensions near the Planck scale, namely superstring theories.

  1. Non-radiological contrast agents (MRI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnemain, B.; Lautrou, J.; Meyer, D.; Doucet, D.

    1987-01-01

    Over the past few years, extensive research has been carried out in an attempt to develop contrast agents that could help improve both the performance (acquisition times) and the diagnostic efficacy of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) techniques. On the basis of physicochemical and pharmacological criteria discussed in this presentation, a few efficacious, well-tolerated compounds could be developed. Two of them, the gadolinium complexes Gd-DOTA and Gd-DTPA, are currently being tried in man. This first generation of contrast agents, which are aspecific markers of the intravascular space, has been shown to have good diagnostic potential in conventional MRI procedures. The diagnostic contribution of these contrast agents will probably be a most essential factor in new MRI techniques using low field strengh or fast imaging sequences [fr

  2. Attitude of farmers to the Training and Visit (T&V) extension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main concern of the Agricultural Extension Agent's contact with farmers is the creation of favourable attitude toward specific production recommendations. Assessment of farmers' attitude to an extension system will, more likely than not, provide an indication of how effective the system has been or is likely to be.

  3. Agent based energy management systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolter, Martin

    2012-07-01

    In liberalized, regulated energy markets, the different participants - namely producers and consumers of energy, transmission and distribution system operators as well as regulatory authorities - have partly divergent and partly convergent interests. Loads, power plants and grid operators try to maximize their own benefit in this highly complex environment accepting to act detrimentally to others. Although the relationship between the participants is mostly competitive, there are some fundamental shared interests, e.g. voltage stability, a constant system frequency or efficient energy production, transmission and distribution, which are endangered e.g. by increased injection of volatile sources in low and medium voltage grids, displacement of stabilizing bulk generation and the slowly progressing extension of the electric grid. There is a global consensus, that the resulting challenges can efficiently be faced using information and communication technologies to coordinate grid utilization and operation. The basic idea is to benefit from unused reserves by participating in deployment of system services e.g. reactive power supply to keep the voltage within certain bounds. The coordination can best be done by the grid operator. All activities of that kind are summarized under the umbrella term ''Smart Grid''. To simultaneously model the behavior and interests of different types of market participants and their convergent and divergent interests, multi-agent systems are used. They offer a perfectly fitting framework for this sort of game theory and can easily be adapted to all kinds of new challenges of electricity markets. In this work, multi-agent systems are used to either cooperatively or competitively solve problems in distribution and transmission systems. Therefore, conventional algorithms have to be modified to converge into multiple local optima using only small pieces of the entire system information. It is clearly stated, that personal

  4. Agent Programming Languages and Logics in Agent-Based Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John

    2018-01-01

    and social behavior, and work on verification. Agent-based simulation is an approach for simulation that also uses the notion of agents. Although agent programming languages and logics are much less used in agent-based simulation, there are successful examples with agents designed according to the BDI...

  5. Research-extension-farmer linkages

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    agricultural research and extension services, Government in 1990 set up a number of ... charged with the role of articulating the most appropriate research and ... production of 1800 copies of NARO bulletin, 1000 copies of Uganda Journal of ...

  6. Journal of Environmental Extension: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Environmental Extension is purely academic and accepts positional or ... and so responsibility for the content and macro formatting remain of the author. ... For research articles, the methodology, result analysis (statistical tests to be ...

  7. Introducing ALAS: A Novel Agent-Oriented Programming Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrović, Dejan; Ivanović, Mirjana; Vidaković, Milan

    2011-09-01

    Agent-oriented programming languages represent a family of programming languages that provide developers with high-level abstractions and constructs necessary for implementing and using agent-related concepts. In this paper a novel agent-oriented programming language for rapid and efficient development of reactive agents, named ALAS, is presented. The simple, but powerful set of language constructs is designed to support the execution of agents in heterogenous environments, and to enable easy employment of advanced agent features, such as mobility and web service integration.

  8. Learning PrimeFaces extensions development

    CERN Document Server

    Jonna, Sudheer

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a step by step approach that explains the most important extension components and their features. All the major features are explained by using the JobHub application with supporting screenshots.If you are an intermediate to advanced level user (or developer) who already has a basic working knowledge of PrimeFaces, then this book is for you.The only thing you need to know is Java Server Faces(JSF).

  9. Biological warfare agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraipandian Thavaselvam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies.

  10. Biological warfare agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavaselvam, Duraipandian; Vijayaraghavan, Rajagopalan

    2010-01-01

    The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies. PMID:21829313

  11. Current progress and future perspectives in the development of anti-polo-like kinase 1 therapeutic agents [version 1; referees: 4 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Eun Park

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Although significant levels of side effects are often associated with their use, microtubule-directed agents that primarily target fast-growing mitotic cells have been considered to be some of the most effective anti-cancer therapeutics. With the hope of developing new-generation anti-mitotic agents with reduced side effects and enhanced tumor specificity, researchers have targeted various proteins whose functions are critically required for mitotic progression. As one of the highly attractive mitotic targets, polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1 has been the subject of an extensive effort for anti-cancer drug discovery. To date, a variety of anti-Plk1 agents have been developed, and several of them are presently in clinical trials. Here, we will discuss the current status of generating anti-Plk1 agents as well as future strategies for designing and developing more efficacious anti-Plk1 therapeutics.

  12. Halide test agent replacement study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, E.M.; Freeman, W.P.; Kovach, B.J. [and others

    1995-02-01

    The intended phaseout of the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) from commercial use required the evaluation of substitute materials for the testing for leak paths through both individual adsorbers and installed adsorbent banks. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Committee on Nuclear Air and Gas Treatment (CONAGT) is in charge of maintaining the standards and codes specifying adsorbent leak test methods for the nuclear safety related air cleaning systems. The currently published standards and codes cite the use of R-11, R-12 and R-112 for leak path test agents. All of these compounds are CFCs. There are other agencies and organizations (USDOE, USDOD and USNRC) also specifying testing for leak paths or in some cases for special life tests using the above compounds. The CONAGT has recently developed criteria for the suitability evaluation of substitute test agents. On the basis of these criteria, several compounds were evaluated for their acceptability as adsorbent bed leak and life test agents. The ASME CONAGT Test Agent Qualification Criteria. The test agent qualification is based on the following parameters: (1) Similar retention times on activated carbons at the same concentration levels as one of the following: R-11, R-12, R-112 or R-112a. (2) Similar lower detection limit sensitivity and precision in the concentration range of use as R-11, R-12, R-112 and R-112a. (3) Gives the same in-place leak test results as R-11, R-12, R-112, or R-112a. (4) Chemical and radiological stability under the use conditions. (5) Causes no degradation of the carbon and its impregnant or of the other NATS components under the use conditions. (6) Is listed in the USEPA Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) inventory for commercial use.

  13. Boiler-turbine life extension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natzkov, S. [TOTEMA, Ltd., Sofia (Bulgaria); Nikolov, M. [CERB, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1995-12-01

    The design life of the main power equipment-boilers and turbines is about 105 working hours. The possibilities for life extension are after normatively regulated control tests. The diagnostics and methodology for Boilers and Turbines Elements Remaining Life Assessment using up to date computer programs, destructive and nondestructive control of metal of key elements of units equipment, metal creep and low cycle fatigue calculations. As well as data for most common damages and some technical decisions for elements life extension are presented.

  14. Learning Sequences of Actions in Collectives of Autonomous Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Kagan; Agogino, Adrian K.; Wolpert, David H.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we focus on the problem of designing a collective of autonomous agents that individually learn sequences of actions such that the resultant sequence of joint actions achieves a predetermined global objective. We are particularly interested in instances of this problem where centralized control is either impossible or impractical. For single agent systems in similar domains, machine learning methods (e.g., reinforcement learners) have been successfully used. However, applying such solutions directly to multi-agent systems often proves problematic, as agents may work at cross-purposes, or have difficulty in evaluating their contribution to achievement of the global objective, or both. Accordingly, the crucial design step in multiagent systems centers on determining the private objectives of each agent so that as the agents strive for those objectives, the system reaches a good global solution. In this work we consider a version of this problem involving multiple autonomous agents in a grid world. We use concepts from collective intelligence to design goals for the agents that are 'aligned' with the global goal, and are 'learnable' in that agents can readily see how their behavior affects their utility. We show that reinforcement learning agents using those goals outperform both 'natural' extensions of single agent algorithms and global reinforcement, learning solutions based on 'team games'.

  15. Culturally Aware Agent Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias; Nakano, Yukiko; Koda, Tomoko

    2012-01-01

    Agent based interaction in the form of Embodied Conversational Agents (ECAs) has matured over the last decade and agents have become more and more sophisticated in terms of their verbal and nonverbal behavior like facial expressions or gestures. Having such “natural” communication channels...... available for expressing not only task-relevant but also socially and psychologically relevant information makes it necessary to take influences into account that are not readily implemented like emotions or cultural heuristics. These influences have a huge impact on the success of an interaction...

  16. Agent-Based Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Jędrzejowicz, Piotr; Kacprzyk, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    This volume presents a collection of original research works by leading specialists focusing on novel and promising approaches in which the multi-agent system paradigm is used to support, enhance or replace traditional approaches to solving difficult optimization problems. The editors have invited several well-known specialists to present their solutions, tools, and models falling under the common denominator of the agent-based optimization. The book consists of eight chapters covering examples of application of the multi-agent paradigm and respective customized tools to solve  difficult optimization problems arising in different areas such as machine learning, scheduling, transportation and, more generally, distributed and cooperative problem solving.

  17. Utilization of gum tragacanth as bind enhancing agent in extended restructured mutton chops

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Heena; Sharma, B. D.; Talukder, S.; Ramasamy, Giriprasad

    2013-01-01

    Use of extenders in meat products is not only health promoting but can also increase the economic worth of the products. Extension of the meat product is generally associated with poor binding and texture. Thus, the present study was envisaged to solve this problem by the incorporation of gum tragacanth (GT) as bind enhancing agent, used at three different levels viz., 0.1, 0.15 and 0.2 % in a pre standardized formulation of extended restructured mutton chops (ERMC), by replacing the lean mea...

  18. Network flow of mobile agents enhances the evolution of cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichinose, G.; Satotani, Y.; Nagatani, T.

    2018-01-01

    We study the effect of contingent movement on the persistence of cooperation on complex networks with empty nodes. Each agent plays the Prisoner's Dilemma game with its neighbors and then it either updates the strategy depending on the payoff difference with neighbors or it moves to another empty node if not satisfied with its own payoff. If no neighboring node is empty, each agent stays at the same site. By extensive evolutionary simulations, we show that the medium density of agents enhances cooperation where the network flow of mobile agents is also medium. Moreover, if the movements of agents are more frequent than the strategy updating, cooperation is further promoted. In scale-free networks, the optimal density for cooperation is lower than other networks because agents get stuck at hubs. Our study suggests that keeping a smooth network flow is significant for the persistence of cooperation in ever-changing societies.

  19. Job satisfaction of extension workers in Edo State Agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agricultural extension can be said to be germane for any meaningful development in the agricultural sector. Extension personnel that are saddled with this responsibility need to be satisfied with their job in order to perform their duties effectively. Therefore this study examined the factors affecting job performance and level of ...

  20. Mobile Agent Data Integrity Using Multi-Agent Architecture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McDonald, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    .... Security issues for mobile agents continue to produce research interest, particularly in developing mechanisms that guarantee protection of agent data and agent computations in the presence of malicious hosts...

  1. EXTENSIVE KNOWLEDGE IN FASHION TRENDS FOR SPRING/SUMMER 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra Mocenco; Sabina Olaru; Georgeta Popescu

    2013-01-01

    Globally there is mobility market and a manufacturers orientation to innovative products of small series or personalized. Adaptability and compliance with these fashion trends subordinate to client requirements is the key to developing big consumer brands known worldwide. Product design and development based extensive knowledge in fashion trends are extremely important capabilities for companies in the garment industry. Aligning economic agents to flexibility, mobility and speed of change in ...

  2. Issues and Problems in Ethical Practices amongst Takaful Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Aziz, Nor a Abdul; Ghani, Abdullah Haji Abdul; Shaari, Hasnizam

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses contributing factors pertaining to the ethical behaviour of Takaful agents in Malaysia. Perspective of sales, selling pressure and the level of competitiveness are identified as factors, influencing ethical behaviour of Takaful agents. This study is conducted through focus group and formed a personal interview among branch managers, executives and Takaful agents. It revealed that unethical behaviour is evident among the Takaful agents in meeting the sales target. These fa...

  3. Delta agent (Hepatitis D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000216.htm Hepatitis D (Delta agent) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hepatitis D is a viral infection caused by the ...

  4. Agents Within our Midst

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    agents; and the development of bio -monitoring protocols for civilian and service personnel during a chemical attack. These efforts have resulted in greater...produced by staphylococcal bacteria that is and is classified as a CDC select agent which has the potential to be used as a biological weapon .1...NMR chemical shift perturbation titrations with Fab (fragment, antigen binding regions) domains of 20B1, 14G8, and 6D3 using deuterated (2H) SEB

  5. Adrenal imaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, M.A.; Hanson, R.N.; Holman, B.L.

    1980-01-01

    The goals of this proposal are the development of selenium-containing analogs of the aromatic amino acids as imaging agents for the pancreas and of the adrenal cortex enzyme inhibitors as imaging agents for adrenal pathology. The objects for this year include (a) the synthesis of methylseleno derivatives of phenylalanine and tryptophan, and (b) the preparation and evaluation of radiolabeled iodobenzoyl derivatives of the selenazole and thiazole analogs of metyrapone and SU-9055

  6. RURAL EXTENSION EPISTEMOLOGY AND THE TIME OF TOTAL EXTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Calgaro Neto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is dedicated to explore the field of knowledge related to rural extension. In general, a three complementary perspective is used as theoretical strategy to present this epistemological study. The first perspective, seeks to accomplish a brief archeology of rural extension, identifying the remarkable historical passages. At the second, we look to some theoretical models through the modern epistemological platform. Finally, the third perspective, aims to present a methodological proposal that contemplate this epistemic characteristics, relating with the contemporary transformations observed in the knowledge construction and technological transference for a rural development. Keywords: Total institutions. University.

  7. verbal extensions: valency decreasing extensions in the basà ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Finance

    London: Hodder. Education. Imoh, P.M., 2013. Verbal extensions: Valency increasing operations in Basà verbal system. Paper presented at the West African Languages Congress (WALC) and 26th Annual. Conference of the Linguistic Association of Nigeria (26th CLAN), 29th July to 2nd August. 2013, University of Ibadan, ...

  8. Is boundary extension emotionally selective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménétrier, Emmanuelle; Didierjean, André; Vieillard, Sandrine

    2013-01-01

    When they have to memorize a picture, people usually build a memory trace including more extensive boundaries than the original picture, a phenomenon known as boundary extension or BE. This article looks at whether the emotion category expressed (i.e., happiness, pleasure, irritation, or anger) by actors in short films could have an influence on the BE effect. The results showed that positively valenced emotions (happiness, pleasure) led to an extension effect, while the negatively valenced ones (anger, irritation) did not produce any significant memory distortion. The arousal dimension of emotions had no significant effect on BE. The current results were discussed in the light of previous studies on the links between BE and emotions.

  9. NDE and plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, S.N.; Ammirato, F.V.; Nottingham, L.D.

    1991-01-01

    Component life extension is the process of making run-repair-replace decisions for plant components and includes a thorough analysis of the capability of the component to perform throughout the projected lifetime. For many critical plant components, nondestructive evaluation (NDE) is essential in determining whether the component can be operated safely and economically in the extended life period and to help utilities determine safe and economic inspection intervals. NDE technology is required for not only detecting defects that could grow to a size of concern during extended lifetimes, but also will be called upon to measure and monitor accumulating material degradation that strongly affects component reliability. This paper discusses the role of NDE in life extension by reviewing three examples--a reactor pressure vessel, steam turbine-generator rotors, and generator retaining rings. In each example, the contribution of NDE to life extension decisions is described. (author)

  10. Elbow arthroscopy: valgus extension overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Christopher S; Conway, John E

    2011-01-01

    Valgus torque combined with deceleration produces high compression and shear forces acting on the posteromedial olecranon and the posteromedial trochlea. This valgus extension overload process may cause posteromedial trochlea chondromalacia, chondral flap formation, osteochondrosis, subchondral erosion, a subchondral insufficiency fracture, and marginal exostosis formation. Olecranon pathologies include proximal stress reaction, a posteromedial tip stress fracture, a transverse proximal process stress fracture, exostosis formation, exostosis fragmentation, and intra-articular loose bodies. Symptoms include posteromedial elbow pain during the deceleration phase of the throwing motion. The extension impingement test reproduces posterior or posteromedial pain similar to that experienced while throwing. Special radiographic techniques and CT scans can show loose bodies and osteophyte fragmentation. Surgical treatment is indicated when symptoms persist despite nonsurgical management. Based on clinical and basic science research, all patients with valgus extension overload should be comprehensively evaluated for medial ulnar collateral ligament insufficiency. Surgical treatment is limited to the resection of osteophytes only; normal olecranon should not be resected.

  11. Monitoring volatile anaesthetic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, W.J.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: The methods that have been used for monitoring volatile anaesthetic agents depend on some physical property such as Density, Refractometry, Mass, Solubility, Raman scattering, or Infra-red absorption. Today, refractometry and infra-red techniques are the most common. Refractometry is used for the calibration of vaporizers. All anaesthetic agents increase the refractive index of the carrier gas. Provided the mixture is known then the refractive change measures the concentration of the volatile anaesthetic agent. Raman Scattering is when energy hits a molecule a very small fraction of the energy is absorbed and re-emitted at one or more lower frequencies. The shift in frequency is a function of the chemical bonds and is a fingerprint of the substance irradiated. Electromagnetic (Infra-red) has been the commonest method of detection of volatile agents. Most systems use a subtractive system, i.e. the agent in the sampling cell absorbed some of the infrared energy and the photo-detector therefore received less energy. A different approach is where the absorbed energy is converted into a pressure change and detected as sound (Acoustic monitor). This gives a more stable zero reference. More recently, the detector systems have used multiple narrow-band wavelengths in the infrared bands and by shape matching or matrix computing specific agent identification is achieved and the concentration calculated. In the early Datex AS3 monitors, a spectral sweep across the 3 micron infrared band was used to create spectral fingerprints. The recently released AS3 monitors use a different system with five very narrow band filters in the 8-10 micron region. The transmission through each of these filters is a value in a matrix which is solved by a micro computer to identify the agent and its concentration. These monitors can assist in improving the safety and efficiency of our anaesthetics but do not ensure that the patient is completely anaesthetized. Copyright (2000

  12. Monitoring volatile anaesthetic agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, W J [Royal Adelaide Hospital, SA (Australia). Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care

    2000-12-01

    Full text: The methods that have been used for monitoring volatile anaesthetic agents depend on some physical property such as Density, Refractometry, Mass, Solubility, Raman scattering, or Infra-red absorption. Today, refractometry and infra-red techniques are the most common. Refractometry is used for the calibration of vaporizers. All anaesthetic agents increase the refractive index of the carrier gas. Provided the mixture is known then the refractive change measures the concentration of the volatile anaesthetic agent. Raman Scattering is when energy hits a molecule a very small fraction of the energy is absorbed and re-emitted at one or more lower frequencies. The shift in frequency is a function of the chemical bonds and is a fingerprint of the substance irradiated. Electromagnetic (Infra-red) has been the commonest method of detection of volatile agents. Most systems use a subtractive system, i.e. the agent in the sampling cell absorbed some of the infrared energy and the photo-detector therefore received less energy. A different approach is where the absorbed energy is converted into a pressure change and detected as sound (Acoustic monitor). This gives a more stable zero reference. More recently, the detector systems have used multiple narrow-band wavelengths in the infrared bands and by shape matching or matrix computing specific agent identification is achieved and the concentration calculated. In the early Datex AS3 monitors, a spectral sweep across the 3 micron infrared band was used to create spectral fingerprints. The recently released AS3 monitors use a different system with five very narrow band filters in the 8-10 micron region. The transmission through each of these filters is a value in a matrix which is solved by a micro computer to identify the agent and its concentration. These monitors can assist in improving the safety and efficiency of our anaesthetics but do not ensure that the patient is completely anaesthetized. Copyright (2000

  13. On extensions of superconformal algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagi, Jasbir

    2005-01-01

    Starting from vector fields that preserve a differential form on a Riemann sphere with Grassmann variables, one can construct a superconformal algebra by considering central extensions of the algebra of vector fields. In this paper, the N=4 case is analyzed closely, where the presence of weight zero operators in the field theory forces the introduction of noncentral extensions. How this modifies the existing field theory, representation theory, and Gelfand-Fuchs constructions is discussed. It is also discussed how graded Riemann sphere geometry can be used to give a geometrical description of the central charge in the N=1 theory

  14. XCEDE: an extensible schema for biomedical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadde, Syam; Aucoin, Nicole; Grethe, Jeffrey S; Keator, David B; Marcus, Daniel S; Pieper, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The XCEDE (XML-based Clinical and Experimental Data Exchange) XML schema, developed by members of the BIRN (Biomedical Informatics Research Network), provides an extensive metadata hierarchy for storing, describing and documenting the data generated by scientific studies. Currently at version 2.0, the XCEDE schema serves as a specification for the exchange of scientific data between databases, analysis tools, and web services. It provides a structured metadata hierarchy, storing information relevant to various aspects of an experiment (project, subject, protocol, etc.). Each hierarchy level also provides for the storage of data provenance information allowing for a traceable record of processing and/or changes to the underlying data. The schema is extensible to support the needs of various data modalities and to express types of data not originally envisioned by the developers. The latest version of the XCEDE schema and manual are available from http://www.xcede.org/ .

  15. Correlation between extension-block K-wire insertion angle and postoperative extension loss in mallet finger fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S K; Kim, Y H; Moon, K H; Choy, W S

    2018-02-01

    K-wire insertion angle (30°, 30°-40°, >40°), ANOVA showed significantly less postoperative extension loss for higher insertion angles (>40°) than for medium insertion angles (30°-40°). Mean postoperative extension loss difference between higher insertion angle (>40°) and medium insertion angle (30°-40°) was 11° (P=0.002). Using an insertion angle of the extension-block K-wire of 40°-45° and a slightly hyperextended position of the DIP joint may help reducing postoperative extension loss. Therapeutic level III. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Protein binding of psychotropic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, H.A.

    1990-01-01

    Based upon fluorescence measurements, protein binding of some psychotropic agents (chlorpromazine, promethazine, and trifluoperazine) to human IgG and HSA was studied in aqueous cacodylate buffer, PH7. The interaction parameters determined from emission quenching of the proteins. The interaction parameters determined include the equilibrium constant (K), calculated from equations derived by Borazan and coworkers, the number of binding sites (n) available to the monomer molecules on a single protein molecule. The results revealed a high level of affinity, as reflected by high values of K, and the existence of specific binding sites, since a limited number of n values are obtained. 39 tabs.; 37 figs.; 83 refs

  17. Multi agent gathering waste system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro LOZANO MURCIEGO

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Along this paper, we present a new multi agent-based system to gather waste on cities and villages. We have developed a low cost wireless sensor prototype to measure the volume level of the containers. Furthermore a route system is developed to optimize the routes of the trucks and a mobile application has been developed to help drivers in their working days. In order to evaluate and validate the proposed system a practical case study in a real city environment is modeled using open data available and with the purpose of identifying limitations of the system.

  18. African Journal of Livestock Extension

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Livestock Extension aims to bring to the fore the role and significance of livestock in maintaining rural, peri-urban and urban households, vis-à-vis its impact on poverty alleviation, household nutritional status, economic coping strategy and provision of employment. The focus of the journal relates to all ...

  19. Extensiveness of Farmers' Buying Process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kool, M.; Meulenberg, M.T.G.; Broens, D.F.

    1997-01-01

    In this article we study farmers' buying processes, in particular the selection of a supplier for a given farm input. Extensiveness of farmers' buying processes is defined as the degree information acquisition and alternative evaluation effort carried out to prepare that selection. Hypotheses,

  20. Cross System Extensions (CSE) experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, T.Y.

    1990-08-01

    Cross System Extension (CSE) provides VM/XA systems with the ability to share minidisks and spool in loosely coupled environment. CSE will also cooperate with the VM/HPO Inter System Facility (ISF) in sharing minidisks between VM/XA and VM/HPO to XA, reliability of CSE, and some operational considerations when running with it

  1. Extension Resources for International Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, Susan D.

    2016-01-01

    With the opening of additional trade partnerships, the reduction of global transportation and communication costs, and the increase in demand for U.S. agricultural products and services, international trade is an area of great importance to more and more Extension clients and stakeholders. This article provides information about the primary…

  2. Agricultural Extension. A Reference Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maunder, Addison, H.

    The basic philosophy of agricultural extension was established in the more highly developed countries over the past century. Newly formed nations, the rural population of which formerly maintained a subsistence agriculture with limited industry, found it essential to establish a better-balanced economy. This led to a variety of rural services and…

  3. Extensions of the standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramond, P.

    1983-01-01

    In these lectures we focus on several issues that arise in theoretical extensions of the standard model. First we describe the kinds of fermions that can be added to the standard model without affecting known phenomenology. We focus in particular on three types: the vector-like completion of the existing fermions as would be predicted by a Kaluza-Klein type theory, which we find cannot be realistically achieved without some chiral symmetry; fermions which are vector-like by themselves, such as do appear in supersymmetric extensions, and finally anomaly-free chiral sets of fermions. We note that a chiral symmetry, such as the Peccei-Quinn symmetry can be used to produce a vector-like theory which, at scales less than M/sub W/, appears to be chiral. Next, we turn to the analysis of the second hierarchy problem which arises in Grand Unified extensions of the standard model, and plays a crucial role in proton decay of supersymmetric extensions. We review the known mechanisms for avoiding this problem and present a new one which seems to lead to the (family) triplication of the gauge group. Finally, this being a summer school, we present a list of homework problems. 44 references

  4. An extension of Babinet's principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    da Silveira, R.

    1990-07-01

    It is shown that the diffraction pattern produced by any of two complementary screens and the one produced by a slit having the shape of their boundary, oscillates in opposite phase. This extension of Babinet's principle is illustrated with examples from nuclear scattering and classical optics

  5. Extension properties of states on operator algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamhalter, Jan

    1995-08-01

    We summarize and deepen some recent results concerning the extension problem for states on operator algebras and general quantum logics. In particular, we establish equivalence between the Gleason extension property, the Hahn-Banach extension property, and the universal state extension property of projection logics. Extensions of Jauch-Piron states are investigated.

  6. [Supramolecular Agents for Theranostics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyev, S M; Lebedenko, E N

    2015-01-01

    This mini-review summarizes recent data obtained in the process of creation of a versatile module platform suitable for construction of supramolecular theranostic agents. As an example, we consider multifunctional hybrid agents for imaging and elimination of cancer cells. The use of an adapter protein system barnase:barstar for producing targeted multifunctional hybrid structures on the basis of highly specific peptides and mini-antibodies as addressing modules and recombinant proteins and/or nanoparticles of different nature (quantum dots, nanogold, magnetic nanoparticles, nanodiamonds, upconverting nanophosphores, polymer nanoparticles) as agents visualizing and damaging cancer cells is described. New perspectives for creation of selective and highly effective compounds for theranostics and personified medicine are contemplated.

  7. Teaching tourism change agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blichfeldt, Bodil Stilling; Kvistgaard, Hans-Peter; Hird, John

    2017-01-01

    This article discuss es know ledge, competencies and skills Master’s students should obtain during their academic studies and particularly, the differences between teaching about a topic and teaching to do. This is ex emplified by experiential learning theory and the case of a change management...... course that is part of a Tourism Master’s program, where a major challenge is not only to teach students about change and change agents, but to teach them how change feels and ho w to become change agents. The c hange management course contains an experiment inspired by experiential teaching literature...... and methods. The experiment seeks to make students not only hear/learn about change agency and management, but to make them feel cha nge, hereby enabling them to develop the skills and competencies necessary for them to take on the role as change agent s and thus enable them to play key role s in implementing...

  8. Agents unleashed a public domain look at agent technology

    CERN Document Server

    Wayner, Peter

    1995-01-01

    Agents Unleashed: A Public Domain Look at Agent Technology covers details of building a secure agent realm. The book discusses the technology for creating seamlessly integrated networks that allow programs to move from machine to machine without leaving a trail of havoc; as well as the technical details of how an agent will move through the network, prove its identity, and execute its code without endangering the host. The text also describes the organization of the host's work processing an agent; error messages, bad agent expulsion, and errors in XLISP-agents; and the simulators of errors, f

  9. Modelling of robotic work cells using agent based-approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sękala, A.; Banaś, W.; Gwiazda, A.; Monica, Z.; Kost, G.; Hryniewicz, P.

    2016-08-01

    In the case of modern manufacturing systems the requirements, both according the scope and according characteristics of technical procedures are dynamically changing. This results in production system organization inability to keep up with changes in a market demand. Accordingly, there is a need for new design methods, characterized, on the one hand with a high efficiency and on the other with the adequate level of the generated organizational solutions. One of the tools that could be used for this purpose is the concept of agent systems. These systems are the tools of artificial intelligence. They allow assigning to agents the proper domains of procedures and knowledge so that they represent in a self-organizing system of an agent environment, components of a real system. The agent-based system for modelling robotic work cell should be designed taking into consideration many limitations considered with the characteristic of this production unit. It is possible to distinguish some grouped of structural components that constitute such a system. This confirms the structural complexity of a work cell as a specific production system. So it is necessary to develop agents depicting various aspects of the work cell structure. The main groups of agents that are used to model a robotic work cell should at least include next pattern representatives: machine tool agents, auxiliary equipment agents, robots agents, transport equipment agents, organizational agents as well as data and knowledge bases agents. In this way it is possible to create the holarchy of the agent-based system.

  10. Health Extension in New Mexico: An Academic Health Center and the Social Determinants of Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Arthur; Powell, Wayne; Alfero, Charles; Pacheco, Mario; Silverblatt, Helene; Anastasoff, Juliana; Ronquillo, Francisco; Lucero, Ken; Corriveau, Erin; Vanleit, Betsy; Alverson, Dale; Scott, Amy

    2010-01-01

    The Agricultural Cooperative Extension Service model offers academic health centers methodologies for community engagement that can address the social determinants of disease. The University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center developed Health Extension Rural Offices (HEROs) as a vehicle for its model of health extension. Health extension agents are located in rural communities across the state and are supported by regional coordinators and the Office of the Vice President for Community Health at the Health Sciences Center. The role of agents is to work with different sectors of the community in identifying high-priority health needs and linking those needs with university resources in education, clinical service and research. Community needs, interventions, and outcomes are monitored by county health report cards. The Health Sciences Center is a large and varied resource, the breadth and accessibility of which are mostly unknown to communities. Community health needs vary, and agents are able to tap into an array of existing health center resources to address those needs. Agents serve a broader purpose beyond immediate, strictly medical needs by addressing underlying social determinants of disease, such as school retention, food insecurity, and local economic development. Developing local capacity to address local needs has become an overriding concern. Community-based health extension agents can effectively bridge those needs with academic health center resources and extend those resources to address the underlying social determinants of disease. PMID:20065282

  11. Effect of reducing agents on wheat gluten and quality characteristics of flour and cookies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen KUMAR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of reducing agents (Lcystine, glutathione and proteases on wheat gluten recovery and quality characteristics of dough and cookies. PBW-343 and RAJ-3765 wheat varieties were analysed for physico-chemical properties which indicated that wheat variety RAJ-3765 had superior quality characteristics in comparison to PBW-343. Wet gluten and dry gluten %yields were reduced with addition of reducing agents. As the concentration of reducing agents increased gluten, yield decreased further. The dough strength (resistance to extension decreased, whereas extension of dough increased significantly with the addition of reducing agents. Upon addition of reducing agents, spread factor increased, whereas hardness decreased. Glutathione was found to be the most effective reducing agent out of the three reducing agents used in this study.

  12. Agent Persuasion Mechanism of Acquaintance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinghua, Wu; Wenguang, Lu; Hailiang, Meng

    Agent persuasion can improve negotiation efficiency in dynamic environment based on its initiative and autonomy, and etc., which is being affected much more by acquaintance. Classification of acquaintance on agent persuasion is illustrated, and the agent persuasion model of acquaintance is also illustrated. Then the concept of agent persuasion degree of acquaintance is given. Finally, relative interactive mechanism is elaborated.

  13. Segment-Specific Adhesion as a Driver of Convergent Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroomans, Renske M. A.; Hogeweg, Paulien; ten Tusscher, Kirsten H. W. J.

    2015-01-01

    Convergent extension, the simultaneous extension and narrowing of tissues, is a crucial event in the formation of the main body axis during embryonic development. It involves processes on multiple scales: the sub-cellular, cellular and tissue level, which interact via explicit or intrinsic feedback mechanisms. Computational modelling studies play an important role in unravelling the multiscale feedbacks underlying convergent extension. Convergent extension usually operates in tissue which has been patterned or is currently being patterned into distinct domains of gene expression. How such tissue patterns are maintained during the large scale tissue movements of convergent extension has thus far not been investigated. Intriguingly, experimental data indicate that in certain cases these tissue patterns may drive convergent extension rather than requiring safeguarding against convergent extension. Here we use a 2D Cellular Potts Model (CPM) of a tissue prepatterned into segments, to show that convergent extension tends to disrupt this pre-existing segmental pattern. However, when cells preferentially adhere to cells of the same segment type, segment integrity is maintained without any reduction in tissue extension. Strikingly, we demonstrate that this segment-specific adhesion is by itself sufficient to drive convergent extension. Convergent extension is enhanced when we endow our in silico cells with persistence of motion, which in vivo would naturally follow from cytoskeletal dynamics. Finally, we extend our model to confirm the generality of our results. We demonstrate a similar effect of differential adhesion on convergent extension in tissues that can only extend in a single direction (as often occurs due to the inertia of the head region of the embryo), and in tissues prepatterned into a sequence of domains resulting in two opposing adhesive gradients, rather than alternating segments. PMID:25706823

  14. Agent-based Simulation of the Maritime Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Vaněk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a multi-agent based simulation platform is introduced that focuses on legitimate and illegitimate aspects of maritime traffic, mainly on intercontinental transport through piracy afflicted areas. The extensible architecture presented here comprises several modules controlling the simulation and the life-cycle of the agents, analyzing the simulation output and visualizing the entire simulated domain. The simulation control module is initialized by various configuration scenarios to simulate various real-world situations, such as a pirate ambush, coordinated transit through a transport corridor, or coastal fishing and local traffic. The environmental model provides a rich set of inputs for agents that use the geo-spatial data and the vessel operational characteristics for their reasoning. The agent behavior model based on finite state machines together with planning algorithms allows complex expression of agent behavior, so the resulting simulation output can serve as a substitution for real world data from the maritime domain.

  15. SECOND BUYING AGENT

    CERN Multimedia

    SPL - SERVICES ACHATS

    2000-01-01

    Last year the buying agent LOGITRADE started operations on the CERN site, processing purchasing requests for well-defined families of products up to a certain value. It was planned from the outset that a second buying agent would be brought in to handle the remaining product families. So, according to that plan, the company CHARLES KENDALL will be commencing operations at CERN on 8 May 2000 in Building 73, 1st floor, offices 31 and 35 (phone and fax numbers to be announced).Each buying agent will have its own specific list of product families and will handle purchasing requests up to 10'000 CHF.Whenever possible they will provide the requested supplies at a price (including the cost of their own services) which must be equivalent to or lower than the price mentioned on the purchasing request, changing the supplier if necessary. If a lower price cannot be obtained, agents will provide the necessary administrative support free of charge.To ensure that all orders are processed in the best possible conditions, us...

  16. Socially Intelligent Tutor Agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Nijholt, Antinus; op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Vissers, M.; Aylett, R.; Ballin, D.; Rist, T.

    2003-01-01

    Emotions and personality have received quite a lot of attention the last few years in research on embodied conversational agents. Attention is also increasingly being paid to matters of social psychology and interpersonal aspects, for work of our group). Given the nature of an embodied

  17. Alternative inerting agents

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Final Project Report ALTERNATIVE INERTING AGENTS Author/s: J J L DU PLESSIS Research Agency: OSIR MINING TECHNOLOGY Project No: Date: 3 2 7 2 COL 443 APRIL 1999 N’ ) ( G~6~ I Title: 9 / The results show...

  18. Multimodal training between agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias

    2003-01-01

    In the system Locator1, agents are treated as individual and autonomous subjects that are able to adapt to heterogenous user groups. Applying multimodal information from their surroundings (visual and linguistic), they acquire the necessary concepts for a successful interaction. This approach has...

  19. Stabilized radiographic scanning agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawzi, M.B.

    1979-01-01

    A stable composition useful in preparation of technetium-99m-based radiographic scanning agents has been developed. The composition contains a stabilizing amount of gentisate stabilizer selected from gentisic acid and its soluble pharmaceutically-acceptable salts and esthers. (E.G.)

  20. A waterproofing agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shchipanov, A.I.; Bass, U.M.; Belousov, E.D.; Chernova, S.P.; Gioev, K.A.; Perlin, L.M.; Shapiro, B.O.; Silantev, U.R.

    1979-12-25

    A waterproofing agent is proposed with improved physiomechanical properties. The agent contains (by parts): bitumens: 100; emulsifier: .6-5; polyvinylpyrrolidone: .4-8; synthetic latex: 5.24; a corrosion inhibitor: .2-10; SPL methyl methacrylate with chloroprene: 2.24; hydrochlorinated amine of adduct diethylene triamine with diglycidyl diamine: 2-10, water: 118-220. The agent is prepared using either periodic or continuous action in emulsifying dispersion machines. The bitumen is dispersed in the machine in an aqueous emulsifying solution in which polyvinylpyrrolidone and the corrosion inihibitor are first introduced. Then a synthetic latex solution is introduced into the bitumen emulsion while being mixed in rotor-type turbulent mixers; a solution and a hydrochlorinated amine of adduct diethylene triamine with diglycidyl diamine solution until a homogeneous mixture is obtained. Example: a waterproofing agent is obtained in parts: bitumen 100, emulsifyer (oxidized petrolatum): .6; polyvinylpyrrolidone: .4; synthetic latex (nitrile): 5; corrosion inhibitor (guanidine chromate): .2, SPL:2; and water 118. The properties of the proposed composition are better than the properties of the composition currently used.

  1. Product and Agent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montecino, Alex; Valero, Paola

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we will explore how the “mathematics teacher” becomes a subject and, at the same time, is subjected as part of diverse dispositive of power. We argue that the mathematics teacher becomes both a product and a social agent, which has been set, within current societies, from the ideas...

  2. E-Learning Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Dawn G.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the advantages of using intelligent agents to facilitate the location and customization of appropriate e-learning resources and to foster collaboration in e-learning environments. Design/methodology/approach: This paper proposes an e-learning environment that can be used to provide customized…

  3. Banana Algebra: Compositional syntactic language extension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jacob; Brabrand, Claus; Christiansen, David Raymond

    2013-01-01

    We propose an algebra of languages and transformations as a means of compositional syntactic language extension. The algebra provides a layer of high-level abstractions built on top of languages (captured by context-free grammars) and transformations (captured by constructive catamorphisms...... algebra as presented in the paper is implemented as the Banana Algebra Tool which may be used to syntactically extend languages in an incremental and modular fashion via algebraic composition of previously defined languages and transformations. We demonstrate and evaluate the tool via several kinds...

  4. Curve collection, extension of databases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillemot, F.

    1992-01-01

    Full text: Databases: generally calculated data only. The original measurements: diagrams. Information loss between them Expensive research eg. irradiation, aging, creep etc. Original curves should be stored for reanalysing. The format of the stored curves: a. Data in ASCII files, only numbers b. Other information in strings in a second file Same name, but different extension. Extensions shows the type of the test and the type of the file. EXAMPLES. TEN is tensile information, TED is tensile data, CHN is Charpy informations, CHD is Charpy data. Storing techniques: digitalised measurements, digitalising old curves stored on paper. Use: making catalogues, reanalysing, comparison with new data. Tools: mathematical software packages like quattro, genplot, exel, mathcad, qbasic, pascal, fortran, mathlab, grapher etc. (author)

  5. New examples of frobenius extensions

    CERN Document Server

    Kadison, Lars

    1999-01-01

    This volume is based on the author's lecture courses to algebraists at Munich and at G�teborg. He presents, for the first time in book form, a unified approach from the point of view of Frobenius algebras/extensions to diverse topics, such as Jones' subfactor theory, Hopf algebras and Hopf subalgebras, the Yang-Baxter Equation and 2-dimensional topological quantum field theories. Other Features: Initial steps toward a theory of noncommutative ring extensions. Self-contained sections on Azumaya algebras and strongly separable algebras. Applications and generalizations of Morita theory and Azumaya algebra due to Hirata and Sugano. Understanding the text requires no prior background in Frobenius algebras or Hopf algebras. An index and a thorough list of further references are included. There is an appendix giving a brief historical guide to the literature.

  6. Linear programming foundations and extensions

    CERN Document Server

    Vanderbei, Robert J

    2001-01-01

    Linear Programming: Foundations and Extensions is an introduction to the field of optimization. The book emphasizes constrained optimization, beginning with a substantial treatment of linear programming, and proceeding to convex analysis, network flows, integer programming, quadratic programming, and convex optimization. The book is carefully written. Specific examples and concrete algorithms precede more abstract topics. Topics are clearly developed with a large number of numerical examples worked out in detail. Moreover, Linear Programming: Foundations and Extensions underscores the purpose of optimization: to solve practical problems on a computer. Accordingly, the book is coordinated with free efficient C programs that implement the major algorithms studied: -The two-phase simplex method; -The primal-dual simplex method; -The path-following interior-point method; -The homogeneous self-dual methods. In addition, there are online JAVA applets that illustrate various pivot rules and variants of the simplex m...

  7. Managing BWR plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ianni, P.W.; Kiss, E.

    1985-01-01

    Recent studies have confirmed that extending the useful life of a large nuclear plant can be justified with very high cost benefit ratio. In turn, experience with large power plant systems and equipment has shown that a well-integrated and -managed plan is essential in order to achieve potential economic benefits. Consequently, General Electric's efforts have been directed at establishing a life extension plan that considers alternative options and cost-effective steps that can be taken in early life, those appropriate during middle life, and those required in late life. This paper briefly describes an approach designed to provide the plant owner a maximum of flexibility in developing a life extension plan

  8. Perineural extension of facial melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalina, Peter [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Bevilacqua, Paula

    2005-05-01

    A 64-year-old man presented with a pigmented cutaneous lesion on the right side of his face along with right facial numbness. Histological examination revealed malignant melanoma. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed perineural extension along the entire course of the maxillary division of the right trigeminal nerve. This is a rare but important manifestation of the spread of head and neck malignancy. (orig.)

  9. Recall in extensive form games

    OpenAIRE

    Klaus Ritzberger

    1999-01-01

    This paper considers characterizations of perfect recall in extensive form games. It is shown that perfect recall can be expressed in terms of choices without any reference to infomation sets. When information sets are taken into account, it is decomposable into an ordering of information sets and that players do not forget what they knew nor what they did. Thus, if information sets are partially ordered, then perfect recall is implied by the player's inability to refine her information from ...

  10. Dosimetry of β extensive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas C, E.L.; Lallena R, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    In this work, we have been studied, making use of the Penelope Monte Carlo simulation code, the dosimetry of β extensive sources in situations of spherical geometry including interfaces. These configurations are of interest in the treatment of the called cranealfaringyomes of some synovia leisure of knee and other problems of interest in medical physics. Therefore, its application can be extended toward problems of another areas with similar geometric situation and beta sources. (Author)

  11. Two endogenous proteins that induce cell wall extension in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQueen-Mason, S.; Durachko, D. M.; Cosgrove, D. J.

    1992-01-01

    Plant cell enlargement is regulated by wall relaxation and yielding, which is thought to be catalyzed by elusive "wall-loosening" enzymes. By employing a reconstitution approach, we found that a crude protein extract from the cell walls of growing cucumber seedlings possessed the ability to induce the extension of isolated cell walls. This activity was restricted to the growing region of the stem and could induce the extension of isolated cell walls from various dicot stems and the leaves of amaryllidaceous monocots, but was less effective on grass coleoptile walls. Endogenous and reconstituted wall extension activities showed similar sensitivities to pH, metal ions, thiol reducing agents, proteases, and boiling in methanol or water. Sequential HPLC fractionation of the active wall extract revealed two proteins with molecular masses of 29 and 30 kD associated with the activity. Each protein, by itself, could induce wall extension without detectable hydrolytic breakdown of the wall. These proteins appear to mediate "acid growth" responses of isolated walls and may catalyze plant cell wall extension by a novel biochemical mechanism.

  12. N-grams Based Supervised Machine Learning Model for Mobile Agent Platform Protection against Unknown Malicious Mobile Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi Bagga

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available From many past years, the detection of unknown malicious mobile agents before they invade the Mobile Agent Platform has been the subject of much challenging activity. The ever-growing threat of malicious agents calls for techniques for automated malicious agent detection. In this context, the machine learning (ML methods are acknowledged more effective than the Signature-based and Behavior-based detection methods. Therefore, in this paper, the prime contribution has been made to detect the unknown malicious mobile agents based on n-gram features and supervised ML approach, which has not been done so far in the sphere of the Mobile Agents System (MAS security. To carry out the study, the n-grams ranging from 3 to 9 are extracted from a dataset containing 40 malicious and 40 non-malicious mobile agents. Subsequently, the classification is performed using different classifiers. A nested 5-fold cross validation scheme is employed in order to avoid the biasing in the selection of optimal parameters of classifier. The observations of extensive experiments demonstrate that the work done in this paper is suitable for the task of unknown malicious mobile agent detection in a Mobile Agent Environment, and also adds the ML in the interest list of researchers dealing with MAS security.

  13. Nondestructive Intervention to Multi-Agent Systems through an Intelligent Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jing; Wang, Lin

    2013-01-01

    For a given multi-agent system where the local interaction rule of the existing agents can not be re-designed, one way to intervene the collective behavior of the system is to add one or a few special agents into the group which are still treated as normal agents by the existing ones. We study how to lead a Vicsek-like flocking model to reach synchronization by adding special agents. A popular method is to add some simple leaders (fixed-headings agents). However, we add one intelligent agent, called ‘shill’, which uses online feedback information of the group to decide the shill's moving direction at each step. A novel strategy for the shill to coordinate the group is proposed. It is strictly proved that a shill with this strategy and a limited speed can synchronize every agent in the group. The computer simulations show the effectiveness of this strategy in different scenarios, including different group sizes, shill speed, and with or without noise. Compared to the method of adding some fixed-heading leaders, our method can guarantee synchronization for any initial configuration in the deterministic scenario and improve the synchronization level significantly in low density groups, or model with noise. This suggests the advantage and power of feedback information in intervention of collective behavior. PMID:23658695

  14. Nondestructive intervention to multi-agent systems through an intelligent agent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Han

    Full Text Available For a given multi-agent system where the local interaction rule of the existing agents can not be re-designed, one way to intervene the collective behavior of the system is to add one or a few special agents into the group which are still treated as normal agents by the existing ones. We study how to lead a Vicsek-like flocking model to reach synchronization by adding special agents. A popular method is to add some simple leaders (fixed-headings agents. However, we add one intelligent agent, called 'shill', which uses online feedback information of the group to decide the shill's moving direction at each step. A novel strategy for the shill to coordinate the group is proposed. It is strictly proved that a shill with this strategy and a limited speed can synchronize every agent in the group. The computer simulations show the effectiveness of this strategy in different scenarios, including different group sizes, shill speed, and with or without noise. Compared to the method of adding some fixed-heading leaders, our method can guarantee synchronization for any initial configuration in the deterministic scenario and improve the synchronization level significantly in low density groups, or model with noise. This suggests the advantage and power of feedback information in intervention of collective behavior.

  15. A study on development and applications of agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sun Hee; Sohn, Jae Min

    2000-06-01

    An agent study is variously applied from the restricted research of an early AI field to the practical SW development of the design and implementation of a high level, distributed hybrid system. Among the detailed research fields of AI, making a new research field called distributed AI, the trial of resolving a problem based on an agent, has begun. Related to it, the requirement of an intelligent system to offer convenience to easily do a job which the user wants, with the recent trial of an approach for internet agents of various types, were developed to be performed automatically and the agent anticipate the user's need. In this paper, the basic concepts regarding an agent system, research direction and applications were analyzed and outlined. The consisting elements were also analyzed. such as background, needs, basic concepts and properties of the agent. The agent's research status was recently analyzed, and the development and related property of an intelligent agent were written. Application and the instance of a generalized agent about applicable fields in the real world were studied, functions and services about intelligent agents were analyzed. The applicable field of an agent technique becomes various not in information retrieval on a web site, but in the processing of internet information, and in the electronic commerce, industry and medical fields. Through analyzing and comparing the general concept of various agents, this study will aid in establishing a future direction of research in this field

  16. Exotic biological control agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hajek, Ann E.; Hurley, Brett P.; Kenis, Marc; Garnas, Jeffrey R.; Bush, Samantha J.; Wingfield, Michael J.; Lenteren, van Joop C.; Cock, Matthew J.W.

    2016-01-01

    Biological control is a valuable and effective strategy for controlling arthropod pests and has been used extensively against invasive arthropods. As one approach for control of invasives, exotic natural enemies from the native range of a pest are introduced to areas where control is needed.

  17. Self-triggered rendezvous of gossiping second-order agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Persis, Claudio; Frasca, Paolo; Hendrickx, Julien M.

    2013-01-01

    A recent paper by some of the authors introduced several self-triggered coordination algorithms for first-order continuous-time systems. The extension of these algorithms to second-order agents is relevant in many practical applications but presents some challenges that are tackled in this

  18. Topical antifungal agents: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, K B

    1996-10-01

    So many topical antifungal agents have been introduced that it has become very difficult to select the proper agent for a given infection. Nonspecific agents have been available for many years, and they are still effective in many situations. These agents include Whitfield's ointment, Castellani paint, gentian violet, potassium permanganate, undecylenic acid and selenium sulfide. Specific antifungal agents include, among others, the polyenes (nystatin, amphotericin B), the imidazoles (metronidazole, clotrimazole) and the allylamines (terbinafine, naftifine). Although the choice of an antifungal agent should be based on an accurate diagnosis, many clinicians believe that topical miconazole is a relatively effective agent for the treatment of most mycotic infections. Terbinafine and other newer drugs have primary fungicidal effects. Compared with older antifungal agents, these newer drugs can be used in lower concentrations and shorter therapeutic courses. Studies are needed to evaluate the clinical efficacies and cost advantages of both newer and traditional agents.

  19. Intelligent agents for e-commerce applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuppala, Krishna

    1999-12-01

    This thesis focuses on development of intelligent agent solutions for e-commerce applications. E-Commerce has several complexities like: lack of information about the players, learning the nature of one's business partners/competitors, finding the right business partner to do business with, using the right strategy to get best profit out of the negotiations etc. The agent models developed can be used in any agent solution for e-commerce. Concepts and techniques from Game Theory and Artificial Intelligence are used. The developed models have several advantages over the existing ones as: the models assume the non-availability of information about other players in the market, the models of players get updated over the time as and when new information comes about the players, the negotiation model incorporates the patience levels of the players and expectations from other players in the market. Power industry has been chosen as the application area for the demonstration of the capabilities and usage of the developed agent models. Two e-commerce scenarios where sellers and buyers can go through the power exchanges to bid in auctions, or make bilateral deals outside of the exchange are addressed. In the first scenario agent helps market participants in coordinating strategies with other participants, bidding in auctions by analyzing and understanding the behavior of other participants. In the second scenario, called "Power Traders Assistant" agent helps power trader, who buys and sells power through bilateral negotiations, in negotiating deals with his customers.

  20. Halon firefighting agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, P.R.; Dalzell, G.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper examines the current state of the International agreements on the use of halons and the subsequent National and industry approaches to the subject. It examines the definition of Essential Use and gives particular examples to clarify its interpretation. Alternative methods of loss control are reviewed. It does not address alternative active firefighting agents but examines the need for protection in particular areas. It addresses reduction of the hazards and consequences so that the need for protection can be minimized. Practical measures to minimize the installed quantities of halon are described. This covers specifications for new, essential, systems and the short term reduction of inventories in existing systems. The causes of leakage and accidental releases are studied and preventive measures are proposed. The paper concludes with an overview of the current research into replacement agents and the future outlook

  1. Blasting agent package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, R.

    1971-03-17

    A protected preassembled package for blasting agents susceptible to desensitization by water consists of, in combination: (1) an inner rigid and self-supporting tube, the upper end of which is suited to be connected, or attached, to the discharge end of a loading hose for a blasting agent and the lower end of which is open; and (2) a flexible tubular liner made of water-resistant film, having a diameter greater than that of the inner tube and a length at least equal to the desired depth of its insertion into the borehole, the liner being sleeved over the length of the inner tube, the upper end of the liner being attached to the inner tube and the lower end of the liner being closed so as to prevent substantial discharge of the explosive mixture therefrom when the latter is pumped into it. (24 claims)

  2. Pathogenic agents in freshwater resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geldreich, Edwin E.

    1996-02-01

    Numerous pathogenic agents have been found in freshwaters used as sources for water supplies, recreational bathing and irrigation. These agents include bacterial pathogens, enteric viruses, several protozoans and parasitic worms more common to tropical waters. Although infected humans are a major source of pathogens, farm animals (cattle, sheep, pigs), animal pets (dogs, cats) and wildlife serve as significant reservoirs and should not be ignored. The range of infected individuals within a given warm-blooded animal group (humans included) may range from 1 to 25%. Survival times for pathogens in the water environment may range from a few days to as much as a year (Ascaris, Taenia eggs), with infective dose levels varying from one viable cell for several primary pathogenic agents to many thousands of cells for a given opportunistic pathogen.As pathogen detection in water is complex and not readily incorporated into routine monitoring, a surrogate is necessary. In general, indicators of faecal contamination provide a positive correlation with intestinal pathogen occurrences only when appropriate sample volumes are examined by sensitive methodology.Pathways by which pathogens reach susceptible water users include ingestion of contaminated water, body contact with polluted recreational waters and consumption of salad crops irrigated by polluted freshwaters. Major contributors to the spread of various water-borne pathogens are sewage, polluted surface waters and stormwater runoff. All of these contributions are intensified during periods of major floods. Several water-borne case histories are cited as examples of breakdowns in public health protection related to water supply, recreational waters and the consumption of contaminated salad crops. In the long term, water resource management must focus on pollution prevention from point sources of waste discharges and the spread of pathogens in watershed stormwater runoff.

  3. Baccalaureate nursing education at extension sites: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiffany, J C; Burson, J Z

    1986-03-01

    The use of extension sites in baccalaureate nursing education has increased significantly since 1978. This survey found that the majority of extension sites were developed for RNs although large numbers of generic students are also served. The use of extension sites ranges from delivering selected courses away from the lead campus to delivering an entire program. Extension sites may be located on other university campuses or may be found in a store front setting or other community agency. Administrative control of extension sites emanates from the lead campus. Faculty participation in faculty activities, such as school of nursing or university committees, is expected. The degree to which this is accomplished, however, may vary. In order to maintain program integrity, the curriculum must remain the same regardless of where it is implemented. One of the primary ways of doing this is to use the same syllabi, texts and, in many cases, the same exams. Faculty may be stationary at established extended sites or may travel from the lead campus to teach, carrying with them educational materials. Extension sites are a phenomenon of the here and now. They provide a way of delivering baccalaureate nursing education to students who might otherwise be denied this level of education. Extension sites may be operationally cumbersome, challenging, and costly, but they are meeting a need. With the advent of more sophisticated telecommunications and the continued demand for baccalaureate level education, the possibility exists for even greater variation and potential for this type of program.

  4. Professional development and extension programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bereznai, G. [University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Oshawa, ON (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    Professional Development (PD) refers to the means by which people acquire, develop, maintain and enhance the specialist knowledge and skills needed to practice in their profession. Extension Programs (aka Continuing Education) are offered by most post-secondary degree/diploma/certificate granting institutions.The courses are typically taken on a part-time basis, and course delivery often includes distance learning technology. An important implementation of PD is via workplace training, industry specific seminars, workshops and non-credit courses offered by a wide range of service providers.

  5. Coal Combustion Products Extension Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarunjit S. Butalia; William E. Wolfe

    2006-01-11

    This final project report presents the activities and accomplishments of the ''Coal Combustion Products Extension Program'' conducted at The Ohio State University from August 1, 2000 to June 30, 2005 to advance the beneficial uses of coal combustion products (CCPs) in highway and construction, mine reclamation, agricultural, and manufacturing sectors. The objective of this technology transfer/research program at The Ohio State University was to promote the increased use of Ohio CCPs (fly ash, FGD material, bottom ash, and boiler slag) in applications that are technically sound, environmentally benign, and commercially competitive. The project objective was accomplished by housing the CCP Extension Program within The Ohio State University College of Engineering with support from the university Extension Service and The Ohio State University Research Foundation. Dr. Tarunjit S. Butalia, an internationally reputed CCP expert and registered professional engineer, was the program coordinator. The program coordinator acted as liaison among CCP stakeholders in the state, produced information sheets, provided expertise in the field to those who desired it, sponsored and co-sponsored seminars, meetings, and speaking at these events, and generally worked to promote knowledge about the productive and proper application of CCPs as useful raw materials. The major accomplishments of the program were: (1) Increase in FGD material utilization rate from 8% in 1997 to more than 20% in 2005, and an increase in overall CCP utilization rate of 21% in 1997 to just under 30% in 2005 for the State of Ohio. (2) Recognition as a ''voice of trust'' among Ohio and national CCP stakeholders (particularly regulatory agencies). (3) Establishment of a national and international reputation, especially for the use of FGD materials and fly ash in construction applications. It is recommended that to increase Ohio's CCP utilization rate from 30% in 2005 to

  6. Professional development and extension programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bereznai, G.

    2015-01-01

    Professional Development (PD) refers to the means by which people acquire, develop, maintain and enhance the specialist knowledge and skills needed to practice in their profession. Extension Programs (aka Continuing Education) are offered by most post-secondary degree/diploma/certificate granting institutions.The courses are typically taken on a part-time basis, and course delivery often includes distance learning technology. An important implementation of PD is via workplace training, industry specific seminars, workshops and non-credit courses offered by a wide range of service providers.

  7. New Stethoscope With Extensible Diaphragm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashina, Tsunekazu; Shimizu, Masashi; Muratake, Torakazu; Mayuzumi, Syuichi

    2016-08-25

    This study compared the diagnostic efficacy of the common suspended diaphragm stethoscope (SDS) with a new extensible diaphragm stethoscope (EDS) for low-frequency heart sounds. The EDS was developed by using an ethylene propylene diene monomer diaphragm. The results showed that the EDS enhanced both the volume and quality of low-frequency heart sounds, and improved the ability of examiners to auscultate such heart sounds. Based on the results of the sound analysis, the EDS is more efficient than the SDS. (Circ J 2016; 80: 2047-2049).

  8. Japanese plant life extension program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshitsugu, M.

    1988-01-01

    As one of the main items of up-grading light water reactor program in Japan, plant life extension has been recommended by Advisory Committee of Ministry of International trade and Industry and the practical work has begun to be carried out. It is overviewed here. After preliminary works, including investigation on the state of the arts through a entrusted survey work, participation in international meetings and exchange of informations with related organizations, actual work has just started. So-called critical components based on our experience during the past 17 years have been listed up and some experimental works inaugurated as from 1987

  9. Conformal Extensions of the Standard Model with Veltman Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antipin, Oleg; Mojaza, Matin; Sannino, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Using the renormalisation group framework we classify different extensions of the standard model according to their degree of naturality. A new relevant class of perturbative models involving elementary scalars is the one in which the theory simultaneously satisfies the Veltman conditions...... and is conformal at the classical level. We term these extensions perturbative natural conformal (PNC) theories. We show that PNC models are very constrained and thus highly predictive. Among the several PNC examples that we exhibit, we discover a remarkably simple PNC extension of the standard model in which...

  10. Multi-Agent Framework in Visual Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Molina

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent interest in the surveillance of public, military, and commercial scenarios is increasing the need to develop and deploy intelligent and/or automated distributed visual surveillance systems. Many applications based on distributed resources use the so-called software agent technology. In this paper, a multi-agent framework is applied to coordinate videocamera-based surveillance. The ability to coordinate agents improves the global image and task distribution efficiency. In our proposal, a software agent is embedded in each camera and controls the capture parameters. Then coordination is based on the exchange of high-level messages among agents. Agents use an internal symbolic model to interpret the current situation from the messages from all other agents to improve global coordination.

  11. Effect of Nigella sativa supplementation over a one-year period on lipid levels, blood pressure and heart rate in type-2 diabetic patients receiving oral hypoglycemic agents: nonrandomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badar, Ahmed; Kaatabi, Huda; Bamosa, Abdullah; Al-Elq, Abdulmohsen; Abou-Hozaifa, Bodour; Lebda, Fatma; Alkhadra, Akram; Al-Almaie, Sameeh

    2017-01-01

    Diabetic patients with hypertension and dyslipidemia are at a high risk of cardiovascular complications. To determine the effect of Nigella sativa supplementation on the lipid profile, mean arterial pressure, and heart rate in persons with type 2 diabetes on oral hypoglycemic agents (OHA). Single-blind, nonrandomized. Diabetes clinic of a university hospital in Saudi Arabia. Type-2 diabetic patients were recruited by purposive sampling and assigned to treatment or control at the discretion of the investigator with the patient blinded to treatment. Before the in.tervention and every 3 months thereafter until the end of the treatment period, the following parameters were measured: triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and body mass index (BMI). Results at the baseline and each subsequent visit were compared between the two groups. Lipid and cardiovascular parameters, and BMI. Fifty-seven patients were assigned to receive N sativa 2 g daily for one year and 57 were assigned to receive an identical regimen of placebo, along with OHA. A significant decrease in HDL-C and increase in the TC/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C ratios were seen in the control group. The N sativa group had a signifi.cant decline in TC, LDL-C, TC/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C ratios, compared with the respective baseline data and the control group. HDL-C was significantly elevated in the N sativa group. The control group showed a significant elevation in MAP. The N sativa group had a significant reduction in SBP, DBP, MAP and HR and a significant decrease in DBP, MAP and HR as compared with the control group. N sativa supplementation improves total cholesterol, mean arterial pressure and heart rate in type 2 diabetes patients on oral hypoglycemic agents. There were 9 subjects in each group lost to follow up

  12. JESS: Java extensible snakes system

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInerney, Tim; Akhavan Sharif, M. Reza; Pashotanizadeh, Nasrin

    2005-04-01

    Snakes (Active Contour Models) are powerful model-based image segmentation tools. Although researchers have proven them especially useful in medical image analysis over the past decade, Snakes have remained primarily in the academic world and they have not become widely used in clinical practice or widely available in commercial packages. A number of confusing and specialized variants exist and there has been no standard open-source implementation available. To address this problem, we present a Java Extensible Snakes System (JESS) that is general, portable, and extensible. The system uses Java Swing classes to allow for the rapid development of custom graphical user interfaces (GUI's). It also incorporates the Java Advanced Imaging(JAI) class library, which provide custom image preprocessing, image display and general image I/O. The Snakes algorithm itself is written in a hierarchical fashion, consisting of a general Snake class and several subclasses that span the main variants of Snakes including a new, powerful, robust subdivision-curve Snake. These subclasses can be easily and quickly extended and customized for any specific segmentation and analysis task. We demonstrate the utility of these classes for segmenting various anatomical structures from 2D medical images. We also demonstrate the effectiveness of JESS by using it to rapidly build a prototype semi-automatic sperm analysis system. The JESS software will be made publicly available in early 2005.

  13. Farmers’ adoption of extensive wheat production – Determinants and implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finger, R.; Benni, El N.

    2013-01-01

    Using farm-level panel data, we analyze farmers’ adoption decisions with respect to extensive wheat production, which is supported in Switzerland since 1992 with an ecological direct payment scheme. It shows that in particular farms with a small area under wheat, low levels of input use and low

  14. Constructing Secure Mobile Agent Systems Using the Agent Operating System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van t Noordende, G.J.; Overeinder, B.J.; Timmer, R.J.; Brazier, F.M.; Tanenbaum, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    Designing a secure and reliable mobile agent system is a difficult task. The agent operating system (AOS) is a building block that simplifies this task. AOS provides common primitives required by most mobile agent middleware systems, such as primitives for secure communication, secure and

  15. Logics for Intelligent Agents and Multi-Agent Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, John-Jules Charles

    2014-01-01

    This chapter presents the history of the application of logic in a quite popular paradigm in contemporary computer science and artificial intelligence, viz. the area of intelligent agents and multi-agent systems. In particular we discuss the logics that have been used to specify single agents, the

  16. Organizations as Socially Constructed Agents in the Agent Oriented Paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Boella (Guido); L.W.N. van der Torre (Leon)

    2005-01-01

    htmlabstractIn this paper we propose a new role for the agent metaphor in the definition of the organizational structure of multiagent systems. The agent metaphor is extended to consider as agents also social entities like organizations, groups and normative systems, so that mental attitudes can

  17. Thwarting plague and pestilence in the Australian sugar industry : Crop protection capacity and resilience built by agricultural extension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunt, Warren; Birch, Colin; Vanclay, Frank

    This paper investigates how Australian sugar industry extension services over the last decade have overcome historical pest management challenges in sugarcane (Saccharum spp.). The industry has done this by building increased capacity amongst its extension agents and farmers. This paper considers

  18. Exchanging large data object in multi-agent systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Yaseen, Wathiq Laftah; Othman, Zulaiha Ali; Nazri, Mohd Zakree Ahmad

    2016-08-01

    One of the Business Intelligent solutions that is currently in use is the Multi-Agent System (MAS). Communication is one of the most important elements in MAS, especially for exchanging large low level data between distributed agents (physically). The Agent Communication Language in JADE has been offered as a secure method for sending data, whereby the data is defined as an object. However, the object cannot be used to send data to another agent in a different location. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to propose a method for the exchange of large low level data as an object by creating a proxy agent known as a Delivery Agent, which temporarily imitates the Receiver Agent. The results showed that the proposed method is able to send large-sized data. The experiments were conducted using 16 datasets ranging from 100,000 to 7 million instances. However, for the proposed method, the RAM and the CPU machine had to be slightly increased for the Receiver Agent, but the latency time was not significantly different compared to the use of the Java Socket method (non-agent and less secure). With such results, it was concluded that the proposed method can be used to securely send large data between agents.

  19. Effective ODE Zones in a Multi- Agent System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.

    Simulations which contain a large number of agents with rules for agent-agent interactions may grow to a level of complexity where it is cumbersome to extract useful information, difficult to split or agregate parts, and taxing on computational resources. We present here an example where a coarse...... graining of the system, and replacement of individual interactions with ODEs describing dynamical interactions between ‘effective zones’, leads to a fast and useful simplified model of the original complex system....

  20. Three-agent Peer Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Vicki Knoblauch

    2008-01-01

    I show that every rule for dividing a dollar among three agents impartially (so that each agent's share depends only on her evaluation by her associates) underpays some agent by at least one-third of a dollar for some consistent profile of evaluations. I then produce an impartial division rule that never underpays or overpays any agent by more than one-third of a dollar, and for most consistent evaluation profiles does much better.

  1. Believable Social and Emotional Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-05-01

    While building tools to support the creation of believable emotional agents, I had to make a number of important design decisions . Before describing...processing systems, it is difficult to give an artist direct control over the emotion - al aspects of the character. By making these decisions explicit, I hope...Woody on “Cheers”). Believable Agents BELIEVABLE SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL AGENTS 11 Lesson: We don’t want agent architectures that enforce rationality and

  2. Ultrasound contrast agents: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, David

    2006-12-01

    With the introduction of microbubble contrast agents, diagnostic ultrasound has entered a new era that allows the dynamic detection of tissue flow of both the macro and microvasculature. Underpinning this development is the fact that gases are compressible, and thus the microbubbles expand and contract in the alternating pressure waves of the ultrasound beam, while tissue is almost incompressible. Special software using multiple pulse sequences separates these signals from those of tissue and displays them as an overlay or on a split screen. This can be done at low acoustic pressures (MIdeveloped for myocardial perfusion. In radiology, the most important application is the liver, especially for focal disease. The approach parallels that of dynamic CT or MRI but ultrasound has the advantages of high spatial and temporal resolution. Thus, small lesions that can be indeterminate on CT can often be studied with ultrasound, and situations where the flow is very rapid (e.g., focal nodular hyperplasia where the first few seconds of arterial perfusion may be critical to making the diagnosis) are readily studied. Microbubbles linger in the extensive sinusoidal space of normal liver for several minutes whereas they wash out rapidly from metastases, which have a low vascular volume and thus appear as filling defects. The method has been shown to be as sensitive as three-phase CT. Microbubbles have clinical uses in many other applications where knowledge of the microcirculation is important (the macrocirculation can usually be assessed adequately using conventional Doppler though there are a few important situations where the signal boost given by microbubbles is useful, e.g., transcranial Doppler for evaluating vasospasm after subarachnoid haemorrhage). An important situation where demonstrating tissue devitalisation is important is in interstitial ablation of focal liver lesions: using microbubble contrast agents at the end of a procedure allows immediate evaluation of the

  3. On the formal analysis of the dynamics of simulated agent societies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popova, V.; Eiben, A.E.; Jonker, C.M.; Schut, M.C.

    2007-01-01

    To analyze emergent behavior, a formal framework is needed to characterize the structure and dynamics of complex interaction-based multi-agent systems. We introduce an extension of an existing agent testbed for artificial societies making it possible to formally analyze the dynamics of the simulated

  4. Fluorescein-related extensive jaundice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Asim; Turedi, Suleyman; Aydin, Ibrahim

    2015-03-01

    Fluorescein is a chemical dye frequently used in eye diseases to assess blood flow in the retina, choroid tissue, and iris. Although it has many known adverse effects, it has not previously been reported to lead to jaundice. The purpose of this case report was to emphasize that for patients presenting at the emergency department with jaundice symptoms, it should not be forgotten by emergency physicians that jaundice can develop after fluorescein angiography. Case: A 65-year-old woman presented at the emergency department with extensive jaundice that had developed on her entire body a few hours after fluorescein angiography applied because of vision impairment. The test results for all the diseases considered to cause jaundice were normal,and fluorescein-related jaundice was diagnosed. Conclusion: A detailed anamnesis should be taken when jaundice is seen in patients who have undergone fluorescein angiography, and it should not be forgotten that fluorescein dye is a rare cause of jaundice.

  5. An extension of fuzzy decisi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basem Mohamed Elomda

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new extension to Fuzzy Decision Maps (FDMs by allowing use of fuzzy linguistic values to represent relative importance among criteria in the preference matrix as well as representing relative influence among criteria for computing the steady-state matrix in the stage of Fuzzy Cognitive Map (FCM. The proposed model is called the Linguistic Fuzzy Decision Networks (LFDNs. The proposed LFDN provides considerable flexibility to decision makers when solving real world Multi-Criteria Decision-Making (MCDM problems. The performance of the proposed LFDN model is compared with the original FDM using a previously published case study. The result of comparison ensures the ability to draw the same decisions with a more realistic decision environment.

  6. Extensible numerical library in JAVA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aso, T.; Okazawa, H.; Takashimizu, N.

    2001-01-01

    The authors present the current status of the project for developing the numerical library in JAVA. The authors have presented how object-oriented techniques improve usage and also development of numerical libraries compared with the conventional way at previous conference. The authors need many functions for data analysis which is not provided within JAVA language, for example, good random number generators, special functions and so on. Authors' development strategy is focused on easiness of implementation and adding new features by users themselves not only by developers. In HPC field, there are other focus efforts to develop numerical libraries in JAVA. However, their focus is on the performance of execution, not easiness of extension. Following the strategy, the authors have designed and implemented more classes for random number generators and so on

  7. Extensive Renovation of Heritage Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn; Møller, Eva B.; Buch-Hansen, Thomas Cornelius

    2015-01-01

    In the debate on whether or not heritage buildings should be included in work to mitigate climate change impacts, it is important to assess the impact of these buildings. Therefore the results of an extensive energy upgrading of a listed complex was studied. Climate change and measures to mitigate...... its effects have been a global priority for more than a decade. Efforts to mitigate climate change have focused on reducing greenhouse gas emissions, especially CO2. As a consequence, there is an increased interest in reducing the energy consumption and increase the indoor climate standard of many...... feasible energy-upgrading measures for implementation including measures to provide an acceptable indoor climate. The energy savings as well as the reduction of CO2 emissions are calculated. Furthermore, it is discussed how measures can affect the durability of a heritage building, as measures may create...

  8. Chemical warfare agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayaraghavan R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the Weapons of Mass Destruction, chemical warfare (CW is probably one of the most brutal created by mankind in comparison with biological and nuclear warfare. Chemical weapons are inexpensive and are relatively easy to produce, even by small terrorist groups, to create mass casualties with small quantities. The characteristics of various CW agents, general information relevant to current physical as well as medical protection methods, detection equipment available and decontamination techniques are discussed in this review article. A brief note on Chemical Weapons Convention is also provided.

  9. Chemical warfare agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, K.; Raza, S. K.; Vijayaraghavan, R.

    2010-01-01

    Among the Weapons of Mass Destruction, chemical warfare (CW) is probably one of the most brutal created by mankind in comparison with biological and nuclear warfare. Chemical weapons are inexpensive and are relatively easy to produce, even by small terrorist groups, to create mass casualties with small quantities. The characteristics of various CW agents, general information relevant to current physical as well as medical protection methods, detection equipment available and decontamination techniques are discussed in this review article. A brief note on Chemical Weapons Convention is also provided. PMID:21829312

  10. Constraint processing in our extensible language for cooperative imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Minoru; Murao, Yo; Enomoto, Hajime

    1996-02-01

    The extensible WELL (Window-based elaboration language) has been developed using the concept of common platform, where both client and server can communicate with each other with support from a communication manager. This extensible language is based on an object oriented design by introducing constraint processing. Any kind of services including imaging in the extensible language is controlled by the constraints. Interactive functions between client and server are extended by introducing agent functions including a request-respond relation. Necessary service integrations are satisfied with some cooperative processes using constraints. Constraints are treated similarly to data, because the system should have flexibilities in the execution of many kinds of services. The similar control process is defined by using intentional logic. There are two kinds of constraints, temporal and modal constraints. Rendering the constraints, the predicate format as the relation between attribute values can be a warrant for entities' validity as data. As an imaging example, a processing procedure of interaction between multiple objects is shown as an image application for the extensible system. This paper describes how the procedure proceeds in the system, and that how the constraints work for generating moving pictures.

  11. Topiramate as a neuroprotective agent in a rat model of spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firat Narin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Topiramate (TPM is a widely used antiepileptic and antimigraine agent which has been shown to exert neuroprotective effects in various experimental traumatic brain injury and stroke models. However, its utility in spinal cord injury has not been studied extensively. Thus, we evaluated effects of TPM on secondary cellular injury mechanisms in an experimental rat model of traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI. After rat models of thoracic contusive SCI were established by free weight-drop method, TPM (40 mg/kg was given at 12-hour intervals for four times orally. Post TPM treatment, malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl levels were significantly reduced and reduced glutathione levels were increased, while immunoreactivity for endothelial nitric oxide synthase, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and apoptotic peptidase activating factor 1 was diminished in SCI rats. In addition, TPM treatment improved the functional recovery of SCI rats. This study suggests that administration of TPM exerts neuroprotective effects on SCI.

  12. Computational Research on Mobile Pastoralism Using Agent-Based Modeling and Satellite Imagery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuto Sakamoto

    Full Text Available Dryland pastoralism has long attracted considerable attention from researchers in diverse fields. However, rigorous formal study is made difficult by the high level of mobility of pastoralists as well as by the sizable spatio-temporal variability of their environment. This article presents a new computational approach for studying mobile pastoralism that overcomes these issues. Combining multi-temporal satellite images and agent-based modeling allows a comprehensive examination of pastoral resource access over a realistic dryland landscape with unpredictable ecological dynamics. The article demonstrates the analytical potential of this approach through its application to mobile pastoralism in northeast Nigeria. Employing more than 100 satellite images of the area, extensive simulations are conducted under a wide array of circumstances, including different land-use constraints. The simulation results reveal complex dependencies of pastoral resource access on these circumstances along with persistent patterns of seasonal land use observed at the macro level.

  13. A Cognitive Agent for Spectrum Monitoring and Informed Spectrum Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    sensing, analysis, learning, short - and long - term memory , problem solving, decision making, and focus of attention. The goal of the cognitive agent was to...Level 2: Analyzing 2 3.3 DOK Level 3: Learning and Short - and Long - Term Memories 5 3.4 DOK Level 4: Focus of Attention, Problem Solving, and... short - and long - term memory , problem solving, decision making, and focus of attention.1 The goal of the cognitive agent was to mimic intelligent

  14. Factors affecting job satisfaction of front-line extension workers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the factors affecting job satisfaction of field extension workers in Enugu State Agricultural Development Programme. Forty-two extension staff randomly selected across the three agricultural zones were used for the study. The field extension workers indicated low level of satisfaction with their job content, ...

  15. The role of the extensive margin in export of Turkey: A comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altan Aldan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We examine the role of extensive margin, in other words, new export products and destinations, on Turkish export performance between 1995 and 2013, in comparison with some other countries. We use two complementary methods together with several extensions taking into account critiques in the literature. Our results suggest that, Turkey was quite successful in extending its extensive margin compared to other developing countries. The growth of extensive margin mostly comes from entering into new markets. Nevertheless, the level of the extensive margin is still low as of 2013 compared to the other countries. Turkey still has important opportunities to increase its exports via extensive margin especially in products.

  16. Holograms as Teaching Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robin A.

    2013-02-01

    Hungarian physicist Dennis Gabor won the Pulitzer Prize for his 1947 introduction of basic holographic principles, but it was not until the invention of the laser in 1960 that research scientists, physicians, technologists and the general public began to seriously consider the interdisciplinary potentiality of holography. Questions around whether and when Three-Dimensional (3-D) images and systems would impact American entertainment and the arts would be answered before educators, instructional designers and students would discover how much Three-Dimensional Hologram Technology (3DHT) would affect teaching practices and learning environments. In the following International Symposium on Display Holograms (ISDH) poster presentation, the author features a traditional board game as well as a reflection hologram to illustrate conventional and evolving Three-Dimensional representations and technology for education. Using elements from the American children's toy Operation® (Hasbro, 2005) as well as a reflection hologram of a human brain (Ko, 1998), this poster design highlights the pedagogical effects of 3-D images, games and systems on learning science. As teaching agents, holograms can be considered substitutes for real objects, (human beings, organs, and animated characters) as well as agents (pedagogical, avatars, reflective) in various learning environments using many systems (direct, emergent, augmented reality) and electronic tools (cellphones, computers, tablets, television). In order to understand the particular importance of utilizing holography in school, clinical and public settings, the author identifies advantages and benefits of using 3-D images and technology as instructional tools.

  17. Amphoteric surface active agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eissa, A.M. F.

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available 2-[trimethyl ammonium, triethyl ammonium, pyridinium and 2-amino pyridinium] alkanoates, four series of surface active agents containing carbon chain C12, C14, C16 and C18carbon atoms, were prepared. Their structures were characterized by microanalysis, infrared (IR and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR. Surface and interfacial tension, Krafft point, wetting time, emulsification power, foaming height and critical micelle concentration (cmc were determined and a comparative study was made between their chemical structure and surface active properties. Antimicrobial activity of these surfactants was also determined.

    Se prepararon cuatro series de agentes tensioactivos del tipo 2-[trimetil amonio, trietil amonio, piridinio y 2-amino piridinio] alcanoatos, que contienen cadenas carbonadas con C12, C14, C16 y C18 átomos de carbono.
    Se determinaron la tensión superficial e interfacial, el punto de Krafft, el tiempo humectante, el poder de emulsionamiento, la altura espumante y la concentración critica de miscela (cmc y se hizo un estudio comparativo entre la estructura química y sus propiedades tensioactivas. Se determinó también la actividad antimicrobiana de estos tensioactivos. Estas estructuras se caracterizaron por microanálisis, infrarrojo (IR y resonancia magnética nuclear (RMN.

  18. [New agents for hypercholesterolemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintó, Xavier; García Gómez, María Carmen

    2016-02-19

    An elevated proportion of high cardiovascular risk patients do not achieve the therapeutic c-LDL goals. This owes to physicians' inappropriate or insufficient use of cholesterol lowering medications or to patients' bad tolerance or therapeutic compliance. Another cause is an insufficient efficacy of current cholesterol lowering drugs including statins and ezetimibe. In addition, proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 inhibitors are a new cholesterol lowering medications showing safety and high efficacy to reduce c-LDL in numerous already performed or underway clinical trials, potentially allowing an optimal control of hypercholesterolemia in most patients. Agents inhibiting apolipoprotein B synthesis and microsomal transfer protein are also providing a new potential to decrease cholesterol in patients with severe hypercholesterolemia and in particular in homozygote familial hypercholesterolemia. Last, cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors have shown powerful effects on c-HDL and c-LDL, although their efficacy in cardiovascular prevention and safety has not been demonstrated yet. We provide in this article an overview of the main characteristics of therapeutic agents for hypercholesterolemia, which have been recently approved or in an advanced research stage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Competency Modeling in Extension Education: Integrating an Academic Extension Education Model with an Extension Human Resource Management Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheer, Scott D.; Cochran, Graham R.; Harder, Amy; Place, Nick T.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare and contrast an academic extension education model with an Extension human resource management model. The academic model of 19 competencies was similar across the 22 competencies of the Extension human resource management model. There were seven unique competencies for the human resource management model.…

  20. Studies on Am(III) separation from simulated high-level waste using cobalt bis(dicarbollide) (1(-)) ion derivative covalently bound to N,N'-di-n-octyl diglycol diamide as extractant and DTPA as stripping agent

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bubeníková, M.; Selucký, P.; Rais, J.; Grüner, Bohumír; Švec, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 293, č. 1 (2012), s. 403-408 ISSN 0236-5731 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/09/0668 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : Solvent extraction * actinides * high- level liquid waste * dicarbollide derivatives * carboranes * TODGA * DTPA Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.467, year: 2012

  1. Strengthening Agricultural Research Capacity for Viable Extension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strengthening Agricultural Research Capacity for Viable Extension Policies in Nigeria: An Exploration of Ricoeur's Hermeneutic Theory for Analysing Extension Research. ... Progressively more, researchers use hermeneutic philosophy to inform the conduct of interpretive research. Analogy between the philosophical ...

  2. Extension Agents and Conflict Narratives: A Case of Laikipia County, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This work investigated the narratives of development extensionists in relation to natural resource conflict, in order to understand the competing discourses surrounding the wicked problems of natural resource management in Laikipia County, Kenya. Methodology: Q methodology was used to elicit the conflict narratives present among extension…

  3. A Systematic Review of Agent-Based Modelling and Simulation Applications in the Higher Education Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, X.; Blackmore, K. L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a systematic review of agent-based modelling and simulation (ABMS) applications in the higher education (HE) domain. Agent-based modelling is a "bottom-up" modelling paradigm in which system-level behaviour (macro) is modelled through the behaviour of individual local-level agent interactions (micro).…

  4. Mites and spiders act as biological control agent to sand flies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diwakar Singh Dinesh

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To find out natural biological control agents of sand flies vector of kala azar in Bihar, India. Methods: Sand flies collected from the field using CDC light trap installing overnight to the collection site scrutitinized for Phlebotomus argentipes, the established vector of visceral leishmaniasis. Blood fed adult females were confined in the insectary for its development of life cycle. During developmental stages 2nd to 4th instars larvae were examined closely by using compound microscope for mite infestation. Adult spider residing along with sand flies collected in trap were kept in cage along with sand flies and their activities were watched closely and recorded by video and picture. Results: Mites were found predating 2nd to 4th instars larvae only under the laboratory conditions and lowering down the population of sand flies up to basal level within 15 d after infestation. One specific spider was found eating blood fed female sand flies kept inside the cage (n=50 attacking on lower part of thoracic region to kill the sand fly and ate desired soft part. Conclusions: Both predators, mites and spiders are acting as biological control agents to larvae and adults of sand flies respectively resulting variable density of vectors due to variable association with these predators and also cause lowering the transmission of the disease as hidden natural controlling agent of sand flies. The extensive study will be of immense help in controlling sand flies without use of environmental pollutant i.e. chemical insecticide.

  5. Leveling of battery load and extension of battery life by serial connection of electric double layer capacitors with batteries for electric vehicles. Experimental results on the small model; Denki jidoshayo denchi to denki nijuso capacitor no chokuretsu setsuzoku ni yoru denchi futan no heijunka oyobi denchijumyo no enshinka. (kogata model ni yoru jikken seika). Kogata model ni yoru jikken seika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takehara, J.; Okubo, N.; Miyaoka, K. [Chugoku Electric Power Co. Inc., Hiroshima (Japan)

    1996-10-25

    The load leveling method of batteries for electric vehicles was studied for extension of a battery life and mileage every charging. Under large load fluctuation conditions such as deceleration and acceleration, use of electric power sources other than battery for peek load at acceleration can improve a battery life, output power capacity and mileage every charging. Combination of effective recovery of regenerative power at deceleration with its discharge at acceleration is one of the effective methods. The electric double layer capacitors are serially connected with the batteries, regenerative power is charged only into the capacitors, and both voltages of the battery and capacitor are applied to a power circuit. Battery load is reduced by load on the capacitor. Until the capacitor is re-charged by regenerative power after full discharge, power is supplied only by battery through a diode. Capacitor power is used as effectively as possible until approaching considerably low voltage. As peak load of the battery is reduced by 30%, the mileage increases by 5.7%, and the battery cycle life becomes 1.5 times longer. 7 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Logic regression and its extensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwender, Holger; Ruczinski, Ingo

    2010-01-01

    Logic regression is an adaptive classification and regression procedure, initially developed to reveal interacting single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genetic association studies. In general, this approach can be used in any setting with binary predictors, when the interaction of these covariates is of primary interest. Logic regression searches for Boolean (logic) combinations of binary variables that best explain the variability in the outcome variable, and thus, reveals variables and interactions that are associated with the response and/or have predictive capabilities. The logic expressions are embedded in a generalized linear regression framework, and thus, logic regression can handle a variety of outcome types, such as binary responses in case-control studies, numeric responses, and time-to-event data. In this chapter, we provide an introduction to the logic regression methodology, list some applications in public health and medicine, and summarize some of the direct extensions and modifications of logic regression that have been proposed in the literature. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Presentation Extensions of the SOAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnright, Robert; Stodden, David; Coggi, John

    2009-01-01

    A set of extensions of the Satellite Orbit Analysis Program (SOAP) enables simultaneous and/or sequential presentation of information from multiple sources. SOAP is used in the aerospace community as a means of collaborative visualization and analysis of data on planned spacecraft missions. The following definitions of terms also describe the display modalities of SOAP as now extended: In SOAP terminology, View signifies an animated three-dimensional (3D) scene, two-dimensional still image, plot of numerical data, or any other visible display derived from a computational simulation or other data source; a) "Viewport" signifies a rectangular portion of a computer-display window containing a view; b) "Palette" signifies a collection of one or more viewports configured for simultaneous (split-screen) display in the same window; c) "Slide" signifies a palette with a beginning and ending time and an animation time step; and d) "Presentation" signifies a prescribed sequence of slides. For example, multiple 3D views from different locations can be crafted for simultaneous display and combined with numerical plots and other representations of data for both qualitative and quantitative analysis. The resulting sets of views can be temporally sequenced to convey visual impressions of a sequence of events for a planned mission.

  8. XPL the Extensible Presentation Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Santangelo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The last decade has witnessed a growing interest in the development of web interfaces enabling both multiple ways to access contents and, at the same time, fruition by multiple modalities of interaction (point-and-click, contents reading, voice commands, gestures, etc.. In this paper we describe a framework aimed at streamlining the design process of multi-channel, multimodal interfaces enabling full reuse of software components. This framework is called the eXtensible Presentation architecture and Language (XPL, a presentation language based on design pattern paradigm that keeps separated the presentation layer from the underlying programming logic. The language supplies a methodology to expedite multimodal interface development and to reduce the effort to implement interfaces for multiple access devices, by means of using the same code. This paper describes a methodology approach based on Visual Design Pattern (ViDP and Verbal Design Pattern (VeDP, offering examples of multimodal and multichannel interfaces created with the XPL Editor.

  9. Serum lactate levels in infants exposed peripartum to antiretroviral agents to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV: Agence Nationale de Recherches Sur le SIDA et les Hépatites Virales 1209 study, Abidjan, Ivory Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekouevi, Didier Koumavi; Touré, Ramata; Becquet, Renaud; Viho, Ida; Sakarovitch, Charlotte; Rouet, François; Towne-Gold, Besigin; Fassinou, Patricia; Leroy, Valériane; Blanche, Stéphane; Dabis, François

    2006-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial toxicity was described in infants exposed to long-term antiretroviral regimens (ARVs) containing nucleoside analogues for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT). We measured the serum lactate levels in children born to HIV-1 infected (HIV+) African women receiving short-term ARV PMTCT regimens. Methods A prospective study was conducted in women-child pairs from the third trimester of pregnancy to three months of life. The exposed group was formed by children exposed in utero to nucleoside analogue ARVs, zidovudine (ZDV) or ZDV + lamivudine (3TC) from 32–36 weeks of amenorrhea until delivery. All these women received nevirapine single-dose (NVPsd) at the beginning of labor. The children received ZDV during the first 7 days of life and a NVPsd at day 3. The control group was formed by infants born to HIV+ women who had received NVPsd only and not exposed to nucleoside analogue ARVs. Serum lactate levels were measured at 4, 6 and 12 weeks of life by Cobas Integra 400™. Results A total of 836 blood samples from 338 infants were collected (262 exposed and 76 controls). Median lactacidemia was 1.8 mmol/l, Interquartile Range [1.2–2.7 mmol/l]). Overall serum lactate levels ≥2.5 mmol/l, defining hyperlactatemia were observed in 39 of the 292 infants who had at least two serum lactate measurements, 13.4%, 95% confidence Interval [9.6–17.8%]. The three-month period prevalence of hyperlactatemia did not differ between the exposed group (13.1%) and the control group (14.3%) (p=0.84). All serum lactate levels returned to normal values in all subsequent samples No case of symptomatic hyperlactatemia was detected during the study period. Conclusion Increased lactate levels were identified equally in infants whose mother received a short-term of nucleoside analogues or NVPsd for PMTCT. Although not rare, hyperlactatemia was not related to short-term exposure to nucleoside analogue ARVs PMID:16950945

  10. Building and Managing Makerspaces in Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Dave; Hill, Paul; Graham, Dallini; Swadley, Emy; Esplin, Kaleb

    2017-01-01

    As traditional face-to-face Extension office interactions are supplanted by online education options, the makerspace offers a venue for authentic engagement between Extension and the community. In makerspaces, learners make and learn from one another in a cooperative learning environment. Through involvement in the maker movement, Extension has an…

  11. 7 CFR 15b.27 - Extension education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Extension education. 15b.27 Section 15b.27 Agriculture... Education § 15b.27 Extension education. (a) General. A recipient to which this subpart applies that provides extension education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude qualified handicapped persons. A recipient...

  12. Microencapsulation of chemotherapeutic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Hong Sik

    1993-01-01

    Mixing various amounts of chemotherapeutic agents such as cisplatinum, 5-fluorouracil, mitomycin-C, and adriamycin with polymers such as poly-d, 1-lactide, ethylhydroxyethylcellulose, and polycaprolactone, several kinds of microcapsules were made. Among them, microcapsule made from ethylhydroxyethylcellulose showed best yield. Under light microscopy, the capsules were observed as particles with refractive properties. For the basic toxicity test, intraarterial administration of cisplatinum was done in 6 adult mongrel dogs. Follow-up angiography was accomplished in 2 wk intervals for 6 wks. Despite no significant difference in the histopathological examination between the embolized and normal kidneys, follow-up angiogram showed atrophy of renal cortex and diminished numbers of arterial branches in the embolized kidneys. In order to identify the structural properties of microcapsules, and to determine the drug content and the rate of release, further experiment is thought to be necessary. (Author)

  13. New MR contrast agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, C.D.; Subramanian, G.; Schneider, R.; Szeverenyi, N.E.; Rosenbaum, A.M.; Gagne, G.; Tillapaugh-Fay, G.; Berlin, R.; Ritter-Hrncirik, C.; Yu, S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper evaluates an MR contrast agent-meglumine tris-(2,6-dicarboxypyridine) gadolinium (III) or gadolinium dipicolinate (Gd-DPC)-produced in-house. Rats were anesthetized with pentobarbital. For renal imaging, bowel motion artifact was minimized with glucagon (0.014 mg/kg, intravenous (IV)). Enhanced images were generated on a 2-T chemical shift imaging system with a 31-cm horizontal bore magnet after IV injection of Gd-DPC (100 μM/kg). Coronal sections of the kidneys and sagittal sections of the brain, 2 mm thick, were made. Six to eight excitations and 128 or 356 phase-encoding steps were used for each image. Control animals were injected with equivalent doses of gadopentetate dimeglumine

  14. Agent Control for Reconfigurable Open Kinematic Chain Manipulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez Sluga

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method for the autonomous control of differently structured open kinematic chains based on multi-agent system technology. The appropriate level of distributing local autonomy (agents to a manipulative structure is defined, which makes it possible to dynamically change the number, type and structure of manipulative components without modifying their behavioural logic. To achieve fast reconfigurable and scalable manipulative systems, a new multi-agent method is developed for controlling the manipulator kinematics. The new method enables independent manipulator structure from the control system because of its structural and system modularity. The proposed method consists of kinematic equations for use in an agent environment, agent motion-planning algorithms, evaluation functions, agent control logic and kinematic algorithms. The results of simulations and real-world experiments demonstrate the usefulness of the approach for different non-redundant and redundant manipulation structures.

  15. A Composite Agent Architecture for Multi-Agent Simulations

    OpenAIRE

    VanPutte, Michael; Osborn, Brian; Hiles, John

    2002-01-01

    CGF Computer Generated Forces and Behavioral Representation The MOVES Institute’s Computer-Generated Autonomy Group has focused on a research goal of modeling complex and adaptive behavior while at the same time making the behavior easier to create and control. This research has led to several techniques for agent construction, that includes a social and organization relationship management engine, a composite agent architecture, an agent goal apparatus, a structure for capturi...

  16. Product Distribution Theory for Control of Multi-Agent Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chia Fan; Wolpert, David H.

    2004-01-01

    Product Distribution (PD) theory is a new framework for controlling Multi-Agent Systems (MAS's). First we review one motivation of PD theory, as the information-theoretic extension of conventional full-rationality game theory to the case of bounded rational agents. In this extension the equilibrium of the game is the optimizer of a Lagrangian of the (probability distribution of) the joint stare of the agents. Accordingly we can consider a team game in which the shared utility is a performance measure of the behavior of the MAS. For such a scenario the game is at equilibrium - the Lagrangian is optimized - when the joint distribution of the agents optimizes the system's expected performance. One common way to find that equilibrium is to have each agent run a reinforcement learning algorithm. Here we investigate the alternative of exploiting PD theory to run gradient descent on the Lagrangian. We present computer experiments validating some of the predictions of PD theory for how best to do that gradient descent. We also demonstrate how PD theory can improve performance even when we are not allowed to rerun the MAS from different initial conditions, a requirement implicit in some previous work.

  17. Ionization Potentials of Chemical Warfare Agents and Related Compounds Determined with Density Functional Theory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wright, J

    2000-01-01

    ...) agents at contaminated sites. Reported herein are theoretical ionization potentials for CW agents and their related compounds calculated using density functional theory at the B3LYP/6-311+G(2d,p) level of theory...

  18. 77 FR 16865 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Occupational Noise Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... harmful physical agent and one of the most pervasive health hazards in mining. Repeated exposure to high... employees working nearby. The Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA), the Occupational Safety and... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Mine Safety and Health Administration Proposed Extension of Existing...

  19. Perceptions of the Training Needs of the Newest Members of the Extension Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Jacklyn A.; Anderson, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    The study reported here investigated the perceived importance and proficiency of leadership skills to new North Carolina Cooperative Extension agents. The researchers utilized a Web-based survey questionnaire that incorporated Leadership Skills Inventory (LSI) developed by Jones (2006). According to Moore (2003), the leadership skills are…

  20. Cellular potts models multiscale extensions and biological applications

    CERN Document Server

    Scianna, Marco

    2013-01-01

    A flexible, cell-level, and lattice-based technique, the cellular Potts model accurately describes the phenomenological mechanisms involved in many biological processes. Cellular Potts Models: Multiscale Extensions and Biological Applications gives an interdisciplinary, accessible treatment of these models, from the original methodologies to the latest developments. The book first explains the biophysical bases, main merits, and limitations of the cellular Potts model. It then proposes several innovative extensions, focusing on ways to integrate and interface the basic cellular Potts model at the mesoscopic scale with approaches that accurately model microscopic dynamics. These extensions are designed to create a nested and hybrid environment, where the evolution of a biological system is realistically driven by the constant interplay and flux of information between the different levels of description. Through several biological examples, the authors demonstrate a qualitative and quantitative agreement with t...

  1. The effects of X-ray energy and an iodine-based contrast agent on chromosome aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubara, Sho; Kubota, Nobuo; Katoh, Tsuguhisa; Yoshino, Norio; Sasaki, Takehito; Sasaki, Masao S.

    1994-01-01

    A study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of combining irradiation with X rays of various energies and an iodine-based contrast agent on the induction of chromosome aberrations in the peripheral lymphocytes of blood samples taken from healthy young donors. Although no enhancement of the effect of radiation was induced when blood samples with the iodine-based contrast agent were given 35 kV X irradiation, an 80 kV X-ray exposure induced an enhanced level of chromosome aberrations, and a 250 kV X irradiation, an enhancement of the frequencies of chromosome aberrations was seen in blood samples with the iodine-based contrast agent, especially when a Lucite phantom was employed in studies to increase the scattered rays. It was thus shown by microdosimetric analysis that X irradiation combined with an iodine-based contrast agent causes an enhancement of the absorbed radiation dose, which is dependent on the X-ray energies employed. This phenomenon may have clinical use in the radiotherapeutic management of tumors, although further extensive studies of tumor vascularity must be pursued before this can be applied clinically. 21 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Architecture of security management unit for safe hosting of multiple agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmont, Tanguy; Legat, Jean-Didier; Quisquater, Jean-Jacques

    1999-04-01

    In such growing areas as remote applications in large public networks, electronic commerce, digital signature, intellectual property and copyright protection, and even operating system extensibility, the hardware security level offered by existing processors is insufficient. They lack protection mechanisms that prevent the user from tampering critical data owned by those applications. Some devices make exception, but have not enough processing power nor enough memory to stand up to such applications (e.g. smart cards). This paper proposes an architecture of secure processor, in which the classical memory management unit is extended into a new security management unit. It allows ciphered code execution and ciphered data processing. An internal permanent memory can store cipher keys and critical data for several client agents simultaneously. The ordinary supervisor privilege scheme is replaced by a privilege inheritance mechanism that is more suited to operating system extensibility. The result is a secure processor that has hardware support for extensible multitask operating systems, and can be used for both general applications and critical applications needing strong protection. The security management unit and the internal permanent memory can be added to an existing CPU core without loss of performance, and do not require it to be modified.

  3. (67/68)Ga-labeling agent that liberates (67/68)Ga-NOTA-methionine by lysosomal proteolysis of parental low molecular weight polypeptides to reduce renal radioactivity levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Tomoya; Rokugawa, Takemi; Kinoshita, Mai; Nemoto, Souki; Fransisco Lazaro, Guerra Gomez; Hanaoka, Hirofumi; Arano, Yasushi

    2014-11-19

    The renal localization of gallium-67 or gallium-68 ((67/68)Ga)-labeled low molecular weight (LMW) probes such as peptides and antibody fragments constitutes a problem in targeted imaging. Wu et al. previously showed that (67)Ga-labeled S-2-(4-isothiocyanatobenzyl)-1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (SCN-Bz-NOTA)-conjugated methionine ((67)Ga-NOTA-Met) was rapidly excreted from the kidney in urine following lysosomal proteolysis of the parental (67)Ga-NOTA-Bz-SCN-disulfide-stabilized Fv fragment (Bioconjugate Chem., (1997) 8, 365-369). In the present study, a new (67/68)Ga-labeling reagent for LMW probes that liberates (67/68)Ga-NOTA-Met was designed, synthesized, and evaluated using longer-lived (67)Ga in order to reduce renal radioactivity levels. We employed a methionine-isoleucine (MI) dipeptide bond as the cleavable linkage. The amine residue of MI was coupled with SCN-Bz-NOTA for (67)Ga-labeling, while the carboxylic acid residue of MI was derivatized to maleimide for antibody conjugation in order to synthesize NOTA-MI-Mal. A Fab fragment of the anti-Her2 antibody was thiolated with iminothiolane, and NOTA-MI-Mal was conjugated with the antibody fragment by maleimide-thiol chemistry. The Fab fragment was also conjugated with SCN-Bz-NOTA (NOTA-Fab) for comparison. (67)Ga-NOTA-MI-Fab was obtained at radiochemical yields of over 95% and was stable in murine serum for 24 h. In the biodistribution study using normal mice, (67)Ga-NOTA-MI-Fab registered significantly lower renal radioactivity levels from 1 to 6 h postinjection than those of (67)Ga-NOTA-Fab. An analysis of urine samples obtained 6 h after the injection of (67)Ga-NOTA-MI-Fab showed that the majority of radioactivity was excreted as (67)Ga-NOTA-Met. In the biodistribution study using tumor-bearing mice, the tumor to kidney ratios of (67)Ga-NOTA-MI-Fab were 4 times higher (6 h postinjection) than those of (67)Ga-NOTA-Fab. Although further studies including the structure of radiometabolites and

  4. Odor Classification using Agent Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigeru OMATU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to measure and classify odors, Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM can be used. In the present study, seven QCM sensors and three different odors are used. The system has been developed as a virtual organization of agents using an agent platform called PANGEA (Platform for Automatic coNstruction of orGanizations of intElligent Agents. This is a platform for developing open multi-agent systems, specifically those including organizational aspects. The main reason for the use of agents is the scalability of the platform, i.e. the way in which it models the services. The system models functionalities as services inside the agents, or as Service Oriented Approach (SOA architecture compliant services using Web Services. This way the adaptation of the odor classification systems with new algorithms, tools and classification techniques is allowed.

  5. Agent-based enterprise integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. M. Berry; C. M. Pancerella

    1998-12-01

    The authors are developing and deploying software agents in an enterprise information architecture such that the agents manage enterprise resources and facilitate user interaction with these resources. The enterprise agents are built on top of a robust software architecture for data exchange and tool integration across heterogeneous hardware and software. The resulting distributed multi-agent system serves as a method of enhancing enterprises in the following ways: providing users with knowledge about enterprise resources and applications; accessing the dynamically changing enterprise; locating enterprise applications and services; and improving search capabilities for applications and data. Furthermore, agents can access non-agents (i.e., databases and tools) through the enterprise framework. The ultimate target of the effort is the user; they are attempting to increase user productivity in the enterprise. This paper describes their design and early implementation and discusses the planned future work.

  6. Beyond level planarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angelini, P.; Da Lozzo, G.; Di Battista, G.; Frati, F.; Patrignani, M.; Rutter, I.; Hu, Y.; Nöllenburg, M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we settle the computational complexity of two open problems related to the extension of the notion of level planarity to surfaces different from the plane. Namely, we show that the problems of testing the existence of a level embedding of a level graph on the surface of the rolling

  7. Radioactive scanning agents with stabilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawzi, M.B.

    1982-01-01

    Stable compositions useful as technetium 99-based scintigraphic agents comprise gentisyl alcohol or a pharmaceutically-acceptable salt or ester thereof in combination with a pertechnetate reducing agent or dissolved in pertechnetate-99m (sup(99m)TcOsub(4)sup(-)) solution. The compositions are especially useful in combination with a phosphate or phosphonate material that carries the radionuclide to bone, thus providing a skeletal imaging agent

  8. Principals, agents and research programmes

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Shove

    2003-01-01

    Research programmes appear to represent one of the more powerful instruments through which research funders (principals) steer and shape what researchers (agents) do. The fact that agents navigate between different sources and styles of programme funding and that they use programmes to their own ends is readily accommodated within principal-agent theory with the help of concepts such as shirking and defection. Taking a different route, I use three examples of research programming (by the UK, ...

  9. Radiolabeled enzyme inhibitors and binding agents targeting PSMA: Effective theranostic tools for imaging and therapy of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillai, Maroor Raghavan Ambikalmajan; Nanabala, Raviteja; Joy, Ajith; Sasikumar, Arun; Knapp, Furn F.

    2016-01-01

    Because of the broad incidence, morbidity and mortality associated with prostate-derived cancer, the development of more effective new technologies continues to be an important goal for the accurate detection and treatment of localized prostate cancer, lymphatic involvement and metastases. Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA; Glycoprotein II) is expressed in high levels on prostate-derived cells and is an important target for visualization and treatment of prostate cancer. Radiolabeled peptide targeting technologies have rapidly evolved over the last decade and have focused on the successful development of radiolabeled small molecules that act as inhibitors to the binding of the N-acetyl-L-aspartyl-L-glutamate (NAAG) substrate to the PSMA molecule. A number of radiolabeled PSMA inhibitors have been described in the literature and labeled with SPECT, PET and therapeutic radionuclides. Clinical studies with these agents have demonstrated the improved potential of PSMA-targeted PET imaging agents to detect metastatic prostate cancer in comparison with conventional imaging technologies. Although many of these agents have been evaluated in humans, by far the most extensive clinical literature has described use of the 68 Ga and 177 Lu agents. This review describes the design and development of these agents, with a focus on the broad clinical introduction of PSMA targeting motifs labeled with 68 Ga for PET-CT imaging and 177 Lu for therapy. In particular, because of availability from the long-lived 68 Ge (T 1/2 = 270 days)/ 68 Ga (T 1/2 = 68 min) generator system and increasing availability of PET-CT, the 68 Ga-labeled PSMA targeted agent is receiving widespread interest and is one of the fastest growing radiopharmaceuticals for PET-CT imaging.

  10. Treatment of renal anemia: Erythropoiesis stimulating agents and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Biggar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Anemia, complicating the course of chronic kidney disease, is a significant parameter, whether interpreted as subjective impairment or an objective prognostic marker. Renal anemia is predominantly due to relative erythropoietin (EPO deficiency. EPO inhibits apoptosis of erythrocyte precursors. Studies using EPO substitution have shown that increasing hemoglobin (Hb levels up to 10-11 g/dL is associated with clinical improvement. However, it has not been unequivocally proven that further intensification of erythropoiesis stimulating agent (ESA therapy actually leads to a comprehensive benefit for the patient, especially as ESAs are potentially associated with increased cerebro-cardiovascular events. Recently, new developments offer interesting options not only via stimulating erythropoeisis but also by employing additional mechanisms. The inhibition of activin, a member of the transforming growth factor superfamily, has the potential to correct anemia by stimulating liberation of mature erythrocyte forms and also to mitigate disturbed mineral and bone metabolism as well. Hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors also show pleiotropic effects, which are at the focus of present research and have the potential of reducing mortality. However, conventional ESAs offer an extensive body of safety evidence, against which the newer substances should be measured. Carbamylated EPO is devoid of Hb augmenting effects whilst exerting promising tissue protective properties. Additionally, the role of hepcidin antagonists is discussed. An innovative new hemodialysis blood tube system, reducing blood contact with air, conveys a totally different and innocuous option to improve renal anemia by reducing mechanical hemolysis.

  11. Potential of Biological Agents in Decontamination of Agricultural Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Kashif Javaid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are widely used for the control of weeds, diseases, and pests of cultivated plants all over the world, mainly since the period after the Second World War. The use of pesticides is very extensive to control harm of pests all over the globe. Persistent nature of most of the synthetic pesticides causes serious environmental concerns. Decontamination of these hazardous chemicals is very essential. This review paper elaborates the potential of various biological agents in decontamination of agricultural soils. The agricultural crop fields are contaminated by the periodic applications of pesticides. Biodegradation is an ecofriendly, cost-effective, highly efficient approach compared to the physical and chemical methods which are expensive as well as unfriendly towards environment. Biodegradation is sensitive to the concentration levels of hydrogen peroxide and nitrogen along with microbial community, temperature, and pH changes. Experimental work for optimum conditions at lab scale can provide very fruitful results about specific bacterial, fungal strains. This study revealed an upper hand of bioremediation over physicochemical approaches. Further studies should be carried out to understand mechanisms of biotransformation.

  12. Potential of Biological Agents in Decontamination of Agricultural Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaid, Muhammad Kashif; Ashiq, Mehrban; Tahir, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Pesticides are widely used for the control of weeds, diseases, and pests of cultivated plants all over the world, mainly since the period after the Second World War. The use of pesticides is very extensive to control harm of pests all over the globe. Persistent nature of most of the synthetic pesticides causes serious environmental concerns. Decontamination of these hazardous chemicals is very essential. This review paper elaborates the potential of various biological agents in decontamination of agricultural soils. The agricultural crop fields are contaminated by the periodic applications of pesticides. Biodegradation is an ecofriendly, cost-effective, highly efficient approach compared to the physical and chemical methods which are expensive as well as unfriendly towards environment. Biodegradation is sensitive to the concentration levels of hydrogen peroxide and nitrogen along with microbial community, temperature, and pH changes. Experimental work for optimum conditions at lab scale can provide very fruitful results about specific bacterial, fungal strains. This study revealed an upper hand of bioremediation over physicochemical approaches. Further studies should be carried out to understand mechanisms of biotransformation.

  13. Business Intelligence using Software Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Ramona BOLOGA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some ideas about business intelligence today and the importance of developing real time business solutions. The authors make an exploration of links between business intelligence and artificial intelligence and focuses specifically on the implementation of software agents-based systems in business intelligence. There are briefly presented some of the few solutions proposed so far that use software agents properties for the benefit of business intelligence. The authors then propose some basic ideas for developing real-time agent-based software system for business intelligence in supply chain management, using Case Base Reasoning Agents.

  14. GOAL Agents Instantiate Intention Logic

    OpenAIRE

    Hindriks, Koen; van der Hoek, Wiebe

    2008-01-01

    It is commonly believed there is a big gap between agent logics and computational agent frameworks. In this paper, we show that this gap is not as big as believed by showing that GOAL agents instantiate Intention Logic of Cohen and Levesque. That is, we show that GOAL agent programs can be formally related to Intention Logic.We do so by proving that the GOAL Verification Logic can be embedded into Intention Logic. It follows that (a fragment of) Intention Logic can be used t...

  15. Aspects of agents for safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotte, U.

    1999-01-01

    With the development of the Internet and the WWW, information treatment has gained a new dimension. (Intelligent) software agents are one of the means expected to relieve human staff of the burden of information overload, and in the future to contribute to safeguards data acquisition, data evaluation and decision-making. An overview is given for the categories of Internet, intranet and desktop agents. Aspects of the potential application of agents are described in three fields: information access and delivery, collaboration and workflow management, adaptive interfaces and learning assistants. Routine application of agents is not yet in sight, but the scientific and technical progress seems to be encouraging. (author)

  16. Stable agents for imaging investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tofe, A.J.

    1976-01-01

    This invention concerns highly stable compounds useful in preparing technetium 99m based scintiscanning exploration agents. The compounds of this invention include a pertechnetate reducing agent or a solution of oxidized pertechnetate and an efficient proportion, sufficient to stabilize the compounds in the presence of oxygen and of radiolysis products, of ascorbic acid or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester of this acid. The invention also concerns a perfected process for preparing a technetium based exploration agent, consisting in codissolving the ascorbic acid or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester of such an acid and a pertechnetate reducing agent in a solution of oxidized pertechnetate [fr

  17. Hydrologic impact of urbanization with extensive stormwater infiltration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Locatelli, Luca; Mark, Ole; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a novel modeling analysis of a 40-year-long dataset to examine the impact of urbanization, with widespread stormwater infiltration, on groundwater levels and the water balance of a watershed. A dataset on the hydrologic impact of urbanization with extensive stormwater...

  18. Building Extension Partnerships with Government to Further Water Conservation Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Brandon; Huang, Pei-wen; Lamm, Alexa

    2017-01-01

    Extension, being a local, state and federally funded program has a natural partnership with government agencies at all three levels, however these partnerships could be built upon and targeted at specific audiences for greater effect if more is known about how government influences public perception. The government has recognized the need for…

  19. Fundamental Dimensions and Essential Elements of Exemplary Local Extension Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Bryan D.; Osborne, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Collaborative efforts between federal, state, and local government agencies enable local Extension units to deliver a high level of educational opportunities to local citizens. These units represent land-grant institutions by delivering non-formal education that aim to address local, regional, and state concerns. The purpose of this study was to…

  20. Online Leader Training Course: Nebraska Equine Extension Leader Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottle, Lena; D'Angelo, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    The Nebraska Equine Advancement Level Leader Certification Program is an online learning tool that clarifies principles of the Nebraska 4-H Equine Advancement Programs. Through an online Moodle course through eXtension.org, 4-H leaders and Extension educators are able to fulfill the certification requirement from any location before allowing youth…

  1. Influence of extension education on land pollution reduction in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study attempted to investigate the influence of the level of awareness and use of environmental education information obtained from public extension education program on environmental sanitation and wastes disposal practices by residents of Abeokuta South Local Government Area. A total of 450 residents were ...

  2. The Agent of Change: The Agent of Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, C. R., Jr.

    This speech examines the role of change agents in third world societies and indicates that the change agent must, to some extent, manipulate the social situation, even if his view of society is a more optimistic one than he finds in reality. If he considers strains and stresses to be the lubricants of change, then his focus on conflict as a…

  3. The impact of brand extension fit, extension strategy and product exposure on attitudinal responses to brand extensions

    OpenAIRE

    Farstad, Lena Kvelland; Jabran, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Brand extensions have for decades been one of the most used strategies for growth, but the sad reality is that 8 out of 10 extensions fail, making the likelihood of failure unattractively high. In addition, competition and pressure on margins increases as retailers’ power improves due to proliferation of private labels. As a result, managers are eager for new innovative strategies that can differentiate their extension and improve likelihood of success. The purpose of this paper is therefore ...

  4. Gastrointestinal scanning agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, M.D.

    1980-01-01

    An easily prepared radiolabeled gastrointestinal scanning agent is described. Technetium-99m has ideal characteristics for imaging the upper and lower GI tract and determining stomach emptying and intestinal transit time when used with an insoluble particulate material. For example, crystalline and amorphous calcium phosphate particles can be effectively labeled in a one-step process using sup(99m)TcO 4 and SnCl 2 . These labeled particles have insignificant mass and when administered orally pass through the GI tract unchanged, without affecting the handling and density of the intestinal contents. Visualization of the esophageal entry into the stomach, the greater and lesser curvatures of the stomach, ejection into the duodenum, and rates of passage through the upper and lower GI tract are obtained. The slurry of sup(99m)TC particulate can be given rectally by enema. Good images of the cecum and the ascending, transverse, and descending colon are obtained. Mucosal folds and the splenic and hepatic flexures are visualized. The resilience of the large intestine is also readily visualized by pneumocolonographic techniques. (author)

  5. Subring Depth, Frobenius Extensions, and Towers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Kadison

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The minimum depth d(B,A of a subring B⊆A introduced in the work of Boltje, Danz and Külshammer (2011 is studied and compared with the tower depth of a Frobenius extension. We show that d(B,A < ∞ if A is a finite-dimensional algebra and Be has finite representation type. Some conditions in terms of depth and QF property are given that ensure that the modular function of a Hopf algebra restricts to the modular function of a Hopf subalgebra. If A⊇B is a QF extension, minimum left and right even subring depths are shown to coincide. If A⊇B is a Frobenius extension with surjective Frobenius, homomorphism, its subring depth is shown to coincide with its tower depth. Formulas for the ring, module, Frobenius and Temperley-Lieb structures are noted for the tower over a Frobenius extension in its realization as tensor powers. A depth 3 QF extension is embedded in a depth 2 QF extension; in turn certain depth n extensions embed in depth 3 extensions if they are Frobenius extensions or other special ring extensions with ring structures on their relative Hochschild bar resolution groups.

  6. TACtic- A Multi Behavioral Agent for Trading Agent Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi, Hassan; Shiri, Mohammad E.; Khosravi, Hamid; Iranmanesh, Ehsan; Davoodi, Alireza

    Software agents are increasingly being used to represent humans in online auctions. Such agents have the advantages of being able to systematically monitor a wide variety of auctions and then make rapid decisions about what bids to place in what auctions. They can do this continuously and repetitively without losing concentration. To provide a means of evaluating and comparing (benchmarking) research methods in this area the trading agent competition (TAC) was established. This paper describes the design, of TACtic. Our agent uses multi behavioral techniques at the heart of its decision making to make bidding decisions in the face of uncertainty, to make predictions about the likely outcomes of auctions, and to alter the agent's bidding strategy in response to the prevailing market conditions.

  7. Ultrasound contrast agents: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosgrove, David

    2006-01-01

    With the introduction of microbubble contrast agents, diagnostic ultrasound has entered a new era that allows the dynamic detection of tissue flow of both the macro and microvasculature. Underpinning this development is the fact that gases are compressible, and thus the microbubbles expand and contract in the alternating pressure waves of the ultrasound beam, while tissue is almost incompressible. Special software using multiple pulse sequences separates these signals from those of tissue and displays them as an overlay or on a split screen. This can be done at low acoustic pressures (MI < 0.3) so that the microbubbles are not destroyed and scanning can continue in real time. The clinical roles of contrast enhanced ultrasound scanning are expanding rapidly. They are established in echocardiography to improve endocardial border detection and are being developed for myocardial perfusion. In radiology, the most important application is the liver, especially for focal disease. The approach parallels that of dynamic CT or MRI but ultrasound has the advantages of high spatial and temporal resolution. Thus, small lesions that can be indeterminate on CT can often be studied with ultrasound, and situations where the flow is very rapid (e.g., focal nodular hyperplasia where the first few seconds of arterial perfusion may be critical to making the diagnosis) are readily studied. Microbubbles linger in the extensive sinusoidal space of normal liver for several minutes whereas they wash out rapidly from metastases, which have a low vascular volume and thus appear as filling defects. The method has been shown to be as sensitive as three-phase CT. Microbubbles have clinical uses in many other applications where knowledge of the microcirculation is important (the macrocirculation can usually be assessed adequately using conventional Doppler though there are a few important situations where the signal boost given by microbubbles is useful, e.g., transcranial Doppler for evaluating

  8. Formal System Verification - Extension 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    vision of truly trustworthy systems has been to provide a formally verified microkernel basis. We have previously developed the seL4 microkernel...together with a formal proof (in the theorem prover Isabelle/HOL) of its functional correctness [6]. This means that all the behaviours of the seL4 C...source code are included in the high-level, formal specification of the kernel. This work enabled us to provide further formal guarantees about seL4 , in

  9. Embodied artificial agents for understanding human social cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wykowska, Agnieszka; Chaminade, Thierry; Cheng, Gordon

    2016-05-05

    In this paper, we propose that experimental protocols involving artificial agents, in particular the embodied humanoid robots, provide insightful information regarding social cognitive mechanisms in the human brain. Using artificial agents allows for manipulation and control of various parameters of behaviour, appearance and expressiveness in one of the interaction partners (the artificial agent), and for examining effect of these parameters on the other interaction partner (the human). At the same time, using artificial agents means introducing the presence of artificial, yet human-like, systems into the human social sphere. This allows for testing in a controlled, but ecologically valid, manner human fundamental mechanisms of social cognition both at the behavioural and at the neural level. This paper will review existing literature that reports studies in which artificial embodied agents have been used to study social cognition and will address the question of whether various mechanisms of social cognition (ranging from lower- to higher-order cognitive processes) are evoked by artificial agents to the same extent as by natural agents, humans in particular. Increasing the understanding of how behavioural and neural mechanisms of social cognition respond to artificial anthropomorphic agents provides empirical answers to the conundrum 'What is a social agent?' © 2016 The Authors.

  10. Chemical warfare agents identification by thermal neutron detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Boxue; Ai Xianyun; Tan Daoyuan; Zhang Dianqin

    2000-01-01

    The hydrogen concentration determination by thermal neutron detection is a non-destructive, fast and effective method to identify chemical warfare agents and TNT that contain different hydrogen fraction. When an isotropic neutron source is used to irradiate chemical ammunition, hydrogen atoms of the agent inside shell act as a moderator and slow down neutrons. The number of induced thermal neutrons depends mainly upon hydrogen content of the agent. Therefore measurement of thermal neutron influence can be used to determine hydrogen atom concentration, thereby to determine the chemical warfare agents. Under a certain geometry three calibration curves of count rate against hydrogen concentration were measured. According to the calibration curves, response of a chemical agent or TNT could be calculated. Differences of count rate among chemical agents and TNT for each kind of shells is greater than five times of standard deviations of count rate for any agent, so chemical agents or TNT could be identified correctly. Meanwhile, blast tube or liquid level of chemical warfare agent could affect the response of thermal neutron count rate, and thereby the result of identification. (author)

  11. Pharmacoeconomics of inhaled anesthetic agents: considerations for the pharmacist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernin, Eric L

    2004-10-15

    Types of economic analyses used for inhaled anesthetic agents, factors to consider in calculating the cost of inhaled anesthetics, limitations of pharmacoeconomic studies of these agents, and strategies for controlling inhaled anesthetic costs are discussed. Inhaled anesthetic agents comprise a substantial component of drug budgets. Calculation of the cost of administering an inhaled anesthetic should take into consideration the cost per mL, potency, waste, concentration and duration of gas delivery, fresh gas flow rate, molecular weight, and density. The use of newer inhaled anesthetic agents with low solubility in blood and tissue provides a more rapid recovery from anesthesia than older, more soluble agents, and also provides the same level of control of depth of anesthesia at a lower fresh gas flow rate and possibly a lower cost than older agents at a higher fresh gas flow rate. A more rapid recovery may facilitate fast-track recovery and yield cost savings if it allows the completion of additional surgical cases or allows a reduction in personnel overtime expenses. Interpretation of pharmacoeconomic studies of inhaled anesthetics requires an appreciation of the limitations in methodology and ability to extrapolate results from one setting to another. Pharmacists' efforts to reduce anesthetic waste and collaborate with anesthesiologists to improve the use of these agents can help contain costs, but improving scheduling and efficiency in the operating room has a greater potential to reduce operating room costs. Much can be done to control costs of anesthetic agents without compromising availability of these agents and patient care.

  12. Patient Adherence to Biologic Agents in Psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hsu, Der Yi; Gniadecki, Robert

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low adherence to therapies in psoriasis decreases treatment outcomes and increases the total health care costs. In spite of the wide use of biologic agents, patients' adherence to these drugs has not been extensively investigated. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to measure adherence...... to the biologic drugs in a population of patients treated for psoriasis vulgaris using the medication possession ratio (MPR) index and to survey patients' attitudes to the treatment. METHODS: This is a single-center study on 247 patients with psoriasis vulgaris treated with adalimumab (n = 113), etanercept (n...... = 39), and ustekinumab (n = 95). MPR calculation was calculated monthly based on the hospital records documenting the dispensing of biologics to the patients. Clinical data [Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI), Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI), presence of psoriatic arthritis, concomitant...

  13. Multi-Agent System based Event-Triggered Hybrid Controls for High-Security Hybrid Energy Generation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dou, Chun-Xia; Yue, Dong; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes multi-agent system based event- triggered hybrid controls for guaranteeing energy supply of a hybrid energy generation system with high security. First, a mul-ti-agent system is constituted by an upper-level central coordi-nated control agent combined with several lower......-level unit agents. Each lower-level unit agent is responsible for dealing with internal switching control and distributed dynamic regula-tion for its unit system. The upper-level agent implements coor-dinated switching control to guarantee the power supply of over-all system with high security. The internal...

  14. Wealth distribution across communities of adaptive financial agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLellis, Pietro; Garofalo, Franco; Lo Iudice, Francesco; Napoletano, Elena

    2015-08-01

    This paper studies the trading volumes and wealth distribution of a novel agent-based model of an artificial financial market. In this model, heterogeneous agents, behaving according to the Von Neumann and Morgenstern utility theory, may mutually interact. A Tobin-like tax (TT) on successful investments and a flat tax are compared to assess the effects on the agents’ wealth distribution. We carry out extensive numerical simulations in two alternative scenarios: (i) a reference scenario, where the agents keep their utility function fixed, and (ii) a focal scenario, where the agents are adaptive and self-organize in communities, emulating their neighbours by updating their own utility function. Specifically, the interactions among the agents are modelled through a directed scale-free network to account for the presence of community leaders, and the herding-like effect is tested against the reference scenario. We observe that our model is capable of replicating the benefits and drawbacks of the two taxation systems and that the interactions among the agents strongly affect the wealth distribution across the communities. Remarkably, the communities benefit from the presence of leaders with successful trading strategies, and are more likely to increase their average wealth. Moreover, this emulation mechanism mitigates the decrease in trading volumes, which is a typical drawback of TTs.

  15. Human-Agent Decision-making: Combining Theory and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarit Kraus

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Extensive work has been conducted both in game theory and logic to model strategic interaction. An important question is whether we can use these theories to design agents for interacting with people? On the one hand, they provide a formal design specification for agent strategies. On the other hand, people do not necessarily adhere to playing in accordance with these strategies, and their behavior is affected by a multitude of social and psychological factors. In this paper we will consider the question of whether strategies implied by theories of strategic behavior can be used by automated agents that interact proficiently with people. We will focus on automated agents that we built that need to interact with people in two negotiation settings: bargaining and deliberation. For bargaining we will study game-theory based equilibrium agents and for argumentation we will discuss logic-based argumentation theory. We will also consider security games and persuasion games and will discuss the benefits of using equilibrium based agents.

  16. Artificial agents learning human fairness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de S.; Tuyls, K.P.; Verbeeck, K.; Padgham, xx; Parkes, xx

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in technology allow multi-agent systems to be deployed in cooperation with or as a service for humans. Typically, those systems are designed assuming individually rational agents, according to the principles of classical game theory. However, research in the field of behavioral

  17. Overview of shoreline cleaning agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, J.

    1992-01-01

    Chemical cleaning agents may be used to promote release of stranded oil from shorelines for reasons including biological sensitivity of indigenous fauna and flora to the oil, amenity considerations of the shoreline, or concern about refloating of the oil and subsequent stranding on adjacent shorelines. While use of chemical cleaning agents may be appropriate under proper toxic responses in circumstances, certain limitations should be recognized. The potential for toxic responses in indigenous fauna and flora to the cleaning agents must be considered. Enhanced penetration of oil into permeable shorelines following treatment with chemical cleaning agents also is not desirable. However, if conditions related to toxicity and substrate permeability are determined to be acceptable, the use of chemical cleaning agents for treatment of stranded oil can be considered. Chemical agents for cleaning oiled shorelines can be grouped into three categories: (1) non-surfactant-based solvents, (2) chemical dispersants, and (3) formulations especially designed to release stranded oil from shoreline substrates (i.e., shoreline-cleaning-agents). Depending on the specific circumstances present on an oiled shoreline, it is generally desirable that chemical agents used for cleaning will release oil from shoreline substrate(s) to surface waters. Recovery of the oil can then be accomplished by mechanical procedures such as booming and skimming operations

  18. Reactive agents and perceptual ambiguity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dartel, M. van; Sprinkhuizen-Kuyper, I.G.; Postma, E.O.; Herik, H.J. van den

    2005-01-01

    Reactive agents are generally believed to be incapable of coping with perceptual ambiguity (i.e., identical sensory states that require different responses). However, a recent finding suggests that reactive agents can cope with perceptual ambiguity in a simple model (Nolfi, 2002). This paper

  19. Smart Contrast Agents for Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Célia S; Tóth, Éva

    2016-01-01

    By visualizing bioactive molecules or biological parameters in vivo, molecular imaging is searching for information at the molecular level in living organisms. In addition to contributing to earlier and more personalized diagnosis in medicine, it also helps understand and rationalize the molecular factors underlying physiological and pathological processes. In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), complexes of paramagnetic metal ions, mostly lanthanides, are commonly used to enhance the intrinsic image contrast. They rely either on the relaxation effect of these metal chelates (T(1) agents), or on the phenomenon of paramagnetic chemical exchange saturation transfer (PARACEST agents). In both cases, responsive molecular magnetic resonance imaging probes can be designed to report on various biomarkers of biological interest. In this context, we review recent work in the literature and from our group on responsive T(1) and PARACEST MRI agents for the detection of biogenic metal ions (such as calcium or zinc), enzymatic activities, or neurotransmitter release. These examples illustrate the general strategies that can be applied to create molecular imaging agents with an MRI detectable response to biologically relevant parameters.

  20. Radiopharmaceutical agents for skeletal scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, S.E.; Van Aswegen, A.; Loetter, M.G.; Minnaar, P.C.; Otto, A.C.; Goedhals, L.; Dedekind, P.S.

    1987-01-01

    The quality of bone scan images obtained with a locally produced and with an imported radiopharmaceutical bone agent, methylene diphosphonate (MDP), was compared visually. Standard skeletal imaging was carried out on 10 patients using both agents, with a period of 2 to 7 days between studies with alternate agents. Equal amounts of activity were administered for both agents. All images were acquired on Polaroid film for subsequent evaluation. The acquisition time for standard amount of counts per study was recorded. Three physicians with applicable experience evaluated image quality (on a 4 point scale) and detectability of metastasis (on a 3 point scale). There was no statistically significant difference (p 0,05) between the two agents by paired t-test of Hotelling's T 2 analysis. It is concluded that the imaging properties of the locally produced and the imported MDP are similar