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Sample records for level dry air

  1. Air dehumidification and drying processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, R.

    1988-07-01

    Details are given on the physical principles of air dehumidification and drying as well as on appropriate systems available on the market. Reference is made to dehumidification through condensation (intermittent compressor or electric auxiliary heater defrosting, reversible-circuit hot gas bypass defrosting), air drying through sorption (sorbents, regeneration through heat inputs), the operation of absorptive dryers (schematic sketches), and the change of state of air (Mollier h,x-diagramm). Practical examples refer to the dehumidification of storage rooms, archives, and waterworks as well as to air drying in the pharmaceutical industry, the pastry and candy industry, the food industry, and the drying (preservation) of turbines and generators during long standstill periods. A diagramm shows that while adsorption processes are efficient at temperatures below 80/sup 0/C, low-temperature dehumidification is efficient at temperatures above. (HWJ).

  2. Carrageenan drying with dehumidified air: drying characteristics and product quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djaeni, M.; Sasongko, S.B.; Prasetyaningrum, Aji A A.A.; Jin, X.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2012-01-01

    Applying dehumidified air is considered as an option to retain quality in carrageenan drying. This work concerns the effects of operational temperature, air velocity, and carrageenan thickness on the progress of drying and product quality when using dehumidified air. Final product quality and

  3. Effect of biomass open burning on particulate matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentration levels and PAH dry deposition in ambient air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Jui C; Shen, Yun H; Li, Hsing W; Chang, Shun S; Wang, Lin C; Chang-Chien, Guo P

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to investigate particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in ambient air during rice straw open burning and non-open burning periods. In the ambient air of a rice field, the mean PM concentration during and after an open burning event were 1828 and 102 μg m⁻³, respectively, which demonstrates that during a rice field open burning event, the PM concentration in the ambient air of rice field is over 17 times higher than that of the non-open burning period. During an open burning event, the mean total PAH and total toxic equivalence (BaP(eq)) concentrations in the ambient air of a rice field were 7206 ng m⁻³ and 10.3 ng m⁻³, respectively, whereas after the open burning event, they were 376 ng m⁻³ and 1.50 ng m⁻³, respectively. Open burning thus increases total PAH and total BaP(eq) concentrations by 19-fold and 6.8-fold, respectively. During a rice straw open burning event, in the ambient air of a rice field, the mean dry deposition fluxes of total PAHs and total BaP(eq) were 1222 μg m⁻² day⁻¹ and 4.80 μg m⁻² day⁻¹, respectively, which are approximately 60- and 3-fold higher than those during the non-open burning period, respectively. During the non-open burning period, particle-bound PAHs contributed 79.2-84.2% of total dry deposition fluxes (gas + particle) of total PAHs. However, an open burning event increases the contribution to total PAH dry deposition by particle-bound PAHs by up to 85.9-95.5%. The results show that due to the increased amount of PM in the ambient air resulting from rice straw open burning, particle-bound PAHs contributed more to dry deposition fluxes of total PAHs than they do during non-open burning periods. The results show that biomass (rice straw) open burning is an important PAH emission source that significantly increases both PM and PAH concentration levels and PAH dry deposition in ambient air.

  4. Accelerating oak air drying by presurfacing

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. T. Simpson; R. C. Baltes

    1972-01-01

    A comparison was made between the air-drying rates of rough and presurfaced northern red oak and white oak. In both species, the presurfaced material was about 1/8 inch thinner than the rough material and dried faster than the rough material. The reduction in drying time depends on the method of analyzing the drying curves, but is slightly less than 10 percent.

  5. High strength air-dried aerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado, Paul R.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.

    2012-11-06

    A method for the preparation of high strength air-dried organic aerogels. The method involves the sol-gel polymerization of organic gel precursors, such as resorcinol with formaldehyde (RF) in aqueous solvents with R/C ratios greater than about 1000 and R/F ratios less than about 1:2.1. Using a procedure analogous to the preparation of resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) aerogels, this approach generates wet gels that can be air dried at ambient temperatures and pressures. The method significantly reduces the time and/or energy required to produce a dried aerogel compared to conventional methods using either supercritical solvent extraction. The air dried gel exhibits typically less than 5% shrinkage.

  6. Drying and decontamination of pistachios with sequential infrared drying, tempering and hot air drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    The pistachio industry is in need of improved drying technology as the current hot air drying has low energy efficiency and drying rate and high labor cost and also does not produce safe products against microbial contamination. In the current study, dehulled and water- sorted pistachios with a mois...

  7. Dry and mixed air cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutner, Gidali.

    1975-01-01

    The various dry air cooling systems now in use or being developed are classified. The main dimensioning parameters are specified and the main systems already built are given with their characteristics. The available data allow dry air cooling to be situated against the other cooling modes and so specify the aim of the research or currently developed works. Some systems at development stages are briefly described. The interest in mixed cooling (assisted draft) and the principal available systems is analyzed. A program of research is outlined [fr

  8. Drier for air-drying coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Micciche, F.; Oostveen, E.A.; Linde, van der R.; Haveren, van J.

    2003-01-01

    The invention pertains to a drier composition for air-drying alkyd-based coatings, inks, or floor coverings, comprising a combination of the following components: a) a transition metal salt with the formula: (Me )( X )m in which Me is the transition metal; X represents a coordinating ligand; and k-

  9. Effects of hot-air and hybrid hot air-microwave drying on drying kinetics and textural quality of nectarine slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miraei Ashtiani, Seyed-Hassan; Sturm, Barbara; Nasirahmadi, Abozar

    2018-04-01

    Drying and physicochemical characteristics of nectarine slices were investigated using hot-air and hybrid hot air-microwave drying methods under fixed air temperature and air speed (50 °C and 0.5 m/s, respectively). Microwave power levels for the combined hot air-microwave method were 80, 160, 240, and 320 W. Drying kinetics were analyzed and compared using six mathematical models. For both drying methods the model with the best fitness in explaining the drying behavior was the Midilli-Kucuk model. The coefficient of determination ( R 2), root mean square error (RMSE) and reduced chi square ( χ 2) for this model have been obtained greater than 0.999 and less than 0.006 and 0.0001 for hybrid hot air-microwave drying while those values for hot-air drying were more than 0.999 and less than 0.003 and 0.0001, respectively. Results showed that the hybrid method reduced the drying time considerably and produced products with higher quality. The range of effective moisture diffusivity ( D eff ) of hybrid and hot-air drying was between 8.15 × 10-8 and 2.83 × 10-7 m2/s and 1.27 × 10-8 m2/s, respectively. The total color difference (ΔE) has also been obtained from 36.68 to 44.27 for hybrid method; however this value for hot-air drying was found 49.64. Although reduced microwave power output led to a lower drying rate, it reduced changes in product parameters i.e. total color change, surface roughness, shrinkage and microstructural change and increased hardness and water uptake.

  10. Aroma changes in fresh bell peppers (Capsicum annuum) after hot-air drying.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luning, P.A.; Yuksel, D.; Vuurst de Vries, van R.; Roozen, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    The aroma of fresh and hot-air dried bell peppers (Capsicum annuum) was evaluated by sensory and instrumental methods. Hot-air drying decreased levels of the odor compounds (Z)-3-hexenal, 2-heptanone, (Z)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-hexenal, hexanol, (Z)-3-hexanol, (E)-2-hexenol, and linalool, which have

  11. Ultrasound-Assisted Hot Air Drying of Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulet, Antonio; Cárcel, Juan Andrés; García-Pérez, José Vicente; Riera, Enrique

    This chapter deals with the application of power ultrasound, also named high-intensity ultrasound, in the hot air drying of foods. The aim of ultrasound-assisted drying is to overcome some of the limitations of traditional convective drying systems, especially by increasing drying rate without reducing quality attributes. The effects of ultrasound on drying rate are responsible for some of the phenomena produced in the internal and/or external resistance to mass transfer.

  12. Microwave and hot air drying of garlic puree: drying kinetics and quality characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    İlter, Işıl; Akyıl, Saniye; Devseren, Esra; Okut, Dilara; Koç, Mehmet; Kaymak Ertekin, Figen

    2018-02-01

    In this study, the effect of hot air and microwave drying on drying kinetics and some quality characteristics such as water activity, color, optic index and volatile oil of garlic puree was investigated. Optic index representing browning of the garlic puree increased excessively with an increase in microwave power and hot air drying temperature. However, volatile oil content of the dried samples was decreased by increasing of temperature and microwave power. By increasing drying temperature (50, 60 and 70 °C) and microwave power (180, 360 and 540 W), the drying time decreased from 8.5 h to 4 min. In order to determine the kinetic parameters, the experimental drying data were fitted to various semi-empirical models beside 2nd Fick's diffusion equation. Among them, the Page model gave a better fit for microwave-drying, while Logarithmic model gave a better fit for hot air drying. By increasing the microwave power and hot air drying temperature, the effective moisture diffusivity, De values ranged from 0.76×10-8 to 2.85×10-8 m2/s and from 2.21×10-10 to 3.07×10-10 m2/s, respectively. The activation energy was calculated as 20.90 kJ/mol for hot air drying and 21.96 W/g for microwave drying using an Arrhenius type equation.

  13. Description of saturation curves and boiling process of dry air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vestfálová Magda

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Air is a mixture of gases forming the gas wrap of Earth. It is formed by dry air, moisture and other pollutants. Dry air is a substance whose thermodynamic properties in gaseous state, as well as the thermodynamic properties of its main constituents in gaseous state, are generally known and described in detail in the literature. The liquid air is a bluish liquid and is industrially used to produce oxygen, nitrogen, argon and helium by distillation. The transition between the gaseous and liquid state (the condensation process, resp. boiling process, is usually displayed in the basic thermodynamic diagrams using the saturation curves. The saturation curves of all pure substances are of a similar shape. However, since the dry air is a mixture, the shapes of its saturation curves are modified relative to the shapes corresponding to the pure substances. This paper deals with the description of the dry air saturation curves as a mixture, i.e. with a description of the process of phase change of dry air (boiling process. The dry air saturation curves are constructed in the basic thermodynamic charts based on the values obtained from the literature. On the basis of diagrams, data appearing in various publications are interpreted and put into context with boiling process of dry air.

  14. Dry Air Cooler Modeling for Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton Cycle Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moisseytsev, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sienicki, J. J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Lv, Q. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-07-28

    Modeling for commercially available and cost effective dry air coolers such as those manufactured by Harsco Industries has been implemented in the Argonne National Laboratory Plant Dynamics Code for system level dynamic analysis of supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO2) Brayton cycles. The modeling can now be utilized to optimize and simulate sCO2 Brayton cycles with dry air cooling whereby heat is rejected directly to the atmospheric heat sink without the need for cooling towers that require makeup water for evaporative losses. It has sometimes been stated that a benefit of the sCO2 Brayton cycle is that it enables dry air cooling implying that the Rankine steam cycle does not. A preliminary and simple examination of a Rankine superheated steam cycle and an air-cooled condenser indicates that dry air cooling can be utilized with both cycles provided that the cycle conditions are selected appropriately

  15. Cold Vacuum Drying Instrument Air System Design Description (SYS 12)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SHAPLEY, B.J.; TRAN, Y.S.

    2000-06-05

    This system design description (SDD) addresses the instrument air (IA) system of the spent nuclear fuel (SNF). This IA system provides instrument quality air to the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility. The IA system is a general service system that supports the operation of the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system, the process equipment skids, and process instruments in the CVD Facility. The following discussion is limited to the compressor, dryer, piping, and valving that provide the IA as shown in Drawings H-1-82222, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Mechanical Utilities Compressed & Instrument Air P&ID, and H-1.82161, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Process Equipment Skid P&ID MCO/Cusk Interface. Figure 1-1 shows the physical location of the 1A system in the CVD Facility.

  16. Cold Vacuum Drying Instrument Air System Design Description. System 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SHAPLEY, B.J.; TRAN, Y.S.

    2000-01-01

    This system design description (SDD) addresses the instrument air (IA) system of the spent nuclear fuel (SNF). This IA system provides instrument quality air to the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility. The IA system is a general service system that supports the operation of the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system, the process equipment skids, and process instruments in the CVD Facility. The following discussion is limited to the compressor, dryer, piping, and valving that provide the IA as shown in Drawings H-1-82222, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Mechanical Utilities Compressed and Instrument Air PandID, and H-1.82161, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Process Equipment Skid PandID MCO/Cusk Interface. Figure 1-1 shows the physical location of the 1A system in the CVD Facility

  17. Determination of the most economical drying schedule and air velocity in softwood drying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salin, J.G.

    2001-12-01

    Simulation models for conventional softwood drying have been available and have also been used by kiln operators for many years. For instance models for Scots pine and Norway spruce, dried at temperatures below about 80 deg C, are in use in Sweden, Finland and Norway. These models predict drying rates as a function of climate (schedule) and air velocity. The models thus give a direct basis for calculation of instantaneous energy demand for moisture evaporation and ventilation. There is further a direct relationship between the air velocity in the space between the board layers in the kiln stack and the electrical power demand by the circulation fans. Finally, the smaller energy consumption associated with heat losses through kiln walls and the accumulated heat in timber etc. can be estimated with sufficient accuracy. Instantaneous energy costs can thus be calculated for each part of a drying schedule. Capital costs associated with kiln investment and maintenance, personnel, insurance etc can be accounted for as an hourly cost, which is basically independent of whether timber is dried fast or slowly. A slow drying process thus accumulates more capital costs per m 3 timber. In this way it is possible to calculate the total instantaneous drying cost (Euro/m{sup 3}/h or Euro/m3/MC%) and the overall total cost (Euro or Euro/m{sup 3}). Some results obtained with a simulation model equipped with such a cost calculation are presented in the paper. A rapidly increasing drying cost is seen when the final MC is lowered. By minimising the instantaneous cost, an optimal drying schedule can be determined for a given fixed air velocity. Finally an optimal air velocity - constant or varying - can be found in the same way.

  18. Application of Natural Air Drying on Shelled Corn in Timor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nino, J.; Nelwan, L. O.; Purwanto, Y. A.

    2018-05-01

    A study of the application of natural air drying on shelled corn in Timor using a bed- type dryer has been performed. The study aspects were limited to obtain the suitable air flow rate requirement and duration of the drying operation per day. For each aspect, the treatments were carried out simultaneously. The results showed that at the average ambient air temperature of 30.6°C and relative humidity (RH) of 73.0% the air flow rate of 0.83 L/s-kg provided the highest drying rate. Subsequently, by using the same air flow rate, three scheme of drying operations duration were used, i.e., 8 hours per day (08.00-16.00), 6 hours per day (09.00-15.00) and 4 hours per day (10.00-14.00). The average temperature and RH of ambient air condition at the second experiment were 30.3°C and 73.3% respectively. After 4 days of drying, the 8 hours per day (first scheme) treatment was able to dry the shelled corn from the initial moisture content of 27.24% w.b. to the final moisture content of 14.05% w.b. The specific energy consumption (SEC) of the first scheme was 1.75 MJ/kg. The final moisture content of the second and third schemes were 15.08 % w.b. and 18.45 % w.b. respectively with SEC of 1.41 MJ/kg and 1.21 MJ/kg respectively.

  19. Pulsed Streamer Discharge Characteristics of Ozone Production in Dry Air

    OpenAIRE

    Samaranayake, W.J.M.; Miyahara, Y.; Namihira, T.; Katsuki, S.; Sakugawa, T.; Hackam, R.; Akiyama, H.; ナミヒラ, タカオ; カツキ, スナオ; アキヤマ, ヒデノリ; 波平, 隆男; 勝木, 淳; 秋山, 秀典

    2000-01-01

    Experimental investigation of HV short pulsed streamer discharges in dry air-fed ozonizers under various operating conditions are reported. Ozone concentration, energy input and ozone production yield (efficiency) were measured at various voltages (14 to 37 kV), pulse repetition rates (25 to 400 pulses per second, pps), flow rates (1.5 to 3.0 1/min) and different gap spacings (10 to 20 mm) at a pressure of 1.01×105 Pa in dry air. A spiral copper wire (1 mm in diameter) made to a cylindrical c...

  20. Drying kinetics and mathematical modeling of hot air drying of coconut coir pith.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, J A K M; Amarasinghe, A D U S

    2016-01-01

    Drying kinetics of coir pith was studied and the properties of compressed coir pith discs were analyzed. Coir pith particles were oven dried in the range of temperatures from 100 to 240 °C and the rehydration ability of compressed coir pith was evaluated by finding the volume expansion. The optimum drying temperature was found to be 140 °C. Hot air drying was carried out to examine the drying kinetics by allowing the coir pith particles to fluidize and circulate inside the drying chamber. Particle motion within the drying chamber closely resembled the particle motion in a flash dryer. The effective moisture diffusivity was found to increase from 1.18 × 10(-8) to 1.37 × 10(-8) m(2)/s with the increase of air velocity from 1.4 to 2.5 m/s respectively. Correlation analysis and residual plots were used to determine the adequacy of existing mathematical models for describing the drying behavior of coir pith. The empirical models, Wang and Singh model and Linear model, were found to be adequate for accurate prediction of drying behavior of coir pith. A new model was proposed by modifying the Wang and Singh model and considering the effect of air velocity. It gave the best correlation between observed and predicted moisture ratio with high value of coefficient of determination (R(2)) and lower values of root mean square error, reduced Chi square (χ(2)) and mean relative deviation (E%).

  1. The effect of air dried conditions on mechanical and physical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-04-20

    Apr 20, 2009 ... small dimension wooden material is used and this affects the cost of ... The first serious application of laminating technique ... buildings, stock hangar, farms and stables constructions ... resistant lamine elements to air dried condition were easy .... the other was organic solvent water repellent protim WR230.

  2. Preparation of Natural Zeolite for Air Dehumidification in Food Drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Djaeni

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Drying with air dehumidification with solid adsorbent improves the quality of food product as well as energy efficiency. The natural zeolite is one of adsorbent having potential to adsorb the water.  Normally, the material was activated to open the pore, remove the organic impurities, and increase Si/Al rate. Hence, it can enhance the adsorbing capacity. This research studied the activation of natural zeolite mined from Klaten, Indonesia as air dehumidification for food drying. Two different methods were used involving activation by heat and NaOH introduction.  As indicators, the porosity and water loaded were evaluated. Results showed both methods improved the adsorbing capacity significantly. With NaOH, the adsorbing capacity was higher. The simple test in onion and corn drying showed the presence of activated natural zeolite can speed up water evaporation positively. This performance was also comparable with Zeolite 3A

  3. Dry coolers and air-condensing units (Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milman, O. O.; Anan'ev, P. A.

    2016-03-01

    The analysis of factors affecting the growth of shortage of freshwater is performed. The state and dynamics of the global market of dry coolers used at electric power plants are investigated. Substantial increase in number and maximum capacity of air-cooled condensers, which have been put into operation in the world in recent years, are noted. The key reasons facilitating the choice of developers of the dry coolers, in particular the independence of the location of thermal power plant from water sources, are enumerated. The main steam turbine heat removal schemes using air cooling are considered, their comparison of thermal efficiency is assessed, and the change of three important parameters, such as surface area of heat transfer, condensate pump flow, and pressure losses in the steam exhaust system, are estimated. It is shown that the most effective is the scheme of direct steam condensation in the heat-exchange tubes, but other schemes also have certain advantages. The air-cooling efficiency may be enhanced much more by using an air-cooling hybrid system: a combination of dry and wet cooling. The basic applied constructive solutions are shown: the arrangement of heat-exchange modules and the types of fans. The optimal mounting design of a fully shopassembled cooling system for heat-exchange modules is represented. Different types of heat-exchange tubes ribbing that take into account the operational features of cooling systems are shown. Heat transfer coefficients of the plants from different manufacturers are compared, and the main reasons for its decline are named. When using evaporative air cooling, it is possible to improve the efficiency of air-cooling units. The factors affecting the faultless performance of dry coolers (DC) and air-condensing units (ACU) and the ways of their elimination are described. A high velocity wind forcing reduces the efficiency of cooling systems and creates preconditions for the development of wind-driven devices. It is noted that

  4. Criticality Analysis of SFP Region I under Dry Air Condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Yong; Kim, Min Chul

    2016-01-01

    This paper is to provide a result of the criticality evaluation under the condition that new fuel assemblies for initial fuel loading are storing in Region 1 of SFP in the dry air. The objective of this analysis is to ensure the effective neutron multiplication factor(k_e_f_f) of SFP is less than 0.95 under that condition. This analysis ensured the effective neutron multiplication factor(k_e_f_f) of Region 1 of SFP is less than 0.95 under the condition in the air. The keff in Region I of SFP under the condition of the dry air is 0.5865. The increased k_c_a_l_c of the Region 1 after the mislocated fuel assembly accident is 0.0444 at the pool flooded with un-borated water

  5. Effects of open-air sun drying and pre-treatment on drying characteristics of purslane ( Portulaca oleracea L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    İsmail, Osman; Kantürk Figen, Aysel; Pişkin, Sabriye

    2015-06-01

    Effects of open-air sun drying and pre-treatment on drying characteristic of purslanes ( Portulaca oleracea L.) were investigated. Drying times were determined as 31, 24 and 9 h for natural, salted and blanched, respectively. The higher "L" value and lower "-a/b" ratio values were obtained in natural dried purslane. The Aghbashlo et al. model gave a better fit to drying data.

  6. Development of a distributed air pollutant dry deposition modeling framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirabayashi, Satoshi; Kroll, Charles N.; Nowak, David J.

    2012-01-01

    A distributed air pollutant dry deposition modeling system was developed with a geographic information system (GIS) to enhance the functionality of i-Tree Eco (i-Tree, 2011). With the developed system, temperature, leaf area index (LAI) and air pollutant concentration in a spatially distributed form can be estimated, and based on these and other input variables, dry deposition of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), and particulate matter less than 10 microns (PM10) to trees can be spatially quantified. Employing nationally available road network, traffic volume, air pollutant emission/measurement and meteorological data, the developed system provides a framework for the U.S. city managers to identify spatial patterns of urban forest and locate potential areas for future urban forest planting and protection to improve air quality. To exhibit the usability of the framework, a case study was performed for July and August of 2005 in Baltimore, MD. - Highlights: ► A distributed air pollutant dry deposition modeling system was developed. ► The developed system enhances the functionality of i-Tree Eco. ► The developed system employs nationally available input datasets. ► The developed system is transferable to any U.S. city. ► Future planting and protection spots were visually identified in a case study. - Employing nationally available datasets and a GIS, this study will provide urban forest managers in U.S. cities a framework to quantify and visualize urban forest structure and its air pollution removal effect.

  7. Improving Malaysian cocoa quality through the use of dehumidified air under mild drying conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hii, Ching L; Law, Chung L; Cloke, Michael; Sharif, Suzannah

    2011-01-30

    Various studies have been conducted in the past to improve the quality of Malaysian cocoa beans. However, the processing methods still remain crude and lack technological advancement. In terms of drying, no previous study has attempted to apply advanced drying technology to improve bean quality. This paper presents the first attempt to improve the quality of cocoa beans through heat pump drying using constant air (28.6 and 40.4 °C) and stepwise (step-up 30.7-43.6-56.9 °C and step-down 54.9-43.9 °C) drying profiles. Comparison was made against hot air drying at 55.9 °C. Product quality assessment showed significant improvement in the quality of Malaysian cocoa beans. Quality was found to be better in terms of lower acidity (higher pH) and higher degree of browning (cut test) for cocoa beans dried using the step-up profile. All heat pump-dried samples showed flavour quality comparable to that of Ghanaian and better than that of Malaysian and Indonesian commercial samples. Step-up-dried samples showed the best flavour profile with high level of cocoa flavour, low in sourness and not excessive in bitterness and astringency. Dried cocoa samples from the step-up drying profile showed the best overall quality as compared with commercial samples from Malaysia, Indonesia and Ghana. The improvement of Malaysian cocoa bean quality is thus achievable through heat pump drying. 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Evaluation of beetroot changes during drying with hot air by digital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Foods drying are an important operation in processing and increasing foodstuffs shelf life and many factors effected on products efficiency and quality during drying. Deterioration of texture structure and products color changes depends on drying method and air temperature and air rate. Drying or removing maximum water ...

  9. Phenome data - Air-drying stress - DGBY | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us DGBY Phenome data - Air-drying stress Data detail Data name Phenome data - Air-drying stress... DOI 10.18908/lsdba.nbdc00953-007 Description of data contents Yeasts used in bread making are exposed to air-dryin...g stress during dried yeast production processes. To clarify the genes required for air-drying tolera...tion of diploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae . The screening identified 278 gene deletions responsible for air-dryin...heir gene products. The results showed that the genes required for air-drying tol

  10. Drying Characteristics and Water-soluble Polysaccharides Evaluation of Kidney Shape Ganoderma lucidum Drying in Air Circulation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyo, D. J.; Jatmiko, T. H.; Poeloengasih, C. D.; Kismurtono, M.

    2017-12-01

    In this project, drying kinetic of kidney shape Ganoderma lucidum fruiting body in air circulation system was studied. The drying experiments were conducted at 40, 50 and 60°C with air flow rate of 1.3 ms-1. Samples were weighted periodically until no change in sample weight was recorded, and then the samples were analyzed for its moisture content. Four different thin-layer mathematical models (Newton, Page, Two-term, Midilli) were used and compare to evaluate the drying curves of kidney shape G. lucidum. The water-soluble polysaccharides were evaluated in order to find the best drying temperature condition. The results indicates that Midilli model was the fittest model to describe the characteristic of kidney shape G. lucidum in the air circulation drying system and temperature of 50°C was the best drying condition to get highest value of water-soluble polysaccharides.

  11. Air-Lubricated Thermal Processor For Dry Silver Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siryj, B. W.

    1980-09-01

    Since dry silver film is processed by heat, it may be viewed on a light table only seconds after exposure. On the other hand, wet films require both bulky chemicals and substantial time before an image can be analyzed. Processing of dry silver film, although simple in concept, is not so simple when reduced to practice. The main concern is the effect of film temperature gradients on uniformity of optical film density. RCA has developed two thermal processors, different in implementation but based on the same philosophy. Pressurized air is directed to both sides of the film to support the film and to conduct the heat to the film. Porous graphite is used as the medium through which heat and air are introduced. The initial thermal processor was designed to process 9.5-inch-wide film moving at speeds ranging from 0.0034 to 0.008 inch per second. The processor configuration was curved to match the plane generated by the laser recording beam. The second thermal processor was configured to process 5-inch-wide film moving at a continuously variable rate ranging from 0.15 to 3.5 inches per second. Due to field flattening optics used in this laser recorder, the required film processing area was plane. In addition, this processor was sectioned in the direction of film motion, giving the processor the capability of varying both temperature and effective processing area.

  12. Ventilation influence upon indoor air radon level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Deyuan

    1995-01-01

    Levels of indoor radon in air are studied by a continuous electrostatic radon monitor under normal living conditions to evaluate the influence of air conditioned ventilation on indoor air radon level. Results show that the indoor air radon concentrations are not much more than those without household conditioner living condition, although using household conditioner requires a sealed room which should lead to a higher radon level. Turning on air conditioner helps lower indoor radon level. Therefore, the total indoor air Rn levels are normal > ventilation > exhaust or in-draft > exhaust plus in-draft

  13. Evaluation of food drying with air dehumidification system: a short review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djaeni, M.; Utari, F. D.; Sasongko, S. B.; Kumoro, A. C.

    2018-01-01

    Energy efficient drying for food and agriculture products resulting high quality products has been an important issue. Currently, about 50% of total energy for postharvest treatment was used for drying. This paper presents the evaluation of new approach namely air dehumidification system with zeolite for food drying. Zeolite is a material having affinity to water in which reduced the moisture in air. With low moisture content and relative humidity, the air can improve driving force for drying even at low temperature. Thus, the energy efficiency can be potentially enhanced and the product quality can be well retained. For proving the hypothesis, the paddy and onion have been dried using dehumidified air. As performance indicators, the drying time, product quality, and heat efficiency were evaluated. Results indicated that the drying with zeolite improved the performances significantly. At operating temperature ranging 50 - 60°C, the efficiency of drying system can reach 75% with reasonable product quality.

  14. Low temperature hot air drying of potato cubes subjected to osmotic dehydration and intermittent microwave: drying kinetics, energy consumption and product quality indexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghannya, Jalal; Bozorghi, Somayyeh; Heshmati, Maryam Khakbaz

    2018-04-01

    Hot-air drying is a slow energy-extensive process. Use of intermittent microwave (IM) in hot-air (HA) drying of food products is characterized with advantages including reduced process time, energy saving, and improved final quality. In this study, the effect of IM-HA drying following an osmotic dehydration (OD) pretreatment was analyzed on qualitative and quantitative properties of the output (i.e. effective moisture diffusion coefficient (Deff), shrinkage, bulk density, rehydration and energy consumption). Temperature and airflow velocity were fixed at 40°C and 1 m/s, respectively. The process variables included sucrose solution concentration at five levels (0 or control, 10, 30, 50 and 70 w/w%), microwave output power at four levels (0 or control, 360, 600 and 900 W), and pulse ratio at four levels (1, 2, 3 and 4). Use of osmotic dehydration in combination with IM-HA drying reduced the drying time by up to about 54%. Increasing the osmotic solution concentration to 30% and using higher pulse ratios increased the Deff. The lowest shrinkage and bulk density as well as the highest rehydration belonged to the 900 W microwave power and pulse ratio of 4. The lowest energy consumption was observed when using the 900 W power level, showing 63.27% less consumption than the HA drying method.

  15. Pipeline drying using dehumidified air with low dew point temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Syed Younus; Gandhidasan, P.; Al-Farayedhi, A.A. [King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Mechanical Engineering Dept., Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    1998-05-01

    The presence of humidity may be detrimental to the operation of pipelines transporting natural gas or other petroleum products. In particular conditions water solidifies or reacts chemically with hydrocarbons, forming hydrates. Such crystalline substances may cause obstruction of the lines and damage the equipment of the relevant facilities. A procedure for predicting the performance of drying a pipeline using dehumidified air with a low dew point is described in this paper. The mathematical model estimates the time required for the complete removal of moisture in the pipeline for the given operating conditions with simplified assumptions. The governing equations are solved analytically as well as numerically and the results are briefly discussed in the paper. (Author)

  16. Use of the solar and eolic energy in the drying of bean seed at rural level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grajales Avila, W.; Racines Sanchez, L.E.

    1985-01-01

    The drying is a camera through which is made pass air heated in a solar collector, by means of a rotational fan impelled by the wind. The dryer is wooden and the zinc consists of five levels where the trays are deposited that contain the product. In the end of the chimney placed above the drying camera this the fan that is a rotor of corrugate fins; when rotating under the action of the wind it extracts air of the ventilation chimney; in the periods that the wind doesn't blow the drying it happens for natural convention. In the collector the badge absorbent is zinc colored corrugate of black; the mark is wooden, isolated in its inferior part with icopor and the cover a sheet of plastic. To evaluate the dryer they were carried out four drying rehearsals with seed of bean variety Calima. One observes that the bean drying with this dryer type is feasible even with cloudy or partially cloudy sky. The drying was satisfactory with the two loads of 200 and 400 kg. With the flow of air through the trays and for the load of 210 kg with flow around them; being the drying uniform for this it finishes. The quality of the seeds was not affected in the drying coke superior temperatures they were presented to 43-centigrade degrees. The dryer can adapt to individual necessities and conditions you specify of operation. It is recommended to carry out rehearsals for other agricultural products that allow knowing the capacity and functionality from the dryer to property level

  17. Analyzing drying characteristics and modeling of thin layers of peppermint leaves under hot-air and infrared treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed-Hassan Miraei Ashtiani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The drying kinetics of peppermint leaves was studied to determine the best drying method for them. Two drying methods include hot-air and infrared techniques, were employed. Three different temperatures (30, 40, 50 °C and air velocities (0.5, 1, 1.5 m/s were selected for the hot-air drying process. Three levels of infrared intensity (1500, 3000, 4500 W/m2, emitter-sample distance (10, 15, 20 cm and air speed (0.5, 1, 1.5 m/s were used for the infrared drying technique. According to the results, drying had a falling rate over time. Drying kinetics of peppermint leaves was explained and compared using three mathematical models. To determine coefficients of these models, non-linear regression analysis was used. The models were evaluated in terms of reduced chi-square (χ2, root mean square error (RMSE and coefficient of determination (R2 values of experimental and predicted moisture ratios. Statistical analyses indicated that the model with the best fitness in explaining the drying behavior of peppermint samples was the Logarithmic model for hot-air drying and Midilli model for infrared drying. Moisture transfer in peppermint leaves was also described using Fick’s diffusion model. The lowest effective moisture diffusivity (1.096 × 10−11 m2/s occurred during hot-air drying at 30 °C using 0.5 m/s, whereas its highest value (5.928 × 10−11 m2/s belonged to infrared drying using 4500 W/m2 infrared intensity, 0.5 m/s airflow velocity and 10 cm emitter-sample distance. The activation energy for infrared and hot-air drying were ranged from 0.206 to 0.439 W/g, and from 21.476 to 27.784 kJ/mol, respectively.

  18. OPTIMIZATION OF MICROWAVE AND AIR DRYING CONDITIONS OF QUINCE (CYDONIA OBLONGA, MILLER USING RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Baltacioglu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Effects of slice thickness of quince (Cydonia oblonga Miller , microwave incident power and air drying temperature on antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of quince were investigated during drying in microwave and air drying. Optimum conditions were found to be: i for microwave drying, 285 W and 4.14 mm thick (maximum antioxidant activity and 285 W and 6.85 mm thick (maximum total phenolic content, and ii for air drying, 75 ºC and 1.2 mm thick (both maximum antioxidant activity and total phenolic content. Drying conditions were optimized by using the response surface methodology. 13 experiments were carried out considering incident microwave powers from 285 to 795 W, air temperature from 46 to 74 ºC and slice thickness from 1.2 to 6.8 mm.

  19. Influence of drying conditions on the effective diffusivity and activation energy during convective air and vacuum drying of pumpkin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana SEREMET (CECLU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the work is to investigate the efficiency of convective air and vacuum processing on pumpkin drying kinetics. The pumpkin samples were of two different geometrical shapes (cylinder and cube and were dried in a laboratory scale hot air dryer using some specific parameters (constant air velocity of 1.0 m/s, three different temperatures 50, 60 and 70ºC suited to relative humidity (RH values of 9.8, 6.5, and 5.4% respectively. The vacuum drying was led at constant pressures of 5 kPa and accordance temperatures of 50, 60 and 70ºC. Moisture transfer from pumpkin slices was described by applying Fick’s diffusion model. Temperature dependence of the effective diffusivity was described by the Arrhenius-type equation. Cylindrical samples have a slightly better behaviour compared to cubic samples, due to the disposition of the tissues, and the mass and thermic transfer possibilities. Analysing the results of both drying methods, it was deduced that the most efficient method is convective air drying at 70ºC.

  20. Reduced heat stress in offices in the tropics using solar powered drying of the supply air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsen, Lars; Santos, A M B

    2002-01-01

    air may facilitate personal cooling by increased evaporation of sweat. Heat acclimatized people with efficient sweating may in particular benefit from this cooling. A prototype solar powered supply system for dried-only air was made. Air from the system was mixed with room air, heated to six different...... content of room air, temperature of supply air and moisture content of supply air was developed based on the experiments. Reduction of moisture content in the supply air by 1.6 g/kg had the same effect as lowering the operative temperature by 1 degree C. The solar-powered system for supplying dry air...... is a low-cost alternative to traditional air conditioning in hot and humid regions....

  1. Oxidation behaviour of U2Ti alloy in dry air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, S.P.; Gupta, N.K.; Jat, Ram Avtar; Parida, S.C.; Mukerjee, S.K.

    2016-01-01

    U 2 Ti alloy is being considered as promising storage material for storage of hydrogen isotopes. However, the absorption capacity of this reactive alloy can be affected due to presence of oxygen in the process gas. Hence, it is necessary to know the kinetic of this alloy in presence of oxygen. In this study, U 2 Ti alloy was prepared by arc melting method followed by vacuum annealing. The alloy was characterized by XRD, SEM and EDX methods. The isothermal oxidation behaviour of U 2 Ti alloy was investigated in the temperature range of 548-623 K in dry air for 24 hours by using thermo gravimetric technique. The oxidation curves are shown. The oxidation curves were analysed using the rate equation: (Δm/a) n = kt, where, (Δm/a) is the mass gain per unit area, n is the power exponent, k is the rate constant and t is time in (seconds). Analysis of the results shows that the oxidation reaction follows linear rate law (n ~ 1). Using the linear rate law, the rate constant (k) of oxidation reaction was evaluated at each temperature in the range 548-623 K. The variation of (ln k) with reciprocal temperature is shown. The activation energy of this oxidation reaction in the temperature range 548-623 K was calculated using the Arrhenius equation and found to be 76 kJ/mol. The XRD analysis of the oxidation products was found to be U 3 O 8 and TiO 2 . (author)

  2. Effect of Turmerin on Endothelial Denudation by Air Drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Markov

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The objective of this study is to determine if arterial endothelial injury can be attenuated by local application of 80 μg/ml turmerin at the site of injury and by oral administration of the same dose. Anesthetized Lewis rats (n =12 weighing 200 ± 4.0 gms randomly were assigned to two groups. After 5 min of air drying a segment of right carotid artery, six rats were treated locally 80μg/ml with turmerin and the rest were treated with 0.9% NaCl. Turmerin was then administered by gavage (80 μg every 24 hrs for 14 days. Animals were sacrificed on day 14 and the carotid artery removed from the injured site for histological analysis and serum collected for lipid peroxidation analysis by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA and conjugated dienes. This study showed no proliferation in the intima of one rat out of six rats treated with turmerin while there was significant variation between the treated rats and the controls. MDA for control was 0.593±0.02 nanomoles/ml while turmerin was 0.187±0.04 (p≤0.01; conjugated diene for control was 0.402±0.03 nanomoles/ml while turmerin was 0.212±0.04 nanomoles/ml (p ≤0.05. Although there was significant reduction in serum peroxidation activity, the histological findings indicate that attenuation of carotid artery injury may involve other factors than decreased lipid peroxidation.

  3. Hot-air drying of purslane ( Portulaca oleracea L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doymaz, İbrahim

    2013-06-01

    Drying characteristics of purslane was experimentally studied in a cabinet dryer. The experimental drying data were fitted best to Modified Henderson and Pabis and Midilli et al. models apart from other models to predict the drying kinetics. The effective moisture diffusivity varied from 1.12 × 10-9 to 3.60 × 10-9 m2/s over the temperature range studied and activation energy was 53.65 kJ/mol.

  4. Processing AIRS Scientific Data Through Level 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granger, Stephanie; Oliphant, Robert; Manning, Evan

    2010-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infra-Red Sounder (AIRS) Science Processing System (SPS) is a collection of computer programs, known as product generation executives (PGEs). The AIRS SPS PGEs are used for processing measurements received from the AIRS suite of infrared and microwave instruments orbiting the Earth onboard NASA's Aqua spacecraft. Early stages of the AIRS SPS development were described in a prior NASA Tech Briefs article: Initial Processing of Infrared Spectral Data (NPO-35243), Vol. 28, No. 11 (November 2004), page 39. In summary: Starting from Level 0 (representing raw AIRS data), the AIRS SPS PGEs and the data products they produce are identified by alphanumeric labels (1A, 1B, 2, and 3) representing successive stages or levels of processing. The previous NASA Tech Briefs article described processing through Level 2, the output of which comprises geo-located atmospheric data products such as temperature and humidity profiles among others. The AIRS Level 3 PGE samples selected information from the Level 2 standard products to produce a single global gridded product. One Level 3 product is generated for each day s collection of Level 2 data. In addition, daily Level 3 products are aggregated into two multiday products: an eight-day (half the orbital repeat cycle) product and monthly (calendar month) product.

  5. Turbulent transport across an interface between dry and humid air in a stratified environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallana, Luca; de Santi, Francesca; di Savino, Silvio; Iovieno, Michele; Ricchiardone, Renzo; Tordella, Daniela

    2014-11-01

    The transport of energy and water vapor across a thin layer which separates two decaying isotropic turbulent flows with different kinetic energy and humidity is considered. The interface is placed in a shearless stratified environment in temporal decay. This system reproduces a few aspects of small scale turbulent transport across a dry air/moist air interface in an atmospheric like context. In our incompressible DNS at Reλ = 250 , Boussinesq's approximation is used for momentum and energy transport while the vapor is modeled as a passive scalar (Kumar, Schumacher & Shaw 2014). We investigated different stratification levels with an initial Fr between 0.8 and 8 in presence of a kinetic energy ratio equal to 7. As the buoyancy term becomes of the same order of the inertial ones, a spatial redistribution of kinetic energy, dissipation and vapor concentration is observed. This eventually leads to the onset of a well of kinetic energy in the low energy side of the mixing layer which blocks the entrainment of dry air. Results are discussed and compared with laboratory and numerical experiments. A posteriori estimates of the eventual compression/expansion of fluid particles inside the interfacial mixing layer are given (Nance & Durran 1994).

  6. The Impact of Dry Midlevel Air on Hurricane Intensity in Idealized Simulations with No Mean Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Scott A.; Sippel, Jason A.; Nolan, David S.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the potential negative influences of dry midlevel air on the development of tropical cyclones (specifically, its role in enhancing cold downdraft activity and suppressing storm development). The Weather Research and Forecasting model is used to construct two sets of idealized simulations of hurricane development in environments with different configurations of dry air. The first set of simulations begins with dry air located north of the vortex center by distances ranging from 0 to 270 km, whereas the second set of simulations begins with dry air completely surrounding the vortex, but with moist envelopes in the vortex core ranging in size from 0 to 150 km in radius. No impact of the dry air is seen for dry layers located more than 270 km north of the initial vortex center (approximately 3 times the initial radius of maximum wind). When the dry air is initially closer to the vortex center, it suppresses convective development where it entrains into the storm circulation, leading to increasingly asymmetric convection and slower storm development. The presence of dry air throughout the domain, including the vortex center, substantially slows storm development. However, the presence of a moist envelope around the vortex center eliminates the deleterious impact on storm intensity. Instead, storm size is significantly reduced. The simulations suggest that dry air slows intensification only when it is located very close to the vortex core at early times. When it does slow storm development, it does so primarily by inducing outward- moving convective asymmetries that temporarily shift latent heating radially outward away from the high-vorticity inner core.

  7. Assessment of the environmental microbiological cross contamination following hand drying with paper hand towels or an air blade dryer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margas, E; Maguire, E; Berland, C R; Welander, F; Holah, J T

    2013-08-01

    This study compared the potential for cross contamination of the surrounding environment resulting from two different hand-drying methods: paper towels and the use of an air blade dryer. One hundred volunteers for each method washed their hands and dried them using one of the two methods. Bacterial contamination of the surrounding environment was measured using settle plates placed on the floor in a grid pattern, air sampling and surface swabs. Both drying methods produced ballistic droplets in the immediate vicinity of the hand-drying process. The air blade dryer produced a larger number of droplets which were dispersed over a larger area. Settle plates showed increased microbial contamination in the grid squares which were affected by ballistic droplets. Using the settle plates counts, it was estimated that approx. 1.7 × 10(5) cfu more micro-organisms were left on the laboratory floor (total area approx. 17.15 m(2)) after 100 volunteers used an air blade dryer compared to when paper towels were used. The two drying methods led to different patterns of ballistic droplets and levels of microbial contamination under heavy use conditions. Whilst the increase in microbial levels in the environment is not significant if only nonpathogenic micro-organisms are spread, it may increase the risk of pathogen contamination of the environment when pathogens are occasionally present on people's hands. The study suggests that the risk of cross contamination from the washroom users to the environment and subsequent users should be considered when choosing a hand-drying method. The data could potentially give guidance following the selection of drying methods on implementing measures to minimise the risk of cross contamination. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. A Numerical Assessment of the Air Flow Behaviour in a Conventional Compact Dry Kiln

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Zdanski; Daniel Possamai; Miguel Vaz Jr.

    2015-01-01

    Convective drying is the most common drying strategy used in timber manufacturing industries in the developing world. In convective drying, the reduction rate of the moisture content is directly affected by the flow topology in the inlet and exit plenums and the air flow velocity in the channels formed by timber layers.Turbulence, boundary layer separation, vortex formation and recirculation regions are flow features that are intrinsically associated with the kiln geometry, which in turn dict...

  9. MEASUREMENT OF INDOOR AIR EMISSIONS FROM DRY-PROCESS PHOTOCOPY MACHINES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The article provides background information on indoor air emissions from office equipment, with emphasis on dry-process photocopy machines. The test method is described in detail along with results of a study to evaluate the test method using four dry-process photocopy machines. ...

  10. Mass transfer characteristics of bisporus mushroom ( Agaricus bisporus) slices during convective hot air drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbarian, Davoud; Baraani Dastjerdi, Mojtaba; Torki-Harchegani, Mehdi

    2016-05-01

    An accurate understanding of moisture transfer parameters, including moisture diffusivity and moisture transfer coefficient, is essential for efficient mass transfer analysis and to design new dryers or improve existing drying equipments. The main objective of the present study was to carry out an experimental and theoretical investigation of mushroom slices drying and determine the mass transfer characteristics of the samples dried under different conditions. The mushroom slices with two thicknesses of 3 and 5 mm were dried at air temperatures of 40, 50 and 60 °C and air flow rates of 1 and 1.5 m s-1. The Dincer and Dost model was used to determine the moisture transfer parameters and predict the drying curves. It was observed that the entire drying process took place in the falling drying rate period. The obtained lag factor and Biot number indicated that the moisture transfer in the samples was controlled by both internal and external resistance. The effective moisture diffusivity and the moisture transfer coefficient increased with increasing air temperature, air flow rate and samples thickness and varied in the ranges of 6.5175 × 10-10 to 1.6726 × 10-9 m2 s-1 and 2.7715 × 10-7 to 3.5512 × 10-7 m s-1, respectively. The validation of the Dincer and Dost model indicated a good capability of the model to describe the drying curves of the mushroom slices.

  11. Potential of roof-integrated solar collectors for preheating air at drying facilities in Northern Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roman, Franz; Nagle, Marcus; Leis, Hermann; Mueller, Joachim [Institute of Agricultural Engineering 440e, University of Hohenheim, Garbenstrasse 9, 70599 Stuttgart (Germany); Janjai, Serm [Department of Physics, Silpakorn University, Nakhon Pathom (Thailand); Mahayothee, Busarakorn [Department of Food Technology, Silpakorn University, Nakhon Pathom (Thailand); Haewsungcharoen, Methinee [Department of Food Engineering, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai (Thailand)

    2009-07-15

    Longan is one of the most widely cropped fruits in Northern Thailand, where a significant amount of the annual harvest is commercially dried and exported as a commodity. Liquefied petroleum gas is generally used as the energy source for heating the drying air, but concern is growing as fuel prices are expected to increase for the foreseeable future. Meanwhile, with the ample solar radiation in Thailand, the roofs of drying facilities could be adapted to serve as solar collectors to preheat the drying air, thus reducing the energy requirement from fossil fuels. In this study, a simulation program for a flat-plate solar air heater was used to estimate the potential to preheat drying air given the conditions of several longan drying facilities. Results showed that solar collectors can replace up to 19.6% of the thermal energy demand during the drying season. Bigger collectors and smaller air channels result in more useful heat, but attention has to be paid to costs and pressure drop, respectively. Annual monetary savings can reach up to THB 56,000 ({approx}US$ 1800 at US$ 1 THB 31). (author)

  12. Water loss at normal enamel histological points during air drying at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Medeiros, R C G; De Lima, T A S; Gouveia, C R; De Sousa, F B

    2013-06-01

    This in vitro study aimed to quantify water loss at histological points in ground sections of normal enamel during air drying at room temperature (25°C) and relative humidity of 50%. From each of 10 ground sections of erupted permanent human normal enamel, three histological points (n = 30) located at 100, 300 and 500 μm from enamel surface and along a transversal following prisms paths were characterized regarding the mineral, organic and water volumes. Water loss during air drying was from 0 to 48 h. Drying occurred with both falling and constant-drying rates, and drying stabilization times (Teq ) ranged from 0.5 to 11 h with a mean 0.26 (±0.12)% weight loss. In some samples (n = 5; 15 points), Teq increased as a function of the distance from the enamel surface, and drying occurred at an apparent diffusion rate of 3.47 × 10⁻⁸ cm² s⁻¹. Our data provide evidence of air drying resulting in air replacing enamel's loosely bound water in prisms sheaths following a unidirectional water diffusion rate of 3.47 × 10⁻⁸ cm² s⁻¹ (from the original enamel surface inward), not necessarily resulting in water evaporating directly into air, with important implications for transport processes and optical and mechanical properties. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2013 Royal Microscopical Society.

  13. STATISTIC MODELING OF DRYING KINETHIC OF SPINACH LEAVES USING MICROWAVE AND HOT AIR METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Nouri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The target of this study was to model of spinach leaves drying using microwave and hot air dryer. This test performed in combination treatment of temperatures (50°C, 60°C, and 70°C and microwave (90, 180, 360, 600 and 900w in 3 replications. Sample moisture measured within drying. All the results were fitted and analyzed with 8 mathematical models base on 3 parameters including determination (R2, Chi square(X2, root mean square errors(RSME. Results also revealed that temperature and microwave power effectively reduce the drying time when increase. Drying occurs in degrading stage; moreover the comparison of results exhibited that Page and Two sentences models were fitted appropriately to estimate moisture changing and drying description. Regarding all the results, it is cleared that microwave method is an appropriate method in spinach drying as a result of reducing drying temperature and its high efficiency.

  14. Empirical Modeling on Hot Air Drying of Fresh and Pre-treated Pineapples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanongkankit Yardfon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to study drying kinetics and determine empirical model of fresh pineapple and pre-treated pineapple with sucrose solution at different concentrations during drying. 3 mm thick samples were immersed into 30, 40 and 50 Brix of sucrose solution before hot air drying at temperatures of 60, 70 and 80°C. The empirical models to predict the drying kinetics were investigated. The results showed that the moisture content decreased when increasing the drying temperatures and times. Increase in sucrose concentration led to longer drying time. According to the statistical values of the highest coefficients (R2, the lowest least of chi-square (χ2 and root mean square error (RMSE, Logarithmic model was the best models for describing the drying behavior of soaked samples into 30, 40 and 50 Brix of sucrose solution.

  15. Cool and dry weather enhances the effects of air pollution on emergency IHD hospital admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Hong; Yu, Ignatius Tak-Sun; Wang, Xiaorong; Tian, Linwei; Tse, Lap Ah; Wong, Tze Wai

    2013-09-20

    Associations between ambient pollution and cardiovascular morbidity including ischemic heart disease (IHD) have been confirmed. Weather factors such as temperature, season and relative humidity (RH) may modify the effects of pollution. We conducted this study to examine the effects of air pollution on emergency IHD hospital admissions varied across seasons and RH levels, and to explore the possible joint modification of weather factors on pollution effects. Daily time series of air pollution concentrations, mean temperature and RH were collected from IHD hospital admissions from 1998 to 2007 in Hong Kong. We used generalized additive Poisson models with interaction term to estimate the pollution effects varied across seasons and RH levels, after adjusting for time trends, weather conditions, and influenza outbreaks. An increase in the detrimental effects of air pollution in cool season and on low humidity days was observed. In the cool and dry season, a 10 μg/m(3) increment of lag03 exposure was associated with an increase of emergency IHD admissions by 1.82% (95% CI: 1.24-2.40%), 3.89% (95% CI: 3.08-4.70%), and 2.19% (95% CI: 1.33-3.06%) for particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm (PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3), respectively. The effects of pollutants decreased greatly and lost statistical significance in the warm and humid season. We found season and RH jointly modified the associations between ambient pollution and IHD admissions, resulting in increased IHD admissions in the cool and dry season and reduced admissions in the warm and humid season. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Treatment of air dried archaeological wool textiles from waterlogged environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scharff, Annemette Bruselius

    2014-01-01

    expanded the fibers and the yarn increased in size, resulting in more flexible and less brittle textiles. This property was kept when the textiles were dried by stepwise dehydration in ethanol, acetone, and white spirit with a final treatment in 5% lanolin. Preliminary tests on brittle textiles can...

  17. Influence of forced air volume on water evaporation during sewage sludge bio-drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Lu; Chen, Tong-Bin; Gao, Ding; Zheng, Guo-Di; Liu, Hong-Tao; Pan, Tian-Hao

    2013-09-01

    Mechanical aeration is critical to sewage sludge bio-drying, and the actual water loss caused by aeration can be better understood from investigations of the relationship between aeration and water evaporation from the sewage sludge bio-drying pile based on in situ measurements. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of forced air volume on the evaporation of water from a sewage sludge bio-drying pile. Dewatered sewage sludge was bio-dried using control technology for bio-drying, during which time the temperature, superficial air velocity and water evaporation were measured and calculated. The results indicated that the peak air velocity and water evaporation occurred in the thermophilic phase and second temperature-increasing phase, with the highest values of 0.063 ± 0.027 m s(-1) and 28.9 kg ton(-1) matrix d(-1), respectively, being observed on day 4. Air velocity above the pile during aeration was 43-100% higher than when there was no aeration, and there was a significantly positive correlation between air volume and water evaporation from day 1 to 15. The order of daily means of water evaporation was thermophilic phase > second temperature-increasing phase > temperature-increasing phase > cooling phase. Forced aeration controlled the pile temperature and improved evaporation, making it the key factor influencing water loss during the process of sewage sludge bio-drying. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Dry-air drying at room temperature - a practical pre-treatment method of tree leaves for quantitative analyses of phenolics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegelberg, Riitta; Virjamo, Virpi; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta

    2018-03-09

    In ecological experiments, storage of plant material is often needed between harvesting and laboratory analyses when the number of samples is too large for immediate, fresh analyses. Thus, accuracy and comparability of the results call for pre-treatment methods where the chemical composition remains unaltered and large number of samples can be treated efficiently. To study if a fast dry-air drying provides an efficient pre-treatment method for quantitative analyses of phenolics. Dry-air drying of mature leaves was done in a drying room equipped with dehumifier (10% relative humidity, room temperature) and results were compared to freeze-drying or freeze-drying after pre-freezing in liquid nitrogen. The quantities of methanol-soluble phenolics of Betula pendula Roth, Betula pubescens Ehrh., Salix myrsinifolia Salisb., Picea abies L. Karsten and Pinus sylvestris L. were analysed with HPLC and condensed tannins were analysed using the acid-butanol test. In deciduous tree leaves (Betula, Salix), the yield of most of the phenolic compounds was equal or higher in samples dried in dry-air room than the yield from freeze-dried samples. In Picea abies needles, however, dry-air drying caused severe reductions in picein, stilbenes, condensed tannin and (+)-catechin concentrations compared to freeze-drying. In Pinus sylvestris highest yields of neolignans but lowest yields of acetylated flavonoids were obtained from samples freeze-dried after pre-freezing. Results show that dry-air drying provides effective pre-treatment method for quantifying the soluble phenolics for deciduous tree leaves, but when analysing coniferous species, the different responses between structural classes of phenolics should be taken into account. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. The effect of osmotic pretreatment on the density of hot-air-dried carrot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Soleimani

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of large amounts of fruits and vegetables throughout the world, have encouraged the development of various methods for their processing. Drying is considers as the most common method for preservation of vegetable and fruits. Although drying extend the shelf-life, it has various side effects on keeping quality of these foods; including decreasing of the color and texture quality as well as missing the flavor and nutritional values. These negative effects have increased the demand for the discovering the alternative drying methods and consequently for the production of fresh-like products. The aim of this study was to introduce and optimize the novel method for the drying of carrot as well as to develop and optimize the quality of osmo-air-dried carrots with special respect to the color, flavor, texture, rehydration properties, density and shriveling of the product. For this, the effect of osmotic pretreatment on the density of carrot slices was investigated, using 50% glucose syrup +5% salt at 40°C with 150 rpm, followed by complementary drying step. The result of treated group was compared with control samples which were dried only by hot-air-drier. The results showed that using osmotic pretreatment could increase the density through inhibition of the product's shrinkage. Meanwhile, in air-dried samples the density was decreased considerably and high shrinkage was also observed.

  20. Effect of hot-air drying on the physicochemical properties of kaffir lime leaves (Citrus hystrix)

    OpenAIRE

    Juhari, Nurul Hanisah Binti; Lasekan, Ola; Muhammad, Kharidah; Karim, Shahrim

    2013-01-01

    The effect of hot-air drying namely drying time (3-15 h), drying temperature (40-80°C) and loading capacity (0.5-2.0 kg/m2 ) on the physicochemical characteristics of kaffir lime leaves was optimized using Response Surface Methodology. Twenty treatments were assigned based on the second- order CCD including 6 center points, 6 axial points and 8 factorial points. The quality of dried kaffir lime leaves was evaluated by determining moisture content, water activity, texture (brittleness) and Hun...

  1. Mathematical modeling of hot air/electrohydrodynamic (EHD) drying kinetics of mushroom slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taghian Dinani, Somayeh; Hamdami, Nasser; Shahedi, Mohammad; Havet, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Hot air/EHD drying behavior of thin layer mushroom slices was evaluated. • A new empirical model was proposed for drying kinetics modeling of mushroom slices. • The new model presents excellent predictions for hot air/EHD drying of mushroom. - Abstract: Researches about mathematical modeling of electrohydrodynamic (EHD) drying are rare. In this study, hot air combined with electrohydrodynamic (EHD) drying behavior of thin layer mushroom slices was evaluated in a laboratory scale dryer at voltages of 17, 19, and 21 kV and electrode gaps of 5, 6, and 7 cm. The drying curves were fitted to ten different mathematical models (Newton, Page, Modified Page, Henderson and Pabis, Logarithmic, Two-term exponential, Midilli and Kucuk, Wang and Singh, Weibull and Parabolic models) and a proposed new empirical model to select a suitable drying equation for drying mushroom slices in a hot air combined with EHD dryer. Coefficients of the models were determined by non-linear regression analysis and the models were compared based on their coefficient of determination (R 2 ), sum of square errors (SSE) and root mean square error (RMSE) between experimental and predicted moisture ratios. According to the results, the proposed model that contains only three parameters provided the best fit with the experimental data. It was closely followed by the Midilli and Kucuk model that contains four parameters. Therefore, the proposed model can present comfortable usage and excellent predictions for the moisture content changes of mushroom slices in the hot air combined with EHD drying system

  2. Changes in duration of dry and wet spells associated with air temperatures in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Hengchun

    2018-03-01

    This study uses daily precipitation records from 517 Russian stations (1966-2010) to examine the relationships between continuous dry and wet day duration and surface air temperature for all four seasons. The study found that both mean and extreme durations of dry periods increase with air temperature at about 7.0% (0.24 day/°C) and 7.7% (0.86 day/°C) respectively, while those of wet periods decrease at about 1.3% (-0.02 day/°C) and 2.2% (-0.10 day/°C) respectively averaged over the entire study region during summer. An increase in the duration of dry periods with higher air temperature is also found in other seasons at locations with a mean seasonal air temperature of about -5 °C or higher. Opposite relationships of shorter durations of dry periods and longer wet periods associated with higher air temperature are observed over the northern part of the study region in winter. The changes in durations of both dry and wet periods have significant correlations with the changes in total dry and wet days but are about 2.5 times higher for dry periods and 0.5 times lower for wet periods. The study also found that locations with longer durations of dry periods experience faster rates of increase in air temperature, suggesting the likelihood of exacerbating drought severity in drier and/or warmer locations for all seasons.

  3. Hyperventilation with cold versus dry air in 2- to 5-year-old children with asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kim G; Bisgaard, Hans

    2005-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Cold air challenge (CACh) has been shown to discriminate between children with asthma and healthy young children. Hyperventilation with dry room-temperature air is a simplified alternative. We compared responsiveness in young children with asthma between two standardized, single......-subject SDs (SDw). The challenge sequence was randomly assigned. A comparator challenge was performed 1 hour later if the first challenge gave a change of 3 SDw or more. Forty 2- to 5-year-old children with asthma were included. Responsiveness to cold versus dry air showed significant, but weak, correlation...

  4. Numerical modelling of the effect of dry air traces in a helium parallel plate dielectric barrier discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarou, C.; Belmonte, T.; Chiper, A. S.; Georghiou, G. E.

    2016-10-01

    A validated numerical model developed for the study of helium barrier discharges in the presence of dry air impurities is presented in this paper. The model was used to numerically investigate the influence of air traces on the evolution of the helium dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). The level of dry air used as impurity was in the range from 0 to 1500 ppm, which corresponds to the most commonly encountered range in atmospheric pressure discharge experiments. The results presented in this study clearly show that the plasma chemistry and consequently the discharge evolution is highly affected by the concentration level of impurities in the mixture. In particular, it was observed that air traces assist the discharge ignition at low concentration levels (~55 ppm), while on the other hand, they increase the burning voltage at higher concentration levels (~1000 ppm). Furthermore, it was found that the discharge symmetry during the voltage cycle highly depends on the concentration of air. For the interpretation of the results, a detailed analysis of the processes that occur in the discharge gap is performed and the main reaction pathways of ion production are described. Thanks to this approach, useful insight into the physics behind the evolution of the discharge is obtained.

  5. Air pollution dry deposition: radioisotopes as particles and volatiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    This study focuses on determining volcanic ash and ambient airborne solids concentrations at various sampling sites subsequent to the Mt. St. Helens' eruption in order to develop an experimental basis for models predicting removal of airborne particles and gases by dry deposition onto outdoor surfaces. In addition, deposition rates were determined using dual tracer techniques in the field and in a wind tunnel in the laboratory

  6. Dry storage systems with free convection air cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kioes, S.R.

    1980-01-01

    Several design principles to remove heat from the spent fuel by free air convection are illustrated and described. The key safety considerations were felt to be: loss of coolant is impossible as the passive system uses air as a coolant; overheating is precluded because as the temperatures of the containers rises the coolant flow rate increases; mass of the storage building provides a large heat sink and therefore a rapid temperature rise is impossible; and lack of any active external support requirements makes the cooling process less likely to equipment or operator failures. An example of this type of storage already exists. The German HTGR is operated with spherical graphite fuel elements which are stored in canister and in storage cells. The concept is a double cooling system with free convection inside the cells and heat exchange via two side walls of the cell to the ambient air in the cooling ducts. Technical description of the TN 1300 cask is also presented

  7. Processing AIRS Scientific Data Through Level 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliphant, Robert; Lee, Sung-Yung; Chahine, Moustafa; Susskind, Joel; arnet, Christopher; McMillin, Larry; Goldberg, Mitchell; Blaisdell, John; Rosenkranz, Philip; Strow, Larrabee

    2007-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Spectrometer (AIRS) Science Processing System (SPS) is a collection of computer programs, denoted product generation executives (PGEs), for processing the readings of the AIRS suite of infrared and microwave instruments orbiting the Earth aboard NASA s Aqua spacecraft. AIRS SPS at an earlier stage of development was described in "Initial Processing of Infrared Spectral Data' (NPO-35243), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 11 (November 2004), page 39. To recapitulate: Starting from level 0 (representing raw AIRS data), the PGEs and their data products are denoted by alphanumeric labels (1A, 1B, and 2) that signify the successive stages of processing. The cited prior article described processing through level 1B (the level-2 PGEs were not yet operational). The level-2 PGEs, which are now operational, receive packages of level-1B geolocated radiance data products and produce such geolocated geophysical atmospheric data products such as temperature and humidity profiles. The process of computing these geophysical data products is denoted "retrieval" and is quite complex. The main steps of the process are denoted microwave-only retrieval, cloud detection and cloud clearing, regression, full retrieval, and rapid transmittance algorithm.

  8. Performance Recovery of Natural Draft Dry Cooling Systems by Combined Air Leading Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijia Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The cooling efficiency of natural draft dry cooling system (NDDCS are vulnerable to ambient winds, so the implementation of measures against the wind effects is of great importance. This work presents the combined air leading strategies to recover the flow and heat transfer performances of NDDCS. Following the energy balance among the exhaust steam, circulating water, and cooling air, numerical models of natural draft dry cooling systems with the combined air leading strategies are developed. The cooling air streamlines, volume effectiveness, thermal efficiency and outlet water temperature for each cooling delta of the large-scale heat exchanger are obtained. The overall volume effectiveness, average outlet water temperature of NDDCS and steam turbine back pressure are calculated. The results show that with the air leading strategies inside or outside the dry-cooling tower, the thermo-flow performances of natural draft dry cooling system are improved under all wind conditions. The combined inner and outer air leading strategies are superior to other single strategy in the performance recovery, thus can be recommended for NDDCS in power generating units.

  9. The Effect of Temperature and Air Velocity on Drying Kinetics of Pistachio Nuts during Roasting by using Hot Air Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Dini

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Pistachio nut is one of the most delicious and nutritious nuts in the world and it is being used as a saltedand roasted product or as an ingredient in snacks, ice cream, desserts, etc. The purpose of roasting is to promote flavour and texture changes in nuts that ultimately increase the overall palatability of the product.Roasting involves a number of physico-chemical changes, including heat exchange, chemical reactions and drying. Knowledge of desorption kinetics is essential to predict the behavior of the material during roasting process and to design roaster equipment.The main aim of this research was to evaluate suitable models for predicting moisture ratio, the effect of air temperature and velocity on the drying kinetics of pistachio nuts and obtain the effective diffusivity coefficient and activation energy in the drying process during the roasting of pistachio nuts. Materials and Methods Dried Ahmadaghaei pistachio nuts were supplied from Kashefan Kavir company (Doraj co. in Rafsanjan. Pistachio nuts were soaked in 17% salt solution for 8 minute and roasting was investigated at air temperatures of 120,130, 145, 160 and 170 °C and air velocities of 0.6, 0.88, 1.3, 1.72 and 2 ms-1. Five semi-theoretical and two empirical kinetic models were fitted to drying experimental data using nonlinear regression analysis techniques in the Curve Expert 2.2 computer program. Results and Discussion Tow-way ANOVA indicated that temperature and hot air velocity significantly affected the drying process during roasting of shelled pistachio nuts. The higher roasting temperatures and air velocities resulted in the higher drying rates. During first 10 min of roasting at constant air velocity of 1.3 ms-1, 64.5%, 70.3%, 77.1%, 83.5%, 89.7% of the moisture were removed at roasting air temperatures of 120 °C, 130 °C, 145 °C, 160 °C, 170 °C, respectively. The high regression coefficients (R2>0.996 and low reduced chi-square (χ2, mean relative

  10. Nitrogen mineralization from anaerobically digested centrifuge cake and aged air-dried biosolids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Kuldip; Hundal, Lakhwinder S; Cox, Albert E; Granato, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    This study was conducted to estimate nitrogen (N) mineralization of anaerobically digested centrifuge cake from the Stickney Water Reclamation Plant (SWRP) and Calumet Water Reclamation Plant (CWRP), lagoon-aged air-dried biosolids from the CWRP, and Milorganite at three rates of application (0, 12.5 and 25 Mg ha(-1)). The N mineralized varied among biosolids as follows: Milorganite (44%) > SWRP centrifuge cake (35%) > CWRP centrifuge cake (31%) > aged air-dried (13%). The N mineralized in the SWRP cake (32%) and CWRP aged air-dried biosolids (12%) determined from the 15N study were in agreement with the first study. The N mineralization value for centrifuge cake biosolids observed in our study is higher than the value given in the Part 503 rule and Illinois Part 391 guidelines. These results will be used to fine-tune biosolids application rate to match crop N demand without compromising yield while minimizing any adverse effect on the environment.

  11. Solar air heaters for industrial drying; Aquecedor solar de ar para secagem industrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, Everaldo Mendes [Governo do Estado da Paraiba, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Secretaria de Planejamento e Gestao

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this study is to encourage the use of solar energy in industrial drying of fruits, with the producers poles, at the same time, promote the rational use of energy for heat, or replacing the hydroelectric and oil derivatives for this purpose. This study is presented in the following chapters: availability of solar energy; details of constructive solar heated air; drying fruit; market. (author)

  12. The volatile oil composition of fresh and air-dried buds of Cannabis sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, S A; ElSohly, M A

    1996-01-01

    The composition of the steam-distilled volatile oil of fresh and air-dried, indoor-grown marijuana was studied by GC/FID and GC/MS. In all, 68 components were detected of which 57 were fully identified. Drying of the plant material had no effect on the qualitative composition of the oil and did not affect the ability of individuals familiar with marijuana smell to recognize the odor.

  13. Effect of additives and steaming on quality of air dried noodles

    OpenAIRE

    Gatade, Abhijeet Arun; Sahoo, Akshaya Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Texture is the most important property for consumer acceptance in cooked noodles. The air dried noodles are known to have higher cooking loss and cooking time, to that of instant fried noodles. But the fat content of instant fried noodles is more. In the present work attempts were made to optimize the moisture content so as to obtain a smooth dough for extruded noodle preparation and develop air dried noodles of low fat content with lesser cooking loss and cooking time. To meet the objectives...

  14. Robust Vacuum-/Air-Dried Graphene Aerogels and Fast Recoverable Shape-Memory Hybrid Foams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chenwei; Qiu, Ling; Zhang, Baoqing; Li, Dan; Liu, Chen-Yang

    2016-02-17

    New graphene aerogels can be fabricated by vacuum/air drying, and because of the mechanical robustness of the graphene aerogels, shape-memory polymer/graphene hybrid foams can be fabricated by a simple infiltration-air-drying-crosslinking method. Due to the superelasticity, high strength, and good electrical conductivity of the as-prepared graphene aerogels, the shape-memory hybrid foams exhibit excellent thermotropical and electrical shape-memory properties, outperforming previously reported shape-memory polymer foams. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. The Influence of Different Air-Drying Conditions on Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustos, Mariela C; Rocha-Parra, Diego; Sampedro, Ines; de Pascual-Teresa, Sonia; León, Alberto E

    2018-03-21

    The aim of the present research was to study the effect of convective drying on color, bioactive compounds, and antioxidant activity of berry fruits and to chemically characterize the polyphenolic composition of raspberry, boysenberry, redcurrants, and blackcurrants fruit. Drying berries at 65 °C provoked the best conservations of color, particularly for boysenberry and blackcurrant. Drying at 65 °C was also the condition that showed higher level of polyphenols, while drying at 50 or 130 °C showed above % degradation of them due to the long time or high temperature drying. Radical scavenging activity was the predominant antioxidant mechanism in all samples, with 65 °C dried berries being the most active ones possibly because of polyphenol depolymerization. The anthocyanin profile showed that delphinidin and cyanidin derivatives were the most abundant anthocyanidins with different predominance between berry genera. Degradation of anthocyanins was increased with drying temperature been Cy 3-glucoside and Cy 3-rutinoside the most abundant.

  16. A mouse dry eye model induced by topical administration of the air pollutant particulate matter 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Tan, Gang; Ding, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yahong; Wu, Anhua; Yang, Qichen; Ye, Lei; Shao, Yi

    2017-12-01

    To introduce a novel dry eye mouse model induced by topical administration of the air pollutant particulate matter 10 (PM 10 ). A total of 60 male BALB/c mice were used in this study and divided into two groups: group A (PBS eye drops, n=30) and group B (PM 10 eye drop group, n=30). Each treatment was dosed four times a day, every time 50ul with the concentration of 5mg/ml PM10, for 14 consecutive days in the right eye. The clinical manifestations of dry eye were measured before therapy and 4, 7 and 14days post-treatment respectively, which included the tear volume, tear break-up (BUT) time, corneal fluorescein staining, rose bengal staining, Lissamine Green staining and inflammatory index. Eye samples were collected on D14 and examined by histologic light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), corneal cytokeration 10 (K10) immunnostaining, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), NF-κB-p65 and NF-κB Western Blot analysis. At 0d, 7d and 14d, there were no statistical changes in tear volume, BUT after treatment (P>0.05) with PBS in group A. In group B, all items showed statistical differences at each time point (Plevels of K10 and reduced number of goblet cells in the conjunctival fornix in group B. PM 10 significantly increased the levels of TNF-α, NF-κB-p65 and NF-κB in the cornea. PM 10 can damage the tear film function and cause the destruction of the structural organization of ocular surface in mice. Topical administration of PM 10 in mice induces ocular surface changes that are similar to those of dry eye in humans, representing a novel model of DES. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  17. Safe dry storage of intermediate-level waste at CRL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, A.; Sanderson, T.; Lian, J.

    2011-01-01

    Ongoing operations at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited's (AECL) Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) generate High-, Intermediate- and Low-Level Waste (HLW, ILW and LLW) that will require safe storage for several decades until a long-term management facility is available. This waste is stored in below grade concrete structures (i.e. tile holes or bunkers) or the above-ground Shielded Modular Above Ground Storage (SMAGS) facility depending on the thermal and shielding requirements of the particular waste package. Existing facilities are reaching their capacity and alternate storage is required for the future storage of this radioactive material. To this end, work has been undertaken at CRL to design, license, construct and commission the next generation of waste management facilities. This paper provides a brief overview of the existing radioactive-waste management facilities used at CRL and focuses on the essential requirements and issues to be considered in designing a new waste storage facility. Fundamentally, there are four general requirements for a new storage facility to dry store dry non-fissile ILW. They are the need to provide: (1) containment, (2) shielding, (3) decay heat removal, and (4) ability to retrieve the waste for eventual placement in an appropriate long-term management facility. Additionally, consideration must be given to interfacing existing waste generating facilities with the new storage facility. The new facilities will be designed to accept waste for 40 years followed by 60 years of passive storage for a facility lifespan of 100 years. The design should be modular and constructed in phases, each designed to accept ten years of waste. This strategy will allow for modifications to subsequent modules to account for changes in waste characteristics and generation rates. Two design concepts currently under consideration are discussed. (author)

  18. Dry air preservation and corrosion prevention using desiccant dehumidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tykesson, M.; Ashworth, C.

    1991-01-01

    The preservation and longevity of power station plants is a significant problem, particularly in cold shut down situations for prolonged periods of time, and also in storage of parts prior to installation. Power station protection and equipment preservation using the desiccant method is not new. For many years dehumidification machinery has been employed as a barrier to moisture related degradation. The first rotary desiccant dehumidifiers were installed within the power plant industry in the mid 1960s. Many of these first installations remain in operation today. In order to understand the functioning of a desiccant unit as compared with other air handling systems, it is essential to understand the fundamentals of a psychrometric chart. This article will attempt to give the reader an understanding of the subject. (author)

  19. Effect of microwave and air drying of parboiled rice on stabilization of rice bran oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizk, Laila F.

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Two rice varieties, Giza 175 (short grain and Giza 181 (long grain were partDoiled by soaking the grains at room temperature for 20 hours and steaming for 15 min then dried either at room temperature or by microwave. The results indicated that air and microwave drying significantly increased oil extraction in both rice bran varieties. Parboiling followed by air or microwave drying produced a slight change on protein, fiber and ash content of rice bran and reduced the development of free fatty acids (F.F.A. In oil bran. Microwave samples have less F.F.A. content than the corresponding samples air dried. Oils from the cold stored rice bran presented lower F.F.A. than the corresponding oil bran stored at room temperature. The ratio between total unsaturated fatty acids and total saturated ones (Tu/Ts decreased after air and microwave drying. Results also show that air drying increased the ratio of total hydrocarbons and total sterols (Tu/Ts in both varieties while microwave decreased it.

    Dos variedades de arroz, Giza 175 (grano corto y Giza 181 (grano largo se precocieron mediante la puesta en remojo de los granos a temperatura ambiente durante 20 horas y cocimiento al vapor durante 15 minutos, luego se secaron a temperatura ambiente o por microondas. Los resultados indicaron que el secado al aire y en microondas aumentó significativamente la extracción del aceite en ambas variedades de salvado de arroz. El precocido seguido del secado al aire o en microondas produjo un cambio pequeño en el contenido en proteína, fibra y ceniza y redujo el desarrollo de ácidos grasos libres (F.F.A. en el aceite de salvado. Las muestras secadas en microondas tuvieron un menor contenido en F.F.A. que las muestras correspondientes al secado en aire. Aceites de salvado de arroz almacenado en frió presentaron menor F.F.A. que los almacenados a temperatura ambiente. La relación entre ácidos grasos insaturados totales y los saturados totales (Tu/Ts disminuy

  20. Thin layer convective air drying of wild edible plant (Allium roseum) leaves: experimental kinetics, modeling and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Haj Said, Leila; Najjaa, Hanen; Farhat, Abdelhamid; Neffati, Mohamed; Bellagha, Sihem

    2015-06-01

    The present study deals with the valorization of an edible spontaneous plant of the Tunisian arid areas: Allium roseum. This plant is traditionally used for therapeutic and culinary uses. Thin-layer drying behavior of Allium roseum leaves was investigated at 40, 50 and 60 °C drying air temperatures and 1 and l.5 m/s air velocity, in a convective dryer. The increase in air temperature significantly affected the moisture loss and reduced the drying time while air velocity was an insignificant factor during drying of Allium roseum leaves. Five models selected from the literature were found to satisfactorily describe drying kinetics of Allium roseum leaves for all tested drying conditions. Drying data were analyzed to obtain moisture diffusivity values. During the falling rate-drying period, moisture transfer from Allium roseum leaves was described by applying the Fick's diffusion model. Moisture diffusivity varied from 2.55 × 10(-12) to 8.83 × 10(-12) m(2)/s and increased with air temperature. Activation energy during convective drying was calculated using an exponential expression based on Arrhenius equation and ranged between 46.80 and 52.68 kJ/mol. All sulfur compounds detected in the fresh leaves were detected in the dried leaves. Convective air drying preserved the sulfur compounds potential formation.

  1. DEHYDRATION OF CHEESE BY HOT AIR, MICROWAVE AND FREEZE-DRYING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA RITA C. PINHO

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the dehydration of skim cheese through different methods, in particular by hot air, microwave and freeze-drying, in order to assess which of these methods would be more suitable for the development of a new product (cheese snack. For the three processes of dehydration, several temperatures, powers and times were used, respectively. The drying time was optimized to allow the water activity of the final product to be between 0.3 and 0.4. The color and texture of the product obtained by the three processes were evaluated, and the nutritional analysis (protein, lipids, ash of the product dried by hot air at 52 ºC and by microwave at 750 W and 850 W was performed. The sensory analysis of the microwave dehydrated products was also carried out. The results obtained revealed that the temperature played a relevant role in the drying time and the hardness of the product. In the dehydration by microwave, the power of 850 W resulted in a lower drying time and a better color preservation, but in a high hardness of the samples. Among the three processes studied, the microwave drying was the fastest for the water removal from the cheese.

  2. Effect of heterogenous and homogenous air gaps on dry heat loss through the garment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mert, Emel; Psikuta, Agnes; Bueno, Marie-Ange; Rossi, René M.

    2015-11-01

    In real life conditions, the trapped air between the human body and the garment has uneven shape and vary over the body parts as a consequence of the complex geometry of the human body. However, the existing clothing models assume uniform air layer between the human body and the garment or its full contact, which may cause large error in the output of simulations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a heterogeneous vertical air gap with different configuration of folds (size and frequency) on dry heat loss using a heated cylinder (Torso). It was found that the presence of folds in the garment led to an increased heat loss from the body in comparison to a homogeneous air gap of comparable size. Interestingly, the size of folds did not have an influence on the dry heat loss. Additionally, the effect of the contact area on dry heat loss became important when exceeding a threshold of about 42 %. The results from this study are useful for modelling of a realistic dry heat loss through the clothing and contribute to the improvement of design of protective and active sport garments.

  3. Humidifying system design of PEMFC test platform based on the mixture of dry and wet air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiancai Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the present humidifying system of PEMFC test platform, a novel design based on dry and wet air mixture is proposed. Key parameters are calculated, and test platform is built. Three experiments are implemented to test the performance of proposed design. Results show that the new design can meet the requirements, and realize the quick response and accurate control.

  4. Microwave assisted air drying of osmotically treated pineapple with variable power programmes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, GE

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Variable power programmes for microwave assisted air drying of pineapple were studied. The pineapple pieces were pre-treated by osmotic dehydration in a 55º Brix sucrose solution at 40ºC for 90 minutes. Variable power output programmes were designed...

  5. Dry purification of aspirational air in coke-sorting systems with wet slaking of coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T.F. Trembach; A.G. Klimenko [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15

    Coke transportation after wet slaking is accompanied by the release of dust in the production building and in the surrounding atmosphere. Wet methods are traditionally used to purify very humid air. Giprokoks has developed designs for highly efficient dry dust-removal methods in such conditions.

  6. Economical analysis of the spray drying process by pre-dehumidification of the inlet air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madeira, A.N.; Camargo, J.R. [University of Taubate (UNITAU), SP (Brazil). Mechanical Engineering Dept.

    2009-07-01

    Spray drying is a dehumidification process by atomization in a closed chamber that aims to remove moisture of a product by heat and mass transfer from the product's contained water to the air that, in this process is previously heated. This paper presents a case study for an industry that produces food ingredients. The current process applied in the product to heat the air can uses one of these two systems: a direct heating process that burns liquid petroleum gas in contact with the inlet air or indirect heating that uses a heat exchanger which heat the air. This heating system consumes 90% of the total process energy. However, this inlet air can reach the dehumidifier with high moisture from the atmosphere condition requesting, in this case, more energy consumption according to the year's seasons. This paper promotes a utilization study of the current process through the installation of a pre-dehumidification device of the inlet air and shows a study to three different dehumidification systems that means by refrigeration, adsorption and actual comparing their performance in an energetic and economical point of view. The goals of this study are to analyze the capacity of moisture removing of each removing device, the influence of moisture variation of the inlet air in the process as well as the economic impact of each device in the global system. It concludes that the utilization of dehumidification devices can eliminate the heating system reducing this way the energy consumption. Moreover it promotes the increasing of moisture gradient between the inlet air and the product optimizing the drying process and increasing the global energy efficiency in the global system. Choosing the most appropriate system for the pre-dehumidification device depends on the desired initial and final moisture content of the product, but applying pre-dehumidifiers at the inlet air promotes an energetic optimization in the spray drying process. (author)

  7. Coffee husk associated with firewood as fuel for indirect heating of drying air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magalhaes, Edney Alves; Silva, Juarez de Sousa e; Silva, Jadir Nogueira da; Oliveira Filho, Delly [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (DEA/UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola; Donzeles, Sergio Mauricio Lopes [Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuaria de Minas Gerais (EPAMIG), Vicosa, MG (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this work was the performance analysis of a furnace, burning coffee husk associated with firewood to heat the drying air passing through a heat exchanger. For the analysis the temperature variation, the combustion quality, the heat losses and the furnace thermal efficiency were all monitored. Results showed that the furnace average efficiency was 58.3% and the heat losses in the exhaust were 24.3%. The presence of carbon monoxide in the exhaust gases (average 2982.8 ppm) had proven incomplete combustion, and suggesting that the combustion gases can not be used to directly drying of foods. Despite of indirect heating, the presented thermal efficiency indicates that the burning of coffee husks is one economic alternative for air heating in grain drying or in other agricultural processes. (author)

  8. Segregation of low-level dry active waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornblith, L. Jr.; Naughton, M.D.; Welsh, L.

    1984-01-01

    A program has been carried out to characterize the Dry Active Waste (DAW) stream from a typical PWR power plant in order to determine the usefulness of large-volume DAW monitors for segregating such waste in order to dispose of it in appropriate facilities. A waste monitor using plastic scintillation counters was used for measuring the waste. The monitor had a volume of about 300 liters and an overall efficiency of about 12% for a typical fission product mixture. It provides automatic compensation for background radioactivity and can measure a bag of waste in less than a minute, including background measurements. Six hundred consecutively generated bags of DAW were measured. These had a total activity of about one millicurie and an average specific activity of about 540 nanocuries per kilogram. About half of the bags contained less than 1000 nanocuries and had specific activities of less than 100 nanocuries per kilogram. Based on simplified preliminary calculations, it appears that an evaluation of the risks of disposal of bags such as these in a landfill other than a low-level waste disposal facility could be carried out that would demonstrate that such disposal of half or more of these bags would not result in any substantial hazard, either short or long term

  9. Final report on CCQM-P151: Halocarbons in dry whole air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoderick, George; Guenther, Franklin; Duewer, David; Lee, Jeongsoon; Seog Kim, Jin; Hall, Bradley; Weiss, Ray; Harth, Christina; Reimann, Stefan; Vollmer, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The growing awareness of climate change/global warming and continuing concerns regarding stratospheric ozone depletion will require future measurements and standards for many compounds, in particular halocarbons that are linked to these issues. In order to track and control the emissions of these species globally in the atmosphere, it is necessary to demonstrate measurement equivalence at the highest levels of accuracy for assigned values of standards. This report describes the results of a pilot study between National Metrology Institutes and atmospheric research laboratories for several of the more important halocarbons at atmospheric concentration levels. The comparison includes the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC 12), trichlorofluoromethane (CFC 11), and 1,1,2-trichlorotrifluoroethane (CFC 113); the hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) chlorodifluoromethane (HCFC 22) and 1-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane (HCFC 142b); and the hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC 134a), all in a dried whole air sample. The objective of this key comparison is to compare the measurement capabilities of the participants for these halocarbons at trace atmospheric levels. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM.

  10. Final report on international comparison CCQM-K83: Halocarbons in dry whole air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoderick, George; Guenther, Franklin; Duewer, David; Lee, Jeongsoon; Moon, Dongmin; Lee, Jinbok; Lim, Jeongsik; Seog Kim, Jin

    2014-01-01

    The growing awareness of climate change/global warming and continuing concerns regarding stratospheric ozone depletion will require future measurements and standards for many compounds, in particular halocarbons that are linked to these issues. In order to track and control the emissions of these species globally in the atmosphere, it is necessary to demonstrate measurement equivalence at the highest levels of accuracy for assigned values of standards. This report describes the results of a key comparison for several of the more important halocarbons at atmospheric concentration levels. The comparison includes the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC 12), trichlorofluoromethane (CFC 11), and 1,1,2 trichlorotrifluoroethane (CFC 113); the hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) chlorodifluoromethane (HCFC 22) and 1-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane (HCFC 142b); and the hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) 1,1,1,2 tetrafluoroethane (HFC 134a), all in a dried whole air sample. The objective of this key comparison is to compare the measurement capabilities of the participants for these halocarbons at trace atmospheric levels. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  11. Cold Vacuum Drying facility heating, ventilation, and Air Conditioning system design description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SINGH, G.

    2000-01-01

    This System Design Description (SDD) addresses the HVAC system for the CVDF. The CVDF HVAC system consists of five subsystems: (1) Administration building HVAC system; (2) Process bay recirculation HVAC system; (3) Process bay local exhaust HVAC and process vent system; (4) Process general supply/exhaust HVAC system; and (5) Reference air system. The HVAC and reference air systems interface with the following systems: the fire protection control system, Monitoring and Control System (MCS), electrical power distribution system (including standby power), compressed air system, Chilled Water (CHW) system, drainage system, and other Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) control systems not addressed in this SDD

  12. Effect of additives and steaming on quality of air dried noodles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatade, Abhijeet Arun; Sahoo, Akshaya Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Texture is the most important property for consumer acceptance in cooked noodles. The air dried noodles are known to have higher cooking loss and cooking time, to that of instant fried noodles. But the fat content of instant fried noodles is more. In the present work attempts were made to optimize the moisture content so as to obtain a smooth dough for extruded noodle preparation and develop air dried noodles of low fat content with lesser cooking loss and cooking time. To meet the objectives, the effect of various additives and steaming treatment on cooking quality, sensory attributes, textural properties and microstructure of noodles were studied. Dough prepared by addition of 40 ml water to 100 g flour resulted into formation of a soft dough, leading to production of noodles of improved surface smoothness and maximum yield. The use of additives (5 g oil, 0.2 g guar gum, 2 g gluten and 1 ml of 1 % kansui solution for 100 g of flour) and steaming treatment showed significant effect on noodles quality, with respect to cooking characteristics, sensory attributes and textural properties. The microstructure images justified the positive correlation between the effects of ingredients with steaming and quality parameters of noodles. Air dried noodles with reduced cooking loss (~50 % reduction) with marginal reduction in cooking time was developed, which were having similar characteristics to that of instant fried noodles. Compared to the instant fried noodle, the prepared air dried noodle was having substantially reduced fat content (~70 % reduction). Thus the present study will be useful for guiding extrusion processes for production of air dried noodles having less cooking time and low fat content.

  13. Preliminary Design of KAIST Micro Modular Reactor with Dry Air Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baik, Seung Joon; Bae, Seong Jun; Kim, Seong Gu; Lee, Jeong Ik [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    KAIST research team recently proposed a Micro Modular Reactor (MMR) concept which integrates power conversion unit (PCU) with the reactor core in a single module. Using supercritical CO{sub 2} as a working fluid of cycle can achieve physically compact size due to small turbomachinery and heat exchangers. The objective of this project is to develop a concept that can operate at isolated area. The design focuses especially on the operation in the inland area where cooling water is insufficient. Thus, in this paper the potential for dry air cooling of the proposed reactor will be examined by sizing the cooling system with preliminary approach. The KAIST MMR is a recently proposed concept of futuristic SMR. The MMR size is being determined to be transportable with land transportation. Special attention is given to the MMR design on the dry cooling, which the cooling system does not depend on water. With appropriately designed air cooling heat exchanger, the MMR can operate autonomously. Two types of air cooling methods are suggested. One is using fan and the other is utilizing cooling tower for the air flow. With fan type air cooling method it consumes about 0.6% of generated electricity from the nuclear reactor. Cooling tower occupies an area of 227 m{sup 2} and 59.6 m in height. This design is just a preliminary estimation of the dry cooling method, and therefore more detailed and optimal design will be followed in the next phase.

  14. Antioxidant N-acetyltransferase Mpr1/2 of industrial baker's yeast enhances fermentation ability after air-drying stress in bread dough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasano, Yu; Takahashi, Shunsuke; Shima, Jun; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2010-03-31

    During bread-making processes, yeast cells are exposed to multiple stresses. Air-drying stress is one of the most harmful stresses by generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Previously, we discovered that the novel N-acetyltransferase Mpr1/2 confers oxidative stress tolerance by reducing intracellular ROS level in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sigma1278b strain. In this study, we revealed that Japanese industrial baker's yeast possesses one MPR gene. The nucleotide sequence of the MPR gene in industrial baker's yeast was identical to the MPR2 gene in Sigma1278b strain. Gene disruption analysis showed that the MPR2 gene in industrial baker's yeast is involved in air-drying stress tolerance by reducing the intracellular oxidation levels. We also found that expression of the Lys63Arg and Phe65Leu variants with enhanced enzymatic activity and stability, respectively, increased the fermentation ability of bread dough after exposure to air-drying stress compared with the wild-type Mpr1. In addition, our recent study showed that industrial baker's yeast cells accumulating proline exhibited enhanced freeze tolerance in bread dough. Proline accumulation also enhanced the fermentation ability after air-drying stress treatment in industrial baker's yeast. Hence, the antioxidant enzyme Mpr1/2 could be promising for breeding novel yeast strains that are tolerant to air-drying stress. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Temperature Control of Heating Zone for Drying Process: Effect of Air Velocity Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wutthithanyawat Chananchai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a temperature control technique to adjust air temperature in a heating zone for drying process. The controller design is achieved by using an internal model control (IMC approach. When the IMC controller parameters were designed by calculating from an actual process transfer function estimated through an open-loop step response with input step change from 50% to 60% at a reference condition at air velocity of 1.20 m/s, the performance of temperature controller was experimentally tested by varying an air velocity between 1.32 m/s and 1.57 m/s, respectively. The experimental results showed that IMC controller had a high competency for controlling the drying temperature.

  16. Dry air effects on the copper oxides sensitive layers formation for ethanol vapor detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labidi, A.; Bejaoui, A.; Ouali, H.; Akkari, F. Chaffar; Hajjaji, A.; Gaidi, M.; Kanzari, M.; Bessais, B.; Maaref, M.

    2011-01-01

    The copper oxide films have been deposited by thermal evaporation and annealed under ambient air and dry air respectively, at different temperatures. The structural characteristics of the films were investigated by X-ray diffraction. They showed the presences of two hydroxy-carbonate minerals of copper for annealing temperatures below 250 deg. C. Above this temperature the conductivity measurements during the annealing process, show a transition phase from metallic copper to copper oxides. The copper oxides sensitivity toward ethanol were performed using conductivity measurements at the working temperature of 200 deg. C. A decrease of conductivity was observed under ethanol vapor, showing the p-type semi-conducting characters of obtained copper oxide films. It was found that the sensing properties of copper oxide toward ethanol depend mainly on the annealing conditions. The best responses were obtained with copper layers annealed under dry air.

  17. Dry air effects on the copper oxides sensitive layers formation for ethanol vapor detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labidi, A., E-mail: Ahmed_laabidi@yahoo.fr [URPSC (UR 99/13-18) Unite de Recherche de Physique des Semiconducteurs et Capteurs, IPEST, Universite de Carthage, BP 51, La Marsa 2070, Tunis (Tunisia); Bejaoui, A.; Ouali, H. [URPSC (UR 99/13-18) Unite de Recherche de Physique des Semiconducteurs et Capteurs, IPEST, Universite de Carthage, BP 51, La Marsa 2070, Tunis (Tunisia); Akkari, F. Chaffar [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique et Materiaux Semi-conducteurs, ENIT, Universite de Tunis el Manar, BP 37, Le belvedere 1002, Tunis (Tunisia); Hajjaji, A.; Gaidi, M. [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique, Centre de Recherches et de technologies de l' energie, Technopole de Borj-Cedria, BP 95, 2050 Hammam-Lif (Tunisia); Kanzari, M. [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique et Materiaux Semi-conducteurs, ENIT, Universite de Tunis el Manar, BP 37, Le belvedere 1002, Tunis (Tunisia); Bessais, B. [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique, Centre de Recherches et de technologies de l' energie, Technopole de Borj-Cedria, BP 95, 2050 Hammam-Lif (Tunisia); Maaref, M. [URPSC (UR 99/13-18) Unite de Recherche de Physique des Semiconducteurs et Capteurs, IPEST, Universite de Carthage, BP 51, La Marsa 2070, Tunis (Tunisia)

    2011-09-15

    The copper oxide films have been deposited by thermal evaporation and annealed under ambient air and dry air respectively, at different temperatures. The structural characteristics of the films were investigated by X-ray diffraction. They showed the presences of two hydroxy-carbonate minerals of copper for annealing temperatures below 250 deg. C. Above this temperature the conductivity measurements during the annealing process, show a transition phase from metallic copper to copper oxides. The copper oxides sensitivity toward ethanol were performed using conductivity measurements at the working temperature of 200 deg. C. A decrease of conductivity was observed under ethanol vapor, showing the p-type semi-conducting characters of obtained copper oxide films. It was found that the sensing properties of copper oxide toward ethanol depend mainly on the annealing conditions. The best responses were obtained with copper layers annealed under dry air.

  18. Comparison of halocarbon measurements in an atmospheric dry whole air sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoderick, George C; Hall, Bradley D; Harth, Christina M; Kim, Jin Seog; Lee, Jeongsoon; Montzka, Stephen A; Mühle, Jens; Reimann, Stefan; Vollmer, Martin K; Weiss, Ray F

    The growing awareness of climate change/global warming, and continuing concerns regarding stratospheric ozone depletion, will require continued measurements and standards for many compounds, in particular halocarbons that are linked to these issues. In order to track atmospheric mole fractions and assess the impact of policy on emission rates, it is necessary to demonstrate measurement equivalence at the highest levels of accuracy for assigned values of standards. Precise measurements of these species aid in determining small changes in their atmospheric abundance. A common source of standards/scales and/or well-documented agreement of different scales used to calibrate the measurement instrumentation are key to understanding many sets of data reported by researchers. This report describes the results of a comparison study among National Metrology Institutes and atmospheric research laboratories for the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12), trichlorofluoromethane (CFC-11), and 1,1,2-trichlorotrifluoroethane (CFC-113); the hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) chlorodifluoromethane (HCFC-22) and 1-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane (HCFC-142b); and the hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134a), all in a dried whole air sample. The objective of this study is to compare calibration standards/scales and the measurement capabilities of the participants for these halocarbons at trace atmospheric levels. The results of this study show agreement among four independent calibration scales to better than 2.5% in almost all cases, with many of the reported agreements being better than 1.0%.

  19. Comparison of halocarbon measurements in an atmospheric dry whole air sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George C. Rhoderick

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The growing awareness of climate change/global warming, and continuing concerns regarding stratospheric ozone depletion, will require continued measurements and standards for many compounds, in particular halocarbons that are linked to these issues. In order to track atmospheric mole fractions and assess the impact of policy on emission rates, it is necessary to demonstrate measurement equivalence at the highest levels of accuracy for assigned values of standards. Precise measurements of these species aid in determining small changes in their atmospheric abundance. A common source of standards/scales and/or well-documented agreement of different scales used to calibrate the measurement instrumentation are key to understanding many sets of data reported by researchers. This report describes the results of a comparison study among National Metrology Institutes and atmospheric research laboratories for the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12, trichlorofluoromethane (CFC-11, and 1,1,2-trichlorotrifluoroethane (CFC-113; the hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs chlorodifluoromethane (HCFC-22 and 1-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane (HCFC-142b; and the hydrofluorocarbon (HFC 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134a, all in a dried whole air sample. The objective of this study is to compare calibration standards/scales and the measurement capabilities of the participants for these halocarbons at trace atmospheric levels. The results of this study show agreement among four independent calibration scales to better than 2.5% in almost all cases, with many of the reported agreements being better than 1.0%.

  20. Comparison of halocarbon measurements in an atmospheric dry whole air sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Bradley D.; Harth, Christina M.; Kim, Jin Seog; Lee, Jeongsoon; Montzka, Stephen A.; Mühle, Jens; Reimann, Stefan; Vollmer, Martin K.; Weiss, Ray F.

    2015-01-01

    The growing awareness of climate change/global warming, and continuing concerns regarding stratospheric ozone depletion, will require continued measurements and standards for many compounds, in particular halocarbons that are linked to these issues. In order to track atmospheric mole fractions and assess the impact of policy on emission rates, it is necessary to demonstrate measurement equivalence at the highest levels of accuracy for assigned values of standards. Precise measurements of these species aid in determining small changes in their atmospheric abundance. A common source of standards/scales and/or well-documented agreement of different scales used to calibrate the measurement instrumentation are key to understanding many sets of data reported by researchers. This report describes the results of a comparison study among National Metrology Institutes and atmospheric research laboratories for the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12), trichlorofluoromethane (CFC-11), and 1,1,2-trichlorotrifluoroethane (CFC-113); the hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) chlorodifluoromethane (HCFC-22) and 1-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane (HCFC-142b); and the hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134a), all in a dried whole air sample. The objective of this study is to compare calibration standards/scales and the measurement capabilities of the participants for these halocarbons at trace atmospheric levels. The results of this study show agreement among four independent calibration scales to better than 2.5% in almost all cases, with many of the reported agreements being better than 1.0%. PMID:26753167

  1. Warm Dry Weather Conditions Cause of 2016 Fort McMurray Wild Forest Fire and Associated Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Azevedo, S. C.; Singh, R. P.; da Silva, E. A., Sr.

    2016-12-01

    The climate change is evident from the increasing temperature around the world, day to day life and increasing frequency of natural hazards. The warm and dry conditions are the cause of frequent forest fires around the globe. Forest fires severely affect the air quality and human health. Multi sensor satellites and dense network of ground stations provide information about vegetation health, meteorological, air quality and atmospheric parameters. We have carried out detailed analysis of satellite and ground data of wild forest fire that occurred in May 2016 in Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada. This wild forest fire destroyed 10 per cent of Fort McMurray's housing and forced more than 90,000 people to evacuate the surrounding areas. Our results show that the warm and dry conditions with low rainfall were the cause of Fort McMurray wild fire. The air quality parameters (particulate matter, CO, ozone, NO2, methane) and greenhouse gases measured from Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) satellite show enhanced levels soon after the forest fire. The emissions from the forest fire affected health of population living in surrounding areas up to 300 km radius.

  2. Thin layer convective air drying of wild edible plant (Allium roseum) leaves: experimental kinetics, modeling and quality

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Haj Said, Leila; Najjaa, Hanen; Farhat, Abdelhamid; Neffati, Mohamed; Bellagha, Sihem

    2014-01-01

    The present study deals with the valorization of an edible spontaneous plant of the Tunisian arid areas: Allium roseum. This plant is traditionally used for therapeutic and culinary uses. Thin-layer drying behavior of Allium roseum leaves was investigated at 40, 50 and 60 °C drying air temperatures and 1 and l.5 m/s air velocity, in a convective dryer. The increase in air temperature significantly affected the moisture loss and reduced the drying time while air velocity was an insignificant f...

  3. STATISTIC MODELING OF DRYING KINETHIC OF SPINACH LEAVES USING MICROWAVE AND HOT AIR METHODS

    OpenAIRE

    Mojtaba Nouri; Marzieh Vahdani; Shilan Rashidzadeh; Lukáš Hleba; Mohammad Ali Shariati

    2015-01-01

    The target of this study was to model of spinach leaves drying using microwave and hot air dryer. This test performed in combination treatment of temperatures (50°C, 60°C, and 70°C) and microwave (90, 180, 360, 600 and 900w) in 3 replications. Sample moisture measured within drying. All the results were fitted and analyzed with 8 mathematical models base on 3 parameters including determination (R2), Chi square(X2), root mean square errors(RSME). Results also revealed that temperature and micr...

  4. Optimum dry-cooling sub-systems for a solar air conditioner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J. L. S.; Namkoong, D.

    1978-01-01

    Dry-cooling sub-systems for residential solar powered Rankine compression air conditioners were economically optimized and compared with the cost of a wet cooling tower. Results in terms of yearly incremental busbar cost due to the use of dry-cooling were presented for Philadelphia and Miami. With input data corresponding to local weather, energy rate and capital costs, condenser surface designs and performance, the computerized optimization program yields design specifications of the sub-system which has the lowest annual incremental cost.

  5. Oxidation mechanism of Fe–16Cr alloy as SOFC interconnect in dry/wet air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zhi-Yuan; Wang, Li-Jun; Li, Fu-Shen; Chou, Kuo-Chih

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •A special thermodynamic description corresponding to the kinetics was applied. •We reported the relationships of degradation time with temperature and moisture. •”Turning time” in the Fe–16Cr alloy oxidation kinetic model was given. •The oxidation mechanism of Fe–16Cr alloy in the wet air was discussed. -- Abstract: Experimental study on the oxidation corrosions of Fe–16Cr alloy was carried out at 800–1100 °C under dry/wet air conditions. Faster oxidation rate was observed at higher temperature and water vapor content. The degradation time t d between two stages in oxidation process showed an exponential relationship with elevating corrosion temperature in dry air, and a linear relationship with the water content in the case of water vapor introduced to the system. The mechanism of oxidation corrosions of Fe–16Cr alloy was suggested by the Real Physical Picture (RPP) model. It was found that the break-away oxidation in stage II was controlled by diffusion at initial both in dry and wet air, then became linear with the exposure time, which implied that the oxidation rate was then controlled by chemical reaction of the interface between the metal and the oxidized scale. Moreover, the effect of water in the oxidation process is not only to supply more oxygen into system, but also to modify the structures of oxide scale due to the existence of hydrogen atom, which results in the accelerated corrosions

  6. Air drying modelling of Mastocarpus stellatus seaweed a source of hybrid carrageenan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arufe, Santiago; Torres, Maria D.; Chenlo, Francisco; Moreira, Ramon

    2018-01-01

    Water sorption isotherms from 5 up to 65 °C and air drying kinetics at 35, 45 and 55 °C of Mastocarpus stellatus seaweed were determined. Experimental sorption data were modelled using BET and Oswin models. A four-parameter model, based on Oswin model, was proposed to estimate equilibrium moisture content as function of water activity and temperature simultaneously. Drying experiments showed that water removal rate increased significantly with temperature from 35 to 45 °C, but at higher temperatures drying rate remained constant. Some chemical modifications of the hybrid carrageenans present in the seaweed can be responsible of this unexpected thermal trend. Experimental drying data were modelled using two-parameter Page model (n, k). Page parameter n was constant (1.31 ± 0.10) at tested temperatures, but k varied significantly with drying temperature (from 18.5 ± 0.2 10-3 min-n at 35 °C up to 28.4 ± 0.8 10-3 min-n at 45 and 55 °C). Drying experiments allowed the determination of the critical moisture content of seaweed (0.87 ± 0.06 kg water (kg d.b.)-1). A diffusional model considering slab geometry was employed to determine the effective diffusion coefficient of water during the falling rate period at different temperatures.

  7. Effect of different air-drying time on the microleakage of single-step self-etch adhesives

    OpenAIRE

    Moosavi, Horieh; Forghani, Maryam; Managhebi, Esmatsadat

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study evaluated the effect of three different air-drying times on microleakage of three self-etch adhesive systems. Materials and Methods Class I cavities were prepared for 108 extracted sound human premolars. The teeth were divided into three main groups based on three different adhesives: Opti Bond All in One (OBAO), Clearfil S3 Bond (CSB), Bond Force (BF). Each main group divided into three subgroups regarding the air-drying time: without application of air stream...

  8. Effects of different levels of dried tomato pomace on performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary inclusion of dried tomato pomace (DTP) on performance, egg quality and serum metabolites in laying hens. A total of one hundred and forty four LOHMANN LSL-LITE hens were randomly allocated into 4 groups consisting of 6 replicates, each replicate has 6 birds.

  9. Influence of operating conditions on the air gasification of dry refinery sludge in updraft gasifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, R; Sinnathambi, C M

    2013-01-01

    In the present work, details of the equilibrium modeling of dry refinery sludge (DRS) are presented using ASPEN PLUS Simulator in updraft gasifier. Due to lack of available information in the open journal on refinery sludge gasification using updraft gasifier, an evaluate for its optimum conditions on gasification is presented in this paper. For this purpose a Taguchi Orthogonal array design, statistical software is applied to find optimum conditions for DRS gasification. The goal is to identify the most significant process variable in DRS gasification conditions. The process variables include; oxidation zone temperature, equivalent ratio, operating pressure will be simulated and examined. Attention was focused on the effect of optimum operating conditions on the gas composition of H 2 and CO (desirable) and CO 2 (undesirable) in terms of mass fraction. From our results and finding it can be concluded that the syngas (H 2 and CO) yield in term of mass fraction favors high oxidation zone temperature and at atmospheric pressure while CO 2 acid gas favor at a high level of equivalent ratio as well as air flow rate favoring towards complete combustion.

  10. Co-combustion of low rank coal/waste biomass blends using dry air or oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haykiri-Acma, H.; Yaman, S.; Kucukbayrak, S.

    2013-01-01

    Biomass species such as the rice husk and the olive milling residue, and a low quality Turkish coal, Soma Denis lignite, were burned in a thermal analyzer under pure oxygen and dry air up to 900 °C, and differential thermal analysis (DTA) and derivative thermogravimetric (DTG) analysis profiles were obtained. Co-combustion experiments of lignite/biomass blends containing 5–20 wt% of biomass were also performed. The effects of the oxidizer type and the blending ratio of biomass were evaluated considering some thermal reactivity indicators such as the maximum burning rate and its temperature, the maximum heat flow temperature, and the burnout levels. FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) spectroscopy and SEM (scanning electron microscopy) were used to characterize the samples, and the variations in the combustion characteristics of the samples were interpreted based on the differences in the intrinsic properties of the samples. - Highlights: ► Co-combustion of lignite/biomass blends. ► The effects of the oxidizer type and the blending ratio. ► Effects of intrinsic properties on combustion characteristics.

  11. Defining a procedure for predicting the duration of the approximately isothermal segments within the proposed drying regime as a function of the drying air parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasić, M.; Radojević, Z.

    2017-08-01

    One of the main disadvantages of the recently reported method, for setting up the drying regime based on the theory of moisture migration during drying, lies in a fact that it is based on a large number of isothermal experiments. In addition each isothermal experiment requires the use of different drying air parameters. The main goal of this paper was to find a way how to reduce the number of isothermal experiments without affecting the quality of the previously proposed calculation method. The first task was to define the lower and upper inputs as well as the output of the “black box” which will be used in the Box-Wilkinson’s orthogonal multi-factorial experimental design. Three inputs (drying air temperature, humidity and velocity) were used within the experimental design. The output parameter of the model represents the time interval between any two chosen characteristic points presented on the Deff - t. The second task was to calculate the output parameter for each planed experiments. The final output of the model is the equation which can predict the time interval between any two chosen characteristic points as a function of the drying air parameters. This equation is valid for any value of the drying air parameters which are within the defined area designated with lower and upper limiting values.

  12. Baseline ambient sound levels in Dry Tortugas National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the National Park Service (NPS), with the assistance of the U.S. Department of Transportation, John A. Volpe National Transportation Systems Center (Volpe Center) are developing Air Tour Management Plans ...

  13. Electro-Hydrodynamics and Kinetic Modeling of Dry and Humid Air Flows Activated by Corona Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. Sarrette, J.; Eichwald, O.; Marchal, F.; Ducasse, O.; Yousfi, M.

    2016-05-01

    The present work is devoted to the 2D simulation of a point-to-plane Atmospheric Corona Discharge Reactor (ACDR) powered by a DC high voltage supply. The corona reactor is periodically crossed by thin mono filamentary streamers with a natural repetition frequency of some tens of kHz. The study compares the results obtained in dry air and in air mixed with a small amount of water vapour (humid air). The simulation involves the electro-dynamics, chemical kinetics and neutral gas hydrodynamics phenomena that influence the kinetics of the chemical species transformation. Each discharge lasts about one hundred of a nanosecond while the post-discharge occurring between two successive discharges lasts one hundred of a microsecond. The ACDR is crossed by a lateral dry or humid air flow initially polluted with 400 ppm of NO. After 5 ms, the time corresponding to the occurrence of 50 successive discharge/post-discharge phases, a higher NO removal rate and a lower ozone production rate are found in humid air. This change is due to the presence of the HO2 species formed from the H primary radical in the discharge zone.

  14. Properties of metallocene complexes during the oxidative crosslinking of air drying coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stava, Vit; Erben, Milan; Vesely, David; Kalenda, Petr

    2007-05-01

    Driers are added to air drying paints to accelerate the hardening of spread coating. For decades cobalt octoate has been the most widely used drier because of its good performance at ambient temperature. Recently, several reports describing possible carcinogenity and genotoxicity of cobalt and cobalt salts, such as cobalt sulfate in aerosols, have appeared. It is necessary to reduce the amount of cobalt compounds in coatings industry. Present study deals with the possibility of using ferrocene and its derivatives as driers for air drying coatings. We concentrated particularly on the synergic effect between these metallocene complexes and the cobalt drier. In the first step the kinetics of autooxidation by FTIR spectroscopy in model systems was investigated. Then the metallocene complexes were applied together with cobalt drier to alkyd resin, where their influence on hardness of spread coatings was examined.

  15. Gas Dispersion in Granular Porous Media under Air-Dry and Wet Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naveed, Muhammad; Hamamoto, S; Kawamoto, K

    2012-01-01

    Subsurface gaseous-phase transport is governed by three gas transport parameters: the air permeability coefficient (ka), gas diffusion coefficient (DP), and gas dispersion coefficient (DH). Among these, DH is the least understood due to hitherto limited research into the relationship between gas...... dispersion and soil physical characteristics. In this study, a series of advection–dispersion experiments was performed on granular porous media to identify the effects of soil column dimensions (length and diameter), particle size and shape, dry bulk density, and moisture content on the magnitude of gas...... dispersion. Glass beads and various sands of different shapes (angular and rounded) with mean particle diameters (d50) ranging from 0.19 to 1.51 mm at both air-dry and variable moisture contents were used as granular porous media. Gas dispersion coefficients and gas dispersivities (a = DH/v, where v...

  16. Ozone Generation in Dry Air Using Pulsed Discharges With and Without a Solid Dielectric Layer

    OpenAIRE

    Samaranayake, W.J.M.; Miyahara, Y.; Namihira, T.; Katsuki, S.; Hackam, R.; Akiyama, H.; ミヤハラ, Y.; ナミヒラ, タカオ; カツキ, スナオ; アキヤマ, ヒデノリ; 浪平, 隆男; 勝木, 淳; 秋山, 秀典

    2001-01-01

    Energy efficient generation of ozone is very important because ozone is being used increasingly in a wide range of industrial applications. Ozonizers usually use dielectric barrier discharges and employ alternating current (ac) with consequent heat generation, which necessitates cooling. In the present study, very short duration pulsed voltage is employed resulting in reduced heating of the gas and discharge reactor. A comparison of ozone generation in dry air using a coaxial concentric elect...

  17. Influence of drying air parameters on mass transfer characteristics of apple slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beigi, Mohsen

    2016-10-01

    To efficiently design both new drying process and equipment and/or to improve the existing systems, accurate values of mass transfer characteristics are necessary. The present study aimed to investigate the influence of drying air parameters (i.e. temperature, velocity and relative humidity) on effective diffusivity and convective mass transfer coefficient of apple slices. The Dincer and Dost model was used to determine the mass transfer characteristics. The obtained Biot number indicated that the moisture transfer in the apple slices was controlled by both internal and external resistance. The effective diffusivity and mass transfer coefficient values obtained to be in the ranges of 7.13 × 10-11-7.66 × 10-10 and 1.46 × 10-7-3.39 × 10-7 m s-1, respectively and the both of them increased with increasing drying air temperature and velocity, and decreasing relative humidity. The validation of the model showed that the model predicted the experimental drying curves of the samples with a good accuracy.

  18. Dry deposition and soil-air gas exchange of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in an industrial area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozlaker, Ayse; Odabasi, Mustafa; Muezzinoglu, Aysen

    2008-12-01

    Ambient air and dry deposition, and soil samples were collected at the Aliaga industrial site in Izmir, Turkey. Atmospheric total (particle+gas) Sigma(41)-PCB concentrations were higher in summer (3370+/-1617 pg m(-3), average+SD) than in winter (1164+/-618 pg m(-3)), probably due to increased volatilization with temperature. Average particulate Sigma(41)-PCBs dry deposition fluxes were 349+/-183 and 469+/-328 ng m(-2) day(-1) in summer and winter, respectively. Overall average particulate deposition velocity was 5.5+/-3.5 cm s(-1). The spatial distribution of Sigma(41)-PCB soil concentrations (n=48) showed that the iron-steel plants, ship dismantling facilities, refinery and petrochemicals complex are the major sources in the area. Calculated air-soil exchange fluxes indicated that the contaminated soil is a secondary source to the atmosphere for lighter PCBs and as a sink for heavier ones. Comparable magnitude of gas exchange and dry particle deposition fluxes indicated that both mechanisms are equally important for PCB movement between air and soil in Aliaga.

  19. Experimental investigation on influence of porous material properties on drying process by a hot air jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Marco, P; Filippeschi, S

    2012-01-01

    The drying process of porous media is a subject of scientific interest, and different mathematical approaches can be found in the literature. A previous paper by the same authors showed that the celebrated Martin correlation for hot air jet heat and mass transfer yields different degrees of accuracy (from 15% to 65%, increasing at high values of input power) if tested on different fabrics, the remaining conditions being the same. In this paper the fabric drying has been experimentally investigated more in depth. A dedicated experimental apparatus for hot jet drying was assembled and operated, in which a hot jet impinges perpendicularly onto a wet fabric. A calibrated orifice was adopted to measure the jet flow rate, with an accuracy better than 3%. The drying power was determined by continuously weighing with a precision scale a moistened patch exposed to the drying jet. The effect of the time of the exposure and the initial amount of water has been evaluated for each sample. During the hot jet exposure, the temperature distribution over the wet patch has been observed by an infrared thermo-camera. A mathematical model of water transport inside and outside the fabric was developed, in order to evidence the governing transport resistances. The theoretical predictions have been compared with the experimental results, and showed the necessity to modify correlations and models accounting for fabric properties.

  20. Mercury fluxes from air/surface interfaces in paddy field and dry land

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Jinshan [Key Laboratory of Eco-Environments in Three Gorges Reservoir Region (Ministry of Education), College of Resources and Environment, Southwest University, No. 216, Tiansheng Street, Beibei, Chongqing 400715 (China); Wang Dingyong, E-mail: dywang@swu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Eco-Environments in Three Gorges Reservoir Region (Ministry of Education), College of Resources and Environment, Southwest University, No. 216, Tiansheng Street, Beibei, Chongqing 400715 (China)] [Chongqing Key Laboratory of Agricultural Resources and Environment, Chongqing 400716 (China); Liu Xiao; Zhang Yutong [Key Laboratory of Eco-Environments in Three Gorges Reservoir Region (Ministry of Education), College of Resources and Environment, Southwest University, No. 216, Tiansheng Street, Beibei, Chongqing 400715 (China)

    2011-02-15

    Research highlights: {yields} It was found that agricultural fields are important local atmospheric Hg sources in the region. {yields} The Hg emissions from dry cornfield were higher than those from the flooded rice paddy, higher mercury emissions in the warm season than the cold season, and during daytime than at night. {yields} Mercury evasion is strongly related to solar radiation which is important in the emission of Hg at both sites. - Abstract: In order to provide insight into the characteristics of Hg exchange in soil/water-air surface from cropland (including paddy field and dry land), Hg fluxes were measured in Chengjiang. Mercury fluxes were measured using the dynamic flux chamber method, coupled with a Lumex (registered) multifunctional Hg analyzer RA-915{sup +} (Lumex Ltd., Russia). The Hg fluxes from paddy field and dry land were alternatively measured every 30 min. Data were collected for 24-48 h once per month for 5 months. Mercury fluxes in both fields were synchronously measured under the same conditions to compare Hg emissions between paddy field and dry land over diurnal and seasonal periods and find out what factors affect Hg emission on each surface. These results indicated that air Hg concentrations at the monitoring site was double the value observed at the global background sites in Europe and North America. The Hg release fluxes were 46.5 {+-} 22.8 ng m{sup -2} h{sup -1} in the warm season, 15.5 {+-} 18.8 ng m{sup -2} h{sup -1} in the cold season for dry land, and 23.8 {+-} 15.6 ng m{sup -2} h{sup -1} in the warm season, 6.3 {+-} 11.9 ng m{sup -2} h{sup -1} in the cold season for paddy field. Solar radiation is important in the emission of Hg over both sites. Hg exchange at the soil/air and water/air interfaces showed temporal variations. The amount of Hg emission from dry land was higher than that from the paddy field, and the emission in daytime was higher than that at night. Moreover, Hg emissions from land covered by crops, was lower

  1. Simultaneous application of microwave energy and hot air to whole drying process of apple slices: drying kinetics, modeling, temperature profile and energy aspect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horuz, Erhan; Bozkurt, Hüseyin; Karataş, Haluk; Maskan, Medeni

    2018-02-01

    Drying kinetics, modeling, temperature profile and energy indices were investigated in apple slices during drying by a specially designed microwave-hot air domestic hybrid oven at the following conditions: 120, 150 and 180 W microwave powers coupled with 50, 60 and 70 °C air temperatures. Both sources of energy were applied simultaneously during the whole drying processes. The drying process continued until the moisture content of apple slices reached to 20% from 86.3% (wet basis, w.b). Drying times ranged from 330 to 800 min and decreased with increasing microwave power and air temperatures. The constant rate period was only observed at low microwave powers and air temperatures. Two falling rate periods were observed. Temperature of apple slices sharply increased within the first 60 min, then reached equilibrium with drying medium and finally increased at the end of the drying process. In order to describe drying behavior of apple slices nine empirical models were applied. The Modified Logistic Model fitted the best our experimental data ( R 2 = 0.9955-0.9998; χ 2 = 3.46 × 10-5-7.85 × 10-4 and RMSE = 0.0052-0.0221). The effective moisture and thermal diffusivities were calculated by Fick's second law and ranged from 1.42 × 10-9 to 3.31 × 10-9 m2/s and 7.70 × 10-9 to 12.54 × 10-9 m2/s, respectively. The activation energy ( Ea) values were calculated from effective moisture diffusivity ( Deff), thermal diffusivity ( α) and the rate constant of the best model ( k). The Ea values found from these three terms were similar and varied from 13.04 to 33.52 kJ/mol. Energy consumption and specific energy requirement of the hybrid drying of apple slices decreased and energy efficiency of the drying system increased with increasing microwave power and air temperature. Apples can be dried rapidly and effectively by use of the hybrid technique.

  2. Effect of air-drying time of single-application self-etch adhesives on dentin bond strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Yasushi; Yamaguchi, Kanako; Miyazaki, Masashi; Tsubota, Keishi; Takamizawa, Toshiki; Moore, B Keith

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the effect of air-drying time of adhesives on the dentin bond strength of several single-application self-etch adhesive systems. The adhesive/resin composite combinations used were: Adper Prompt L-Pop/Filtek Z250 (AP), Clearfil Tri-S Bond/Clearfil AP-X (CT), Fluoro Bond Shake One/Beautifil (FB), G-Bond/Gradia Direct (GB) and One-Up Bond F Plus/Palfique Estelite (OF). Bovine mandibular incisors were mounted in self-curing resin and wet ground with #600 SiC to expose labial dentin. Adhesives were applied according to each manufacturer's instructions followed by air-drying time for 0 (without air-drying), 5 and 10 seconds. After light irradiation of the adhesives, the resin composites were condensed into a mold (phi4x2 mm) and polymerized. Ten samples per test group were stored in 37 degrees C distilled water for 24 hours; they were then shear tested at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/minute. One-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's HSD tests (alpha = 0.05) were done. FE-SEM observations of the resin/dentin interface were also conducted. Dentin bond strength varied with the different air drying times and ranged from 5.8 +/- 2.4 to 13.9 +/- 2.8 MPa for AP, 4.9 +/- 1.5 to 17.1 +/- 2.3 MPa for CT, 7.9 +/- 2.8 to 13.8 +/- 2.4 MPa for FB, 3.7 +/- 1.4 to 13.4 +/- 1.2 MPa for GB and 4.6 +/- 2.1 to 13.7 +/- 2.6 MPa for OF. With longer air drying of adhesives, no significant changes in bond strengths were found for the systems used except for OF. Significantly lower bond strengths were obtained for the 10-second air-drying group for OF. From FE-SEM observations, gaps between the cured adhesive and resin composites were observed for the specimens without the air drying of adhesives except for OF. The data suggests that, with four of the single-application self-etch adhesive systems, air drying is essential to obtain adequate dentin bond strengths, but increased drying time does not significantly influence bond strength. For the other system studied, the bond strength

  3. Building America Residential System Research Results. Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hendron, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eastment, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jalalzadeh-Azar, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This report summarizes Building America research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Hot-Dry/Mixed-Dry Climate Region on a cost-neutral basis.

  4. AIRS/Aqua Level 3 Pentad quantization in physical units (AIRS-only) V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AIRS/Aqua Level 3 pentad quantization product in physical units (AIRS Only). The quantization products (QP) are distributional summaries derived from the Level-2...

  5. Exposure to organic solvents used in dry cleaning reduces low and high level visual function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Astrid Jiménez Barbosa

    Full Text Available To investigate whether exposure to occupational levels of organic solvents in the dry cleaning industry is associated with neurotoxic symptoms and visual deficits in the perception of basic visual features such as luminance contrast and colour, higher level processing of global motion and form (Experiment 1, and cognitive function as measured in a visual search task (Experiment 2.The Q16 neurotoxic questionnaire, a commonly used measure of neurotoxicity (by the World Health Organization, was administered to assess the neurotoxic status of a group of 33 dry cleaners exposed to occupational levels of organic solvents (OS and 35 age-matched non dry-cleaners who had never worked in the dry cleaning industry. In Experiment 1, to assess visual function, contrast sensitivity, colour/hue discrimination (Munsell Hue 100 test, global motion and form thresholds were assessed using computerised psychophysical tests. Sensitivity to global motion or form structure was quantified by varying the pattern coherence of global dot motion (GDM and Glass pattern (oriented dot pairs respectively (i.e., the percentage of dots/dot pairs that contribute to the perception of global structure. In Experiment 2, a letter visual-search task was used to measure reaction times (as a function of the number of elements: 4, 8, 16, 32, 64 and 100 in both parallel and serial search conditions.Dry cleaners exposed to organic solvents had significantly higher scores on the Q16 compared to non dry-cleaners indicating that dry cleaners experienced more neurotoxic symptoms on average. The contrast sensitivity function for dry cleaners was significantly lower at all spatial frequencies relative to non dry-cleaners, which is consistent with previous studies. Poorer colour discrimination performance was also noted in dry cleaners than non dry-cleaners, particularly along the blue/yellow axis. In a new finding, we report that global form and motion thresholds for dry cleaners were also

  6. Possible roles of vacuolar H+-ATPase and mitochondrial function in tolerance to air-drying stress revealed by genome-wide screening of Saccharomyces cerevisiae deletion strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shima, Jun; Ando, Akira; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2008-03-01

    Yeasts used in bread making are exposed to air-drying stress during dried yeast production processes. To clarify the genes required for air-drying tolerance, we performed genome-wide screening using the complete deletion strain collection of diploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The screening identified 278 gene deletions responsible for air-drying sensitivity. These genes were classified based on their cellular function and on the localization of their gene products. The results showed that the genes required for air-drying tolerance were frequently involved in mitochondrial functions and in connection with vacuolar H(+)-ATPase, which plays a role in vacuolar acidification. To determine the role of vacuolar acidification in air-drying stress tolerance, we monitored intracellular pH. The results showed that intracellular acidification was induced during air-drying and that this acidification was amplified in a deletion mutant of the VMA2 gene encoding a component of vacuolar H(+)-ATPase, suggesting that vacuolar H(+)-ATPase helps maintain intracellular pH homeostasis, which is affected by air-drying stress. To determine the effects of air-drying stress on mitochondria, we analysed the mitochondrial membrane potential under air-drying stress conditions using MitoTracker. The results showed that mitochondria were extremely sensitive to air-drying stress, suggesting that a mitochondrial function is required for tolerance to air-drying stress. We also analysed the correlation between oxidative-stress sensitivity and air-drying-stress sensitivity. The results suggested that oxidative stress is a critical determinant of sensitivity to air-drying stress, although ROS-scavenging systems are not necessary for air-drying stress tolerance. (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Dry air oxidation kinetics of K-Basin spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrefah, J.; Buchanan, H.C.; Gerry, W.M.; Gray, W.J.; Marschman, S.C.

    1998-06-01

    The safety and process analyses of the proposed Integrated Process Strategy (IPS) to move the N-Reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) stored at K-Basin to an interim storage facility require information about the oxidation behavior of the metallic uranium. Limited experiments have been performed on the oxidation reaction of SNF samples taken from an N-Reactor outer fuel element in various atmospheres. This report discusses studies on the oxidation behavior of SNF using two independent experimental systems: (1) a tube furnace with a flowing gas mixture of 2% oxygen/98% argon; and (2) a thermogravimetric system for dry air oxidation

  8. Radionuclides in ground-level air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinkko, K.

    1987-01-01

    In the air surveillance programme the concentrations of artificial radionuclides are monitored in the air close to the ground to obtain the necessary basic data for estimating the exposure of the Finnish population to fall-out radionuclides and also to detect atmospheric traces of radioactive materials caused by their use or production. Airborne dust is collected on filters with high-volume air samplers and the concentrations of gamma-emitting radionuclides in the air are evaluated. In the first quarter of 1986 only long-lived cesium, caused by earlier atmospheric nuclear explosions was detected. The concentrations of cesium were very low. In January and March a small amount of short-lived, fresh fission and activation products were also observed

  9. Study of the morphology of corrosion features of natural graphite oxidised by dry and humid air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senevat, Jean

    1965-12-01

    The author reports a study which aimed at highlighting the morphology differences between corrosion features which affect flakes of natural graphite oxidised by dry air and by humid air. The study is based on observations made by optical and transmission electronic microscopy, this last one being performed on replicates. As the so-called 'Hennig' replicates did not result in a sufficient resolution of corrosion feature details, another method has been developed. Three classes of samples (in relationship with the rate of impurities present in samples) have been studied. Flakes have thus been sorted and each flake has then been oxidised at different wear rates. This highlights the influence of damages created by impurities in the lattice [fr

  10. Cold, dry air is associated with influenza and pneumonia mortality in Auckland, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Robert E; Dougherty, Erin; McArthur, Colin; Huang, Qiu Sue; Baker, Michael G

    2016-07-01

    The relationship between weather and influenza and pneumonia mortality was examined retrospectively using daily data from 1980 to 2009 in Auckland, New Zealand, a humid, subtropical location. Mortality events, defined when mortality exceeded 0·95 standard deviation above the mean, followed periods of anomalously cold air (ta.m. = -4·1, P < 0·01; tp.m. = -4·2, P < 0·01) and/or anomalously dry air (ta.m. = -4·1, P < 0·01; tp.m. = -3·8, P < 0·01) by up to 19 days. These results suggest that respiratory infection is enhanced during unusually cold conditions and during conditions with unusually low humidity, even in a subtropical location where humidity is typically high. © 2015 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Effects of air temperature and velocity on the drying kinetics and product particle size of starch from arrowroot (Maranta arundinacae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caparanga, Alvin R.; Reyes, Rachael Anne L.; Rivas, Reiner L.; De Vera, Flordeliza C.; Retnasamy, Vithyacharan; Aris, Hasnizah

    2017-11-01

    This study utilized the 3k factorial design with k as the two varying factors namely, temperature and air velocity. The effects of temperature and air velocity on the drying rate curves and on the average particle diameter of the arrowroot starch were investigated. Extracted arrowroot starch samples were dried based on the designed parameters until constant weight was obtained. The resulting initial moisture content of the arrowroot starch was 49.4%. Higher temperatures correspond to higher drying rates and faster drying time while air velocity effects were approximately negligible or had little effect. Drying rate is a function of temperature and time. The constant rate period was not observed for the drying rate of arrowroot starch. The drying curves were fitted against five mathematical models: Lewis, Page, Henderson and Pabis, Logarithmic and Midili. The Midili Model was the best fit for the experimental data since it yielded the highest R2 and the lowest RSME values for all runs. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used for qualitative analysis and for determination of average particle diameter of the starch granules. The starch granules average particle diameter had a range of 12.06 - 24.60 μm. The use of ANOVA proved that particle diameters for each run varied significantly with each other. And, the Taguchi Design proved that high temperatures yield lower average particle diameter, while high air velocities yield higher average particle diameter.

  12. Drying kinetics and characteristics of dried gambir leaves using solar heating and silica gel dessicant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasibuan, R.; Hidayati, J.; Sundari, R.; Wicaksono, A. S.

    2018-02-01

    A drying combination of solar heating and silica gel dessicant has been applied to dry gambir leaves. The solar energy is captured by a collector to heat the air and the hot air is used to dry gambir leaves in a drying chamber. An exhaust fan in drying chamber assists to draw water molecules from gambir leaves accelerated by silica gel dessicant. This study has investigated the drying kinetics and drying characteristics of gambir leaves drying. In drying operation the air velocity is tuned by a PWM (pulse width modulation) controller to adjust minimum and maximum level, which is based on the rotation speed of the exhaust fan. The results show that the air velocity influenced the drying kinetics and drying characteristics of gambir leaves using solar-dessicant drying at 40 cm distance between exhaust fan and silica gel dessicant.

  13. Development of an Inline Dry Power Inhaler That Requires Low Air Volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Dale; Hindle, Michael; Longest, P Worth

    2017-12-20

    Inline dry powder inhalers (DPIs) are actuated by an external air source and have distinct advantages for delivering aerosols to infants and children, and to individuals with compromised lung function or who require ventilator support. However, current inline DPIs either perform poorly, are difficult to operate, and/or require large volumes (∼1 L) of air. The objective of this study was to develop and characterize a new inline DPI for aerosolizing spray-dried formulations with powder masses of 10 mg and higher using a dispersion air volume of 10 mL per actuation that is easy to load (capsule-based) and operate. Primary features of the new low air volume (LV) DPIs are fixed hollow capillaries that both pierce the capsule and provide a continuous flow path for air and aerosol passing through the device. Two different configurations were evaluated, which were a straight-through (ST) device, with the inlet and outlet capillaries on opposite ends of the capsule, and a single-sided (SS) device, with both the inlet and outlet capillaries on the same side of the capsule. The devices were operated with five actuations of a 10 mL air syringe using an albuterol sulfate (AS) excipient-enhanced growth (EEG) formulation. Device emptying and aerosol characteristics were evaluated for multiple device outlet configurations. Each device had specific advantages. The best case ST device produced the smallest aerosol [mean mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) = 1.57 μm; fine particle fraction <5 μm (FPF <5μm ) = 95.2%)] but the mean emitted dose (ED) was 61.9%. The best case SS device improved ED (84.8%), but produced a larger aerosol (MMAD = 2.13 μm; FPF <5μm  = 89.3%) that was marginally higher than the initial deaggregation target. The new LV-DPIs produced an acceptable high-quality aerosol with only 10 mL of dispersion air per actuation and were easy to load and operate. This performance should enable application in high and low flow

  14. Evaluation of the Level of air Microbial Contamination in some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The level of air microbial contamination in some teaching hospitals waste dump site in South Eastern Nigeria was evaluated using the standard microbiological techniques. Passive air sampling was performed using settle plates. The microbial load of the air around the hospitals waste dumpsite, showed high microbial load ...

  15. Influence of warm air-drying on enamel bond strength and surface free-energy of self-etch adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiratsuchi, Koji; Tsujimoto, Akimasa; Takamizawa, Toshiki; Furuichi, Tetsuya; Tsubota, Keishi; Kurokawa, Hiroyasu; Miyazaki, Masashi

    2013-08-01

    We examined the effect of warm air-drying on the enamel bond strengths and the surface free-energy of three single-step self-etch adhesives. Bovine mandibular incisors were mounted in self-curing resin and then wet ground with #600 silicon carbide (SiC) paper. The adhesives were applied according to the instructions of the respective manufacturers and then dried in a stream of normal (23°C) or warm (37°C) air for 5, 10, and 20 s. After visible-light irradiation of the adhesives, resin composites were condensed into a mold and polymerized. Ten samples per test group were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 h and then the bond strengths were measured. The surface free-energies were determined by measuring the contact angles of three test liquids placed on the cured adhesives. The enamel bond strengths varied according to the air-drying time and ranged from 15.8 to 19.1 MPa. The trends for the bond strengths were different among the materials. The value of the γS⁺ component increased slightly when drying was performed with a stream of warm air, whereas that of the γS⁻ component decreased significantly. These data suggest that warm air-drying is essential to obtain adequate enamel bond strengths, although increasing the drying time did not significantly influence the bond strength. © 2013 Eur J Oral Sci.

  16. Effect of different air-drying time on the microleakage of single-step self-etch adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horieh Moosavi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives This study evaluated the effect of three different air-drying times on microleakage of three self-etch adhesive systems. Materials and Methods Class I cavities were prepared for 108 extracted sound human premolars. The teeth were divided into three main groups based on three different adhesives: Opti Bond All in One (OBAO, Clearfil S3 Bond (CSB, Bond Force (BF. Each main group divided into three subgroups regarding the air-drying time: without application of air stream, following the manufacturer's instruction, for 10 sec more than manufacturer's instruction. After completion of restorations, specimens were thermocycled and then connected to a fluid filtration system to evaluate microleakage. The data were statistically analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey-test (α = 0.05. Results The microleakage of all adhesives decreased when the air-drying time increased from 0 sec to manufacturer's instruction (p < 0.001. The microleakage of BF reached its lowest values after increasing the drying time to 10 sec more than the manufacturer's instruction (p < 0.001. Microleakage of OBAO and CSB was significantly lower compared to BF in all three drying time (p < 0.001. Conclusions Increasing in air-drying time of adhesive layer in one-step self-etch adhesives caused reduction of microleakage, but the amount of this reduction may be dependent on the adhesive components of self-etch adhesives.

  17. Daily efficiency of flat-plate solar air collectors for grain drying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ting, K.C.; Shove, G.C.

    1983-01-01

    Single cover flat-plate solar collectors incorporated into walls and roofs of farm buildings have been used to heat ambient air for low temperature grain drying systems. Large surface area and high airflow rate are common features of these collectors. The drying period may range from several days to several weeks. Therefore, a knowledge of the variations of the collectors' daily efficiencies with respect to their design parameters would be helpful in applying solar collectors to grain drying. The objective of this study was to develop a simpler means of direct calculation of a collector's daily efficiency based on its design parameters. Many factors, such as configuration of the collector, airflow rate, weather conditions, etc. will affect the performance of solar collectors. A large number of varied conditions need to be tested in order to investigate the effect of different parameters on the collector performance. To facilitate this investigation, a computer simulation model developed by Ting was used to calculate the daily efficiencies of collectors under different operating conditions. The computer model was verified by Morrison's experimental data. Based on the simulation results, a functional relationship was developed between the daily efficiencies of collectors and their design parameters.

  18. Effect mechanism of air deflectors on the cooling performance of dry cooling tower with vertical delta radiators under crosswind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yuanbin; Long, Guoqing; Sun, Fengzhong; Li, Yan; Zhang, Cuijiao; Liu, Jiabin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A 3D numerical model was set for NDDCTV to study the effect of air deflectors. • The air deflectors improve the tower performance by 1.375 °C at u c = 6 m/s for a case. • The air deflectors reduce the air inflow deviation angle θ d at most delta entries. • The reduced θ d can improve the cooling performance of former deteriorated columns. • Both the radial inflow air velocity and θ d impact the cooling performance of delta. - Abstract: To study the effect mechanism of air deflectors on dry cooling tower, a three dimensional numerical model was established, with full consideration of the delta structure. The accuracy and credibility of dry cooling tower numerical model were validated. By numerical model, the average air static pressure and the average radial inflow air velocity were computed and analyzed at delta air entry, sector air entry and exit faces. By the air inflow deviation angle θ d , the effect of air deflectors on the aerodynamic field around tower was analyzed. The water exit temperatures of θ −1 columns, θ +2 columns and cooling sectors were also presented to clarify the effect of air deflectors. It was found that the air deflectors improved the aerodynamic field around cooling columns. The reduced air inflow deviation degree at delta entry improved the cooling performance of deteriorated columns. Referring to the radial inflow air velocity u ra and the air inflow deviation degree at delta entry, the effect mechanism of air deflectors are clarified under crosswind

  19. Improved Formulations for Air-Surface Exchanges Related to National Security Needs: Dry Deposition Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Droppo, James G.

    2006-07-01

    . 4) development of dry deposition formulations applicable to urban areas. Also to improve dry deposition modeling capabilities, atmospheric dispersion models in which the dry deposition formulations are imbedded need better source-term plume initialization and improved in-plume treatment of particle growth processes. Dry deposition formulations used in current models are largely inapplicable to the complex urban environment. An improved capability is urgently needed to provide surface-specific information to assess local exposure hazard levels in both urban and non-urban areas on roads, buildings, crops, rivers, etc. A model improvement plan is developed with a near-term and far-term component. Despite some conceptual limitations, the current formulations for particle deposition based on a resistance approach have proven to provide reasonable dry deposition simulations. For many models with inadequate dry deposition formulations, adding or improving a resistance approach will be the desirable near-term update. Resistance models however are inapplicable aerodynamically very rough surfaces such as urban areas. In the longer term an improved parameterization of dry deposition needs to be developed that will be applicable to all surfaces, and in particular urban surfaces.

  20. Thermal comfort in air-conditioned mosques in the dry desert climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-ajmi, Farraj F. [Department of Civil Engineering, College of Technological Studies, Shuwaikh 70654 (Kuwait)

    2010-11-15

    In Kuwait, as in most countries with a typical dry desert climate, the summer season is long with a mean daily maximum temperature of 45 C. Centralized air-conditioning, which is generally deployed from the beginning of April to the end of October, can have tremendous impact on the amount of electrical energy utilized to mechanically control the internal environment in mosque buildings. The indoor air temperature settings for all types of air-conditioned buildings and mosque buildings in particular, are often calculated based on the analytical model of ASHRAE 55-2004 and ISO 7730. However, a field study was conducted in six air-conditioned mosque buildings during the summers of 2007 to investigate indoor climate and prayers thermal comfort in state of Kuwait. The paper presents statistical data about the indoor environmental conditions in Kuwait mosque buildings, together with an analysis of prayer thermal comfort sensations for a total of 140 subjects providing 140 sets of physical measurements and subjective questionnaires were used to collect data. Results show that the neutral temperature (T{sub n}) of the prayers is found to be 26.1 C, while that for PMV is 23.3 C. Discrepancy of these values is in fact about 2.8 C higher than those predicted by PMV model. Therefore, thermal comfort temperature in Kuwait cannot directly correlate with ISO 7730 and ASHRAE 55-2004 standards. Findings from this study should be considered when designing air conditioning for mosque buildings. This knowledge can contribute towards the development of future energy-related design codes for Kuwait. (author)

  1. Techno-economic analysis of a roof-integrated solar air heating system for drying fruit and vegetables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sreekumar, A. [Dept. of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi 682 022 (India)

    2010-11-15

    The solar air heater was 46 m{sup 2} and recorded a maximum temperature of 76.6 C. The dryer was loaded with 200 kg of fresh pineapple slices 5 mm thick. The initial moisture content of 82% was reduced to the desired level (<10%) within 8 h. The performance of the dryer was analyzed in detail by three methods namely annualized cost, present worth of annual savings, and present worth of cumulative savings. The cost of drying 1 kg pineapple worked out to Rs. 11 which was roughly half of that of an electric dryer. The payback period worked out to 0.54 year, much less than the estimated life of the system (20 years). (author)

  2. Techno-economic analysis of a roof-integrated solar air heating system for drying fruit and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreekumar, A.

    2010-01-01

    The solar air heater was 46 m 2 and recorded a maximum temperature of 76.6 deg. C. The dryer was loaded with 200 kg of fresh pineapple slices 5 mm thick. The initial moisture content of 82% was reduced to the desired level (<10%) within 8 h. The performance of the dryer was analyzed in detail by three methods namely annualized cost, present worth of annual savings, and present worth of cumulative savings. The cost of drying 1 kg pineapple worked out to Rs. 11 which was roughly half of that of an electric dryer. The payback period worked out to 0.54 year, much less than the estimated life of the system (20 years).

  3. High accuracy measurements of dry mole fractions of carbon dioxide and methane in humid air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rella, C. W.; Chen, H.; Andrews, A. E.; Filges, A.; Gerbig, C.; Hatakka, J.; Karion, A.; Miles, N. L.; Richardson, S. J.; Steinbacher, M.; Sweeney, C.; Wastine, B.; Zellweger, C.

    2013-03-01

    Traditional techniques for measuring the mole fractions of greenhouse gases in the well-mixed atmosphere have required dry sample gas streams (dew point < -25 °C) to achieve the inter-laboratory compatibility goals set forth by the Global Atmosphere Watch programme of the World Meteorological Organisation (WMO/GAW) for carbon dioxide (±0.1 ppm in the Northern Hemisphere and ±0.05 ppm in the Southern Hemisphere) and methane (±2 ppb). Drying the sample gas to low levels of water vapour can be expensive, time-consuming, and/or problematic, especially at remote sites where access is difficult. Recent advances in optical measurement techniques, in particular cavity ring down spectroscopy, have led to the development of greenhouse gas analysers capable of simultaneous measurements of carbon dioxide, methane and water vapour. Unlike many older technologies, which can suffer from significant uncorrected interference from water vapour, these instruments permit accurate and precise greenhouse gas measurements that can meet the WMO/GAW inter-laboratory compatibility goals (WMO, 2011a) without drying the sample gas. In this paper, we present laboratory methodology for empirically deriving the water vapour correction factors, and we summarise a series of in-situ validation experiments comparing the measurements in humid gas streams to well-characterised dry-gas measurements. By using the manufacturer-supplied correction factors, the dry-mole fraction measurements have been demonstrated to be well within the GAW compatibility goals up to a water vapour concentration of at least 1%. By determining the correction factors for individual instruments once at the start of life, this water vapour concentration range can be extended to at least 2% over the life of the instrument, and if the correction factors are determined periodically over time, the evidence suggests that this range can be extended up to and even above 4% water vapour concentrations.

  4. Antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content of air-dried cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L. at different ripeness stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Narváez-Cuenca

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Because the use of drying at high temperatures might negatively affect the functional properties of fruits, the effect of air-drying at 60°C on the total phenolic content (TPC and antioxidant capacity (AOC of cape gooseberry fruit was evaluated at three ripeness stages. The AOC was evaluated with 2,2'-azino-bis(3- ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS , ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, and beta-carotene-linoleate assays. The TPC and AOC increased in the fresh fruit as the ripeness stage increased. The TPC increased from 401.8±19.8 to 569.3±22.3 mg GA E/100 g dry weight (DW. The AOC values obtained with ABTS in the fresh fruit (ranging from 79.4±4.5 to 132.7±12.9 mumol trolox/g fruit DW were comparable to those obtained with FRAP (ranging from 82.9±16.3 to 153.9±31.7 mumol trolox/g fruit DW. The values assessed with DPPH ranged from 21.0±3.2 to 34.1±5.1 mumol trolox/g fruit DW. The beta-carotene-linoleate assay gave values ranging from 5.8±1.1 to 12.7±2.0 mumol a-tocoferol/g fruit DW. Air-drying the cape gooseberry fruit had a small influence on the TPC. The air-dried fruit had AOC values ranging from 27 to 164% of the value of the fresh fruit. While the ABTS assay produced higher values in the air-dried fruit than in the fresh fruit, the FRAP, DPPH, and beta-carotene-linoleate assays resulted in lower values in the air-dried fruit.

  5. Comparison of salt solution and air drying methods for moisture fixation in highly porous building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonov, Yovko Ivanov; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Møldrup, Per

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, research has identified some bio-based, porous building materials as good or excellent regulators of moisture in buildings. The ability of a material to absorb, release and store moisture is described by vapour sorption isotherms. It is necessary input to simulations of indoor...... building materials by a standardized testing method, using saturated salt solutions. Furthermore, results from the standard method are compared to values of moisture content for the same materials, obtained by air-drying at different relative humidity. This is done with the aim to compare the findings from...... the two methods with respect to time and repeatability of the results. Derived isotherms are further used as direct input in the building simulation software BSim, which is capable of predicting indoor environment parameters by solving coupled, transient heat and moisture transport equations using finite...

  6. Air cooling of refrigerating loops: 'dry-hybrid' systems; Refroidissement par air des circuits frigorifiques: les systemes ''secs hybrides''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, W. [Societe Jaggi-Gunter (Switzerland)

    2003-02-01

    Different type of cooling systems can be implemented on coldness production plants. The choice very often depends on the initial investment, but from a technical and economical point of view, this choice is not necessary the best solution. Thus, it can be useful to know the different existing systems and their exploitation costs with respect to the expected needs. A particular solution which uses a 'dry-hybrid' cooler is presented in this study: 1 - open-loop evaporative cooler; 2 - open-loop evaporative cooler with intermediate exchanger; 3 - close-loop evaporative cooler; 4 - dry-cooler; 5 - dry cooler with spraying in the air flow way; 6 - dry cooler with counterflow spraying; 7 - hybrid dry cooler; 8 - example of a realization in Germany: technical and economical value of the project, description of compared solutions and hypotheses, interpretation of results. (J.S.)

  7. Atmospheric dry deposition in the vicinity of the Salton Sea, California - I: Air pollution and deposition in a desert environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, R.; Bytnerowicz, A.; Boarman, W.I.

    2005-01-01

    Air pollutant concentrations and atmospheric dry deposition were monitored seasonally at the Salton Sea, southern California. Measurements of ozone (O 3), nitric acid vapor (HNO3), ammonia (NH3), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO 2) were performed using passive samplers. Deposition rates of NO 3-, NH4+, Cl-, SO 42-, Na+, K+ and Ca2+ to creosote bush branches and nylon filters as surrogate surfaces were determined for one-week long exposure periods. Maximum O3 values were recorded in spring with 24-h average values of 108.8 ??g m-3. Concentrations of NO and NO2 were low and within ranges of the non-urban areas in California (0.4-5.6 and 3.3-16.2 ??g m-3 ranges, respectively). Concentrations of HNO3 (2.0-6.7 ??g m-3) and NH 3 (6.4-15.7 ??g m-3) were elevated and above the levels typical for remote locations in California. Deposition rates of Cl-, SO42-, Na+, K+ and Ca2+ were related to the influence of sea spray or to suspended soil particles, and no strong enrichments caused by ions originated by human activities were detected. Dry deposition rates of NO3- and NH4+ were similar to values registered in areas where symptoms of nitrogen saturation and changes in species composition have been described. Deposition of nitrogenous compounds might be contributing to eutrophication processes at the Salton Sea. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Aqua AIRS Level 3 Quantization in Physical Units (AIRS+AMSU) V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AIRS/Aqua Level 3 monthly quantization product in physical units (Without HSB). The quantization products (QP) are distributional summaries derived from the Level-2...

  9. AIRS/Aqua Level 3 Pentad quantization in physical units (AIRS+AMSU+HSB) V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AIRS/Aqua Level 3 pentad quantization product in physical units (With HSB). The quantization products (QP) are distributional summaries derived from the Level-2...

  10. Outdoor Air Quality Level Inference via Surveillance Cameras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is a universal problem confronted by many developing countries. Because there are very few air quality monitoring stations in cities, it is difficult for people to know the exact air quality level anytime and anywhere. Fortunately, large amount of surveillance cameras have been deployed in the cities and can capture image densely and conveniently in the cities. In this case, this provides the possibility to utilize surveillance cameras as sensors to obtain data and predict the air quality level. To this end, we present a novel air quality level inference approach based on outdoor images. Firstly, we explore several features extracted from images as the robust representation for air quality prediction. Then, to effectively fuse these heterogeneous and complementary features, we adopt multikernel learning to learn an adaptive classifier for air quality level inference. In addition, to facilitate the research, we construct an Outdoor Air Quality Image Set (OAQIS dataset, which contains high quality registered and calibrated images with rich labels, that is, concentration of particles mass (PM, weather, temperature, humidity, and wind. Extensive experiments on the OAQIS dataset demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  11. Small-angle neutron scattering investigation of polyurethane aged in dry and wet air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Tian

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The microstructures of Estane 5703 aged at 70°C in dry and wet air have been studied by small-angle neutron scattering. The samples were swollen in deuterated toluene for enhancing the contrast. The scattering data show the characteristic domain structure of polyurethanes consisting of soft and hard segments. Debye-Anderson-Brumberger function used with hard sphere structure factor, and the Teubner-Strey model are used to analyze the two-phase domain structure of the polymer. The combined effects of temperature and humidity have a strong disruption effect on the microstructures of Estane. For the sample aged at 70°C in wet air for 1 month, the domain size, described by the correlation length, increases from 2.3 to 3.8 nm and their distance, expressed by hard-sphere interaction radius, increases from 8.4 to 10.6 nm. The structure development is attributed to degradation of polymer chains as revealed by gel permeation chromatography. The hydrolysis of ester links on polymer backbone at 70°C in the presence of water humidity is the main reason for the changes of the microstructure. These findings can contribute to developing predictive models for the safety, performance, and lifetime of polyurethanes.

  12. Air-drying of cells, the novel conditions for stimulated synthesis of triacylglycerol in a Green Alga, Chlorella kessleri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuma Shiratake

    Full Text Available Triacylglycerol is used for the production of commodities including food oils and biodiesel fuel. Microalgae can accumulate triacylglycerol under adverse environmental conditions such as nitrogen-starvation. This study explored the possibility of air-drying of green algal cells as a novel and simple protocol for enhancement of their triacylglycerol content. Chlorella kessleri cells were fixed on the surface of a glass fibre filter and then subjected to air-drying with light illumination. The dry cell weight, on a filter, increased by 2.7-fold in 96 h, the corresponding chlorophyll content ranging from 1.0 to 1.3-fold the initial one. Concomitantly, the triacylglycerol content remarkably increased to 70.3 mole% of fatty acids and 15.9% (w/w, relative to total fatty acids and dry cell weight, respectively, like in cells starved of nitrogen. Reduction of the stress of air-drying by placing the glass filter on a filter paper soaked in H2O lowered the fatty acid content of triacylglycerol to 26.4 mole% as to total fatty acids. Moreover, replacement of the H2O with culture medium further decreased the fatty acid content of triacylglycerol to 12.2 mole%. It thus seemed that severe dehydration is required for full induction of triacylglycerol synthesis, and that nutritional depletion as well as dehydration are crucial environmental factors. Meanwhile, air-drying of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells increased the triacylglycerol content to only 37.9 mole% of fatty acids and 4.8% (w/w, relative to total fatty acids and dry cell weight, respectively, and a marked decrease in the chlorophyll content, on a filter, of 33%. Air-drying thus has an impact on triacylglycerol synthesis in C. reinhardtii also, however, the effect is considerably limited, owing probably to instability of the photosynthetic machinery. This air-drying protocol could be useful for the development of a system for industrial production of triacylglycerol with appropriate selection of the

  13. Influence of 60Co γ irradiation pre-treatment on characteristics of hot air drying sweet potato slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Ning; Liu Chunquan; Li Dajing; Liu Xia; Yan Qimei

    2012-01-01

    The influences of irradiation, hot air temperature and thicknesses of the slices on the characters of dehydration and surface temperature of 60 Co γ-rays irradiated sweet potato were investigated. Meanwhile, microscopic observation and determination of water activity of irradiated sweet potato were conducted. The results show that the drying rate and the surface temperature rose with the increasing of irradiation dose. When the dry basis moisture content was 150%, the drying rate of the samples were 1.92, 1.97, 2.05, 2.28, 3.12% /min while the irradiation dose were 0, 2, 5, 8, 10 kGy, and the surface temperature were 48.5 ℃, 46.3℃, 44.5 ℃, 42.2 ℃, 41.5 ℃, respectively. With higher air temperature and thinner of the sweet potato slices, the dehydration of the irradiated sweet potato slices were faster. The drying speed of sweet potato slices at 85 ℃ was 170 min faster than that of 65 ℃. The drying speed of 7 mm sweet potato slices was 228 min faster than that of 3 mm sample. The cell wall and the vacuole of the sweet potato slices were broken after irradiation, and its water activity increased with the increase is radiation dose. The water activity of the irradiated samples were 0.92, 0.945, 0.958, 0.969, 0.979 with the irradiation doses of 0, 2, 5, 8, 10 kGy, respectively. The hot air drying rate, surface temperature and water activity of sweet potato are significantly impacted by irradiation. The conclusion provides a theoretical foundation for further processing technology of combined radiation and hot air drying sweet potato. (authors)

  14. Characterization of radon levels in indoor air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, A.C.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose is to describe the different types of monitoring and sampling techniques that can determine the radiation burden of the general public from radon and its decay products. This is accomplished by measuring the range and distribution of radon and radon decay products through broad surveys using simple and convenient integrating monitoring instruments. For in-depth studies of the behavior of radon decay products and calculation of the radiation dose to the lung, fewer and more intensive and complex measurements of the particle size distribution and respiratory deposition of the radon decay products are required. For diagnostic purposes, the paper describes measurement techniques of the sources and exhalation rate of radon and the air exchange inside buildings. Measurement results form several studies conducted in ordinary buildings in different geographical areas of the United States, using the described monitoring techniques, indicate that the occupants of these buildings are exposed to radon and radon decay product concentrations, varying by as much as a factor of 20

  15. Thermohydraulic modeling of the dry air passive containment cooling system process in the Westinghouse AP-600 ALWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harari, R; Weis, Y; Barnea, Y [Israel Atomic Energy Commission, Beersheba (Israel). Nuclear Research Center-Negev

    1996-12-01

    Following postulated events of a LOCA, the passive Containment Cooling System (PCCS) uses dry air to transfer the residual heat by natural circulation. The air flow path, designed between the steel reactor containment hot shell and the concrete shield building, creates an open thermosyphon. The purpose of this inherently safe process is to assure the long term steady-state cooling of the nuclear core after an emergency shutdown (authors).

  16. Udder health of dairy cows fed different dietary energy levels after a short or no dry period without use of dry cow antibiotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeij, van R.J.; Lam, T.J.G.M.; Bruckmaier, R.M.; Dijkstra, J.; Remmelink, G.J.; Kemp, B.; Knegsel, van A.T.M.

    2018-01-01

    Reports on the effects of length of dry period (DP) on udder health of cows that were not treated with dry cow antibiotics are scarce. Additionally, the effects of a reduced dietary energy level for cows with a 0-d DP on udder health have not yet been studied. The aims of this study were (1) to

  17. Drying characteristics of whole Musa AA group ‘Kluai Leb Mu Nang’ using hot air and infrared vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulketwong, C.; Thungsotanon, D.; Suwanpayak, N.

    2017-06-01

    Dried Musa AA group ‘Kluai Leb Mu Nang’ are the famous processing goods of Chumphon province, the south of Thailand. In this paper, we improved the qualities of whole Musa AA group ‘Kluai leb Mu Nang’ by using the hot air and infrared vacuum (HA and infrared vacuum) drying method which has two stages. The first stage of the method is the hot air (HA) and hot air-infrared (HAI) drying for rapidly reducing the moisture content and the drying times at atmospheric pressure, and the second stage, the moisture content, and color of the samples can be controlled by the HA and infrared vacuum drying. The experiment was evaluated by the terms of firmness, color change, moisture content, vacuum pressure and energy consumption at various temperatures. The results were found that the suitable temperature of the HAI and HA and infrared vacuum drying stages at 70°C and 55°C, respectively, while the suitable vacuum pressure in the second process was -0.4 bar. The samples were dried in a total of 28 hrs using 13.83 MJ/kg of specific energy consumption (stage 1 with 8.8 MJ/kg and stage 2 of 5.03 MJ/kg). The physical characteristics of the 21% (wb) of dried bananas can be measured the color change, L*=38.56, a*=16.47 and b*=16.3, was approximate the goods from the local market, whereas the firmness of them was more tender and shown a value of 849.56 kN/m3.

  18. CFD Analysis on the Passive Heat Removal by Helium and Air in the Canister of Spent Fuel Dry Storage System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Do Young; Jeong, Ui Ju; Kim, Sung Joong [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In the current commercial design, the canister of the dry storage system is mainly backfilled with helium gas. Helium gas shows very conductive behavior due to high thermal conductivity and small density change with temperature. However, other gases such as air, argon, or nitrogen are expected to show effective convective behavior. Thus these are also considered as candidates for the backfill gas to provide effective coolability. In this study, to compare the dominant cooling mechanism and effectiveness of cooling between helium gas and air, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis for the canister of spent fuel dry storage system with backfill gas of helium and air is carried out. In this study, CFD simulations for the helium and air backfilled gas for dry storage system canister were carried out using ANSYS FLUENT code. For the comparison work, two backfilled fluids were modeled with same initial and boundary conditions. The observed major difference can be summarized as follows. - The simulation results showed the difference in dominant heat removal mechanism. Conduction for helium, and convection for air considering Reynolds number distribution. - The temperature gradient inside the fuel assembly showed that in case of air, more effective heat mixing occurred compared to helium.

  19. Performance of a solar dryer using hot air from roof-integrated solar collectors for drying herbs and spices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janjai, S.; Tung, P. [Silpakorn University, Pathom (Thailand). Dept. of Physics

    2005-11-01

    A solar dryer for drying herbs and spices using hot air from roof-integrated solar collectors was developed. The dryer is a bin type with a rectangular perforated floor. The bin has a dimension of 1.0 m x 2.0 m x 0.7 m. Hot air is supplied to the dryer from fiberglass-covered solar collectors, which also function as the roof of a farmhouse. The total area of the solar collectors is 72 m{sup 2}. To investigate its performance, the dryer was used to dry four batches of rosella flowers and three batches of lemon-grasses during the year 2002-2003. The dryer can be used to dry 200 kg of rosella flowers and lemon-grasses within 4 and 3 days, respectively. The products being dried in the dryer were completely protected from rains and insects and the dried products are of high quality. The solar air heater has an average daily efficiency of 35% and it performs well both as a solar collector and a roof of a farmhouse. (author)

  20. Determination of carbon-reduction-cycle intermediates in leaves of Arbutus unedo L. suffering depressions in photosynthesis after application of abscisic acid or exposure to dry air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loske, D; Raschke, K

    1988-02-01

    Gas exchange and contents of photosynthetic intermediates of leaves of Arbutus unedo L. were determined with the aim of recognizing the mechanisms of inhibition that were responsible for the "midday depression" of photosynthesis following exposure to dry air, and the decline in photosynthetic capacity following application of abscisic acid (ABA). Rapidly killed (<0.1 s) leaf samples were taken when gas analysis showed reduced CO2 assimilation. Determination of the contents of 3-phosphoglyceric acid (PGA), ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP), triose phosphates, fructose 1,6-bisphosphate and hexose phosphates in the samples showed that significant variation occurred only in the level of PGA. As a result, the ratio PGA/RuBP decreased with increasing inhibition of photosynthesis, particularly when application of ABA had been the cause. A comparison of metabolite patterns did not bring out qualitative differences that would have indicated that effects of ABA and of dry air had been caused by separate mechanisms. Depression of photosynthesis occurred in the presence of sufficient RuBP which indicated that the carboxylation reaction of the carbon-reduction-cycle was inhibited after application of ABA or exposure to dry air.

  1. Effect of graded levels of dry pineapple peel on digestibility and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2013-07-30

    Jul 30, 2013 ... ABSTRACT. Objectives: A feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effect of the inclusion levels of sun dried pineapple peel (PP) in the diets, on the digestibility and growth performance of rabbits. Methodology and Results: Diets R0 (control), R20, R30 and R40 were formulated by including 0, 20, 30.

  2. Induction of genetic changes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by partial drying in air of constant relative humidity and by UV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hieda, K.

    1981-01-01

    It was investigated whether there was a critical degree of dryness for induction of genetic changes by drying. Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells were dried in air of 0.33, 53 and 76% relative humidity (RH). The frequencies of mitotic recombination at ade2, of gene conversion at leu1, and of gene mutation at can1 were measured in X2447, XS1473 and S288C strains, respectively. After the cells had been dried at 0% RH for 4 h the frequencies of the genetic changes at ade2, leu1 and can1 were, respectively, 56, 7 and 3.5 times higher than each spontaneous frequency. Induction rates, defined as the frequencies of the induced genetic changes per unit time (1 h) of drying, were greatly decreased with increase in RH. Partial drying in air of 76% RH up to 4 and 8 h induced no genetic change at ade2 and leu1, respectively. It was concluded, therefore, that drying at a certain RH between 53 and 76% gave the critical degreee of dryness of cells for the induction of the genetic changes. The water contents of cells (g water per g dry material) were 12% at 53% RH and 21% at 76% RH, whereas the water content of native cells was 212%. Removal of a large amount of cellular water had no effect on the induction of the genetic changes. UV sensitivity of partially dried cells of X2447 for the induction of the genetic change at ade2 drastically increased with decrease in RH between 76 and 53%. The drastic change in the UV sensitivity suggested that photochemical reactivity of DNA of chromosome XV, in which the ade2 locus is located, changed between 76 and 53% RH. It seems that the genetic changes were induced only in the low RH region where DNA in vivo had a different photochemical reactivity. (orig.)

  3. The airborne radioactivity and electrical properties of ground level air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myslek-Laurikainen, B.; Matul, M.; Mikolajewski, S.; Trzaskowska, H.; Kubicki, M.

    2001-01-01

    The data presented in this work are the result of systematic measurements of radionuclide concentrations in air and density of vertical current. The airborne 7 Be concentration changes similar to the electrical conductivity of air, collected with an ASS-500 high volume air sampler of the ground atr monitoring network supervised by the Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection. Sampling has been done since March 1991. Simultaneously, the routine complex meteorological observations were performed. In particular, the electrical properties of ground level atmospheric air were studied with measurements of electrical field intensity, positive and negative conductivity of the air,while other isotopes, anthropogenic or originating from the ground are correlated with dust and other meteorological factors like watering and wind. (author)

  4. Randomized noninferiority clinical trial evaluating 3 commercial dry cow mastitis preparations: I. Quarter-level outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruda, A G; Godden, S; Rapnicki, P; Gorden, P; Timms, L; Aly, S S; Lehenbauer, T W; Champagne, J

    2013-07-01

    The study objective was to compare the efficacy of 3 commercial dry cow mastitis formulations regarding quarter-level prevalence of intramammary infections (IMI) postcalving, cure of preexisting infections over the dry period, prevention of new infections during the dry period, and risk for a clinical mastitis case between calving and 100d in milk (DIM). A total of 1,091 cows (4,364 quarters) from 6 commercial dairy herds in 4 different states (California, Iowa, Minnesota, and Wisconsin) were enrolled and randomized to 1 of the 3 treatments at dry-off: Quartermaster (QT; 1,000,000 IU of procaine penicillin G and 1 g of dihydrostreptomycin; Pfizer Animal Health, New York, NY), Spectramast DC (SP; 500 mg of ceftiofur hydrochloride; Pfizer Animal Health), or ToMorrow Dry Cow (TM; 300mg of cephapirin benzathine; Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica Inc., St. Joseph, MO). Quarter milk samples were collected for routine bacteriological culture before dry cow therapy treatment at dry-off, 0 to 6 DIM, and 7 to 13 DIM and an on-farm record-keeping system was used to retrieve data on clinical mastitis cases. Noninferiority analysis was used to evaluate the effect of treatment on the primary outcome, risk for a bacteriological cure during the dry period. Multivariable logistic regression techniques were used to describe the effect of treatment on risk for presence of IMI postcalving and risk of a new IMI during the dry period. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to describe the effect of treatment on the risk and time for quarters to experience an episode of clinical mastitis between calving and 100 DIM. The overall crude quarter-level prevalence of infection at dry-off was 19.2%. The most common pathogen isolated from milk samples at dry-off was coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, followed by Aerococcus spp. and other Streptococcus spp. Noninferiority analysis showed no effect of treatment on risk for a cure between dry-off and calving [least squares means (LSM): QT=93

  5. Remediation of muddy tidal flat sediments using hot air-dried crushed oyster shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Tamiji; Kondo, Shunsuke; Kim, Kyung-Hoi; Asaoka, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Hironori; Tokuoka, Makoto; Hibino, Tadashi

    2012-11-01

    In order to prove that hot air-dried crushed oyster shells (HACOS) are effective in reducing hydrogen sulfide in muddy tidal flat sediments and increasing the biomass, field experiments were carried out. The concentration of hydrogen sulfide in the interstitial water, which was 16 mg SL(-1) before the application of HACOS, decreased sharply and maintained almost zero in the experimental sites (HACOS application sites) for one year, whereas it was remained at ca. 5 mg SL(-1) in the control sites. The number of macrobenthos individuals increased to 2-4.5 times higher than that in the control site. Using a simple numerical model, the effective periods for suppression of hydrogen sulfide were estimated to be 3.2-7.6 and 6.4-15.2 years for the experimental sites with 4 and 8 tons per 10 × 10 × 0.2m area, respectively. From these results, it is concluded that HACOS is an effective material to remediate muddy tidal flats. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Microparticle charging in dry air plasma created by an external ionization source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derbenev, I N; Filippov, A V

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper the dust particle charging is studied in a dry air plasma created by an external ionization source. The ionization rate is changed in the range 10 1 -10 20 cm -3 s -1 . It is found that the main positive ion of the plasma is O + 4 and the main negative ones are O − 2 and O − 4 . The point sink model based on the diffusion-drift approach shows that the screening potential distribution around a dust particle is a superposition of four Debye-like exponentials with four different spatial scales. The first scale almost coincides with the Debye radius. The second one is the distance, passed by positive and negative plasma components due to ambipolar diffusion in their recombination time. The third one is defined by the negative ion conversion and diffusion. The fourth scale is described by the electron attachment, recombination and diffusion at low gas ionization rates and by the recombination and diffusion of negative diatomic ions at high ionization rates. It is also shown that the electron flux defines the microparticle charge at high ionization rates, whereas the electron number density is much less than the ion one. (paper)

  7. AIRS/Aqua Level 3 Pentad quantization in physical units (AIRS+AMSU) V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AIRS/Aqua Level 3 pentad quantization product in physical units (Without HSB). The geophysical parameters have been averaged and binned into 1 x 1 deg grid cells,...

  8. AIRS/Aqua Level 3 Daily standard physical retrieval (AIRS-only) V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AIRS Only Level 3 Daily Gridded Product contains standard retrieval means, standard deviations and input counts. Each file covers a temporal period of 24 hours...

  9. AIRS/Aqua Level 3 Monthly standard physical retrieval (AIRS-only) V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AIRS Only Level 3 Monthly Gridded Retrieval Product contains standard retrieval means, standard deviations and input counts. Each file covers a calendar month....

  10. AIRS/Aqua Level 3 Daily standard physical retrieval (AIRS+AMSU) V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AIRS Level 3 Daily Gridded Product contains standard retrieval means, standard deviations and input counts. Each file covers a temporal period of 24 hours for...

  11. Aqua AIRS Level 3 Daily Standard Physical Retrieval (AIRS+AMSU) V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AIRS Level 3 Daily Gridded Product contains standard retrieval means, standard deviations and input counts. Each file covers a temporal period of 24 hours for...

  12. AIRS/Aqua Level 3 Monthly standard physical retrieval (AIRS+AMSU) V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AIRS Level 3 Monthly Gridded Retrieval Product contains standard retrieval means, standard deviations and input counts. Each file covers a calendar month. The...

  13. Aqua AIRS Level 3 8-day Standard Physical Retrieval (AIRS+AMSU) V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AIRS Level 3 8-Day Gridded Retrieval Product contains standard retrieval means, standard deviations and input counts. Each file covers an 8-day period, or...

  14. Aqua AIRS Level 3 Monthly Standard Physical Retrieval (AIRS-only) V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AIRS Only Level 3 Monthly Gridded Retrieval Product contains standard retrieval means, standard deviations and input counts. Each file covers a calendar month....

  15. AIRS/Aqua Level 3 8-day standard physical retrieval (AIRS+AMSU) V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AIRS Level 3 8-Day Gridded Retrieval Product contains standard retrieval means, standard deviations and input counts. Each file covers an 8-day period, or...

  16. AIRS/Aqua Level 3 8-day standard physical retrieval (AIRS-only) V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AIRS Only Level 3 8-Day Gridded Retrieval Product contains standard retrieval means, standard deviations and input counts. Each file covers an 8-day period, or...

  17. Aqua AIRS Level 3 Monthly Standard Physical Retrieval (AIRS+AMSU) V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AIRS Level 3 Monthly Gridded Retrieval Product contains standard retrieval means, standard deviations and input counts. Each file covers a calendar month. The...

  18. Aqua AIRS Level 3 Daily Standard Physical Retrieval (AIRS-only) V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AIRS Only Level 3 Daily Gridded Product contains standard retrieval means, standard deviations and input counts. Each file covers a temporal period of 24 hours...

  19. Aqua AIRS Level 3 8-day Standard Physical Retrieval (AIRS-only) V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AIRS Only Level 3 8-Day Gridded Retrieval Product contains standard retrieval means, standard deviations and input counts. Each file covers an 8-day period, or...

  20. Effects of Dry Storage and Resubmersion of Oysters on Total Vibrio vulnificus and Total and Pathogenic (tdh+/trh+) Vibrio parahaemolyticus Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsey, Thomas P; Lydon, Keri A; Bowers, John C; Jones, Jessica L

    2015-08-01

    Vibrio vulnificus (Vv) and Vibrio parahaemolyticus (Vp) are the two leading causes of bacterial illnesses associated with raw shellfish consumption. Levels of these pathogens in oysters can increase during routine antifouling aquaculture practices involving dry storage in ambient air conditions. After storage, common practice is to resubmerge these stored oysters to reduce elevated Vv and Vp levels, but evidence proving the effectiveness of this practice is lacking. This study examined the changes in Vv and in total and pathogenic (thermostable direct hemolysin gene and the tdh-related hemolysin gene, tdh+ and trh+) Vp levels in oysters after 5 or 24 h of dry storage (28 to 32°C), followed by resubmersion (27 to 32°C) for 14 days. For each trial, replicate oyster samples were collected at initial harvest, after dry storage, after 7 days, and after 14 days of resubmersion. Oysters not subjected to dry storage were collected and analyzed to determine natural undisturbed vibrio levels (background control). Vibrio levels were measured using a most-probable-number enrichment followed by real-time PCR. After storage, vibrio levels (excluding tdh+ and trh+ Vp during 5-h storage) increased significantly (P oysters stored for 5 h) were not significantly different (P oysters. Vv and total and pathogenic Vp levels were not significantly different (P > 0.1) from levels in background oysters after 14 days of resubmersion, regardless of dry storage time. These data demonstrate that oyster resubmersion after dry storage at elevated ambient temperatures allows vibrio levels to return to those of background control samples. These results can be used to help minimize the risk of Vv and Vp illnesses and to inform the oyster industry on the effectiveness of routine storing and resubmerging of aquaculture oysters.

  1. A measurement of summertime dry deposition of ambient air particulates and associated metallic pollutants in Central Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Guor-Cheng; Chiang, Hung-Che; Chen, Yu-Cheng; Xiao, You-Fu; Wu, Chia-Ming; Kuo, Yu-Chen

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to characterize metallic elements associated with atmospheric particulate matter in the dry deposition plate, total suspended particulate, fine particles, and coarse particles at Taichung Harbor and Gong Ming Junior High School (airport) in central Taiwan at a sampling site from June 2013 to August 2013. The results indicated that: (1) the average concentrations of the metallic elements Cr and Cd were highest at the Gong Ming Junior High School (airport), and the average concentrations of the metallic elements Ni, Cu, and Pb were highest at the Taichung Harbor sampling site. (2) The high smelting industry density and export/import rate of heavily loaded cargos were the main reasons leading to these findings. (3) The average metallic element dry deposition and metallic element PM(2.5-10) all followed the order of Pb > Cr > Cu > Ni > Cd at the two sampling sites. However, the average metallic elements Cu and Pb were found to have the highest dry deposition velocities and concentrations in PM(2.5) for the two sampling sites in this study. (4) The correlation coefficients of ambient air particle dry deposition and concentration with wind speed at the airport were higher than those from the harbor sampling site. The wind and broad open spaces at Taichung Airport were the possible reasons for the increasing correlation coefficients for ambient air particle concentration and dry deposition with wind speed at the Taichung Airport sampling site.

  2. Shrinkage and porosity evolution during air-drying of non-cellular food systems: Experimental data versus mathematical modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thanh Khuong; Khalloufi, Seddik; Mondor, Martin; Ratti, Cristina

    2018-01-01

    In the present work, the impact of glass transition on shrinkage of non-cellular food systems (NCFS) during air-drying will be assessed from experimental data and the interpretation of a 'shrinkage' function involved in a mathematical model. Two NCFS made from a mixture of water/maltodextrin/agar (w/w/w: 1/0.15/0.015) were created out of maltodextrins with dextrose equivalent 19 (MD19) or 36 (MD36). The NCFS made with MD19 had 30°C higher Tg than those with MD36. This information indicated that, during drying, the NCFS with MD19 would pass from rubbery to glassy state sooner than NCFS MD36, for which glass transition only happens close to the end of drying. For the two NCFS, porosity and volume reduction as a function of moisture content were captured with high accuracy when represented by the mathematical models previously developed. No significant differences in porosity and in maximum shrinkage between both samples during drying were observed. As well, no change in the slope of the shrinkage curve as a function of moisture content was perceived. These results indicate that glass transition alone is not a determinant factor in changes of porosity or volume during air-drying. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Numerical characterisation of one-step and three-step solar air heating collectors used for cocoa bean solar drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbegoso, Elder Mendoza; Saavedra, Rafael; Marcelo, Daniel; La Madrid, Raúl

    2017-12-01

    In the northern coastal and jungle areas of Peru, cocoa beans are dried using artisan methods, such as direct exposure to sunlight. This traditional process is time intensive, leading to a reduction in productivity and, therefore, delays in delivery times. The present study was intended to numerically characterise the thermal behaviour of three configurations of solar air heating collectors in order to determine which demonstrated the best thermal performance under several controlled operating conditions. For this purpose, a computational fluid dynamics model was developed to describe the simultaneous convective and radiative heat transfer phenomena under several operation conditions. The constructed computational fluid dynamics model was firstly validated through comparison with the data measurements of a one-step solar air heating collector. We then simulated two further three-step solar air heating collectors in order to identify which demonstrated the best thermal performance in terms of outlet air temperature and thermal efficiency. The numerical results show that under the same solar irradiation area of exposition and operating conditions, the three-step solar air heating collector with the collector plate mounted between the second and third channels was 67% more thermally efficient compared to the one-step solar air heating collector. This is because the air exposition with the surface of the collector plate for the three-step solar air heating collector former device was twice than the one-step solar air heating collector. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of production methods and protective ingredients on the viability of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus R0011 in air-dried alginate beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Claude P; Raymond, Yves; Arcand, Yves

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this study was to use a microencapsulation technology to prepare air-dried concentrated cultures of Lactobacillus rhamnosus R0011. The cultures were microencapsulated in alginate beads, which were added to a growth medium to allow cell multiplication inside the matrix; the beads were recovered, dipped in protective solutions, and air-dried. The effects of fermentation technology and of the composition of the protective solutions on subsequent survival during air-drying were examined. The cells prepared under a constant pH of 6.2 had only 2.5% survival to air-drying at 25 °C when the protective solution was composed of sucrose and phosphate. Allowing the pH to drop to 4.2 during the biomass production step and using a protective medium composed of glycerol, maltodextrin, yeast extract, and ascorbate increased survival to 20%. If the ingredients of the protective medium at the beginning of drying were concentrated at a water activity of 0.96 rather than 0.98, survival during air-drying increased further to 56%. This rate was similar to that of a traditional freeze-drying process. These data suggest that applying a combination of acid and osmotic stresses to L. rhamnosus R0011 cells improves their subsequent stability during the air-drying process. Dried microencapsulated cultures having 2.6 × 10 11 CFU·g -1 were obtained.

  5. Air-side performance evaluation of three types of heat exchangers in dry, wet and periodic frosting conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ping [Zhejiang Vocational College of Commerce, Hangzhou, Binwen Road 470 (China); Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 1206 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Hrnjak, P.S. [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 1206 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2009-08-15

    The performances of three types of heat exchangers that use the louver fin geometry: (1) parallel flow parallel fin with extruded flat tubes heat exchanger (PF{sup 2}), (2) parallel flow serpentine fin with extruded flat tubes heat exchanger (PFSF) and (3) round tube wave plate fin heat exchanger (RTPF) have been experimentally studied under dry, wet and frost conditions and results are presented. The parameters quantified include air-side pressure drop, water retention on the surface of the heat exchanger, capacity and overall heat transfer coefficient for air face velocity 0.9, 2 and 3 m/s, air humidity 70% and 80% and different orientations. The performances of three types of heat exchanger are compared and the results obtained are presented. The condensate drainage behavior of the air-side surface of these three heat exchanger types was studied using both the dip testing method and wind tunnel experiment. (author)

  6. Radioactivity evaluation method for pre-packed concrete packages of low-level dry active wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Toshiaki; Funahashi, Tetsuo; Watabe, Kiyomi; Ozawa, Yukitoshi; Kashiwagi, Makoto

    1998-01-01

    Low-level dry active wastes of nuclear power plants are grouted with cement mortal in a container and planned to disposed into the shallow land disposal site. The characteristics of radionuclides contained in dry active wastes are same as homogeneous solidified wastes. In the previous report, we reported the applicability of the radioactivity evaluation methods established for homogeneous solidified wastes to pre-packed concrete packages. This report outlines the developed radioactivity evaluation methods for pre-packed concrete packages based upon recent data. Since the characteristics of dry active wastes depend upon the plant system in which dry active wastes originate and the types of contamination, sampling of wastes and activity measurement were executed to derive scaling factors. The radioactivity measurement methods were also verified. The applicability of non-destructive methods to measure radioactivity concentration of pre-packed concrete packages was examined by computer simulation. It is concluded that those methods are accurate enough to measure actual waste packages. (author)

  7. Influence of carbon monoxide additions on the sensitivity of the dry hydrogen-air mixtures to detonation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magzumov, A.E.; Kirillov, I.A.; Fridman, A.A.; Rusanov, V.D.

    1995-01-01

    Under severe accident conditions of water cooled nuclear reactors the hydrogen-air detonation represents one of the most hazardous events which can result in the reactor containment damage. An important factor related with the measure of gas mixture detonability is the detonation cell size which correlates with the critical tube diameter and detonation initiation energy. A numerical kinetic study is presented of the influence of carbon monoxide admixtures (from 0 vol.% to 40 vol.%) upon the sensitivity (detonation cell size) of the dry hydrogen-air gas mixtures to detonation in post-accident containment atmosphere. (author). 3 refs., 3 figs

  8. Drying characteristics of garlic ( Allium sativum L) slices in a convective hot air dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiray, Engin; Tulek, Yahya

    2014-06-01

    The effects of drying temperatures on the drying kinetics of garlic slices were investigated using a cabinet-type dryer. The experimental drying data were fitted best to the Page and Modified Page models apart from other theoretical models to predict the drying kinetics. The effective moisture diffusivities varied from 4.214 × 10-10 to 2.221 × 10-10 m2 s-1 over the temperature range studied, and activation energy was 30.582 kJ mol-1.

  9. Dry deposition models for radionuclides dispersed in air: a new approach for deposition velocity evaluation schema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardina, M.; Buffa, P.; Cervone, A.; De Rosa, F.; Lombardo, C.; Casamirra, M.

    2017-11-01

    In the framework of a National Research Program funded by the Italian Minister of Economic Development, the Department of Energy, Information Engineering and Mathematical Models (DEIM) of Palermo University and ENEA Research Centre of Bologna, Italy are performing several research activities to study physical models and mathematical approaches aimed at investigating dry deposition mechanisms of radioactive pollutants. On the basis of such studies, a new approach to evaluate the dry deposition velocity for particles is proposed. Comparisons with some literature experimental data show that the proposed dry deposition scheme can capture the main phenomena involved in the dry deposition process successfully.

  10. Drying of fruits and vegetables using a flat plate solar collector with convective air flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansoor, K.K.; Hanif, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis of drying of different fruits and vegetables dried by a flat plate solar collector developed at the Department of Agricultural Mechanization, Khyber PukhtunKhwa Agricultural University Peshawar, Pakistan. A small flat plate solar collector is designed and tested for its maximum performance in terms of efficiency with different convective flow rates. The collector assembly is divided into two parts. The flat plate solar collector and the drying chamber. The materials used for flat plate solar collector are wood, steel sheet, Insulation materials, and glass sheet as covering material. The insulation box (0.9 x 1.8 x 0.3 meter) is made up of wood of popular and deodar, to be fully isolated with the help of polystyrene. The absorber is black painted v-corrugated steel sheet. Collector has a tilt angle of 34 deg. (Equivalent to the latitude of Peshawar). The covering material is (0.9 x 1.8 meter) and 5 mm thick glass sheet placed at the top of the wooden box. The collector is supported and tilted with the help of a frame made up of iron angled arms. While the drying chamber is a (1 X 0.5 x 0.3 meter) wooden box connected to the outlet duct of the collector with the help of polyvinylchloride pipe. Experiments were conducted different fruits and vegetables and different parameters like moisture lost by the products in each hour, drying rate at each hour of drying, humidity and temperature of the drying chamber. It was observed that the products such as bitter guard and onion were dried in 10 to 2 hours up to moisture content less then 8%. These two product lost 8% to 10% moisture during each hour of drying. While grapes and Green chili are dried in 24 to 25 hours up to moisture content less then 8%. These two products lost 4% to 5% moisture in each hour of drying. The drying rate of all the products dried was very much consistent. It was observed that onion and bitter guard showed a good drying rate of 0.03[g(H/sub 2/O)/g(d.m).cm/ 2 hr] to

  11. Air-drying paint compositions comprising carbohydrate-based polyesters and polyester preparation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostveen, E.A.; Weijnen, J.; Haveren, van J.; Gillard, M.

    2003-01-01

    The invention relates to a polyester obtainable by transesterification or interesterification of:(i) a carbohydrate or an acyl ester thereof, (ii) an alkyl ester of a drying fatty acid, semi-drying fatty acid or mixture thereof; and (iii) an alkyl ester of a non aromatic polycarboxylic acid. The

  12. Moisture Distribution in Broccoli: Measurements by MRI Hot Air Drying Experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, X.; Sman, van der R.G.M.; Gerkema, E.; Vergeldt, F.J.; As, van H.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT The internal moisture distribution that arise in food products during drying, is a key factor for the retention of quality attributes. To reveal the course of moisture content in a product, internal moisture profiles in broccoli florets are measured by MRI imaging during drying experiments

  13. Moisture distribution in broccoli: measurements by MRI hot air drying experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, X.; Sman, van der R.G.M.; Gerkema, E.; Vergeldt, F.J.; As, van H.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2011-01-01

    The internal moisture distribution that arise in food products during drying, is a key factor for the retention of quality attributes. To reveal the course of moisture content in a product, internal moisture profiles in broccoli florets are measured by MRI imaging during drying experiments with

  14. Postharvest monitoring of organic potato (cv. Anuschka) during hot-air drying using visible-NIR hyperspectral imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscetti, Roberto; Sturm, Barbara; Crichton, Stuart Oj; Amjad, Waseem; Massantini, Riccardo

    2018-05-01

    The potential of hyperspectral imaging (500-1010 nm) was evaluated for monitoring of the quality of potato slices (var. Anuschka) of 5, 7 and 9 mm thickness subjected to air drying at 50 °C. The study investigated three different feature selection methods for the prediction of dry basis moisture content and colour of potato slices using partial least squares regression (PLS). The feature selection strategies tested include interval PLS regression (iPLS), and differences and ratios between raw reflectance values for each possible pair of wavelengths (R[λ 1 ]-R[λ 2 ] and R[λ 1 ]:R[λ 2 ], respectively). Moreover, the combination of spectral and spatial domains was tested. Excellent results were obtained using the iPLS algorithm. However, features from both datasets of raw reflectance differences and ratios represent suitable alternatives for development of low-complex prediction models. Finally, the dry basis moisture content was high accurately predicted by combining spectral data (i.e. R[511 nm]-R[994 nm]) and spatial domain (i.e. relative area shrinkage of slice). Modelling the data acquired during drying through hyperspectral imaging can provide useful information concerning the chemical and physicochemical changes of the product. With all this information, the proposed approach lays the foundations for a more efficient smart dryer that can be designed and its process optimized for drying of potato slices. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Monitoring of air pollution levels related to Charilaos Trikoupis Bridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarigiannis, D A; Handakas, E J; Kermenidou, M; Zarkadas, I; Gotti, A; Charisiadis, P; Makris, K; Manousakas, M; Eleftheriadis, K; Karakitsios, S P

    2017-12-31

    Charilaos Trikoupis bridge is the longest cable bridge in Europe that connects Western Greece with the rest of the country. In this study, six air pollution monitoring campaigns (including major regulated air pollutants) were carried out from 2013 to 2015 at both sides of the bridge, located in the urban areas of Rio and Antirrio respectively. Pollution data were statistically analyzed and air quality was characterized using US and European air quality indices. From the overall campaign, it was found that air pollution levels were below the respective regulatory thresholds, but once at the site of Antirrio (26.4 and 52.2μg/m 3 for PM 2.5 and ΡΜ 10 , respectively) during the 2nd winter period. Daily average PM 10 and PM 2.5 levels from two monitoring sites were well correlated to gaseous pollutant (CO, NO, NO 2 , NO x and SO 2 ) levels, meteorological parameters and factor scores from Positive Matrix Factorization during the 3-year period. Moreover, the elemental composition of PM 10 and PM 2.5 was used for source apportionment. That analysis revealed that major emission sources were sulfates, mineral dust, biomass burning, sea salt, traffic and shipping emissions for PM 10 and PM 2.5 , for both Rio and Antirrio. Seasonal variation indicates that sulfates, mineral dust and traffic emissions increased during the warm season of the year, while biomass burning become the dominant during the cold season. Overall, the contribution of the Charilaos Trikoupis bridge to the vicinity air pollution is very low. This is the result of the relatively low daily traffic volume (~10,000 vehicles per day), the respective traffic fleet composition (~81% of the traffic fleet are private vehicles) and the speed limit (80km/h) which does not favor traffic emissions. In addition, the strong and frequent winds further contribute to the rapid dispersion of the emitted pollutants. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Mathematical modeling of convective air drying of quinoa-supplemented feed for laboratory rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Vega-Gálvez

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Drying kinetics of quinoa-supplemented feed for laboratory rats during processing at 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90ºC was studied and modeled in this work. Desorption isotherm was obtained at 60ºC giving a monolayer moisture content of 0.04 g water/g d.m. The experimental drying curves showed that drying process took place only in the falling rate period. Several thin-layer drying equations available in the literature were evaluated based on determination coefficient (r², sum squared errors (SSE and Chi-square (χ2 statisticals. In comparison to the experimental moisture values, the values estimated with the Logarithmic model gave the best fit quality (r² >0.994, SSE < 0.00015 and χ2 < 0.00018, showing this equation could predict very accurately the drying time of rat feed under the operative conditions applied.

  17. Air-soil exchange of PCBs: levels and temporal variations at two sites in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yolsal, Didem; Salihoglu, Güray; Tasdemir, Yücel

    2014-03-01

    Seasonal distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) at the air-soil intersection was determined for two regions: one with urban characteristics where traffic is dense (BUTAL) and the other representing the coastal zone (Mudanya). Fifty-one air and soil samples were simultaneously collected. Total PCB (Σ82 PCB) levels in the soil samples collected during a 1-year period ranged between 105 and 7,060 pg/g dry matter (dm) (BUTAL) and 110 and 2,320 pg/g dm (Mudanya). Total PCB levels in the gaseous phase were measured to be between 100 and 910 pg/m(3) (BUTAL) and 75 and 1,025 pg/m(3) (Mudanya). Variations in the concentrations were observed depending on the season. Though the PCB concentrations measured in the atmospheres of both regions in the summer months were high, they were found to be lower in winter. However, while soil PCB levels were measured to be high at BUTAL during summer months, they were found to be high during winter months in Mudanya. The direction and amount of the PCB movement were determined by calculating the gaseous phase change fluxes at air-soil intersection. While a general PCB movement from soil to air was found for BUTAL, the PCB movement from air to soil was calculated for the Mudanya region in most of the sampling events. During the warmer seasons PCB movement towards the atmosphere was observed due to evaporation from the soil. With decreases in the temperature, both decreases in the number of PCB congeners occurring in the air and a change in the direction of some congeners were observed, possibly caused by deposition from the atmosphere to the soil. 3-CB and 4-CB congeners were found to be dominant in the atmosphere, and 4-, 5-, and 6-CBs were found to dominate in the surface soils.

  18. Higher fuel prices are associated with lower air pollution levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Adrian G; Knibbs, Luke D

    2014-05-01

    Air pollution is a persistent problem in urban areas, and traffic emissions are a major cause of poor air quality. Policies to curb pollution levels often involve raising the price of using private vehicles, for example, congestion charges. We were interested in whether higher fuel prices were associated with decreased air pollution levels. We examined an association between diesel and petrol prices and four traffic-related pollutants in Brisbane from 2010 to 2013. We used a regression model and examined pollution levels up to 16 days after the price change. Higher diesel prices were associated with statistically significant short-term reductions in carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides. Changes in petrol prices had no impact on air pollution. Raising diesel taxes in Australia could be justified as a public health measure. As raising taxes is politically unpopular, an alternative political approach would be to remove schemes that put a downward pressure on fuel prices, such as industry subsidies and shopping vouchers that give fuel discounts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. AIRS/Aqua Level 1C Infrared (IR) resampled and corrected radiances V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AIRS Infrared (IR) level 1C data set contains AIRS infrared calibrated and geolocated radiances in W/m2/micron/ster. This data set is generated from AIRS level...

  20. Elaboration of amniotic membrane dressing dried by air and irradiated - Peruvian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamero, E.C.; Perez Caballero, N.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to prepare dressings from the amniotic membrane to be used in cases of skin damage principally due to superficial and intermediate second-degree burns. The amnion is a transparent membrane that lines the chorion. It is resistant and rich in collagen. Due to these characteristics it can be well used as biological dressing as it diminishes the loss of fluids, electrolytes and proteins, it also protects the growing epithelium and adheres well to the surface of the wound, improves mobility of the patient, diminishing pain and stimulating neovascularization. The ISN-IPEN Tissue Bank promoted by IAEA has processed amniotic membrane since July 1997. Initially dressings were prepared using antibiotics, after IAEA training at the MINT of Malaysia, it is processed dried by air, lyophylized and in both presentations, sterilized by gamma-rays. Amniotic membranes are procured from Lima Maternity. Tissues must comply with VDRL, HIV, Hepatitis B and C exclusion tests. The process is held in a laminar flow hood and amnion already separated from the chorion is washed with sterile distilled water, a solution of 0.05% sodium hypochlorite, and normal saline. Then it is cut into appropriate sizes and double packed in PE films. The dressings are then carried to the Peruvian Institute of Nuclear Energy for irradiation, depending on the number of samples either irradiated with gamma-rays at the Gammacell 220 or at the Irradiation Facility located in Santa Anita. The delivered dose is 25 kGy. The product is only released if it complies with the end product quality controls. Meanwhile, microbiological tests are carried out during all the processing stages, in order to monitor the microbial load during production. In conclusion we can state that dressings prepared as above mentioned have the following advantages: not complicated preparation; reliable and safe for clinical use; diminish infection rates and days spent in the hospital; easy to storage; and can be

  1. Three air quality studies: Great Lakes ozone formation and nitrogen dry deposition; and Tucson aerosol chemical characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Theresa

    (arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead, manganese, and nickel) in the southern Tucson metropolitan area. A Tucson company that uses beryllium oxide to manufacture thermally conductive ceramics has prompted strong citizen concern. This study found that the study area has good air quality with respect to PM10 and metals, with ambient concentrations meeting US Environmental Protection Agency and World Health Organization standards. Beryllium was detected only once (during a dust storm) and was ascribed to naturally-occurring beryllium in the suspended soil. The third paper (to be submitted to the Journal of Great Lakes Research) studies nitrogen dry deposition over Lake Michigan and Lake Superior. Numerous studies have shown that wet and dry deposition of nitrogen has contributed to the eutrophication of coastal waters and declining productivity of marine fisheries. Nitrogen dry deposition over the Great Lakes themselves, as opposed to the shorelines, has not been documented in the peer-reviewed literature. This paper calculates nitrogen dry deposition over Lake Michigan and Lake Superior, using aircraft measurements from the LADCO Aircraft Study, and finds that over-water, nitrogen dry deposition is a significant source of nitrogen to Lake Michigan and Lake Superior.

  2. Kinetics, mass transport characteristics, and structural changes during air-drying of purple yam (Dioscorea Alata L.) at different process conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vera, Flordeliza C.; Comaling, Leif Anthony B.; Lao, Iya Ray Alyanna M.; Caparanga, Alvin R.; Sauli, Zaliman

    2017-11-01

    This experiment was designed to follow the 2k factorial design to study the effects of the three drying parameters on the drying characteristics and effective moisture diffusivity and to fit each run performed on the best thin-layer drying kinetics model. Raw purple yam samples were pre-treated and undergone the designed drying procedures at which the weight of the samples were recorded every minute until such time that the sample weights become constant. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) is utilized for qualitative analysis of the dried samples. The number of pores per unit area and the overall aesthetics of the surface of the dried samples were compared also using SEM. Considering the qualitative analysis conducted on the samples from the images of SEM, dried samples from run 2 has the most desirable conditions such as high temperature and low air velocity for drying because the samples from this run have large pore diameters with minimal cell breakages.

  3. Modelling the Drying Characteristics and Kinetics of Hot Air-Drying of Unblanched Whole Red Pepper and Blanched Bitter Leaf Slices

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel Enahoro Agarry

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the drying characteristics and kinetics of red pepper and bitter leaf under the influence of different drying temperatures. The drying experiments were carried out at dry bulb temperature of 35, 45, 55 and 75oC, respectively in an oven dryer. The results showed that as drying temperature increased, drying rate also increased and the drying time decreased. It was observed that un-sliced red pepper and sliced bitter leaf would dry within 2.5-12 h a...

  4. RUMINAL DRY MATTER DEGRADABILITY OF HIGH CONCENTRATE DIETS WITH INCREASING LEVELS OF CALCIUM SOAPS OF TALLOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Salinas-Chavira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study measured the in situ digestibility and ruminal degradability of dry matter of rations with different levels of calcium soaps of tallow (CST. The samples of the four rations with CST at levels of 0% (T1, 1.5% (T2, 3.0% (T3 or 4.5% (T4 were incubated in the rumen of a fistulated yearling steer. The nylon bag technique was used to determine the in situ digestibility and ruminal dry matter degradability. A completely randomized design was used, with 4 treatment diets and 4 repetitions. Rapidly-soluble fraction (a or in situ digestibility of DM at 0 h of incubation was higher in T1 than T3 (P0.05. Potential (a+b degradability was similar (P>0.05 between treatments. Effective degradation modeled at low ruminal turnover (1%/h was lower in T4 than T1 (P0.05. In conclusion, CST in the ration influenced ruminal fermentation during the first hours of incubation. However, effective degradability at medium and high ruminal turnover was not affected by CST level in diets.

  5. Degradation of Phosphorene in Air: Understanding at Atomic Level

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Gaoxue; Slough, William J.; Pandey, Ravindra; Karna, Shashi P.

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorene is a promising two dimensional (2D) material with a direct band gap, high carrier mobility, and anisotropic electronic properties. Phosphorene-based electronic devices, however, are found to degrade upon exposure to air. In this paper, we provide an atomic level understanding of stability of phosphorene in terms of its interaction with O2 and H2O. The results based on density functional theory together with first principles molecular dynamics calculations show that O2 could sponta...

  6. Relieving Dry Mouth: Varying Levels of pH Found in Bottled Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Bailey Jean; Spencer, Angela; Haywood, Van; Konchady, Gayathri

    2017-07-01

    It is estimated that 30% of people older than 60 years suffer from hyposalivation or dry mouth. Drinking water frequently has been recommended as a safe, non-pharmacologic way to combat hyposalivation. The saliva in patients with dry mouth is acidic. Beverages consumed daily may have an erosive potential on teeth. The pH and the mineral content of the beverage determine its erosive potential. An acidic beverage, therefore, may have harmful effects on mineralized tooth structures, causing erosion of enamel, dentin, and cementum. Because bottled water is both convenient and easily available, the authors tested the pH of eight common brands of bottled water. (One brand included two different bottle types, for a total of nine bottled waters tested.) To standardize the pH electrode, pH buffers of 4.7 and 10 were used. The pH was measured using the Denver Instruments basic pH meter. Six recordings were used for each brand and then averaged to report the pH. Two of the bottled water samples tested were below the critical level of 5.2 pH to 5.5 pH, the level at which erosion of enamel occurs. Six of the samples tested were below the critical pH of 6.8, at which erosion of root dentin occurs. The authors conclude that both patients and clinicians incorrectly presume bottled water to be innocuous. Clinicians should be cognizant of the erosive potential of different brands of bottled water to both educate patients and to recommend water with neutral or alkaline pH for patients with symptoms of dry mouth to prevent further deterioration and demineralization of tooth structure.

  7. Effect of water activity and protective solutes on growth and subsequent survival to air-drying of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Claude P; Raymond, Yves; Simon, Jean-Paul

    2012-08-01

    Probiotic cultures of Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Bifidobacterium longum, Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus acidophilus were grown in media having water activities (a (w)) adjusted between 0.99 and 0.94 with NaCl or with a mixture of glycerol and sucrose in order to find conditions of osmotic stress which would still allow for good growth. Cultures grown at a (w) = 0.96 or 0.99 were then recovered by centrifugation, added to a sucrose-phosphate medium and air-dried. In some assays, a 2-h osmotic stress was applied to the cell concentrate prior to air-drying. Assays were also carried out where betaine, glutamate and proline (BGP) supplements were added as protective compounds to the growth or drying media. For most strains, evidence of osmotic stress and benefits of BGP supplementation on growth occurred at a (w) = 0.96. Growing the cells in complex media adjusted at a (w) = 0.96 did not enhance their subsequent survival to air-drying, but applying the 2-h osmotic stress did. Addition of the BGP supplements to the growth medium or in the 2-h stress medium did not enhance survival to air-drying. Furthermore, addition of BGP to a sucrose-phosphate drying medium reduced survival of the cultures to air-drying. This study provides preliminary data for producers of probiotics who wish to use air-drying in replacement of freeze-drying for the stabilization of cultures.

  8. AIRS/Aqua Level 3 Monthly CO2 in the free troposphere (AIRS+AMSU) V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the AIRS mid-tropospheric Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Level 3 Monthly Gridded Retrieval, from the AIRS and AMSU instruments on board of Aqua satellite. It is a...

  9. AIRS/Aqua Level 3 Monthly CO2 in the free troposphere (AIRS-only) V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the AIRS mid-tropospheric Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Level 3 Monthly Gridded Retrieval, from the AIRS instrument on board of Aqua satellite. It is a monthly...

  10. Biomassa microbiana em amostras de solos secadas ao ar e reumedecidas Microbial biomass in air dried and rewetted soil samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Samarão Gonçalves

    2002-05-01

    control for periods of incubation equal to 72 and 168 hours, respectively. For the majority of soil tested, zero time or 24 hours rewetting incubation period before BR incubation procedure gave higher respiration values than those of the control, and decreasing to values similar to those of the control for 72 and 168 hours of rewetting incubation period at 60% of the water holding capacity. In conclusion, the evaluation of SMB-C in short term air dried and rewetted soil samples is feasible according to proper moisture levels and periods of pre-incubation.

  11. Simultaneous Water Vapor and Dry Air Optical Path Length Measurements and Compensation with the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defrere, D.; Hinz, P.; Downey, E.; Boehm, M.; Danchi, W. C.; Durney, O.; Ertel, S.; Hill, J. M.; Hoffmann, W. F.; Mennesson, B.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer uses a near-infrared camera to measure the optical path length variations between the two AO-corrected apertures and provide high-angular resolution observations for all its science channels (1.5-13 microns). There is however a wavelength dependent component to the atmospheric turbulence, which can introduce optical path length errors when observing at a wavelength different from that of the fringe sensing camera. Water vapor in particular is highly dispersive and its effect must be taken into account for high-precision infrared interferometric observations as described previously for VLTI/MIDI or the Keck Interferometer Nuller. In this paper, we describe the new sensing approach that has been developed at the LBT to measure and monitor the optical path length fluctuations due to dry air and water vapor separately. After reviewing the current performance of the system for dry air seeing compensation, we present simultaneous H-, K-, and N-band observations that illustrate the feasibility of our feed forward approach to stabilize the path length fluctuations seen by the LBTI nuller uses a near-infrared camera to measure the optical path length variations between the two AO-corrected apertures and provide high-angular resolution observations for all its science channels (1.5-13 microns). There is however a wavelength dependent component to the atmospheric turbulence, which can introduce optical path length errors when observing at a wavelength different from that of the fringe sensing camera. Water vapor in particular is highly dispersive and its effect must be taken into account for high-precision infrared interferometric observations as described previously for VLTI MIDI or the Keck Interferometer Nuller. In this paper, we describe the new sensing approach that has been developed at the LBT to measure and monitor the optical path length fluctuations due to dry air and water vapor separately. After reviewing the current

  12. Dry/wet performance of a plate-fin air-cooled heat exchanger with continuous corrugated fins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauser, S.G.; Kreid, D.K.; Johnson, B.M.

    1981-01-01

    The performance and operating characteristics of a plate-fin heat exchanger in dry/wet or deluge operations was experimentally determined. Development of the deluge heat/mass transfer model continued. The experiments were conducted in a specially-designed wind tunnel at the PNL. Air that was first heated and humidified to specified conditions was circulated at a controlled rate through a 2 ft x 6 ft heat exchanger module. The heat exchanger used in the tests was a wavy surface, plate fin on tube configuration. Hot water was circulated through the tubes at high flow rates to maintain an essentially isothermal condition on the tube side. Deionized water sprayed on the top of the vertically oriented plate fins was collected at the bottom of the core and recirculated. Instrumentation was provided for measurement of flow rates and thermodynamic conditions in the air, in the core circulation water, and in the deluge water. Measurements of the air side pressure drop and heat rejection rate were made as a function of air flow rate, air inlet temperature and humidity, deluge water flow rate, and the core inclination from the vertical. An overall heat transfer coefficient and an effective deluge film convective coefficient was determined. The deluge model, for predicting heat transfer from a wet finned heat exchanger was further developed and refined, and a major extension of the model was formulated that permits simultaneous calculation of both the heat transfer and evaporation rates from the wetted surface. The experiments showed an increase in the heat rejection rate due to wetting, accompanied by a proportional increase in the air side pressure drop. For operation at the same air side pressure drop, the enhancement ratio Q/sub w//Q/sub d/ varied between 2 and 5 for the conditions tested. Thus, the potential enhancement of heat transfer due to wetting can be substantial

  13. Degradation of phosphorene in air: understanding at atomic level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Gaoxue; Slough, William J; Pandey, Ravindra; Karna, Shashi P

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorene is a promising two-dimensional (2D) material with a direct band gap, high carrier mobility, and anisotropic electronic properties. Phosphorene-based electronic devices, however, are found to degrade upon exposure to air. In this paper, we provide an atomic level understanding of the stability of phosphorene in terms of its interaction with O 2 and H 2 O. The results based on density functional theory together with first principles molecular dynamics calculations show that O 2 could the spontaneously dissociate on phosphorene at room temperature. H 2 O will not strongly interact with pristine phosphorene, however, an exothermic reaction could occur if phosphorene is first oxidized. The pathway of oxidation first, followed by exothermic reaction with water is the most likely route for the chemical degradation of phosphorene-based devices in air. (paper)

  14. UNDERGROUND AIR DUCT TO CONTROL RISING MOISTURE IN HISTORIC BUILDINGS: IMPROVED DESIGN AND ITS DRYING EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Pazderka

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The underground air ducts along peripheral walls of a building are a remediation method, which principle is to enable an air flow along the moist building structure’s surface to allow a sufficient evaporation of moisture from the structure. This measure reduces the water transport (rising moisture into the higher parts of the wall where the high water content in masonry is undesirable. Presently, underground air ducts are designed as masonry structures, which durability in contact with ground moisture is limited. The article describes a new design of an underground air duct, which is based on specially shaped concrete blocks (without wet processes, because the blocks are completely precast. The air duct from concrete blocks is situated completely below the ground surface (exterior or below the floor (interior. Thanks to this, the system is invisible and does not disturb the authentic look of rehabilitated historic buildings. The efficiency of the air duct technical solution was verified by the results of tests (based on the measured moisture values conducted on a laboratory model. The experimental study showed that the moisture in the masonry equipped with the presented underground air duct had decreased considerably compared to the reference sample, namely by 43 % on average. The experimental study was numerically validated through numerical simulations performed with the program WUFI 2D.

  15. High accuracy measurements of dry mole fractions of carbon dioxide and methane in humid air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. W. Rella

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditional techniques for measuring the mole fractions of greenhouse gases in the well-mixed atmosphere have required dry sample gas streams (dew point inter-laboratory compatibility goals (WMO, 2011a without drying the sample gas. In this paper, we present laboratory methodology for empirically deriving the water vapour correction factors, and we summarise a series of in-situ validation experiments comparing the measurements in humid gas streams to well-characterised dry-gas measurements. By using the manufacturer-supplied correction factors, the dry-mole fraction measurements have been demonstrated to be well within the GAW compatibility goals up to a water vapour concentration of at least 1%. By determining the correction factors for individual instruments once at the start of life, this water vapour concentration range can be extended to at least 2% over the life of the instrument, and if the correction factors are determined periodically over time, the evidence suggests that this range can be extended up to and even above 4% water vapour concentrations.

  16. Forced Hot Air to Dry Feces and Kill Bacteria on Transport Cage Flooring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to fecal shedding from positive birds, broiler transport cages can be contaminated with human bacterial pathogens leading to cross contamination of previously negative broilers during live haul. Earlier work has shown that drying soiled or washed cages for 24 to 48 hours can lower or even elimi...

  17. Estimating air drying times of small-diameter ponderosa pine and Douglas-fir logs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    William T. Simpson; Xiping. Wang

    2003-01-01

    Because dense stands of softwood trees are causing forest health problems in the western United States, new ways to use this material need to be found. One option is to use this material as logs rather than sawing it into lumber. For many applications, logs require some degree of drying. Even though these logs may be considered small diameter, they are large compared...

  18. Foliar loading and metabolic assimilation of dry deposited nitric acid air pollutants by trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamela E. Padgett; Hillary Cook; Andrzej Bytnerowicz; Robert L. Heath

    2009-01-01

    Dry deposition of nitric acid vapor (HNO(3)) is a major contributor to eutrophication of natural ecosystems. Although soil fertilization by nitrogen deposition is considered to be the primary pathway for changes in plant nutrient status and shifts in ecological structure, the aerial portion of plants offer many times the surface area in which to...

  19. Inhibition of water uptake after dry storage of cut flowers: Role of aspired air and wound-induced processes in Chrysanthemum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeteren, van U.; Arévalo-Galarza, L.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the relative role of aspired air and a plant-induced reaction in the vascular occlusion of dry-stored cv. Cassa chrysanthemum flowers (Chrysanthemum × morifolium Ramat). Measurements of hydraulic capacity showed that the air that is aspired directly after cutting (into the opened

  20. Low-level dry active waste management planning for Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, C.N.; Feizollani, F.; Jarboe, Th.B.

    1984-01-01

    To offset the rising cost of low-level radioactive waste disposal and to provide contingency measures for disposal space unavailability after January 1, 1986, Baltimore Gas and Electric (BG and E) has undertake efforts to establish a long-term waste management program. This plan, which was developed after detailed study of a number of options, consists of four elements: management of dry active wastes; implementation of 10CFR61 requirements; storage of process wastes; and enhancement of liquid/solid waste systems and equipment performance. Each element was scheduled for implementation in accordance with an established set of priorities. Accordingly, detailed engineering for implementation of the first two elements was initiated in December of 1982. This paper focuses on BGandE's experience in implementation of the first element o the program, i.e., the management of dry active waste (DAW). DAW is managed by providing a new buildin dedicated to its handling, processing, volume-reduction, and storage. This building, which is equipped with state-of-the-art decontamination and processing techniques, allows for implementation of waste minimization and for interim storage of DAW in a safe and cost effective manner

  1. Image analysis of epicuticular damage to foliage caused by dry deposition of the air pollutant nitric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padgett, Pamela E; Parry, Sally D; Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Heath, Robert L

    2009-01-01

    Nitric acid vapor is produced by the same photochemical processes that produce ozone. In the laboratory, concentrated nitric acid is a strong acid and a powerful oxidant. In the environment, where the concentrations are much lower, it is an innocuous source of plant nitrogen. As an air pollutant, which mode of action does dry deposition of nitric acid follow? We investigated the effects of dry deposition of nitric acid on the foliage of four tree species native to the western United States. A novel controlled environment, fumigation system enabled a four-week exposure at concentrations consistent with ambient diurnal patterns. Scanning electron microscopy and automated image analysis revealed changes in the epicuticular wax layer during fumigation. Exposure to nitric acid resulted in a reproducible suite of damage symptoms that increased with increasing dose. Each tree species tested exhibited a unique set of damage features, including cracks, lesions, and conformation changes to epicuticular crystallite structures. Dry deposition of atmospheric nitric acid caused substantial perturbation to the epicuticular surface of all four tree species investigated, consistent with the chemical oxidation of epicuticular waxes. Automated image analysis eliminated many biases that can trouble microscopy studies. Trade names and commercial enterprises or products are mentioned solely for information. No endorsements by the U.S. Department of Agriculture are implied.

  2. Ozone generation by negative direct current corona discharges in dry air fed coaxial wire-cylinder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yehia, Ashraf; Mizuno, Akira

    2013-01-01

    An analytical study was made in this paper for calculating the ozone generation by negative dc corona discharges. The corona discharges were formed in a coaxial wire-cylinder reactor. The reactor was fed by dry air flowing with constant rates at atmospheric pressure and room temperature, and stressed by a negative dc voltage. The current-voltage characteristics of the negative dc corona discharges formed inside the reactor were measured in parallel with concentration of the generated ozone under different operating conditions. An empirical equation was derived from the experimental results for calculating the ozone concentration generated inside the reactor. The results, that have been recalculated by using the derived equation, have agreed with the experimental results over the whole range of the investigated parameters, except in the saturation range for the ozone concentration. Therefore, the derived equation represents a suitable criterion for expecting the ozone concentration generated by negative dc corona discharges in dry air fed coaxial wire-cylinder reactors under any operating conditions in range of the investigated parameters.

  3. Air exposure induced characteristics of dry eye in conjunctival tissue culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Lin

    Full Text Available There are several animal models illustrating dry eye pathophysiology. Current study would like to establish an ex vivo tissue culture model for characterizing dry eye. Human conjunctival explants were cultured under airlift or submerged conditions for up to 2 weeks, and only airlifted conjunctival cultures underwent increased epithelial stratification. Starting on day 4, the suprabasal cells displayed decreased K19 expression whereas K10 keratin became evident in airlift group. Pax6 nuclear expression attenuated already at 2 days, while its perinuclear and cytoplasmic expression gradually increased. MUC5AC and MUC19 expression dramatically decreased whereas the full thickness MUC4 and MUC16 expression pattern disappeared soon after initiating the airlift condition. Real time PCR showed K16, K10 and MUC16 gene up-regulated while K19, MUC5AC, MUC19 and MUC4 down-regulated on day 8 and day 14. On day 2 was the appearance of apoptotic epithelial and stromal cells appeared. The Wnt signaling pathway was transiently activated from day 2 to day 10. The inflammatory mediators IL-1β, TNF-α, and MMP-9 were detected in the conditioned media after 6 to 8 days. In conclusion, airlifted conjunctival tissue cultures demonstrated Wnt signaling pathway activation, coupled with squamous metaplasia, mucin pattern alteration, apoptosis and upregulation of proinflammatory cytokine expression. These changes mimic the pathohistological alterations described in dry eye. This correspondence suggests that insight into the pathophysiology of dry eye may be aided through the use of airlifted conjunctival tissue cultures.

  4. Dry storage facility for spent fuel or high-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geoffroy, J.; Dobremelle, M.; Fabre, J.C.; Bonnet, C.

    1989-01-01

    The French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) has specific irradiated fuels which, due to their properties, cannot be reprocessed directly in existing industrial facilities. Accordingly, for the spent fuels from the EL4 and OSIRIS power plants, the CEA has been faced with the problem of selecting a process that will allow the storage of these materials under satisfactory technical and economic conditions. The authors discuss how three conditions must be satisfied to store irradiated fuels releasing heat: containment of radioactive materials, biological shielding, and thermal cooling to guarantee an acceptable temperature- level throughout. In view of the need for an interim storage facility using a simple cooling process requiring only minimal maintenance and monitoring, dry storage in a concrete vault cooled by natural convection was selected. This choice was made within the framework of a research and development program in which theoretical heat transfer investigations and mock-up tests confirmed the feasibility of cooling by natural convection

  5. Levels of multiple supplements or nitrogen salt for beef heifers in pasture during the dry season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ériton Egidio Lisboa Valente

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed performance, microbial protein synthesis, intake and digestibility of nutrients by beef heifers receiving levels of multiple supplements or nitrogen salt, in a self-controlled intake, on pasture, during the dry season. Thirty-five beef heifers, from 6 to 9 months of age and average initial body weight of 203.4 + 4.5 kg, were used. Study factors were: control - mineral mixture; nitrogen salt - 50% of urea + mineral mixture, at proportion of 1:1, and 50% of corn (75% of crude protein; levels of multiple supplementation - multiple supplements with different percentages of intake controller mixture (urea + mineral mixture, at the proportion of 1:1, corn and soybean meal (45% of crude protein. Supplement consumptions observed were: 115, 173, 572 and 1214 g/animal/day for animals fed on nitrogen salt, low, medium and high levels of multiple supplement, respectively. Supplemented animals had greater average daily gain, evidencing the positive linear effect of the levels of multiple supplementation on average daily gain. Overall, there were no significant differences between average daily gain of animals fed on multiple supplements or nitrogen salt. Supplementation increased the intake and digestibility of nutrients, except for digestibility of neutral detergent fiber, although the intake of digested neutral detergent fiber increased. Supplementation increased the production of microbial nitrogen as well as nitrogen losses in urine, although the quantity of nitrogen assimilated by bacteria, proportionally to intake, was higher. Supplementation improves nutritional parameters and weight gain.

  6. NT-ProBNP levels, water and sodium homeostasis in healthy men: effects of 7 days of dry immersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navasiolava, Nastassia M; Pajot, Aurelie; Gallois, Yves; Pastushkova, Ludmila Kh; Kulchitsky, Vladimir A; Gauquelin-Koch, Guillemette; Kozlovskaya, Inesa B; Heer, Martina; Hand, Olga; Larina, Irina M; Custaud, Marc-Antoine

    2011-09-01

    Immersion is a useful tool for studying fluid-volume homeostasis. Natriuretic peptides play a vital role in renal, humoral, and cardiovascular regulation under changing environmental conditions. We hypothesized that dry immersion would rapidly induce a new steady state for water and sodium metabolism, and that serum NT-proBNP levels, a proxy measure for brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), would decrease during long-term dry immersion and increase during recovery. Eight healthy young men were studied before, during, and after 7 days of dry immersion. Body weight, water balance, and plasma volume changes were evaluated. Plasma and serum samples were analyzed for active renin, NT-proBNP, aldosterone, electrolytes, osmolality, total protein, and creatinine. Urine samples were analyzed to determine levels of electrolytes, osmolality, creatinine, and free cortisol. A stand test was performed before and after dry immersion to evaluate cardiovascular deconditioning. Long-term dry immersion induced acute changes in water and sodium homeostasis on day 1, followed by a new steady state. Plasma volume decreased significantly during dry immersion. The serum levels of NT-proBNP increased significantly in recovery (10 ± 3 ng/L before dry immersion vs. 26 ± 5 ng/L on the fourth recovery day). Heart rate in the standing position was significantly greater after immersion. Results suggest that chronic dry immersion rapidly induced a new level of water-electrolyte homeostasis. The increase in NT-proBNP levels during the recovery period may be related to greater cardiac work and might reflect the degree of cardiovascular deconditioning.

  7. HVAC--the importance of clean intake section and dry air filter in cold climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanssen, S O

    2004-01-01

    HVAC systems, if properly designed, installed, operated and maintained, will improve thermal conditions and air quality indoors. However, the success strongly depends on the design of the system and the quality of the components we use in our HVAC installations. Regrettably, several investigations have revealed that many HVAC installations have a lot of operational and maintenance problems, especially related to moisture, rain and snow entrainment. In short, it seems that too little attention is placed on the design of the intake section, despite the fact that there exists a large number of national and international guidelines and recommendations. This is a serious problem because the air intake is the initial component of the ventilation plant and as such the first line of defense against debris and other outdoor air pollutants. Unfortunately, the design is often an argued compromise between the architect, the civil engineer and the HVAC engineer. In the future, the technical, hygienic and microbiological feature of air intakes must be better ensured in order to avoid the air intake becoming a risk component as regards contamination and indoor air quality. Further, it seems that the magnitude of the problem is not well known, or recognized, by the building designers, engineers and professionals involved in the construction and operation of buildings. This fact needs to be addressed more seriously, because obviously there is a big difference between the idealistic architectonic design, engineering intentions and the real life situation. Several practical recommendations for design and operation of HVAC systems are presented. Following the recommendations will result in less pollution from the HVAC-system and increased indoor environmental quality.

  8. Modelling the Drying Characteristics and Kinetics of Hot Air-Drying of Unblanched Whole Red Pepper and Blanched Bitter Leaf Slices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Enahoro Agarry

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the drying characteristics and kinetics of red pepper and bitter leaf under the influence of different drying temperatures. The drying experiments were carried out at dry bulb temperature of 35, 45, 55 and 75oC, respectively in an oven dryer. The results showed that as drying temperature increased, drying rate also increased and the drying time decreased. It was observed that un-sliced red pepper and sliced bitter leaf would dry within 2.5-12 h and 1.67-7 h, respectively at temperature ranging from 75 to 35oC. The drying of red pepper and bitter leaf was both in the constant and falling rate period. Four semi-empirical mathematical drying models (Newton, Page, Henderson and Pabis, and Logarithmic models were fitted to the experimental drying curves. The models were compared using the coefficient of determination (R^2 and the root mean square error (RMSE. The Page model has shown a better fit to the experimental drying data of red pepper and bitter leaf, respectively as relatively compared to other tested models. Moisture transport during drying was described by the application of Fick’s diffusion model and the effective moisture diffusivity was estimated. The value ranges from 15.69 to 84.79 × 10-9 m2/s and 0.294 to 1.263 × 10-9 m2/s for red pepper and bitter leaf, respectively. The Arrhenius-type relationship describes the temperature dependence of effective moisture diffusivity and was determined to be 37.11 kJ/mol and 32.86 kJ/mol for red pepper and bitter leaf, respectively. A correlation between the drying time and the heat transfer area was also developed.

  9. Mathematical models and qualities of shredded Thai-style instant rice under a combined gas-fired infrared and air convection drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachaisin, Mali; Teeta, Suminya; Deejing, Konlayut; Pharanat, Wanida

    2017-09-01

    Instant food is a product produced for convenience for consumer. Qualities are an important attribute of food materials reflecting consumer acceptance. The most problem of instant rice is casehardening during drying process resulted in the longer rehydration time. The objective of this research was to study the qualities of shredded Thai-style instant rice under a combined gas-fired infrared and air convection drying. Additionally, the mathematical models for gas-fired infrared assisted thin-layer drying of shredded Thai-style rice for traditional was investigated. The thin-layer drying of shredded Thai-style rice was carried out under gas-fired infrared intensities of 1000W/m2, air temperatures of 70°C and air velocities of 1 m/s. The drying occurred in the falling rate of drying period. The Page model was found to satisfactorily describe the drying behavior of shredded Thai-style rice, providing the highest R2 (0.997) and the lowest MBE and RMSE (0.01 and 0.18) respectively. A 9 point hedonic test showed in softness and color, but odor and overall acceptance were very similar.

  10. Fabrication of Ni stamp with high aspect ratio, two-leveled, cylindrical microstructures using dry etching and electroplating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Ritika Singh; Keller, Stephan Sylvest; Hansen, Ole

    2015-01-01

    obtained by defining a reservoir and a separating trench with different depths of 85 and 125 μm, respectively, in a single embossing step. The fabrication of the required two leveled stamp is done using a modified DEEMO (dry etching, electroplating and molding) process. Dry etching using the Bosch process...... and electroplating are optimized to obtain a stamp with smooth stamp surfaces and a positive sidewall profile. Using this stamp, hot embossing is performed successfully with excellent yield and high replication fidelity....

  11. Rate of Decomposition of Organic Matter in Soil as Influenced by Repeated Air Drying-Rewetting and Repeated Additions of Organic Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lasse Holst

    1974-01-01

    Repeated air drying and rewetting of three soils followed by incubation at 20°C resulted in an increase in the rate of decomposition of a fraction of 14C labeled organic matter in the soils. The labeled organic matter originated from labeled glucose, cellulose and straw, respectively, metabolized...... of the treatment was least in the soil which had been incubated with the labeled material for the longest time. Additions of unlabeled, decomposable organic material also increased the rate of decomposition of the labeled organic matter. The evolution of labeled CO2 during the 1st month of incubation after...... addition was in some cases 4–10 times larger than the evolution from the controls. During the continued incubation the evolution decreased almost to the level of the controls, indicating that the effect was related to the increased biological activity in the soils during decomposition of the added material...

  12. Salivary cotinine levels as a biomarker for green tobacco sickness in dry tobacco production among Thai traditional tobacco farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleeon, Thanusin; Siriwong, Wattasit; Maldonado-Pérez, Héctor Luis; Robson, Mark Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Dry Thai traditional tobacco (Nicotiana Tabacum L.) production involves a unique process: (a) picking tobacco leaves, (b) curing tobacco leaves, (c) removing stems of tobacco leaves, cutting leaves and putting on a bamboo rack, (d) drying in the sun, reversing a rack, spraying a tobacco extract to adjust the tobacco's color, storing dried tobacco and packaging. These processes may lead to adverse health effects caused by dermal absorption of nicotine such as Green Tobacco Sickness (GTS). The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between GTS resulting from dry Thai traditional tobacco production and salivary cotinine levels among Thai traditional tobacco farmers in Nan Province, Thailand. A prospective cohort study was conducted with 20 tobacco farmers and 20 non-tobacco farmers in Praputtabath Sub-District and Phatow Sub-District. The participants were randomly selected and interviewed using in person questionnaires with bi-weekly follow-up for 14 weeks. During each contact, the cotinine concentration was measured by NicAlert(TM) Saliva strip tests (NCTS). Descriptive statistics and Spearman's correlation (Spearman's rho) was used to examine the relationship between the variables at both 0.01 and 0.05 significant probability levels. This study indicated that GTS from dry tobacco production has the potential to be considered a common occupational disease. This study demonstrated the usefulness of salivary cotinine level measurements by NCTS. The levels were well correlated with farmers who were employed in the dry Thai tobacco production industry. Salivary cotinine levels were also significantly correlated with the prevalence of GTS in the group of tobacco farmers at any given time within a crop season. However, the production process of dry Thai traditional tobacco is different from that evaluated in our previous studies where GTS and salivary cotinine level were correlated in workers working in humid conditions. The long-term effects of such exposure

  13. Comparison of Mucin Levels at the Ocular Surface of Postmenopausal Women With and Without a History of Dry Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gipson, Ilene K.; Spurr-Michaud, Sandra J.; Senchyna, Michelle; Ritter, Robert; Schaumberg, Debra

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Determine 1) if levels of the glycocalyx membrane mucins, MUC1 and MUC16, and the secreted goblet cell mucin MUC5AC are altered in conjunctival cells and tears of postmenopausal women presenting with a history of non-Sjögren's dry eye, and 2) if mucin levels correlate with dry eye clinical diagnostic data. Methods Eighty-four postmenopausal women with a history of non-Sjögren's dry eye and 30 normal subjects were recruited for this study. Impression cytology samples were collected for mucin mRNA and protein analysis. Tears were collected for mucin protein assay. qPCR, western blot, and ELISA assays were used to quantitate MUC1, MUC16 and MUC5AC levels. Results Postmenopausal women with a history of dry eye displayed significantly increased MUC1 mRNA expression and cellular protein compared to normal subjects (Pdry eye patients with a history of dry eye may be a compensatory response to irritation and inflammation associated with the disease. Understanding the pattern of mucin expression associated with dry eye pathology may clarify factors involved in the progression of the disease and enhance the development of targeted therapies. PMID:22089171

  14. Evaluation of energy consumption in different drying methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motevali, Ali; Minaei, Saeid; Khoshtagaza, Mohammad Hadi [Department of Agricultural Machinery Engineering, Agricultural Faculty, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran 14115-111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    This study was conducted to evaluate energy consumption in various drying systems including hot-air convection, use of microwave pretreatment with convection dryer, microwave drying, vacuum drying and infrared drying. Tests were conducted using pomegranate arils under various experimental conditions as follows. In convection dryer at six temperature levels (45, 50, 55, 60, 65 and 70 C) and three air velocity levels (0.5, 1 and 1.5 m/s) at three pretreatments of control, 100 W microwave pretreatment for 20 min and 200 W microwave pretreatment for 10 min. Experiments in the microwave dryer were done at three power levels of 100, 200 and 300 W and in vacuum dryer at five temperature levels (50, 60, 70, 80, and 90 C) under 250 kPa pressure. For infrared drying, there were four air velocity levels (0.3, 0.5, 0.7 and 1 m/s) and three illumination levels (0.22, 0.31 and 0.49 W/cm{sup 2}). Experimental results showed that minimum and maximum energy consumption in pomegranate drying were associated with microwave and vacuum dryers, respectively. The use of microwave pretreatment in drying pomegranate arils in hot air dryer decreased drying time and energy consumption in comparison with pure convection drying. In infrared drying, it was found that drying time increased with air velocity which resulted in increased energy consumption. (author)

  15. Evaluation of energy consumption in different drying methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motevali, Ali; Minaei, Saeid; Khoshtagaza, Mohammad Hadi

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate energy consumption in various drying systems including hot-air convection, use of microwave pretreatment with convection dryer, microwave drying, vacuum drying and infrared drying. Tests were conducted using pomegranate arils under various experimental conditions as follows. In convection dryer at six temperature levels (45, 50, 55, 60, 65 and 70 o C) and three air velocity levels (0.5, 1 and 1.5 m/s) at three pretreatments of control, 100 W microwave pretreatment for 20 min and 200 W microwave pretreatment for 10 min. Experiments in the microwave dryer were done at three power levels of 100, 200 and 300 W and in vacuum dryer at five temperature levels (50, 60, 70, 80, and 90 o C) under 250 kPa pressure. For infrared drying, there were four air velocity levels (0.3, 0.5, 0.7 and 1 m/s) and three illumination levels (0.22, 0.31 and 0.49 W/cm 2 ). Experimental results showed that minimum and maximum energy consumption in pomegranate drying were associated with microwave and vacuum dryers, respectively. The use of microwave pretreatment in drying pomegranate arils in hot air dryer decreased drying time and energy consumption in comparison with pure convection drying. In infrared drying, it was found that drying time increased with air velocity which resulted in increased energy consumption.

  16. High-light damage in air-dry thalli of the old forest lichen Lobaria pulmonaria - interactions of irradiance, exposure duration and high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauslaa, Y.; Solhaug, K.A.

    1999-01-01

    High-light damage in air-dry thalli of Lobaria pulmonaria were measured in the laboratory as reductions in maximal PSII efficiency (FV/FM) after a 48 h recovery in a hydrated state at low light to account for permanent damage. Thalli treated with the lowest light dose (90 mol photons m −2 ) recovered normal FV/FM-values with increasing irradiances (400–700 nm) up to 1000 µmol photons m −2 s −1 . Doubling this dose lowered the threshold level for damage from 1000 to 320 µmol photons m −2 s −1 , and reduced FV/FM at 1000 µmol photons m −2 s −1 by more than 50%. A second doubling of the dose to 360 mol photons m −2 caused damage at 200 µmol photons m −2 s −1 , and a nearly complete cessation of PSII efficiency occurred at 1000 µmol photons m −2 s −1 . No reciprocity of irradiance and duration of illumination for PSII function was found. The measured time-dependent decrease in FV/FM was remarkably similar for the naturally coupled, but artificially separated, light and temperature factors. Therefore, the damage of high light on desiccated L. pulmonaria seemed to be an additive effect of high irradiance and high temperatures. Air-dry thalli were highly heat susceptible, being affected already at temperatures around 40 °C. Logging operations in forests are likely to raise the solar radiation at remaining lichen sites to destructive levels. (author)

  17. Performance of artificially defected LWR fuel rods in an unlimited air dry storage atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einziger, R.E.; Knecht, R.L.; Cantley, D.A.; Cook, J.A.

    1983-09-01

    Thus far the tests are inconclusive as to whether breached LWR fuel can be stored at 230 0 C for long periods of time in air without fuel oxidation and dispersion. There is every indication, as expected, that there is no oxidation problem in an inert atmosphere. Only one of four defects exposed to unlimited air gave any indication of fuel oxidation. It has been suggested that this might be an incubation effect and continued operation would result in oxidation occurring at all four defects. As yet the destructive examination of the BWR rod has not been completed, so it is not possible to determine if cladding splitting was due to an anomoly in this test rod or something that can be expected in LWR rods in general. Thus far there is no indication of respirable particle dispersal even if fuel oxidation does occur

  18. Ozone production using a power modulated surface dielectric barrier discharge in dry synthetic air

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimek, Milan; Pekárek, S.; Prukner, Václav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 4 (2012), s. 743-754 ISSN 0272-4324 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/09/0176 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : ozone * surface DBD * synthetic air * nitrogen oxides * production efficiency Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.728, year: 2012 http://www.springerlink.com/content/h7p1j46381150510/fulltext.pdf

  19. Convective drying of chilies using a concentrating solar collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanif, M.; Khattak, M.K.; Aamir, M.

    2015-01-01

    A concentrating solar collector was developed for convective drying of green chilies by providing optimum drying environment. A temperature in the range of 45-65 degree C and relative humidity of less than 10% was observed during the drying period provided by the solar collector from 9.00 am to 5.00 pm. Different levels of drying temperature and air mass flow rates were tested to find their effect on drying time of the chilies. The experiment was laid out as a randomized complete block design with a factorial arrangement of the treatments consisting of 3 levels of temperature and 3 levels of air mass flow rate, replicated 3 times. Drying temperature and air mass flow rates effected the drying time significantly. The means comparison showed that minimum drying time of 17.96 h was recorded at high temperature of 65 degree C followed by a drying time of 20.27 and 21.43 h at temperatures of 55 and 45 degree C. The means of air mass flow rates showed that minimum drying time of 18.49 h was noted at high air mass flow rate of 3.50 kg min-1 followed by 20.32 and 20.86 h at air mass flow rates of 1.5 and 2.30 kg min-l. Chilies dried at temperature of 65 degree C and air mass flow rate of 3.5 kg min-1 showed an average drying rate of 0.02 g(H20)hrl cm-2as compared to the slow drying rates at 55 and 45 degree C. It was concluded that chilies must be dried at high temperature and high air mass flow rates to get on time quality dried chilies. (author)

  20. The advantages and disadvantages of centralized control of air power at operational level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arisoy, Uǧur

    2014-05-01

    People do not want to see and hear a war. In today's world, if war is inevitable, the use of air power is seen as the preferable means of conducting operations instead of financially burdensome land battles which are more likely to cause heavy loss of life. The use of Air Power has gained importance in NATO operations in the Post-Cold War era. For example, air power has undertaken a decisive role from the beginning to the end of the operation in Libya. From this point of view, the most important issue to consider is how to direct air power more effectively at operational level. NATO's Core JFAC (Joint Force Air Command) was established in 2012 to control joint air power at operational level from a single center. US had experienced JFAC aproach in the Operation Desert Storm in 1991. UK, France, Germany, Italy and Spain are also directing their air power from their JFAC structures. Joint air power can be directed from a single center at operational level by means of JFAC. JFAC aproach provides complex planning progress of Air Power to be controled faster in a single center. An Air Power with a large number of aircrafts, long range missiles of cutting-edge technology may have difficulties in achieving results unless directed effectively. In this article, directing air power more effectively at operational level has been studied in the framework of directing air power from a single center carried out by SWOT analysis technique. "Directing Air Power at operational level from a single center similar to JFAC-like structure" is compared with "Directing Air Power at operational level from two centers similar to AC (Air Command) + CAOC (Combined Air Operations Center) structure" As a result of this study, it is assessed that directing air power at operational level from a single center would bring effectiveness to the air campaign. The study examines directing air power at operational level. Developments at political, strategic and tactical levels have been ignored.

  1. Adiponectin levels measured in dried blood spot samples from neonates born small and appropriate for gestational age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klamer, A; Skogstrand, Kristin; Hougaard, D M

    2007-01-01

    Adiponectin levels measured in neonatal dried blood spot samples (DBSS) might be affected by both prematurity and being born small for gestational age (SGA). The aim of the study was to measure adiponectin levels in routinely collected neonatal DBSS taken on day 5 (range 3-12) postnatal from...

  2. Detection of PAX8/PPARG and RET/PTC Rearrangements Is Feasible in Routine Air-Dried Fine Needle Aspiration Smears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferraz, Carolina; Rehfeld, Christian; Krogdahl, Annelise

    2012-01-01

    Background: The diagnostic limitations of fine needle aspiration (FNA), like the indeterminate category, can be partially overcome by molecular analysis. As PAX8/PPARG and RET/PTC rearrangements have been detected in follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTCs) and papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs......), their detection in FNA smears could improve the FNA diagnosis. To date, these rearrangements have never been analyzed in routine air-dried FNA smears, but only in frozen tissue, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue, and in fresh FNA material. Fixed routine air-dried FNA samples have hitherto been judged...... as generally not suitable for testing these rearrangements in a clinical setting. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to investigate the feasibility of extracting RNA from routine air-dried FNA smears for the detection of these rearrangements with real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT...

  3. An economic optimization of evaporator and air collector area in a solar assisted heat pump drying system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, S.M.A.; Saidur, R.; Hawlader, M.N.A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The optimum combination will provide around 89% of the total load. • The system has a savings during the life cycle with least payback period of 4.37 year. • The optimal system is insensitive to the variation in fuel inflation and discount rate. - Abstract: This paper presents an economic optimization of evaporator and air collector area of a solar assisted heat pump drying system. Economic viability of solar heating systems is usually made by comparing the cost flows recurring throughout the lifetime of the solar and conventional alternative systems. Therefore, identification of optimum variables by using a simulation program and an economic analysis based on payback period of the system are presented in this paper. FORTRAN language is used to run the simulation. Effect of load and different economic variables on payback period is also investigated. Economic analysis reveals that system has sufficient amount of savings during the life cycle with a minimum payback period of about 4 years

  4. Vibration and acoustic noise emitted by dry-type air-core reactors under PWM voltage excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingsong; Wang, Shanming; Hong, Jianfeng; Yang, Zhanlu; Jiang, Shengqian; Xia, Shichong

    2018-05-01

    According to coupling way between the magnetic field and the structural order, structure mode is discussed by engaging finite element (FE) method and both natural frequency and modal shape for a dry-type air-core reactor (DAR) are obtained in this paper. On the basis of harmonic response analysis, electromagnetic force under PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) voltage excitation is mapped with the structure mesh, the vibration spectrum is gained and the consequences represents that the whole structure vibration predominates in the radial direction, with less axial vibration. Referring to the test standard of reactor noise, the rules of emitted noise of the DAR are measured and analyzed at chosen switching frequency matches the sample resonant frequency and the methods of active vibration and noise reduction are put forward. Finally, the low acoustic noise emission of a prototype DAR is verified by measurement.

  5. Grain-boundary oxidation of used CANDU fuel exposed to dry air at 150 degrees C for a prolonged period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hocking, W.H.; Behnke, R.; Duclos, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    The grain-boundary chemistry of used CANDU fuel exposed to dry air at 150 degrees C for a prolonged period has been investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). High degrees of surface oxidation have been determined using the chemical-shift effects for the uranium photoelectron emission, but these must be largely restricted to thin films. The observed distribution of segregated fission products implies an absence of major fuel restructuring and SEM examinations revealed mainly subtle changes in the UO 2 grain structure. These findings are consistent with metallographic evidence of pervasive grain-boundary attack, despite only slight bulk alteration of the fluorite-lattice structure. (author)

  6. Comparison study on biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using fresh and hot air oven dried IMPERATA CYLINDRICA leaf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najmi Bonnia, Noor; Fairuzi, Afiza Ahmad; Akhir, Rabiatuladawiyah Md.; Yahya, Sabrina M.; Rani, Mohd Azri Ab; Ratim, Suzana; Rahman, Norafifah A.; Akil, Hazizan Md

    2018-01-01

    The perennial rhizomatous grass; Imperata cylindrica (I. cylindrica) has been reported rich in various phytochemicals. In present study, silver nanoparticles were synthesized from aqueous leaf extract of I. cylindrica at two different leaf conditions; fresh leaves and hot-air oven dried leaves. Biosynthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Maximum absorption was recorded between 400 nm to 500 nm. FESEM analysis revealed that the silver nanoparticles predominantly form spherical shapes. The particles sizes were ranging from 22-37 nm. The elemental composition of the synthesized silver nanoparticles was confirmed by using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the reducing and stabilizing actions came from biomolecules associated with I. cylindrica leaf extract. Thus in this investigation, an environmentally safe method to synthesized silver nanoparticles using local plant extract was successfully established.

  7. Low Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels Are Associated with Dry Eye Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Young Yoon

    Full Text Available Dry eye syndrome (DES is a common tear film and ocular surface disease that results in discomfort, visual disturbance, and tear film instability with potential damage to the ocular surface. Systemic diseases associated with DES include diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis, depression, anxiety, thyroid disease, allergic diseases, irritable bowel syndrome, chronic pain syndrome, and hyperlipidemia. Interestingly, it has been found that most of these are associated with low levels of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD or inadequate sunlight exposure.In this cross-sectional data analysis, noninstitutionalized adults aged ≥19 years (N = 17,542 who participated in Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2012 were included. Information regarding duration of sunlight exposure was collected from the survey participants. Serum 25(OHD and zinc levels were measured. The confounding variables were age, gender, sunlight exposure time, region of residence, obesity, serum 25(OHD level, diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis, depression, thyroid disorder, atopic dermatitis, history of ocular surgery, regular exercise, and walking exercise.Mean serum 25(OHD levels of subjects with and without DES were 16.90 ± 6.0 and 17.52 ± 6.07 (p<0.001. Inadequate sunlight exposure time (odds ratio [OR], 1.554; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.307-1.848, urban residence (OR, 1.669; 95% CI, 1.456-1.913, indoor occupation (OR, 1.578; 95% CI, 1.389-1.814, and low serum 25(OHD level (OR, 1.158; 95% CI, 1.026-1.308 were the risk factors for DES. After adjusting for age, sex, obesity, diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis, depression, thyroid disorder, atopic dermatitis, history of ocular surgery, regular exercise, and occupation, low serum 25(OHD level (OR, 1.178; 95% CI, 1.010-1.372 and deficient sunlight exposure time (OR, 1.383; 95% CI, 1.094-1.749 were the risk factors for diagnosed DES.Low serum 25(OHD levels and inadequate sunlight exposure are

  8. Effect of hot air drying on volatile compounds of Flammulina velutipes detected by HS-SPME-GC-MS and electronic nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenjian; Yu, Jie; Pei, Fei; Mariga, Alfred Mugambi; Ma, Ning; Fang, Yong; Hu, Qiuhui

    2016-04-01

    Volatile compounds are important factors that affect the flavor quality of Flammulina velutipes, but the changes occurring during hot air drying is still unclear. To clarify the dynamic changes of flavor components during hot air drying, comprehensive flavor characterization and volatile compounds of F. velutipes were evaluated using electronic nose technology and headspace solid phase micro-extraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS), respectively. Results showed that volatile components in F. velutipes significantly changed during hot air drying according to the principal component analysis and radar fingerprint chart of electronic nose. Volatile compounds of fresh F. velutipes consisted mainly of ketones, aldehydes and alcohols, and 3-octanone was the dominant compound. Drying process could significantly decrease the relative content of ketones and promoted the generation of alcohols, acids, and esters, which became the main volatile compounds of dried F. velutipes. These may provide a theoretical basis for the formation mechanism of flavor substances in dried F. velutipes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Improvement of crop yield in dry environments: benchmarks, levels of organisation and the role of nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadras, V O; Richards, R A

    2014-05-01

    Crop yield in dry environments can be improved with complementary approaches including selecting for yield in the target environments, selecting for yield potential, and using indirect, trait- or genomic-based methods. This paper (i) outlines the achievements of direct selection for yield in improving drought adaptation, (ii) discusses the limitations of indirect approaches in the context of levels of organization, and (iii) emphasizes trade-offs and synergies between nitrogen nutrition and drought adaptation. Selection for yield in the water- and nitrogen-scarce environments of Australia improved wheat yield per unit transpiration at a rate of 0.12kg ha(-1) mm(-1) yr(-1); for indirect methods to be justified, they must return superior rates of improvement, achieve the same rate at lower cost or provide other cost-effective benefits, such as expanding the genetic basis for selection. Slow improvement of crop adaptation to water stress using indirect methods is partially related to issues of scale. Traits are thus classified into three broad groups: those that generally scale up from low levels of organization to the crop level (e.g. herbicide resistance), those that do not (e.g. grain yield), and traits that might scale up provided they are considered in a integrated manner with scientifically sound scaling assumptions, appropriate growing conditions, and screening techniques (e.g. stay green). Predicting the scalability of traits may help to set priorities in the investment of research efforts. Primary productivity in arid and semi-arid environments is simultaneously limited by water and nitrogen, but few attempts are made to target adaptation to water and nitrogen stress simultaneously. Case studies in wheat and soybean highlight biological links between improved nitrogen nutrition and drought adaptation.

  10. Early Detection of Foot-And-Mouth Disease Virus from Infected Cattle Using A Dry Filter Air Sampling System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, J M; Brito, B; Hartwig, E; Smoliga, G R; Perez, A; Arzt, J; Rodriguez, L L

    2017-04-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious livestock disease of high economic impact. Early detection of FMD virus (FMDV) is fundamental for rapid outbreak control. Air sampling collection has been demonstrated as a useful technique for detection of FMDV RNA in infected animals, related to the aerogenous nature of the virus. In the current study, air from rooms housing individual (n = 17) or two groups (n = 4) of cattle experimentally infected with FDMV A24 Cruzeiro of different virulence levels was sampled to assess the feasibility of applying air sampling as a non-invasive, screening tool to identify sources of FMDV infection. Detection of FMDV RNA in air was compared with first detection of clinical signs and FMDV RNA levels in serum and oral fluid. FMDV RNA was detected in room air samples 1-3 days prior (seven animals) or on the same day (four animals) as the appearance of clinical signs in 11 of 12 individually housed cattle. Only in one case clinical signs preceded detection in air samples by one day. Overall, viral RNA in oral fluid or serum preceded detection in air samples by 1-2 days. Six individually housed animals inoculated with attenuated strains did not show clinical signs, but virus was detected in air in one of these cases 3 days prior to first detection in oral fluid. In groups of four cattle housed together, air detection always preceded appearance of clinical signs by 1-2 days and coincided more often with viral shedding in oral fluid than virus in blood. These data confirm that air sampling is an effective non-invasive screening method for detecting FMDV infection in confined to enclosed spaces (e.g. auction barns, milking parlours). This technology could be a useful tool as part of a surveillance strategy during FMD prevention, control or eradication efforts. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  11. Solar heating of air used for the drying at medium and large scale, of forestry, fishery, agriculture, cattle and industrial products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, F.

    1991-01-01

    The drying process and/or preservation of grains is improved through the previous heating of air. In many cases it is enough to raise the temperature only a few degrees (from 10 to 15 Centigrade), in order to increase their capacity to absorb dampness. This can be done using very simple solar captors. A massive use of solar energy in the drying process of products, by means of hot air, can only be done with very expensive equipment. For this reason, it is recommended the use of lower thermic heaters, which will have a lower cost too. (Author)

  12. Pecan drying with silica gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghate, S.R.; Chhinnan, M.S.

    1983-07-01

    High moisture in-shell pecans were dried by keeping them in direct and indirect contact with silica gel to investigate their drying characteristics. In-shell pecans were also dried with ambient air from a controlled environment chamber and with air dehumidified by silica gel. Direct contact and dehumidified air drying seemed feasible approaches.

  13. Numerical analysis of temperature and flow effects in a dry, two-dimensional, porous-media reservoir used for compressed air energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiles, L.E.

    1979-10-01

    The purpose of the work is to define the hydrodynamic and thermodynamic response of a CAES dry porous media reservoir subjected to simulated air mass cycling. The knowledge gained will provide, or will assist in providing, design guidelines for the efficient and stable operation of the air storage reservoir. The analysis and results obtained by two-dimensional modeling of dry reservoirs are presented. While the fluid/thermal response of the underground system is dependent on many parameters, the two-dimensional model was applied only to those parameters that entered the analysis by virtue of inclusion of the vertical dimension. In particular, the parameters or responses that were quantified or characterized include wellbore heat transfer, heat losses to the vertical boundaries of the porous zone, gravitationally induced flows, producing length of the wellbore, and the effects of nonuniform permeability. The analysis of the wellbore heat transfer included consideration of insulation, preheating (bubble development with heated air), and air mass flow rate.

  14. Theoretical and Experimental Evaluation of the Temperature Distribution in a Dry Type Air Core Smoothing Reactor of HVDC Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The outdoor ultra-high voltage (UHV dry-type air-core smoothing reactors (DASR of High Voltage Direct Current systems are equipped with a rain cover and an acoustic enclosure. To study the convective heat transfer between the DASR and the surrounding air, this paper presents a coupled model of the temperature and fluid field based on the structural features and cooling manner. The resistive losses of encapsulations calculated by finite element method (FEM were used as heat sources in the thermal analysis. The steady fluid and thermal field of the 3-D reactor model were solved by the finite volume method (FVM, and the temperature distribution characteristics of the reactor were obtained. Subsequently, the axial and radial temperature distributions of encapsulation were investigated separately. Finally, an optical fiber temperature measurement scheme was used for an UHV DASR under natural convection conditions. Comparative analysis showed that the simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental data, which verifies the rationality and accuracy of the numerical calculation. These results can serve as a reference for the optimal design and maintenance of UHV DASRs.

  15. Microbial contamination level of air in animal waste utilization plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielowiec-Korzeniowska, Anna; Tymczyna, Leszek; Drabik, Agata; Krzosek, Łukasz

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research was evaluation of microbial contamination of air within and in the vicinity of animal waste disposal plants. Air samples were analyzed to determine total bacterial and fungal counts as well as microbial species composition. Measurements of climate conditions (temperature, humidity, air motion) and total dust concentration were also performed. Total numbers of bacteria and fungi surpassed the threshold limit values for production halls. The most abundant bacteria detected were those consisting of physiological microflora of animal dermis and mucosa. Fungal species composition proved to be most differentiated in the air beyond the plant area. Aspergillus versicolor, a pathogenic and allergenic filamentous fungus, was isolated only inside the rendering plant processing hall. The measurement results showed a low sanitary-hygienic state of air in the plant processing halls and substantial air pollution in its immediate vicinity.

  16. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in the Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Building Industry Research Alliance (BIRA); Building Science Consortium (BSC); Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB); Davis Energy Group (DEG); Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC); IBACOS; National Association of Home Builders Research Center (NAHBRC); National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

    2006-01-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Hot-Dry/Mixed-Dry Climate Region on a cost neutral basis.

  17. Nitrogen Chemistry in Sea Level Air Following Large Radiation Doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-15

    majur reactions NO + 0 + M +N0 2 + M (9) ’.o, NO+0 3 +N 2 +0 2 (1) NO + HO2 + NO2 + OH (11) 0 + NO2 NO + U 2 (12) H + NO2 + No + OOH (13) NO + OH...8217 ’, ,-7- 0 DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE (Continued) 0 Joint Cruise Missiles Project...Ofc Air Force Space Technology Ctr ATTN: JCMG-707 ATTN: YH Naval Air Systems Command Air Force !-!ight Aeronautical Lab/AAAD ATTN: PMA 271 ATjN: W

  18. Dry well cooling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Hiroyuki.

    1997-01-01

    A plurality of blowing ports with introduction units are disposed to a plurality of ducts in a dry well, and a cooling unit comprising a cooler, a blower and an isolating valve is disposed outside of the dry well. Cooling air and the atmosphere in the dry well are mixed to form a cooling gas and blown into the dry well to control the temperature. Since the cooling unit is disposed outside of the dry well, the maintenance of the cooling unit can be performed even during the plant operation. In addition, since dampers opened/closed depending on the temperature of the atmosphere are disposed to the introduction units for controlling the temperature of the cooling gas, the temperature of the atmosphere in the dry well can be set to a predetermined level rapidly. Since an axial flow blower is used as the blower of the cooling unit, it can be contained in a ventilation cylinder. Then, the atmosphere in the dry well flowing in the ventilation cylinder can be prevented from leaking to the outside. (N.H.)

  19. Electrical characterization of microdischarges produced by dielectric barrier discharge in dry air at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jidenko, N; Petit, M; Borra, J P

    2006-01-01

    This work addresses the case of millimetre sized plane-to-plane dielectric barrier discharge with sinusoidal voltage between 1 and 60 kHz for different configurations in air at atmospheric pressure. The first aim of this work is to achieve a representative statistical analysis of the electrical characteristics of the microdischarges. The numerical data treatment presented here enables us to determine the maximum current, the duration, the amount of charge and the triggering voltage for each current pulse. Both the average values as well as the deviations are checked. The relative influence of the operating parameters (voltage, gas flow rate, gap width, frequency) on the local surface polarization, electron attachment and temperature affecting microdischarge characteristics has been depicted in different arrangements. A special attention is paid to the influence of dielectric walls inside the discharge gap, perpendicular to the electrodes. Besides, this study allows the identification of the operating conditions for which all the microdischarges can be considered identical to study the local physical and chemical processes around each microdischarge

  20. Electrical characterization of microdischarges produced by dielectric barrier discharge in dry air at atmospheric pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jidenko, N [Laboratoire de Physique des Gaz et des Plasmas (CNRS-Universite Paris XI), Equipe Decharges Electriques et Environnement, Supelec, 91190 Gif sur Yvette (France); Petit, M [Service Electrotechnique et Electronique Industrielle, SUPELEC Plateau de Moulon, 91192 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Borra, J P [Laboratoire de Physique des Gaz et des Plasmas (CNRS-Universite Paris XI), Equipe Decharges Electriques et Environnement, Supelec, 91190 Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2006-01-21

    This work addresses the case of millimetre sized plane-to-plane dielectric barrier discharge with sinusoidal voltage between 1 and 60 kHz for different configurations in air at atmospheric pressure. The first aim of this work is to achieve a representative statistical analysis of the electrical characteristics of the microdischarges. The numerical data treatment presented here enables us to determine the maximum current, the duration, the amount of charge and the triggering voltage for each current pulse. Both the average values as well as the deviations are checked. The relative influence of the operating parameters (voltage, gas flow rate, gap width, frequency) on the local surface polarization, electron attachment and temperature affecting microdischarge characteristics has been depicted in different arrangements. A special attention is paid to the influence of dielectric walls inside the discharge gap, perpendicular to the electrodes. Besides, this study allows the identification of the operating conditions for which all the microdischarges can be considered identical to study the local physical and chemical processes around each microdischarge.

  1. Height, leaf nymber, chemical composition and dry matter production of Stylosanthes Campo Grande at different levels of potassium and zinco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Mara Gomes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine plant height, total number of leaves, number of live leaves, chemical composition and dry mass production of Stylosanthes cv. Campo Grande at first cut and after 21 days of regrowth at different levels of potassium (K2O with and without zinc (Zn. The experiment was conducted using a randomized block design in a 4 x 2 factorial scheme consisting of four repetitions. Four levels of K2O (0, 120, 240 and 360 mg/dm3 with and without Zn (0 and 6 mg/dm3 were used. There was no effect of the interaction between K2O and Zn levels on the structural characteristics of Stylosanthes cv. Campo Grande, and no independent effects of the different levels of K2O and Zn were observed. The mean plant height, total number of leaves and number of live leaves were 21.2 cm, 30.2 and 27.2, respectively. Dry mass production did not differ between K2O and Zn levels, with a mean production of 3.7 g/pot. There was also no effect of the interaction between K2O and Zn levels on dry matter and neutral detergent fiber content, and no independent effects of the different levels of K2O and Zn were observed, with mean values of 29.3% and 46.9% dry matter, respectively. However, an effect of the interaction between K2O and Zn levels was observed for crude protein content, which exhibited a quadratic response. Re2growth increased linearly with increasing K2O levels. Although the highest crude protein content was obtained at zero levels of potassium and zinc, potassium fertilization is advantageous since it increases the regrowth of Stylosanthes cv. Campo Grande in 21 days.

  2. The Use of Fresh Cogongrass as Transportation Media with Level Dry System for Broodstock of Crayfish on Various Old Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinand Hukama Taqwa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The research was to determine the effect of the use of fresh cogongrass as media packaging filler on survival rate of broodstock of crayfish that transported with level dry system for 24, 48, dan 72 hours which randomized completely design experiment. The research preparation were media preparation of pond water, preparation of filler material and preparation of experimental animal (3 days adaptation after arrived from producer and starvation for 24 hours. The major research were anestetion of broodstock of crayfish with direct sock of low temperature at 12oC for ±5 minutes, transportation experiment of broodstock with fresh cogongrass as material filler. The result showed that the use of fresh cogongrass on various old time of dry level system has a significantly different to time of recovery and survival rate of broodstock of crayfish after tranforted. The fastest time of recovery was 89.55 seconds for 24 hours transportation and significantly different with time of transportation for 48 hours and 72 hours. The survival rate after tranported the highest was 98.89% for 24 hours transportation and significantly different with time of transportation for 48 hours and 72 hours. This research showed that the use of fresh cogongrass as material packaging filler of dry level system was still effective until 48 hours.Keywords: afresh cogongrass, broodstock of crayfish, various old time transportation, level dry system

  3. Effect of process parameters on energy performance of spray drying with exhaust air heat recovery for production of high value particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julklang, Wittaya; Golman, Boris

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We study heat recovery from spray dryer using air-to-air heat exchanger. • We examine dryer energy performance using advanced mathematical model. • We use the response surface methodology to study the effect of process parameters. • Energy efficiency up to 43.3% is obtained at high flow rate of dilute slurry. • Energy saving up to 52.4% is obtained at high drying air temperature. - Abstract: Spray drying process has been widely used in various industries for many decades for production of numerous materials. This paper explores the energy performance of an industrial scale spray dryer equipped with an exhaust air heat recovery system for production of high value particles. Energy efficiency and energy saving were calculated using a comprehensive mathematical model of spray drying. The response surface methodology (RSM) was utilized to study the effect of process parameters on energy performance using a space-filling design. The meta model equations were formulated employing the well-fitted response surface equations with adjusted R 2 larger than 0.995. The energy efficiency as high as 43.3% was obtained at high flow rate of dilute slurry, while the highest energy saving of 52.4% was found by combination of positive effect of drying air temperature and negative effect of slurry mass flow rate. The utilization of efficient air-to-air heat exchanger leads to an increase in energy efficiency and energy savings. The detailed temperature and vapor concentration profiles obtained with the model are also valuable in determining final product quality when spray dryer is operated at energy efficient conditions

  4. An assessment of radioactivity level in 51Cr-contaminated dry solid waste generated from a research facility for verification of clearance levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagamatsu, Tomohiro; Yamaoka, Kiyonori; Hanafusa, Tadashi; Ono, Toshiro

    2010-01-01

    Radioactive waste generated from research laboratories and other facilities is regulated by the Law Concerning Prevention from Radiation Hazards due to Radioisotopes etc. (Prevention Law). However, the Prevention Law does not provide the level of clearance or the procedures to follow for compliance monitoring. To assess radioactivity amounts for making decisions about clearance levels, the radioactivity levels in dry solid semi-combustible wastes generated from biomedical research, such as 51 Cr-release assays, were measured and evaluated. Radioactivity of semi-combustible waste was 1.42-6.32% of the initial level. In comparison, records for the past 8 years in the Shikata Laboratory, Department of Radiation Research, Okayama University Advanced Science Research Center, indicated 7% to 90% of the initial radioactivity remained in the waste and was differed widely among researchers. This study determined an accurate radioactivity level in dry solid waste, which could lead to savings in disposal costs. (author)

  5. Nitrogen and dry matter dynamics in linseed as affected by the nitrogen level and genotype in a Mediterranean environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dordas, Christos A.

    2012-01-01

    Linseed or oilseed flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is an important source of edible and industrial vegetable oil and is grown widely in temperate regions around the world. Nitrogen, one of the most important nutrients for linseed, is often applied for higher yield and better quality. However, the effects of N level on dry matter and N accumulation, partitioning, and retranslocation have not yet been identified in linseed. A two-year field study was therefore conducted to determine the effects of N level on dry matter, N accumulation, partitioning, and retranslocation of three linseed cultivars (Livia, Lirina, Creola) grown in a Mediterranean environment under rain-fed conditions. It was found that N fertilization increased biomass at anthesis by an average of 47% and at maturity by an average of 38%, compared with the control. N fertilization increased the dry matter partitioning in leaves + flowers and stems at anthesis, and also in leaves + capsule vegetative components, stems, and seeds at maturity. Dry matter translocation was affected by N fertilization, growing season, and by the interaction between growing season and N treatment. In addition, N fertilization increased N retranslocation from the vegetative parts of the plant to the seed. Moreover, the N uptake by seeds was more affected by the seed yield and less affected by the seed N concentration. The present study indicates that N fertilization affects dry matter and N translocation in linseed. -- Highlights: ► Dry matter translocation was affected by N fertilization, year, and their interaction. ► HI was affected by N fertilization while NHI was not. ► N fertilization increased N retranslocation from the vegetative parts to the seed.

  6. Effects of hot air and freeze drying methods on antioxidant activity, colour and some nutritional characteristics of strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo L) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orak, H H; Aktas, T; Yagar, H; İsbilir, S Selen; Ekinci, N; Sahin, F Hasturk

    2012-08-01

    Antioxidant activity, colour and some nutritional properties of hot air and freeze-dried strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo L.) fruits were investigated. Additionally, the effects of two pre-treatments, namely ethyl oleate and water blanching, were compared in terms of drying characteristics. For determination of antioxidant activities in ethanol extracts, two different analytical methods were used: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity and β-carotene bleaching activity. As a result, the ethyl oleate pre-treatment shortened the drying time by hot air method and gave a higher 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity (82.16 ± 0.34%), total phenolic content (7.62 ± 1.09 µg GAE/g extract), ascorbic acid content (236.93 ± 20.14 mg/100 g), besides hydromethylfurfural was not observed. Freeze-dried fruits exhibited higher ascorbic acid content (368.63 ± 17.16 mg/100 g) than those fresh fruits (231.33 ± 19.51 mg/100 g) and nearly 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl activity (93.52 ± 0.41 %) to fresh fruits (94.03 ± 1.18%). Colour characteristics, sugar content and mineral contents of fruits were significantly affected by pre-treatments and drying methods (p drying of strawberry tree fruits should bring a valuable and attractive foodstuff to food industry due to the rich nutritional components, antioxidant activity and colour. Another conclusion from this study is that the freeze-drying is the best drying method to keep the nutritional value, antioxidant activity and sensory properties of fruits.

  7. AIRS/Aqua Level 2G Precipitation Estimate V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a facility instrument aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In combination...

  8. Is dry cleaning all wet?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, M.

    1993-01-01

    Chemical solvents from dry cleaning, particularly perchloroethylene (perc), have contributed to groundwater contamination, significant levels of air pollution in and around cleaners, and chemical accumulation in food. Questions are being raised about the process of cleaning clothes with chemical, and other less toxic cleaning methods are being explored. The EPA has focused attention on the 50 year old Friedburg method of cleaning, Ecoclean, which uses no dangerous chemicals and achieves comparable results. Unfortunately, the cleaning industry is resistant to change, so cutting back on amount of clothes that need dry cleaning and making sure labels aren't exaggerating when they say dry clean only, is frequently the only consumer option now

  9. Vandenberg Air Force Base Upper Level Wind Launch Weather Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Jaclyn A.; Wheeler, Mark M.

    2012-01-01

    The 30th Operational Support Squadron Weather Flight (30 OSSWF) provides comprehensive weather services to the space program at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB) in California. One of their responsibilities is to monitor upper-level winds to ensure safe launch operations of the Minuteman III ballistic missile. The 30 OSSWF tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) to analyze VAFB sounding data with the goal of determining the probability of violating (PoV) their upper-level thresholds for wind speed and shear constraints specific to this launch vehicle, and to develop a tool that will calculate the PoV of each constraint on the day of launch. In order to calculate the probability of exceeding each constraint, the AMU collected and analyzed historical data from VAFB. The historical sounding data were retrieved from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Earth System Research Laboratory archive for the years 1994-2011 and then stratified into four sub-seasons: January-March, April-June, July-September, and October-December. The maximum wind speed and 1000-ft shear values for each sounding in each subseason were determined. To accurately calculate the PoV, the AMU determined the theoretical distributions that best fit the maximum wind speed and maximum shear datasets. Ultimately it was discovered that the maximum wind speeds follow a Gaussian distribution while the maximum shear values follow a lognormal distribution. These results were applied when calculating the averages and standard deviations needed for the historical and real-time PoV calculations. In addition to the requirements outlined in the original task plan, the AMU also included forecast sounding data from the Rapid Refresh model. This information provides further insight for the launch weather officers (LWOs) when determining if a wind constraint violation will occur over the next few hours on day of launch. The interactive graphical user interface (GUI) for this project was developed in

  10. Assement on level of indoor air quality at kindergartens in Ampang ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study identify the air pollutant that occurs in the kindergartens, to measure the level of indoor air quality and also to analyze the association between indoor air quality patterns with respiratory health symptoms. Three kindergartens were selected based on types of building (single house, terraced 2 floors and refurbished ...

  11. Experimental investigation of drying characteristics of cornelian cherry fruits ( Cornus mas L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgen, Filiz

    2015-03-01

    Major target of present paper is to investigate the drying kinetics of cornelian cherry fruits ( Cornus mas L.) in a convective dryer, by varying the temperature and the velocity of drying air. Freshly harvested fruits are dried at drying air temperature of 35, 45 and 55 °C. The considered drying air velocities are V air = 1 and 1.5 m/s for each temperature. The required drying time is determined by taking into consideration the moisture ratio measurements. When the moisture ratio reaches up to 10 % at the selected drying air temperature, then the time is determined ( t = 40-67 h). The moisture ratio, fruit temperature and energy requirement are presented as the functions of drying time. The lowest drying time (40 h) is obtained when the air temperature is 55 °C and air velocity is 1.5 m/s. The highest drying time (67 h) is found under the conditions of 35 °C temperature and 1 m/s velocity. Both the drying air temperature and the air velocity significantly affect the required energy for drying system. The minimum amount of required energy is found as 51.12 kWh, at 55 °C and 1 m/s, whilst the maximum energy requirement is 106.7 kWh, at 35 °C and 1.5 m/s. It is also found that, air temperature significantly influences the total drying time. Moreover, the energy consumption is decreasing with increasing air temperature. The effects of three parameters (air temperature, air velocity and drying time) on drying characteristics have also been analysed by means of analysis of variance method to show the effecting levels. The experimental results have a good agreement with the predicted ones.

  12. Graphene packed needle trap device as a novel field sampler for determination of perchloroethylene in the air of dry cleaning establishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Mahmoud; Bahrami, Abdolrahman; Ghiasvand, Ali Reza; Emam, Maryam Rafiei; Shahna, Farshid Ghorbani; Soltanian, Ali Reza

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we describe the application of a needle trap microextraction device packed with graphene nanoplatelets for the sampling and analysis of perchloroethylene in dry cleaning. The study was carried out in two phases. First the parameters for the sampling and analysis of perchloroethylene by NTD were evaluated and optimized in the laboratory. Then the sampler was used to determine the levels of perchloroethylene in a dry-cleaning shop. In the laboratory phase of the study the performance of the NTD packed with the proposed sorbent was examined in a variety of sampling conditions to evaluate the technique. The technique was also compared with NTDs packed with PDMS as well as SPME with Carboxen/PDMS-coated fibers. Both the NTDs and SPME performed better at lower sampling temperatures and relative humidity levels. The post-sampling storage times for a 95% recovery of the analyte were 5, 5 and 3 days for NTD-graphene, NTD-PDMS and SPME-CAR/PDMS respectively. The optimum desorption time was 3 min for NTDs packed with either graphene or PDMS and 1 min for SPME-CAR/PDMS. The limits of detection for the GC/MS detection system were 0.023 and 0.25 ng mL(-1) for NTDs packed with graphene and PDMS and 0.014 ng mL(-1) for SPME coated with CAR/PDMS. In the second stage of the study the evaluated technique was applied to the sampling and analysis of perchloroethylene in dry cleaning. In this environment the performance of the NTD-graphene as a field sampler for PCE was similar to that of the SPME-CA/PDMS, and better than the NIOSH 1003 method which had greater measurement variations. The results show that a NTD packed with carbonic graphene nanoplatelets and used as an active exhaustive sampling technique is effective for determination of VOC and HVOC occupational/environmental pollutants in air. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of Formic or Acetic Acid on the Storage Quality of Mixed Air-Dried Corn Stover and Cabbage Waste, and Microbial Community Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A mixture of air-dried corn stover and cabbage waste was ensiled to preserve lignocellulosic biomass for use as biofuel. Furthermore, the effects of different fresh mass fractions (0.3 and 0.6 % of formic or acetic acid on the mixed silage quality were evaluated to guarantee its quality. The application of formic or acetic acid prior to mixing the silage led to higher water-soluble carbohydrate fractions than the negative control, indicating that both acids contributed to preservation of water-soluble carbohydrates during storage for 170 days. The dry matter content was also increased after storage from 90 to 170 days. It was found that the content of neutral and acid detergent fibre, cellulose and holocellulose (the sum of cellulose and hemicellulose in mixed silage treated with formic or acetic acid was significantly lower than that obtained in the negative control. The pH and the ratio of ammoniacal nitrogen to total nitrogen in mixed silage treated with acetic acid also significantly decreased. Furthermore, the addition of formic or acetic acid significantly weakened the fermentation intensity of lactic acid, depending on the ratio of lactic to acetic acid, as well as the ratio of lactic acid to total organic acids. The number of bacterial species and their relative abundance shifted during silage mixing, wherein microbial communities at phylum level mainly consisted of Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. The dominant bacteria were also observed to shift from Lactobacillus and Enterobacter in presilage biomass to Lactobacillus and Paralactobacillus. Specifically, Enterobacter disappeared after 130 days of storage. In conclusion, the addition of a low dose of acetic acid to fresh mass (0.3 % could effectively improve the fermentation quality and is conducive to the preservation of the organic components.

  14. Monitoring the levels of toxic air pollutants in the ambient air of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The ambient air quality in Freetown, Sierra Leone was investigated for the first time for toxic air pollutants. ..... 215 Switzerland), in a water bath at temperature of 55°C and pressure of ..... scraps. Furthermore, the prolonged use of generators.

  15. Air classifier technology (ACT) in dry powder inhalation. Part 1 : Introduction of a novel force distribution concept (FDC) explaining the performance of a basic air classifier on adhesive mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, A H; Hagedoorn, P; Gjaltema, D; Goede, J; Frijlink, H W

    2003-01-01

    Air classifier technology (ACT) is introduced as part of formulation integrated dry powder inhaler development (FIDPI) to optimise the de-agglomeration of inhalation powders. Carrier retention and de-agglomeration results obtained with a basic classifier concept are discussed. The theoretical

  16. Air-drying Models for New-built Offshore Gas Pipelines%新建海底天然气管道干空气干燥模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹学文; 王立洋; 林宗虎

    2005-01-01

    Drying (conditioning) is an important procedure to prevent hydrate formation during gas pipeline gas-up and to protect pipelines against corrosion. The air-drying method is preferred in offshore gas pipelines pre-commissioning. The air-drying process of gas pipelines commonly includes two steps, air purging and soak test. The mass conservation and the phase equilibrium theory are applied to setting up the mathematical models of air purging, which can be used to simulate dry airflow rate and drying time. Fick diffusion law is applied to setting up the mathematical model of soak test, which can predict the water vapor concentration distribution. The results calculated from the purging model and the soak test model are in good agreement with the experimental data in the DF1-1 offshore production pipeline conditioning. The models are verified to be available for the air-drying project design of offshore gas pipelines. Some proposals for air-drying engineering and operational procedures are put forward by analyzing the air-drying process of DF1-1 gas-exporting pipelines.

  17. Effect of air flow rate on the polyphenols content and antioxidant capacity of convective dried cactus pear cladodes (Opuntia ficus indica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos-Infante, José-Alberto; Rocha-Guzman, Nuria-Elizabeth; González-Laredo, Ruben-Francisco; Reynoso-Camacho, Rosalia; Medina-Torres, Luis; Cervantes-Cardozo, Veronica

    2009-01-01

    The interest in nopal has encouraged the use of dehydration; there are few studies about the effect of process parameters on the nopal polyphenol content and antioxidant activity. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the effect of air-drying flow rates on the amount and antioxidant capacity of extracts of Opuntia ficus indica cladodes. Nopal was dried at 45 degrees C and air flow rates of 3 and 5 m/sec. Samples were analyzed for moisture, total polyphenol, flavonoid, and flavonol contents, chain-breaking activity, inhibition of low-density lipoprotein and deoxyribose oxidation. Nopal drying at an air flow rate of 3 m/sec showed higher values of phenols, flavonoids and flavonols. The best value of low-density lipoprotein inhibition and deoxyribose was found at 1,000 microg/ml. The air flow rate affected the amount of polyphenols and the OH( . ) radical scavenging, but did not modify the chain-breaking activity and the low-density lipoprotein inhibition activity.

  18. Effects of Punctal Occlusion on Clinical Signs and Symptoms and on Tear Cytokine Levels in Patients with Dry Eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Louis; Beuerman, Roger; Simonyi, Susan; Hollander, David A; Stern, Michael E

    2016-04-01

    To investigate changes in signs, symptoms, and tear cytokines following punctal plug occlusion in patients with dry eye. A single-center study was conducted at Singapore Eye Research Institute. Nonabsorbable punctal plugs were inserted in the lower punctum of both eyes in patients with moderate dry eye. Over 3 weeks, in the more severe eye, dry eye symptoms, fluorescein corneal staining, Schirmer I (without topical anesthesia) test, tear film breakup time (TFBUT), and safety were assessed. Cytokine and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) levels in tear samples were measured. Twenty-nine patients (mean age 49.8 years) with moderate dry eye were evaluated. At baseline, mean (standard deviation) global symptoms score was 53.8 (26.5), Schirmer I test score was 5.1 (2.8) mm, and TFBUT was 2.2 (0.6) seconds. After 3 weeks, punctal occlusion significantly reduced global irritation symptoms score (Pdry eye disease. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of green manure crops and nitrogen fertilizer levels on dry matter remobilization efficiency in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. internodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gerami

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of nitrogen rates and green manure crops on dry matter mobilization and mobilization efficiency indices of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. a field experiment was conducted in Agricultural Faculty of Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz during growing season of 2010-2011. The experimental design was split-plot based on randomized complete block with three replications. Main plot included four nitrogen rates (i.e. 0, 50, 100 and 150 kgN.ha-1 and sub-plot included six green manure crops containing millet (Pennisetum sp., amaranth (Amaranthus sp., sesbania (Sesbania sp., cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L., mung bean (Vigna radiata L. and fallow. This experiment was done at two stages. First, planting and turn down of green manure crops and then planting of wheat. The results showed that the maximum weight and specific weight of all stem internodes obtained from 0 to 20 days after wheat anthesis. Then, this trend decreased from 20 to 50 days after wheat anthesis due to remobilization of dry matter to grain. Mobilized dry matter was more in control (0 kg.N.h-1 than in high N application for peduncle (219 vs. 181 mg and penultimate (203 vs. 165 mg, while, was less in the lower internodes (403 vs. 407 mg. Generally, with increasing of nitrogen levels, dry matter mobilization efficiency was decreased by. So, the effect of green manure crops not limited only by soil properties, while influences the relationship between physiological sources and sink.

  20. Effect of freeze-dried leek powder (FDLP) and nitrite level on processing and quality characteristics of fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoukalas, D S; Katsanidis, E; Marantidou, S; Bloukas, J G

    2011-02-01

    Fermented sausages were produced with 0.84% and 1.68% freeze-dried leek powder (FDLP), providing 75 and 150 mg/kg NaNO(3), respectively, and three levels of added nitrite (0, 75, and 150 mg/kg NaNO(2). A control treatment was also produced with 150 mg/kg NaNO(2). Sausages with FDLP were darker and yellower (pnitrite. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Performance analysis of proposed hybrid air conditioning and humidification–dehumidification systems for energy saving and water production in hot and dry climatic regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nada, S.A.; Elattar, H.F.; Fouda, A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Integrative air-conditioning (A/C) and humidification–dehumidification desalination systems are proposed. • Effects of operating parameters on the proposed systems are investigated. • System configurations that have the highest fresh water production rate, power saving and total cost saving are identified. - Abstract: Performance of integrative air-conditioning (A/C) and humidification–dehumidification desalination systems proposed for hot and dry climatic regions is theoretically investigated. The proposed systems aim to energy saving and systems utilization in fresh water production. Four systems with evaporative cooler and heat recovery units located at different locations are proposed, analyzed and evaluated at different operating parameters (fresh air ratio, supply air temperature and outside air wet bulb temperature). Other two basic systems are used as reference systems in proposed systems assessment. Fresh water production rate, A/C cooling capacity, A/C electrical power consumption, saving in power consumptions and total cost saving (TCS) parameters are used for systems evaluations and comparisons. The results show that (i) the fresh water production rates of the proposed systems increase with increasing fresh air ratio, supply air temperature and outdoor wet bulb temperature, (ii) powers saving of the proposed systems increase with increasing fresh air ratio and supply air temperature and decreasing of the outdoor air wet bulb temperature, (iii) locating the evaporative cooling after the fresh air mixing remarkably increases water production rate, and (vi) incorporating heat recovery in the air conditioning systems with evaporative cooling may adversely affect both of the water production rate and the total cost saving of the system. Comparison study has been presented to identify systems configurations that have the highest fresh water production rate, highest power saving and highest total cost saving. Numerical correlations for

  2. Aqua AIRS Level 2G Precipitation Estimate (AIRS+AMSU) V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a facility instrument aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In combination...

  3. Aqua AIRS Level 2 Support Retrieval (AIRS+AMSU) V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a facility instrument aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In combination...

  4. Aqua AIRS Level 2 Support Retrieval (AIRS-only) V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This product is similar to AIRX2SUP. It is newest product produced using AIRS IR only because the radiometric noise in AMSU channel 4 started to increase...

  5. AIRS/Aqua Level 2 Cloud-cleared infrared radiances (AIRS+AMSU) V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a facility instrument aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In combination...

  6. AIRS/Aqua Level 2 Support retrieval (AIRS-only) V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This product is similar to AIRX2SUP. It is newest product produced using AIRS IR only because the radiometric noise in AMSU channel 4 started to increase...

  7. AIRS/Aqua Level 2 Cloud-cleared infrared radiances (AIRS-only) V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This product is similar to AIRI2CCF. It is newest products produced using AIRS IR only because the radiometric noise in AMSU channel 4 started to increase...

  8. Aqua AIRS Near Real Time (NRT) Level 2 Standard Physical Retrieval (AIRS+AMSU) V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a facility instrument aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In combination...

  9. Aqua AIRS Level 2 Cloud-Cleared Infrared Radiances (AIRS+AMSU) V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a facility instrument aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In combination...

  10. AIRS/Aqua Level 2 Support retrieval (AIRS+AMSU) V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a facility instrument aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In combination...

  11. Aqua AIRS Level 2 Cloud-Cleared Infrared Radiances (AIRS-only) V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This product is similar to AIRI2CCF. It is newest products produced using AIRS IR only because the radiometric noise in AMSU channel 4 started to increase...

  12. AIRS/Aqua Level 2 Standard physical retrieval (AIRS+AMSU) V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a facility instrument aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In combination...

  13. Aqua AIRS Level 2 Standard Physical Retrieval (AIRS+AMSU) V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a facility instrument aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In combination...

  14. Aqua AIRS Near Real Time (NRT) Level 2 Support Retrieval (AIRS+AMSU) V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a facility instrument aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In combination...

  15. Urinary 8-oxodeoxyguanosine levels in children exposed to air pollutants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Švecová, Vlasta; Rössner ml., Pavel; Dostál, Miroslav; Topinka, Jan; Solanský, I.; Šrám, Radim

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 662, 1-2 (2009), s. 37-43 ISSN 0027-5107 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SL/5/160/05; GA MŽP(CZ) SP/1B3/50/07 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : air pollution * child health * oxidative stress Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 3.556, year: 2009

  16. Evolution of mechanical properties and final textural properties of resorcinol-formaldehyde xerogels during ambient air drying

    OpenAIRE

    Léonard, Angélique; Blacher, Silvia; Crine, Michel; Jomaa, Wahbi

    2008-01-01

    Porous carbon xerogels can be obtained by convective drying of resorcinol (R)-formaldehyde (F) hydrogels, followed by pyrolysis. Drying conditions have to be carefully controlled when crack-free monoliths with well-defined shape and size are required. The knowledge of the mechanical properties of the RF xerogels and their evolution with water content is essential to model their thermo-hygro-mechanical behavior during convective drying and avoid mechanical stresses leading to deformation and c...

  17. Thin-layer drying of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. cv. Rio Grande) slices in a convective hot air dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demiray, Engin; Tulek, Yahya [Pamukkale University, Engineering Faculty, Department of Food Engineering, Kinikli, Denizli (Turkey)

    2012-05-15

    The effects of different drying temperatures on the drying kinetics of tomato slices were investigated using a cabinet-type dryer. The experimental drying data were fitted best to the to the Page and Modified Page models apart from other theoretical models to predict the drying kinetics. The effective moisture diffusivities varied from 1.015 x 10{sup -9} to 2.650 x 10{sup -9} m {sup 2} s {sup -1}over the temperature range studied, and activation energy was 22.981 kJ mol {sup -1}. (orig.)

  18. Foggy days and dry nights determine crown-level water balance in a seasonal tropical Montane cloud forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotsch, Sybil G; Asbjornsen, Heidi; Holwerda, Friso; Goldsmith, Gregory R; Weintraub, Alexis E; Dawson, Todd E

    2014-01-01

    The ecophysiology of tropical montane cloud forest (TMCF) trees is influenced by crown-level microclimate factors including regular mist/fog water inputs, and large variations in evaporative demand, which in turn can significantly impact water balance. We investigated the effect of such microclimatic factors on canopy ecophysiology and branch-level water balance in the dry season of a seasonal TMCF in Veracruz, Mexico, by quantifying both water inputs (via foliar uptake, FU) and outputs (day- and night-time transpiration, NT). Measurements of sap flow, stomatal conductance, leaf water potential and pressure-volume relations were obtained in Quercus lanceifolia, a canopy-dominant tree species. Our results indicate that FU occurred 34% of the time and led to the recovery of 9% (24 ± 9.1 L) of all the dry-season water transpired from individual branches. Capacity for FU was independently verified for seven additional common tree species. NT accounted for approximately 17% (46 L) of dry-season water loss. There was a strong correlation between FU and the duration of leaf wetness events (fog and/or rain), as well as between NT and the night-time vapour pressure deficit. Our results show the clear importance of fog and NT for the canopy water relations of Q. lanceifolia. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Numerical analysis of the reactivity for the dry lattices above the water level of the critical fuel cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nauchi, Yasushi; Kameyama, Takanori

    2003-01-01

    Criticality analysis has been performed for dozens of tank type cores in which fuel lattices are loaded vertically and partially immersed in light water. The reactivity effect of dry part of lattices stuck above the critical water level has been calculated using the continuous energy Monte Carlo method. The reactivity effect exceeds 0.8% both for MOX and UOX fuel lattices of large buckling (B z 2 > 0.0025 cm -2 ). It is evaluated that at least 20 cm length of fuel rods above the critical water level has significant reactivity effect. (author)

  20. Drying of building lumber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washimi, Hiroshi

    1988-08-20

    Dried lumber is classified into air dried and kiln-dried lumber. The water content of kiln-dried lumber is specified by the Japan Agricultural Standards. However, since building lumber varies in such factors as the location where it was growing, species and shape, the standards, though relaxed, are not being observed. In fact, lumbered products which are not ''Kiln-dried'' frequently bear ''kiln-dried lumber'' marks. In an attempt to correct the situation, the Forestry Agency has set up voluntary standards, but problems still remain. The conventional drying method consists of first subjecting the lumber to optimum drying, then letting bending and deformations to freely and fully appear, and follow this with corrective sawing to produce planks straight from end to end. Compared with air dried lumber in terms of moisture content, kiln-dried lumber remains much with same with minimal shrinkage and expansion. For oil-containing resin, such normal treatments as drying by heating, steaming and boiling seem to be quite effective. Kiln drying, which is becoming more and more important with changes in the circulation system, consists of the steaming-drying-heating method and the dehumidizing type drying method. The major factor which determines the drying cost is the number of days required for drying, which depends largely on the kind of lumber and moisture content. The Forestry Angency is promoting production of defoiled lumber. (2 figs, 2 tables)

  1. Leukotriene-B4 concentrations in exhaled breath condensate and lung function after thirty minutes of breathing technically dried compressed air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Birger; Struck, Niclas; Mutzbauer, Till S; Schotte, Ulrich; Langfeldt, Norbert; Tetzlaff, Kay

    2002-01-01

    In previous studies it had been shown that leukotriene-B4 [LTB4] concentrations in the exhaled breath mirror the inflammatory activity of the airways if the respiratory tract has been exposed to occupational hazards. In diving the respiratory tract is exposed to cold and dry air and the nasopharynx, as the site of breathing-gas warming and humidification, is bypassed. The aim of the present study was to obtain LTB4-concentrations in the exhaled breath and spirometric data of 17 healthy subjects before and after thirty minutes of technically dried air breathing at normobar ambient pressure. The exhaled breath was collected non-invasively, via a permanently cooled expiration tube. The condensate was measured by a standard enzyme immunoassay for LTB4. Lung function values (FVC, FEV1, MEF 25, MEF 50) were simultaneously obtained by spirometry. The measured pre- and post-exposure LTB4- concentrations as well as the lung function values were in the normal range. The present data gave no evidence for any inflammatory activity in the subjects' airways after thirty minutes breathing technically dried air.

  2. NSGA-II Algorithm with a Local Search Strategy for Multiobjective Optimal Design of Dry-Type Air-Core Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengfen Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dry-type air-core reactor is now widely applied in electrical power distribution systems, for which the optimization design is a crucial issue. In the optimization design problem of dry-type air-core reactor, the objectives of minimizing the production cost and minimizing the operation cost are both important. In this paper, a multiobjective optimal model is established considering simultaneously the two objectives of minimizing the production cost and minimizing the operation cost. To solve the multi-objective optimization problem, a memetic evolutionary algorithm is proposed, which combines elitist nondominated sorting genetic algorithm version II (NSGA-II with a local search strategy based on the covariance matrix adaptation evolution strategy (CMA-ES. NSGA-II can provide decision maker with flexible choices among the different trade-off solutions, while the local-search strategy, which is applied to nondominated individuals randomly selected from the current population in a given generation and quantity, can accelerate the convergence speed. Furthermore, another modification is that an external archive is set in the proposed algorithm for increasing the evolutionary efficiency. The proposed algorithm is tested on a dry-type air-core reactor made of rectangular cross-section litz-wire. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm has high efficiency and it converges to a better Pareto front.

  3. Three-dimensional DEM–CFD analysis of air-flow-induced detachment of API particles from carrier particles in dry powder inhalers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiecheng Yang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Air flow and particle–particle/wall impacts are considered as two primary dispersion mechanisms for dry powder inhalers (DPIs. Hence, an understanding of these mechanisms is critical for the development of DPIs. In this study, a coupled DEM–CFD (discrete element method–computational fluid dynamics is employed to investigate the influence of air flow on the dispersion performance of the carrier-based DPI formulations. A carrier-based agglomerate is initially formed and then dispersed in a uniformed air flow. It is found that air flow can drag API particles away from the carrier and those in the downstream air flow regions are prone to be dispersed. Furthermore, the influence of the air velocity and work of adhesion are also examined. It is shown that the dispersion number (i.e., the number of API particles detached from the carrier increases with increasing air velocity, and decreases with increasing the work of adhesion, indicating that the DPI performance is controlled by the balance of the removal and adhesive forces. It is also shown that the cumulative Weibull distribution function can be used to describe the DPI performance, which is governed by the ratio of the fluid drag force to the pull-off force.

  4. Three-dimensional DEM–CFD analysis of air-flow-induced detachment of API particles from carrier particles in dry powder inhalers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiecheng; Wu, Chuan-Yu; Adams, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Air flow and particle–particle/wall impacts are considered as two primary dispersion mechanisms for dry powder inhalers (DPIs). Hence, an understanding of these mechanisms is critical for the development of DPIs. In this study, a coupled DEM–CFD (discrete element method–computational fluid dynamics) is employed to investigate the influence of air flow on the dispersion performance of the carrier-based DPI formulations. A carrier-based agglomerate is initially formed and then dispersed in a uniformed air flow. It is found that air flow can drag API particles away from the carrier and those in the downstream air flow regions are prone to be dispersed. Furthermore, the influence of the air velocity and work of adhesion are also examined. It is shown that the dispersion number (i.e., the number of API particles detached from the carrier) increases with increasing air velocity, and decreases with increasing the work of adhesion, indicating that the DPI performance is controlled by the balance of the removal and adhesive forces. It is also shown that the cumulative Weibull distribution function can be used to describe the DPI performance, which is governed by the ratio of the fluid drag force to the pull-off force. PMID:26579364

  5. Evaluation of browning ratio in an image analysis of apple slices at different stages of instant controlled pressure drop-assisted hot-air drying (AD-DIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Kun; Zhou, Linyan; Bi, Jinfeng; Yi, Jianyong; Wu, Xinye; Zhou, Mo; Wang, Xueyuan; Liu, Xuan

    2017-06-01

    Computer vision-based image analysis systems are widely used in food processing to evaluate quality changes. They are able to objectively measure the surface colour of various products since, providing some obvious advantages with their objectivity and quantitative capabilities. In this study, a computer vision-based image analysis system was used to investigate the colour changes of apple slices dried by instant controlled pressure drop-assisted hot air drying (AD-DIC). The CIE L* value and polyphenol oxidase activity in apple slices decreased during the entire drying process, whereas other colour indexes, including CIE a*, b*, ΔE and C* values, increased. The browning ratio calculated by image analysis increased during the drying process, and a sharp increment was observed for the DIC process. The change in 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) and fluorescent compounds (FIC) showed the same trend with browning ratio due to Maillard reaction. Moreover, the concentrations of 5-HMF and FIC both had a good quadratic correlation (R 2  > 0.998) with the browning ratio. Browning ratio was a reliable indicator of 5-HMF and FIC changes in apple slices during drying. The image analysis system could be used to monitor colour changes, 5-HMF and FIC in dehydrated apple slices during the AD-DIC process. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. An experimental study on the application of polyalcohol solid-solid phase change materials in solar drying with cross-corrugated solar air collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, W. F.; Lin, W. X.; Liu, T.; Li, M.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, two identical solar driers with the same cross-corrugated solar air collectors and drying chamber were developed, one with phase-change materials (PCMs) and the other without PCMs. These two solar drying systems were tested in typical sunny and cloudy days in Kunming and their thermal performances were analyzed. The experimental results show that the temperature changing is smoother in the collector with the PCMs, which is beneficial for the drying as the useful drying time was prolonged. The same trend was also found in the chamber with the PCMs. The PCMs in solar drying system was found to play a role in temperature regulating. There were several cycles of heat charging-discharging in a cloudy testing day while the temperatures on collectors and in chambers with the polyalcohol PCMs is higher than each phase-change temperature. Nevertheless, there was only one cycle of heat charging-discharging in a sunny testing day. The collector with PCMs has higher daily useful heat gain than the collector without PCMs.

  7. Ground level air convection produces frost damage patterns in turfgrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerson, Bruce J; Beier, Richard A; Martin, Dennis L

    2015-11-01

    Frost injury patterns are commonly observed on the warm-season turfgrass species bermudagrass (Cynodon species Rich.), zoysiagrass (Zoysia species Willd.), and buffalograss [Bouteloua dactyloides (Nutt.) J.T. Columbus] in cool-temperate and subtropical zones. Qualitative observations of these injury patterns are presented and discussed. A model for the formation of such patterns based on thermal instability and convection of air is presented. The characteristic length scale of the observed frost pattern injury requires a temperature profile that decreases with height from the soil to the turfgrass canopy surface followed by an increase in temperature with height above the turfgrass canopy. This is justified by extending the earth temperature theory to include a turf layer with atmosphere above it. Then the theory for a thermally unstable layer beneath a stable region by Ogura and Kondo is adapted to a turf layer to include different parameter values for pure air, as well as for turf, which is treated as a porous medium. The earlier porous medium model of Thompson and Daniels proposed to explain frost injury patterns is modified to give reasonable agreement with observed patterns.

  8. Ground level air convection produces frost damage patterns in turfgrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerson, Bruce J.; Beier, Richard A.; Martin, Dennis L.

    2015-11-01

    Frost injury patterns are commonly observed on the warm-season turfgrass species bermudagrass ( Cynodon species Rich.), zoysiagrass ( Zoysia species Willd.), and buffalograss [ Bouteloua dactyloides (Nutt.) J.T. Columbus] in cool-temperate and subtropical zones. Qualitative observations of these injury patterns are presented and discussed. A model for the formation of such patterns based on thermal instability and convection of air is presented. The characteristic length scale of the observed frost pattern injury requires a temperature profile that decreases with height from the soil to the turfgrass canopy surface followed by an increase in temperature with height above the turfgrass canopy. This is justified by extending the earth temperature theory to include a turf layer with atmosphere above it. Then the theory for a thermally unstable layer beneath a stable region by Ogura and Kondo is adapted to a turf layer to include different parameter values for pure air, as well as for turf, which is treated as a porous medium. The earlier porous medium model of Thompson and Daniels proposed to explain frost injury patterns is modified to give reasonable agreement with observed patterns.

  9. Interleukin-6 levels in the conjunctival epithelium of patients with dry eye disease treated with cyclosporine ophthalmic emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, K; Pflugfelder, S C; Ji, Z; Feuer, W J; Stern, M; Reis, B L

    2000-07-01

    To evaluate interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels in the conjunctival epithelium of patients with moderate to severe dry eye disease before and after treatment with cyclosporin A ophthalmic emulsion (CsA) or its vehicle. Conjunctival cytology specimens were obtained from a subset of patients enrolled in a 6-month randomized, double-masked clinical trial of the efficacy and safety of topical CsA at baseline and after 3 and 6 months of B.I.D. treatment with 0.05% cyclosporine emulsion (n = 13), 0.1% cyclosporine emulsion (n = 8), or vehicle (n = 10). RNA was extracted and a competitive reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to evaluate the levels of mRNA encoding the inflammatory cytokine IL-6 and a housekeeping gene, G3PDH. Levels of IL-6 and G3PDH were measured and compared. There was no change from baseline in the level of G3PDH after 3 or 6 months in any group. IL-6 normalized for G3PDH (IL-6/G3PDH ratio) was not different from baseline at 3 months but showed a significant decrease from baseline in the group treated with 0.05% CsA (p = 0.048) at 6 months. No significant between-group differences were noted and no correlation was observed between the change in IL-6/G3PDH and corneal fluorescein staining. This preliminary, small-cohort study showed a decrease in IL-6 in the conjunctival epithelium of moderate to severe dry eye patients treated with 0.05% CsA for 6 months. The observed decrease suggests that dry eye disease involves immune-mediated inflammatory processes that may be decreased by treatment with topical ophthalmic cyclosporine.

  10. Secagem de café cereja descascado por ar quente e microondas Drying pulped coffee cherry beans by means of hot air ond microwaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Cunha

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou estudar a viabilidade de produzir café cereja descascado seco pela aplicação de microondas para assistir a secagem convencional a ar quente, a fim de reduzir o tempo de processo, com o aumento do rendimento industrial e da qualidade do produto perante os métodos tradicionais de secagem. Dois ciclos de secagem foram testados: a processo em secador rotativo convencional a ar quente, com umidade do produto reduzida de 45-50 a 11-13% b.u.; b processo subdividido em uma primeira etapa de pré-secagem convencional a ar quente de 45-50 a 30% b.u., seguida de etapa de secagem final por ar quente e microondas, com redução de 30 a 11-13% b.u. de umidade do produto. O tempo global do primeiro para o segundo ciclo de secagem foi reduzido de 15 a 37,5 para pouco mais de 10 horas, respectivamente. A qualidade sensorial do produto foi avaliada pela "prova da xícara", complementada por análises de microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV, com resultados satisfatórios. Um estudo preliminar dos aspectos econômicos envolvidos na ampliação de escala para uma linha industrial de processamento de café com a inclusão de um sistema a microondas foi também delineado.This research concerns a process development study focussing the application of microwaves to pulped coffee cherries production, in order to reduce the drying time and increase the industrial yield and product quality when compared to conventional drying processes. Two drying cycles were tested: a a hot air drying process using a conventional batch rotary dryer from 45-50 to 11-13% w.b. product moisture; b a two stage process, whereby the product was pre dried with hot air from 45-50 to 30% w.b., followed by a final microwave and hot air drying stage, to reduce product moisture from 30 to 11-13% w.b. The overall drying time was reduced from 15 to 37.5 hours to about 10 hours, respectively. The sensory quality of the product was evaluated by the "cup test", complemented

  11. Do US Ambient Air Lead Levels Have a Significant Impact on Childhood Blood Lead Levels: Results of a National Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LuAnn L. Brink

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Although lead paint and leaded gasoline have not been used in the US for thirty years, thousands of US children continue to have blood lead levels (BLLs of concern. Methods. We investigated the potential association of modeled air lead levels and BLLs ≥ 10 μg/dL using a large CDC database with BLLs on children aged 0–3 years. Percent of children with BLLs ≥ 10 μg/dL (2000–2007 by county and proportion of pre-50 housing and SES variables were merged with the US EPA's National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA modeled air lead data. Results. The proportion with BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL was 1.24% in the highest air lead counties, and the proportion with BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL was 0.36% in the lowest air lead counties, resulting in a crude prevalence ratio of 3.4. Further analysis using multivariate negative binomial regression revealed that NATA lead was a significant predictor of % BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL after controlling for percent pre-l950 housing, percent rural, and percent black. A geospatial regression revealed that air lead, percent older housing, and poverty were all significant predictors of % BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL. Conclusions. More emphasis should be given to potential sources of ambient air lead near residential areas.

  12. A Comprehensive Real-Time Indoor Air-Quality Level Indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungho Kang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The growing concern about Indoor Air-Quality has accelerated the development of small, low-cost air-quality monitoring systems. These systems are capable of monitoring various indoor air pollutants in real time, notifying users about the current air-quality status and gathering the information to the central server. However, most Internet of Things (IoT-based air-quality monitoring systems numerically present the sensed value per pollutant, making it difficult for general users to identify how polluted the air is. Therefore, in this paper, we first introduce a tiny air-quality monitoring system that we developed and, based on the system, we also test the applicability of the comprehensive Air-Quality Index (AQI, which is widely used all over the world, in terms of its capacity for a comprehensive indoor air-quality indication. We also develop design considerations for an IoT-based air-quality monitoring system and propose a real-time comprehensive indoor air-quality level indication method, which effectively copes with dynamic changes and is efficient in terms of processing and memory overhead.

  13. Factors Affecting Parent's Perception on Air Quality-From the Individual to the Community Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yulin; Liu, Fengfeng; Lu, Yuanan; Mao, Zongfu; Lu, Hanson; Wu, Yanyan; Chu, Yuanyuan; Yu, Lichen; Liu, Yisi; Ren, Meng; Li, Na; Chen, Xi; Xiang, Hao

    2016-05-12

    The perception of air quality significantly affects the acceptance of the public of the government's environmental policies. The aim of this research is to explore the relationship between the perception of the air quality of parents and scientific monitoring data and to analyze the factors that affect parents' perceptions. Scientific data of air quality were obtained from Wuhan's environmental condition reports. One thousand parents were investigated for their knowledge and perception of air quality. Scientific data show that the air quality of Wuhan follows an improving trend in general, while most participants believed that the air quality of Wuhan has deteriorated, which indicates a significant difference between public perception and reality. On the individual level, respondents with an age of 40 or above (40 or above: OR = 3.252; 95% CI: 1.170-9.040), a higher educational level (college and above: OR = 7.598; 95% CI: 2.244-25.732) or children with poor healthy conditions (poor: OR = 6.864; 95% CI: 2.212-21.302) have much more negative perception of air quality. On the community level, industrial facilities, vehicles and city construction have major effects on parents' perception of air quality. Our investigation provides baseline information for environmental policy researchers and makers regarding the public's perception and expectation of air quality and the benefits to the environmental policy completing and enforcing.

  14. Interleukin-1β and tumour necrosis factor-α levels in conjunctiva of diabetic patients with symptomatic moderate dry eye: case–control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Xi, Lei; Zhao, Shaozhen; Wei, Ruihua; Huang, Yue; Yang, Ruibo; Su, Long; Liu, Xun

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To compare expression of interleukin (IL)-1β and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α in the conjunctiva of diabetic and non-diabetic patients with symptomatic moderate dry eye. Setting and participants Nineteen diabetic patients with dry eye, 15 non-diabetic patients with dry eye and 14 diabetic patients without dry eye were recruited. The relative expression of IL-1β and TNF-α in conjunctival impression cytology (CIC) specimens was evaluated using immunofluorescent staining and in conjunctival biopsy specimens using immunohistochemical staining. Results The diabetic dry eye group showed significantly higher grades of metaplasia than the non-diabetic dry eye and diabetic without dry eye groups (both pdry eye group was significantly increased compared with the non-diabetic dry eye and diabetic without dry eye groups (p=0.002, pdry eye, while levels of IL-1β and TNF-α in apical conjunctival epithelium were similar in the CIC specimens. These findings suggest that the inflammatory response is not limited to the surface of conjunctival epithelial cells, and is more serious in the basal layer of the epithelium, which may play an important role in the pathogenesis of dry eye in diabetic patients. PMID:27489152

  15. Leaf area development, dry weight accumulation and solar energy conversion efficiencies of Phaseolus vulgaris L. under different soil moisture levels near Nairobi, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muniafu, M.M.; Macharia, J.N.M.; Stigter, C.J.; Coulson, G.L.

    1999-01-01

    Leaf area development, dry weight accumulation and solar energy conversion efficiencies of Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv GLP-2 under two soil moisture levels in two contrasting seasons near Nairobi, Kenya were investigated. The experiment confirms that dry weights and yields of Phaseolus vulgaris are

  16. Association of indoor air pollution with rhinitis symptoms, atopy and nitric oxide levels in exhaled air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hersoug, Lars-Georg; Husemoen, Lise Lotte N; Thomsen, Simon Francis

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) outdoors can induce airway inflammation and exacerbation of asthma in adults. However, there is limited knowledge about the effects of exposure to indoor PM. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of exposure to indoor sources of PM...... with rhinitis symptoms, atopy and nitric oxide in exhaled air (FeNO) as a measure of airway inflammation....

  17. Herbal dryer: drying of ginger (zingiber officinale) using tray dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haryanto, B.; Hasibuan, R.; Alexander; Ashari, M.; Ridha, M.

    2018-02-01

    Drying is widely used as a method to preserve food because of its convenience and affordability. Drying of ginger using tray dryer were carried out at various drying conditions, such as air-drying flow, air-drying temperature, and sample dimensions, to achieve the highest drying rate. Samples with various dimensions were placed in the tray dryer and dried using various air-drying flow and temperatures. The weights of samples were observed every 3 minutes interval. Drying was stopped after three times of constant weighing. Data of drying was collected to make the drying curves. Drying curves show that the highest drying rate is achieved using highest air flow and temperature.

  18. Indoor Levels of Formaldehyde and Other Pollutants and Relationship to Air Exchange Rates and Human Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huangfu, Y.; O'Keeffe, P.; Kirk, M.; Walden, V. P.; Lamb, B. K.; Jobson, B. T.

    2017-12-01

    This paper reports results on an indoor air quality study conducted on six homes in summer and winter, contrasting indoor and outdoor concentrations of O3, CO, CO2, NOx, PM2.5, and selected volatile organic hydrocarbons measured by PTR-MS. Data were collected as 1 minute averages. Air exchange rates of the homes were determined by CO2 tracer release. Smart home sensors, recording human activity level in various places in the home, and window and doors openings, were utilized to better understand the link between human activity and indoor air pollution. From our study, averaged air exchange rates of the homes ranged from 0.2 to 1.2 hour-1 and were greatly affected by the ventilation system type and window and door openings. In general, a negative correlation between air exchange rate and indoor VOCs levels was observed, with large variation of pollutant levels between the homes. For most of the VOCs measured in the house, including formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, summer levels were much higher than winter levels. In some homes formaldehyde levels displayed a time of day variation that was linked to changes in indoor temperature. During a wildfire period in the summer of 2015, outdoor levels of PM2.5, formaldehyde, and benzene dramatically increased, significantly impacting indoor levels due to infiltration. Human activities, such as cooking, can significantly change the levels of most of the compounds measured in the house and the levels can be significantly elevated for short periods of time, with peak levels can be several orders higher compared with typical levels. The data suggest that an outcome of state energy codes that require new homes to be energy efficient, and as a consequence built with lower air exchange rates, will be unacceptable levels of air toxics, notably formaldehyde.

  19. Effect of inspired air conditions on exercise-induced bronchoconstriction and urinary CC16 levels in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolger, C; Tufvesson, E; Anderson, S D; Devereux, G; Ayres, J G; Bjermer, L; Sue-Chu, M; Kippelen, P

    2011-10-01

    Injury to the airway epithelium has been proposed as a key susceptibility factor for exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB). Our goals were to establish whether airway epithelial cell injury occurs during EIB in athletes and whether inhalation of warm humid air inhibits this injury. Twenty-one young male athletes (10 with a history of EIB) performed two 8-min exercise tests near maximal aerobic capacity in cold dry (4°C, 37% relative humidity) and warm humid (25°C, 94% relative humidity) air on separate days. Postexercise changes in urinary CC16 were used as a biomarker of airway epithelial cell perturbation and injury. Bronchoconstriction occurred in eight athletes in the cold dry environment and was completely blocked by inhalation of warm humid air [maximal fall in forced expiratory volume in 1 s = 18.1 ± 2.1% (SD) in cold dry air and 1.7 ± 0.8% in warm humid air, P air [median CC16 increase pre- to postchallenge = 1.91 and 0.35 ng/μmol in cold dry and warm humid air, respectively, in athletes with EIB (P = 0.017) and 1.68 and 0.48 ng/μmol in cold dry and warm humid air, respectively, in athletes without EIB (P = 0.002)]. The results indicate that exercise hyperpnea transiently disrupts the airway epithelium of all athletes (not only in those with EIB) and that inhalation of warm moist air limits airway epithelial cell perturbation and injury.

  20. URBAN MORPHOLOGY AND AIR QUALITY IN DENSE RESIDENTIAL ENVIRONMENTS: CORRELATIONS BETWEEN MORPHOLOGICAL PARAMETERS AND AIR POLLUTION AT STREET-LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRIYANTHA EDUSSURIYA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study is the second part of the series that identifies whether site-specific urban morphological parameters are correlated with air quality. This study aims to identify the most important urban morphological parameters that affects air quality at street level that affect air quality in metropolis like Hong Kong through field measurements and statistical analyses. The study considers 20 urban residential areas in five major districts of Hong Kong and real-time street level air pollutant and microclimatic data are collected from these areas. 21 morphological variables are identified and calculated based on the geometry of the urban fabric. Using principal component analyses, it is shown that out of the many urban morphological factors, only five morphological variables (plan area density, occlusivity, aerodynamic roughness height, mean built volume, compactness factor and four land development factors (aspect ratio, distance between building, mean building height and standard deviation of building height correlate with particulate matter. Besides mineralisation factor, contiguity and canyon ratio marginally correlate with particulate matter. On the other hand, nine variables (plan area density, compactness factor, occlusivity, aerodynamic roughness height, average size of building volume, aspect ratio, distance between buildings, mean building height and standard deviations of building heights correlate with NOx. All others play insignificant roles in street-level pollution effect. Moreover statistical analyses show little correlation between CO and ozone with urban morphological parameters. It is also established that the key microclimatic variables that connects PM and NOx with the urban morphological factors are northerly wind, relative humidity and temperature, which in turn translates to affecting the street-level air pollution.

  1. Influence of the moisture at harvest and drying process of the grains on the level of carotenoids in maize (Zea mays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilton Soares CARDOSO

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractMaize is considered a source of carotenoids; however, these compounds are highly unstable, degraded by high temperatures, exposure to light and presence of oxygen. The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of the moisture and type of drying applied to grains on the level of carotenoids in yellow maize. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design (2 × 4 factorial, two levels of initial moisture at the harvest (22 and 19% and three types of drying (in the sun; in the shade and in a dryer and control (no drying. The samples of grains after drying with 12% of final moisture were analyzed by concentration of total carotenoids, carotenes (α-carotene + β-carotene, monohydroxilated carotenoids (β-cryptoxanthin, and xanthophylls (lutein + zeaxanthin. Initial moisture, type of drying and the interaction between moisture versus drying influence (p≤0.05 the levels of carotenoids in grains. This is the first report about the drying conditions and harvest’s initial moisture as influence on the profile and content of carotenoids in maize grains. Based on the results, this work suggested that the harvest be carried out preferably when the grains present 22% humidity, with drying in a dryer or in shade for further use or storage.

  2. Be-7 measured at ground air level and rainfall in the city of Sao Paulo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damatto, Sandra R.; Souza, Joseilton M.; Frujuele, Jonatan V.; Maduar, Marcelo F.; Leonardo, Lucio; Pecequilo, Brigitte R.S.

    2013-01-01

    The cosmogenic radionuclide 7 Be (T 1/2 = 53.3 d), produced in the upper atmosphere by cosmic ray spallation of oxygen and nitrogen, is one of the cosmogenic radionuclides that can be used as tracer for heavy metals and pollutants in the environment, tracer of soil erosion and sedimentation in lakes, among other examples. Their subsequent deposition to the land surface occurs as both wet and dry fallout, although it has been demonstrated that 7 Be fallout is primarily associated with precipitation. There is limited data on the concentration of 7 Be in rainfall and in particulate in the Southern Hemisphere and in Brazil, compared with data from the Northern Hemisphere. This paper presents the results obtained of 7 Be concentrations measured from April 2011 to June 2013, in samples of air at ground level, each fifteen days, and rainfall in all the rainy events that occurred at Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), which has its campus located in the city of Sao Paulo, state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The concentrations of 7 Be were measured by non-destructive gamma-ray spectrometry using an extended range closed-end coaxial Be-layer HPGe detector with 25% relative efficiency and associated electronic devices and live counting time varying from 100,000 s to 300,000 s. The results obtained of 7 Be in particulate and in rainfall were correlated to seasons, precipitation, temperature and sunspot number. The higher values obtained for the concentrations were in spring and summer time presenting good correlations with the amount of precipitation and sunspot number and a clear seasonal variation. (author)

  3. Validation and development of an immunonephelometric assay for the determination of alpha-1 antitrypsin levels in dried blood spots from patients with COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Russo Zillmer

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To validate and develop an immunonephelometric assay for the determination of alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT levels in dried blood spots from COPD patients in Brazil. METHODS: We determined AAT levels in serum samples and dried blood spots from 192 COPD patients. For the preparation of dried blood spots, a disk (diameter, 6 mm was placed into a tube, eluted with 200 µL of PBS, and stored overnight at 4ºC. All of the samples were analyzed by immunonephelometry in duplicate. We used the bootstrap resampling method in order to determine a cut-off point for AAT levels in dried blood spots. RESULTS: The correlation coefficient between the AAT levels in serum samples and those in dried blood spots was r = 0.45. For dried blood spots, the cut-off value was 2.02 mg/dL (97% CI: 1.45-2.64 mg/dL, with a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 100%, 95.7%, 27.2%, and 100%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This method for the determination of AAT levels in dried blood spots appears to be a reliable screening tool for patients with AAT deficiency.

  4. Effect of air-temperature and diet composition on the drying process of pellets for japanese abalone (Haliotis discus hannai feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Vega-Gálvez

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the effect of air-temperature and diet composition on the mass transfer kinetics during the drying process of pellets used for Japanese Abalone (Haliotis discus hannai feeding. In the experimental design, three temperatures were used for convective drying, as well as three different diet compositions (Diets A, B and C, in which the amount of fishmeal, spirulin, algae, fish oil and cornstarch varied. The water diffusion coefficient of the pellets was determined using the equation of Fick's second law, which resulted in values between 0.84-1.94×10-10 m²/s. The drying kinetics was modeled using Page, Modified Page, Root of time, Exponential, Logarithmic, Two-Terms, Modified Henderson-Pabis and Weibull models. In addition, two new models, referred to as 'Proposed' models 1 and 2, were used to simulate this process. According to the statistical tests applied, the models that best fitted the experimental data were Modified Henderson-Pabis, Weibull and Proposed model 2, respectively. Bifactorial analysis of variance ANOVA showed that Diet A (fishmeal 44%, spirulin 9%, fish oil 1% and cornstarch 36% presented the highest diffusion coefficient values, which were favored by the temperature increase in the drying process.

  5. The use of distillers dried grains plus solubles as a feed ingredient on air emissions and performance from laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu-Haan, W; Powers, W; Angel, R; Applegate, T J

    2010-07-01

    The objectives of the current study were to evaluate the effect of feeding diets containing 0, 10, or 20% distillers dried grains plus solubles (DDGS) to laying hens (21 to 26 wk of age) on emissions of NH3 and H2S. Hy-Line W-36 hens (n = 640) were allocated randomly to 8 environmental rooms for a 5-wk period (hens in 3 rooms were offered the 10% and 20% DDGS diets each; hens in 2 rooms were offered the 0% DDGS diet). Diets were formulated to contain similar CP levels (18.3%), nonphytate P (0.46%), and Ca (4.2%). On an analyzed basis, the 0, 10, and 20% DDGS diets contained 0.22, 0.27, and 0.42% S. Egg weight (50.9 g), egg production (85%), and feed intake (87.9 g/hen per d) were unaffected by diet (P > 0.05) over the study period. Daily NH3 emissions from hens fed diets containing 0, 10, and 20% DDGS were 105.4, 91.7, and 80.2 mg/g of N consumed, respectively (P hens fed commercial diets containing 0, 10, and 20% DDGS were 2.6, 2.4, and 1.1 mg/g of S consumed, respectively. Overall, feeding 21- to 26-wk-old laying hens diets containing 20% DDGS decreased daily NH3 emissions by 24% and H2S emissions by 58%. Each hen emitted approximately 280 mg of NH3 and 0.5 mg of H2S daily when fed a control diet containing 18% CP and 0.2% S. The results of this study demonstrate that 20% DDGS derived from ethanol production can be fed to laying hens, resulting in lower emissions of NH3 and H2S with no apparent adverse effects on hen performance.

  6. Evolution of thermo-physical properties of Akuama (picralima nitida) seed and antioxidants retention capacity during hot air drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndukwu, M. C.; Bennamoun, L.; Anozie, O.

    2018-05-01

    Interest in picralima nitida is growing over the years because of its therapeutic application in human and animal medicine. In many countries the dried seed is compounded and sold as drugs but there is limited information on the process variables associated with its thermal processing. The study therefore, is focused on the evolution of physical properties, heat and mass transfer coefficient, specific heat capacity, energy utilization and quality characteristics of the seed during oven and microwave drying. The goal is to generate data using theoretical and empirical steps for process model development that can be applied in dryer design. The results obtained showed that the coefficient of heat and mass transfer varied from 0.0421-1.326 W/m2 K and 1.49 × 10-7 - 8.47 × 10-6 m/s respectively while the specific heat capacity ranged between 1189 and 2531 J/ kg K. The volume of the seed shrank gradually with a non-linear exponential shape for all drying treatments. The intrinsic particle and bulk densities decreased while the porosity of the seed increased with drying period, indicating an increase in internal voids of the seeds. The energy and specific energy utilized for drying peaked after 14 h, 12 h and 7 h of continuous drying at 50, 60 and 70 °C for oven drying treatment. Effective moisture diffusivities for all treatments ranged from 5.37 × 10-10 - 1.45 × 10-7 m/s2 with activation energy of 27.82 kJ/mol and 20 W/g for oven and microwave respectively. Flavonoide was the least stable at high temperature among the screend compound.

  7. Tolerance Levels of Roadside Trees to Air Pollutants Based on Relative Growth Rate and Air Pollution Tolerance Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SULISTIJORINI

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Motor vehicles release carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide, and particulate matters to the air as pollutants. Vegetation can absorb these pollutants through gas exchange processes. The objective of this study was to examine the combination of the relative growth rate (RGR and physiological responses in determining tolerance levels of plant species to air pollutants. Physiological responses were calculated as air pollution tolerance index (APTI. Eight roadside tree species were placed at polluted (Jagorawi highway and unpolluted (Sindangbarang field area. Growth and physiological parameters of the trees were recorded, including plant height, leaf area, total ascorbate, total chlorophyll, leaf-extract pH, and relative water content. Scoring criteria for the combination of RGR and APTI method was given based on means of the two areas based on two-sample t test. Based on the total score of RGR and APTI, Lagerstroemia speciosa was categorized as a tolerant species; and Pterocarpus indicus, Delonix regia, Swietenia macrophylla were categorized as moderately tolerant species. Gmelina arborea, Cinnamomum burmanii, and Mimusops elengi were categorized as intermediate tolerant species. Lagerstroemia speciosa could be potentially used as roadside tree. The combination of RGR and APTI value was better to determinate tolerance level of plant to air pollutant than merely APTI method.

  8. Theoretical and experimental drying of a cylindrical sample by applying hot air and infrared radiation in an inert medium fluidized bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Honarvar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Drying of a cylindrical sample in a fluidized bed dryer containing inert particles was studied. For this purpose, a pilot-scaled fluidized bed dryer was constructed in which two different heat sources, hot air and infrared radiation were applied, and pieces of carrot were chosen as test samples. The heat transfer coefficient for cylindrical objects in a fluidized bed was also measured. The heat absorption coefficient for carrot was studied. The absorption coefficient can be computed by dividing the absorbed heat by the carrot to the heat absorbed for the water and black ink. In this regard, absorbed heat values by the carrot, water and black ink were used A mathematical model was proposed based on the mass and heat transfer phenomena within the drying sample. The results obtained by the proposed model were in favorable agreement with the experimental data.

  9. Dried sausages fermented with Staphylococcus xylosus at different temperatures and with different ingredient levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahnke, Marie Louise Heller

    1995-01-01

    headspace sampling and quantified and identified by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The effects of temperature and different ingredients on the levels of individual volatiles were tested using multiple linear regression and analysis of variance. The study showed that sausages...

  10. Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels and Dry Eye Syndrome: Differential Effects of Vitamin D on Ocular Diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghyun Jee

    Full Text Available To investigate associations between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and dry eye syndrome (DES, and to evaluate the differential effect of vitamin D on ocular diseases including age-related macular disease (AMD, diabetic retinopathy (DR, cataract, and DES.A total of 16,396 participants aged >19 years were randomly selected from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. All participants participated in standardized interviews, blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D level evaluations, and comprehensive ophthalmic examinations. DES was defined by a history of clinical diagnosis of dry eyes by a physician. The association between vitamin D and DES was compared to the associations between vitamin D and AMD, DR, cataract, and DES from our previous studies.The odds of DES non-significantly decreased as the quintiles of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels increased (quintile 5 versus 1, OR = 0.85, 95%CI: 0.55-1.30, P for trend = 0.076 after adjusting for potential confounders including age, sex, hypertension, diabetes, smoking status, and sunlight exposure times. The relative odds of DES (OR = 0.70, 95% CI: 0.30-1.64 and cataract (OR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.59-0.99 were relatively high, while those of DR (OR = 0.37, 95% CI: 0.18-0.76 and late AMD (OR = 0.32, 95% CI: 0.12-0.81 were lower in men.The present study does not support an association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and DES. The preventive effect of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D may be more effective for DR and late AMD than it is for cataract and DES.

  11. Dried sausages fermented with Staphylococcus xylosus at different temperatures and with different ingredient levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahnke, Marie Louise Heller

    1995-01-01

    Sausages with added Staphylococcus xylosus were fermented at different temperatures and with different added levels of salt, glucose, nitrite, nitrate and Pediococcus pentosaceus in accordance with a six factor fractional design. The numbers of surviving Staphylococcus xylosus, lactic acid bacteria......, pH, free fatty acids and residual amounts of nitrite and nitrate were measured. The effects of temperature and different ingredients on the chemical and bacterial data were tested using multiple linear regression and analysis of variance. The study showed that numbers of surviving Staphylococcus...... of glucose and Pediococcus pentosaceus. On the other hand pH was increased by addition of nitrate. The pH-lowering effect of glucose was small when temperature was low. The residual levels of nitrite and nitrate were increased by addition of nitrate, but then increased and decreased, respectively...

  12. Qualidade das sementes de pinhão manso submetidas à secagem artificial Seed quality of jatropha under different drying air conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Ullmann

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Na fase de pós-colheita do pinhão manso a secagem é o processo mais utilizado para assegurar sua qualidade e estabilidade. Assim, objetivou-se no presente trabalho analisar a secagem das sementes de pinhão manso, bem como verificar o efeito das diversas condições de ar na qualidade do produto, por meio das análises de condutividade elétrica, absorção de água, porcentagem de germinação e índice de velocidade de germinação (IVG. A secagem foi realizada em secador experimental testando as temperaturas de 30; 40; 50; 60 e 70 ºC, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Verificou-se que o aumento da temperatura do ar de secagem aumenta os danos nas sementes de pinhão manso, porém não interfere na absorção de água do produto. Já a germinação se mateve elevada, mesmo na temperatura de secagem mais alta, apresentando valores acima de 91% e o IVG não apresentou diferenças estatísticas. Portanto, conclui-se que a qualidade fisiológica das sementes de pinhão manso é afetada pela temperatura de secagem.The post-harvest drying of jatropha is the most frequently used process to ensure quality and stability. The aim of this work was to analyze the seed drying of jatropha and check the effect of air conditions on seed quality, through electrical conductivity, water absorption germination test and index of germination velocity (IGV. Drying was done in an experimental drier, testing controlled temperatures of 30; 40; 50; 60 and 70 ºC, in a randomized design with four replications. It was found that increasing the temperature of the drying air increases the damage on the seeds of jatropha, but does not interfere with water absorption of the product. The germination is high even at the highest drying temperature, with values above 91% and IVG did not show statistical differences. Therefore, it was concluded that the physiological quality of seeds of Jatropha curcas is affected by drying temperature.

  13. Supply of dry ambient air in Alstroemenia. Test on the impact of the supply of dry ambient air on the microclimate and crops in alstroemeria; Droge buitenlucht toevoeren in Alstroemeria. Praktijkproef naar de invloed van droge buitenlucht toevoeren op microklimaat en gewas in alstroemeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Helm, F.; Van Weel, P.; Raaphorst, M.

    2012-08-15

    After one year of dry air distribution in Alstroemeria it is shown that it can effectively lower the vapour deficit between the leaves. It resulted in a decrease of leaf tip damage of 70% compared to the reference, but not to a decrease of spontaneously broken stems. The research is conducted in practice at Hoogenboom Alstroemeria on 1000 m{sup 2} within a larger greenhouse compartment planted with the variety 'Primadonna'. Wageningen UR has conducted the research with an air distribution system of 8 m{sup 3}/m{sup 2} from supplier Lekhabo. The dry air was distributed in the crop by two transparent air tubes. Climate could not be controlled in the research area separate from the reference, therefore more dry air was required than expected, which is contradictive with energy saving. Growers that want to use dry air to either to prevent leaf tips or to save energy will have to find a balance between these two benefits that partly contradict. Both advantages are required to make the investment profitable. It is calculated that nurseries with a relatively small heat and power cogeneration and greenhouses that are already equipped with a second screen can probably profitably invest in a simple and small capacity dry air distribution system [Dutch] Na ruim een jaar opgewarmde buitenlucht toevoeren in Alstroemeria is duidelijk geworden dat hiermee effectief het vocht deficit tussen het gewas verlaagd kan worden. Dit leidde in dit onderzoek tot een afname van vochtblaadjes van 70%, maar niet tot minder afgroeiers. De proef is uitgevoerd in 1000 m{sup 2} binnen een afdeling met het ras Primadonna bij het bedrijf Hoogenboom alstroemeria in Nieuwe Wetering. De proef is door Wageningen UR glastuinbouw uitgevoerd met een installatie voor aanvoer van 8m{sup 3}/m{sup 2} per uur lucht door twee slurven aan de zijkant van het bed. In de proefomgeving kon het klimaat niet apart geregeld worden op het toevoeren van buitenlucht. Hierdoor is steeds relatief veel buitenlucht

  14. Kriged and modeled ambient air levels of benzene in an urban environment: an exposure assessment study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Dejian

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing concern regarding the potential adverse health effects of air pollution, particularly hazardous air pollutants (HAPs. However, quantifying exposure to these pollutants is problematic. Objective Our goal was to explore the utility of kriging, a spatial interpolation method, for exposure assessment in epidemiologic studies of HAPs. We used benzene as an example and compared census tract-level kriged predictions to estimates obtained from the 1999 U.S. EPA National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA, Assessment System for Population Exposure Nationwide (ASPEN model. Methods Kriged predictions were generated for 649 census tracts in Harris County, Texas using estimates of annual benzene air concentrations from 17 monitoring sites operating in Harris and surrounding counties from 1998 to 2000. Year 1999 ASPEN modeled estimates were also obtained for each census tract. Spearman rank correlation analyses were performed on the modeled and kriged benzene levels. Weighted kappa statistics were computed to assess agreement between discretized kriged and modeled estimates of ambient air levels of benzene. Results There was modest correlation between the predicted and modeled values across census tracts. Overall, 56.2%, 40.7%, 31.5% and 28.2% of census tracts were classified as having 'low', 'medium-low', 'medium-high' and 'high' ambient air levels of benzene, respectively, comparing predicted and modeled benzene levels. The weighted kappa statistic was 0.26 (95% confidence interval (CI = 0.20, 0.31, indicating poor agreement between the two methods. Conclusions There was a lack of concordance between predicted and modeled ambient air levels of benzene. Applying methods of spatial interpolation for assessing exposure to ambient air pollutants in health effect studies is hindered by the placement and number of existing stationary monitors collecting HAP data. Routine monitoring needs to be expanded if we are to use these data

  15. Intermittent Coffee Drying in Deep Bed with Pulsed Airflow Secado de Café en Lecho Fijo con Intermitencia Térmica y Flujo de Aire Pulsado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor José Ciro Velásquez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A dryer in deep bed without airflow reversal was adapted to work simultaneously with thermal intermittence and pulsed airflow in the drying of parchment coffee bean. The dryer was operated by cycles of thermal intermittence for a heating temperature of 55 °C and cooling of 40 and 25 °C. The results showed that the increase of temperature in the cycle of cooling tends to increase the water removal and that the increase of the number of air pulses without reversal of the direction of air flow causes an excessive moisture gradient within the batch. Moreover, the specific energy requirement of the dryer was from 15 to 25 MJ/kg, showing the best thermal performance for the condition in which the dryer was operate without pulsed airflow.Un secador de lecho fijo fue adaptado para trabajar de forma simultánea con intermitencia térmica y flujo de aire pulsado sin inversión de flujo de aire, en el secado de granos de café. El secador fue operado con ciclos de intermitencia térmica para una temperatura de calentamiento de 55 °C y enfriamiento de 40 y 25 °C. Los resultados mostraron que el aumento de temperatura en el ciclo de enfriamiento, tiende a incrementar la remoción de agua y que el aumento del número de pulsos de aire sin inversión del flujo de dirección del aire, ocasiona un secado deficiente debido al excesivo gradiente de humedad ocasionado en la capa de producto. Adicionalmente, se encontró que el consumo de energía específica del secador varió entre 15 y 25 MJ/kg de agua evaporada, siendo el mejor rendimiento termo energético para la condición en la cual el secador fue operado sin flujo de aire pulsado.

  16. Loosely coupled level sets for retinal layers and drusen segmentation in subjects with dry age-related macular degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novosel, Jelena; Wang, Ziyuan; de Jong, Henk; Vermeer, Koenraad A.; van Vliet, Lucas J.

    2016-03-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is used to produce high-resolution three-dimensional images of the retina, which permit the investigation of retinal irregularities. In dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a chronic eye disease that causes central vision loss, disruptions such as drusen and changes in retinal layer thicknesses occur which could be used as biomarkers for disease monitoring and diagnosis. Due to the topology disrupting pathology, existing segmentation methods often fail. Here, we present a solution for the segmentation of retinal layers in dry AMD subjects by extending our previously presented loosely coupled level sets framework which operates on attenuation coefficients. In eyes affected by AMD, Bruch's membrane becomes visible only below the drusen and our segmentation framework is adapted to delineate such a partially discernible interface. Furthermore, the initialization stage, which tentatively segments five interfaces, is modified to accommodate the appearance of drusen. This stage is based on Dijkstra's algorithm and combines prior knowledge on the shape of the interface, gradient and attenuation coefficient in the newly proposed cost function. This prior knowledge is incorporated by varying the weights for horizontal, diagonal and vertical edges. Finally, quantitative evaluation of the accuracy shows a good agreement between manual and automated segmentation.

  17. Dried sausages fermented with Staphylococcus xylosus at different temperatures and with different ingredient levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waade, C.; Waade, Charlotte

    1997-01-01

    Sausages with added Staphylococcus xylosus were fermented at different temperatures and with different added levels of salt, glucose, nitrite, nitrate and Pediococcus pentosaceus in accordance with a six-factor fractional design. The amounts of individual amino acids were measured and the effects...... that the amounts of the volatile compounds, 2-methyl propanal, 2- and 3-methyl butanal, were inversely correlated with the amounts of valine, isoleucine and leucine, respectively, indicating that those volatiles were degradation products of the latter. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd....

  18. Dried sausages fermented with Staphylococcus xylosus at different temperatures and with different ingredient levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahnke, Marie Louise Heller

    1995-01-01

    Sausages with added Staphylococcus xylosus were fermented at different temperatures and with different added levels of salt, glucose, nitrite, nitrate and Pediococcus pentosaceus in accordance with a six factor fractional design. The odour of the sausages was evaluated by a quantitative descriptive...... tested using multiple linear regression and analysis of variance. The study showed that salami odour was more pronounced in sausages fermented at low temperature than in sausages fermented at high temperature and added nitrite, glucose and P. pentosaceus. High temperature sausages had a more sour...

  19. Can forced hot air quickly dry feces on transport cage flooring and eliminate campylobacter before cage re-use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allowing feces left on transport coops to dry is an effective way to reduce numbers of viable Campylobacter left by positive flocks. The problem with this approach is that poultry processors do not have the time, space or resources to maintain several times the minimum number of transport cages that...

  20. CFD Analysis to Calculate the Optimal Air Velocity in Drying Green Tea Process Using Fluidized Bed Dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yohana, Eflita; Nugraha, Afif Prasetya; Diana, Ade Eva; Mahawan, Ilham; Nugroho, Sri

    2018-02-01

    Tea processing is basically distinguished into three types which black tea, green tea, and oolong tea. Green tea is processed by heating and drying the leaves. Green tea factories in Indonesia are generally using the process of drying by panning the leaves. It is more recommended to use the fluidization process to speed up the drying process as the quality of the tea can be maintained. Bubbling fluidization is expected to occur in this research. It is a process of bubbles are formed in the fluidization. The effectiveness of the drying process in a fluidized bed dryer machine needs to be improved by using a CFD simulation method to proof that umf < u < ut, where the average velocity value is limited by the minimum and the maximum velocity of the calculation the experimental data. The minimum and the maximum velocity value of the fluidization is 0.96 m/s and 8.2 m/s. The result of the simulation obtained that the average velocity of the upper bed part is 1.81 m/s. From the results obtained, it can be concluded that the calculation and the simulation data is in accordance with the condition of bubbling fluidization in fluidized bed dryer.

  1. A revised global ozone dry deposition estimate based on a new two-layer parameterisation for air-sea exchange and the multi-year MACC composition reanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhar, Ashok K.; Woodhouse, Matthew T.; Galbally, Ian E.

    2018-03-01

    Dry deposition at the Earth's surface is an important sink of atmospheric ozone. Currently, dry deposition of ozone to the ocean surface in atmospheric chemistry models has the largest uncertainty compared to deposition to other surface types, with implications for global tropospheric ozone budget and associated radiative forcing. Most global models assume that the dominant term of surface resistance in the parameterisation of ozone dry deposition velocity at the oceanic surface is constant. There have been recent mechanistic parameterisations for air-sea exchange that account for the simultaneous waterside processes of ozone solubility, molecular diffusion, turbulent transfer, and first-order chemical reaction of ozone with dissolved iodide and other compounds, but there are questions about their performance and consistency. We present a new two-layer parameterisation scheme for the oceanic surface resistance by making the following realistic assumptions: (a) the thickness of the top water layer is of the order of a reaction-diffusion length scale (a few micrometres) within which ozone loss is dominated by chemical reaction and the influence of waterside turbulent transfer is negligible; (b) in the water layer below, both chemical reaction and waterside turbulent transfer act together and are accounted for; and (c) chemical reactivity is present through the depth of the oceanic mixing layer. The new parameterisation has been evaluated against dry deposition velocities from recent open-ocean measurements. It is found that the inclusion of only the aqueous iodide-ozone reaction satisfactorily describes the measurements. In order to better quantify the global dry deposition loss and its interannual variability, modelled 3-hourly ozone deposition velocities are combined with the 3-hourly MACC (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate) reanalysis ozone for the years 2003-2012. The resulting ozone dry deposition is found to be 98.4 ± 30.0 Tg O3 yr-1 for the ocean

  2. Locating room air-conditioners at floor level for energy saving in residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, C.F.; Lee, W.L.; Chen Hua

    2009-01-01

    Residential air-conditioning becomes a common feature in our daily life. They are typically installed at high level known as ceiling-based system (CAC). With the increasing use of floor-based air-conditioning system in commercial buildings for energy saving, it is proposed in this study to locate a top discharge/front return air-conditioner at floor level to resemble a floor-based air-conditioning system (FAC) to curb energy use in residential buildings. Given the concerns about draught discomfort and thermal stratification associated with floor-based air-conditioning systems, the objective of this study is to evaluate the air distribution performance and to quantify the possible energy benefits. Bedroom was chosen as a sensitive case for detailed air distribution performance evaluation. Experimental study, CFD simulations and energy simulations were conducted in achieving the specific objectives. CAC and FAC were installed in a bedroom-like environmental chamber for experimental study at different indoor and outdoor conditions. The air velocities and temperatures at various positions and levels inside the chamber were measured to determine the air distribution performance indices (ADPI) and airflow draft risk (DR). The cooling output, power consumption and coefficient of performance (COP) of the two units were measured and calculated for comparison. The experimental results show that ADPI of CAC and FAC are 92.3% and 84.6%, respectively. COP of FAC is 8.11% higher than CAC, and the corresponding DR are comparable. The experimental results were used to validate the CFD simulations as well as providing actual performance data for predicting the energy use of applying CAC and FAC in a case-study building. CFD simulations and draught assessment confirmed that there is no potential draught discomfort and thermal stratification associated with the use of FAC. Energy simulations predicted that the associated energy saving is 6.9%. Wider use of FAC in residential

  3. Locating room air-conditioners at floor level for energy saving in residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, C.F.; Lee, Hua; Chen, W.L. [Department of Building Services Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom (China)

    2009-08-15

    Residential air-conditioning becomes a common feature in our daily life. They are typically installed at high level known as ceiling-based system (CAC). With the increasing use of floor-based air-conditioning system in commercial buildings for energy saving, it is proposed in this study to locate a top discharge/front return air-conditioner at floor level to resemble a floor-based air-conditioning system (FAC) to curb energy use in residential buildings. Given the concerns about draught discomfort and thermal stratification associated with floor-based air-conditioning systems, the objective of this study is to evaluate the air distribution performance and to quantify the possible energy benefits. Bedroom was chosen as a sensitive case for detailed air distribution performance evaluation. Experimental study, CFD simulations and energy simulations were conducted in achieving the specific objectives. CAC and FAC were installed in a bedroom-like environmental chamber for experimental study at different indoor and outdoor conditions. The air velocities and temperatures at various positions and levels inside the chamber were measured to determine the air distribution performance indices (ADPI) and airflow draft risk (DR). The cooling output, power consumption and coefficient of performance (COP) of the two units were measured and calculated for comparison. The experimental results show that ADPI of CAC and FAC are 92.3% and 84.6%, respectively. COP of FAC is 8.11% higher than CAC, and the corresponding DR are comparable. The experimental results were used to validate the CFD simulations as well as providing actual performance data for predicting the energy use of applying CAC and FAC in a case-study building. CFD simulations and draught assessment confirmed that there is no potential draught discomfort and thermal stratification associated with the use of FAC. Energy simulations predicted that the associated energy saving is 6.9%. Wider use of FAC in residential

  4. The effect of dry period length and postpartum level of concentrate on milk production, energy balance, and plasma metabolites of dairy cows across the dry period and in early lactation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeij, van R.J.; Dijkstra, J.; Bruckmaier, R.M.; Gross, J.J.; Lam, T.J.G.M.; Remmelink, G.J.; Kemp, B.; Knegsel, van A.T.M.

    2017-01-01

    Shortening or omitting the dry period (DP) improves energy balance (EB) in early lactation because of a reduction in milk yield. Lower milk yield results in lower energy demands and requires less energy intake. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of DP length and concentrate level

  5. Experimental study of the application of two trickle media for inlet air pre-cooling of natural draft dry cooling towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Suoying; Guan, Zhiqiang; Gurgenci, Hal; Hooman, Kamel; Lu, Yuanshen; Alkhedhair, Abdullah M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Two trickle media were experimentally studied in a low-speed wind tunnel. • Correlations for cooling efficiency and pressure drop were developed. • Both trickle media were proven to have relatively low pressure drops. • Both trickle media had severe water entrainment at large air velocities. - Abstract: This paper is part two of a broader investigation into pre-cooling the air that enters natural draft dry cooling towers. Evaporative cooling of air is to some extent different from evaporative cooling of water. Two trickle media (Trickle125 and Trickle100) originally designed for evaporative cooling of water were studied in an open-circuit wind tunnel for evaporative cooling of air. Three medium thicknesses (200, 300 and 450 mm) and two water flow rates (10 and 5 l/min per m 2 horizontally exposed surface area) were used in the tests. The air velocities ranged from 0.5 to 3.0 m/s. The cooling efficiency and the pressure drop of the two media were curve fitted to yield a set of correlations. The pressure drop ranges for Trickle125 and Trickle100 were 0.7–50 Pa and 0.6–41.6 Pa, respectively. The cooling efficiencies of Trickle125 and Trickle100 fell within 15.7–55.1% and 11–44.4%, respectively. Generally, media with large effective surfaces provide high cooling efficiencies and high pressure drops; there is a trade-off between cooling efficiency and pressure drop when selecting a particular medium for a specific application. The water entrainment off the media was detected with water-sensitive papers, and both media had severe water entrainment at large air velocities

  6. Low-level NOx removal in ambient air by pulsed corona technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beckers, F.J.C.M.; Hoeben, W.F.L.M.; Pemen, A.J.M.; Heesch, van E.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Although removal of NOx by (pulsed) corona discharges has been thoroughly investigated for high concentrations of NOx in flue gas, removal of low levels in ambient air proves to be a difficult task. (Sub) ppm NOx levels exist in traffic tunnels due to accumulation of exhaust gases. The application

  7. The Influence od Air Temperature and Barometric Pressure on Radon and Carbon Dioxide Levels in Air of a Karst Cave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obu, K.; Cencur Curk, B.; Gregoric, A.; Smerajec, M.; Vaupotic, J.; Fujiyoshi, R.; Sakuta, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive noble gas radon (222Rn) is created in minerals by radioactive transformation of 226Ra within the 238U natural decay chain. It migrates through the ground, accumulates in underground rooms (e. g., karst caves) and eventually enters the atmosphere. It is always present in our living and working environment. Because of its harmful health effect, it presents a serious social concern but is, on the other hand, a useful tool in several scientific disciplines. It is thus used as a tracer in exploring movement of air masses and an indicator of tectonic faults. Another minor constituent of air is carbon dioxide. Similar as radon, it is dangerous at high levels, but its presence in air of karst caves is indispensable for their life, because it governs speleogenetic processes. In the cave air, its concentration is determined by the inflow of outside air, biogenic activity of soil, degradation of organic matter and carbonate, degassing from water, and human activity. Therefore, ventilation of the cave is crucial for its conservation. Based on temporal variations of radon and carbon dioxide levels, ventilation regime in the cave can be estimated. Radon has been surveyed in all the twenty show caves and in thirty other caves in Slovenia, with emphasis on the Postojna Cave. In the present study, in addition to radon, monitoring of carbon dioxide was introduced for the first time. The Kostanjevica Cave, situated in southern Slovenia in an isolated island of karst, was selected because it is crossed by a tectonic fault at which measurements of three-dimensional micro displacements are underway. Because of the fault, high levels of radon and carbon dioxide were expected. In this paper, measurements are described and both the spatial and time variations of radon and carbon dioxide levels are presented and commented on. Continuous radon monitoring was carried out with the RadonScout devices (Sarad, Germany) from April to December 2009, with several interruptions because of

  8. Balancing mechanical strength with bioactivity in chitosan-calcium phosphate 3D microsphere scaffolds for bone tissue engineering: air- vs. freeze-drying processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, D T; McCanless, J D; Mecwan, M M; Noblett, A P; Haggard, W O; Smith, R A; Bumgardner, J D

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential benefit of 3D composite scaffolds composed of chitosan and calcium phosphate for bone tissue engineering. Additionally, incorporation of mechanically weak lyophilized microspheres within those air-dried (AD) was considered for enhanced bioactivity. AD microsphere, alone, and air- and freeze-dried microsphere (FDAD) 3D scaffolds were evaluated in vitro using a 28-day osteogenic culture model with the Saos-2 cell line. Mechanical testing, quantitative microscopy, and lysozyme-driven enzymatic degradation of the scaffolds were also studied. FDAD scaffold showed a higher concentration (p < 0.01) in cells per scaffold mass vs. AD constructs. Collagen was ∼31% greater (p < 0.01) on FDAD compared to AD scaffolds not evident in microscopy of microsphere surfaces. Alternatively, AD scaffolds demonstrated a superior threefold increase in compressive strength over FDAD (12 vs. 4 MPa) with minimal degradation. Inclusion of FD spheres within the FDAD scaffolds allowed increased cellular activity through improved seeding, proliferation, and extracellular matrix production (as collagen), although mechanical strength was sacrificed through introduction of the less stiff, porous FD spheres.

  9. Effect of solar radiation on drying house performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rachmat, R.

    2000-01-01

    Solar drying is one of thermal utilization where radiation energy can be utilized efficiently. Solar drying of all sorts of agricultural products have been thoroughly studied and reported in literature, but brown rice drying system has not yet done as many as other products. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of solar radiation on drying house performance and brown rice drying characteristics. A construction of drying house is made from FRP sheets with 30 deg. of root slope faces southern part and inside the drying house is installed a flat bed dryer. The site of construction has 136 deg. 31.4'E in longitude and 34 deg. 43.8N in latitude with 3 m in elevation from sea level. The investigated parameters are global solar radiation, absorbed and net radiation and brown rice drying characteristics. The results showed that in unload condition, the air temperature inside drying house was higher (10 deg. C - 12 deg. C) than ambient air when there was not collector and temperature rise become higher (16 deg. C) when there was a black FRP collector inside drying house. The effect of solar radiation on temperature rise has the trend as a linear function. The heat collection efficiency of drying house with black FRP collector was two times higher (36.9 percent) than that without collector (16.3 percent). These phenomena exhibited significant result of collector utilization to the advantageous condition for a drying purpose [in

  10. System analysis of dry black liquor gasification based synthetic gas production comparing oxygen and air blown gasification systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naqvi, Muhammad; Yan, Jinyue; Dahlquist, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Circulating fluidized bed system for black liquor gasification with direct causticization. ► Effects of gasifying medium i.e. oxygen or air, on gasification are studied. ► Direct causticization eliminates energy intensive limekiln reducing biomass use. ► Results show 10% higher SNG production from O 2 blown system than air blown system. ► SNG production is higher in O 2 blown system than air blown system. - Abstract: The black liquor gasification based bio-fuel production at chemical pulp mill is an attractive option to replace conventional recovery boilers increasing system energy efficiency. The present paper studies circulating fluidized bed system with direct causticization using TiO 2 for the gasification of the black liquor to the synthesis gas. The advantage of using direct causticization is the elimination of energy-intensive lime kiln which is an integral part of the conventional black liquor recovery system. The study evaluates the effects of gasifying medium i.e. oxygen or air, on the fluidized bed gasification system, the synthesis gas composition, and the downstream processes for the synthesis gas conversion to the synthetic natural gas (SNG). The results showed higher synthetic natural gas production potential with about 10% higher energy efficiency using oxygen blown gasification system than the air blown system. From the pulp mill integration perspective, the material and energy balance results in better integration of air blown system than the oxygen blown system, e.g. less steam required to be generated in the power boiler, less electricity import, and less additional biomass requirement. However, the air blown system still requires a significant amount of energy in terms of the synthesis gas handling and gas upgrading using the nitrogen rejection system

  11. Bench-scale feasibility testing of pulsed-air technology for in-tank mixing of dry cementitious solids with tank liquids and settled solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whyatt, G.A.; Hymas, C.R.

    1997-09-01

    This report documents the results of testing performed to determine the feasibility of using a pulsed-air mixing technology (equipment developed by Pulsair Systems, Inc., Bellevue, WA) to mix cementitious dry solids with supernatant and settled solids within a horizontal tank. The mixing technology is being considered to provide in situ stabilization of the open-quotes Vclose quotes tanks at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The testing was performed in a vessel roughly 1/6 the scale of the INEEL tanks. The tests used a fine soil to simulate settled solids and water to simulate tank supernatants. The cementitious dry materials consisted of Portland cement and Aquaset-2H (a product of Fluid Tech Inc. consisting of clay and Portland cement). Two scoping tests were conducted to allow suitable mixing parameters to be selected. The scoping tests used only visual observations during grout disassembly to assess mixing performance. After the scoping tests indicated the approach may be feasible, an additional two mixing tests were conducted. In addition to visual observations during disassembly of the solidified grout, these tests included addition of chemical tracers and chemical analysis of samples to determine the degree of mixing uniformity achieved. The final two mixing tests demonstrated that the pulsed-air mixing technique is capable of producing slurries containing substantially more cementitious dry solids than indicated by the formulations suggested by INEEL staff. Including additional cement in the formulation may have benefits in terms of increasing mobilization of solids, reducing water separation during curing, and increasing the strength of the solidified product. During addition to the tank, the cementitious solids had a tendency to form clumps which broke down with continued mixing

  12. ISOTERMI SORPSI AIR DAN ANALISIS UMUR SIMPAN IKAN KAYU TONGKOL (Euthynnus affinis DARI ACEH [Moisture Sorption Isotherm and Shelf Life Analysis of Dried Tongkol (Euthynnus affinis from Aceh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Hayati1

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Tongkol dried fish (Ikan Kayu Tongkol is lumps of less salted dried fish usually used as popular ingredient for some traditional fish dishes in Aceh as well as in Malaysia. In Japan it is further processed into Katsou-bushi for preparation of special soup. The objective of this research was to find out water relation parameters in the less salted dried fish as related to shelf life, characteristic changes during storage and estimate analysis of its expired date. Dried fish samples were equilibrated in 15 levels of RH at 28oC and their equilibrium moisture contents were determined.Moisture sorption isotherm derived from the correlation of equilibrium moisture content data indicated a typical sigmoidal curve implying 3 regions of water adsorption. The water sorption regions accounted for three fractions of bound water as analyzed using three different mathematical models. The first water fraction ranged 0 - 5.95 %, the second 5.95 - 17.52 % and the third fraction ranged 17.52 - 91.12 % dry basis, equivalent to 0 - 5.6 %, 5.6 - 14.9 % and 14.9 - 47.4 % wet basis respectively. Storage simulation experiment in two packaging materials as carried out at 30oC and 90 % RH resulted shelf life of 2749 days (91 months in the packaging of plastic impregnated allumunium and 1204 days (40 months in plastic packaging. These very long shelf life was due to the added salt in the produt which increased Mc as high as 46.9 % to cause mold growth. This estimate analysis of shelf life using the mathematical model of Labuza (1984 is one of the appropriate methods to determining expired date of dry food products.

  13. Are higher blood mercury levels associated with dry eye symptoms in adult Koreans? A population-based cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, So-Hyang

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate whether blood mercury concentrations associated with the presence of dry eye symptoms in a nationally representative Korean population. Methods Population-based prospective cross-sectional study using the heavy metal data set of the 2010–2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). A total of 4761 adult Koreans were the eligible population in this study. Of the 7162 survey participants, 2401 were excluded because they were mercury levels were measured on the day the participants completed a questionnaire regarding the presence of dry eye symptoms (persistent dryness or eye irritation). The population was divided into low and high groups by median level (4.26 and 2.89 µg/L for males and females, respectively). Results Self-reported dry eye symptoms were present in 13.0% of the cohort. Participants with dry eye symptoms were significantly more likely to have blood mercury levels exceeding the median than those without dry eye symptoms (45.7% vs 51.7%, p=0.021). Logistic regression analysis showed that, after adjusting for age, gender, education, total household income, smoking status, heavy alcohol use, sleep time, perceived stress status, total cholesterol levels and atopy history, dry eye symptoms were significantly associated with blood mercury levels that exceeded the median (reference: lower mercury group; OR, 1.324; 95% CI 1.059 to 1.655; pmercury levels were associated with dry eye symptoms in a nationally representative Korean population. PMID:27121705

  14. Research on the drying kinetics of household food waste for the development and optimization of domestic waste drying technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotiropoulos, A; Malamis, D; Michailidis, P; Krokida, M; Loizidou, M

    2016-01-01

    Domestic food waste drying foresees the significant reduction of household food waste mass through the hygienic removal of its moisture content at source. In this manuscript, a new approach for the development and optimization of an innovative household waste dryer for the effective dehydration of food waste at source is presented. Food waste samples were dehydrated with the use of the heated air-drying technique under different air-drying conditions, namely air temperature and air velocity, in order to investigate their drying kinetics. Different thin-layer drying models have been applied, in which the drying constant is a function of the process variables. The Midilli model demonstrated the best performance in fitting the experimental data in all tested samples, whereas it was found that food waste drying is greatly affected by temperature and to a smaller scale by air velocity. Due to the increased moisture content of food waste, an appropriate configuration of the drying process variables can lead to a total reduction of its mass by 87% w/w, thus achieving a sustainable residence time and energy consumption level. Thus, the development of a domestic waste dryer can be proved to be economically and environmentally viable in the future.

  15. An investigation of air emission levels from distinct iron and steel production processes with the adoption of pollution control and pollution prevention alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, M.M.; Schaeffer, R.

    1999-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate environmental aspects from different iron and steel production processes. A methodology based on material flows is developed in order to verify some air emission levels attained by Pollution Control and Pollution Prevention alternatives. The data basis for modeling energy and materials flows in iron and steel production is obtained from a literature review on different technological processes, energy and materials consumption and pollutant releases to the environmental Modeling combines both process analysis and input-output techniques to simulate the different iron and steel production routes and to estimate the resulting total atmospheric pollution releases based on air emission factors for several pollutants by each production step. Processes examined include: (1) Conventional Integrated (100% ore-based and partly scrap-based); (2) Mini-mill with EAF (100% scrap-based and partly DRI-based); and (3) New Integrated based on the COREX smelting reduction process. Among the alternatives considered for air emissions reductions are those related to Pollution Control (mainly gas cleaning systems) and to Pollution Prevention (change/reduction in input materials, operational procedures and housekeeping improvements, on-site recycling and technology innovations and modifications). Results indicate higher air pollution intensity for the Conventional Integrated Route over the Mini-mill with EAF and COREX smelting reduction processes, though pointing out that final figures are strongly affected by the systems' boundaries and the different air emission levels of each production step

  16. Determination of radionuclide concentrations in ground level air using the ASS-500 high volume sampler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frenzel, E.; Arnold, D.; Wershofen, H.

    1996-01-01

    A method for determination of radionuclide concentrations in air aerosol samples collected by the high volume aerosol sampler ASS-500 was elaborated. The aerosol sampling station ASS-500 is a Stand alone, all-weather proofed instrument. It is designed for representative sampling of airborne radionuclides from ground level air at a height of about 1.5 m above ground level. The ASS-500 station enables continuous air monitoring both normal and emergency Situations. The collection of aerosols on the Petrianov FPP-15-1.5 type filter out of an air volume of about 100,000 m 3 (sampling period 1 wk) or of about 250,000 m 3 (sampling period 3 wk) admits accurate spectrometric low level measurements of natural and artificial radionuclides. The achieved detection limit is 0.5 μBq m -3 and 0.2 μBq m -3 for 137 Cs, respectively. A new developed air flow Meter system allows to enhance the collected air volume to about 150,000 m 3 per week and lowers the detection limit to -3 for 137 Cs for weekly collected aerosol samples. In Poland the CLOR uses 9 Stations ASS-500 at different sites as atmospheric radioactivity control system. On the basis of spectrometric measurements of natural and artificial radionuclides in the collected aerosol samples at the different sites, CLOR establishes a weekly report about the radiological situation at Poland for responsible authorities. The very low achievable detection limit of the Station ASS-500 due 10 the high air flow fate and the long possible sampling period were the key argument for other government radiation protection authorities in Europe to introduce the Station ASS-500 into their low level radionuclide atmospheric monitoring programs (Austria, Belarus, France, Germany, Iceland, Spain, Switzerland, Ukraine)

  17. Na and K Levels in forage species from the communal grazing lands during the dry season at some locations in the Northern Region of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomda, Y.M.; Osae, E.K.; Akaho, E.H.K.; Fianu, F.K.; Karbo, N.

    1999-04-01

    Forage species were taken, during the dry season, from five districts in the Northern Region of Ghana and analysed for Na and K using the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique. The Na level varied in plants species as well as location. The level ranged between 0.049 g/kg DM and 1.14 g/kg DM. This was found to be inadequate for the animals and require supplementation during the dry season. Potassium level in the forage species was between 7.8 to 91.3g/kg DM and appeared to be adequate for the grazing animals. (author)

  18. Quarterly report on measurements of radionuclides in ground level air in Sweden. Third quarter 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soederstroem, C.; Arntsing, R.; Lindh, K.

    2005-04-01

    Filtering of ground level air is performed weekly at six different locations in Sweden: Kiruna, Umeaa, Gaevle, Ursvik, Visby and Ljungbyhed. The filters are pressed and the contents of different radionuclides are measured by gamma spectroscopy. Precipitation is also collected at four of the stations: Kiruna, Gaevle, Ursvik and Ljungbyhed, the samples are ashed and the contents of radionuclides measured. The levels of 7 Be and 137 Cs in air and deposition are presented for the different stations. Other anthropogenic radionuclides detected, if any, are also presented

  19. Quarterly report on measurements of radionuclides in ground level air in Sweden. Third quarter 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soederstroem, C.; Arntsing, R.; Vintersved, I.

    2002-01-01

    Filtering of ground level air is performed weekly at seven different locations in Sweden: Kiruna, Umeaa, Gaevle, Ursvik, Grindsjoen, Visby and Ljungbyhed. The filters are compressed and the contents of different radionuclides are measured by gamma spectroscopy. Precipitation is also collected at four of the stations: Kiruna, Gaevle, Ursvik and Ljungbyhed, the samples are ashed and the contents of radionuclides measured. The levels of 7 Be and 137 Cs in air and deposition are presented for the different stations. Other anthropogenic radionuclides detected, if any, are also presented

  20. Household Air Pollution: Sources and Exposure Levels to Fine Particulate Matter in Nairobi Slums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanyiva Muindi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available With 2.8 billion biomass users globally, household air pollution remains a public health threat in many low- and middle-income countries. However, little evidence on pollution levels and health effects exists in low-income settings, especially slums. This study assesses the levels and sources of household air pollution in the urban slums of Nairobi. This cross-sectional study was embedded in a prospective cohort of pregnant women living in two slum areas—Korogocho and Viwandani—in Nairobi. Data on fuel and stove types and ventilation use come from 1058 households, while air quality data based on the particulate matters (PM2.5 level were collected in a sub-sample of 72 households using the DustTrak™ II Model 8532 monitor. We measured PM2.5 levels mainly during daytime and using sources of indoor air pollutions. The majority of the households used kerosene (69.7% as a cooking fuel. In households where air quality was monitored, the mean PM2.5 levels were high and varied widely, especially during the evenings (124.6 µg/m3 SD: 372.7 in Korogocho and 82.2 µg/m3 SD: 249.9 in Viwandani, and in households using charcoal (126.5 µg/m3 SD: 434.7 in Korogocho and 75.7 µg/m3 SD: 323.0 in Viwandani. Overall, the mean PM2.5 levels measured within homes at both sites (Korogocho = 108.9 µg/m3 SD: 371.2; Viwandani = 59.3 µg/m3 SD: 234.1 were high. Residents of the two slums are exposed to high levels of PM2.5 in their homes. We recommend interventions, especially those focusing on clean cookstoves and lighting fuels to mitigate indoor levels of fine particles.

  1. IFE chamber dry wall materials response to pulsed X-rays and ions at power-plant level fluences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renk, T.J. E-mail: tjrenk@sandia.gov; Olson, C.L.; Tanaka, T.J.; Ulrickson, M.A.; Rochau, G.A.; Peterson, R.R.; Golovkin, I.E.; Thompson, M.O.; Knowles, T.R.; Raffray, A.R.; Tillack, M.S

    2003-04-01

    We have begun a collaborative investigation of the response of candidate first-wall inertial fusion energy (IFE) reactor chamber drywall materials to X-rays on the Z facility, and to ions on RHEPP-1, both located at Sandia National Laboratories. Dose levels are comparable to those anticipated in future direct-drive reactors. Due to the 5-10 Hz repetition rate expected in such reactors, per-pulse effects such as material removal must be negligible. The primary wall materials investigated here are graphite and tungsten in various forms. After exposure on either RHEPP or Z, materials were analyzed for roughening and/or material removal (ablation) as a function of dose. Graphite is observed to undergo significant ablation/sublimation in response to ion exposure at the 3-4 J/cm{sup 2} level, significantly below doses expected in future dry-wall power plants. Evidence of thermomechanical stresses resulting in material loss occurs for both graphite and tungsten, and is probably related to the pulsed nature of the energy delivery. These effects are not seen in typical magnetic fusion energy (MFE) conditions where these same kinds of materials are used. Results are presented for thresholds below which no roughening or ablation occurs. Use of graphite in a 'velvet' two-dimensional form may mitigate the effects seen with the flat material, and alloying tungsten with rhenium may reduce its roughening due to the increased ductility of the alloy.

  2. Are Serum Vitamin D Levels Associated With Dry Eye Disease? Results From the Study Group for Environmental Eye Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Hye Jeon

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Dry eye disease (DED is an increasingly important public health problem in Korea. Previous studies conducted in Korea have reported inconsistent results regarding the protective effects of vitamin D on DED, and these discrepancies may be related to the relatively simple questionnaire that has been used. Thus, we evaluated the association of serum vitamin D levels with DED using the ocular surface disease index (OSDI. Methods The present study evaluated data from participants in the Study Group for Environmental Eye Disease (2014-2015. This group included data from 752 participants, and data from 740 participants (253 men and 487 women were analyzed in the present study. DED severity was evaluated using the OSDI. Results Higher serum vitamin D levels were associated with a non-significantly reduced risk of DED in the crude analysis (odds ratio [OR], 0.991; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.971 to 1.011 and in the adjusted analysis (OR, 0.988; 95% CI, 0.966 to 1.010. In the crude analysis of no/mild DED vs. moderate/severe DED, men exhibited a decreased risk with increasing serum vitamin D levels (OR, 0.999; 95% CI, 0.950 to 1.051, while women exhibited an increased risk (OR, 1.003; 95% CI, 0.979 to 1.027. In these analyses, we found no significant associations. Conclusions The findings of the present study support previous reports that serum vitamin D levels are not associated with DED.

  3. Australia’s first national level quantitative environmental justice assessment of industrial air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, Jayajit; Green, Donna

    2014-01-01

    This study presents the first national level quantitative environmental justice assessment of industrial air pollution in Australia. Specifically, our analysis links the spatial distribution of sites and emissions associated with industrial pollution sources derived from the National Pollution Inventory, to Indigenous status and social disadvantage characteristics of communities derived from Australian Bureau of Statistics indicators. Our results reveal a clear national pattern of environmental injustice based on the locations of industrial pollution sources, as well as volume, and toxicity of air pollution released at these locations. Communities with the highest number of polluting sites, emission volume, and toxicity-weighted air emissions indicate significantly greater proportions of Indigenous population and higher levels of socio-economic disadvantage. The quantities and toxicities of industrial air pollution are particularly higher in communities with the lowest levels of educational attainment and occupational status. These findings emphasize the need for more detailed analysis in specific regions and communities where socially disadvantaged groups are disproportionately impacted by industrial air pollution. Our empirical findings also underscore the growing necessity to incorporate environmental justice considerations in environmental planning and policy-making in Australia. (paper)

  4. Drying properties and quality parameters of dill dried with intermittent and continuous microwave

    OpenAIRE

    Eştürk, Okan

    2012-01-01

    In this study, influence of various microwave-convective air drying applications on drying kinetics, color and sensory quality of dill leaves (Anethum graveolens L.) were investigated. In general, increasing the drying air temperature decreased the drying time, and increased the drying rate. Increasing microwave pulse ratio increased the drying time. Page, Logarithmic, Midilli et al, Wang & Singh and Logistic models were fitted to drying data and the Page model was found to satisfactorily...

  5. Some insights into the relationship between urban air pollution and noise levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Ho, Duy Xuan; Brown, Richard J C; Oh, J-M; Park, Chan Goo; Ryu, In Cheol

    2012-05-01

    The relationship between noise and air pollution was investigated in eight different districts across Seoul, Korea, between September and November 2010. The noise levels in each district were measured at both roadside and non-roadside locations. It was found that the maximum levels of noise were generally at frequencies of around 1000 Hz. The equivalent noise levels (L(eq)), over all districts, averaged 61.4 ± 7.36 dB which is slightly lower than the noise guidelines set by the World Health Organization (WHO) of 70 dB for industrial, commercial, traffic, and outdoor areas. Comparison of L(eq) levels in each district consistently indicates that noise levels are higher at roadside sites than non-roadside sites. In addition the relative dominance of noise during daytime as compared to nighttime was also apparent. Moreover, the results of an analysis relating sound levels with air pollutant levels indicate strongly that the correlation between these two parameters is the strongest at roadside sites (relative to non-roadside sites) and during nighttime (relative to daytime). The results of our data analysis point to a positive, but complex, correlation between noise levels and air pollution. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. CdS/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite film and its enhanced photoelectric responses to dry air and formaldehyde induced by visible light at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Zhijun, E-mail: zjzou@xynu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Advanced Micro/Nano Functional Materials, Department of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Xinyang Normal University, Xinyang 464000 (China); State Key Laboratory of Material Processing and Die & Mould Technology, Nanomaterials and Smart Sensors Research Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Qiu, Yang [Key Laboratory of Advanced Micro/Nano Functional Materials, Department of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Xinyang Normal University, Xinyang 464000 (China); Xie, Changsheng [State Key Laboratory of Material Processing and Die & Mould Technology, Nanomaterials and Smart Sensors Research Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Xu, Jingjing; Luo, Yongsong; Wang, Chunlei; Yan, Hailong [Key Laboratory of Advanced Micro/Nano Functional Materials, Department of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Xinyang Normal University, Xinyang 464000 (China)

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • Photoelectric responses of TiO{sub 2} and CdS/TiO{sub 2} to dry air and formaldehyde were tested. • In contrary to TiO{sub 2}, photoelectric response of CdS/TiO{sub 2} obviously increased. • CdS/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite device exhibits excellent stability to formaldehyde. • CdS/TiO{sub 2} may be a promising material for developing high performance sensor. - Abstract: Photoelectric responses of pure TiO{sub 2} and CdS/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite devices to dry air and formaldehyde under visible light irradiation at room temperature were investigated in this work. The pure TiO{sub 2} film was firstly prepared by screen printing and CdS/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite film by the subsequent SILAR process. XRD, FE-SEM, HR-TEM and UV–vis DRS analysis were employed to examine the fundamental characteristics of as-prepared samples. Photoelectric responses of pure TiO{sub 2} device displayed that no obvious photocurrent was observed upon turning the visible light on either in dry air or in formaldehyde. But in contrary to pure TiO{sub 2} device, the photoelectric response of CdS/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite device has been obviously enhanced. It is the adding of CdS, which works as a sensitizer, that accounts for the enhanced response and makes the CdS/TiO{sub 2} device sensitive to the visible light. Moreover, the CdS/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite device exhibits excellent stability to formaldehyde. The present work does not only shed light on the photoelectric gas sensing properties of TiO{sub 2} and CdS/TiO{sub 2}, but also suggests that the CdS/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite may be a promising material for fabricating visible-light-induced photoelectric gas sensors working at room temperature.

  7. Development of high-level radioactive waste treatment and conversion technologies 'Dry decontamination technology development for highly radioactive contaminants'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Won Zin; Lee, K. W.; Won, H. J.; Jung, C. J.; Choi, W. K.; Kim, G. N.; Moon, J. K.

    2001-04-01

    The followings were studied through the project entitled 'Dry Decontamination Technology Development for Highly Radioactive Contaminants'. 1.Contaminant Characteristics Analysis of Domestic Nuclear Fuel Cycle Projects(NFCP) and Applicability Study of the Unit Dry-Decontamination Techniques A. Classification of contaminated equipments and characteristics analysis of contaminants B. Applicability study of the unit dry-decontamination techniques 2.Performance Evaluation of Unit Dry Decontamination Technique A. PFC decontamination technique B. CO2 decontamination technique C. Plasma decontamination technique 3.Development of Residual Radiation Assessment Methodology for High Radioactive Facility Decontamination A. Development of radioactive nuclide diffusion model on highly radioactive facility structure B. Obtainment of the procedure for assessment of residual radiation dose 4.Establishment of the Design Concept of Dry Decontamination Process Equipment Applicable to Highly Radioactive Contaminants 5.TRIGA soil unit decontamination technology development A. Development of soil washing and flushing technologies B. Development of electrokinetic soil decontamination technology

  8. Optimization of lime addition in a dry air pollution control device; Optimerad rening av HCl och SO{sub 2} med minskade kalktillsatser vid torr roeasrening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wikstroem-Blomqvist, Evalena; Samuelsson, Jessica; Ohlsson, Anna

    2006-12-15

    The focus of this project is to optimize the absorption of hydrochloric acid (HCl) and sulphuric acid (SO{sub 2}) in a dry air pollution control device system connected to a waste combustor. A significant amount of absorbent are generally added into the processes to achieve an efficient cleaning of the flue gas. Reduced absorbent consumption has double benefits on the operative expenses due to decreased purchase and landfilling costs. The objective was to study the affect of flue gas temperature and moisture, (relative humidity, RH), on the efficiency of HCl and SO{sub 2} absorption on hydrated lime. Additionally, the efficiency of a pre-treated hydrated lime with larger specific surface and pore volume was investigated. The measuring campaign was conducted on the 20 MW fluidized bed waste incinerator own by Boraas Energi och Miljoe AB in Sweden. Results from 26 experimental days with normal hydrated lime showed a positive correlation between the efficiency of the lime and RH in the flue gas. Four levels of RH between 3.28% to 4.84% were tested. The levels were adjusted by lowering the flue gas temperature and/or by adding water to the waste fuel. The smallest effect where achieved by solely adding water to the waste fuel. RH increased solely to 3.62% and the amount of lime consumption was reduced with only 5% compare to normal condition. By lowering the flue gas temperature 10 deg C to 143 deg C, RH increased to 4.06% and the amount of lime added was reduced with 13%. The largest impact was found when both the flue gas temperature and the moisture content were changed. At those process conditions RH reach 4.84 % and the usage of lime were reduced with 26%. Additional 12 experimental days were conducted to evaluate the efficiency of a pretreated hydrated lime with larger specific surface and pore volume. The results showed that the surface enlarged absorbent was almost twice as effective as the normal hydrated lime. Moreover, the results indicated an equal

  9. Modeling 3D conjugate heat and mass transfer for turbulent air drying of Chilean papaya in a direct contact dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemus-Mondaca, Roberto A.; Vega-Gálvez, Antonio; Zambra, Carlos E.; Moraga, Nelson O.

    2017-01-01

    A 3D model considering heat and mass transfer for food dehydration inside a direct contact dryer is studied. The k- ɛ model is used to describe turbulent air flow. The samples thermophysical properties as density, specific heat, and thermal conductivity are assumed to vary non-linearly with temperature. FVM, SIMPLE algorithm based on a FORTRAN code are used. Results unsteady velocity, temperature, moisture, kinetic energy and dissipation rate for the air flow are presented, whilst temperature and moisture values for the food also are presented. The validation procedure includes a comparison with experimental and numerical temperature and moisture content results obtained from experimental data, reaching a deviation 7-10 %. In addition, this turbulent k- ɛ model provided a better understanding of the transport phenomenon inside the dryer and sample.

  10. Indoor air quality levels in a University Hospital in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud F El-Sharkawy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the Study: The complex hospital environment requires special attention to ensure a healthy indoor air quality (IAQ to protect patients and healthcare workers against hospital-acquired infections and occupational diseases. Poor hospital IAQ may cause outbreaks of building-related illness such as headaches, fatigue, eye, and skin irritations, and other symptoms. The general objective for this study was to assess IAQ inside a large University hospital at Al-Khobar City in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: Different locations representing areas where most activities and tasks are performed were selected as sampling points for air pollutants in the selected hospital. In addition, several factors were studied to determine those that were most likely to affect the IAQ levels. The temperature and relative percent humidity of different air pollutants were measured simultaneously at each location. Results: The outdoor levels of all air pollutant levels, except volatile organic compounds (VOCs, were higher than the indoor levels which meant that the IAQ inside healthcare facilities (HCFs were greatly affected by outdoor sources, particularly traffic. The highest levels of total suspended particulates (TSPs and those less than 10 microns (PM 10 inside the selected hospital were found at locations that are characterized with m4ore human activity. Conclusions:Levels of particulate matter (both PM 10 and TSP were higher than the Air Quality Guidelines (AQGs. The highest concentrations of the fungal species recorded were Cladosporium and Penicillium. Education of occupants of HCF on IAQ is critical. They must be informed about the sources and effects of contaminants and the proper operation of the ventilation system.

  11. Nonstandard usage of ASS-500 station filters for determination of ground-level air contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozak, K.; Jasinska, M.; Kwiatek, W.; Mietelski, J.W.; Dutkiewicz, E.

    1998-01-01

    The work describes nonstandard application of filters from ASS-500 station for the determination of the element content in the samples collected by PIXE method. Determination of gamma radioactive isotopes and alpha radioactive plutonium is also reviewed. Authors conclude that ASS-500 workstation allows collection of representative samples from the ground level air. These samples are suitable for the complex analysis of industrial pollution

  12. Trends in motor neuron disease: association with latitude and air lead levels in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santurtún, Ana; Villar, Alejandro; Delgado-Alvarado, Manuel; Riancho, Javier

    2016-08-01

    Motor neuron diseases (MND) are a group of disorders characterized by motor neuron degeneration. Among them, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is by far the most common in adulthood. This paper assesses the trend and geographical pattern in MND incidence in Spain and the possible air lead levels effect on this pathology. To confirm this concept, we performed a retrospective analysis of the deaths due to MND in Spain during 2000 and 2013, determined the geographical differences, and explored the relationship between MND and the air levels of lead. Overall, between 2000 and 2013, 11,355 people died in Spain because of MND. Disease mortality significantly increased in recent years (2007-2013) when compared with the first time of the period. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient also showed a statistically significant positive trend (CC = 0.824, p = 0.0002). Among people over 65 years, mortality rates were higher in Northern provinces. Moreover, we found a significant association of MND mortality with higher air lead levels (CC = 0.457, p = 0.01). Our study confirms that MND mortality is increasing in Spain, with a significant latitude gradient, which suggests an important role of environmental exposures. This ecological study suggests that air lead levels may be implicated in ALS pathogenesis.

  13. Galvanic detection of sulfur dioxide in ambient air at trace levels by anodic oxidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindqvist, F.

    1978-01-01

    A continuous method for the measurement of SO2 in ambient air at trace levels is described. The principle of detection is based on the anodic oxidation of SO2 in a galvanic cell. A differential measuring technique with a cell with two anodes and one cathode is used; background and noise current are

  14. Spatially-varying surface roughness and ground-level air quality in an operational dispersion model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, M.J.; Brade, T.K.; MacKenzie, A.R.; Whyatt, J.D.; Carruthers, D.J.; Stocker, J.; Cai, X.; Hewitt, C.N.

    2014-01-01

    Urban form controls the overall aerodynamic roughness of a city, and hence plays a significant role in how air flow interacts with the urban landscape. This paper reports improved model performance resulting from the introduction of variable surface roughness in the operational air-quality model ADMS-Urban (v3.1). We then assess to what extent pollutant concentrations can be reduced solely through local reductions in roughness. The model results suggest that reducing surface roughness in a city centre can increase ground-level pollutant concentrations, both locally in the area of reduced roughness and downwind of that area. The unexpected simulation of increased ground-level pollutant concentrations implies that this type of modelling should be used with caution for urban planning and design studies looking at ventilation of pollution. We expect the results from this study to be relevant for all atmospheric dispersion models with urban-surface parameterisations based on roughness. -- Highlights: • Spatially variable roughness improved performance of an operational model. • Scenario modelling explored effect of reduced roughness on air pollution. • Reducing surface roughness can increase modelled ground-level pollution. • Damped vertical mixing outweighs increased horizontal advection in model study. • Result should hold for any model with a land-surface coupling based on roughness. -- Spatially varying roughness improves model simulations of urban air pollutant dispersion. Reducing roughness does not always decrease ground-level pollution concentrations

  15. Air-powder polishing on self-ligating brackets after clinical use: effects on debris levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragón, Mônica L S Castro; Lima, Leandro Santiago; Normando, David

    2016-01-01

    Debris buildup on brackets and arch surfaces is one of the main factors that can influence the intensity of friction between bracket and orthodontic wire. This study sought to evaluate the effect of air-powder polishing cleaning on debris levels of self-ligating ceramic brackets at the end of orthodontic treatment, compared to the behavior of conventional brackets. Debris levels were evaluated in metal conventional orthodontic brackets (n = 42) and ceramic self-ligating brackets (n = 42) on canines and premolars, arranged in pairs. There were brackets with and without air-powder polishing. At the end of orthodontic treatment, a hemiarch served as control and the contralateral hemiarch underwent prophylaxis with air-powder polishing. Debris buildup in bracket slots was assessed through images, and Wilcoxon test was used to analyze the results. The median debris levels were statistically lower in the conventional metal brackets compared to self-ligating ones (p = 0.02), regarding brackets not submitted to air-powder polishing. Polishing significantly reduced debris buildup to zero in both systems, without differences between groups. Ceramic self-ligating brackets have a higher debris buildup in comparison to conventional metal brackets in vivo, but prophylaxis with sodium bicarbonate jet was effective in reducing debris levels in self-ligating and also in conventional brackets.

  16. STRATEGIES TO REDUCE EXPOSURE TO TRAFFIC-RELATED AIR POLLUTION AT THE LOCAL LEVEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    As public health concerns for populations living, working and going to school near high-traffic roadways have increased, so have the need to identify and implement air pollution control strategies effective at the local level. While strategies implemented at the federal and stat...

  17. A proposed methodology for the assessment of arsenic, nickel, cadmium and lead levels in ambient air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Germán, E-mail: santosg@unican.es; Fernández-Olmo, Ignacio

    2016-06-01

    Air quality assessment, required by the European Union (EU) Air Quality Directive, Directive 2008/50/EC, is part of the functions attributed to Environmental Management authorities. Based on the cost and time consumption associated with the experimental works required for the air quality assessment in relation to the EU-regulated metal and metalloids, other methods such as modelling or objective estimation arise as competitive alternatives when, in accordance with the Air Quality Directive, the levels of pollutants permit their use at a specific location. This work investigates the possibility of using statistical models based on Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) to estimate the levels of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni) and lead (Pb) in ambient air and their application for policy purposes. A methodology comprising the main steps that should be taken into consideration to prepare the input database, develop the model and evaluate their performance is proposed and applied to a case of study in Santander (Spain). It was observed that even though these approaches present some difficulties in estimating the individual sample concentrations, having an equivalent performance they can be considered valid for the estimation of the mean values – those to be compared with the limit/target values – fulfilling the uncertainty requirements in the context of the Air Quality Directive. Additionally, the influence of the consideration of input variables related to atmospheric stability on the performance of the studied statistical models has been determined. Although the consideration of these variables as additional inputs had no effect on As and Cd models, they did yield an improvement for Pb and Ni, especially with regard to ANN models. - Highlights: • EU encourages modelling techniques over measurements for air quality assessment. • A methodology for minor pollutants assessment by statistical modelling is presented.

  18. A proposed methodology for the assessment of arsenic, nickel, cadmium and lead levels in ambient air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Germán; Fernández-Olmo, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    Air quality assessment, required by the European Union (EU) Air Quality Directive, Directive 2008/50/EC, is part of the functions attributed to Environmental Management authorities. Based on the cost and time consumption associated with the experimental works required for the air quality assessment in relation to the EU-regulated metal and metalloids, other methods such as modelling or objective estimation arise as competitive alternatives when, in accordance with the Air Quality Directive, the levels of pollutants permit their use at a specific location. This work investigates the possibility of using statistical models based on Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) to estimate the levels of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni) and lead (Pb) in ambient air and their application for policy purposes. A methodology comprising the main steps that should be taken into consideration to prepare the input database, develop the model and evaluate their performance is proposed and applied to a case of study in Santander (Spain). It was observed that even though these approaches present some difficulties in estimating the individual sample concentrations, having an equivalent performance they can be considered valid for the estimation of the mean values – those to be compared with the limit/target values – fulfilling the uncertainty requirements in the context of the Air Quality Directive. Additionally, the influence of the consideration of input variables related to atmospheric stability on the performance of the studied statistical models has been determined. Although the consideration of these variables as additional inputs had no effect on As and Cd models, they did yield an improvement for Pb and Ni, especially with regard to ANN models. - Highlights: • EU encourages modelling techniques over measurements for air quality assessment. • A methodology for minor pollutants assessment by statistical modelling is presented.

  19. Low-temperature, low-loss zero level packaging techniques for RF applications by using a photopatternable dry film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J; Seok, S; Rolland, N; Rolland, P-A

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a low-temperature zero-level packaging technique using a dry film type of PerMX polymer for RF devices. Silicon cap packaging with PerMX sealing ring and PerMX cap packaging through multilayer lamination have been implemented. All of the fabrication process has been performed at temperature less than 150 °C. The influence of each packaging cap on the packaged coplanar waveguide was first investigated using the HFSS electromagnetic simulation. The RF measurement results showed that both packaging caps did not have significant influence on the performance of transmission lines. The insertion loss changes before and after packaging were almost negligible up to 30 GHz, and the return losses were better than 20 dB. Also, the deformation of PerMX structures concerning the packaging processes has been studied. For silicon capping, the volumetric compression of PerMX sealing ring by the bonding process has been observed. For PerMX cap packaging, the deflection of the polymer cap has been investigated as a function of sealing ring width for the different cap size. Measured results had good agreement with the ANSYS simulated ones. (paper)

  20. Are higher blood mercury levels associated with dry eye symptoms in adult Koreans? A population-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, So-Hyang; Myong, Jun-Pyo

    2016-04-27

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether blood mercury concentrations associated with the presence of dry eye symptoms in a nationally representative Korean population. Population-based prospective cross-sectional study using the heavy metal data set of the 2010-2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). A total of 4761 adult Koreans were the eligible population in this study. Of the 7162 survey participants, 2401 were excluded because they were eye surgery. Blood mercury levels were measured on the day the participants completed a questionnaire regarding the presence of dry eye symptoms (persistent dryness or eye irritation). The population was divided into low and high groups by median level (4.26 and 2.89 µg/L for males and females, respectively). Self-reported dry eye symptoms were present in 13.0% of the cohort. Participants with dry eye symptoms were significantly more likely to have blood mercury levels exceeding the median than those without dry eye symptoms (45.7% vs 51.7%, p=0.021). Logistic regression analysis showed that, after adjusting for age, gender, education, total household income, smoking status, heavy alcohol use, sleep time, perceived stress status, total cholesterol levels and atopy history, dry eye symptoms were significantly associated with blood mercury levels that exceeded the median (reference: lower mercury group; OR, 1.324; 95% CI 1.059 to 1.655; pdry eye symptoms in a nationally representative Korean population. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. Benzene levels in ambient air and breath of smokers and nonsmokers in urban and pristine environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wester, R.C.; Maibach, H.I.; Gruenke, L.D.; Craig, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    Benzene levels in human breath and in ambient air were compared in the urban area of San Francisco (SF) and in a more remote coastal pristine setting of Stinson Beach, Calif. (SB). Benzene analysis was done by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Ambient benzene levels were sevenfold higher in SF (2.6 +/- 1.3 ppb, n = 25) than SB (0.38 +/- 0.39 ppb, n = 21). In SF, benzene in smokers' breath (6.8 +/- 3.0 ppb) was greater than in nonsmokers' breath (2.5 +/- 0.8 ppb) and smokers' ambient air (3.3 +/- 0.8 ppb). In SB the same pattern was observed: benzene in smokers' breath was higher than in nonsmokers' breath and ambient air. Benzene in SF nonsmokers' breath was greater than in SB nonsmokers' breath. Marijuana-only smokers had benzene breath levels between those of smokers and nonsmokers. There was little correlation between benzene in breath and number of cigarettes smoked, or with other benzene exposures such as diet. Of special interest was the finding that benzene in breath of SF nonsmokers (2.5 +/- 0.8 ppb) was greater than that in nonsmokers ambient air (1.4 +/- 0.1 ppb). The same was true in SB, where benzene in nonsmokers breath was greater than ambient air (1.8 +/- 0.2 ppb versus 1.0 +/- 0.1 ppb on d 1 and 1.3 +/- 0.3 ppb versus 0.23 +/- 0.18 ppb on d 2). This suggests an additional source of benzene other than outdoor ambient air.

  2. Variation in the sugar yield in response to drying-off of sugarcane before harvest and the occurrence of low air temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Araújo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The need to irrigate sugarcane in the Brazilian Savanna is due to the lack of rain from April to September. For efficient sugar accumulation, the crop needs water stress or heat stress at the maturation stage. However, when the water deficit is intense at this stage, it occurs the reduction in crop production. The objective of this study was: (i to assess the quality of the raw material of sugarcane in different drying-off seasons before harvest; (ii to evaluate the influence of heat stress on the culture. The experiment was conducted in Santo Antônio de Goiás (GO, Brazil, in Oxisol, with CTC4 variety in cane-plant cycle. A randomized block design in a split-plot array in time was used. The treatments of the plots were five drying-off times (90, 60, 30, 15 and 0 days before harvest and, in the subplots, five seasons of the yield evaluation. Irrigation was carried out by surface drip method, which provided 50% of crop water requirement. The best results for sugar yield occurred 30 days before harvest, period in which the crop irrigation could be interrupted. The water deficit of 37.76 mm appears to be the critical limit of water shortage in the soil, from which the sugarcane yield starts to be reduced. The sugar concentration in the stalk was more influenced by low air temperatures than sugarcane yield.

  3. Relationship between environmental factors, dry matter loss and mycotoxin levels in stored wheat and maize infected with Fusarium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylona, Kalliopi; Sulyok, Michael; Magan, Naresh

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between storage environmental factors (water activity (a(w)) (0.89-0.97) and temperature (15°C-30°C)), colonisation of wheat and maize by Fusarium graminearum and F. verticillioides respectively and the dry matter losses (DMLs) caused and quantified by contamination with deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEA) and fumonisins (FUMs) during storage. Fungal growth was assessed by the amount of CO(2) produced under different interacting conditions of a(w) and temperature. DMLs were quantified using the cumulative CO(2) data, and these were shown to increase as temperature and a(w) increased. The amount of DON, ZEA (wheat for human consumption) and FUMs (feed maize) produced was significantly affected by the storage conditions. The three toxins however showed different patterns of production. Optimum for DON was at the wettest conditions (0.97a(w)) and the highest temperature assessed (30°C), whereas for ZEA this shifted to 25°C. FUMs were produced in higher amounts in maize at 30°C and 0.97a(w); however, at intermediate a(w) levels (0.955a(w)), the highest production occurred at 25°C followed by 20°C. Polynomial models were developed for the effect of the storage factors on DMLs and toxin production. DMLs under different environmental conditions were significantly correlated with DON and FUMs. DON contamination was above the EU limits in at least 80% of the wheat samples with DMLs >1%, whereas at least 70% of the same samples contained ZEA above the respective EU legislative limits. Similarly, at least 75% of the maize samples with DMLs ≥ 0.9% exceeded the EU limits for the sum of FUMs in feed. These results show that it may be possible to use temporal CO(2) production during storage of grains as an indicator of the level of contamination of the grain with mycotoxins.

  4. Sun-dried cowpeas and amaranth leaves recipe improves β-carotene and retinol levels in serum and hemoglobin concentration among preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawiri, Mildred P; Nyambaka, Hudson; Murungi, Jane I

    2013-03-01

    Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) and anemia are major challenges among children and expecting and lactating mothers in developing countries. Intervention with locally available dark green leafy vegetables (DGLV) is more sustainable to eradicate VAD, being cost-effective and readily adaptable to local communities. DGLV contain high levels of iron and β-carotene (BC) and therefore useful in fighting VAD and anemia. Since DGLVs are season-dependent sun-drying enables their availability during low seasons. However, their contribution to the bioavailability of BC and the improvement of hemoglobin are not well understood. The study therefore investigated the effect of consuming cooked recipe consisting of sun-dried amaranth and cowpea leaves on the levels of BC, retinol, and hemoglobin in preschool children from Machakos District, a semiarid region in Kenya. Vegetables were purchased from local vegetable market, with some sun-dried in an open shade. Levels of BC and retinol in serum and BC in fresh and processed vegetables were determined by a HPLC method and hemoglobin using a portable Hemocue Analyzer. All-trans-BC levels in uncooked fresh cowpea and amaranth leaves were 806.0 μg/g and 599.0 μg/g dry matter, respectively, while the dehydration and cooking processes retained the β-carotene levels at over 60 %. Consumption of the dehydrated vegetables significantly improved both serum BC and retinol levels (p < 0.05), while the baseline hemoglobin levels improved by 4.6 %. The study has shown that intervention with locally available sun-dried vegetables improves the bioavailability of BC, retinol, and hemoglobin levels among preschool children.

  5. Differential effects of air conditioning type on residential endotoxin levels in a semi-arid climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, J D; Kruman, B A; Nelson, M C; Merrill, R M; Graul, R J; Hoybjerg, T G; Tuttle, S C; Myers, S J; Cook, R B; Weber, K S

    2017-09-01

    Residential endotoxin exposure is associated with protective and pathogenic health outcomes. Evaporative coolers, an energy-efficient type of air conditioner used in dry climates, are a potential source of indoor endotoxins; however, this association is largely unstudied. We collected settled dust biannually from four locations in homes with evaporative coolers (n=18) and central air conditioners (n=22) in Utah County, Utah (USA), during winter (Jan-Apr) and summer (Aug-Sept), 2014. Dust samples (n=281) were analyzed by the Limulus amebocyte lysate test. Housing factors were measured by survey, and indoor temperature and relative humidity measures were collected during both seasons. Endotoxin concentrations (EU/mg) were significantly higher in homes with evaporative coolers from mattress and bedroom floor samples during both seasons. Endotoxin surface loads (EU/m 2 ) were significantly higher in homes with evaporative coolers from mattress and bedroom floor samples during both seasons and in upholstered furniture during winter. For the nine significant season-by-location comparisons, EU/mg and EU/m 2 were approximately three to six times greater in homes using evaporative coolers. A plausible explanation for these findings is that evaporative coolers serve as a reservoir and distribution system for Gram-negative bacteria or their cell wall components in homes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Pursuing air pollutant co-benefits of CO2 mitigation in China: A provincial leveled analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Huijuan; Dai, Hancheng; Dong, Liang; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Geng, Yong; Klimont, Zbigniew; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Bunya, Shintaro; Fujii, Minoru; Masui, Toshihiko

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • China’s future CO 2 reduction and its co-benefits on air pollutants were projected. • GAINS-China and AIM/CGE models were combined for emission and cost estimation. • High GDP regions tended to have higher emission, reduction potential and co-benefit. • Coal ratio and coal quality were also key factors to affect reduction and co-benefit. • Mitigation investment to less developed western regions was more effective. - Abstract: With fast economic development, industrialization and urbanization, China faces increasing pressures on carbon emission reduction, and especially on air pollutants (SO 2 , NOx, PM) reduction, particularly the notorious haze issue caused by air pollution in recent years. Pursuing co-benefits is an effective approach to simultaneously respond to both carbon and air pollutant problems. In this paper, the AIM/CGE (Asia–Pacific Integrated Assessment Model/Computational General Equilibrium) model and GAINS (Greenhouse Gas and Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies)-China model are combined together to project future CO 2 and air pollutants emissions in China, as well as reduction costs and co-benefit effects. Considering implementation of carbon mitigation policy and air pollutant mitigation technologies, four scenarios (S1, S2, S3 and S4) are analyzed. Results indicate that by implementing both carbon and air pollutant mitigation (S4), CO 2 emission per GDP can be reduced by 41% by 2020, compared with the 2005 level, and SO 2 , NOx and PM2.5 emissions would change by a factor 0.8, 1.26 and 1.0 of the 2005 level, respectively in 2030. The real co-benefits of emission reductions (S2 minus S4) for SO 2 , NOx and PM2.5 are 2.4 Mt, 2.1 Mt and 0.3 Mt in 2020, and the corresponding cost reduction co-benefits are 4, 0.11, and 0.8 billion €, respectively. Provincial disparity analysis reveals that regions with higher co-benefits are those with higher GDP such as Guangdong, Shandong and Jiangsu, energy production bases such as

  7. The solar forcing on the 7Be-air concentration variability at ground level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talpos, Simona

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyses the correlation between the temporal and spatial variability of 7 Be-air concentration at ground level and the amount of precipitation. There were used the measured data from 26 stations distributed on North America, South America, Australia and Antarctica. The variability study was made using EOF and principal components analysis. The presented results show that the variability of 7 Be air concentration at ground level is simultaneously influenced by the solar cycle and some atmospheric processes like precipitation, turbulent transport, advection, etc. The solar forcing on the 7 Be variability at ground level was outlined for time-scales longer than 1 year and can be considered a global phenomenon. The atmospheric processes influence the 7 Be variability for scale shorter than one year and can be considered a local phenomenon. (author)

  8. ESTIMATION AND PROGNOSIS OF QUALITY OF ATMOSPHERIC AIR AT REGIONAL LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POLISCHUK S. Z.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem. The problem of quality of atmospheric air takes a special place among problems of protection of a surrounding environment. It is caused first of all by vital necessity of atmospheric air for all alive on the Earth, influence of a condition of an atmosphere on global climatic processes and biosphere as a whole due to huge mobility of air weights with which harmful impurity can be transferred. These questions for industrial regions where the level of anthropogenous influence has reached critical size are especially actual. The Dnepropetrovsk area concerns to such regions also. By development of scripts of development of such regions and their territorial components there is a necessity for definition of possible consequences of anthropogenous processes, which occur (or can occur in atmospheric air. It demands strengthening прогнозных functions of ecological monitoring, in particular on atmospheric air, at planning and building of territories, at a choice of the optimum script of town-planning. Purpose. To improve a subsystem of an estimation and the forecast of a condition of atmospheric air on an example of system of ecological monitoring «Pridneprov'e» the Dnepropetrovsk area by means of introduction of a complex of the mathematical models focused on large industrial region which will allow at presence of criteria and parameters to receive as statistical (for the short-term forecast during steady atmospheric processes, and dynamic estimations of a condition of atmospheric air, the forecast of changes of parameters of atmospheric air and distribution of polluting substances, and also their influence on an environment and the person. Conclusion. The offered approach allows to consider complex parameters of steady development, territorial, branch, social, economic and ecological, time aspects, opportunities of atmospheric air as a polyresource, provides the forecast and an estimation of a condition of atmospheric air

  9. Preparation of Dry Extract of Mikania glomerata Sprengel (Guaco and Determination of Its Coumarin Levels by Spectrophotometry and HPLC-UV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Penha Henriques do Amaral

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Guaco (Mikania glomerata Sprengel syrup is one of the most popular herbal medicines used to treat the symptoms of asthmatic bronchitis, cough and hoarseness. The coumarin 2H-1-benzopyran-2-one, is one of the major constituents of Guaco and contributes to its pharmacological effects. The pharmaceutical capsule form of dry extract of Guaco is recommended by the Brazilian Program of Medicinal Plants and Herbal Medicines and used in primary health care. In order to identify a new protocol to obtain the raw material for Guaco capsule production we evaluated two methods, including a freeze-drying process (lyophilization and the spray-dryer technique, as well as the use of two adjuvants, Maltodextrins and Aerosil®, in different concentrations. The coumarin levels of the dried extracts were analyzed by UV-spectrophotometry and HPLC-UV/DAD. The adjuvant Aerosil® 8% showed better dry powder physical appearance. Lyophilization was observed to be the best process to obtain the dry extract of Guaco based on the measured coumarin levels.

  10. Statistical analysis of global surface air temperature and sea level using cointegration methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmith, Torben; Johansen, Søren; Thejll, Peter

    Global sea levels are rising which is widely understood as a consequence of thermal expansion and melting of glaciers and land-based ice caps. Due to physically-based models being unable to simulate observed sea level trends, semi-empirical models have been applied as an alternative for projecting...... of future sea levels. There is in this, however, potential pitfalls due to the trending nature of the time series. We apply a statistical method called cointegration analysis to observed global sea level and surface air temperature, capable of handling such peculiarities. We find a relationship between sea...... level and temperature and find that temperature causally depends on the sea level, which can be understood as a consequence of the large heat capacity of the ocean. We further find that the warming episode in the 1940s is exceptional in the sense that sea level and warming deviates from the expected...

  11. The Influence of Errors in Visualization Systems on the Level of Safety Threat in Air Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Ferduła

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Air traffic management is carried out by air traffic controllers assisted by complex technical systems that provide them with visualization of the traffic situation. In practice, visualization systems errors sometimes occur. The purpose of this paper is to determine the impact of errors of different types on the safety of the air traffic. The assessment of the threat level is influenced by subjective factors and cannot be expressed precisely. Therefore, the fuzzy reasoning theory has been used. The developed fuzzy model has been used to obtain a tool for simulation of the impact of various factors on traffic safety assessment. The results obtained indicate that the most important determinants of safety are the time when the air traffic controller remains unaware of the breakdown and the total time he/she does not have full knowledge of the traffic situation. It has been found that the key role for the proper operation of the air traffic visualization system and the restoration of full situational awareness is played by self-diagnostic systems that can restore the system’s correct functioning without even the controller being aware of the error occurrence. Their role in ensuring safety might be even greater than redundancy which is commonly used.

  12. Consequences of dietary energy source and energy level on energy balance, lactogenic hormones, and lactation curve characteristics of cows after a short or omitted dry period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoeij, R J; Dijkstra, J; Bruckmaier, R.M.; Gross, James J; Lam, T J G M; Remmelink, G J; Kemp, B.; Knegsel, A.T.M.

    2017-01-01

    Omitting the dry period (DP) generally reduces milk production in the subsequent lactation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary energy source-glucogenic (G) or lipogenic (L)-and energy level-standard (std) or low-on milk production; energy balance (EB); lactogenic hormones

  13. Background information on sources of low-level radionuclide emissions to air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbit, C.D.; Herrington, W.N.; Higby, D.P.; Stout, L.A.; Corley, J.P.

    1983-09-01

    This report provides a general description and reported emissions for eight low-level radioactive source categories, including facilties that are licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and Agreement States, and non-Department of Energy (DOE) federal facilities. The eight categories of low-level radioactive source facilities covered by this report are: research and test reactors, accelerators, the radiopharmaceutical industry, source manufacturers, medical facilities, laboratories, naval shipyards, and low-level commercial waste disposal sites. Under each category five elements are addressed: a general description, a facility and process description, the emission control systems, a site description, and the radionuclides released to air (from routine operations)

  14. Background information on sources of low-level radionuclide emissions to air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbit, C.D.; Herrington, W.N.; Higby, D.P.; Stout, L.A.; Corley, J.P.

    1983-09-01

    This report provides a general description and reported emissions for eight low-level radioactive source categories, including facilties that are licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and Agreement States, and non-Department of Energy (DOE) federal facilities. The eight categories of low-level radioactive source facilities covered by this report are: research and test reactors, accelerators, the radiopharmaceutical industry, source manufacturers, medical facilities, laboratories, naval shipyards, and low-level commercial waste disposal sites. Under each category five elements are addressed: a general description, a facility and process description, the emission control systems, a site description, and the radionuclides released to air (from routine operations).

  15. Dry Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye » Facts About Dry Eye Listen Facts About Dry Eye Fact Sheet Blurb The National Eye Institute (NEI) ... and their families search for general information about dry eye. An eye care professional who has examined the ...

  16. Low-level NOx removal in ambient air by pulsed corona technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckers, F J C M; Hoeben, W F L M; Pemen, A J M; Van Heesch, E J M

    2013-01-01

    Although removal of NO x by (pulsed) corona discharges has been thoroughly investigated for high concentrations of NO x in flue gas, removal of low levels in ambient air proves to be a difficult task. (Sub) ppm NO x levels exist in traffic tunnels due to accumulation of exhaust gases. The application of pulsed corona technology for purification of traffic tunnel air is studied during a series of lab and field experiments. An industrial pilot scale wire-cylinder type corona reactor has been utilized. Lab tests have been carried out using a diesel generator as NO x source. NO x conversion levels have been determined by applying two Recordum Airpointers (chemiluminescence-based detection). The detector appeared to be cross-sensitive for HNO 3 and high levels of O 3 . NO x removal rates of 60–80% were obtained for inlet levels of 2–10 ppm. The SIE value of 10 ppm NO x removal is 7 J l −1 . The corona discharges produce ppm level NO x at high energy densities. This intrinsic NO x production limits removal of inlet levels due to equilibrium between production and oxidation. (paper)

  17. Method of aeration disinfecting and drying grain in bulk and pretreating seeds and a transverse blow silo grain dryer therefor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danchenko, Vitaliy G [Dnipropetrovsk, UA; Noyes, Ronald T [Stillwater, OK; Potapovych, Larysa P [Dnipropetrovsk, UA

    2012-02-28

    Aeration drying and disinfecting grain crops in bulk and pretreating seeds includes passing through a bulk of grain crops and seeds disinfecting and drying agents including an ozone and air mixture and surrounding air, subdividing the disinfecting and drying agents into a plurality of streams spaced from one another in a vertical direction, and passing the streams at different heights through levels located at corresponding heights of the bulk of grain crops and seeds transversely in a substantially horizontal direction.

  18. The influence of declining air lead levels on blood lead-air lead slope factors in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond-Bryant, Jennifer; Meng, Qingyu; Davis, Allen; Cohen, Jonathan; Lu, Shou-En; Svendsgaard, David; Brown, James S; Tuttle, Lauren; Hubbard, Heidi; Rice, Joann; Kirrane, Ellen; Vinikoor-Imler, Lisa C; Kotchmar, Dennis; Hines, Erin P; Ross, Mary

    2014-07-01

    It is difficult to discern the proportion of blood lead (PbB) attributable to ambient air lead (PbA), given the multitude of lead (Pb) sources and pathways of exposure. The PbB-PbA relationship has previously been evaluated across populations. This relationship was a central consideration in the 2008 review of the Pb national ambient air quality standards. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the relationship between PbB and PbA concentrations among children nationwide for recent years and to compare the relationship with those obtained from other studies in the literature. We merged participant-level data for PbB from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III (1988-1994) and NHANES 9908 (1999-2008) with PbA data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. We applied mixed-effects models, and we computed slope factor, d[PbB]/d[PbA] or the change in PbB per unit change in PbA, from the model results to assess the relationship between PbB and PbA. Comparing the NHANES regression results with those from the literature shows that slope factor increased with decreasing PbA among children 0-11 years of age. These findings suggest that a larger relative public health benefit may be derived among children from decreases in PbA at low PbA exposures. Simultaneous declines in Pb from other sources, changes in PbA sampling uncertainties over time largely related to changes in the size distribution of Pb-bearing particulate matter, and limitations regarding sampling size and exposure error may contribute to the variability in slope factor observed across peer-reviewed studies.

  19. Thermal stability and temperature coefficients of four rare-earth-cobalt matrix magnets heated in dry air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strnat, R. M. W.; Liu, S.; Strnat, K. J.

    1982-03-01

    Flux-loss characteristics during long-term air aging of four rare-earth-cobalt matrix magnet types were measured. Irreversible losses and reversible temperature coefficients on heating above room temperature are reported. Purely magnetic and permanent microstructure-related changes during aging were differentiated by measuring hysteresis curves before and after long-term exposure. Three commercial polymer-bonded magnets using different rare-earth-cobalt-transition metal alloys and a solder-matrix magnet with Sm(Co, Cu, Fe, Zr)7.4 were studied. They were cycled between 25 °C and maximum temperatures to 150 °C (25 ° intervals) as applicable. Aging data at 50 and 125 °C for an exposure time of 3300 h are reported. The 2-17 samples have a stability far superior to bonded 1-5. The soft metal binder imparts significantly better aging behavior on precipitation-hardened 2-17 magnet alloys above 100 °C than an epoxy resin matrix.

  20. Chemo-ecological studies on plant indicators for low level air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katoh, Terutaka; Kasuya, Minoru; Kagamimori, Sadanobu (Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Kozuka, Hiroshi; Kawano, Shoichi

    1991-05-01

    The effects of low level air pollution on Japanese Cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) have been studied in the surrounding area of two thermoelectric power stations newly constructed in a rural area, Fukui Prefecture, on the Japan Sea side of central Honshu, Japan. The degree of visual injury in Japanese Cedar, scored with six different categories, was examined in 1974 and 1977 respectively, covering the entire study area. A more complete monitoring has been conducted at eight permanent sites in Awara-cho since 1974. A dendrochronological study was also carried out to evaluate the effects of air pollution on the increment growth of Japanese Cedars. There were clear correlations between the distance from the power station and tree decline. Severe damage was observed, in general, within a 7 km radius from the power station. The localized injury of Japanese Cedar, along the flood plain of the two rivers, was also demonstrated. A rapid increase of injury was noted until through the late 1970's. The growth inhibition, during this period, was also revealed by tree ring analysis. Some recovery of tree vigor and increment growth was observed after the introduction of pollution control systems at the power station. Consistent relationships were demonstrated between the index of increment growth, i.e., standardized ring index, and the levels of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub 2}. Scarcely any correlation was observed between pH of rain water and the standardized ring index. Decreased levels of foliar tannin were observed in the Japanese Cedars growing in the polluted areas. The inhibition of the shikimate pathway, by air pollution, was suggested by biochemical studies. Increased predation damage was observed in the foliage of Japanese Cedars with low tannin levels. The predisposed effects of air pollution were discussed with special reference to the inhibition of the shikimate pathway. (author).

  1. Effects of Environmental Air Pollution on Pulmonary Function Level of Residents in Korean Industrial Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Eunju; Lee, Seokwon; Kim, Geun-Bae; Kim, Tae-Jong; Kim, Hyoung-Wook; Lee, Kyoungho; Son, Bu-Soon

    2018-04-24

    This study aims to identify environmental air pollution adversely affecting pulmonary function among a community-based general population living in Korean industrial complexes. A total of 1963 residents participated in a pulmonary function test (PFT). The sample population consisted of an exposed group ( n = 1487) living within a radius of 5 km of industrial complexes and a control group ( n = 476) living over a radius of 10 km from the industrial complexes in Gwangyang and Yeosu cities. PFT results were calculated for each resident of the study population. On-site questionnaire surveys with face-to-face interviews were also conducted to collect more detailed information on personal lifestyles, medical history, exposure to air pollution, and respiratory disease and related symptoms. A total of 486 measured samples were collected by eight automated air-monitoring stations installed in four counties of Gwangyang and four counties of Yeosu in South Korea from January 2006 to February 2007. Mean levels of SO₂ (0.012 ppm), CO (0.648 ppm), NO₂ (0.02 ppm), O₃ (0.034 ppm), and PM 10 (43.07 μg/m³), collected within a radius of 5 km, were significantly higher than those collected over a radius of 10 km from Gwangyang and Yeosu industrial complexes. Prevalence odds ratio (OR) of abnormal pulmonary function in the exposed group of residents ( 0.05). In multiple linear regression analysis, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV₁) and forced vital capacity (FVC) levels significantly declined as SO₂, CO, and O₃ levels increased when adjusting for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), alcohol, smoking, secondhand smoke, and respiratory disease and related symptoms ( n = 1963) ( p < 0.05). These results suggest that exposure to air pollution affects pulmonary function levels of residents living in Korean industrial complexes.

  2. Infiltration and air quality in well-insulated homes: 3. measurement and modeling of pollutant levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koontz, M.D.; Nagda, N.L.

    1984-01-01

    Indoor pollutant levels in well-insulated houses are being investigated in a 2-year theoretical and experimental study involving the simultaneous measurement of meteorological variables, air exchange and circulation, and energy consumption. This paper describes concentrations of radon, radon progeny, formaldehyde, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides observed in two houses over two seasons, summer and fall 1983. Two companion papers provide a perspective on the problem and the study design, and present results of energy use and infiltration measurements. (Author)

  3. Chemo-ecological studies on plant indicators for low level air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katoh, Terutaka; Kasuya, Minoru; Kagamimori, Sadanobu; Kozuka, Hiroshi; Kawano, Shoichi.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of low level air pollution on Japanese Cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) have been studied in the surrounding area of two thermoelectric power stations newly constructed in a rural area, Fukui Prefecture, on the Japan Sea side of central Honshu, Japan. The degree of visual injury in Japanese Cedar, scored with six different categories, was examined in 1974 and 1977 respectively, covering the entire study area. A more complete monitoring has been conducted at eight permanent sites in Awara-cho since 1974. A dendrochronological study was also carried out to evaluate the effects of air pollution on the increment growth of Japanese Cedars. There were clear correlations between the distance from the power station and tree decline. Severe damage was observed, in general, within a 7 km radius from the power station. The localized injury of Japanese Cedar, along the flood plain of the two rivers, was also demonstrated. A rapid increase of injury was noted until through the late 1970's. The growth inhibition, during this period, was also revealed by tree ring analysis. Some recovery of tree vigor and increment growth was observed after the introduction of pollution control systems at the power station. Consistent relationships were demonstrated between the index of increment growth, i.e., standardized ring index, and the levels of SO 2 and NO 2 . Scarcely any correlation was observed between pH of rain water and the standardized ring index. Decreased levels of foliar tannin were observed in the Japanese Cedars growing in the polluted areas. The inhibition of the shikimate pathway, by air pollution, was suggested by biochemical studies. Increased predation damage was observed in the foliage of Japanese Cedars with low tannin levels. The predisposed effects of air pollution were discussed with special reference to the inhibition of the shikimate pathway. (author)

  4. Radionuclide concentrations in ground level air and precipitation in South Germany from 1976 to 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoetzl, H.; Rosner, G.; Winkler, R.

    1983-08-01

    The activity concentrations of fallout radionuclides from atmospheric nuclear test explosions and of Be-7 in ground level air and precipitation have been determined by the Institut fuer Strahlenschutz at Munich-Neuherberg since 1970. While methods and results from 1970 to 1975 have been published in a previous report, the present report describes the revised program which includes now the naturally occurring nuclides Pb-210 and Po-210, as well as H-3. Sampling methods, analytical techniques and measuring procedures are given. The results up to the end of 1982 are reported and seasonal and long-term variations of radionuclide concentrations as well as frequency distributions of the data are discussed. The data are compared with those of other stations. As a consequence of some recent atmospheric nuclear test explosions by the People's Republic of China also short-lived radionuclides have been detected in ground level air and precipitation. The radiation exposure due to the radioactivity in ground level air and precipitation is estimated. (orig.)

  5. Temporal changes of beryllium-7 and lead-210 in ground level air in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Marija M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 7Be, 210Pb and 137Cs activity concentrations in ground level air at five monitoring stations (MS Vinča, Zeleno Brdo, Zaječar, Vranje and Zlatibor in Serbia were determined during the period from May 2011. to September 2012., as part of the project monitoring of Serbia. Activity of the radionuclides in air was determined on an HPGe detector (Canberra, relative efficiency 20 % by standard gamma spectrometry. Concentrations of cosmogenic 7Be, ranged from 1.5 to 8.8 mBq m-3 and exhibit maxima in the spring/summer period. The maximum concentrations for 210Pb were generally obtained in the fall for all investigated locations, and concentrations were in range 3.6 - 30 × 10-4 Bq m-3. The activity concentrations of anthropogenic 137Cs in ground level air, during the observed period, were at level 0.3 - 8 μBq m-3. The variations in 7Be/210Pb activity ratio for the investigated stations are also presented. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III43009

  6. Effect of caliber size and fat level on the inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 in dry fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Souza, James; Ahmed, Rafath; Strange, Philip; Barbut, Shai; Balamurugan, S

    2018-02-02

    Dry fermented sausages (DFS) have been subject to numerous validation studies, as pathogen reduction heavily relies on both ingredients and processing. In this study the effect of product caliber size (32, 55, 80mm), and fat level (low, 9.67%; high, 18.46% wt/wt) on the inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 during DFS production was examined. Sausages containing a five-strain cocktail of E. coli O157:H7 at 10 7 CFU/g were manufactured and monitored for changes in physicochemical properties and inoculated E. coli O157:H7 numbers were enumerated during the DFS production stages and log reduction rates were calculated. Significant (P0.05) different among sausages of different caliber size or fat levels. No significant (P>0.05) reduction in a w was observed during fermentation of the sausages. However, during the drying phase, sausages with larger caliber sizes required a significantly longer duration of drying to achieve the same a w of smaller caliber size sausages. For instance, to achieve an a w of ≤0.9, following 5days of fermentation/curing, 80mm caliber sausages required up to 27days of drying compared with 13 and 6days for 55 and 32mm caliber size sausages, respectively. Fat levels on the other hand did not significantly (P>0.05) effect the reduction of a w during drying of the sausages. During the fermentation stage there was a significant and rapid reduction in E. coli O157:H7 counts by about 1.1- to 1.4-log units, but was not significantly different among sausages of different caliber size and fat levels. Considering the whole process, only caliber size had a significant effect on log reduction of E. coli O157:H7. ANOVA of log reduction rates of E. coli O157:H7 among sausages of different caliber size and fat levels revealed no significant differences during the fermentation, however, during the drying of the sausages, log reduction rate of E. coli O157:H7 was significantly (PE. coli O157:H7 in high fat large caliber sausages was the lowest at -0.082±0.004 log

  7. Impact of natural gas extraction on PAH levels in ambient air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulik, L Blair; Donald, Carey E; Smith, Brian W; Tidwell, Lane G; Hobbie, Kevin A; Kincl, Laurel; Haynes, Erin N; Anderson, Kim A

    2015-04-21

    Natural gas extraction, often referred to as "fracking," has increased rapidly in the U.S. in recent years. To address potential health impacts, passive air samplers were deployed in a rural community heavily affected by the natural gas boom. Samplers were analyzed for 62 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Results were grouped based on distance from each sampler to the nearest active well. PAH levels were highest when samplers were closest to active wells. Additionally, PAH levels closest to natural gas activity were an order of magnitude higher than levels previously reported in rural areas. Sourcing ratios indicate that PAHs were predominantly petrogenic, suggesting that elevated PAH levels were influenced by direct releases from the earth. Quantitative human health risk assessment estimated the excess lifetime cancer risks associated with exposure to the measured PAHs. Closest to active wells, the risk estimated for maximum residential exposure was 2.9 in 10 000, which is above the U.S. EPA's acceptable risk level. Overall, risk estimates decreased 30% when comparing results from samplers closest to active wells to those farthest. This work suggests that natural gas extraction may be contributing significantly to PAHs in air, at levels that are relevant to human health.

  8. Impact of natural gas extraction on Pah levels in ambient air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulik, L. Blair; Donald, Carey E.; Smith, Brian W.; Tidwell, Lane G.; Hobbie, Kevin A.; Kincl, Laurel; Haynes, Erin N.; Anderson, Kim A.

    2015-01-01

    Natural gas extraction, often referred to as “fracking,” has increased rapidly in the U.S. in recent years. To address potential health impacts, passive air samplers were deployed in a rural community heavily affected by the natural gas boom. Samplers were analyzed for 62 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Results were grouped based on distance from each sampler to the nearest active well. PAH levels were highest when samplers were closest to active wells. Additionally, PAH levels closest to natural gas activity were an order of magnitude higher than levels previously reported in rural areas. Sourcing ratios indicate that PAHs were predominantly petrogenic, suggesting that elevated PAH levels were influenced by direct releases from the earth. Quantitative human health risk assessment estimated the excess lifetime cancer risks associated with exposure to the measured PAHs. Closest to active wells, the risk estimated for maximum residential exposure was 2.9 in 10,000, which is above the U.S. EPA's acceptable risk level. Overall, risk estimates decreased 30% when comparing results from samplers closest to active wells to those farthest. This work suggests that natural gas extraction may be contributing significantly to PAHs in air, at levels that are relevant to human health. PMID:25810398

  9. Measurement of the carbon 14 activity at natural level in air samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivier, A.; Tenailleau, L.; Baron, Y.; Maro, D.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was to measure the carbon 14 activity at natural level in air samples using classical methods of radiochemistry and beta counting. Three different methods have been tested in order to minimise the detection limit. In the three methods, the first step consists in trapping the atmospheric carbon 14 into NaOH (1N) using a bubbling chamber. The atmospheric carbon dioxide reacts with NaOH to form Na 2 CO 3 . In the first method the Na 2 CO 3 solution is mixed with a liquid scintillate and is directly analysed by liquid scintillation counting (LSC). The detection limit is approximately 1 Bq/m 3 of air samples. The second method consists in evaporating the carbonate solution and then counting the solid residue with a proportional gas circulation counter. The detection limit obtained is lower than the first method (0.4 Bq/m 3 of air samples). In the third method, Na 2 CO 3 is precipitated into CaCO 3 in presence of CaCl 2 . CaCO 3 is then analysed by LSC. This method appear to be the most appropriate, the detection limit is 0.05 Bq/m 3 of air samples. (author)

  10. A statistical method to get surface level air-temperature from satellite observations of precipitable water

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pankajakshan, T.; Shikauchi, A; Sugimori, Y.; Kubota, M.

    -T a and precipitable water. The rms errors of the SSMI-T a , in this case are found to be reduced to 1.0°C. 1. Introduction Satellite derived surface-level meteorological parameters are considered to be a better alternative to sparse ship... Vol. 49, pp. 551 to 558. 1993 A Statistical Method to Get Surface Level Air-Temperature from Satellite Observations of Precipitable Water PANKAJAKSHAN THADATHIL*, AKIRA SHIKAUCHI, YASUHIRO SUGIMORI and MASAHISA KUBOTA School of Marine Science...

  11. Loosely coupled level sets for retinal layers and drusen segmentation in subjects with dry age-related macular degeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Novosel, J.; Wang, Ziyuan; De Jong, Henk; Vermeer, K.A.; van Vliet, L.J.; Styner, Martin A.; Angelini, Elsa D.

    2016-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is used to produce high-resolution three-dimensional images of the retina, which permit the investigation of retinal irregularities. In dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a chronic eye disease that causes central vision loss, disruptions such as drusen and

  12. Measurement and Comparison of Glass Transition and Sticky Point Temperatures for DDGS as Affected by CDS and Drying Temperature Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) is the main coproduct of the fuel ethanol industry; and has significantly impacted the livestock feeds market in recent years. It must often be transported over long distances to meet market demands both domestically and internationally. Particle agglome...

  13. Quantile-based Bayesian maximum entropy approach for spatiotemporal modeling of ambient air quality levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hwa-Lung; Wang, Chih-Hsin

    2013-02-05

    Understanding the daily changes in ambient air quality concentrations is important to the assessing human exposure and environmental health. However, the fine temporal scales (e.g., hourly) involved in this assessment often lead to high variability in air quality concentrations. This is because of the complex short-term physical and chemical mechanisms among the pollutants. Consequently, high heterogeneity is usually present in not only the averaged pollution levels, but also the intraday variance levels of the daily observations of ambient concentration across space and time. This characteristic decreases the estimation performance of common techniques. This study proposes a novel quantile-based Bayesian maximum entropy (QBME) method to account for the nonstationary and nonhomogeneous characteristics of ambient air pollution dynamics. The QBME method characterizes the spatiotemporal dependence among the ambient air quality levels based on their location-specific quantiles and accounts for spatiotemporal variations using a local weighted smoothing technique. The epistemic framework of the QBME method can allow researchers to further consider the uncertainty of space-time observations. This study presents the spatiotemporal modeling of daily CO and PM10 concentrations across Taiwan from 1998 to 2009 using the QBME method. Results show that the QBME method can effectively improve estimation accuracy in terms of lower mean absolute errors and standard deviations over space and time, especially for pollutants with strong nonhomogeneous variances across space. In addition, the epistemic framework can allow researchers to assimilate the site-specific secondary information where the observations are absent because of the common preferential sampling issues of environmental data. The proposed QBME method provides a practical and powerful framework for the spatiotemporal modeling of ambient pollutants.

  14. Na and K Levels in forage species from the communal grazing lands during the dry season at some locations in the Northern Region of Ghana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomda, Y M; Osae, E K; Akaho, E H.K. [Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, Accra (Ghana); Fianu, F K [University of Ghana, Legon, Accra, (Ghana); Karbo, N [Animal Research Institute, Nyankpala (Ghana)

    1999-09-01

    Forage species were taken, during the dry season, from five districts in the Northern Region of Ghana and analysed for Na and K using the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique. The Na level varied in plants species as well as location. The level ranged between 0.049 g/kg DM and 1.14 g/kg DM. This was found to be inadequate for the animals and require supplementation during the dry season. Potassium level in the forage species was between 7.8 to 91.3g/kg DM and appeared to be adequate for the grazing animals. (author) Technical report for year ending 1998. 2 tabs.; 18 refs.

  15. Air radioactivity levels following the Fukushima reactor accident measured at the Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loaiza, P; Brudanin, V; Piquemal, F; Reyss, J-L; Stekl, I; Warot, G; Zampaolo, M

    2012-12-01

    The radioactivity levels in the air of the radionuclides released by the Fukushima accident were measured at the Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane, in the South-East of France, during the period 25 March-18 April 2011. Air-filters from the ventilation system exposed for one or two days were measured using low-background gamma-ray spectrometry. In this paper we present the activity concentrations obtained for the radionuclides (131)I, (132)Te, (134)Cs, (137)Cs, (95)Nb, (95)Zr, (106)Ru, (140)Ba/La and (103)Ru. The activity concentration of (131)I was of the order of 100 μBq/m(3), more than 100 times higher than the activities of other fission products. The highest activities of (131)I were measured as a first peak on 30 March and a second peak on 3-4 April. The activity concentrations of (134)Cs and (137)Cs varied from 5 to 30 μBq/m(3). The highest activity concentration recorded for Cs corresponded to the same period as for (131)I, with a peak on 2-3 April. The results of the radioactivity concentration levels in grass and mushrooms exposed to the air in the Modane region were also measured. Activity concentrations of (131)I of about 100 mBq/m(2) were found in grass. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Solar drying of uruguayan red gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Ono

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available he use of solar energy as an alternative to non-renewable energy sources has been widely researched in the last decades. Compared to air drying, solar drying kilns can better control the drying process, resulting in a higher quality of the dry wood and lower final wood moisture content values. Investment and running costs for a solar drying kiln are lower than those of a conventional kiln. Moreover, the solar drying process can be advantageous for drying hardwoods which are traditionally considered difficult to dry such as eucalyptus wood of medium and high density (Red gums, known in Spanish as “Eucaliptos colorados”. The solar drying kiln naturally incorporates a daily high relative humidity period that can be similar to a conditioning or steaming step, although at a lower temperature.This results in fewer defects due to the drying process.A pilot scale 2.5 m3 semi-greenhouse type solar wood drying kiln was constructed at LATU (Uruguay Technological Laboratory in Montevideo, Uruguay. The operating conditions and the results from two drying runs are presented. Two species of red gum (Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm., ADD 870 kg/m3, and Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh., ADD 800 kg/m3 were dried from initial average moisture contents (WMC of around 60% down to 10.0% and 12.7% in 108 days and 76 days, respectively. Boards were provided by the Grupo Forestal San Gregorio from trees harvested at Tacuarembo and Paysandu Departments from cattle shelter forests 60 and 70 years old.Mean volume shrinkage was 18% for E. tereticornis, and 16% for E. camaldulensis, and the level of defects was moderate. Residual stresses and moisture content gradients were observed for both species. Final moisture content values were similar compared to those obtained in conventional drying kilns but with longer drying periods and lower operating costs. This would make the solar drying process attractive to small and medium sized forest products industries in a small country

  17. Water level fluctuations in a tropical reservoir: the impact of sediment drying, aquatic macrophyte dieback, and oxygen availability on phosphorus mobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keitel, Jonas; Zak, Dominik; Hupfer, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Reservoirs in semi-arid areas are subject to water level fluctuations (WLF) that alter biogeochemical processes in the sediment. We hypothesized that wet-dry cycles may cause internal eutrophication in such systems when they affect densely vegetated shallow areas. To assess the impact of WLF on phosphorus (P) mobilization and benthic P cycling of iron-rich sediments, we tested the effects of (i) sediment drying and rewetting, (ii) the impact of organic matter availability in the form of dried Brazilian Waterweed (Egeria densa), and (iii) alternating redox conditions in the surface water. In principle, drying led to increased P release after rewetting both in plant-free and in plant-amended sediments. Highest P mobilization was recorded in plant amendments under oxygen-free conditions. After re-establishment of aerobic conditions, P concentrations in surface water decreased substantially owing to P retention by sediments. In desiccated and re-inundated sediments, P retention decreased by up to 30% compared to constantly inundated sediments. We showed that WLF may trigger biochemical interactions conducive to anaerobic P release. Thereby, E. densa showed high P release and even P uptake that was redox-controlled and superimposed sedimentary P cycling. Macrophytes play an important role in the uptake of P from the water but may be also a significant source of P in wet-dry cycles. We estimated a potential for the abrupt release of soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) by E. densa of 0.09-0.13 g SRP per m(2) after each wet-dry cycle. Released SRP may exceed critical P limits for eutrophication, provoking usage restrictions. Our results have implications for management of reservoirs in semi-arid regions affected by WLF.

  18. Low Level Exposure to GB Vapor in Air: Diagnosis/Dosimetry, Lowest Observable Effect Levels, Performance-Incapacitation, and Possible Delayed Effects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Helden, Herman

    2002-01-01

    .... 2001 under experimental conditions similar to those in Nov. 2000 when they were first 5 h exposed to air followed by 5 h exposure to low levels of GB vapor in air in a concentration range of 7.5 - 150 micron/m3...

  19. Generalized drying curves in conductive/convective paper drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.C. Motta Lima

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a study related to conductive/convective drying of paper (cellulose sheets over heated surfaces, under natural and forced air conditions. The experimental apparatus consists in a metallic box heated by a thermostatic bath containing an upper surface on which the paper samples (about 1 mm thick are placed. The system is submitted to ambient air under two different conditions: natural convection and forced convection provide by an adjustable blower. The influence of initial paper moisture content, drying (heated surface temperature and air velocity on drying curves behavior is observed under different drying conditions. Hence, these influence is studied through the proposal of generalized drying curves. Those curves are analyzed individually for each air condition exposed above and for both together. A set of equations to fit them is proposed and discussed.

  20. Performance evaluation of air cleaning devices of an operating low level radioactive solid waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, V.; Surya Narayana, D.S.; Sundararajan, A.R.; Satyasai, P.M.; Ahmed, Jaleel

    1997-01-01

    Particle removal efficiencies of a cyclone separator, baghouse filters and a high efficiency particulate activity (HEPA) filter bank of an incinerator have been determined during the incineration of combustible low level solid radioactive wastes with surface dose of 20 - 50 gy/h. Experimental runs have been carried out to collect the particulates in various aerodynamic size ranges using an eight stage Andersen sampler and a low pressure impactor (LPI) while the incinerator is in operation. The collection efficiencies of the cyclone, baghouse and HEPA filters have been found to be 100 per cent for particles of size greater than 4.7, 2.1 and 1.1 μm respectively. The results of our investigations indicate that the air cleaning devices of the incinerator are working according to their design criteria. The data will be useful in the design and operation of air cleaning devices for toxic gaseous effluents. (author). 3 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  1. Levels of particulate air pollution, its elemental composition, determinants and health effects in metro systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuijsen, M. J.; Gómez-Perales, J. E.; Colvile, R. N.

    The aim of this study was to review and summarise the levels of particulate air pollution, its elemental composition, its determinants, and its potential health effects in metro systems. A number of studies have been conducted to assess the levels of particulate matter and its chemical composition in metro systems. The monitoring equipment used varied and may have led to different reporting and makes it more difficult to compare results between metro systems. Some of the highest average levels of particulate matter were measured in the London metro system. Whereas some studies have reported higher levels of particulate matter in the metro system (e.g. London, Helsinki, Stockholm) compared to other modes of transport (London) and street canyons (Stockholm and Helsinki), other studies reported lower levels in the metro system (e.g. Hong Kong, Guangzhou, and Mexico City). The differences may be due to different material of the wheel, ventilation levels and breaking systems but there is no good evidence to what extent the differences may be explained by this, except perhaps for some elements (e.g. Fe, Mn). The dust in the metro system was shown to be more toxic than ambient airborne particulates, and its toxicity was compared with welding dust. The higher toxicity may be due to the higher iron content. Although the current levels of particulate matter and toxic matter are unlikely to lead to any significant excess health effects in commuters, they should be reduced where possible. It will be difficult to introduce measures to reduce the levels in older metro systems, e.g. by introducing air conditioning in London, but certainly they should be part of any new designs of metro systems.

  2. Effect of public transport strikes on air pollution levels in Barcelona (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basagaña, Xavier; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Agis, David; Pérez, Noemí; Reche, Cristina; Alastuey, Andrés; Querol, Xavier

    2018-01-01

    Public transport strikes can lead to an increase of the number of private vehicle trips, which in turn can increase air pollution levels. We aimed to estimate the change in air pollution concentrations during public transport strikes in the city of Barcelona (Spain). Data on strikes of the metro, train or bus systems were collected from government records (2005-2016). We collected daily concentrations of NOx; particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10μm (PM10), 2.5μm (PM2.5), and 1μm (PM1); particle number concentration (N); black carbon (BC) and CO from research and official monitoring stations. We fitted linear regression models for each pollutant with the strike indicator as an independent variable, and models were adjusted for day of the week, month, year, and holiday periods. During the study period, there were 208days affected by a strike of the metro (28), train (106) or bus (91) systems. Half of the strikes were partial, most of them were single-day strikes, there was little overlap between strikes of the different transport systems, and all strikes had to comply with mandatory minimal services. When pooling all types of strikes, NOx and BC showed higher levels during strike days in comparison with non-strike days (increase between 4.1% and 7.7%, with higher increases for NO). The increases in these concentrations were more evident during full day and multiday metro strikes. In conclusion, alterations in public transport have consequences on air quality. This highlights the importance of public transport in reducing air pollution concentrations in cities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The effect of increased levels of dried coconut meal supplemented with an enzyme cocktail® on diet utilization in growing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prawit Rodjan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to determine the effect of increased levels of dried coconut meal supplemented with an enzyme cocktail® on diet utilization in growing pigs. A 4x4 latin square design was used in this study. Four crossbred (Duroc x Landrace x Large White barrows averaging 17.88±0.96 kg in body weight were allotted 4 diets, diet 1 (the control diet, diet 2, diet 3 and diet 4 (5, 10 and 15% dried coconut meal in each diet with an enzyme cocktail® , 1 kg of the enzyme cocktail containing the activities of phytase 1,000,000 units, amylase 5,000,000 units, xylanase 3,500,000 units, beta-glucanase 2,000,000 units, cellulase 1,500,000 units, pectinase 1,000,000 units and mannanase 800,000 units; 500 g/t of feed, at a level 0.05% in the diets, respectively. Pigs were raised in individual metabolism cages. Faeces and urine samples were collected 4 times a day for 5 days for data collection. The results showed that the nutrient digestibility percentage of dry matter, crude protein, crude fat, ash, nitrogen-free extract, blood urea nitrogen, digestible energy (kcal/kg and metabolizable energy (kcal/ kg were not significantly different (P>0.05 in pigs fed with different diets. However, pigs fed with 5, 10 and 15% dried coconut meal in the diet with an enzyme cocktail® at a level 0.05% had significantly (P0.05 from the other groups. Apparent biological values contrarily reduced (linear and quadratic, P<0.05 with increasing level of dried coconut meal in pig diets. In conclusion, our data indicate that pigs fed with 5% dried coconut meal in a diet with addition of an enzyme cocktail at a level of 0.05% can show obviously increasing the highest digestibility of crude fiber (79.25% without impairing nutrient digestibility.

  4. Passive inhalation of marijuana smoke: urinalysis and room air levels of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cone, E.J.; Johnson, R.E.; Darwin, W.D.; Yousefnejad, D.; Mell, L.D.; Paul, B.D.; Mitchell, J.

    1987-01-01

    In two separate studies, 5 drug-free male volunteers with a history of marijuana use were passively exposed to the sidestream smoke of 4 and 16 marijuana cigarettes (2.8% delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol [THC]) for 1 h each day for 6 consecutive days. A third study was similarly performed with 2 marijuana-naive subjects passively exposed to the smoke of 16 marijuana cigarettes. Passive smoke exposure was conducted in a small, unventilated room. Room air levels of THC and CO were monitored frequently. All urine specimens were collected and analyzed by EMIT d.a.u. assay, Abuscreen radioimmunoassay and GC/MS. The studies show that significant amounts of THC were absorbed by all subjects at the higher level of passive smoke exposure (eg., smoke from 16 marijuana cigarettes), resulting in urinary excretion of significant amounts of cannabinoid metabolites. However, it seems improbable that subjects would unknowingly tolerate the noxious smoke conditions produced by this exposure. At the lower level of passive marijuana-smoke exposure, specimens tested positive only infrequently or were negative. Room air levels of THC during passive smoke exposure appeared to be the most critical factor in determining whether a subject produced cannabinoid-positive urine specimens

  5. Ultralow Level Mercury Treatment Using Chemical Reduction and Air Stripping: Scoping Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Looney, B.B.

    2000-01-01

    Data collected during the first stage of a Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) Strategic Research and Development Project confirmed the efficacy of chemical reduction and air stripping/sparging as an ultralow level mercury treatment concept for waters containing Hg(II). The process consists of dosing the water with low levels of stannous chloride to convert the mercury to Hg. This form of mercury can easily be removed from the water by air stripping or sparging. Samples of Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater containing approximately 130 ng/L of total mercury (as Hg(II)) were used for the study. In undosed samples, sparging removed 0 percent of the initial mercury. In the dosed samples, all of the removals were greater than 94 percent, except in one water type at one dose. This sample, which was saturated with dissolved oxygen, showed a 63 percent reduction in mercury following treatment at the lowest dose. Following dosing at minimally effective levels and sparging, treated water contained less than 10 ng/L total mercury. In general, the data indicate that the reduction of mercury is highly favored and that stannous chloride reagent efficiently targets the Hg(II) contaminant in the presence of competing reactions. Based on the results, the authors estimated that the costs of implementing and operating an ultralow level mercury treatment process based on chemical reduction and stripping/sparging are 10 percent to 20 percent of traditional treatment technologies

  6. Effects of Replacing Dry-rolled Corn with Increasing Levels of Corn Dried Distillers Grains with Solubles on Characteristics of Digestion, Microbial Protein Synthesis and Digestible Energy of Diet in Hair Lambs Fed High-concentrate Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. I. Castro-Pérez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Four male lambs (Katahdin; average live weight 25.9±2.9 kg with “T” type cannulas in the rumen and proximal duodenum were used in a 4×4 Latin square experiment to evaluate the influence of supplemental dry distillers grain with solubles (DDGS levels (0, 10, 20 and 30%, dry matter basis in substitution for dry-rolled (DR corn on characteristics of digestive function and digestible energy (DE of diet. Treatments did not influence ruminal pH. Substitution of DR corn with DDGS increased ruminal neutral detergent fiber (NDF digestion (quadratic effect, p<0.01, but decreased ruminal organic matter (OM digestion (linear effect, p<0.01. Replacing corn with DDGS increased (linear, p≤0.02 duodenal flow of lipids, NDF and feed N. But there were no treatment effects on flow to the small intestine of microbial nitrogen (MN or microbial N efficiency. The estimated UIP value of DDGS was 44%. Postruminal digestion of OM, starch, lipids and nitrogen (N were not affected by treatments. Total tract digestion of N increased (linear, p = 0.04 as the DDGS level increased, but DDGS substitution tended to decrease total tract digestion of OM (p = 0.06 and digestion of gross energy (p = 0.08. However, it did not affect the dietary digestible energy (DE, MJ/kg, reflecting the greater gross energy content of DDGS versus DR corn in the replacements. The comparative DE value of DDGS may be considered similar to the DE value of the DR corn it replaced up to 30% in the finishing diets fed to lambs.

  7. State of Washington Department of Health Radioactive air emissions notice of construction phase 1 for spent nuclear fuel project - cold vacuum drying facility, project W-441

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turnbaugh, J.E.

    1996-08-15

    This notice of construction (NOC) provides information regarding the source and the estimated annual possession quantity resulting from operation of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF). Additional details on emissions generated by the operation of the CVDF will be discussed again in the Phase 11 NOC. This document serves as a NOC pursuant to the requirements of WAC 246-247-060 for the completion of Phase I NOC, defined as the pouring of concrete for the foundation flooring, construction of external walls, and construction of the building excluding the installation of CVDF process equipment. A Phase 11 NOC will be submitted for approval prior to installing and is defined as the completion of the CVDF, which consisted installation of process equipment, air emissions control, and emission monitoring equipment. About 80 percent of the U.S. Department of Energy`s spent nuclear fuel (SNF) inventory is stored under water in the Hanford Site K Basins. Spent nuclear fuel in the K West Basin is contained in closed canisters while the SNF in the K East Basin is in open canisters, which allow free release of corrosion products to the K East Basin water.

  8. Low Level Exposure to GB Vapor in Air: Diagnosis/Dosimetry, Lowest Observable Effect Levels, Performance-Incapacitation, and Possible Delayed Effects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    ...: (I) A glass exposure chamber for whole-body exposure of unanesthetized guinea pigs and marmosets to low levels of OB vapor in air has been designed and constructed, and is in the implementation stage...

  9. Feed intake and utilization in sheep fed graded levels of dried moringa (Moringa stenopetala) leaf as a supplement to Rhodes grass hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebregiorgis, Feleke; Negesse, Tegene; Nurfeta, Ajebu

    2012-03-01

    The effects of feeding graded levels of dried moringa (Moringa stenopetala) leaf on intake, body weight gain (BWG), digestibility and nitrogen utilization were studied using male sheep (BW of 13.8 ± 0.12 kg). Six sheep were randomly allocated to each of the four treatment diets: Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana) hay offered ad libitum (T1), hay + 150 g moringa leaf (T2), hay + 300 g moringa leaf (T3), hay + 450 g moringa leaf (T4) were offered daily. A 7-day digestibility trial and an 84-day growth experiments were conducted. Dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM) and crude protein (CP) intakes increased (P moringa leaf in the diets. Sheep fed T2, T3 and T4 diets gained (P  0.05) among treatments. The digestibility of dietary CP increased (P moringa leaf, but there was no significant difference between T2 and T3 diets. The nitrogen (N) intake and urinary N excretion increased (P moringa leaf. The N retention was highest (P moringa leaf supplementation. The control group was in a negative N balance. Supplementing a basal diet of Rhodes grass hay with dried moringa leaves improved DM intake, BWG and N retention. It is concluded that M. stenopetala can serve as a protein supplement to low-quality grass during the dry season under smallholder sheep production system.

  10. Air pollution and impact on eco-systems. Load concept/critical level and its consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elichegaray, C.

    1993-01-01

    Critical loads and critical levels respectively can be defined as the deposition value, or the concentration of pollutants in the atmosphere, above which adverse effects on receptors such as plants, ecosystems, materials may occur. Important research is currently being developed on critical loads and levels in the framework of the Geneva convention on transboundary air pollution. Several binding protocols have been elaborated between the european countries, the Canada, and the USA, to reduce their emissions of sulphur, nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds. This article describes the critical loads and levels approach, and the way by which this concept is now used for the revision of the sulphur protocol. (author). 6 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  11. Spray drying of bead resins: feasibility tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, R.L.; Grantham, L.F.; Jones, L.J.

    1984-01-01

    Rockwell International has developed a volume reduction system for low-level reactor wastes based on drying the wastes in a heated-air spray dryer. The drying of slurries of sodium sulfate, boric acid, and powdered ion exchange resins was demonstrated in previous tests. The drying of bead ion exchange resins can be especially difficult due to the relatively large size of bead resins (about 500 to 800 microns) and their natural affinity for water. This water becomes part of the pore structure of the resins and normally comprises 50 t 60 wt % of the resin weight. A 76-cm-diameter spray dryer was used for feasibility tests of spray drying of cation and anion bead resins. These resins were fed to the dryer in the as-received form (similar to dewatered resins) and as slurries. A dry, free-flowing product was produced in all the tests. The volume of the spray-dried product was one-half to one-third the volume of the as-received material. An economic analysis was made of the potential cost savings that can be achieved using the Rockwel spray dryer system. In-plant costs, transportation costs, and burial costs of spray-dried resins were compared to similar costs for disposal of dewatered resins. A typical utility producing 170 m 3 (6,000 ft 3 ) per year of dewatered resins can save $600,000 to $700,000 per year using this volume reduction system

  12. Effect of different drying methods on moisture ratio and rehydration of pumpkin slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seremet Ceclu, Liliana; Botez, Elisabeta; Nistor, Oana-Viorela; Andronoiu, Doina Georgeta; Mocanu, Gabriel-Danut

    2016-03-15

    This study was carried to determine the influence of hot air drying process and combined methods on physicochemical properties of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) samples. The experiments in hot air chamber were lead at 50, 60 and 70 °C. The combined method consists of a triple combination of the main drying techniques. Thus, in first stage the samples were dried in hot air convection at 60 °C followed by hot air ventilation at 40 °C simultaneous with microwave. The time required to reduce the moisture content to any given level was highly dependent on the drying conditions. So, the highest value of drying time in hot air has been 540 min at 50 °C, while the lowest time has been 189 min in hot air combined by microwave at 40 °C and a power of 315 W. The samples dried by hot air shows a higher rehydration capacity than samples dried by combined method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gugele, B.; Scheider, J.; Spangl, W.

    2001-01-01

    In recent years several regulations and standards for air quality and limits for air pollution were issued or are in preparation by the European Union, which have severe influence on the environmental monitoring and legislation in Austria. This chapter of the environmental control report of Austria gives an overview about the legal situation of air pollution control in the European Union and in specific the legal situation in Austria. It gives a comprehensive inventory of air pollution measurements for the whole area of Austria of total suspended particulates, ozone, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, heavy metals, benzene, dioxin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and eutrophication. For each of these pollutants the measured emission values throughout Austria are given in tables and geographical charts, the environmental impact is discussed, statistical data and time series of the emission sources are given and legal regulations and measures for an effective environmental pollution control are discussed. In particular the impact of fossil-fuel power plants on the air pollution is analyzed. (a.n.)

  14. Effect of different levels of air pollution on photosynthetic activity of some lichens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Niewiadomska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Four lichen species: Hypogymnia physodes, Pseudevernia furfuracea, Parmelia saxatilis, and Platismatia glauca were collected from two sites (S. Poland with a different air pollution level: "Kamienica valley" (less polluted and "Kopa" (more polluted. The thalli were compared with respect to their: net photosynthetic rate (PN, fluorescence parameters (Fv/Fm, Fm, Fm/Fo, chlorophyll a+b content, and phaeophytinization quotient (O.D.435/O.D.415. PN intensity, chlorophyll a+b and O.D.435/O.D.415 were reduced only in Pa furfuracea collected from Kopa, which is in agreement with the Hawksworth-Rose scale of sensitivity of lichens to air pollution. Fluorescence parameters were significantly lowered in all lichens coming from the more polluted site (except of Fv/Fm and Fm/F0 in P. saxatilis. Parameters based on chlorophyll fluorescence measurements enable to reveal the very early signs of decreased photosynthetical capacity of the thalli, caused by air pollution, before changes in the other photosynthetic parameters become mesurable.

  15. Ice thermal storage air conditioning system for electric load leveling; Denryoku heijunka to hyochikunetsu system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shigenaga, Y. [Daikin Industries Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1998-08-15

    Thermal storage air conditioning system is the one to use energy stored into thermal storing materials by using night electric power and to operate effective air conditioning. Therefore, as load can be treated by the stored energy, volume of the apparatus can be reduced. And, by reduction of the consumed power at day time, it can contribute to leveling of electric power demand. In general, there are two types in the thermal storage method: one is a method to store as thermal energy, and the other is that to store as chemical energy. For conditions required for the storing materials, important elements on their actual uses are not only physical properties such as large thermal storage per unit and easy thermal in- and out-puts, but also safety, long-term reliability, and easy receiving and economics containing future. The ice thermal storage air conditioning system is classified at the viewpoint of type of ice, kind of thermal storing medium, melting method on using cooling and heating, kinds of thermal medium on cooling and heating. 3 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Retrospective Review of Air Transportation Use for Upper Extremity Amputations at a Level-1 Trauma Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantham, W Jeffrey; To, Philip; Watson, Jeffry T; Brywczynski, Jeremy; Lee, Donald H

    2016-08-01

    Air transportation to tertiary care centers of patients with upper extremity amputations has been utilized in hopes of reducing the time to potential replantation; however, this mode of transportation is expensive and not all patients will undergo replantation. The purpose of this study is to review the appropriateness and cost of air transportation in upper extremity amputations. Consecutive patients transported by aircraft with upper extremity amputations in a 7-year period at a level-1 trauma center were retrospectively reviewed. The distance traveled was recorded, along with the times of the injury, referral, transportation duration, arrival, and start of the operation. The results of the transfer were defined as replantation or revision amputation. Overall, 47 patients were identified with 43 patients going to the operating room, but only 14 patients (30%) undergoing replantation. Patients arrived at the tertiary hand surgery center with a mean time of 182.3 minutes following the injury, which includes 105.2 minutes of transportation time. The average distance traveled was 105.4 miles (range, 22-353 miles). The time before surgery of those who underwent replantation was 154.6 minutes. The average cost of transportation was $20,482. Air transportation for isolated upper extremity amputations is costly and is not usually the determining factor for replantation. The type of injury and patients' expectations often dictate the outcome, and these may be better determined at the time of referral with use of telecommunication photos, discussion with a hand surgeon, and patient counseling. III.

  17. [Geographical distribution of mortality by Parkinson's disease and its association with air lead levels in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santurtún, Ana; Delgado-Alvarado, Manuel; Villar, Alejandro; Riancho, Javier

    2016-12-02

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease, and the etiology of its sporadic form is unknown. The present study analyzes the temporal and spatial variations of mortality by PD in Spain over a period of 14 years and its relationship with lead concentration levels in the atmosphere. An ecological study was performed, in which deaths by PD and age group in 50 Spanish provinces between 2000 and 2013 were analyzed. The annual trend of PD mortality was assessed using the non-parametric Spearman's Rho test. Finally, the relationship between lead concentration levels in the air and mortality by PD was evaluated. Between 2000 and 2013, 36,180 patients with PD died in Spain. There is an increasing trend in mortality through PD over the study period (P<.0001). La Rioja, Asturias, Basque Country and the Lower Ebro valley were the regions with the highest values of PD mortality. Those regions with the highest lead concentrations also showed higher mortality by this disease in people over 64 (P=.02). Over our period of study, there has been an increase in mortality through PD in Spain, with the northernmost half of the country registering the highest values. Mortality in men was higher than mortality in women. Moreover, a direct correlation was found between lead levels in the air and mortality through PD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Aqua AIRS Level 2 Near Real Time (NRT) Cloud-Cleared Infrared Radiances (AIRS+AMSU) V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a facility instrument aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In combination...

  19. Demand control on room level of the supply air temperature in an air heating and ventilation system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polak, Joanna; Afshari, Alireza; Bergsøe, Niels Christian

    2017-01-01

    air heating and ventilation system in a high performance single family house using BSim simulation software. The provision of the desired thermal conditions in different rooms was examined. Results show that the new control strategy can facilitate maintaining of desired temperatures in various rooms......The aim of this study was to investigate a new strategy for control of supply air temperature in an integrated air heating and ventilation system. The new strategy enables demand control of supply air temperature in individual rooms. The study is based on detailed dynamic simulations of a combined....... Moreover, this control strategy enables controlled temperature differentiation between rooms within the house and therefore provides flexibility and better balance in heat delivery. Consequently, the thermal conditions in the building can be improved....

  20. Effects of Environmental Air Pollution on Pulmonary Function Level of Residents in Korean Industrial Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunju Hong

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify environmental air pollution adversely affecting pulmonary function among a community-based general population living in Korean industrial complexes. A total of 1963 residents participated in a pulmonary function test (PFT. The sample population consisted of an exposed group (n = 1487 living within a radius of 5 km of industrial complexes and a control group (n = 476 living over a radius of 10 km from the industrial complexes in Gwangyang and Yeosu cities. PFT results were calculated for each resident of the study population. On-site questionnaire surveys with face-to-face interviews were also conducted to collect more detailed information on personal lifestyles, medical history, exposure to air pollution, and respiratory disease and related symptoms. A total of 486 measured samples were collected by eight automated air-monitoring stations installed in four counties of Gwangyang and four counties of Yeosu in South Korea from January 2006 to February 2007. Mean levels of SO2 (0.012 ppm, CO (0.648 ppm, NO2 (0.02 ppm, O3 (0.034 ppm, and PM10 (43.07 μg/m3, collected within a radius of 5 km, were significantly higher than those collected over a radius of 10 km from Gwangyang and Yeosu industrial complexes. Prevalence odds ratio (OR of abnormal pulmonary function in the exposed group of residents (<5 km was elevated at 1.24 (95% CI 0.71–1.96, but not statistically significant (p > 0.05. In multiple linear regression analysis, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 and forced vital capacity (FVC levels significantly declined as SO2, CO, and O3 levels increased when adjusting for age, sex, body mass index (BMI, alcohol, smoking, secondhand smoke, and respiratory disease and related symptoms (n = 1963 (p < 0.05. These results suggest that exposure to air pollution affects pulmonary function levels of residents living in Korean industrial complexes.

  1. Dynamic Sleep Scheduling on Air Pollution Levels Monitoring with Wireless Sensor Network

    OpenAIRE

    Gezaq Abror; Rusminto Tjatur Widodo; M. Udin Harun Al Rasyid

    2018-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) can be applied for Air Pollution Level Monitoring System that have been determined by the Environmental Impact Management Agency which is  PM10, SO2, O3, NO2 and CO. In WSN, node system is constrained to a limited power supply, so that the node system has a lifetime. To doing lifetime maximization, power management scheme is required and sensor nodes should use energy efficiently. This paper proposes dynamic sleep scheduling using Time Category-Fuzzy Logic (Time-...

  2. Ozone Levels in the North and South of Jordan: Effects of Transboundary Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsawair, Jihad Khalaf

    The first phase of this work sought to assess the causes of air quality deterioration in the south of the region over the Red Sea near the resort areas of Eilat and Aqaba. Accordingly, a coordinated Jordanian-Israeli study was performed during the month of November 2007 along the boarder of the two countries. The Jordanian measurements were made at a fixed monitoring location in the city of Aqaba, while the Israeli measurements were made using a mobile laboratory at kibbutz Eilot some 3 km north of the coastal city of Eilat. The results indicated that pollution episodes are highly dependent on wind direction, where southerly winds carry local transportation (i.e., ship, trucks) and possibly some industrial emissions towards the north end of the Red Sea, while northerly winds are associated with the transport of regional O 3. The results revealed that under the prevailing (˜90% of the time) northerly wind flows, the quality of the air is relatively good for all primary pollutants but O3 was elevated, indicative of the downwind regional transport of this secondary species from the Mediterranean coast. However, during days with southerly air flow the air quality was significantly deteriorated with elevated levels of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). The second phase of this work, which also involved Jordanian and Israeli scientists, was undertaken in the northern part of the region for a two-week period in May/June 2009. This part of the research was aimed at examining previous modeling results that indicated that elevated O3 levels should occur in Northern Jordan from emissions in Northern Israel that are transported a distance of more than 100 km. Ozone and other pollutants were monitored at five sites in Israel (Haifa, Neve Shanan, Kiryat Tivon, Afula, and Maoz Haim) and two in Jordan (Taiba and Irbid). The sites were located along the prevailing wind direction that presumably moves air-masses eastward from the Mediterranean coast, over the Israel

  3. Desorption isotherms and mathematical modeling of thin layer drying kinetics of tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belghith, Amira; Azzouz, Soufien; ElCafsi, Afif

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, there is an increased demand on the international market of dried fruits and vegetables with significant added value. Due to its important production, consumption and nutrient intake, drying of tomato has become a subject of extended and varied research works. The present work is focused on the drying behavior of thin-layer tomato and its mathematical modeling in order to optimize the drying processes. The moisture desorption isotherms of raw tomato were determined at four temperature levels namely 45, 50, 60 and 65 °C using the static gravimetric method. The experimental data obtained were modeled by five equations and the (GAB) model was found to be the best-describing these isotherms. The drying kinetics were experimentally investigated at 45, 55 and 65 °C and performed at air velocities of 0.5 and 2 m/s. In order to investigate the effect of the exchange surface on drying time, samples were dried into two different shapes: tomato halves and tomato quarters. The impact of various drying parameters was also studied (temperature, air velocity and air humidity). The drying curves showed only the preheating period and the falling drying rate period. In this study, attention was paid to the modeling of experimental thin-layer drying kinetics. The experimental results were fitted with four different models.

  4. [Global air monitoring study: a multi-country comparison of levels of indoor air pollution in different workplaces results from Tunisia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higbee, Cheryl; Travers, Mark; Hyland, Andrew; Cummings, K Michael; Dresler, Carolyn

    2007-09-01

    In 1986, a report of the U.S. Surgeon General concluded that second hand smoke is a cause of disease in healthy non smokers. Subsequent many nations including Tunisia implement smoke-free worksite regulations. The aim of our study is to test air quality in indoor ambient air venues in Tunisia. A TSI SidePak AM510 Personal Aerosol Monitor was used to sample, record the levels of respirable suspended particles (RSP) in the air and to assess the real-time concentration of particles less than 2.5 microm in micrograms per cubic meter, or PM2.5. Thirty three venues were sampled in Tunis. The venues were selected to get a broad range of size, location and type of venue. Venues included restaurants and cafés, bars, bus stations, hospitals, offices, and universities. The mean level of indoor air pollution was 296 microg/m3 ranged from 11 microg/m3 to 1,499 microg/m3. The level of indoor air pollution was 85% lower in venues that were smoke-free compared to venues where smoking was observed (ppollution were found in hospitals, offices and universities (52 microg/m3) and the highest level was found in a bar (1,499 micro/m3). Hospitality venues allowing indoor air smoking in Tunisia are significantly more polluted than both indoor smoke-free sites and outdoor air in Tunisia. This study demonstrates that workers and patrons are exposed to harmful levels of a known carcinogen and toxin. Policies that prohibit smoking in public worksites dramatically reduce second hand smoke exposure and improve worker and patron health.

  5. A Causal Inference Analysis of the Effect of Wildland Fire Smoke on Ambient Air Pollution Levels and Health Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildfire smoke is a major contributor to ambient air pollution levels. In this talk, we develop a spatio-temporal model to estimate the contribution of fire smoke to overall air pollution in different regions of the country. We combine numerical model output with observational da...

  6. Determination of drying characteristics and quality properties of eggplant in different drying conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gözde Bayraktaroglu Urun

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Drying is the most traditional process used for preserving eggplant a long time. The aim of this study was to determining drying characteristics and quality properties of eggplant dried by sun drying, hot air convective drying and infrared assisted convective drying. Convective drying and infrared assisted convective were carried out in a convective dryer at three different temperatures(40°, 50°, 60°C and air velocity at 5 m/s.The increasing of temperatures during the drying of eggplant led to a significant reduction of the drying time. However loss of nutrition was observed in eggplant samples dried at higher temperature.The biggest change in colour parameters was observed in samples dried with sun drying.So it was thought that sun drying had a negative effect on quality properties of eggplant samples.

  7. Dry socket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alveolar osteitis; Alveolitis; Septic socket ... You may be more at risk for dry socket if you: Have poor oral health Have a ... after having a tooth pulled Have had dry socket in the past Drink from a straw after ...

  8. Quality of second season soybean submitted to drying and storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Pedro Hartmann Filho

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Drying agricultural products reduces the moisture content to suitable levels for storage, in order to maintain the product quality. However, special care with the temperatures applied in the process is important for the integrity and longevity of the material. The present study aimed at determining the immediate and latent effect of air-drying temperatures on the quality of soybean produced as a second season crop. The grains were collected at the R8 stage, close to the physiological maturity, with moisture content of approximately 23 % (w.b., submitted to drying temperatures of 40 ºC, 50 ºC, 60 ºC, 70 ºC and 80 ºC, up to a moisture content of 12.5 ± 0.7 % (w.b., and then stored under non-controlled humidity and temperature for 180 days. Thereafter, quality was assessed every 45 days by determining the dry matter loss, color and crude protein and lipid contents, as well as the acidity and peroxide indices of the crude oil extracted. Based on the results obtained, it was concluded that the increase in the air-drying temperature affects the soybean quality and crude oil extracted, being this effect enhanced with the storage time; the soybean and crude oil quality decline with an increase in the air-drying temperature and storage time; the air temperature of 40 ºC has the least effect on the quality of soybean grains and crude oil extracted.

  9. Assessment of correlation between leucocytes migration reaction and level of inhalation exposure to priority air contaminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.B. Masnavieva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays each forth person suffers from allergic diseases and allergic pathology prevalence is constantly growing. There are compounds in air which are generally toxic, or have sensitizing or allergenic effects on a body. For example, we can name formaldehyde and nitrogen dioxide. Our research goal was to reveal a correlation between reaction of leucocytes migration inhibition to formaldehyde and level of inhalation exposure to the examined chemicals. We examined 410 teenag-ers who permanently lived in industrial cities in Irkutsk region. We studied individual load as per formaldehyde and nitrogen dioxide. We estimated eosinophils content in nasal mucus and determined indexes of leucocytes migration inhibition to for-maldehyde. Index of formaldehyde effects danger was detected to exceed 1 in 54% teenagers. The greatest value of danger coefficient in terms of exposure to this substance was equal to 1.76. anger index in terms of exposure to nitrogen dioxide didn't exceed 0.7 in the examined teenagers. The obtained results prove that inhalation formaldehyde load influences teenag-ers from industrial centers as sensitization to this substance evolves in them. We found out that true inhibition reaction of leucocytes migration in a reaction with formaldehyde more frequently occurred in people with danger index in terms of ex-posure to this substance being lower than 1. We obtained models which described correlation between level of sensitization to formaldehyde and a number of eosinophils in nasal mucus and it allowed us to detect that sensitization depended on the examined contaminants content in the air. The sensitization to chemical air contaminants which we revealed in teenagers calls for necessary activities aimed at reducing risks of allergenic pathology evolvement in them.

  10. Low-level coal combustion as an important problem related to air pollution in Silesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fudala, J.

    1994-01-01

    Statistical analyses of pollutants from the Katowice District for many years have attributed to the poor air quality to industrial emission sources. Among the source categories for which pollutant emissions into the atmosphere have not been recognized in detail so far, municipal heat sources are worth mentioning. These sources include local boiler houses, residual space heating plants, and individual ceramic furnaces. The problem was investigated by the Institute of Environmental Protection in cooperation with the Regional Design Office at Zabrze. The inventory covered three heat sources: (1) local boiler houses, (2) individual furnaces in multiple-family houses, and (3) individual ceramic furnaces in private houses. For each administrative unit within the district, concentration levels for boiler house and individual household furnaces have been calculated for both local sources and external sources. the calculations have shown that more than 80% of the local concentration levels come from individual furnaces. It also has been found that emissions within a given administrative unit are considerably affected by similar source types in the neighboring units. This relationship has been used to evaluate the administrative units in the Katowice District. In light of the analyses performed, the general conclusion can be drawn the improvement in the sanitary quality of the air depends not only on local emission abatement, but also on integrated activity within the heat and gas supply for old flats and individual private house in the Katowice District

  11. Concentration levels of radon in air, indoors and outdoors in houses of Mexico City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena Garcia, P.

    1992-01-01

    Concentration levels of radon in air, indoors and outdoors have been obtained in houses from Mexico City, with the purpose of relating them with the local environment. Measurements were performed both outdoors and indoors in 60 unifamiliar houses. Track detectors, LR-115, Type II, were used in several detection arrangements during four recording periods with times of exposure of three months each, with the purpose of analyzing the fluctuations due to seasonal changes. Data were obtained about the construction materials were the detection systems were located in order to establish a correlation of radon levels with the climatic parameters and the construction materials. The results of radon concentrations both indoors or outdoors were lower than the international recommendations (148 Bq/m 3 ) (Author)

  12. Plant response to chronic exposure of low levels of oxidant type air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feder, W.A.

    1970-01-01

    Cultivars of geranium and carnation exhibit a reduction of side branching, a retardation of floral initiation, and a decrease in floral productivity when exposed daily for 5-7 hr to 0.1 ppm ozone for 1-3 months. These plants also exhibit a reduction in leaf size, an increase in internode length, a progressive destruction of leaf tissue and eventual defoliation in the case of geranium. Cultivars of petunia exposed to chronic low levels of oxidant are slower to flower and bear fewer flowers than those same cultivars grown in charcoal-filtered air from the same source. These plant effects are of special interest because they occur in the presence of pollutant levels encountered daily in areas surrounding US metropolitan centres. 6 references, 3 figures.

  13. The Relationship Between Air Particulate Levels and Upper Respiratory Disease in Soldiers Deployed to Bosnia (1997-1998)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hastings, Deborah

    2001-01-01

    This study had three objectives: to determine if there is a relationship between air particulate levels and upper respiratory disease in soldiers deployed to Bosnia between 1997-98, to establish a method for linking environmental...

  14. Exposure to ambient air pollution--does it affect semen quality and the level of reproductive hormones?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwan, Michał; Jurewicz, Joanna; Polańska, Kinga; Sobala, Wojciech; Radwan, Paweł; Bochenek, Michał; Hanke, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    Ambient air pollution has been associated with a variety of reproductive disorders. However, a limited amount of research has been conducted to examine the association between air pollution and male reproductive outcomes, specifically semen quality. The present study was designed to address the hypothesis that exposure to fluctuating levels of specific air pollutants adversely affects sperm parameters and the level of reproductive hormones. The study population consisted of 327 men who were attending an infertility clinic in Łodź, Poland for diagnostic purposes and who had normal semen concentration of 15-300 mln/ml. All participants were interviewed and provided a semen sample. Air quality data were obtained from AirBase database. The statistically significant association was observed between abnormalities in sperm morphology and exposure to all examined air pollutants (PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NOX, CO). Exposure to air pollutants (PM10, PM2.5, CO, NOx) was also negatively associated with the level of testosterone. Additional exposure to PM2.5, PM10 increase the percentage of cells with immature chromatin (HDS). The present study provides suggestive evidence of an association between ambient air pollution and sperm quality. Further research is needed to explore this association in more detail. Individual precise exposure assessment would be needed for more detailed risk characterization.

  15. Non-radiological air quality modeling for the high-level waste tank closure environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, C.H.

    2000-01-01

    Dispersion modeling of potential non-radiological air emissions associated with the proposed closure of high-level waste (HLW) tanks at the Savannah River Site has been completed, as requested (TtNUS, 1999). Estimated maximum ground-level concentrations of applicable regulated air pollutants at the site boundary and at the distance to the co-located onsite worker (640 meters) are summarized. In all cases, the calculated concentrations were much less than regulatory standards

  16. Dried fruit breadfruit slices by Refractive Window™ technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego F. Tirado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A large amount of products are dried due several reasons as preservation, weight reduction and improvement of stability. However, on the market are not offered low-cost and high quality products simultaneously. Although there are effective methods of dehydrating foods such as freeze drying, which preserves the flavor, color and vitamins, they are poor accessibility technologies. Therefore, alternative processes are required to be efficient and economical. The aim of this research was compare drying kinetics of sliced of breadfruit (Artocarpus communis using the technique of Refractive Window® (VR with the tray drying. To carry out this study, sliced of 1 and 2 mm thick were used. Refractive window drying was performed with the water bath temperature to 92 °C; and tray drying at 62 °C and an air velocity of 0.52 m/s. During the Refractive window drying technique, the moisture content reached the lower than tray drying levels. Similarly it happened with samples of 1 mm, which, having a smaller diameter reached lower moisture levels than samples 2 mm. The higher diffusivities were obtained during drying sliced VR 1 and 2 mm with coefficients of 6.13 and 3.90*10-9 m2/s respectively.

  17. Performance Analysis of a Solar Dryer Equipped with a Recycling Air System and Desiccant Chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H Aghkhani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Drying is a high energy consuming process. Solar drying is one of the most popular methods for dehydration of agricultural products. In the present study, the performance of a forced convection solar dryer equipped with recycling air system and desiccant chamber was investigated. The solar dryer is comprised of solar collector, drying chamber, silica jell desiccant chamber, air ducts, fan and measuring and controlling system. Drying rate and energy consumption in three levels of air temperature (40, 45 and 50 oC and two modes of drying (with recycling air and no-recycling with open duct system were measured and compared. The results showed that increasing the drying air temperature decreased the drying time and increased the energy consumption in the mode of non-recycling air system. The dryer efficiency and drying rate were better in the mode of recycling air system than open duct system. The highest dryer efficiency was obtained from drying air temperature of 50 oC and the mode of recycling air system. In general, the efficiency of solar collector and the highest efficiency of the dryer were 0.34 and 0.41, respectively.

  18. Low-level exposure of guinea pigs and marmosets to sarin vapour in air: Lowest-observable-adverse-effect level (LOAEL) for miosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helden, H.P.M. van; Trap, H.C.; Kuijpers, W.C.; Oostdijk, J.P.; Benschop, H.P.; Langenberg, J.P.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to indicate, for low-level exposure of conscious guinea pigs and marmoset monkeys to sarin vapour in air, the lowest-observable-adverse-effect level (LOAEL) of sarin for miosis. This is the concentration × time (C·t) value (t = 5 h) of exposure at which miosis

  19. Aerated biofilters with multiple-level air injection configurations to enhance biological treatment of methane emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrokhzadeh, Hasti; Hettiaratchi, J Patrick A; Jayasinghe, Poornima; Kumar, Sunil

    2017-09-01

    Aiming to improve conventional methane biofilter performance, a multiple-level aeration biofilter design is proposed. Laboratory flow-through column experiments were conducted to evaluate three actively-aerated methane biofilter configurations. Columns were aerated at one, two, and three levels of the bed depth, with air introduced at flow rates calculated from methane oxidation reaction stoichiometry. Inlet methane loading rates were increased in five stages between 6 and 18mL/min. The effects of methane feeding rate, levels of aeration, and residence time on methane oxidation rates were determined. Samples collected after completion of flow-through experiments were used to determine methane oxidation kinetic parameters, V max , K m , and methanotrophic community distribution across biofilter columns. Results obtained from mixed variances analysis and response surfaces, as well as methanotrophic activity data, suggested that, biofilter column with two aeration levels has the most even performance over time, maintaining 85.1% average oxidation efficiency over 95days of experiments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Indoor air pollution levels in public buildings in Thailand and exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinmalee, Aungsiri; Srimongkol, Kasama; Kim Oanh, Nguyen Thi

    2009-09-01

    Levels of pollutants including PM2.5 and PM2.5 composition (black carbon and water soluble ions), SO(2), NO(2), CO, CO(2), and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene) were monitored for indoor and outdoor air at a university campus and a shopping center, both located in the Northern suburb of Bangkok. Sampling was done during December 2005-February 2006 on both weekdays and weekends. At the university, indoor monitoring was done in two different air conditioned classrooms which shows the I/O ratios for all pollutants to be below 0.5-0.8 during the weekends. However, on weekdays the ratios for CO(2) and most detected BTEX were above 1.0. The concept of classroom occupancy was defined using a function of the student number in a lecture hour and the number of lecture hours per day. Classroom 2, which had a higher occupancy than classroom 1, was characterized by higher concentrations of most pollutants. PM2.5 was an exception and was higher in classroom 1 (37 microg/m(3), weekdays) as compared to classroom 2 (26 microg/m(3), weekdays) which was likely linked to the dust resuspension from the carpeted floor in the former. Monitoring was also done in the shopping mall at three different sites. Indoor pollutants levels and the I/O ratios at the shopping mall were higher than at the university. Levels of all pollutants measured at the car park, except for toluene and CO(2), were the highest. I/O ratios of the pollutants at the mall were above 1.0, which indicates the relatively higher influence of the indoor sources. However, the black carbon content in PM2.5 outdoor is higher than indoor, which suggest the important contribution from outdoor combustion sources such as the traffic. Major sources of outdoor air pollution in the areas were briefly discussed. Exposure modeling was applied using the time activity and measured pollutant concentrations to assess the exposure of different groups of people in the study areas. High exposure to PM2.5, especially for the people

  1. Utilisation of an Air-conditioning System to Control the Levels of Radon and Radon Progeny in a Workplace Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marley, F.

    2000-01-01

    From long-term real-time radon and radon progeny measurements taken in a relatively large retail store, cyclical patterns were evident, which were found to relate to the overriding influence of the timed air-conditioning system. Concentration of radon, radon progeny and the variability of F factor were found to depend significantly on the intermittent operation of this ventilation-air-conditioning system. After pressure equalisation remedial measures proved ineffective, the air-movement system was utilised to reduce the levels of radon and radon progeny to well within established norms applicable during working hours. It is demonstrated that the average levels for radon and radon progeny are reduced in absolute terms. This amounted to less than 12% of the general level, during designated work periods. Where air movement systems are already installed, as well as other circumstances, their regulation provides an economical solution to meeting legal and other standards for radon in the workplace. (author)

  2. a comparative study of the drying rate constant, drying efficiency

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The drying rate constants for the solar dryer and open- air sun dried bitter leaf were 0.8 and ... of cost benefit but the poorest when other considerations ... J. I. Eze, National Centre for Energy Research and Development (NCERD), University of ...

  3. AIRS/Aqua Level 2 CO2 support retrieval (AIRS-only) V005 (AIRS2SPC) at GES DISC) V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a facility instrument aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In combination...

  4. Alpha radioactivity measurement technology with ionized air type measurement. Applicability evaluation to verification of the clearance level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mita, Yutaka; Matsumura, Toshihiro; Yokoyama, Kaoru; Sugitsue, Noritake

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this test is to evaluate the applicability of the clearance level measuring system by Ionized Air Type Measurement after decontaminated by sulfuric acid sample. In Ningyo-toge Environmental Engineering Center. The equipment and radioactive waste which were contaminated with uranium are generated so much in future dismantling stage. In our plan, some of equipments and radioactive waste are contaminated to a clearance level, and cut down on decommission and disposal expense. This plan needs the alpha-rays measurement technology of the very low level. We think that ionized Air transfer measurement technology is promising as of clearance verification technology. The ionized Air transfer measurement technology applied to the Ionized Air Type Measurement can measure plan radioactivity of a very low level. Moreover, as compared with a direct survey, there is the merit which can be measured in a short time. However ionized Air transfer measurement technology is new technology. Therefore, there is almost no measurement track record. Furthermore, the date about the influence of a background, a detection limit, measurement performance, and reliability is insufficient. So, this measurement test estimated applicability as clearance level verification of an Ionized Air Type Measurement. (author)

  5. A Well-Mixed Computational Model for Estimating Room Air Levels of Selected Constituents from E-Vapor Product Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali A. Rostami

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Concerns have been raised in the literature for the potential of secondhand exposure from e-vapor product (EVP use. It would be difficult to experimentally determine the impact of various factors on secondhand exposure including, but not limited to, room characteristics (indoor space size, ventilation rate, device specifications (aerosol mass delivery, e-liquid composition, and use behavior (number of users and usage frequency. Therefore, a well-mixed computational model was developed to estimate the indoor levels of constituents from EVPs under a variety of conditions. The model is based on physical and thermodynamic interactions between aerosol, vapor, and air, similar to indoor air models referred to by the Environmental Protection Agency. The model results agree well with measured indoor air levels of nicotine from two sources: smoking machine-generated aerosol and aerosol exhaled from EVP use. Sensitivity analysis indicated that increasing air exchange rate reduces room air level of constituents, as more material is carried away. The effect of the amount of aerosol released into the space due to variability in exhalation was also evaluated. The model can estimate the room air level of constituents as a function of time, which may be used to assess the level of non-user exposure over time.

  6. Association between State Assistance on the Topic of Indoor Air Quality and School District-Level Policies That Promote Indoor Air Quality in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett Jones, Sherry; Doroski, Brenda; Glick, Sherry

    2015-01-01

    Nationally representative data from the 2012 School Health Policies and Practices Study examined whether state assistance on indoor air quality (IAQ) was associated with district-level policies and practices related to IAQ and integrated pest management (IPM). Districts in states that provided assistance on IAQ were more likely than districts not…

  7. Simulation of energetic- and exergetic performance of microwave-assisted fluidized bed drying of soybeans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranjbaran, M.; Zare, D.

    2013-01-01

    The performance of microwave-assisted fluidized bed drying of soybeans was simulated (using a previously validated mathematical model) and analyzed based on the first- and second law of thermodynamics. The energy and exergy analysis were carried out for several drying conditions. The effects of inlet air temperature, microwave power density, bed thickness and inlet air velocity on the efficiencies and inefficiencies of drying process have been simulated and discussed. Generally, application of microwave energy during fluidized bed drying enhanced the exergy efficiency of drying process. However, the results showed that it was more efficient not to apply microwave energy at the first stage of fluidized bed drying process. The application of higher levels of drying air temperature led in higher exergy efficiencies. The values of mean relative deviations for the predictions of efficiencies and inefficiencies of drying process were less than 14%, compared with those calculated using experimental data. - Highlights: • Introducing a mathematical model to predict the efficiency of microwave-assisted fluidized bed dryers. • Energy and exergy analysis in microwave-assisted fluidized bed drying of grains. • Providing practical recommendations for efficient use of microwave power during drying

  8. Radionuclide concentration in ground-level air in 1991 in North Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, W.; Wershofen, H.

    1992-03-01

    The activity concentration of various fission products and some other radionuclides (e.g. Be-7, Na-22, K-40 and Pb-210) contained in ground-level air were determined by gamma-ray spectroscopy. Weekly and mean monthly activity concentrations measured in Brunswick and Berlin are tabulated. From 1990 to 1991 the Cs-137 concentration in Brunswick decreased only slightly. It was less than 0.1% of that in 1986 but due to resuspended soil dust still three times higher than in 1985. Occasionally, traces of activation products were detected such as Cr-51, Mn-54 or Co-60 in Januray and February in Brunswick and Berlin. The effective equivalent dose due to the inhalation of fission products is estimated to be less than 0.1% of the Pb-210 inhalation dose. (orig.) [de

  9. Modeling of air pollutant removal by dry deposition to urban trees using a WRF/CMAQ/i-Tree Eco coupled system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria Theresa I. Cabaraban; Charles N. Kroll; Satoshi Hirabayashi; David J. Nowak

    2013-01-01

    A distributed adaptation of i-Tree Eco was used to simulate dry deposition in an urban area. This investigation focused on the effects of varying temperature, LAI, and NO2 concentration inputs on estimated NO2 dry deposition to trees in Baltimore, MD. A coupled modeling system is described, wherein WRF provided temperature...

  10. Occurrence of spruce bark beetles in forest stands at different levels of air pollution stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grodzki, Wojciech; McManus, Michael; Knizek, Milos; Meshkova, Valentina; Mihalciuc, Vasile; Novotny, Julius; Turcani, Marek; Slobodyan, Yaroslav

    2004-01-01

    The spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus (L.) is the most serious pest of mature spruce stands, mainly Norway spruce, Picea abies (L.) Karst. throughout Eurasia. A complex of weather-related events and other environmental stresses are reported to predispose spruce stands to bark beetle attack and subsequent tree mortality; however the possible role of industrial pollution as a predisposing factor to attack by this species is poorly understood. The abundance and dynamics of I. typographus populations was evaluated in 60-80 year old Norway spruce stands occurring on 10x50 ha sites in five countries within the Carpathian range that were selected in proximity to established ozone measurement sites. Data were recorded on several parameters including the volume of infested trees, captures of adult beetles in pheromone traps, number of attacks, and the presence and relative abundance of associated bark beetle species. In several cases, stands adjacent to sites with higher ozone values were associated with higher bark beetle populations. The volume of sanitary cuttings, a reflection of tree mortality, and the mean daily capture of beetles in pheromone traps were significantly higher at sites where the O 3 level was higher. However, the mean infestation density on trees was higher in plots associated with lower O 3 levels. Captures of beetles in pheromone traps and infestation densities were higher in the zone above 800 m. However, none of the relationships was conclusive, suggesting that spruce bark beetle dynamics are driven by a complex interaction of biotic and abiotic factors and not by a single parameter such as air pollution. - Air pollution (ozone) can be one of predisposing factors that increases the susceptibility of mountain Norway spruce stands to attack by Ips typographus and associated bark beetle species

  11. Air movement and perceived air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Kaczmarczyk, J.

    2012-01-01

    The impact of air movement on perceived air quality (PAQ) and sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms was studied. In total, 124 human subjects participated in four series of experiments performed in climate chambers at different combinations of room air temperature (20, 23, 26 and 28 °C), relative...... and the humidity of the room air. At a low humidity level of 30% an increased velocity could compensate for the decrease in perceived air quality due to an elevated temperature ranging from 20 °C to 26 °C. In a room with 26 °C, increased air movement was also able to compensate for an increase in humidity from 30...... humidity (30, 40 and 70%) and pollution level (low and high). Most of the experiments were performed with and without facially applied airflow at elevated velocity. The importance of the use of recirculated room air and clean, cool and dry outdoor air was studied. The exposures ranged from 60. min to 235...

  12. Air Force Officer Qualifying Test Form T: Initial Item-, Test-, Factor-, and Composite-Level Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    used to qualify applicants for ROTC and OTS officer commissioning programs. The Pilot, Combat Systems Officer (CSO), and Air Battle Manager ( ABM ...AIR FORCE RESEARCH LABORATORY 711 HUMAN PERFORMANCE WING, AIRMAN SYSTEMS DIRECTORATE, WRIGHT-PATTERSON AIR FORCE BASE, OH 45433 AIR FORCE MATERIEL...Warfighter Interface Division Airman Systems Directorate This report is published in the interest of scientific and technical information exchange, and

  13. Indoor air quality in Portuguese schools: levels and sources of pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madureira, J; Paciência, I; Pereira, C; Teixeira, J P; Fernandes, E de O

    2016-08-01

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) parameters in 73 primary classrooms in Porto were examined for the purpose of assessing levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), aldehydes, particulate matter, ventilation rates and bioaerosols within and between schools, and potential sources. Levels of VOCs, aldehydes, PM2.5 , PM10 , bacteria and fungi, carbon dioxide (CO2 ), carbon monoxide, temperature and relative humidity were measured indoors and outdoors and a walkthrough survey was performed concurrently. Ventilation rates were derived from CO2 and occupancy data. Concentrations of CO2 exceeding 1000 ppm were often encountered, indicating poor ventilation. Most VOCs had low concentrations (median of individual species <5 μg/m(3) ) and were below the respective WHO guidelines. Concentrations of particulate matter and culturable bacteria were frequently higher than guidelines/reference values. The variability of VOCs, aldehydes, bioaerosol concentrations, and CO2 levels between schools exceeded the variability within schools. These findings indicate that IAQ problems may persist in classrooms where pollutant sources exist and classrooms are poorly ventilated; source control strategies (related to building location, occupant behavior, maintenance/cleaning activities) are deemed to be the most reliable for the prevention of adverse health consequences in children in schools. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Levels, distribution and air-soil exchange fluxes of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the environment of Punjab Province, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Jabir Hussain; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Jones, Kevin C

    2013-11-01

    An initial survey of the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) compounds in air and soils across industrial and agricultural areas of Punjab Province, Pakistan, was conducted from January to March 2011. The total concentration of all PCBs (31 PCBs) ranged from 34 to 389pgm(-3) in air and from 7 to 45ngg(-1) dry weight in soils, where both ranges were similar to the average ranges in other areas of the world. PCBs were elevated across industrial regions near urban and industrial sources. Consistently low air concentrations of PCBs at the agricultural sites suggest that they are less widespread or uniformly distributed in the Pakistani atmosphere. The calculated air and soil fugacity fraction values indicated that soils are a potential secondary source of PCBs in agricultural areas, whereas they are in equilibrium or atmospheric deposition in industrial and urban areas. TEQ concentrations of dioxin-like PCBs for soil samples met the Canadian standard. However, local authorities should address the human health threats from urban and industrial soils in Punjab Province, Pakistan. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of paddy drying depth using open-sun drying on drying time ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The smallholder rice farmers in the Uganda dry their paddy using open-sun drying method. In most cases the paddy is badly dried and has very high fissure levels. Such paddy on milling contributes to low levels of mill recovery and whole grain in the milled rice. This study was therefore done to find a recommendable ...

  16. Exploring EKC, trends of growth patterns and air pollutants concentration level in Malaysia: A Nemerow Index Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekhet, Hussain A; Yasmin, Tahira

    2013-01-01

    The present study examines an Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis by analyzing annual data of air pollutants concentartion and per capita GDP as economic indicator over the (1996–2010) period in Malaysia. Nemerow Index Approach (I) used to generate a measures of air pollution. The results show that ambient air quality indicators supports the EKC hypothesis which stated that pollution levels increase as a country develops, but begin to decrease as rising incomes pass beyond a turning poin. Also, the I result is justifying that most pollutants are showing value less than 1.

  17. Exploring EKC, trends of growth patterns and air pollutants concentration level in Malaysia: A Nemerow Index Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekhet, Hussain A.; >Tahira Yasmin,

    2013-06-01

    The present study examines an Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis by analyzing annual data of air pollutants concentartion and per capita GDP as economic indicator over the (1996-2010) period in Malaysia. Nemerow Index Approach (I) used to generate a measures of air pollution. The results show that ambient air quality indicators supports the EKC hypothesis which stated that pollution levels increase as a country develops, but begin to decrease as rising incomes pass beyond a turning poin. Also, the I result is justifying that most pollutants are showing value less than 1.

  18. Estimating surface CO2 fluxes from space-borne CO2 dry air mole fraction observations using an ensemble Kalman Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dance

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We have developed an ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF to estimate 8-day regional surface fluxes of CO2 from space-borne CO2 dry-air mole fraction observations (XCO2 and evaluate the approach using a series of synthetic experiments, in preparation for data from the NASA Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO. The 32-day duty cycle of OCO alternates every 16 days between nadir and glint measurements of backscattered solar radiation at short-wave infrared wavelengths. The EnKF uses an ensemble of states to represent the error covariances to estimate 8-day CO2 surface fluxes over 144 geographical regions. We use a 12×8-day lag window, recognising that XCO2 measurements include surface flux information from prior time windows. The observation operator that relates surface CO2 fluxes to atmospheric distributions of XCO2 includes: a the GEOS-Chem transport model that relates surface fluxes to global 3-D distributions of CO2 concentrations, which are sampled at the time and location of OCO measurements that are cloud-free and have aerosol optical depths 2 profiles to XCO2, accounting for differences between nadir and glint measurements, and the associated scene-dependent observation errors. We show that OCO XCO2 measurements significantly reduce the uncertainties of surface CO2 flux estimates. Glint measurements are generally better at constraining ocean CO2 flux estimates. Nadir XCO2 measurements over the terrestrial tropics are sparse throughout the year because of either clouds or smoke. Glint measurements provide the most effective constraint for estimating tropical terrestrial CO2 fluxes by accurately sampling fresh continental outflow over neighbouring oceans. We also present results from sensitivity experiments that investigate how flux estimates change with 1 bias and unbiased errors, 2 alternative duty cycles, 3 measurement density and correlations, 4 the spatial resolution of estimated flux estimates, and 5 reducing the length of the lag window and the

  19. Quality characteristic of spray-drying egg white powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shuang; Zhao, Songning; Zhang, Yan; Yu, Yiding; Liu, Jingbo; Xu, Menglei

    2013-10-01

    Spray drying is a useful method for developing egg process and utilization. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects on spray drying condition of egg white. The optimized conditions were spraying flow 22 mL/min, feeding temperature 39.8 °C and inlet-air temperature 178.2 °C. Results of sulfydryl (SH) groups measurement indicated conformation structure have changed resulting in protein molecule occur S-S crosslinking phenomenon when heating. It led to free SH content decreased during spray drying process. There was almost no change of differential scanning calorimetry between fresh egg white and spray-drying egg white powder (EWP). For a given protein, the apparent SH reactivity is in turn influenced by the physico-chemical characteristics of the reactant. The phenomenon illustrated the thermal denaturation of these proteins was unrelated to their free SH contents. Color measurement was used to study browning level. EWP in optimized conditions revealed insignificant brown stain. Swelling capacity and scanning electron micrograph both proved well quality characteristic of spray-drying EWP. Results suggested spray drying under the optimized conditions present suitable and alternative method for egg processing industrial implementation. Egg food industrialization needs new drying method to extend shelf-life. The purpose of the study was to provide optimal process of healthy and nutritional instant spray-drying EWP and study quality characteristic of spray-drying EWP.

  20. Low level estimation of 1,4-dioxane in ambient air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandit, G.G.; Sahu, S.K.; Puranik, V.D.

    2007-05-01

    The chemical, 1,4-dioxane does have much relevance with respect to Indian Nuclear Power Programme for counting of Tritium, which is mainly generated during the operation of nuclear research reactors and power reactors which use heavy water. Tritium analysis is routinely carried out at BARC. The scintillation solutions which are used for tritium counting, consist of mainly 1,4 dioxane and naphthalene along with minor concentration of PPO/POPOP. Each sample analysis generates about 10 ml of tritium contaminated spent scintillation liquid waste. Total generation rate of the waste in a typical PHWR reactor is about 2-3 m 3 /year. Controlled incineration of scintillation liquids has been opted at BARC for the treatment of radioactive organic waste. Now that 1,4-dioxane has shown threat to human health and environment, it is important and necessary to know its levels (concentrations) in different environmental compartments to evaluate the risks associated with it. Standard methods are available for the measurement of 1,4-dioxane in air. Higher concentration can be estimated by direct analysis but estimation at lower levels (parts per billion-ppb) requires pre concentration prior to its analysis. Here an improved method that offers increased sensitivity has been used for determining lower levels of 1,4-dioxane. This report presents (1) the development of the methodology for the estimation of 1,4-dioxane at ppb levels using cryogenic pre-concentration and subsequent analysis by Gas Chromatograph with Electron Capture detector (GC-ECD) (2) techniques to check the incineration efficiency and release of 1,4-dioxane to the environment. The data generated by this study could be further used in the evaluation of risk. (author)

  1. Estimating Causal Effects of Local Air Pollution on Daily Deaths: Effect of Low Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Joel; Bind, Marie-Abele; Koutrakis, Petros

    2017-01-01

    , Koutrakis P. 2017. Estimating causal effects of local air pollution on daily deaths: effect of low levels. Environ Health Perspect 125:23-29; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP232.

  2. Air modelling as an alternative to sampling for low-level radioactive airborne releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgenstern, M.Y.; Hueske, K.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes our efforts to assess the effect of airborne releases at one DOE laboratory using air modelling based on historical data. Among the facilities affected by these developments is Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in New Mexico. RCRA, as amended by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) in 1984, requires all facilities which involve the treatment, storage, and disposal of hazardous waste obtain a RCRA/HSWA waste facility permit. LANL complied with CEARP by initiating a process of identifying potential release sites associated with LANL operations prior to filing a RCRA/HSWA permit application. In the process of preparing the RCRA/HSWA waste facility permit application to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), a total of 603 Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) were identified as part of the requirements of the HSWA Module VIH permit requirements. The HSWA Module VIII permit requires LANL to determine whether there have been any releases of hazardous waste or hazardous constituents from SWMUs at the facility dating from the 1940's by performing a RCRA Facility Investigation to address known or suspected releases from specified SWMUs to affected media (i.e. soil, groundwater, surface water, and air). Among the most troublesome of the potential releases sites are those associated with airborne radioactive releases. In order to assess health risks associated with radioactive contaminants in a manner consistent with exposure standards currently in place, the DOE and LANL have established Screening Action Levels (SALs) for radioactive soil contamination. The SALs for each radionuclide in soil are derived from calculations based on a residential scenario in which individuals are exposed to contaminated soil via inhalation and ingestion as well as external exposure to gamma emitters in the soil. The applicable SALs are shown

  3. Photovoltaic assisted solar drying system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruslan, M.H.; Othman, M.Y.; Baharuddin Yatim; Kamaruzzaman Sopian; Ali, M.I.; Ibarahim, Z.

    2006-01-01

    A photovoltaic assisted solar drying system has been constructed at the Solar Energy Research Park, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. This drying system uses a custom designed parallel flow V-groove type collector. A fan powered by photovoltaic source assists the air flow through the drying system. A funnel with increasing diameter towards the top with ventilator turbine is incorporated into the system to facilitate the air flow during the absence of photovoltaic energy source. This drying system is designed with high efficiency and portability in mind so that it can readily be used at plantation sites where the crops are harvested or produced. A daily mean efficiency about 44% with mean air flow rate 0.16 kgs -1 has been achieved at mean daily radiation intensity of 800 Wm -2 . daily mean temperature of air drying chamber under the above conditions is 46 o C. Study has shown that the air flow and air temperature increase with the increase of solar radiation intensity. On a bright sunny day with instantaneous solar intensity about 600 Wm -2 , the temperature of air entering the drying chamber of 45 o C has been measured. In the absence of photovoltaic or in natural convection flow, the instantaneous efficiency decreased when solar radiation increased. The instantaneous efficiency recorded are 35% and 27% respectively at 570 Wm -2 and 745 Wm -2 of solar radiation. The temperature of drying chamber for the same amount of solar radiation are 42 o C and 48 o C respectively. Thus, the solar dryer shows a great potential for application in drying process of agricultural produce

  4. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban air : concentration levels and patterns and source analysis in Nairobi, Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muthini, M.; Yoshimichi, H.; Yutaka, K.; Shigeki, M. [Yokohama National Univ., Yokohama (Japan). Graduate School of Environment and Information Sciences

    2005-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in the environment are often the result of incomplete combustion processes. This paper reported concentration levels and patterns of high molecular weight PAHs in Nairobi, Kenya. Daily air samples for 30 different PAHs were collected at residential, industrial and business sites within the city. Samples were then extracted using deuterated PAH with an automated Soxhlet device. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with a capillary column was used to analyze the extracts using a selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. Statistical analyses were then performed. PAH concentration levels were reported for average, median, standard deviation, range, and Pearson's correlation coefficients. Data were then analyzed for sources using a principal component analysis (PCA) technique and isomer ratio analysis. Nonparametric testing was then conducted to detect inherent differences in PAH concentration data obtained from the different sites. Results showed that pyrene was the most abundant PAH. Carcinogenic PAHs were higher in high-traffic areas. The correlation coefficient between coronene and benzo(ghi)pyrene was high. The PAH isomer ratio analysis demonstrated that PAHs in Nairobi are the product of traffic emissions and oil combustion. Results also showed that PAH profiles were not well separated. It was concluded that source distinction methods must be improved in order to better evaluate PAH emissions in the city. 9 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig.

  5. Dry Etching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamate, Eugen; Yeom, Geun Young

    2016-01-01

    generation) to 2,200 × 2,500 mm (eighth generation), and the substrate size is expected to increase further within a few years. This chapter aims to present relevant details on dry etching including the phenomenology, materials to be etched with the different recipes, plasma sources fulfilling the dry...

  6. Influence of local air velocity from air conditioner evaluated by salivary and skin biomarkers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Masaki; Takahashi, Takayuki; Yoshino, Yuichiro; Sasaki, Makoto [Graduate School of Engineering, Iwate University, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan); Nishimiya, Hajime [Asahi Kasei Homes Corporation, R and D Laboratories, 2-1 Samejima, Fuji, Shizuoka 416-8501 (Japan)

    2010-11-15

    The purpose of this paper is to reveal both the psychosomatic and the physical effects of local air velocity from an air conditioner using biomarkers which can be collected noninvasively. Salivary {alpha}-amylase activity (SAA) and salivary cortisol were used as the indexes of psychosomatic effects. The total protein (TP) collected from stratum corneum was used as an index of the physical condition of dry skin. A continuous experiment over a 5 days period in summer was conducted using 8 healthy young male adults for 2-types of airflow conditioners, a whole ceiling-type air conditioner (without local air velocity) and a normal-type air conditioner (with local air velocity). The subjects felt cool, windy, dry and uncomfortable when under the normal-type air conditioner as determined in a subjective evaluation. The SAA under the normal-type air conditioner fluctuated more widely than with the whole ceiling-type air conditioner. The level of salivary cortisol decreased more in a day under the normal-type air conditioner than with the whole ceiling-type air conditioner. These results showed that reducing local air velocity may provide more healthy psychosomatic conditions over the long-term. Moreover, the TP of a drying-exposed skin area showed a significant change during this experiment whereas the TP of drying-protected area was relatively unchanged. It was indicated that one week's exposure to local air velocity conditions possibly influences the drying of facial skin. Thus, air movement at low velocity can be provides more comfortable conditions not only psychosomatically but also physically. (author)

  7. SECAGEM DE SEMENTES DE SOJA EM SILO COM DISTRIBUIÇÃO RADIAL DO FLUXO DE AR: I. MONITORAMENTO FÍSICO DRYING OF SOYBEAN SEEDS IN A RADIAL AIR FLOW DRYER: I. PHYSICAL MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIZ CARLOS MIRANDA

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar a evolução física do processo de remoção de água das sementes em secador estacionário, com cilindro central perfurado e distribuição radical de ar. A pesquisa foi conduzida com sementes de soja, variando o fluxo (26,9, 28,4 e 33,2 m³/minuto/t e a temperatura do ar insuflado (42, 46 e 50ºC, considerando a posição das sementes (17, 34 e 51 cm em relação ao cilindro de insuflação e o tempo de secagem (zero a doze horas, com intervalos de duas horas. Foram caracterizados o ar ambiente, o ar insuflado, as temperaturas e os teores de água da massa, as velocidades e curvas de secagem. As avaliações realizadas destacaram vantagens físicas operacionais da combinação de 28,4 m³/minuto/t com 46ºC e o contrário, com a combinação de 26,9 m³/minuto/t com 42ºC.The purpose of this research was to study several physical parameters of soybean seed drying submitted to stationary process with radial air distribution by combining different air flows (26.9, 28.4 and 33.2 m³/minute/ton and temperatures (42, 46 and 50ºC, considering seed positions in the seed mass (17, 34 and 51 cm in relation to the insuflation cylinder and drying periods (zero to twelve hours with two-hour intervals. Environmental air, insuflation air, seed temperatures, moisture content of seeds, drying speed and drying curves were characterized. Considering the evaluated parameters during the drying process, the physical advantages of the combination of 28.4 m³/minute/ton with 46ºC, and the desadvantage of the combination of 26.9 m³/minute/ton with 42ºC were observed.

  8. Retention of radiolytic CO gas in irradiated pepper grains and irradiation detection of spices and dry grains with the level of stocked CO gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, M.; Dohmaru, T.; Katayama, T.; Toratani, H.; Takeda, A.

    1995-01-01

    The release of radiolytic CO gas from 60Co gamma-irradiated pepper seeds was unexpectedly slower than that of radiolytic H2 gas during a storage period after irradiation. These gases were retained in the grains and could be recovered by pulverization under gaslight condition. Using this procedure, 10-kGy-irradiated pepper grains could be distinguished from nonirradiated samples for more than 2 months by the level of CO and H2 gases. The patterns of CO change at 10, 20, and 30 kGy were similar, and the CO amounts were proportional to irradiation doses at any point of the storage period after irradiation. 60Co gamma-irradiated grains of allspice, cinnamon, cumin, polished rice, and wheat could be distinguished from nonirradiated ones by the level of retained CO gas even after 2 months of storage at room temperature. Thus, radiolytic CO gas could be an effective probe for rapid screening of irradiated pepper and dry grains

  9. Degradation kinetics of cyanidin 3-O-glucoside and cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside during hot air and vacuum drying in mulberry (Morus alba L.) fruit: A comparative study based on solid food system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mo; Chen, Qinqin; Bi, Jinfeng; Wang, Yixiu; Wu, Xinye

    2017-08-15

    The aim of this study is to ascertain the degradation kinetic of anthocyanin in dehydration process of solid food system. Mulberry fruit was treated by hot air and vacuum drying at 60 and 75°C. The contents of cyanidin 3-O-glucoside and cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside were determined by using high performance liquid chromatography. Kinetic and thermodynamic parameters were calculated for analysing the degradation characteristics. Model fitting results showed monomeric anthocyanin degradations were followed the second-order kinetic. Vacuum drying presented high kinetic rate constants and low t 1/2 values. Thermodynamic parameters including the activation energy, enthalpy change and entropy change appeared significant differences between hot air and vacuum drying. Both heating techniques showed similar effects on polyphenol oxidase activities. These results indicate the anthocyanin degradation kinetic in solid food system is different from that in liquid and the oxygen can be regarded as a catalyst to accelerate the degradation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Household-level disparities in cancer risks from vehicular air pollution in Miami

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, Timothy W; Grineski, Sara E; Chakraborty, Jayajit

    2015-01-01

    Environmental justice (EJ) research has relied on ecological analyses of socio-demographic data from areal units to determine if particular populations are disproportionately burdened by toxic risks. This article advances quantitative EJ research by (a) examining whether statistical associations found for geographic units translate to relationships at the household level; (b) testing alternative explanations for distributional injustices never before investigated; and (c) applying a novel statistical technique appropriate for geographically-clustered data. Our study makes these advances by using generalized estimating equations to examine distributive environmental inequities in the Miami (Florida) metropolitan area, based on primary household-level survey data and census block-level cancer risk estimates of hazardous air pollutant (HAP) exposure from on-road mobile emission sources. In addition to modeling determinants of on-road HAP cancer risk among all survey participants, two subgroup models are estimated to examine whether determinants of risk differ based on disadvantaged minority (Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black) versus non-Hispanic white racial/ethnic status. Results reveal multiple determinants of risk exposure disparities. In the model including all survey participants, renter-occupancy, Hispanic and non-Hispanic black race/ethnicity, the desire to live close to work/urban services or public transportation, and higher risk perception are associated with greater on-road HAP cancer risk; the desire to live in an amenity-rich environment is associated with less risk. Divergent subgroup model results shed light on the previously unexamined role of racial/ethnic status in shaping determinants of risk exposures. While lower socioeconomic status and higher risk perception predict significantly greater on-road HAP cancer risk among disadvantaged minorities, the desire to live near work/urban services or public transport predict significantly greater risk among

  11. Radon and thoron progeny levels in air samples at Udagamandalam region of Nilgiris in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manikandan, N.M.; Selvasekarapandian, S.; Sivakumar, R.; Raghunath, V.M.; Sundaram, V.M.; Santhanam, S.

    2002-01-01

    Measurement of concentration of radon and thoron daughter products in various indoor environment covering four seasons of a year in Udagamandalam Taluk of Nilgiris biosphere has been carried out using a high volume air sampler to assess the inhalation dose to the population which delivers higher dose than the radon and thoron gas alone. The potential alpha-energy concentrations of the radon and thoron progeny ranged from 0.97 to 12.72 mWL and from 1.63 to 15.83 mWL with a geometric mean of 6.02 and 7.89 mWL, respectively, taking all seasons into account. These measurements have yielded a wealth of data on the variation among the indoor radon and thoron progeny in various places during different seasons. The radon and thoron progeny levels are higher in winter seasons and are less in summer season with autumn and spring data lie in between winter and summer. Using the dose conversion factor for indoor exposures given in UNSCEAR 93 report the internal equivalent dose to the inhalation of radon progeny is evaluated to be 1357 μSv x y -1 and the corresponding annual effective dose equivalent value has been found to be 2.13 mSv x y -1 . It can be observed that the mean value of radon is higher than the Indian average. Also it is found the radon and thoron progeny levels are higher in the case of houses built with rock and granite and in tiled type houses of nearly 100 years old. The levels are less in the case of houses built with brick and cement. The observed results for different types of houses and seasons are discussed in this paper. (author)

  12. A multi-level model of blood lead as a function of air lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond-Bryant, Jennifer; Meng, Qingyu; Davis, J Allen; Cohen, Jonathan; Svendsgaard, David; Brown, James S; Tuttle, Lauren; Hubbard, Heidi; Rice, Joann; Kirrane, Ellen; Vinikoor-Imler, Lisa; Kotchmar, Dennis; Hines, Erin; Ross, Mary

    2013-09-01

    National and local declines in lead (Pb) in blood (PbB) over the past several years coincide with the decline in ambient air Pb (PbA) concentrations. The objective of this work is to evaluate how the relationship between PbB levels and PbA levels has changed following the phase out of leaded gasoline and tightened controls on industrial Pb emissions over the past 30 years among a national population sample. Participant-level data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were employed for two time periods (1988-1994 and 1999-2008), and the model was corrected for housing, demographic, socioeconomic, and other covariates present in NHANES. NHANES data for PbB and covariates were merged with PbA data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Linear mixed effects models (LMEs) were run to assess the relationship of PbB with PbA; sample weights were omitted, given biases encountered with the use of sample weights in LMEs. The 1988-1994 age-stratified results found that ln(PbB) was statistically significantly associated with ln(PbA) for all age groups. The consistent influence of PbA on PbB across age groups for the years 1988-1994 suggests a ubiquitous exposure unrelated to age of the sample population. The comparison of effect estimates for ln(PbA) shows a statistically significant effect estimate and ANOVA results for ln(PbB) for the 6- to 11-year and 12- to 19-year age groups during 1999-2008. The more recent finding suggests that PbA has less consistent influence on PbB compared with other factors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Vacuum-assisted microwave drying characteristics of green bell pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Kumar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Chopped green bell pepper pieces were blanched (95 °C, 5 min and chemically pretreated (1% potassium metabisulphite solution, 25 min at room temperature before drying in hot air dryer (HAD at various temperature ranges (60 – 80 °C. Three vacuum levels (200, 400, 600 mm Hg and microwave power levels (100, 200, 300 W were also used to dry green bell pepper samples in a vacuum assisted microwave (VAM (2.45 GHz, 0.8 kW dryer. VAM drying methods offered a maximum reduction by four to five times in drying time as compared to that in HAD. The logarithmic model was found to have the best fit based on high R2 and small values of reduced χ2 and RMSE.  VAM method has higher values for effective moisture diffusivity (Deff and lower values for activation energy (Ea, in comparison to the HAD method. 

  14. Design of solar drying-plant for bulk material drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Horbaj

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A generally well-known high energy requirement for technological processes of drying and the fact that the world’s supplyof the conventional energy sources has considerably decreased are the decisive factors forcing us to look for some new, if possible,renewable energy sources for this process by emphasising their environmental reliability. One of the possibilities how to replace, atleast partly, the conventional energy sources – heat in a drying process is solar energy.Air-drying of bulk materials usually has a series of disadvantages such as time expenditure, drying defects in the bulk materialand inadequate final moisture content. A method that obviates or reduces the disadvantages of air-drying and, at the same time, reducesthe costs of kiln drying, is drying with solar heat. Solar energy can replace a large part of this depletable energy since solar energy cansupply heat at the temperatures most often used to dry bulk material. Solar drying-plant offer an attractive solution.

  15. Time lag between the tropopause height and the levels of 7Be concentration in near surface air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannidou, A.; Vasileiadis, A.; Melas, D.

    2012-04-01

    The concentration of 7Be at near surface air has been determined over 2009, a year of a deep solar minimum, in the region of Thessaloniki, Greece at 40°62' N, 22°95'E. In geomagnetic latitudes over 40° N, the elevation of the tropopause during the warm summer months and the vertical exchange of air masses within the troposphere cause greater mixture of the air masses resulting in higher concentration levels for 7Be in surface air. The positive correlation between the monthly activity concentration of 7Be and the tropopause height (0.94, p rate of vertical transport within the troposphere, especially during warmer summer months, has as a result the descent to surface of air masses enriched in 7Be. However, the 7Be concentration levels in near surface air are not expected to respond immediately to the change of elevation of the tropopause. It was found that there's a time lag of ~ 3 days between the change in the daily surface concentrations of 7Be the change in the elevation of the tropopause.

  16. Time lag between the tropopause height and the levels of 7Be concentration in near surface air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melas D.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of 7Be at near surface air has been determined over 2009, a year of a deep solar minimum, in the region of Thessaloniki, Greece at 40°62′ N, 22°95'E. In geomagnetic latitudes over 40° N, the elevation of the tropopause during the warm summer months and the vertical exchange of air masses within the troposphere cause greater mixture of the air masses resulting in higher concentration levels for 7Be in surface air. The positive correlation between the monthly activity concentration of 7Be and the tropopause height (0.94, p < 0.0001, and also between 7Be concentration and the temperature T (°C (R = 0.97, p < 0.001, confirm that the increased rate of vertical transport within the troposphere, especially during warmer summer months, has as a result the descent to surface of air masses enriched in 7Be. However, the 7Be concentration levels in near surface air are not expected to respond immediately to the change of elevation of the tropopause. It was found that there's a time lag of ~ 3 days between the change in the daily surface concentrations of 7Be the change in the elevation of the tropopause.

  17. [Contamination levels to room air arising from the use of 99mTc-gas and prevention from the contamination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatani, A; Akutsu, T; Yamaguchi, K; Onodera, Y; Manaka, Y; Takahashi, K

    1996-04-01

    99mTc-gas (TECHNEGAS) is a 99mTc-labeled micro-aerosol which is considered to have different behavior from 133Xe or 81mKr gas. In order to estimate contamination levels to room air arising from the use of 99mTc-gas, filtered expired air during administration and 1, 2, 3, 5, 10 min after the administration were collected in each polyethylene bag. Radioactivities of the polyethylene bags, used filter and the lung were measured with 3-head scintillation camera. The activity of the expired air diminished within 6-10 min and about 5% of whole discharged 99mTc-gas was released to room air. The activity of the used filter was two times of the lung. According to these results, it is recommended that the 99mTc-gas may be administrated in a exclusive room. The administrated patient and used filter must be remain in the exclusive room.

  18. Radiation data input for the design of dry or semi-dry U tailings disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvasnicka, J.

    1986-01-01

    Before discussion of design criteria for the handling of dry or semi-dry tailings, it is necessary to obtain an insight into the radiation levels associated with the tailings particles and to study the basic physical properties of dry tailings. This article presents the experimental results of assessing Ra and specific alpha-activity distribution with respect to particle size of the Ranger (RUM) and Nabarlek (QML) uranium mines dry tailings samples. The variation of Rn emanation coefficient versus particle size of dry tailings has also been measured. The nuclear-track detection technique, gamma spectrometry and alpha counting were used for the above measurements. Surface Rn flux from the hypothetical Nabarlek semi-infinite dry tailings pile is 32 Bq m -2 s -1 and the Rn flux for Ranger is 10 Bq m -2 s -1 . The theoretical exposure rates for 1 m above these hypothetical tailings piles are 0.95 microC kg -1 h -1 and 0.28 microC kg -1 h -1 , respectively. The derived air alpha-contamination limits (DAAC) for the tailings dust were calculated to be 1.2 Bq m -3 for workers and 0.034 Bq m -3 for a member of the public. The limit for workers corresponds to the air tailings dust concentration of 0.79 mg m -3 for QML tailings and 2.2 mg m -3 for RUM tailings. The DAAC limit for the public corresponds to the air tailings dust concentration of 0.022 mg m -3 for QML tailings and 0.064 mg m -3 for RUM tailings

  19. Critical assessment of day time traffic noise level at curbside open-air microenvironment of Kolkata City, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu Chowdhury, Anirban; Debsarkar, Anupam; Chakrabarty, Shibnath

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the research work is to assess day time traffic noise level at curbside open-air microenvironment of Kolkata city, India under heterogeneous environmental conditions. Prevailing traffic noise level in terms of A-weighted equivalent noise level (Leq) at the microenvironment was in excess of 12.6 ± 2.1 dB(A) from the day time standard of 65 dB(A) for commercial area recommended by the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) of India. Noise Climate and Traffic Noise Index of the microenvironment were accounted for 13 ± 1.8 dB(A) and 88.8 ± 6.1 dB(A) respectively. A correlation analysis explored that prevailing traffic noise level of the microenvironment had weak negative (-0.21; p air temperature and relative humidity. A Varimax rotated principal component analysis explored that motorized traffic volume had moderate positive loading with background noise component (L90, L95, L99) and prevailing traffic noise level had very strong positive loading with peak noise component (L1, L5, L10). Background and peak noise component cumulatively explained 80.98 % of variance in the data set. Traffic noise level at curbside open-air microenvironment of Kolkata City was higher than the standard recommended by CPCB of India. It was highly annoying also. Air temperature and relative humidity had little influence and the peak noise component had the most significant influence on the prevailing traffic noise level at curbside open-air microenvironment. Therefore, traffic noise level at the microenvironment of the city can be reduced with careful honking and driving.

  20. Fuzzy logic, artificial neural network and mathematical model for prediction of white mulberry drying kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahedi Rad, Shahpour; Kaveh, Mohammad; Sharabiani, Vali Rasooli; Taghinezhad, Ebrahim

    2018-05-01

    The thin-layer convective- infrared drying behavior of white mulberry was experimentally studied at infrared power levels of 500, 1000 and 1500 W, drying air temperatures of 40, 55 and 70 °C and inlet drying air speeds of 0.4, 1 and 1.6 m/s. Drying rate raised with the rise of infrared power levels at a distinct air temperature and velocity and thus decreased the drying time. Five mathematical models describing thin-layer drying have been fitted to the drying data. Midlli et al. model could satisfactorily describe the convective-infrared drying of white mulberry fruit with the values of the correlation coefficient (R 2=0.9986) and root mean square error of (RMSE= 0.04795). Artificial neural network (ANN) and fuzzy logic methods was desirably utilized for modeling output parameters (moisture ratio (MR)) regarding input parameters. Results showed that output parameters were more accurately predicted by fuzzy model than by the ANN and mathematical models. Correlation coefficient (R 2) and RMSE generated by the fuzzy model (respectively 0.9996 and 0.01095) were higher than referred values for the ANN model (0.9990 and 0.01988 respectively).