WorldWideScience

Sample records for level development steps

  1. cAMP level modulates scleral collagen remodeling, a critical step in the development of myopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijin Tao

    Full Text Available The development of myopia is associated with decreased ocular scleral collagen synthesis in humans and animal models. Collagen synthesis is, in part, under the influence of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP. We investigated the associations between cAMP, myopia development in guinea pigs, and collagen synthesis by human scleral fibroblasts (HSFs. Form-deprived myopia (FDM was induced by unilateral masking of guinea pig eyes. Scleral cAMP levels increased selectively in the FDM eyes and returned to normal levels after unmasking and recovery. Unilateral subconjunctival treatment with the adenylyl cyclase (AC activator forskolin resulted in a myopic shift accompanied by reduced collagen mRNA levels, but it did not affect retinal electroretinograms. The AC inhibitor SQ22536 attenuated the progression of FDM. Moreover, forskolin inhibited collagen mRNA levels and collagen secretion by HSFs. The inhibition was reversed by SQ22536. These results demonstrate a critical role of cAMP in control of myopia development. Selective regulation of cAMP to control scleral collagen synthesis may be a novel therapeutic strategy for preventing and treating myopia.

  2. Steps for Implementing a State-Level Professional Development Plan for Secondary Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzotti, Valerie L.; Rowe, Dawn A.; Simonsen, Monica; Boaz, Bonnie; VanAvery, Cynthia

    2018-01-01

    To scale up and sustain the use of evidence-based practices, it is imperative that state education agencies systematically implement professional development that represents best practice. By delivering quality professional development to local districts, it is more likely that transition personnel will implement transition programs and practices…

  3. A four-step model: Initiating writing development at faculty level using Master’s thesis workshops as a vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tine Wirenfeldt; Jensen, Eva Naur; Bay, Gina

    , librarians, student’s teachers) as well as a method to gain insight into students’ experiences and needs across departments (in this case in the form of 354 written student evaluations). The model has, to a slightly surprising degree, shown potential to motivate departments to continue to focus on developing...

  4. Step-by-Step Visual Manuals: Design and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urata, Toshiyuki

    2004-01-01

    The types of handouts and manuals that are used in technology training vary. Some describe procedures in a narrative way without graphics; some employ step-by-step instructions with screen captures. According to Thirlway (1994), a training manual should be like a tutor that permits a student to learn at his own pace and gives him confidence for…

  5. Lyondell develops one step isobutylene process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Lyondell Petrochemical Co., Houston, has developed a one step process to convert normal butylenes to isobutylene, a key component of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE). MTBE is expected to become the additive of choice among U.S. refiners to blend oxygenated gasolines required by 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act. Lyondell Pres. and Chief Executive Officer Bob Gower the the new process could help assure adequate supplies of MTBE to meet U.S. demand for cleaner burning fuels. Lyondell estimates the capital cost of building a grassroots plant to produce isobutylene with the new process would be less than half the cost of a grassroot plant to produce isobutylene with existing technology starting with normal butane

  6. Efficacy, Beliefs, and Investment in Step-Level Public Goods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, J.; Oude Mulders, J.

    2014-01-01

    behavior in terms of increasing group well-being. We report a decision and game theoretical analysis of efficacy in step-level public goods (SPGs). Previous research shows a positive relation between efficacy and contributions to SPGs and explains this relation by a purely motivational account. We

  7. Efficacy, Beliefs, and Investment in Step-Level Public Goods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Jacob; Mulders, Jaap Oude

    2014-01-01

    A central concept for understanding social dilemma behavior is the efficacy of an actor's cooperative behavior in terms of increasing group well-being. We report a decision and game theoretical analysis of efficacy in step-level public goods (SPGs). Previous research shows a positive relation

  8. An overview on STEP-NC compliant controller development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, M. A.; Minhat, M.; Jamaludin, Z.

    2017-10-01

    The capabilities of conventional Computer Numerical Control (CNC) machine tools as termination organiser to fabricate high-quality parts promptly, economically and precisely are undeniable. To date, most CNCs follow the programming standard of ISO 6983, also called G & M code. However, in fluctuating shop floor environment, flexibility and interoperability of current CNC system to react dynamically and adaptively are believed still limited. This outdated programming language does not explicitly relate to each other to have control of arbitrary locations other than the motion of the block-by-block. To address this limitation, new standard known as STEP-NC was developed in late 1990s and is formalized as an ISO 14649. It adds intelligence to the CNC in term of interoperability, flexibility, adaptability and openness. This paper presents an overview of the research work that have been done in developing a STEP-NC controller standard and the capabilities of STEP-NC to overcome modern manufacturing demands. Reviews stated that most existing STEP-NC controller prototypes are based on type 1 and type 2 implementation levels. There are still lack of effort being done to develop type 3 and type 4 STEP-NC compliant controller.

  9. Companion Cognitive Systems: A Step toward Human-Level AI

    OpenAIRE

    Forbus, Kenneth D.; Hinrichs, Thomas R.

    2006-01-01

    We are developing Companion Cognitive Systems, a new kind of software that can be effectively treated as a collaborator. Aside from their potential utility, we believe this effort is important because it focuses on three key problems that must be solved to achieve human-level AI: Robust reasoning and learning, interactivity, and longevity. We describe the ideas we are using to develop the first architecture for Companions: analogical processing, grounded in cognitive science for reasoning and...

  10. Development and Validation of an Automated Step Ergometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. de Sousa Maria do Socorro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory ergometers have high costs, becoming inaccessible for most of the population, hence, it is imperative to develop affordable devices making evaluations like cardiorespiratory fitness feasible and easier. The objective of this study was to develop and validate an Automated Step Ergometer (ASE, adjusted according to the height of the subject, for predicting VO2max through a progressive test. The development process was comprised by three steps, the theoretical part, the prototype assembly and further validation. The ASE consists in an elevating platform that makes the step at a higher or lower level as required for testing. The ASE validation was obtained by comparing the values of predicted VO2max (equation and direct gas analysis on the prototype and on a, treadmill. For the validation process 167 subjects with average age of 31.24 ± 14.38 years, of both genders and different degrees of cardiorespiratory fitness, were randomized and divided by gender and training condition, into untrained (n=106, active (n=24 and trained (n=37 subjects. Each participant performed a progressive test on which the ASE started at the same height (20 cm for all. Then, according to the subject’s height, it varied to a maximum of 45 cm. Time in each stage and rhythm was chosen in accordance with training condition from lowest to highest (60-180 s; 116-160 bpm, respectively. Data was compared with the student’s t test and ANOVA; correlations were tested with Pearson’s r. The value of α was set at 0.05. No differences were found between the predicted VO2max and the direct gas analysis VO2max, nor between the ASE and treadmill VO2max (p= 0.365 with high correlation between ergometers (r= 0.974. The values for repeatability, reproducibility, and reliability of male and female groups measures were, respectively, 4.08 and 5.02; 0.50 and 1.11; 4.11 and 5.15. The values of internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha among measures were all >0.90. It was verified

  11. A step-by-step development of radioactive waste management strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lytsy, Tero; Yla-Mella, Mia

    2013-01-01

    Fennovoima is Finland's third nuclear power company founded in 2007. Fennovoima will build a new nuclear power plant, Hanhikivi 1, in Pyhajoki municipality located in Northern Finland. Currently Fennovoima is evaluating bids from reactor suppliers. Originally two suppliers, AREVA and Toshiba Heavy Industries were invited to bid for the plant but later also a bid from Rosatom were invited. The plant supplier will be selected in 2013. Platom is a Finnish company with extensive experience in radioactive waste management. In the beginning of 2008, Platom was assigned by Fennovoima as radioactive waste management consultant and to develop radioactive waste management strategy and to support Fennovoima in negotiations with plant suppliers in waste management aspects. Since Fennovoima has started, there have been some changes to the regulatory requirements which had to be taken into account while developing the strategy. One important change is due to the Government Degree 27.11.2008/736 which establishes a new waste category of very low-level waste following international development and the 'new' IAEA waste classification. Other important change was introduced by the change 342/2008 to the Nuclear Energy Act allowing some nuclear waste to be delivered to another country for treatment. These and many more requirements had to be considered when developing the strategy. Early work by Platom was mostly done to support development of application for Decision-in-Principle. This was the first important licensing step for Fennovoima. Work started with studies and plans which were used by Fennovoima to gather the know-how required to draw up the application. Descriptions of waste streams and waste management technologies were developed as well as preliminary waste inventories and studies for final disposal, including preliminary dimensioning of the repository facilities. Based on these plans nuclear regulator's preliminary safety assessment was performed. The

  12. Vygotsky's Principle "One Step in Learning - One Hundred Steps In Development": From Idea To Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaretsky V.K.,

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews Lev Vygotsky’s published works to trace the evolution of his understanding of child development. The authors believe that his assumption that one step in learning may mean one hundred steps in development, is as important as the two other key postulates of the cultural-historical theory: the principle that learning precedes development and the concept of zone of proximal development. The authors provide a rationale for utilization of these assumptions in the practice of development-facilitating psychological and educational assistance. A mechanism of this learning-development relationship is hypothesized. The article outlines a multidimensional model of the zone of proximal development illustrating the above mechanism. This model is one of the conceptual tools of the Reflection and Activity Approach helping children overcome learning difficulties and promoting their development. Having given the account of how they proceeded “from the idea to the problem” and “from the idea to the mechanism”, the authors provide case studies showing how this mechanism allows working with learning difficulties to trigger simultaneous improvement in multiple developmental dimensions. The article reports on the experience of running special Summer Schools for children with learning difficulties, implementing the “Chess for General Development” Project, and assisting orphaned children with severe somatic conditions. A case study of a female college student displaying signs of the learned helplessness syndrome is presented. The authors infer that Vygotsky’s idea of a specific relationship between learning and development may be of fundamental theoretical and practical value, especially for working with children with special needs.

  13. Development of Stepped-Frequency Ground-Penetrating Radar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne

    1998-01-01

    The status of the development of a multi-monostatic stepped-frequency ground-penetrating radar (GPR) at The Department of Applied Electronics (IAE), The Technical University of Denmark (DTU) is presented. The feasibility of the used approach is demonstrated by the successful detection of small me...... metallic and non-metallic objects with a diameter of 54 mm buried in loamy soil....

  14. Development process and data management of TurnSTEP, a STEP-compliant CNC system for turning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choi, I.; Suh, S.-H; Kim, K.; Song, M.S.; Jang, M.; Lee, B.-E.

    2006-01-01

    TurnSTEP is one of the earliest STEP-compliant CNC systems for turning. Based on the STEP-NC data model formalized as ISO 14649-12 and 121, it is designed to support intelligent and autonomous control of NC machines for e-manufacturing. The present paper introduces the development process and data

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF HOLE RECOGNITION SYSTEM FROM STEP FILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. F. Tan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of Hole Recognition System (HRS for Computer-Aided Process Planning (CAPP using a neutral data format produced by CAD system. The geometrical data of holes is retrieved from STandard for the Exchange of Product model data (STEP. Rule-based algorithm is used during recognising process. Current implementation of feature recognition is limited to simple hole feat ures. Test results are presented to demonstrate the capabilities of the feature recognition algorithm.

  16. A ten-step process to develop case management plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahan, Hussein A

    2002-01-01

    The use of case management plans has contained cost and improved quality of care successfully. However, the process of developing these plans remains a great challenge for healthcare executives, in this article, the author presents the answer to this challenge by discussing a 10-step formal process that administrators of patient care services and case managers can adapt to their institutions. It also can be used by interdisciplinary team members as a practical guide to develop a specific case management plan. This process is applicable to any care setting (acute, ambulatory, long term, and home care), diagnosis, or procedure. It is particularly important for those organizations that currently do not have a deliberate and systematic process to develop case management plans and are struggling with how to improve the efficiency and productivity of interdisciplinary teams charged with developing case management plans.

  17. Design and Development of a Step Climbing Wheeled Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srijan BHATTACHARYA

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a design of Step Climbing Robot that can move in uneven environment and traverse a slope or staircase. The condition imposed on this new system of robot is that it will move only in linear fashion, which will reduce the demands on the physical complexity of the robot unit. A summary of the current state of research in the field of mobile robots as it relates to robot stair climbing and moving in uneven surfaces. The architecture of the robot is developed and compared with the previous design.

  18. Human exposure assessment for biocides in the EU development of step by step guidance and worked examples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen-Ebben, R.M.G.; Hemmen, J.J. van

    2007-01-01

    Directive 98/8/EC(1) concerns EU harmonisation of placing biocidal products on the market. In the present short paper the preliminary results of an ongoing project are presented in which step by step guidance on human exposure assessment with worked examples is developed. For all 23 biocidal product

  19. Senior Resident Training on Educational Principles (STEP): A Proposed Innovative Step from a Developing Nation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satendra

    2010-12-01

    Resident-as-teacher courses are pretty common in Western medical schools however they are a rarity in Asian and developing countries. The current report is a scholarly analysis of a three day orientation program for senior residents in order to improve their functioning by providing new template either for supplementing basic workshops for faculty or to advocate a change in system. The experience gained by Medical Education Unit of University College of Medical Sciences can be used to conduct training breeding grounds at national or regional levels. Resident as teachers educational interventions need to be designed taking into account their impact on education system.

  20. Chambers of work - steps in the development of labor law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Tutuianu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Social changes that followed the war and perfection state unit generated new and complex problems in all areas. We try to present problems directly aimed at the working class, that is formalized and institutionalized labor, social and economic context of the time. As regards labor law of 1927 rooms and discussions around it, brought the authors to the conclusion that trying to regulate relations between labor and capital and precise directives followed, social reconciliation, abolition of trade union activity, labor movement split and its supervision. Concessions workers were considered only illusory and employers with state dominance. However during 1933/1934, Chambers work activity had a positive role in the field of enforcement of labor law, serving an important role in other institutions and labor organizations, representing a significant step in the development of labor law.

  1. A Multi-step and Multi-level approach for Computer Aided Molecular Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    . The problem formulation step incorporates a knowledge base for the identification and setup of the design criteria. Candidate compounds are identified using a multi-level generate and test CAMD solution algorithm capable of designing molecules having a high level of molecular detail. A post solution step...... using an Integrated Computer Aided System (ICAS) for result analysis and verification is included in the methodology. Keywords: CAMD, separation processes, knowledge base, molecular design, solvent selection, substitution, group contribution, property prediction, ICAS Introduction The use of Computer...... Aided Molecular Design (CAMD) for the identification of compounds having specific physic...

  2. Delivering step change improvements to UK low level waste strategy - 16188

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, Jason; Rossiter, David

    2009-01-01

    The UK Nuclear Industry continues to produce significant quantities of Low Level Waste (LLW) as decommissioning projects generating waste become more prevalent. Current infrastructure and projected increasing waste volumes will deliver a volumetric shortfall of storage capacity in the near future. Recently established as a standalone site licence company, the Low Level Waste Repository (LLWR) near Drigg, in West Cumbria (formerly operated and owned by British Nuclear Group) is tasked with managing the safe treatment and disposal of LLW in the UK, on behalf of the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA). The problem is complex involving many stakeholders with potentially different priorities. Previously, most nuclear waste generators operated independently with limited integration with other similar organisations. However, the current financial, programme and technical pressures require collaborative working to facilitate a step-change improvement in LLW management. Achieving this quickly is as much of a challenge as delivering robust cost effective technical solutions. NDA is working in partnership with LLWR to develop a LLW Strategy for the Nuclear Industry and has in parallel commissioned a number of studies by the National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL), looking at opportunities to share best practice. A National Strategy Group has been established to develop a working partnership between the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority, LLW Repository Ltd, Regulators, Stakeholders and LLW Consignors, promoting innovation, value for money, and robust implementation of the waste hierarchy (avoid-reduce-re-use-recycle). Additionally the LLWR supported by the NNL have undertaken a comprehensive strategic review of the UK's LLW management activities. Initial collaborative work has provided for the first time a detailed picture of the existing strategic baseline and identified significant national benefits from improving the way LLW is forecasted, characterised, segregated, and

  3. Understanding, Developing, and Writing Effective IEPs: A Step-by-Step Guide for Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierangelo, Roger; Giuliani, George A.

    2007-01-01

    Creating and evaluating Individualized Education Programs (IEPs) for students with disabilities is a major responsibility for teachers and school leaders, yet the process involves legal components not always understood by educators. In "Understanding, Developing, and Writing Effective IEPs," legal and special education experts Roger…

  4. Determining urea levels in exhaled breath condensate with minimal preparation steps and classic LC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitiranggon, Masha; Perzanowski, Matthew S; Kinney, Patrick L; Xu, Dongqun; Chillrud, Steven N; Yan, Beizhan

    2014-10-01

    Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) provides a relatively easy, non-invasive method for measuring biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress in the airways. However, the levels of these biomarkers in EBC are influenced, not only by their levels in lung lining fluid but also by the volume of water vapor that also condenses during EBC collection. For this reason, the use of a biomarker of dilution has been recommended. Urea has been proposed and utilized as a promising dilution biomarker due to its even distribution throughout the body and relatively low volatility. Current EBC urea analytical methods either are not sensitive enough, necessitating large volumes of EBC, or are labor intensive, requiring a derivatization step or other pretreatment. We report here a straightforward and reliable LC-MS approach that we developed that does not require derivatization or large sample volume (∼36 µL). An Acclaim mixed-mode hydrophilic interaction chromatography column was selected because it can produce good peak symmetry and efficiently separate urea from other polar and nonpolar compounds. To achieve a high recovery rate, a slow and incomplete evaporation method was used followed by a solvent-phase exchange. Among EBC samples collected from 28 children, urea levels were found to be highly variable, with a relative standard deviation of 234%, suggesting high variability in dilution of the lung lining fluid component of EBC. The limit of detection was found to be 0.036 µg/mL. Published by Oxford University Press [2013]. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  5. Fish welfare assurance system: initial steps to set up an effective tool to safeguard and monitor farmed fish welfare at a company level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vis, van de J.W.; Poelman, M.; Lambooij, E.; Bégout, M.L.; Pilarczyk, M.

    2012-01-01

    The objective was to take a first step in the development of a process-oriented quality assurance (QA) system for monitoring and safeguarding of fish welfare at a company level. A process-oriented approach is focused on preventing hazards and involves establishment of critical steps in a process

  6. Step-Up: Promoting Youth Mental Health and Development in Inner-City High Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicea, Stacey; Pardo, Gisselle; Conover, Kelly; Gopalan, Geetha; McKay, Mary

    2012-06-01

    African American and Latino youth who reside in inner-city communities are at heightened risk for compromised mental health, as their neighborhoods are too often associated with serious stressors, including elevated rates of poverty, substance abuse, community violence, as well as scarce youth-supportive resources, and mental health care options. Many aspects of disadvantaged urban contexts have the potential to thwart successful youth development. Adolescents with elevated mental health needs may experience impaired judgment, poor problem-solving skills, and conflictual interpersonal relationships, resulting in unsafe sexual behavior and drug use. However, mental health services are frequently avoided by urban adolescents who could gain substantial benefit from care. Thus, the development of culturally sensitive, contextually relevant and effective services for urban, low-income African American and Latino adolescents is critical. Given the complexity of the mental health and social needs of urban youth, novel approaches to service delivery may need to consider individual (i.e., motivation to succeed in the future), family (i.e., adult support within and outside of the family), and community-level (i.e., work and school opportunities) clinical components. Step-Up, a high school-based mental health service delivery model has been developed to bolster key family, youth and school processes related to youth mental health and positive youth development. Step-Up (1) intervenes with urban minority adolescents across inner-city ecological domains; (2) addresses multiple levels (school, family and community) in order to target youth mental health difficulties; and (3) provides opportunities for increasing youth social problem-solving and life skills. Further, Step-Up integrates existing theory-driven, evidence-based interventions. This article describes Step-Up clinical goals, theoretical influences, as well as components and key features, and presents preliminary data on

  7. The gradual development steps of the external coupled RELAP5 - DYN3D code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strmensky, C.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the on-going and finished parts of project: 'The external coupled RELAP5-DYN3D code'. The development progress was divided into four steps. In present time, second and third steps are performed and four step is started. The two parameters of coolant was selected and are exchanged between codes RELAP5 and DYN3D. (authors)

  8. U.S. independent operators step up exploration, development abroad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koen, A.D.

    1996-01-01

    This paper reviews the new trend of independent oil and gas operation expenditures in overseas development. It compares recent trends in production, production revenues, and exploration and development expenditures in both the US and non-US markets. It identifies numerous development projects going on in China, Columbia, Australia, Algeria, and others. It documents the production revenues from the overseas fields compared to the returns on US production. It also documents many of the advantages that the independents have over the major companies to obtain a competitive edge on developments in these regions. A historical perspective is also given which tracks the gradual changes of the way which independents operate

  9. Two-level image authentication by two-step phase-shifting interferometry and compressive sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue; Meng, Xiangfeng; Yin, Yongkai; Yang, Xiulun; Wang, Yurong; Li, Xianye; Peng, Xiang; He, Wenqi; Dong, Guoyan; Chen, Hongyi

    2018-01-01

    A two-level image authentication method is proposed; the method is based on two-step phase-shifting interferometry, double random phase encoding, and compressive sensing (CS) theory, by which the certification image can be encoded into two interferograms. Through discrete wavelet transform (DWT), sparseness processing, Arnold transform, and data compression, two compressed signals can be generated and delivered to two different participants of the authentication system. Only the participant who possesses the first compressed signal attempts to pass the low-level authentication. The application of Orthogonal Match Pursuit CS algorithm reconstruction, inverse Arnold transform, inverse DWT, two-step phase-shifting wavefront reconstruction, and inverse Fresnel transform can result in the output of a remarkable peak in the central location of the nonlinear correlation coefficient distributions of the recovered image and the standard certification image. Then, the other participant, who possesses the second compressed signal, is authorized to carry out the high-level authentication. Therefore, both compressed signals are collected to reconstruct the original meaningful certification image with a high correlation coefficient. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulations verify the feasibility of the proposed method.

  10. Ecuador steps up pace of oil development activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that oil companies operating in Ecuador plan to quicken the pace of oil development this year. After delays in 1991, companies plan a series of projects to develop reserves discovered the past 3 years estimated at more than 600 million bbl. Oil and Gas Journal estimated Ecuador's proved crude reserves at 1.55 billion bbl as of Jan. 1, 1992. The development push is part of a larger effort needed to ensure Ecuador's status as an oil exporter into the next century. Ecuador is the smallest crude oil producer and exporter in the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries

  11. Expanding the Range of the First Step to Success Intervention: Tertiary-Level Support for Children, Teachers, and Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Andy J.; Small, Jason W.; Lee, Jon; Walker, Hill M.; Seeley, John R.; Feil, Edward G.; Golly, Annemeike

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the findings of a quasi-experimental feasibility study examining the Tertiary First Step intervention, an enhanced version of the First Step to Success early intervention program. Tertiary FirstStep was developed to engage families more effectively and influence and improve parenting practices for children having challenging…

  12. Lunar Station: The Next Logical Step in Space Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, Robert Bruce; Harper, Lynn; Newfield, Mark; Rasky, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is the product of the efforts of sixteen nations over the course of several decades. It is now complete, operational, and has been continuously occupied since November of 20001. Since then the ISS has been carrying out a wide variety of research and technology development experiments, and starting to produce some pleasantly startling results. The ISS has a mass of 420 metric tons, supports a crew of six with a yearly resupply requirement of around 30 metric tons, within a pressurized volume of 916 cubic meters, and a habitable volume of 388 cubic meters. Its solar arrays produce up to 84 kilowatts of power. In the course of developing the ISS, many lessons were learned and much valuable expertise was gained. Where do we go from here? The ISS offers an existence proof of the feasibility of sustained human occupation and operations in space over decades. It also demonstrates the ability of many countries to work collaboratively on a very complex and expensive project in space over an extended period of time to achieve a common goal. By harvesting best practices and lessons learned, the ISS can also serve as a useful model for exploring architectures for beyond low-­- earth-­-orbit (LEO) space development. This paper will explore the concept and feasibility for a Lunar Station. The Station concept can be implemented by either putting the equivalent capability of the ISS down on the surface of the Moon, or by developing the required capabilities through a combination of delivered materials and equipment and in situ resource utilization (ISRU). Scenarios that leverage existing technologies and capabilities as well as capabilities that are under development and are expected to be available within the next 3-­5 years, will be examined. This paper will explore how best practices and expertise gained from developing and operating the ISS and other relevant programs can be applied to effectively developing Lunar Station.

  13. L.S. Vygotsky's Principle "One Step in Learning — A Hundred Steps in Development": In Search of Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.K. Zaretsky

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of L.S. Vygotsky's published works the paper attempts to trace the dynamics of his concepts of child development and to provide evidence supporting Vygotsky's statement that one step in learning equals a hundred in development, which is one of the key principles of culturalhistorical theory in its application to child development. This statement is put in a row with two other major principles: one arguing that learning precedes development and the other referring to the zone of proximal development. The paper outlines a multivector model of the zone of proximal development as one of the conceptual tools of the reflective and activity approach to helping children overcome learning difficulties and promoting their development. The paper also describes a case study in which an orphan child with a disability received psychological and educational support that obviously contributed to the child's development. It is argued that L.S. Vygotsky's idea of the specific relationship between learning and development has fundamental theoretical and practical implications, in particular, for working with children with special needs

  14. A step towards development of aid for visually challenged

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The work done towards developing a visual aid to help visually challenged people is described in this paper. An ultrasonic device is used for measuring the distance to a nearby object and SIFT algorithm based approach is used for object recognition from the captured image. Features of the recognized object as well as the ...

  15. Steps to Successful Professional Development in Head Start

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivette, Carol M.; Raab, Melinda; Dunst, Carl J.

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the implications of utilizing coaching-mentoring strategies with Head Start teachers identified from the results of a study which used an evidence-based approach to professional development. Early childhood and coaching practices that formed the basis of the study are explained. Implications from the study results regarding…

  16. First steps toward developing tools for language assessment in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development of language and communication skills in young children is directly related to future academic success. Young children who are at risk for language impairment should, therefore, be identified as early as possible. Multilingualism, which has become a universal phenomenon, may mask the presence of ...

  17. Measurement Development in Reflective Supervision: History, Methods, and Next Steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlin, Angela M.; Heller, Sherryl Scott

    2016-01-01

    This issue of the "ZERO TO THREE" journal provides a snapshot of the current state of measurement of reflective supervision within the infant-family field. In this article, the authors introduce the issue by providing a brief history of the development of reflective supervision in the field of infant mental health, with a specific focus…

  18. Understanding road users’ expectations : an essential step for ADAS development.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtenbos, M. Jagtman, H.M. Hagenzieker, M.P. Wieringa, P.A. & Hale, A.R.

    2006-01-01

    This article indicates the need for understanding road users’ expectations when developing Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS). Nowadays, technology allows more and more opportunities to provide road users with all sorts of information or even actively support aspects of the driving task.

  19. Steps to Ensure a Successful Implementation of Occupational Health and Safety Interventions at an Organizational Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel M. Herrera-Sánchez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing meta-analytic evidence that addresses the positive impact of evidence-based occupational health and safety interventions on employee health and well-being. However, such evidence is less clear when interventions are approached at an organizational level and are aimed at changing organizational policies and processes. Given that occupational health and safety interventions are usually tailored to specific organizational contexts, generalizing and transferring such interventions to other organizations is a complex endeavor. In response, several authors have argued that an evaluation of the implementation process is crucial for assessing the intervention’s effectiveness and for understanding how and why the intervention has been (unsuccessful. Thus, this paper focuses on the implementation process and attempts to move this field forward by identifying the main factors that contribute toward ensuring a greater success of occupational health and safety interventions conducted at the organizational level. In doing so, we propose some steps that can guide a successful implementation. These implementation steps are illustrated using examples of evidence-based best practices reported in the literature that have described and systematically evaluated the implementation process behind their interventions during the last decade.

  20. Steps to Ensure a Successful Implementation of Occupational Health and Safety Interventions at an Organizational Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Sánchez, Isabel M.; León-Pérez, José M.; León-Rubio, José M.

    2017-01-01

    There is increasing meta-analytic evidence that addresses the positive impact of evidence-based occupational health and safety interventions on employee health and well-being. However, such evidence is less clear when interventions are approached at an organizational level and are aimed at changing organizational policies and processes. Given that occupational health and safety interventions are usually tailored to specific organizational contexts, generalizing and transferring such interventions to other organizations is a complex endeavor. In response, several authors have argued that an evaluation of the implementation process is crucial for assessing the intervention’s effectiveness and for understanding how and why the intervention has been (un)successful. Thus, this paper focuses on the implementation process and attempts to move this field forward by identifying the main factors that contribute toward ensuring a greater success of occupational health and safety interventions conducted at the organizational level. In doing so, we propose some steps that can guide a successful implementation. These implementation steps are illustrated using examples of evidence-based best practices reported in the literature that have described and systematically evaluated the implementation process behind their interventions during the last decade. PMID:29375413

  1. Practical Steps to Android App Development for Graphic Designers

    OpenAIRE

    Antikainen, Vesa

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to give graphic designers new to Android a clear view of what goes into developing an app. First all the basics of the Android OS are introduced with building blocks and concepts needed to get started. After introducing the fundamental elements, the thesis provides some recommendations on what programs could be used and how the overall workflow should go. In the final part previously mentioned building blocks and workflow patterns are put to use in the exampl...

  2. Changes in the isozymic pattern of phosphoenolpyruvate : An early step in photoperiodic control of crassulacean acid metabolism level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brulfert, J; Arrabaça, M C; Guerrier, D; Queiroz, O

    1979-01-01

    Two major isofunctional forms of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (EC 4.1.1.31) have been separated from the leaves of Kalanchoe blossfeldiana Poelln. Tom Thumb by acrylamide gel electrophoresis and diethylaminoethyl cellulose techniques: one of the forms prevails under long-day treatment (low crassulacean acid metabolism level), the other develops under short-day treatment (high Crassulacean acid metabolism level). Molecular weights are significantly different: 175·10(3) and 186·10(3), respectively. These results indicate that two populations of phosphoenolyruvate carboxylase are present in the plant, one of which is responsible for Crassulacean acid metabolism activity under the control of photoperiod.The Crassulacean acid metabolism appears to depend on the same endogenous clock that governs other photoperiodically controlled events (e.g. flowering). The metabolic and energetic significance of this feature is discussed. It is suggested that modification in isozymic composition could be an early step in the response to photoperiodism at the metabolic level.

  3. Development of the step complexity measure for emergency operating procedures using entropy concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jinkyun; Jung, Wondea; Ha, Jaejoo

    2001-01-01

    For a nuclear power plant (NPP), symptom-based emergency operating procedures (EOPs) have been adopted to enhance the safety of NPPs through reduction of operators' workload under emergency conditions. Symptom-based EOPs, however, could place a workload on operators because they have to not only identify related symptoms, but also understand the context of steps that should be carried out. Therefore, many qualitative checklists are suggested to ensure the appropriateness of steps included in EOPs. However, since these qualitative evaluations have some drawbacks, a quantitative measure that can roughly estimate the complexity of EOP steps is imperative to compensate for them. In this paper, a method to evaluate the complexity of an EOP step is developed based on entropy measures that have been used in software engineering. Based on these, step complexity (SC) measure that can evaluate SC from various viewpoints (such as the amount of information/operators' actions included in each EOP step, and the logic structure of each EOP step) was developed. To verify the suitableness of the SC measure, estimated SC values are compared with subjective task load scores obtained from the NASA-TLX (task load index) method and step performance time obtained from a full scope simulator. From these comparisons, it was observed that estimated SC values generally agree with the NASA-TLX scores and step performance time data. Thus, it could be concluded that the developed SC measure would be considered for evaluating SC of an EOP step

  4. Developing evidence-based librarianship: practical steps for implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crumley, Ellen; Koufogiannakis, Denise

    2002-06-01

    Evidence-based librarianship (EBL) is a relatively new concept for librarians. This paper lays out a practical framework for the implementation of EBL. A new way of thinking about research in librarianship is introduced using the well-built question process and the assignment of librarian research questions to one of six domains specific to librarianship. As a profession, librarianship tends to reflect more qualitative, social sciences/humanities in its research methods and study types which tend to be less rigorous and more prone to bias. Randomised controlled trials (RCT) do not have to be placed at the top of an evidence 'hierarchy' for librarianship. Instead, a more encompassing model reflecting librarianship as a whole and the kind of research likely to be done by librarians is proposed. 'Evidence' from a number of disciplines including health sciences, business and education can be utilized by librarians and applied to their practice. However, access to and availability of librarianship literature needs to be further studied. While using other disciplines (e.g. EBHC) as a model for EBL has been explored in the literature, the authors develop models unique to librarianship. While research has always been a minor focus in the profession, moving research into practice is becoming more important and librarians need to consider the issues surrounding research in order to move EBL forward.

  5. Eco-efficiency guiding micro-level actions towards sustainability. Ten basic steps for analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huppes, Gjalt; Ishikawa, Masanobu

    2009-01-01

    This paper looks at the compatibility between technological improvements at the micro-level and sustainability at the macro-level. The two main approaches to prevent environmental degradation are technological improvement and economic degrowth. How do we establish the sustainability of technological options? LCA-type analysis of the technology system, combined with economic cost analysis, offers a first integrated eco-efficiency score. However, such a technology analysis focuses on micro-level technology relations only, is usually too optimistic and ignores other constraints implied in a choice. Fitting more comprehensive knowledge into the sustainability evaluation of options requires a unifying systematic framework, which is worked out in the present paper as a ten-step procedure. The integrative framework for empirical analysis is ultimately a comparative-static systems analysis at macro-level, not in a deterministic dynamic mode, which is impossible, but as a knowledge-fed scenario analysis. The analysis shows the change in society's overall eco-efficiency, combining total value creation with total environmental impacts. Possible domains of application include not only technology choices like those in eco-innovation, including changed consumption styles and volumes, but also changes in policies regarding technologies and markets, whether direct policy shifts or indirect changes through institutional adaptations. Ultimately, such a framework also allows culturally framed questions about the type of society we would like to live in, to be analysed in terms of their economic and environmental consequences. (author)

  6. THE DEVELOPMENT OF AIR-THEME INTEGRATED SCIENCE TEACHING MATERIAL USING FOUR STEPS TEACHING MATERIAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arifin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study are to develop, to test the feasibility, to describe the characteristic, and to test the students understanding about integrated science teaching material about air using Four Steps Teaching Material Development (4S TMD. The Research and Development method was use to develop integrated science teaching materials which is involving  all science perspectives that are not presented in junior high school science book. The air theme was chosen in this study since it can be explained using biology, chemistry, physics, and earth and space science  perspectives. Development the teaching materials was consists of selection, structuring, characterization, and reduction didactic steps. Based on the of feasibility test results, the teaching material is qualified in content, presentation, language, and graphic feasibility aspects. The characteristic of this teaching material expose the closeness theme with student daily lifes and its compatibility with National Books Standard. Based on the understanding test results, the teaching material is qualified in understanding aspect with high category. It can be concluded that the teaching material qualified to be used as supplement teaching material of science learning.Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengembangkan, menguji kelayakan, memaparkan karakteristik, dan menguji keterpahaman bahan ajar IPA terpadu pada tema udara untuk siswa SMP kelas VII melalui Four Steps Teaching Material Development (4S TMD. Penelitian dengan metode Research and Development (R&D ini dilatar belakangi oleh tidak tersedianya bahan ajar IPA SMP yang disajikan secara terpadu melalui tema udara. Pengembangan bahan ajar IPA terpadu tema udara terdiri dari tahap seleksi, strukturisasi, karakterisasi dan reduksi didaktik. Berdasarkan uji kelayakan, bahan ajar telah memenuhi aspek kelayakan isi, kelayakan penyajian, kelayakan bahasa dan kelayakan kegrafikan. Karakteristik bahan ajar meliputi kedekatan tema bahan ajar

  7. Energetic consumption levels and human development indexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boa Nova, Antonio Carlos

    1999-01-01

    The article overviews the energetic consumption levels and human development indexes. The human development indexes are described based on the United Nations Development Programme. A comparison between the energetic consumption levels and human development indexes is also presented

  8. A First Step in Learning Analytics: Pre-Processing Low-Level Alice Logging Data of Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Linda; McDowell, Charlie; Denner, Jill

    2013-01-01

    Educational data mining can miss or misidentify key findings about student learning without a transparent process of analyzing the data. This paper describes the first steps in the process of using low-level logging data to understand how middle school students used Alice, an initial programming environment. We describe the steps that were…

  9. The 12 Steps of Addiction Recovery Programs as an influence on leadership development: a personal narrative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedman Mitchell

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available My participation in a 12-step addiction program based on the principles and traditions of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA has been critical for my leadership development. As I worked to refrain from addictive behaviors and practiced 12-step principles, I experienced a shift from individualistic, self-centered leadership towards a servant leader orientation. I thus consider the 12-step recovery process, which commenced in 2001, a leadership formative experience (LFE as it had the greatest influence on my subsequent development. My experience of thinking about and rethinking my life in reference to leadership and followership lends itself to a personal inquiry. It draws on work on the12 steps; self-assessments and personal journal entries; and memory of life events. I aim to contribute to the leadership development literature by exploring the influence of participation in a 12-step recovery program and posing it as an LFE, subjects that have received little attention.

  10. Development of STEP-NC Adaptor for Advanced Web Manufacturing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajay Konapala, Mr.; Koona, Ramji, Dr.

    2017-08-01

    Information systems play a key role in the modern era of Information Technology. Rapid developments in IT & global competition calls for many changes in basic CAD/CAM/CAPP/CNC manufacturing chain of operations. ‘STEP-NC’ an enhancement to STEP for operating CNC machines, creating new opportunities for collaborative, concurrent, adaptive works across the manufacturing chain of operations. Schemas and data models defined by ISO14649 in liaison with ISO10303 standards made STEP-NC file rich with feature based, rather than mere point to point information of G/M Code format. But one needs to have a suitable information system to understand and modify these files. Various STEP-NC information systems are reviewed to understand the suitability of STEP-NC for web manufacturing. Present work also deals with the development of an adaptor which imports STEP-NC file, organizes its information, allowing modifications to entity values and finally generates a new STEP-NC file to export. The system is designed and developed to work on web to avail additional benefits through the web and also to be part of a proposed ‘Web based STEP-NC manufacturing platform’ which is under development and explained as future scope.

  11. The 12 Steps of Addiction Recovery Programs as an Influence on Leadership Development: A Personal Narrative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Mitchell

    2016-01-01

    My participation in a 12-step addiction program based on the principles and traditions of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) has been critical for my leadership development. As I worked to refrain from addictive behaviors and practiced 12-step principles, I experienced a shift from individualistic, self-centered leadership towards a servant leader…

  12. Distributed temperature sensors development using an stepped-helical ultrasonic waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periyannan, Suresh; Rajagopal, Prabhu; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents the design and development of the distributed ultrasonic waveguide temperature sensors using some stepped-helical structures. Distributed sensing has several applications in various industries (oil, glass, steel) for measurement of physical parameters such as level, temperature, viscosity, etc. This waveguide incorporates a special notch or bend for obtaining ultrasonic wave reflections from the desired locations (Gage-lengths) where local measurements are desired. In this paper, a multi-location measurement wave-guide, with a measurement capability of 18 locations in a single wire, has been fabricated. The distribution of these sensors is both in the axial as well as radial directions using a stepped-helical spring configuration. Also, different high temperature materials have been chosen for the wave-guide. Both lower order axi-symmetric guided ultrasonic modes (L(0,1) and T(0,1)) were employed. These wave modes were generated/received (pulse-echo approach) using conventional longitudinal and shear transducers, respectively. Also, both the wave modes were simultaneously generated/received and compared using shear transducer for developing the distributed helical wave-guide sensors. The effect of dispersion of the wave modes due to curvature effects will also be discussed.

  13. Conflict and coordination in the provision of public goods: a conceptual analysis of continuous and step-level games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abele, Susanne; Stasser, Garold; Chartier, Christopher

    2010-11-01

    Conflicts between individual and collective interests are ubiquitous in social life. Experimental studies have investigated the resolution of such conflicts using public goods games with either continuous or step-level payoff functions. Game theory and social interdependence theory identify consequential differences between these two types of games. Continuous function games are prime examples of social dilemmas because they always contain a conflict between individual and collective interests, whereas step-level games can be construed as social coordination games. Step-level games often provide opportunities for coordinated solutions that benefit both the collective and the individuals. For this and other reasons, the authors conclude that one cannot safely generalize results obtained from step-level to continuous-form games (or vice versa). Finally, the authors identify specific characteristics of the payoff function in public goods games that conceptually mark the transition from a pure dilemma to a coordination problem nested within a dilemma.

  14. Sound pressure levels generated at risk volume steps of portable listening devices: types of smartphone and genres of music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gibbeum; Han, Woojae

    2018-05-01

    The present study estimated the sound pressure levels of various music genres at the volume steps that contemporary smartphones deliver, because these levels put the listener at potential risk for hearing loss. Using six different smartphones (Galaxy S6, Galaxy Note 3, iPhone 5S, iPhone 6, LG G2, and LG G3), the sound pressure levels for three genres of K-pop music (dance-pop, hip-hop, and pop-ballad) and a Billboard pop chart of assorted genres were measured through an earbud for the first risk volume that was at the risk sign proposed by the smartphones, as well as consecutive higher volumes using a sound level meter and artificial mastoid. The first risk volume step of the Galaxy S6 and the LG G2, among the six smartphones, had the significantly lowest (84.1 dBA) and highest output levels (92.4 dBA), respectively. As the volume step increased, so did the sound pressure levels. The iPhone 6 was loudest (113.1 dBA) at the maximum volume step. Of the music genres, dance-pop showed the highest output level (91.1 dBA) for all smartphones. Within the frequency range of 20~ 20,000 Hz, the sound pressure level peaked at 2000 Hz for all the smartphones. The results showed that the sound pressure levels of either the first volume step or the maximum volume step were not the same for the different smartphone models and genres of music, which means that the risk volume sign and its output levels should be unified across the devices for their users. In addition, the risk volume steps proposed by the latest smartphone models are high enough to cause noise-induced hearing loss if their users habitually listen to music at those levels.

  15. Development of single step RT-PCR for detection of Kyasanur forest disease virus from clinical samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gouri Chaubal

    2018-02-01

    Discussion and conclusion: The previously published sensitive real time RT-PCR assay requires higher cost in terms of reagents and machine setup and technical expertise has been the primary reason for development of this assay. A single step RT-PCR is relatively easy to perform and more cost effective than real time RT-PCR in smaller setups in the absence of Biosafety Level-3 facility. This study reports the development and optimization of single step RT-PCR assay which is more sensitive and less time-consuming than nested RT-PCR and cost effective for rapid diagnosis of KFD viral RNA.

  16. Quality science for all: A qualitative study of professional development and assessment implementation in STEP-uP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Christine M.

    One of the most important factors in achieving scientific literacy is for science teachers at the local level to develop a greater understanding of science education, including science content, pedagogy, and assessment. This study was designed to examine the connection between teacher learning and practice by studying the relationship between professional development and assessment implementation in the elementary science classroom. The goal was to develop a deeper understanding of the components of the STEP-uP model that served as a catalyst for change and to provide insight into how to best work with teachers in order to develop a more scientifically literate population. Four essential questions guided this research. What kinds of opportunities does STEP-uP provide for elementary school teachers to improve their assessment practices in science? In what ways did STEP-uP training affect assessment practices by teachers? How, if at all, are the assessment practices modified by teachers? What are the most salient features of the STEP-uP professional development model that allow for change and growth in assessment practices in elementary science classrooms and for education at large? The research method for this study was educational connoisseurship and criticism. I developed rich descriptions and interpretations based on observations, interviews, and artifacts from six classroom teachers which were then compared and contrasted to the goals of STEP-uP described in their literature, by the assessment coordinator, and an observation of a STEP-uP training. Key findings include: (1) collaboration and collegial support must be integral to sustain change; (2) clearly articulated goals form one, cohesive vision for professional development that must be integral to all components of the program; (3) multiple entry points help encourage participation and honor differences between teachers' personal and professional needs; and, (4) classroom structures such as time, classroom

  17. Electromyographic and biomechanical analysis of step negotiation in Charcot Marie Tooth subjects whose level walk is not impaired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lencioni, Tiziana; Piscosquito, Giuseppe; Rabuffetti, Marco; Sipio, Enrica Di; Diverio, Manuela; Moroni, Isabella; Padua, Luca; Pagliano, Emanuela; Schenone, Angelo; Pareyson, Davide; Ferrarin, Maurizio

    2018-05-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) is a slowly progressive disease characterized by muscular weakness and wasting with a length-dependent pattern. Mildly affected CMT subjects showed slight alteration of walking compared to healthy subjects (HS). To investigate the biomechanics of step negotiation, a task that requires greater muscle strength and balance control compared to level walking, in CMT subjects without primary locomotor deficits (foot drop and push off deficit) during walking. We collected data (kinematic, kinetic, and surface electromyographic) during walking on level ground and step negotiation, from 98 CMT subjects with mild-to-moderate impairment. Twenty-one CMT subjects (CMT-NLW, normal-like-walkers) were selected for analysis, as they showed values of normalized ROM during swing and produced work at push-off at ankle joint comparable to those of 31 HS. Step negotiation tasks consisted in climbing and descending a two-step stair. Only the first step provided the ground reaction force data. To assess muscle activity, each EMG profile was integrated over 100% of task duration and the activation percentage was computed in four phases that constitute the step negotiation tasks. In both tasks, CMT-NLW showed distal muscle hypoactivation. In addition, during step-ascending CMT-NLW subjects had relevant lower activities of vastus medialis and rectus femoris than HS in weight-acceptance, and, on the opposite, a greater activation as compared to HS in forward-continuance. During step-descending, CMT-NLW showed a reduced activity of tibialis anterior during controlled-lowering phase. Step negotiation revealed adaptive motor strategies related to muscle weakness due to disease in CMT subjects without any clinically apparent locomotor deficit during level walking. In addition, this study provided results useful for tailored rehabilitation of CMT patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Steps for arm and trunk actions of overhead forehand stroke used in badminton games across skill levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianyu; Liu, Wenhao; Moffit, Jeffrey

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine arm and trunk actions in overhead forehand strokes used in badminton games across skill levels. The participants were 80 students (40 boys, 40 girls) who were randomly selected from video recordings of 300 students ages 16 to 19 years. The videotaped performances of overhead forehand strokes were coded based on three steps of arm action (elbow flexion, elbow and humeral flexion, and upward backswing) and three steps of trunk action (no trunk action, forward-backward movement, and trunk rotation). Students across the four skill levels exhibited different patterns of arm and trunk actions. Students at advanced levels used more mature arm and trunk actions.

  19. ADDING A NEW STEP WITH SPATIAL AUTOCORRELATION TO IMPROVE THE FOUR-STEP TRAVEL DEMAND MODEL WITH FEEDBACK FOR A DEVELOPING CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuesong FENG, Ph.D Candidate

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available It is expected that improvement of transport networks could give rise to the change of spatial distributions of population-related factors and car ownership, which are expected to further influence travel demand. To properly reflect such an interdependence mechanism, an aggregate multinomial logit (A-MNL model was firstly applied to represent the spatial distributions of these exogenous variables of the travel demand model by reflecting the influence of transport networks. Next, the spatial autocorrelation analysis is introduced into the log-transformed A-MNL model (called SPA-MNL model. Thereafter, the SPA-MNL model is integrated into the four-step travel demand model with feedback (called 4-STEP model. As a result, an integrated travel demand model is newly developed and named as the SPA-STEP model. Using person trip data collected in Beijing, the performance of the SPA-STEP model is empirically compared with the 4-STEP model. It was proven that the SPA-STEP model is superior to the 4-STEP model in accuracy; most of the estimated parameters showed statistical differences in values. Moreover, though the results of the simulations to the same set of assumed scenarios by the 4-STEP model and the SPA-STEP model consistently suggested the same sustainable path for the future development of Beijing, it was found that the environmental sustainability and the traffic congestion for these scenarios were generally overestimated by the 4-STEP model compared with the corresponding analyses by the SPA-STEP model. Such differences were clearly generated by the introduction of the new modeling step with spatial autocorrelation.

  20. Culture and the Sequence of Steps in Theory of Mind Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahaeian, Ameneh; Peterson, Candida C.; Slaughter, Virginia; Wellman, Henry M.

    2011-01-01

    To examine cultural contrasts in the ordered sequence of conceptual developments leading to theory of mind (ToM), we compared 135 3- to 6-year-olds (77 Australians; 58 Iranians) on an established 5-step ToM scale (Wellman & Liu, 2004). There was a cross-cultural difference in the sequencing of ToM steps but not in overall rates of ToM mastery.…

  1. Enhancing Advocacy for Eye Care at National Levels: What Steps to Take for the Next Decade?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiu, Muhammad Mansur; Al Rajhi, Abdulaziz; Qureshi, Mohammed Babar; Gersbeck, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The global initiative for the elimination of avoidable blindness by the year 2020-(VISION 2020- The Right to Sight), established in 1999, is a partnership of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), governments, bilateral organizations, corporate bodies and the World Health Organization. The goal is to eliminate the major causes of avoidable blindness by the year 2020. Significant progress has been made in the last decade. For example, the adoption of three major World Health Assembly resolutions (WHA 56.26, 59.25 and 62.1) requesting governments to increase support and funding for the prevention of blindness and eye care. Additionally, the approval of the VISION 2020 declaration, development of plans and establishment of prevention of blindness committees and a designation of a coordinator by most participating countries represent other major achievements. Furthermore there has been increased political and professional commitment to the prevention of visual impairment and an increase in the provision of high-quality, sustainable eye care. Most of these achievements have been attributed to the advocacy efforts of VISION 2020 at the international level. The full success of this global initiative will likely depend on the extent to which the WHA resolutions are implemented in each country. However, most ratifying countries have not moved forward with implementation of these resolutions. To date, only few countries have shown consistent government support and funding for eye care pursuant to the resolutions. One of the main reasons for this may be inadequate and inappropriate advocacy for eye care at the national level. As such it is believed that the success of VISION 2020 in the next decade will depend on intense advocacy campaigns at national levels. This review identified some of the countries and health programs that have had fruitful advocacy efforts, to determine the factors that dictated success. The review highlights the factors of successful advocacy in two

  2. The typical steps of radiation processes development. Experience in investigation, designing and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babkin, I. Yu.

    1983-01-01

    The typical steps of radiation processes development are discussed as: primary laboratory investigations; primary economic evaluation; more exact estimation of situation in industry; comparative analysis; development of a flow sheet; pilot plant; obtaining of initial data for designing of industrial scale plant; prediction of industrial situation; designing of semi-industrial or industrial plant; industrial plant. (U.K.)

  3. A study on development of the step complexity measure for emergency operating procedures using entropy concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J. K.; Jung, W. D.; Kim, J. W.; Ha, J. J.

    2001-04-01

    In complex systems, such as nuclear power plants (NPPs) or airplane control systems, human errors play a major role in many accidents. For example, it was reported that about 70% of aviation accidents are due to human errors, and that approximately 28% of accidents in process industries are caused by human errors. According to related studies, written manuals or operating procedures are revealed as one of the most important factors in aviation and manufacturing industries. In case of NPPs, the importance of procedures is more salient than other industries because not only over 50% of human errors were due to procedures but also about 18% of accidents were caused by the failure of following procedures. Thus, the provision of emergency operating procedures (EOPs) that are designed so that the possibility of human errors can be reduced is very important. To accomplish this goal, a quantitative and objective measure that can evaluate EOPs is indispensable. The purpose of this study is the development of a method that can quantify the complexity of a step included in EOPs. In this regard, the step complexity measure (SC) is developed based on three sub-measures such as the SIC (step information complexity), the SLC (step logic complexity) and the SSC (step size complexity). To verify the SC measure, not only quantitative validations (such as comparing SC scores with subjective evaluation results and with averaged step performance time) but also qualitative validations to clarify physical meanings of the SC measure are performed

  4. A study on development of the step complexity measure for emergency operating procedures using entropy concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. K.; Jung, W. D.; Kim, J. W.; Ha, J. J

    2001-04-01

    In complex systems, such as nuclear power plants (NPPs) or airplane control systems, human errors play a major role in many accidents. For example, it was reported that about 70% of aviation accidents are due to human errors, and that approximately 28% of accidents in process industries are caused by human errors. According to related studies, written manuals or operating procedures are revealed as one of the most important factors in aviation and manufacturing industries. In case of NPPs, the importance of procedures is more salient than other industries because not only over 50% of human errors were due to procedures but also about 18% of accidents were caused by the failure of following procedures. Thus, the provision of emergency operating procedures (EOPs) that are designed so that the possibility of human errors can be reduced is very important. To accomplish this goal, a quantitative and objective measure that can evaluate EOPs is indispensable. The purpose of this study is the development of a method that can quantify the complexity of a step included in EOPs. In this regard, the step complexity measure (SC) is developed based on three sub-measures such as the SIC (step information complexity), the SLC (step logic complexity) and the SSC (step size complexity). To verify the SC measure, not only quantitative validations (such as comparing SC scores with subjective evaluation results and with averaged step performance time) but also qualitative validations to clarify physical meanings of the SC measure are performed.

  5. How much locomotive activity is needed for an active physical activity level: analysis of total step counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohkawara Kazunori

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although physical activity recommendations for public health have focused on locomotive activity such as walking and running, it is uncertain how much these activities contribute to overall physical activity level (PAL. The purpose of the present study was to determine the contribution of locomotive activity to PAL using total step counts measured in a calorimeter study. Methods PAL, calculated as total energy expenditure divided by basal metabolic rate, was evaluated in 11 adult men using three different conditions for 24-hour human calorimeter measurements: a low-activity day (L-day targeted at a low active level of PAL (1.45, and a high-frequency moderate activity day (M-day or a high-frequency vigorous activity day (V-day targeted at an active level of PAL (1.75. These subjects were permitted only light activities except prescribed activities. In a separate group of 41 adults, free-living PAL was evaluated using doubly-labeled water (DLW. In both experiments, step counts per day were also measured using an accelerometer. Results In the human calorimeter study, PAL and step counts were 1.42 ± 0.10 and 8,973 ± 543 steps/d (L-day, 1.82 ± 0.14 and 29,588 ± 1,126 steps/d (M-day, and 1.74 ± 0.15 and 23,755 ± 1,038 steps/d (V-day, respectively. In the DLW study, PAL and step counts were 1.73 ± 0.15 and 10,022 ± 2,605 steps/d, and there was no significant relationship between PAL and daily step counts. Conclusions These results indicate that an enormous number of steps are needed for an active level of PAL if individuals extend physical activity-induced energy expenditure by only locomotive activity. Therefore, non-locomotive activity such as household activity should also play a significant role in increasing PAL under free-living conditions.

  6. Steps Counts among Middle School Students Vary with Aerobic Fitness Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Masurier, Guy C.; Corbin, Charles B.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine if steps/day taken by middle school students varied based on aerobic fitness classification. Middle school students (N = 223; 112 girls, 111 boys) were assigned to three aerobic fitness categories (HIGH, MOD, LOW) based on results of the FITNESSGRAM PACER test. Four weekdays of pedometer monitoring…

  7. 100% RES communities. Steps towards 100% renewable energy at local level in Europe. Motivations, approaches, examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regnier, Yannick; Pidana, Paulina; Hanisch, Angela; Priesner, Georg C.; Mc Kinney, Simon; Buschmann, Pia; Csanaky, Lilla; Praillet, Frederic; Zanchini, Edoardo; Lefevre, Christelle; ); Marincek, Gorazd; Meiffren, Isabelle; Toplice, Liliana

    2015-01-01

    Enhanced in 2014, the energy and climate goals for 2030 of the European Union require the mobilization of everyone, everywhere. In a dynamic set to intensify rural territories, as well as cities, the communities have a major role to play. As the principal trustees of renewable resource deposits, they are the vanguard of the energy transition. Their strengths? Wind and water in abundance (very often), the sun of course, biomass - agricultural, forest, woodland, domestic, food processing - geothermal energy. With the desire to make this renewable capital live, it made some decide to take or regain control of the energy issue, reduce their energy bills and those of their inhabitants. Attracted by the opportunity to revitalize local economies and rural communes (alone or in groups) they are more likely to want to become 100% RES. But how to move from intention to action when faced with the lack of knowledge, or means, or when you feel too small to act? It is to assist you in developing your energy policy that this guide was written. Pragmatic, practical, it brings together the return on experience from partners and communities involved in 100% RES Communities project. For three years, elected representatives from rural areas, some experienced and some less, together with experts from 10 countries in Europe, have sought the best organizational, technical and financial means to reduce consumption and produce renewable energy. If because of the administrative, cultural, economic differences within the Union, all the territories do not enjoy the same facilities, the 100% RES Communities project has defined pragmatic methods, practices and tools which will make your work easier. You will find in this guide the key steps in defining your strategy and building your action plan. This is a feasible action plan to be shared and implemented with the stakeholders. A final note: because it is within networks that we discover new solutions, which can replenish the practices and

  8. What's happening in 'renewable energy developed country: Germany'. Next step our country should learn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Kazuya

    2012-01-01

    What's the next step our country should take? Japan could learn a lot of things such as success or failure examples from renewable energy developed country: Germany. This article reviewed present state of Feed-In Tariffs and renewable energy power in Germany. Share of renewable energy power amounted to 20% including 7.6% of wind power and 6.1% of biomass in 2011. Such trend caused increase of power cost, restructure of power system such as new installation of power transmission against north coast offshore wind power plant, and development of power storage system such as hydrogen production or pumped storage power plant. Efficient introduction of renewable energy should be planned in Japan based on appropriate share target of renewable energy share. As for nuclear power phaseout, Japan should learn German's experiences on decommissioning and decontamination of nuclear power plants, and policies of intermediate storage and final disposal of high-level radioactive wastes, which needed a long time and a great cost. (T. Tanaka)

  9. Lessons from a Train-the-Trainer Professional Development Program: The Sustainable Trainer Engagement Program (STEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shupla, Christine; Gladney, Alicia; Dalton, Heather; LaConte, Keliann; Truxillo, Jeannette; Shipp, Stephanie

    2015-11-01

    The Sustainable Trainer Engagement Program (STEP) is a modified train-the-trainer professional development program being conducted by the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI). STEP has provided two cohorts of 6-8th grade science specialists and lead teachers in the Houston region with in-depth Earth and Space Science (ESS) content, activities, and pedagogy over 15 days each, aligned with Texas science standards. This project has two over-arching goals: to improve middle school ESS instruction, and to create and test an innovative model for Train-the-Trainer.This poster will share details regarding STEP’s activities and resources, program achievements, and its main findings to date. STEP is being evaluated by external evaluators at the Research Institute of Texas, part of the Harris County Department of Education. External evaluation shows an increase after one year in STEP participants’ knowledge (cohort 1 showed a 10% increase; cohort 2 showed a 20% increase), confidence in teaching Earth and Space Science effectively (cohort 1 demonstrated a 10% increase; cohort 2 showed a 20% increase), and confidence in preparing other teachers (cohort 1 demonstrated a 12% increase; cohort 2 showed a 20% increase). By September 2015, STEP participants led (or assisted in leading) approximately 40 workshops for about 1800 science teachers in Texas. Surveys of teachers attending professional development conducted by STEP participants show very positive responses, with averages for conference workshop evaluations ranging from 3.6 on a 4 point scale, and other evaluations averaging from 4.1 to 5.0 on a 5 point scale.Main lessons for the team on the train-the-trainer model include: a lack of confidence by leaders in K-12 science education in presenting ESS professional development, difficulties in arranging for school or district content-specific professional development, the minimal duration of most school and district professional development sessions, and uncertainties in

  10. MANAGEMENT OF RENEWABLE ENERGY AND REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT: EUROPEAN EXPERIENCES AND STEPS FORWARD

    OpenAIRE

    Andreea Ileana Zamfir

    2011-01-01

    The issues of the renewable energy and regional development have become major priorities for public policymakers across the globe. Therefore, this study explores some European experiences and steps forward in the field of the management of renewable energy and regional development. Firstly, an overview of renewable energy issues in European regions is revealed, and secondly, some measures and actions for managing regional development of renewable energy in Romania taking into account the fina...

  11. Next steps in the development of ecological soil clean-up values for metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentsel, Randall; Fairbrother, Anne

    2014-07-01

    This special series in Integrated Environmental Assessment Management presents the results from 6 workgroups that were formed at the workshop on Ecological Soil Levels-Next Steps in the Development of Metal Clean-Up Values (17-21 September 2012, Sundance, Utah). This introductory article presents an overview of the issues assessors face when conducting risk assessments for metals in soils, key US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) documents on metals risk assessment, and discusses the importance of leveraging from recent major terrestrial research projects, primarily to address Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemical Substances (REACH) requirements in Europe, that have significantly advanced our understanding of the behavior and toxicity of metals in soils. These projects developed large data sets that are useful for the risk assessment of metals in soil environments. The workshop attendees met to work toward developing a process for establishing ecological soil clean-up values (Eco-SCVs). The goal of the workshop was to progress from ecological soil screening values (Eco-SSLs) to final clean-up values by providing regulators with the methods and processes to incorporate bioavailability, normalize toxicity thresholds, address food-web issues, and incorporate background concentrations. The REACH data sets were used by workshop participants as case studies in the development of the ecological standards for soils. The workshop attendees discussed scientific advancements in bioavailability, soil biota and wildlife case studies, soil processes, and food-chain modeling. In addition, one of the workgroups discussed the processes needed to frame the topics to gain regulatory acceptance as a directive or guidance by Canada, the USEPA, or the United States. © 2013 SETAC.

  12. Development of a two-step “green” synthesis for (-)-ambafuran production

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steenkamp, Lucia H

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the development of a two-step “green” synthesis for (-)-ambafuran production is to find an alternative synthesis of (-) Ambrox from sclareol, to use a bioconversion or biocatalysis route, and that it results in a natural...

  13. Single-step reinitialization and extending algorithms for level-set based multi-phase flow simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Lin; Hu, Xiangyu Y.; Adams, Nikolaus A.

    2017-12-01

    We propose efficient single-step formulations for reinitialization and extending algorithms, which are critical components of level-set based interface-tracking methods. The level-set field is reinitialized with a single-step (non iterative) "forward tracing" algorithm. A minimum set of cells is defined that describes the interface, and reinitialization employs only data from these cells. Fluid states are extrapolated or extended across the interface by a single-step "backward tracing" algorithm. Both algorithms, which are motivated by analogy to ray-tracing, avoid multiple block-boundary data exchanges that are inevitable for iterative reinitialization and extending approaches within a parallel-computing environment. The single-step algorithms are combined with a multi-resolution conservative sharp-interface method and validated by a wide range of benchmark test cases. We demonstrate that the proposed reinitialization method achieves second-order accuracy in conserving the volume of each phase. The interface location is invariant to reapplication of the single-step reinitialization. Generally, we observe smaller absolute errors than for standard iterative reinitialization on the same grid. The computational efficiency is higher than for the standard and typical high-order iterative reinitialization methods. We observe a 2- to 6-times efficiency improvement over the standard method for serial execution. The proposed single-step extending algorithm, which is commonly employed for assigning data to ghost cells with ghost-fluid or conservative interface interaction methods, shows about 10-times efficiency improvement over the standard method while maintaining same accuracy. Despite their simplicity, the proposed algorithms offer an efficient and robust alternative to iterative reinitialization and extending methods for level-set based multi-phase simulations.

  14. A Million Steps: Developing a Health Promotion Program at the Workplace to Enhance Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Dominguez, María Eugenia; Romero-Sánchez, José Manuel; Ares-Camerino, Antonio; Marchena-Aparicio, Jose Carlos; Flores-Muñoz, Manuel; Infantes-Guzmán, Inés; León-Asuero, José Manuel; Casals-Martín, Fernando

    2017-11-01

    The workplace is a key setting for the prevention of occupational risks and for promoting healthy activities such as physical activity. Developing a physically active lifestyle results in many health benefits, improving both well-being and quality of life. This article details the experience of two Spanish companies that implemented a program to promote physical exercise in the workplace, called "A Million Steps." This program aimed to increase the physical activity of participants, challenging them to reach at least a million steps in a month through group walks. Participant workers reached the set goal and highlighted the motivational and interpersonal functions of the program.

  15. Lower-Level Qualifications as a Stepping Stone for Young People. Occasional Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Damian

    2012-01-01

    Lower-level qualifications (certificate I and II programs) provide little or no immediate return to the individual in terms of increased wages. However, lower-level qualifications are intended to prepare students who would otherwise not be capable of enrolling in and completing a higher-level qualification or making a successful transition into…

  16. A two-step method for developing a control rod program for boiling water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taner, M.S.; Levine, S.H.; Hsiao, M.Y.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on a two-step method that is established for the generation of a long-term control rod program for boiling water reactors (BWRs). The new method assumes a time-variant target power distribution in core depletion. In the new method, the BWR control rod programming is divided into two steps. In step 1, a sequence of optimal, exposure-dependent Haling power distribution profiles is generated, utilizing the spectral shift concept. In step 2, a set of exposure-dependent control rod patterns is developed by using the Haling profiles generated at step 1 as a target. The new method is implemented in a computer program named OCTOPUS. The optimization procedure of OCTOPUS is based on the method of approximation programming, in which the SIMULATE-E code is used to determine the nucleonics characteristics of the reactor core state. In a test in cycle length over a time-invariant, target Haling power distribution case because of a moderate application of spectral shift. No thermal limits of the core were violated. The gain in cycle length could be increased further by broadening the extent of the spetral shift

  17. Development of Stepping Endurance Test Plan on CRDM of a Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, DongHyun; Kim, Hyeonil; Park, Suki [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Various types of the irradiation targets can be loaded and unloaded during power operation, according to the purpose of research reactor utilization. And their reactivity worth varies as well. The insertion rate of reactivity is dependent to reactivity worth of targets, travel length during loading or unloading and transfer device speed. Due to the reactivity transition during loading and unloading, neutron power is changed and reaches an action point of the reactor regulating system. Based on the measured neutron rate of change, reactor power control system controls the power with its own algorithm. It generates the signals and transmits these to the CRDM for motor driving. Stepping motors on the CRDM move the control rods with step signals. The process repeats until power is stabilized. Accordingly, the stepping behaviours of CRDM should be modelled upon an understanding of the control process and reactor responses. Methodology for a stepping endurance test plan on the CRDM of a research reactor is developed since CRDM endurance is very important for reactor controller and should be ensured for a certain period of time throughout the life of a research reactor. Therefore, it is expected to provide a reasonable stepping test plan. In the future, the simulation will be performed with specific design values.

  18. Development of a real time activity monitoring Android application utilizing SmartStep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Nagaraj; Melanson, Edward; Sazonov, Edward

    2016-08-01

    Footwear based activity monitoring systems are becoming popular in academic research as well as consumer industry segments. In our previous work, we had presented developmental aspects of an insole based activity and gait monitoring system-SmartStep, which is a socially acceptable, fully wireless and versatile insole. The present work describes the development of an Android application that captures the SmartStep data wirelessly over Bluetooth Low energy (BLE), computes features on the received data, runs activity classification algorithms and provides real time feedback. The development of activity classification methods was based on the the data from a human study involving 4 participants. Participants were asked to perform activities of sitting, standing, walking, and cycling while they wore SmartStep insole system. Multinomial Logistic Discrimination (MLD) was utilized in the development of machine learning model for activity prediction. The resulting classification model was implemented in an Android Smartphone. The Android application was benchmarked for power consumption and CPU loading. Leave one out cross validation resulted in average accuracy of 96.9% during model training phase. The Android application for real time activity classification was tested on a human subject wearing SmartStep resulting in testing accuracy of 95.4%.

  19. Two-step values for games with two-level communication structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Béal, Silvain; Khmelnitskaya, Anna Borisovna; Solal, Philippe

    TU games with two-level communication structure, in which a two-level communication structure relates fundamentally to the given coalition structure and consists of a communication graph on the collection of the a priori unions in the coalition structure, as well as a collection of communication

  20. Which type of leader do I support in step-level public good dilemmas? The roles of level of threshold and trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cremer, David

    2007-02-01

    The present research examined the moderating effect of the level of threshold on people's preferences for different leader types in step-level public good dilemmas. It was assumed that the primary focus of people in step-level public good dilemmas is to make sure that the group surpasses the threshold. Consequently, when the level of threshold is difficult to reach people are expected to provide more support for and cooperate with a leader that monitors and controls the contributions made toward the public good. However, if the threshold is easy to surpass people will focus more on whether the obtained public good or bonus will be distributed according to agreements, suggesting that people will provide more support to and cooperate with a leader that monitors and controls the distribution of the bonus. These predictions were confirmed across two experiments using a step-level public good paradigm with a dichotomous (Study 1) and a continuous (Study 2) contribution choice. Moreover, the results also revealed that perceptions of trust accounted, in part, for the effect of level of threshold on people's leadership preferences.

  1. Serum Bisphenol A Level in Boys with Cryptorchidism: A Step to Male Infertility?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Diana Komarowska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryptorchidism is the most common congenital birth defect in boys and affects about 2–4% full-term male neonates. Its etiology is multifactorial. Purpose. To evaluate the serum bisphenol A (BPA levels in boys with cryptorchidism and healthy boys and to assess the risk of environmental exposure to BPA using the authors’ questionnaire. The data were acquired from a study on boys with cryptorchidism (n=98 and a control group (n=57. Prior to surgery, all patients had BPA serum levels evaluated. The size, position, rigidity of the testis, and abnormality of the epididymis of the undescended testis were assessed. Parents also completed a questionnaire on the risks of exposure to BPA in everyday life. Results. The testes in both groups were similar in size. The turgor of the undescended testis in the group of boys with cryptorchidism was decreased. Free serum BPA level in cryptorchid boys and in the control group was not statistically significant (p>0.05. The conjugated serum BPA level in cryptorchid boys and in the control group was statistically significant (p≤0.05. Total serum BPA level in cryptorchid boys and in the control group was statistically significant (p<0.05. Serum total BPA level was related with a positive answer about problems with conception (p<0.02. Conclusion. Our study indicated that high serum BPA was associated with cryptorchidism.

  2. Modeling Item-Level and Step-Level Invariance Effects in Polytomous Items Using the Partial Credit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattamorta, Karina A.; Penfield, Randall D.; Myers, Nicholas D.

    2012-01-01

    Measurement invariance is a common consideration in the evaluation of the validity and fairness of test scores when the tested population contains distinct groups of examinees, such as examinees receiving different forms of a translated test. Measurement invariance in polytomous items has traditionally been evaluated at the item-level,…

  3. Stepped-wedge cluster randomised controlled trials: a generic framework including parallel and multiple-level designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemming, Karla; Lilford, Richard; Girling, Alan J

    2015-01-30

    Stepped-wedge cluster randomised trials (SW-CRTs) are being used with increasing frequency in health service evaluation. Conventionally, these studies are cross-sectional in design with equally spaced steps, with an equal number of clusters randomised at each step and data collected at each and every step. Here we introduce several variations on this design and consider implications for power. One modification we consider is the incomplete cross-sectional SW-CRT, where the number of clusters varies at each step or where at some steps, for example, implementation or transition periods, data are not collected. We show that the parallel CRT with staggered but balanced randomisation can be considered a special case of the incomplete SW-CRT. As too can the parallel CRT with baseline measures. And we extend these designs to allow for multiple layers of clustering, for example, wards within a hospital. Building on results for complete designs, power and detectable difference are derived using a Wald test and obtaining the variance-covariance matrix of the treatment effect assuming a generalised linear mixed model. These variations are illustrated by several real examples. We recommend that whilst the impact of transition periods on power is likely to be small, where they are a feature of the design they should be incorporated. We also show examples in which the power of a SW-CRT increases as the intra-cluster correlation (ICC) increases and demonstrate that the impact of the ICC is likely to be smaller in a SW-CRT compared with a parallel CRT, especially where there are multiple levels of clustering. Finally, through this unified framework, the efficiency of the SW-CRT and the parallel CRT can be compared. © 2014 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Wrong low level radioactive waste management in hospitals and improvement steps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keren, M.

    2000-01-01

    Hospitals are producers of great amounts of all kind of waste, including dangerous waste. The dangerous waste can be toxic, biological, radioactive, or a mixture of several kinds. There are clear procedures how to store and treat every kind of waste separately, according to its characteristics. Radioactive waste should be disposed only to a central radwaste disposal site. If the radioactive waste is mixed with biological waste, and contains long half-life isotopes, it should be neutralized from biological hazards before disposal to radwaste storage site. If the waste contains short half-life isotopes, it should be stored in a proper intermediate storage facility till a complete decay of the radioactive elements, and then treated as not radioactive. The existing procedures are old and a new proposal for radwaste procedures was prepared but not implemented. After several repetitive violations of the old regulations by some hospitals, it was decided to advance the implementation of the new proposal. This proposal consists of a detailed procedures for segregation, storage, decay and disposal of radwaste. It is based on the new recommendations of the IAEA. The responsibility for implementing the regulations is on the producers of the waste. This paper summarizes the violations and describes the main recommendations for improving procedures. The competent authority used moderate enforcement steps because of the delay in the implementation of the new procedures. As a matter of fact, the competent authority concluded that it's own investigation procedures should improve, but we shall not discuss it in this paper. (author)

  5. Developing a Step Wise Approach to Waste Management and Decommissioning at Sellafield Ltd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weston, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Developing a Step Wise Approach to Waste Management and Decommissioning at Sellafield Ltd: • Understand the challenge; • Understand preferred direction of travel; • Characterisation - enabling waste led decommissioning; • Engaging stakeholders; • Focus on the true drivers - alternative ILW approach; • Alternative ILW approach - simplification of waste handling process; • Manage future challenges; • Fit for purpose transport package for decommissioning wastes; • Risk based management framework

  6. Development of a One-Step Multiplex PCR Assay for Differential Detection of Major Mycobacterium Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Hansong; Han, Seung Jung; Kim, Su-Young; Ki, Chang-Seok; Huh, Hee Jae; Yong, Dongeun; Koh, Won-Jung; Shin, Sung Jae

    2017-09-01

    The prevalence of tuberculosis continues to be high, and nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infection has also emerged worldwide. Moreover, differential and accurate identification of mycobacteria to the species or subspecies level is an unmet clinical need. Here, we developed a one-step multiplex PCR assay using whole-genome analysis and bioinformatics to identify novel molecular targets. The aims of this assay were to (i) discriminate between the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and NTM using rv0577 or RD750, (ii) differentiate M. tuberculosis ( M. tuberculosis ) from MTBC using RD9, (iii) selectively identify the widespread M. tuberculosis Beijing genotype by targeting mtbk_20680 , and (iv) simultaneously detect five clinically important NTM ( M. avium , M. intracellulare , M. abscessus , M. massiliense , and M. kansasii ) by targeting IS 1311 , DT1, mass_3210 , and mkan_rs12360 An initial evaluation of the multiplex PCR assay using reference strains demonstrated 100% specificity for the targeted Mycobacterium species. Analytical sensitivity ranged from 1 to 10 pg for extracted DNA and was 10 3 and 10 4 CFU for pure cultures and nonhomogenized artificial sputum cultures, respectively, of the targeted species. The accuracy of the multiplex PCR assay was further evaluated using 55 reference strains and 94 mycobacterial clinical isolates. Spoligotyping, multilocus sequence analysis, and a commercial real-time PCR assay were employed as standard assays to evaluate the multiplex PCR assay with clinical M. tuberculosis and NTM isolates. The PCR assay displayed 100% identification agreement with the standard assays. Our multiplex PCR assay is a simple, convenient, and reliable technique for differential identification of MTBC, M. tuberculosis , M. tuberculosis Beijing genotype, and major NTM species. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  7. Initiation of movement from quiet stance: comparison of gait and stepping in elderly subjects of different levels of functional ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunt, Denis; Santos, Valeria; Kim, Hyeong Dong; Light, Kathye; Levy, Charles

    2005-04-01

    This study describes how elderly subjects initiate gait, and step from a position of quiet stance. Based on scores from selected standardized tests subjects were placed in either a high (HFL) or low functional level (LFL) group and were asked to initiate gait, step onto a 10 cm high, 1.22 m wide curb and step over a 10 cm high, 9 cm wide obstacle at a self paced speed. Stepping conditions affected the velocity of movement. It was clear that all subjects decreased initiation velocity for both curb and obstacle compared to gait initiation. Swing and stance limb acceleration ground reaction forces and EMG amplitude were modulated according to initiation velocity. Toe clearance was greater for obstacle than curb and gait initiation. Swing toe-off was significantly earlier and there was a trend for obstacle clearance to be greater for the HFL group. Those in the LFL group appear to be at a greater risk for falling due to the possible effect of slower rate of toe-off that could influence toe clearance over the obstacle.

  8. The defense waste processing facility: the final processing step for defense high-level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, S.P.; Sprecher, W.M.; Walton, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    The policy of the U.S. Department of Energy is to pursue an aggressive and credible waste management program that advocates final disposal of government generated (defense) high-level nuclear wastes in a manner consistent with environmental, health, and safety responsibilities and requirements. The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is an essential component of the Department's program. It is the first project undertaken in the United States to immobilize government generated high-level nuclear wastes for geologic disposal. The DWPF will be built at the Department's Savannah River Plant near Aiken, South Carolina. When construction is complete in 1989, the DWPF will begin processing the high-level waste at the Savannah River Plant into a borosilicate glass form, a highly insoluble and non-dispersable product, in easily handled canisters. The immobilized waste will be stored on site followed by transportation to and disposal in a Federal repository. The focus of this paper is on the DWPF. The paper discusses issues which justify the project, summarizes its technical attributes, analyzes relevant environmental and insitutional factors, describes the management approach followed in transforming technical and other concepts into concrete and steel, and concludes with observations about the future role of the facility

  9. Getting Ahead Three Steps to Take Your Career to the Next Level

    CERN Document Server

    Garfinkle, Joel A

    2011-01-01

    A leading executive coach pinpoints three vital traits necessary to advance your career In Getting Ahead, one of the top 50 executive coaches in the United States, Joel Garfinkle reveals his signature model for mastering three skills to take your career to the next level: Perception, Visibility, and Influence. The PVI-model of professional advancement will teach you to: (1) Actively promote yourself as an asset and valuable person inside the organization, (2) Increase your visibility to gain others' recognition and appreciation for your efforts and (3) Become a person of influence who makes ke

  10. Benchmark exercises on PWR level-1 PSA (step 3). Analyses of accident sequence and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niwa, Yuji; Takahashi, Hideaki.

    1996-01-01

    The results of level 1 PSA generate fluctuations due to the assumptions based on several engineering judgements set in the stages of PSA analysis. On the purpose of the investigation of uncertainties due to assumptions, three kinds of a standard problem, what we call benchmark exercise have been set. In this report, sensitivity studies (benchmark exercise) of sequence analyses are treated and conclusions are mentioned. The treatment of inter-system dependency would generate uncertainly of PSA. In addition, as a conclusion of the PSA benchmark exercise, several findings in the sequence analysis together with previous benchmark analyses in earlier INSS Journals are treated. (author)

  11. Steps in the design, development and formative evaluation of obesity prevention-related behavior change trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowski, Tom; Cerin, Ester; Baranowski, Janice

    2009-01-21

    Obesity prevention interventions through dietary and physical activity change have generally not been effective. Limitations on possible program effectiveness are herein identified at every step in the mediating variable model, a generic conceptual framework for understanding how interventions may promote behavior change. To minimize these problems, and thereby enhance likely intervention effectiveness, four sequential types of formative studies are proposed: targeted behavior validation, targeted mediator validation, intervention procedure validation, and pilot feasibility intervention. Implementing these studies would establish the relationships at each step in the mediating variable model, thereby maximizing the likelihood that an intervention would work and its effects would be detected. Building consensus among researchers, funding agencies, and journal editors on distinct intervention development studies should avoid identified limitations and move the field forward.

  12. Steps in the design, development and formative evaluation of obesity prevention-related behavior change trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baranowski Janice

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Obesity prevention interventions through dietary and physical activity change have generally not been effective. Limitations on possible program effectiveness are herein identified at every step in the mediating variable model, a generic conceptual framework for understanding how interventions may promote behavior change. To minimize these problems, and thereby enhance likely intervention effectiveness, four sequential types of formative studies are proposed: targeted behavior validation, targeted mediator validation, intervention procedure validation, and pilot feasibility intervention. Implementing these studies would establish the relationships at each step in the mediating variable model, thereby maximizing the likelihood that an intervention would work and its effects would be detected. Building consensus among researchers, funding agencies, and journal editors on distinct intervention development studies should avoid identified limitations and move the field forward.

  13. Culture and the sequence of steps in theory of mind development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahaeian, Ameneh; Peterson, Candida C; Slaughter, Virginia; Wellman, Henry M

    2011-09-01

    To examine cultural contrasts in the ordered sequence of conceptual developments leading to theory of mind (ToM), we compared 135 3- to 6-year-olds (77 Australians; 58 Iranians) on an established 5-step ToM scale (Wellman & Liu, 2004). There was a cross-cultural difference in the sequencing of ToM steps but not in overall rates of ToM mastery. In line with our predictions, the children from Iran conformed to a distinctive sequence previously observed only in children in China. In contrast to the case with children from Australia (and the United States), knowledge access was understood earlier than opinion diversity in children from Iran, consistent with this collectivist culture's emphasis on filial respect, dispute avoidance, and acquiring knowledge. Having a sibling was linked with faster overall ToM progress in Australia only and was not related to scale sequences in either culture.

  14. The guide-interpreters as a step for the durable touristic development

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan-Proux, Catherine; Université Blaise Pascal, Clermont Ferrant. Département Tourisme

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work is to verify how the roll of the guide-interpreters plays as a step for the durable development, permeating the hospitality notion. One of the goals of the true professionals of the reception is to turn the practice of the hospitality at the same time into universal and plural. After a general vision of the great principles of the tourist hospitality, we will observe the guides of mountain of the French Alps of the 19th century that played a special part for the fir...

  15. Developing Mathematics Problems Based on Pisa Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahibul Ahyan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to produce mathematics problems based on PISA level with valid and practical content of change and relationships and has potential effect for Junior High School students. A development research method developed by Akker, Gravemeijer, McKenney and Nieveen is used this research. In the first stage, the researcher analyzed students, algebra material in school-based curricula (KTSP and mathematics problems of PISA 2003 of change and relationships content. The second stage, the researcher designed 13 problems with content of change and relationships. The last, the researcher used formative evaluation design developed by Tessmer which includes self evaluation, one-to-one, expert review, small group, and field test. The data collect by walk through, interview, and questionnaire. The result of this research indicated that 12 mathematical problems based on PISA level of change and relationships content that developed have validity, practically, and potential effects for Junior High School students.

  16. Developing Boundary/PMI Solutions for Next-Step Fusion Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, H. Y.; Leonard, A. W.; Thomas, D. M.; Allen, S. L.; Hill, D. N.; Unterberg, Z.

    2014-10-01

    The path towards next-step fusion development requires increased emphasis on the boundary/plasma-material interface. The new DIII-D Boundary/Plasma-Material Interactions (PMI) Center has been established to address these critical issues on a timescale relevant to the design of FNSF, adopting the following transformational approaches: (1) Develop and test advanced divertor configurations on DIII-D compatible with core plasma high performance operational scenarios in FNSF; (2) Validate candidate reactor PFC materials at reactor-relevant temperatures in DIII-D high-performance plasmas, in collaboration with the broad material research/development community; (3) Integrate validated boundary-materials interface with high performance plasmas to provide viable boundary/PMI solutions for next-step fusion devices. This program leverages unique DIII-D capabilities, promotes synergistic programs within the broad PMI community, including linear material research facilities. It will also enable us to build a compelling bridge for the US research on long-pulse facilities. Work supported by the US DOE under DE-FC02-04ER54698 and DE-AC52-07NA27344, DE-AC05-00OR2725.

  17. Developing and Testing Twelve-Step Facilitation for Adolescents with Substance Use Disorder: Manual Development and Preliminary Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F. Kelly

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent substance use disorder treatment programs are often based on the 12-step philosophy of Alcoholics Anonymous and/or link adolescents to these free resources. Despite this, no studies have developed and rigorously tested a twelve-step facilitation (TSF intervention for young people, leaving a significant evidence gap. This study describes the first systematic development of an outpatient adolescent TSF treatment. An integrated twelve-step facilitation (iTSF treatment incorporated TSF, motivational enhancement therapy, and cognitive behavioral therapy elements and was developed in an iterative manner with weekly feedback provided by 36 adolescents ( M age 17 years [SD = 1.4]; 52.8% white with DSM-IV substance use disorder recruited from the community. Assessments were conducted at baseline and at three and six months. Participants completed 6 of 10 sessions on average (8 participants completed all 10. Notable treatment developments were the inclusion of “in-services” led by Marijuana Anonymous members, including parents in a portion of individual sessions to provide a rationale for TSF, and use of a Socratic therapeutic interaction style. Acceptability and feasibility of the treatment were excellent (treatment satisfaction was 4.29 [SD = 0.59] out of 5. In keeping with TSF theory, the intervention substantially increased 12-step participation, and greater participation related to greater abstinence. iTSF is a replicable manualized treatment that can be implemented and tested in outpatient settings. Given the widespread compatibility of iTSF with the current adolescent treatment, if found efficacious, iTSF could be relatively easily adopted, implemented, and sustained and could provide an evidence-based option that could undergird current practice.

  18. Developing State Level Approaches under the State Level Concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budlong Sylvester, K.; Murphy, C.L.; Boyer, B.; Pilat, J.F.

    2015-01-01

    With the pursuit of the State-Level Concept (SLC), the IAEA has sought to further evolve the international safeguards system in a manner which maintains (or improves) the effectiveness of the system in an environment of expanding demands and limited resources. The IAEA must not remain static and should continuously examine its practices to ensure it can capture opportunities for cost reductions while adapting to, and staying ahead of, emerging proliferation challenges. Contemporary safeguards have been focused on assessing the nuclear programme of the State as a whole, rather than on the basis of individual facilities. Since the IAEA's integrated safeguards program, State-level Approaches (SLAs) have been developed that seek to optimally combine the measures provided for by the Additional Protocol with those of traditional safeguards. This process resulted in facility specific approaches that, while making use of a State's broader conclusion, were nonetheless prescriptive. Designing SLAs on a State-by-State basis would avoid the shortcomings of a one-size-fits-all system. It would also enable the effective use of the Agency's information analysis and State evaluation efforts by linking this analysis to safeguards planning efforts. Acquisition Path Analysis (APA), along with the State Evaluation process, can be used to prioritize paths in a State in terms of their attractiveness for proliferation. While taking advantage of all safeguards relevant information, and tailoring safeguards to individual characteristics of the State, paths of the highest priority in all States will necessarily meet the same standard of coverage. Similarly, lower priority paths will have lower performance targets, thereby promoting nondiscrimination. Such an approach would improve understanding of safeguards implementation under the SLC and the rational for safeguards resource allocation. The potential roles for APA and performance targets in SLA development will be reviewed

  19. The main steps of the Romanian nuclear power program development - Accumulated experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirica, T.; Popescu, D.; Condu, M.; Vatamanu, M.

    1998-01-01

    The paper presents a historical summary of the Romanian Nuclear Power Program development, providing details for the main criteria and principles the Program was based upon, the contracts signed with the foreign partners to implement it, and the national participation (site contractors, suppliers and design organizations). The effect of the equipment assimilation program on the NPP Cernavoda (5x700 MWe) and especially on Unit 1 schedule and performance is analyzed. Further on the impact of the transition from centralized to a market economy over the Romanian Nuclear Power Program development is analyzed, providing information's on its actual status and perspectives for the next 20 years. A description of the NPP Cernavoda Unit 1 actual progress and of the main steps performed by RENEL to get finance to complete NPP Cernavoda Unit 2 is included. Finally there is summarized the accumulated experience, and its feed back on RENEL strategy to complete NPP Cernavoda Unit 2. (author)

  20. Development of a membrane adsorber based capture step for the purification of yellow fever virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pato, Tânia P; Souza, Marta Cristina O; Silva, Andréa N M R; Pereira, Renata C; Silva, Marlon V; Caride, Elena; Gaspar, Luciane P; Freire, Marcos S; Castilho, Leda R

    2014-05-19

    Yellow fever (YF) is an endemic disease in some tropical areas of South America and Africa that presents lethality rate between 20 and 50%. There is no specific treatment and to control this disease a highly effective live-attenuated egg based vaccine is widely used for travelers and residents of areas where YF is endemic. However, recent reports of rare, sometimes fatal, adverse events post-vaccination have raised concerns. In order to increase safety records, alternative strategies should be considered, such as developing a new inactivated vaccine using a cell culture based technology, capable of meeting the demands in cases of epidemic. With this goal, the production of YF virus in Vero cells grown on microcarriers and its subsequent purification by chromatographic techniques was studied. In this work we investigate the capture step of the purification process of the YF virus. At first, virus stability was studied over a wide pH range, showing best results for the alkaline region. Considering this result and the pI of the envelope protein previously determined in silico, a strong anion exchanger was considered most suitable. Due to the easy scalability, simplicity to handle, absence of diffusional limitations and suitability for virus handling of membrane adsorbers, a Q membrane was evaluated. The amount of antigen adsorbed onto the membrane was investigated within the pH range for virus stability, and the best pH for virus adsorption was considered to be 8.5. Finally, studies on gradient and step elution allowed to determine the most adequate salt concentration for washing (0.15M) and virus elution (0.30 M). Under these operating conditions, it was shown that this capture step is quite efficient, showing high product recovery (93.2±30.3%) and efficient DNA clearance (0.9±0.3 ng/dose). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Next-Step Spherical Torus Experiment and Spherical Torus Strategy in the Fusion Energy Development Path

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, M.; Peng, M.; Kessel, C.; Neumeyer, C.; Schmidt, J.; Chrzanowski, J.; Darrow, D.; Grisham, L.; Heitzenroeder, P.; Jarboe, T.; Jun, C.; Kaye, S.; Menard, J.; Raman, R.; Stevenson, T.; Viola, M.; Wilson, J.; Woolley, R.; Zatz, I.

    2003-01-01

    A spherical torus (ST) fusion energy development path which is complementary to proposed tokamak burning plasma experiments such as ITER is described. The ST strategy focuses on a compact Component Test Facility (CTF) and higher performance advanced regimes leading to more attractive DEMO and Power Plant scale reactors. To provide the physics basis for the CTF an intermediate step needs to be taken which we refer to as the ''Next Step Spherical Torus'' (NSST) device and examine in some detail herein. NSST is a ''performance extension'' (PE) stage ST with the plasma current of 5-10 MA, R = 1.5 m, and Beta(sub)T less than or equal to 2.7 T with flexible physics capability. The mission of NSST is to: (1) provide a sufficient physics basis for the design of CTF, (2) explore advanced operating scenarios with high bootstrap current fraction/high performance regimes, which can then be utilized by CTF, DEMO, and Power Plants, and (3) contribute to the general plasma/fusion science of high beta toroidal plasmas. The NSST facility is designed to utilize the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (or similar) site to minimize the cost and time required for the design and construction

  2. Contributions of dopamine-related genes and environmental factors to highly sensitive personality: a multi-step neuronal system-level approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhui Chen

    Full Text Available Traditional behavioral genetic studies (e.g., twin, adoption studies have shown that human personality has moderate to high heritability, but recent molecular behavioral genetic studies have failed to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL with consistent effects. The current study adopted a multi-step approach (ANOVA followed by multiple regression and permutation to assess the cumulative effects of multiple QTLs. Using a system-level (dopamine system genetic approach, we investigated a personality trait deeply rooted in the nervous system (the Highly Sensitive Personality, HSP. 480 healthy Chinese college students were given the HSP scale and genotyped for 98 representative polymorphisms in all major dopamine neurotransmitter genes. In addition, two environment factors (stressful life events and parental warmth that have been implicated for their contributions to personality development were included to investigate their relative contributions as compared to genetic factors. In Step 1, using ANOVA, we identified 10 polymorphisms that made statistically significant contributions to HSP. In Step 2, these polymorphism's main effects and interactions were assessed using multiple regression. This model accounted for 15% of the variance of HSP (p<0.001. Recent stressful life events accounted for an additional 2% of the variance. Finally, permutation analyses ascertained the probability of obtaining these findings by chance to be very low, p ranging from 0.001 to 0.006. Dividing these loci by the subsystems of dopamine synthesis, degradation/transport, receptor and modulation, we found that the modulation and receptor subsystems made the most significant contribution to HSP. The results of this study demonstrate the utility of a multi-step neuronal system-level approach in assessing genetic contributions to individual differences in human behavior. It can potentially bridge the gap between the high heritability estimates based on traditional

  3. Development of a three dimensional circulation model based on fractional step method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazen Abualtayef

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A numerical model was developed for simulating a three-dimensional multilayer hydrodynamic and thermodynamic model in domains with irregular bottom topography. The model was designed for examining the interactions between flow and topography. The model was based on the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations and was solved using the fractional step method, which combines the finite difference method in the horizontal plane and the finite element method in the vertical plane. The numerical techniques were described and the model test and application were presented. For the model application to the northern part of Ariake Sea, the hydrodynamic and thermodynamic results were predicted. The numerically predicted amplitudes and phase angles were well consistent with the field observations.

  4. Integrated concept development of next-step helical-axis advanced stellarators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warmer, Felix

    2016-04-13

    With the increasing energy demand of mankind and the transformation of our society towards sustainability, nuclear fusion by magnetic confinement is a promising option for the sustainable electricity supply in the future. In view of these prospects this thesis focuses on the concept development of next-step helical-axis advanced stellarator (HELIAS) burning-plasma devices. The HELIAS-line is the continued development of the prototype optimised stellarator Wendelstein 7-X which started operation in 2015. For the integrated concept development of such devices, the approach taken in this work encompasses detailed physics and engineering considerations while also including economic aspects. Starting with physics considerations, the properties of plasma transport and confinement of 3D stellarator configurations are discussed due to their critical importance for the device design. It becomes clear that current empirical confinement time scalings are not sufficient to predict the confinement in future stellarator devices. Therefore, detailed 1D transport simulations are carried out to reduce the uncertainties regarding confinement. Beyond the well-validated neoclassical approach, first attempts are made to include results from state-of-the-art turbulence simulations into the 1D transport simulations to further enhance the predictive capabilities. Next, for the systematic development of consistent design points, stellarator-specific models are developed and implemented in the well-established European systems code PROCESS. This allows a consistent description of an entire HELIAS fusion power plant including physics, engineering, and economic considerations. With the confidence obtained from a verification study, systems studies are for the first time applied for a HELIAS power-plant which shows that the available design window is constrained by the beta-limit. Furthermore, an economic comparison of an exemplary design point to an ''equivalent'' tokamak

  5. Incentivising innovation in antibiotic drug discovery and development: progress, challenges and next steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpkin, Victoria L; Renwick, Matthew J; Kelly, Ruth; Mossialos, Elias

    2017-12-01

    Political momentum and funding for combatting antimicrobial resistance (AMR) continues to build. Numerous major international and national initiatives aimed at financially incentivising the research and development (R&D) of antibiotics have been implemented. However, it remains unclear how to effectively strengthen the current set of incentive programmes to further accelerate antibiotic innovation. Based on a literature review and expert input, this study first identifies and assesses the major international, European Union, US and UK antibiotic R&D funding programmes. These programmes are then evaluated across market and public health criteria necessary for comprehensively improving the antibiotic market. The current set of incentive programmes are an important initial step to improving the economic feasibility of antibiotic development. However, there appears to be a lack of global coordination across all initiatives, which risks duplicating efforts, leaving funding gaps in the value chain and overlooking important AMR goals. This study finds that incentive programmes are overly committed to early-stage push funding of basic science and preclinical research, while there is limited late-stage push funding of clinical development. Moreover, there are almost no pull incentives to facilitate transition of antibiotic products from early clinical phases to commercialisation, focus developer concentration on the highest priority antibiotics and attract large pharmaceutical companies to invest in the market. Finally, it seems that antibiotic sustainability and patient access requirements are poorly integrated into the array of incentive mechanisms.

  6. Steps towards the development of a certification system for sustainable Bio-energy trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faaij, A.; Lewandoski, I.

    2004-07-01

    It is expected that international biomass trade will significantly increase in the coming years because of the possibly lower costs of imported biomass, the better supply security through diversification and the support by energy and climate policies of various countries. Concerns about potential negative effects of large scale biomass production and export, like deforestation or the competition between food and biomass production, have led to the demand for sustainability criteria and certification systems that can control biomass trade. Because neither such criteria and indicator sets nor certification systems for sustainable biomass trade are yet available the objective of this study is to generate information that can help to develop them. For this purposes existing certification systems, sets of sustainability criteria or guidelines on environmental or social sound management of resources are analyzed with the purpose to learn about the requirements, contents and organizational set ups of a certification system for sustainable biomass trade. First an inventory of existing systems was made; next, their structures were analyzed. Key finding from the analysis of internationally applied certification systems was that they are generally led by an international panel that represents all countries and stakeholder involved in the biomass production and trade activities. In a third and fourth step different approaches to formulate standards were described and a list of more than 100 social, economic, ecological and general criteria for sustainable biomass trade was extracted from the reviewed systems. In step five, methods to formulate indicators, that make sustainability criteria measurable, and verification tools that are used to control the performance of indicators are described. It is recommended to further develop the criteria and indicator (C and I) sets for sustainable biomass trade by involvement of the relevant stakeholder (e.g. biomass producer and consumer

  7. Development of high-level waste solidification technology 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Joon Hyung; Kim, Hwan Young; Kim, In Tae [and others

    1999-02-01

    Spent nuclear fuel contains useful nuclides as valuable resource materials for energy, heat and catalyst. High-level wastes (HLW) are expected to be generated from the R and D activities and reuse processes. It is necessary to develop vitrification or advanced solidification technologies for the safe long-term management of high level wastes. As a first step to establish HLW vitrification technology, characterization of HLWs that would arise at KAERI site, glass melting experiments with a lab-scale high frequency induction melter, and fabrication and property evaluation of base-glass made of used HEPA filter media and additives were performed. Basic study on the fabrication and characterization of candidate ceramic waste form (Synroc) was also carried out. These HLW solidification technologies would be directly useful for carrying out the R and Ds on the nuclear fuel cycle and waste management. (author). 70 refs., 29 tabs., 35 figs.

  8. Glucose is required to maintain high ATP-levels for the energy utilizing steps during PDT-induced apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberdanner, C.; Plaetzer, K.; Kiesslich, T.; Krammer, B.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) may trigger apoptosis or necrosis in cancer cells. Several steps in the induction and execution of apoptosis require high amounts of adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP). Since the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ) decreases early in apoptosis, we raised the question about the mechanisms of maintaining a sufficiently high ATP-level. We therefore monitored ΔΨ and the intracellular ATP-level of apoptotic human epidermoid carcinoma cells (A431) after photodynamic treatment with aluminium (III) phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate chloride. A maximum of caspase-3 activation and nuclear fragmentation was found at fluences of about 4 J.cm -2 . Under these conditions apoptotic cells reduced ΔΨ rapidly, while the ATP-level remained high for 4 to 6 hours after treatment for cells supplied with glucose. To analyze the contribution of glycolysis to the energy supply during apoptosis experiments were carried out with cells deprivated of glucose. These cells showed a rapid drop of ATP-content and neither caspase-activation nor nuclear fragmentation could be detected. We conclude that the use of glucose as a source of ATP is obligatory for the execution of PDT-induced apoptosis. (author)

  9. The ATP hydrolysis and phosphate release steps control the time course of force development in rabbit skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep, John; Irving, Malcolm; Burton, Kevin

    2005-03-15

    The time course of isometric force development following photolytic release of ATP in the presence of Ca(2+) was characterized in single skinned fibres from rabbit psoas muscle. Pre-photolysis force was minimized using apyrase to remove contaminating ATP and ADP. After the initial force rise induced by ATP release, a rapid shortening ramp terminated by a step stretch to the original length was imposed, and the time course of the subsequent force redevelopment was again characterized. Force development after ATP release was accurately described by a lag phase followed by one or two exponential components. At 20 degrees C, the lag was 5.6 +/- 0.4 ms (s.e.m., n = 11), and the force rise was well fitted by a single exponential with rate constant 71 +/- 4 s(-1). Force redevelopment after shortening-restretch began from about half the plateau force level, and its single-exponential rate constant was 68 +/- 3 s(-1), very similar to that following ATP release. When fibres were activated by the addition of Ca(2+) in ATP-containing solution, force developed more slowly, and the rate constant for force redevelopment following shortening-restretch reached a maximum value of 38 +/- 4 s(-1) (n = 6) after about 6 s of activation. This lower value may be associated with progressive sarcomere disorder at elevated temperature. Force development following ATP release was much slower at 5 degrees C than at 20 degrees C. The rate constant of a single-exponential fit to the force rise was 4.3 +/- 0.4 s(-1) (n = 22), and this was again similar to that after shortening-restretch in the same activation at this temperature, 3.8 +/- 0.2 s(-1). We conclude that force development after ATP release and shortening-restretch are controlled by the same steps in the actin-myosin ATPase cycle. The present results and much previous work on mechanical-chemical coupling in muscle can be explained by a kinetic scheme in which force is generated by a rapid conformational change bracketed by two

  10. Design innovations of the next-step spherical torus experiment and spherical torus development path

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, M.; Kessel, C.; Peng, M.

    2003-01-01

    The spherical torus (ST) fusion energy development path is complementary to the tokamak burning plasma experiment such as ITER as it focuses toward the compact Component Test Facility (CTF) and higher toroidal beta regimes to improve the design of DEMO and a Power Plant. To support the ST development path, one option of a Next Step Spherical Torus (NSST) device is examined. NSST is a 'performance extension' (PE) stage ST with a plasma current of 5 - 10 MA, R = 1.5, B T ≤ 2.7 T with flexible physics capability to 1) Provide a sufficient physics basis for the design of the CTF, 2) Explore advanced operating scenarios with high bootstrap current fraction/high performance regimes, which can then be utilized by CTF, DEMO, and Power Plants, 3) Contribute to the general plasma/fusion science of high β toroidal plasmas. The NSST facility is designed to utilize the TFTR site to minimize the cost and time required for the construction. (author)

  11. Development of real time diagnostics and feedback algorithms for JET in view of the next step

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murari, A.; Felton, R.; Zabeo, L.; Piccolo, F.; Sartori, F.; Murari, A.; Barana, O.; Albanese, R.; Joffrin, E.; Mazon, D.; Laborde, L.; Moreau, D.; Arena, P.; Bruno, M.; Ambrosino, G.; Ariola, M.; Crisanti, F.; Luna, E. de la; Sanchez, J.

    2004-01-01

    Real time control of many plasma parameters will be an essential aspect in the development of reliable high performance operation of Next Step Tokamaks. The main prerequisites for any feedback scheme are the precise real-time determination of the quantities to be controlled, requiring top quality and highly reliable diagnostics, and the availability of robust control algorithms. A new set of real time diagnostics was recently implemented on JET to prove the feasibility of determining, with high accuracy and time resolution, the most important plasma quantities. With regard to feedback algorithms, new model-based controllers were developed to allow a more robust control of several plasma parameters. Both diagnostics and algorithms were successfully used in several experiments, ranging from H-mode plasmas to configuration with internal transport barriers. Since elaboration of computationally heavy measurements is often required, significant attention was devoted to non-algorithmic methods like Digital or Cellular Neural/Nonlinear Networks. The real time hardware and software adopted architectures are also described with particular attention to their relevance to ITER. (authors)

  12. Development of real time diagnostics and feedback algorithms for JET in view of the next step

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murari, A.; Barana, O.; Murari, A.; Felton, R.; Zabeo, L.; Piccolo, F.; Sartori, F.; Joffrin, E.; Mazon, D.; Laborde, L.; Moreau, D.; Albanese, R.; Arena, P.; Bruno, M.; Ambrosino, G.; Ariola, M.; Crisanti, F.; Luna, E. de la; Sanchez, J.

    2004-01-01

    Real time control of many plasma parameters will be an essential aspect in the development of reliable high performance operation of Next Step Tokamaks. The main prerequisites for any feedback scheme are the precise real-time determination of the quantities to be controlled, requiring top quality and highly reliable diagnostics, and the availability of robust control algorithms. A new set of real time diagnostics was recently implemented on JET to prove the feasibility of determining, with high accuracy and time resolution, the most important plasma quantities. With regard to feedback algorithms, new model-based controllers were developed to allow a more robust control of several plasma parameters. Both diagnostics and algorithms were successfully used in several experiments, ranging from H-mode plasmas to configuration with ITBs (internal thermal barriers). Since elaboration of computationally heavy measurements is often required, significant attention was devoted to non-algorithmic methods like Digital or Cellular Neural/Nonlinear Networks. The real time hardware and software adopted architectures are also described with particular attention to their relevance to ITER. (authors)

  13. Development of real time diagnostics and feedback algorithms for JET in view of the next step

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murari, A.; Barana, O. [Consorzio RFX Associazione EURATOM ENEA per la Fusione, Corso Stati Uniti 4, Padua (Italy); Felton, R.; Zabeo, L.; Piccolo, F.; Sartori, F. [Euratom/UKAEA Fusion Assoc., Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon (United Kingdom); Joffrin, E.; Mazon, D.; Laborde, L.; Moreau, D. [Association EURATOM-CEA, CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Albanese, R. [Assoc. Euratom-ENEA-CREATE, Univ. Mediterranea RC (Italy); Arena, P.; Bruno, M. [Assoc. Euratom-ENEA-CREATE, Univ.di Catania (Italy); Ambrosino, G.; Ariola, M. [Assoc. Euratom-ENEA-CREATE, Univ. Napoli Federico Napoli (Italy); Crisanti, F. [Associazone EURATOM ENEA sulla Fusione, C.R. Frascati (Italy); Luna, E. de la; Sanchez, J. [Associacion EURATOM CIEMAT para Fusion, Madrid (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    Real time control of many plasma parameters will be an essential aspect in the development of reliable high performance operation of Next Step Tokamaks. The main prerequisites for any feedback scheme are the precise real-time determination of the quantities to be controlled, requiring top quality and highly reliable diagnostics, and the availability of robust control algorithms. A new set of real time diagnostics was recently implemented on JET to prove the feasibility of determining, with high accuracy and time resolution, the most important plasma quantities. With regard to feedback algorithms, new model-based controllers were developed to allow a more robust control of several plasma parameters. Both diagnostics and algorithms were successfully used in several experiments, ranging from H-mode plasmas to configuration with ITBs (internal thermal barriers). Since elaboration of computationally heavy measurements is often required, significant attention was devoted to non-algorithmic methods like Digital or Cellular Neural/Nonlinear Networks. The real time hardware and software adopted architectures are also described with particular attention to their relevance to ITER. (authors)

  14. The level of emotional intelligence for patients with bronchial asthma and a group psychotherapy plan in 7 steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropoteanu, Andreea-Corina

    2011-01-01

    Strong emotions, either positive or negative, as well as vulnerability to stress are often major factors in triggering, maintaining and emphasizing the symptoms of bronchial asthma. On a group of 99 patients suffering from moderately and severely persistent allergic bronchial asthma for more than 2 years, I applied a situational test of emotional intelligence, the NEO PI-R personality test provided by D&D Consultants and I also elaborated a psychosocial test form of asthma by which I evaluated the frequency of physical symptoms, the intensity of negative emotional symptoms arisen during or subsequent to the crisis and the level of the patients' quality of life. I have presumed first that if the level of the emotional intelligence grew, this fact would have a significant positive influence on controlling the negative emotional symptoms arisen during or subsequent to the crisis and on patients' quality of life. This was invalidated, the correlations between the mentioned variables being insignificant. Secondly, I have presumed the existence of positive significant correlations between the emotional intelligence coefficient and the personality dimensions: extraversion, openness, conscientiousness and a negative significant correlation between the emotional intelligence coefficient and the dimension neuroticism. This presumption was totally confirmed. Finally, we proposed a group psychotherapy plan in 7 steps for asthmatic patients that has as main objectives to improve symptoms and therefore the patients' quality of life.

  15. Application of Displacement Height and Surface Roughness Length to Determination Boundary Layer Development Length over Stepped Spillway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangju Cheng

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most uncertain parameters in stepped spillway design is the length (from the crest of boundary layer development. The normal velocity profiles responding to the steps as bed roughness are investigated in the developing non-aerated flow region. A detailed analysis of the logarithmic vertical velocity profiles on stepped spillways is conducted through experimental data to verify the computational code and numerical experiments to expand the data available. To determine development length, the hydraulic roughness and displacement thickness, along with the shear velocity, are needed. This includes determining displacement height d and surface roughness length z0 and the relationship of d and z0 to the step geometry. The results show that the hydraulic roughness height ks is the primary factor on which d and z0 depend. In different step height, step width, discharge and intake Froude number, the relations d/ks = 0.22–0.27, z0/ks = 0.06–0.1 and d/z0 = 2.2–4 result in a good estimate. Using the computational code and numerical experiments, air inception will occur over stepped spillway flow as long as the Bauer-defined boundary layer thickness is between 0.72 and 0.79.

  16. Development of level 2 PSA technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Ha; Park, Soo Yong; Kim, See Darl; Song, Yong Mann; Ahn, Kwang Il; Park, Jae Wu; Jin, Young Ho.

    1997-07-01

    The objective of this project is the development of the computer code system for level 2 probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) of nuclear power plants. The scope of the project can be divided into three areas. The first area is to develop the computer code (CONPAS) which can quantify the accident progression event trees. CONPAS beta version has been developed this year and it is comprised of four modules : 1) EDITOR for generating the event tree logic diagrams and 1) COMPUTER for event tree quantification and for additional use of the calculated results. 3) TEXT EDITOR and 4) CODE PLOTTER. Comparing with the existing computer code, the present code provides a flexible code reusability and user interface, convenient edition of logic diagram, data operation, and systematic quantification of the results. The methodology development of containment structural analysis is the second area. The specific tasks included the collection and analysis of the containment failure modes for the various containment types, and the methodology establishment for the containment structure analysis. Over twenty large dry PWR containments, the database for containment failure mode and pressure has been constructed and the simplified fragility model has been proposed to calculate the containment failure probability. They will be used as an important input not only in the containment analysis but also in the source term analysis. For the last, source term analyzing methodology and its applied computer code that is named as 'KORSOR' are developed. KORSOR which used parametric model approach combined modules which consist of accident sequence input module via user's logic rule, random sample generating module, parametric database module, and source term uncertainty quantification module. The characteristics of parametric data which use din the source term analyzing model is analyzed and the constructing idea and example for the parametric database is suggested. (author). 67 refs., 66 tabs

  17. Development of a Ground Test and Analysis Protocol for NASA's NextSTEP Phase 2 Habitation Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernhardt, Michael L.; Beaton, Kara H.; Chappell, Steven P.; Bekdash, Omar S.; Abercromby, Andrew F. J.

    2018-01-01

    The NASA Next Space Technologies for Exploration Partnerships (NextSTEP) program is a public-private partnership model that seeks commercial development of deep space exploration capabilities to support human spaceflight missions around and beyond cislunar space. NASA first issued the Phase 1 NextSTEP Broad Agency Announcement to U.S. industries in 2014, which called for innovative cislunar habitation concepts that leveraged commercialization plans for low-Earth orbit. These habitats will be part of the Deep Space Gateway (DSG), the cislunar space station planned by NASA for construction in the 2020s. In 2016, Phase 2 of the NextSTEP program selected five commercial partners to develop ground prototypes. A team of NASA research engineers and subject matter experts (SMEs) have been tasked with developing the ground-test protocol that will serve as the primary means by which these Phase 2 prototypes will be evaluated. Since 2008, this core test team has successfully conducted multiple spaceflight analog mission evaluations utilizing a consistent set of operational tools, methods, and metrics to enable the iterative development, testing, analysis, and validation of evolving exploration architectures, operations concepts, and vehicle designs. The purpose of implementing a similar evaluation process for the Phase 2 Habitation Concepts is to consistently evaluate different commercial partner ground prototypes to provide data-driven, actionable recommendations for Phase 3. This paper describes the process by which the ground test protocol was developed and the objectives, methods, and metrics by which the NextSTEP Phase 2 Habitation Concepts will be rigorously and systematically evaluated. The protocol has been developed using both a top-down and bottom-up approach. Top-down development began with the Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD) exploration objectives and ISS Exploration Capability Study Team (IECST) candidate flight objectives. Strategic

  18. Development of digital low level rf system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michizono, Shinichiro; Anami, Shozo; Katagiri, Hiroaki; Fang, Zhigao; Matsumoto, Toshihiro; Miura, Takako; Yano, Yoshiharu; Yamaguchi, Seiya; Kobayashi, Tetsuya

    2008-01-01

    One of the biggest advantages of the digital low level rf (LLRF) system is its flexibility. Owing to the recent rapid progress in digital devices (such as ADCs and DACs) and telecommunication devices (mixers and IQ modulators), digital LLRF system becomes popular in these 10 years. The J-PARC linac LLRF system adopted cPCI crates and FPGA based digital feedback system. Since the LLRF control of the normal conducting cavities are more difficult than super conducting cavities due to its lower Q values, fast processing using the FPGA was the essential to the feedback control. After the successful operation of J-PARC linac LLRF system, we developed the STF (ILC test facility in KEK) LLRF system. Since the klystron drives eight cavities in STF phase 1, we modified the FPGA board. Basic configuration and the performances of these systems are summarized. The future R and D projects (ILC and ERL) is also described from the viewpoints of LLRF. (author)

  19. A tomographic particle image velocimetry investigation of the flow development over dual step cylinders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morton, C., E-mail: chris.morton@ucalgary.ca [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Calgary, 2500 University Dr NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada); Yarusevych, S. [Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave W, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Scarano, F. [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Delft University of Technology, 2628 Delft (Netherlands)

    2016-02-15

    This experimental study focuses on the near wake development of a dual step cylinder geometry consisting of a long base cylinder of diameter d to which a larger diameter (D) cylinder of length L is attached coaxially at mid-span. The experiments cover a range of Reynolds numbers, 2000 ≤ Re{sub D} ≤ 5000, diameter ratios, 1.33 ≤ D/d ≤ 2.0 and large cylinder aspect ratios, 0.5 ≤ L/D ≤ 5 using Tomographic particle image velocimetry. Distinct changes in wake topology are observed varying the above parameters. Supporting previous experimental studies on the same geometry involving flow visualization and planar measurements, four distinct flow regimes are identified to which a distinct three-dimensional wake topology can be associated. The vortex-dominated wake dynamical behaviour is investigated with Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) and conditional averaging of three-dimensional velocity fields is used to exemplify the different shedding regimes. The conditionally averaged flow fields are shown to quantitatively resolve flow features equivalent to those obtained from a reduced order model consisting of the first ten to twenty POD modes, identifying the dominant vortex shedding cells and their interactions.

  20. A six step approach for developing computer based assessment in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanien, Mohammed Ahmed; Al-Hayani, Abdulmoneam; Abu-Kamer, Rasha; Almazrooa, Adnan

    2013-01-01

    Assessment, which entails the systematic evaluation of student learning, is an integral part of any educational process. Computer-based assessment (CBA) techniques provide a valuable resource to students seeking to evaluate their academic progress through instantaneous, personalized feedback. CBA reduces examination, grading and reviewing workloads and facilitates training. This paper describes a six step approach for developing CBA in higher education and evaluates student perceptions of computer-based summative assessment at the College of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University. A set of questionnaires were distributed to 341 third year medical students (161 female and 180 male) immediately after examinations in order to assess the adequacy of the system for the exam program. The respondents expressed high satisfaction with the first Saudi experience of CBA for final examinations. However, about 50% of them preferred the use of a pilot CBA before its formal application; hence, many did not recommend its use for future examinations. Both male and female respondents reported that the range of advantages offered by CBA outweighed any disadvantages. Further studies are required to monitor the extended employment of CBA technology for larger classes and for a variety of subjects at universities.

  1. Development of frequency step tunable 1 MW gyrotron at 131 to 146.5 GHz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samartsev, A.; Gantenbein, G.; Dammertz, G.; Illy, S.; Kern, S.; Leonhardt, W.; Schlaich, A.; Schmid, M.; Thumm, M., E-mail: andrey.samartsev@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Association EURATOM-KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Effective control of power absorption in tokamaks and stellarators could be achieved by the frequency tuning of ECH and CD power delivered by high-power gyrotrons. In this report some results of the development of a frequency tunable gyrotron with fused-silica Brewster window are presented. Excitation of several modes at 1 MW power level in the range of frequencies from 131 to 146.5 GHz is achieved. (author)

  2. What is the impact of altitude on energy demand? A step towards developing specialized energy policy for mountainous areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsoulakos, Nikolas M.; Kaliampakos, Dimitris C.

    2014-01-01

    Specific strategies for the energy sector should be a central part of a sustainable mountain policy. However, there is a lack of research on the energy issues of mountainous areas and specialized energy policy measures cannot be effectively supported. The determination of the energy demand in mountainous areas, which is an essential step in the direction of developing mountain energy policy, is analyzed in this paper. Greece has been selected as a case study. The results show that altitude is the decisive factor affecting degree-days and energy needs, within the geographical range of Greece. It is proved that the thermal, as well as the total energy demand are significantly increased in mountain settlements. The annual energy expenditure of a typical residence lying at an altitude of 1000 m proved to be 85% higher than the corresponding cost at sea level. This makes mountainous populations vulnerable to energy poverty. It is also proved that the subsidy policy for heating oil, in Greece, cannot alleviate energy poverty. The results of the present study can be utilized in the direction of re-designing the present policy and this is a completely necessary step for creating a sustainable policy for mountainous areas, in general. - Highlights: • The altitude’s influence on degree-days and energy needs in Greece was quantified. • Altitude affects heating degree-days 3.5 times more intensely than latitude in Greece. • A typical home has two times more thermal needs at 800 m than at sea-level in Greece. • The subsidy policy for heating oil is inadequate for Greek mountainous territories. • More than 85% of the households located over 800 m are energy poor in Greece

  3. Influence of an irregular surface and low light on the step variability of patients with peripheral neuropathy during level gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thies, Sibylle B; Richardson, James K; Demott, Trina; Ashton-Miller, James A

    2005-08-01

    Patients with peripheral neuropathy (PN) report greater difficulty walking on irregular surfaces with low light (IL) than on flat surfaces with regular lighting (FR). We tested the primary hypothesis that older PN patients would demonstrate greater step width and step width variability under IL conditions than under FR conditions. Forty-two subjects (22 male, 20 female: mean +/- S.D.: 64.7 +/- 9.8 years) with PN underwent history, physical examination, and electrodiagnostic testing. Subjects were asked to walk 10 m at a comfortable speed while kinematic and force data were measured at 100 Hz using optoelectronic markers and foot switches. Ten trials were conducted under both IL and FR conditions. Step width, time, length, and speed were calculated with a MATLAB algorithm, with the standard deviation serving as the measure of variability. The results showed that under IL, as compared to FR, conditions subjects demonstrated greater step width (197.1 +/- 40.8 mm versus 180.5 +/- 32.4 mm; P < 0.001) and step width variability (40.4 +/- 9.0 mm versus 34.5 +/- 8.4 mm; P < 0.001), step time and its variability (P < 0.001 and P = 0.003, respectively), and step length variability (P < 0.001). Average step length and gait speed decreased under IL conditions (P < 0.001 for both). Step width variability and step time variability correlated best under IL conditions with a clinical measure of PN severity and fall history, respectively. We conclude that IL conditions cause PN patients to increase the variability of their step width and other gait parameters.

  4. A Development of Advanced Rigorous 2 Step System for the High Resolution Residual Dose Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Do Hyun; Kim, Jong Woo; Kim, Jea Hyun; Lee, Jae Yong; Shin, Chang Ho [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Song Hyun [Kyoto University, Sennan (Japan)

    2016-10-15

    In these days, an activation problem such as residual radiation is one of the important issues. The activated devices and structures can emit the residual radiation. Therefore, the activation should be properly analyzed to make a plan for design, operation, and decontamination of nuclear facilities. For activation calculation, Rigorous 2 Step (R2S) method is introduced as following strategy: (1) the particle transport calculation is performed for an object geometry to get particle spectra and total fluxes; (2) inventories of each cell are calculated by using flux information according to irradiation and decay history; (3) the residual gamma distribution was evaluated by transport code, if needed. This scheme is based on cell calculation of used geometry. In this method, the particle spectra and total fluxes are obtained by mesh tally for activation calculation. It is useful to reduce the effects of gradient flux information. Nevertheless, several limitations are known as follows: Firstly, high relative error of spectra, when lots of meshes were used; secondly, different flux information from spectrum of void in mesh-tally. To calculate high resolution residual dose, several method are developed such as R2Smesh and MCR2S unstructured mesh. The R2Smesh method products better efficiency for obtaining neutron spectra by using fine/coarse mesh. Also, the MCR2S unstructured mesh can effectively separate void spectrum. In this study, the AR2S system was developed to combine the features of those mesh based R2S method. To confirm the AR2S system, the simple activation problem was evaluated and compared with R2S method using same division. Those results have good agreement within 0.83 %. Therefore, it is expected that the AR2S system can properly estimate an activation problem.

  5. Steps towards the development of a certification system for sustainable bio-energy trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewandowski, I.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2006-01-01

    It is expected that international biomass trade will significantly increase in the coming years because of the possibly lower costs of imported biomass, the better supply security through diversification and the support by energy and climate policies of various countries. Concerns about potential negative effects of large-scale biomass production and export, like deforestation or the competition between food and biomass production, have led to the demand for sustainability criteria and certification systems that can control biomass trade. Because neither such criteria and indicator sets nor certification systems for sustainable biomass trade are yet available, the objective of this study is to generate information that can help to develop them. For these purposes, existing certification systems, sets of sustainability criteria or guidelines on environmental or social sound management of resources are analyzed with the purpose to learn about the requirements, contents and organizational set ups of a certification system for sustainable biomass trade. First, an inventory of existing systems was made; second, their structures were analyzed. Key finding from the analysis of internationally applied certification systems was that they are generally led by an international panel that represents all countries and stakeholders involved in the biomass production and trade activities. In third and fourth steps different approaches to formulate standards were described and a list of more than 100 social, economic, ecological and general criteria for sustainable biomass trade was extracted from the reviewed systems. Fifth, methods to formulate indicators, that make sustainability criteria measurable, and verifiers that are used to control the performance of indicators are described. It is recommended to further develop the criteria and indicator (C and I) sets for sustainable biomass trade by involvement of the relevant stakeholders (e.g. biomass producer and consumer) and the

  6. Non Linear Step By Step Seismic Response and the Push Over Analysis Comparison of a Reinforced Concrete of Ductile Frames 25 Level Building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila, Jorge A.; Martinez, Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    Based on a ductile frames 25 level building, a non-linear analysis with increased monotonically lateral loads (Push-Over) was made in order to determine its collapse and its principal responses were compared against the time-history seismic responses determined with the SCT-EW-85 record. The seismic-resistance design and faced to gravitational loads was made according to the Complementary Technical Norms of Concrete Structures Design (NTC-Concrete) and the NTC-Seismic of the Mexico City Code (RDF-04), satisfying the limit service states (relative lateral displacement between story height maximum relations, story drifts ≤0.012) and failure (seismic behavior factor, Q = 3). The compressible (soft) seismic zone III b and the office use type (group B) were considered. The non-lineal responses were determined with nominal and over-resistance effects. The comparison were made with base shear force-roof lateral displacement relations, global distribution of plastic hinges, failure mechanics tendency, lateral displacements and story drift and its distribution along the height of the building, local and global ductility demands, etc. For the non-linear static analysis with increased monotonically lateral loads, was important to select the type of lateral forces distribution

  7. Assessing tobacco marketing regulation implementation level in Georgia: evidence from Non Communicable Disease Risk Factors STEPS Survey Georgia 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lela Sturua

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Tobacco use continues to be the leading cause of preventable deaths worldwide; the biggest burden of it falls on low- and middle-income countries and this trend is expected to widen further in case of inaction. The overall objective of the study is to describe and analyze the findings of the Noncommunicable Disease Risk Factors STEPS Survey Georgia 2016 related to tobacco marketing regulation. Methods The current study in Georgia was a population-based STEPS survey of randomly selected adults aged 18-69 within each sex and 10-year age-group. A multi-stage cluster sample design was used to produce representative data for that age range in Georgia. A total of 5554 adults participated in the current survey. We assessed level o tobacco marketing regulation implementation in Georgia. Results Study results reported high prevalence of tobacco use in Georgian population (31.1% (95 % CI: 29.0-33.1. Study findings showed that about half of the current smokers are exposed to anti-tobacco information on TV or radio 52.3% (95% CI: 48.9 - 55.7, whereas 35.5% (95% CI: 32.2 - 38.8 reported being exposed to cigarette marketing at points of sales of tobacco products and 4.7% (95% CI: 3.2-6.1 to any cigarette promotions. Health warnings on cigarette packs was reported to be noticed by 88.7% (95% CI: 85.8-91.6 of current smokers; only 33% (95% CI: 25.4 - 40.7 of them reported having thought about quitting because of these warnings. Conclusions The prevalence of smoking in Georgia is high compared to other countries of the European Region and it is very likely that smoking related NCDs burden will increase. Stricter tobacco control policies coupled with anti-tobacco media campaigns can address this problem. Improved health warnings on tobacco packages and total ban of tobacco advertisement, promotion and sponsorship should be implemented in order to overcome prevailed tobacco industry marketing strategies.

  8. Mapping organism expression levels at cellular resolution in developing Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, David W.; Keranen, Soile; Biggin, Mark D.; Sudar, Damir

    2002-05-01

    The development of an animal embryo is orchestrated by a network of genetically determined, temporal and spatial gene expression patterns that determine the animals final form. To understand such networks, we are developing novel quantitative optical imaging techniques to map gene expression levels at cellular and sub-cellular resolution within pregastrula Drosophila. Embryos at different stages of development are labeled for total DNA and specific gene products using different fluorophors and imaged in 3D with confocal microscopy. Innovative steps have been made which allow the DNA-image to be automatically segmented to produce a morphological mask of the individual nuclear boundaries. For each stage of development an average morphology is chosen to which images from different embryo are compared. The morphological mask is then used to quantify gene-product on a per nuclei basis. What results is an atlas of the relative amount of the specific gene product expressed within the nucleus of every cell in the embryo at the various stages of development. We are creating a quantitative database of transcription factor and target gene expression patterns in wild-type and factor mutant embryos with single cell resolution. Our goal is to uncover the rules determining how patterns of gene expression are generated.

  9. Evaluation of a newly developed media-supported 4-step approach for basic life support training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sopka Saša

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The quality of external chest compressions (ECC is of primary importance within basic life support (BLS. Recent guidelines delineate the so-called 4“-step approach” for teaching practical skills within resuscitation training guided by a certified instructor. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether a “media-supported 4-step approach” for BLS training leads to equal practical performance compared to the standard 4-step approach. Materials and methods After baseline testing, 220 laypersons were either trained using the widely accepted method for resuscitation training (4-step approach or using a newly created “media-supported 4-step approach”, both of equal duration. In this approach, steps 1 and 2 were ensured via a standardised self-produced podcast, which included all of the information regarding the BLS algorithm and resuscitation skills. Participants were tested on manikins in the same mock cardiac arrest single-rescuer scenario prior to intervention, after one week and after six months with respect to ECC-performance, and participants were surveyed about the approach. Results Participants (age 23 ± 11, 69% female reached comparable practical ECC performances in both groups, with no statistical difference. Even after six months, there was no difference detected in the quality of the initial assessment algorithm or delay concerning initiation of CPR. Overall, at least 99% of the intervention group (n = 99; mean 1.5 ± 0.8; 6-point Likert scale: 1 = completely agree, 6 = completely disagree agreed that the video provided an adequate introduction to BLS skills. Conclusions The “media-supported 4-step approach” leads to comparable practical ECC-performance compared to standard teaching, even with respect to retention of skills. Therefore, this approach could be useful in special educational settings where, for example, instructors’ resources are sparse or large-group sessions

  10. GLOBAL MONITORING OF URANIUM HEXIFLORIDE CYLINDERS NEXT STEPS IN DEVELOPMENT OF AN ACTION PLAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanks, D.

    2010-06-09

    Over 40 industrial facilities world-wide use standardized uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) cylinders for transport, storage and in-process receiving in support of uranium conversion, enrichment and fuel fabrication processes. UF{sub 6} is processed and stored in the cylinders, with over 50,000 tU of UF{sub 6} transported each year in these International Organization for Standardization (ISO) qualified containers. Although each cylinder is manufactured to an ISO standard that calls for a nameplate with the manufacturer's identification number (ID) and the owner's serial number engraved on it, these can be quite small and difficult to read. Recognizing that each facility seems to use a different ID, a cylinder can have several different numbers recorded on it by means of metal plates, sticky labels, paint or even marker pen as it travels among facilities around the world. The idea of monitoring movements of UF{sub 6} cylinders throughout the global uranium fuel cycle has become a significant issue among industrial and safeguarding stakeholders. Global monitoring would provide the locations, movements, and uses of cylinders in commercial nuclear transport around the world, improving the efficiency of industrial operations while increasing the assurance that growing nuclear commerce does not result in the loss or misuse of cylinders. It should be noted that a unique ID (UID) attached to a cylinder in a verifiable manner is necessary for safeguarding needs and ensuring positive ID, but not sufficient for an effective global monitoring system. Modern technologies for tracking and inventory control can pair the UID with sensors and secure data storage for content information and complete continuity of knowledge over the cylinder. This paper will describe how the next steps in development of an action plan for employing a global UF{sub 6} cylinder monitoring network could be cultivated using four primary UID functions - identification, tracking, controlling, and

  11. Global Monitoring Of Uranium Hexifloride Cylinders Next Steps In Development Of An Action Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanks, D.

    2010-01-01

    Over 40 industrial facilities world-wide use standardized uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) cylinders for transport, storage and in-process receiving in support of uranium conversion, enrichment and fuel fabrication processes. UF 6 is processed and stored in the cylinders, with over 50,000 tU of UF 6 transported each year in these International Organization for Standardization (ISO) qualified containers. Although each cylinder is manufactured to an ISO standard that calls for a nameplate with the manufacturer's identification number (ID) and the owner's serial number engraved on it, these can be quite small and difficult to read. Recognizing that each facility seems to use a different ID, a cylinder can have several different numbers recorded on it by means of metal plates, sticky labels, paint or even marker pen as it travels among facilities around the world. The idea of monitoring movements of UF 6 cylinders throughout the global uranium fuel cycle has become a significant issue among industrial and safeguarding stakeholders. Global monitoring would provide the locations, movements, and uses of cylinders in commercial nuclear transport around the world, improving the efficiency of industrial operations while increasing the assurance that growing nuclear commerce does not result in the loss or misuse of cylinders. It should be noted that a unique ID (UID) attached to a cylinder in a verifiable manner is necessary for safeguarding needs and ensuring positive ID, but not sufficient for an effective global monitoring system. Modern technologies for tracking and inventory control can pair the UID with sensors and secure data storage for content information and complete continuity of knowledge over the cylinder. This paper will describe how the next steps in development of an action plan for employing a global UF 6 cylinder monitoring network could be cultivated using four primary UID functions - identification, tracking, controlling, and accounting.

  12. DEVELOPING A STRATEGY CONCEPT ON MICRO LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Burlankov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Relevance of the topic of the study is that the conflicting tendencies of economic development, the need to consider a variety of factors internal and external environment in a changing operating environment in the paramount problem of providing concept enterprises as concept distributed in time. Variety of factors that influence the activity of enterprises, the ambiguity estimates of their effect, often lack the possibility of their accounting and forecasting, the complication of the problem to identify the interdependence of external and internal parameters of management lead to serious negative consequences, and often to the destruction of production and the economic system. This raises the need to develop new approaches and management techniques the intra interaction, based on the use of tools of market relations and the transformation of the elements of the market at the enterprise level. Insufficiently complete theoretical study concept issues, lack of models, diagrams, algorithms for the formation mechanism of industrial relations on the principles of intra-enterprise, ensuring longevity economic enterprises by integrating and mobilizing intra-building, deter-mined the choice of the research topic. Strategy - an integrated model of action designed to achieve the objectives of the enterprise. Content of the strategy is a set of decision rules used to determine the main directions of activity. In the literature on strategic planning, there are two opposing views on the understanding of the strategy. In the first case the strategy - it is a concrete long-term plan to achieve a certain goal, and develop a strategy - it is the process of finding a purpose and making long-term plan. This approach is based on the fact that all the emerging changes are predictable, occur-ring in the environment of the processes are deterministic and amenable to complete control and management. At the same time, both within the organization and outside it there

  13. The development of a new three-step protocol to determine the efficacy of disinfectant wipes on surfaces contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, G J; Denyer, S P; Hosein, I K; Hill, D W; Maillard, J-Y

    2007-12-01

    We developed a three-step protocol to quantify the efficacy of disinfectant wipes, their ability to remove and prevent microbial transfer from surfaces and their overall antimicrobial activity. Meticillin-resistant (MRSA) or -susceptible (MSSA) Staphylococcus aureus (6-7 log(10)cfu) were inoculated onto stainless steel discs with or without organic load and dried. Grapefruit extract-containing test wipes and unmedicated control wipes were used. In step 1, wipes were mechanically rotated against surfaces for 10s at 60rpm, exerting a weight of 100+/-5g. Bacterial removal was assessed by transferring the steel discs to neutraliser, resuspending and counting remaining bacteria. In step 2, bacterial transfer from wipes was assessed by eight consecutive mechanical adpression transfers to agar/neutraliser plates. Step 3 was the measurement of antimicrobial activity by direct inoculation of the wipes for 10s followed by neutralisation and enumeration. Test wipes achieved a significantly higher bacterial cell removal than control wipes on all surfaces (P<0.05). The low bactericidal activity of the wipes (<1 log(10) reduction when directly inoculated) and the subsequent survival of bacteria on the wipes, however, led to repeated microbial transfer when initially high contamination levels were present. There were no differences between MRSA and MSSA in removal, transfer or antimicrobial activity. The three-step method is a useful tool for developing future guidelines to assess the ability of wipes to disinfect surfaces.

  14. Development of an efficient DC-DC SEPIC converter using wide bandgap power devices for high step-up applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-bayati, Ali M. S.; Alharbi, Salah S.; Alharbi, Saleh S.; Matin, Mohammad

    2017-08-01

    A highly efficient high step-up dc-dc converter is the major requirement in the integration of low voltage renewable energy sources, such as photovoltaic panel module and fuel cell stacks, with a load or utility. This paper presents the development of an efficient dc-dc single-ended primary-inductor converter (SEPIC) for high step-up applications. Three SEPIC converters are designed and studied using different combinations of power devices: a combination based on all Si power devices using a Si-MOSFET and a Si-diode and termed as Si/Si, a combination based on a hybrid of Si and SiC power devices using the Si-MOSFET and a SiC-Schottky diode and termed as Si/SiC, and a combination based on all SiC power devices using a SiC-MOSFET and the SiC-Schottky diode and termed as SiC/SiC. The switching behavior of the Si-MOSFET and SiC-MOSFET is characterized and analyzed within the different combinations at the converter level. The effect of the diode type on the converter's overall performance is also discussed. The switching energy losses, total power losses, and the overall performance effciency of the converters are measured and reported under different switching frequencies. Furthermore, the potential of the designed converters to operate efficiently at a wide range of input voltages and output powers is studied. The analysis and results show an outstanding performance efficiency of the designed SiC/SiC based converter under a wide range of operating conditions.

  15. Development of interface between MCNP-FISPACT-MCNP (IPR-MFM) based on rigorous two step method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, A.K.; Swami, H.L.; Danani, C.

    2015-01-01

    In this work we present the development of interface tool between MCNP-FISPACT-MCNP (MFM) based on Rigorous Two Step method for the shutdown dose rate (SDDR) calculation. The MFM links MCNP radiation transport and the FISPACT inventory code through a suitable coupling scheme. MFM coupling scheme has three steps. In first step it picks neutron spectrum and total flux from MCNP output file to use as input parameter for FISPACT. It prepares the FISPACT input files by using irradiation history, neutron flux and neutron spectrum and then execute the FISPACT input file in the second step. Third step of MFM coupling scheme extracts the decay gammas from the FISPACT output file and prepares MCNP input file for decay gamma transport followed by execution of MCNP input file and estimation of SDDR. Here detailing of MFM methodology and flow scheme has been described. The programming language PYTHON has been chosen for this development of the coupling scheme. A complete loop of MCNP-FISPACT-MCNP has been developed to handle the simplified geometrical problems. For validation of MFM interface a manual cross-check has been performed which shows good agreements. The MFM interface also has been validated with exiting MCNP-D1S method for a simple geometry with 14 MeV cylindrical neutron source. (author)

  16. Estimation of total Effort and Effort Elapsed in Each Step of Software Development Using Optimal Bayesian Belief Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Zare Baghiabad

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Accuracy in estimating the needed effort for software development caused software effort estimation to be a challenging issue. Beside estimation of total effort, determining the effort elapsed in each software development step is very important because any mistakes in enterprise resource planning can lead to project failure. In this paper, a Bayesian belief network was proposed based on effective components and software development process. In this model, the feedback loops are considered between development steps provided that the return rates are different for each project. Different return rates help us determine the percentages of the elapsed effort in each software development step, distinctively. Moreover, the error measurement resulted from optimized effort estimation and the optimal coefficients to modify the model are sought. The results of the comparison between the proposed model and other models showed that the model has the capability to highly accurately estimate the total effort (with the marginal error of about 0.114 and to estimate the effort elapsed in each software development step.

  17. Steps in the design, development and formative evaluation of obesity prevention-related behavior change trials

    OpenAIRE

    Baranowski Janice; Cerin Ester; Baranowski Tom

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Obesity prevention interventions through dietary and physical activity change have generally not been effective. Limitations on possible program effectiveness are herein identified at every step in the mediating variable model, a generic conceptual framework for understanding how interventions may promote behavior change. To minimize these problems, and thereby enhance likely intervention effectiveness, four sequential types of formative studies are proposed: targeted behavior valida...

  18. Learning Autonomy in Two or Three Steps: Linking Motivation, Authority, and Agency, with Open-ended Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjeerd C Andringa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we connect open-ended development, authority, agency, and motivation through 1 an analysis of the demands of existing in a complex world and 2 environmental appraisal in terms of affordance content and the complexity to select appropriate behavior. We do this by identifying a coherent core from a wide range of contributing fields. Open-ended development is a structured three-step process in which the agent first learns to master the body and then aims to make the mind into a reliable tool. Preconditioned on success in step two, step three aims to effectively co-create an optimal living environment. We argue that these steps correspond to right-left-right hemispheric dominance, where the left hemisphere specializes in control and the right hemisphere in exploration. Control (e.g., problem solving requires a closed and stable world that must be maintained by external authorities or, in step three, by the right hemisphere acting as internal authority. The three-step progression therefore corresponds to increasing autonomy and agency.Depending on how we appraise the environment, we formulate four qualitatively different motivational states: submission, control, exploration, and consolidation. Each of these four motivational states has associated reward signals of which the last three — successful control, discovery of novelty, and establishing new relations — form an open-ended development loop that, the more it is executed, helps the agent to become progressively more agentic and more able to co-create a pleasant-to-live-in world. We conclude that for autonomy to arise, the agent must exist in a (broad transition region between order and disorder in which both danger and opportunity (and with that open-ended development and motivation are defined. We conclude that a research agenda for artificial cognitive system research should include open-ended development through intrinsic motivations and ascribing more prominence to right

  19. Learning autonomy in two or three steps: linking open-ended development, authority, and agency to motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andringa, Tjeerd C; van den Bosch, Kirsten A; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we connect open-ended development, authority, agency, and motivation through (1) an analysis of the demands of existing in a complex world and (2) environmental appraisal in terms of affordance content and the complexity to select appropriate behavior. We do this by identifying a coherent core from a wide range of contributing fields. Open-ended development is a structured three-step process in which the agent first learns to master the body and then aims to make the mind into a reliable tool. Preconditioned on success in step two, step three aims to effectively co-create an optimal living environment. We argue that these steps correspond to right-left-right hemispheric dominance, where the left hemisphere specializes in control and the right hemisphere in exploration. Control (e.g., problem solving) requires a closed and stable world that must be maintained by external authorities or, in step three, by the right hemisphere acting as internal authority. The three-step progression therefore corresponds to increasing autonomy and agency. Depending on how we appraise the environment, we formulate four qualitatively different motivational states: submission, control, exploration, and consolidation. Each of these four motivational states has associated reward signals of which the last three-successful control, discovery of novelty, and establishing new relations-form an open-ended development loop that, the more it is executed, helps the agent to become progressively more agentic and more able to co-create a pleasant-to-live-in world. We conclude that for autonomy to arise, the agent must exist in a (broad) transition region between order and disorder in which both danger and opportunity (and with that open-ended development and motivation) are defined. We conclude that a research agenda for artificial cognitive system research should include open-ended development through intrinsic motivations and ascribing more prominence to right hemispheric strengths.

  20. Learning autonomy in two or three steps: linking open-ended development, authority, and agency to motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andringa, Tjeerd C.; van den Bosch, Kirsten A.; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we connect open-ended development, authority, agency, and motivation through (1) an analysis of the demands of existing in a complex world and (2) environmental appraisal in terms of affordance content and the complexity to select appropriate behavior. We do this by identifying a coherent core from a wide range of contributing fields. Open-ended development is a structured three-step process in which the agent first learns to master the body and then aims to make the mind into a reliable tool. Preconditioned on success in step two, step three aims to effectively co-create an optimal living environment. We argue that these steps correspond to right-left-right hemispheric dominance, where the left hemisphere specializes in control and the right hemisphere in exploration. Control (e.g., problem solving) requires a closed and stable world that must be maintained by external authorities or, in step three, by the right hemisphere acting as internal authority. The three-step progression therefore corresponds to increasing autonomy and agency. Depending on how we appraise the environment, we formulate four qualitatively different motivational states: submission, control, exploration, and consolidation. Each of these four motivational states has associated reward signals of which the last three—successful control, discovery of novelty, and establishing new relations—form an open-ended development loop that, the more it is executed, helps the agent to become progressively more agentic and more able to co-create a pleasant-to-live-in world. We conclude that for autonomy to arise, the agent must exist in a (broad) transition region between order and disorder in which both danger and opportunity (and with that open-ended development and motivation) are defined. We conclude that a research agenda for artificial cognitive system research should include open-ended development through intrinsic motivations and ascribing more prominence to right hemispheric

  1. Epitope mapping: the first step in developing epitope-based vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershoni, Jonathan M; Roitburd-Berman, Anna; Siman-Tov, Dror D; Tarnovitski Freund, Natalia; Weiss, Yael

    2007-01-01

    Antibodies are an effective line of defense in preventing infectious diseases. Highly potent neutralizing antibodies can intercept a virus before it attaches to its target cell and, thus, inactivate it. This ability is based on the antibodies' specific recognition of epitopes, the sites of the antigen to which antibodies bind. Thus, understanding the antibody/epitope interaction provides a basis for the rational design of preventive vaccines. It is assumed that immunization with the precise epitope, corresponding to an effective neutralizing antibody, would elicit the generation of similarly potent antibodies in the vaccinee. Such a vaccine would be a 'B-cell epitope-based vaccine', the implementation of which requires the ability to backtrack from a desired antibody to its corresponding epitope. In this article we discuss a range of methods that enable epitope discovery based on a specific antibody. Such a reversed immunological approach is the first step in the rational design of an epitope-based vaccine. Undoubtedly, the gold standard for epitope definition is x-ray analyses of crystals of antigen:antibody complexes. This method provides atomic resolution of the epitope; however, it is not readily applicable to many antigens and antibodies, and requires a very high degree of sophistication and expertise. Most other methods rely on the ability to monitor the binding of the antibody to antigen fragments or mutated variations. In mutagenesis of the antigen, loss of binding due to point modification of an amino acid residue is often considered an indication of an epitope component. In addition, computational combinatorial methods for epitope mapping are also useful. These methods rely on the ability of the antibody of interest to affinity isolate specific short peptides from combinatorial phage display peptide libraries. The peptides are then regarded as leads for the definition of the epitope corresponding to the antibody used to screen the peptide library. For

  2. Spontaneous development of full weight-supported stepping after complete spinal cord transection in the neonatal opossum, Monodelphis domestica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin J Wheaton

    Full Text Available Spinal cord trauma in the adult nervous system usually results in permanent loss of function below the injury level. The immature spinal cord has greater capacity for repair and can develop considerable functionality by adulthood. This study used the marsupial laboratory opossum Monodelphis domestica, which is born at a very early stage of neural development. Complete spinal cord transection was made in the lower-thoracic region of pups at postnatal-day 7 (P7 or P28, and the animals grew to adulthood. Injury at P7 resulted in a dense neuronal tissue bridge that connected the two ends of the cord; retrograde neuronal labelling indicated that supraspinal and propriospinal innervation spanned the injury site. This repair was associated with pronounced behavioural recovery, coordinated gait and an ability to use hindlimbs when swimming. Injury at P28 resulted in a cyst-like cavity encased in scar tissue forming at the injury site. Using retrograde labelling, no labelled brainstem or propriospinal neurons were found above the lesion, indicating that detectable neuronal connectivity had not spanned the injury site. However, these animals could use their hindlimbs to take weight-supporting steps but could not use their hindlimbs when swimming. White matter, demonstrated by Luxol Fast Blue staining, was present in the injury site of P7- but not P28-injured animals. Overall, these studies demonstrated that provided spinal injury occurs early in development, regrowth of supraspinal innervation is possible. This repair appears to lead to improved functional outcomes. At older ages, even without detectable axonal growth spanning the injury site, substantial development of locomotion was still possible. This outcome is discussed in conjunction with preliminary findings of differences in the local propriospinal circuits following spinal cord injury (demonstrated with fluororuby labelling, which may underlie the weight bearing locomotion observed in the

  3. The US Network of Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis Centers: Development, Progress, and Next Steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casper, T. Charles; Rose, John W.; Roalstad, Shelly; Waubant, Emmanuelle; Aaen, Gregory; Belman, Anita; Chitnis, Tanuja; Gorman, Mark; Krupp, Lauren; Lotze, Timothy E.; Ness, Jayne; Patterson, Marc; Rodriguez, Moses; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca; Browning, Brittan; Graves, Jennifer; Tillema, Jan-Mendelt; Benson, Leslie; Harris, Yolanda

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis and other demyelinating diseases in the pediatric population have received an increasing level of attention by clinicians and researchers. The low incidence of these diseases in children creates a need for the involvement of multiple clinical centers in research efforts. The Network of Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis Centers was created initially in 2006 to improve the diagnosis and care of children with demyelinating diseases. In 2010, the Network shifted its focus to multicenter research while continuing to advance the care of patients. The Network has obtained support from the National Multiple Sclerosis Society, the Guthy-Jackson Charitable Foundation, and the National Institutes of Health. The Network will continue to serve as a platform for conducting impactful research in pediatric demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system. This article provides a description of the history and development, organization, mission, research priorities, current studies, and future plans of the Network. PMID:25270659

  4. First step in developing SWNT nano-sensor for C17.2 neural stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatova, Tetyana; Pirbhai, Massooma; Chandrasekar, Swetha; Rotkin, Slava V.; Jedlicka, Sabrina

    Nanomaterials are widely used for biomedical applications and diagnostics, including as drug and gene delivery agents, imaging objects, and biosensors. As single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) possess a size similar to intracellular components, including fibrillar proteins and some organelles, the potential for use in a wide variety of intracellular applications is significant. However, implementation of an SWNT based nano-sensor is difficult due to lack of understanding of SWNT-cell interaction on both the cellular and molecular level. In this study, C17.2 neural stem cells have been tested after uptake of SWNTs wrapped with ssDNA over a wide variety of time periods, allowing for broad localization of SWNTs inside of the cells over long time periods. The localization data is being used to develop a predictive model of how, upon uptake of SWNT, the cytoskeleton and other cellular structures of the adherent cells is perturbed.

  5. A two-step transport pathway allows the mother cell to nurture the developing spore in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Guadiana, Fernando H; Meeske, Alexander J; Rodrigues, Christopher D A; Barajas-Ornelas, Rocío Del Carmen; Kruse, Andrew C; Rudner, David Z

    2017-09-01

    One of the hallmarks of bacterial endospore formation is the accumulation of high concentrations of pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (dipicolinic acid or DPA) in the developing spore. This small molecule comprises 5-15% of the dry weight of dormant spores and plays a central role in resistance to both wet heat and desiccation. DPA is synthesized in the mother cell at a late stage in sporulation and must be translocated across two membranes (the inner and outer forespore membranes) that separate the mother cell and forespore. The enzymes that synthesize DPA and the proteins required to translocate it across the inner forespore membrane were identified over two decades ago but the factors that transport DPA across the outer forespore membrane have remained mysterious. Here, we report that SpoVV (formerly YlbJ) is the missing DPA transporter. SpoVV is produced in the mother cell during the morphological process of engulfment and specifically localizes in the outer forespore membrane. Sporulating cells lacking SpoVV produce spores with low levels of DPA and cells engineered to express SpoVV and the DPA synthase during vegetative growth accumulate high levels of DPA in the culture medium. SpoVV resembles concentrative nucleoside transporters and mutagenesis of residues predicted to form the substrate-binding pocket supports the idea that SpoVV has a similar structure and could therefore function similarly. These findings provide a simple two-step transport mechanism by which the mother cell nurtures the developing spore. DPA produced in the mother cell is first translocated into the intermembrane space by SpoVV and is then imported into the forespore by the SpoVA complex. This pathway is likely to be broadly conserved as DPA synthase, SpoVV, and SpoVA proteins can be found in virtually all endospore forming bacteria.

  6. From problem to solution : developing a personalized smartphone application for recreational runners following a three-step design approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, S.B.; Janssen, M.A.; Goudsmit, J.; Lauwerijssen, C.; Brombacher, A.C.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to design and test a smartphone application which supports personalized running experiences for less experienced runners. As a result of a multidisciplinary three-step design approach Inspirun was developed. Inspirun is a personalized running-application for Android

  7. Development of a Ground Test and Analysis Protocol to Support NASA's NextSTEP Phase 2 Habitation Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaton, Kara H.; Chappell, Steven P.; Bekdash, Omar S.; Gernhardt, Michael L.

    2018-01-01

    The NASA Next Space Technologies for Exploration Partnerships (NextSTEP) program is a public-private partnership model that seeks commercial development of deep space exploration capabilities to support extensive human spaceflight missions around and beyond cislunar space. NASA first issued the Phase 1 NextSTEP Broad Agency Announcement to U.S. industries in 2014, which called for innovative cislunar habitation concepts that leveraged commercialization plans for low Earth orbit. These habitats will be part of the Deep Space Gateway (DSG), the cislunar space station planned by NASA for construction in the 2020s. In 2016, Phase 2 of the NextSTEP program selected five commercial partners to develop ground prototypes. A team of NASA research engineers and subject matter experts have been tasked with developing the ground test protocol that will serve as the primary means by which these Phase 2 prototype habitats will be evaluated. Since 2008, this core test team has successfully conducted multiple spaceflight analog mission evaluations utilizing a consistent set of operational products, tools, methods, and metrics to enable the iterative development, testing, analysis, and validation of evolving exploration architectures, operations concepts, and vehicle designs. The purpose of implementing a similar evaluation process for the NextSTEP Phase 2 Habitation Concepts is to consistently evaluate the different commercial partner ground prototypes to provide data-driven, actionable recommendations for Phase 3.

  8. Self-Regulated Strategy Development Instruction for Teaching Multi-Step Equations to Middle School Students Struggling in Math

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenca-Carlino, Yojanna; Freeman-Green, Shaqwana; Stephenson, Grant W.; Hauth, Clara

    2016-01-01

    Six middle school students identified as having a specific learning disability or at risk for mathematical difficulties were taught how to solve multi-step equations by using the self-regulated strategy development (SRSD) model of instruction. A multiple-probe-across-pairs design was used to evaluate instructional effects. Instruction was provided…

  9. Developing a framework to model the primary drying step of a continuous freeze-drying process based on infrared radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Bockstal, Pieter-Jan; Corver, Jos; Mortier, Séverine Thérèse F.C.

    2018-01-01

    . These results assist in the selection of proper materials which could serve as IR window in the continuous freeze-drying prototype. The modelling framework presented in this paper fits the model-based design approach used for the development of this prototype and shows the potential benefits of this design...... requires the fundamental mechanistic modelling of each individual process step. Therefore, a framework is presented for the modelling and control of the continuous primary drying step based on non-contact IR radiation. The IR radiation emitted by the radiator filaments passes through various materials...

  10. Development of step for light duty truck by using injection molding of long-fiber reinforced thermoplastics; Chosen`i kyoka jushi no shashutsu keisei ni yoru truck yo step no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Togo, A; Yamamura, H; Yamaguchi, M [Mitsubishi Motor Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Yoshino, K [Kawasaki Steel Corp. Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The new step for light duty truck was developed by injection molding of glass long-fiber reinforced polypropylene. Feature of the step is good surface appearance and no post processings, compared with the conventional one press molded with a glass fiber reinforced polypropylene sheet (Stampable sheet). 3 refs., 14 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. OPTIFER, a further step in development of Low Activation Martensitic Steels. Results of Characterization Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, M.P.; Lapena, J.; Hernandez, M.T.; Schirra, M.

    1996-01-01

    Within the framework of the development of low activation structural materials to be used in nuclear fusion reactors four martensitic Fe-9,5 Cr alloys were conceived with different contentsof tungsten-tantalum and/or germanium as substitutions for Mo, Ni, Nb and Al. As a result of recent activation calculations, the maximum concentrations of all accompanying elements, which are not desirable under radiological aspects, were determined for the first time for these OPTIFER steels, and laid down in specifications for the manufacturers of the alloys. After double-vacuum melting, only the real alloys with some of these accompanying elements added are within the specifications. For the majority of alloys the gap between request in radiological terms and the metallurgical/analytical reality is still considerable. The behavior during transformation and heat treatment roughly corresponds to that of conventional martensitic 9-12degree centigree Cr steels. Progress has been conspicuous as regards the notch impact tougness behavior. Both at upper shelf level and in ductile brittle transition (DBTT) the W(Ce) alloyed OPTIFER variant exhibits more favorable values than the conventional MANET-II steel from the fusion program, with better strength characteristics above 500 degree centigree. With only a moderate decrease in strenght values (compared to MANET-II), the Ge (Ce) variant excels by a distinct improvement in notch impact tougness values and, theoretically, a stronger reduction in dose rate than the W(Ce) variant and comes close to the decay curve of pure iron

  12. OPTIFER, a further step in development of Low Activation Martensitic Steels. Results of Characterization Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, M.P.; Lapena, J.; Hernandez, M.T.; Schirra, M.

    1996-01-01

    Within the framework of the development of low activation structural materials to be used in nuclear fusion reactors four martensitic Fe-9,5 Cr alloys were conceived with different contents of tungsten-tantalum and/or germanium as substitutions for Mo, Ni, Nb and Al. As a result of recent activation calculations, the maximum concentrations of all accompanying elements, which are not desirable under radiological aspects, were determined for the first time for these OPTIFER steels, and laid down in specifications for the manufacturers of the alloys, after double-vacuum melting, only the real alloys with some of these accompanying elements added are within the specifications. For the majority of alloys the gap between request in radiological terms and the metallurgical/analytical reality is still considerable. The behavior during transformation and heat treatment roughly corresponds to that of conventional martensitic 9-12%Cr steels. Progress has been conspicuous as regards the notch impact toughness behavior, both at upper shelf level and in ductile brittle transition (DBTT) the W(Ce) alloyed OPTIFER variant exhibits more favorable values than the conventional MANET-II steel from the fusion program, with better strength characteristics above 500 degree centigree. With only a moderate decrease in strength values (compared to MANET-II), the Ge (Ce) variant excels by a distinct improvement in notch impact toughness values and, theoretically, a stronger reduction in dose rate than the W(Ce) variant and comes close to the decay curve of pure iron. (Author) 21 refs

  13. Sustainable Development and High Level Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Mikael [Swedish Radiation Protection Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2001-07-01

    Sustainable development, defined by the BrundtIand Commission as 'development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs', relates to a number of issues such as population, health, food, species and ecosystems, energy, industrial development, urbanization, societal issues and economy, and how these global challenges could be met within a long term strategy. It is not obvious how the principle may be applied to final disposal of radioactive waste, but the global scope of the principle suggests that no sector in society should be exempted from scrutinizing its practices in the light of the challenge presented by sustainable development. Waste management, as pointed out by the International Commission on Radiological Protection, ICRP, cannot be seen as a free standing practice in need of its own justification. The produced waste cannot be seen separately from the other components of nuclear production. However, the existence of very long-lived radioactive nuclei in the spent fuel warrants a careful examination of this subpractice. Health based post-closure criteria or standards for long-lived waste, usually make use of the concept of partitioning dose limit. ICRP recommends that individuals in the public do not receive a yearly dose in excess of 1 mSv as a result of releases in connection with activities involving the use of ionising radiation, and that any single facility does not generate a dose burden to individuals in excess of a fraction of this value. For an operating facility, this fraction is normally at least a factor of three. By definition, operational changes are not possible for a closed repository. It follows from this that the partitioning has another function. One interpretation is that it can allow for the simultaneous use and burdens of future generation's activities. Both the Swedish and the proposed US criteria and from EPA and NRC, as well as standards from

  14. Sustainable Development and High Level Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, Mikael

    2001-01-01

    Sustainable development, defined by the BrundtIand Commission as 'development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs', relates to a number of issues such as population, health, food, species and ecosystems, energy, industrial development, urbanization, societal issues and economy, and how these global challenges could be met within a long term strategy. It is not obvious how the principle may be applied to final disposal of radioactive waste, but the global scope of the principle suggests that no sector in society should be exempted from scrutinizing its practices in the light of the challenge presented by sustainable development. Waste management, as pointed out by the International Commission on Radiological Protection, ICRP, cannot be seen as a free standing practice in need of its own justification. The produced waste cannot be seen separately from the other components of nuclear production. However, the existence of very long-lived radioactive nuclei in the spent fuel warrants a careful examination of this subpractice. Health based post-closure criteria or standards for long-lived waste, usually make use of the concept of partitioning dose limit. ICRP recommends that individuals in the public do not receive a yearly dose in excess of 1 mSv as a result of releases in connection with activities involving the use of ionising radiation, and that any single facility does not generate a dose burden to individuals in excess of a fraction of this value. For an operating facility, this fraction is normally at least a factor of three. By definition, operational changes are not possible for a closed repository. It follows from this that the partitioning has another function. One interpretation is that it can allow for the simultaneous use and burdens of future generation's activities. Both the Swedish and the proposed US criteria and from EPA and NRC, as well as standards from Canada, UK and

  15. Development of F2 two-step fluorination process for non-aqueous reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-02-01

    To establish the F 2 two-step fluorination for stable and high recoveries of plutonium, the fluorination process has been studied with the simulated fuel to a FBR containing UO 2 - PuO 2 and non-radioactive fission products in the 2''phi fluid-bed. The process principle was demonstrated and the effect of FPs on fluorination of U and Pu and the possibility of reducing the Pu loss could be clarified. The feasibility of separating PuF 6 from UF 6 onto UO 2 F 2 by adsorption, was also indicated. (auth.)

  16. Contribution to the Development of Rural Tourism in Croatia: Proposed Steps for Successful Business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Demonja

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Rural tourism is a relatively new tourist movement that humans of postindustrial society return to traditional values and nature. Primarily is strongly associated with farms and production of traditional agricultural products. The aim of the rural tourism is exploitation of all existing resources of one farm regardless of whether it is traditional architecture, traditional activities (traditional crafts, agricultural production or presentation of the rural way of life. In addition, rural tourism is a generator of additional revenue and achieves full employment of the farm which enables to integrate all the potentials and diversification of activities.The organization of the farm, in terms of taking some tourism activities, is a complex activity that requires certain procedures and steps for successful business. Therefore, this paper proposes and explains steps necessary for successful implementation of tourism services in rural tourism in Croatia. Special emphasis will be on the types of tourism services in rural tourism through the typology of farms and connecting with the market.

  17. Elise - the next step in development of induction heavy ion drivers for inertial fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E.; Bangerter, R.O.; Celata, C.; Faltens, A.; Fessenden, T.; Peters, C.; Pickrell, J.; Reginato, L.; Seidl, P.; Yu, S.

    1994-11-01

    LBL, with the participation of LLNL and industry, proposes to build Elise, an electric-focused accelerator as the next logical step towards the eventual goal of a heavy-ion induction linac powerful enough to implode or open-quotes driveclose quotes inertial-confinement fusion targets. Elise will be at full driver scale in several important parameters-most notably line charge density (a function of beam size), which was not explored in earlier experiments. Elise will be capable of accelerating and electrostatically focusing four parallel, full-scale ion beams and will be designed to be extendible, by successive future construction projects, to meet the goal of the USA DOE Inertial Fusion Energy program (IFE). This goal is to address all remaining issues in heavy-ion IFE except target physics, which is currently the responsibility of DOE Defense Programs, and the target chamber. Thus Elise is the first step of a program that will provide a solid foundation of data for further progress toward a driver, as called for in the National Energy Strategy and National Energy Policy Act

  18. Design and development of solid carbide step drill K34 for machining of CFRP and GFRP composite laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangaswamy, T.; Nagaraja, R.

    2018-04-01

    The Study focused on design and development of solid carbide step drill K34 to drill holes on composite materials such as Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) and Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic (GFRP). The step drill K34 replaces step wise drilling of diameter 6.5mm and 9 mm holes that reduces the setup time, cutting speed, feed rate cost, delamination and increase the production rate. Several researchers have analyzed the effect of drilling process on various fiber reinforced plastic composites by carrying out using conventional tools and machinery. However, this process operation can lead to different kind of damages such as delamination, fiber pullout, and local cracks. To avoid the problems encountered at the time of drilling, suitable tool material and geometry is essential. This paper deals with the design and development of K34 Carbide step drill used to drill holes on CFRP and GFRP laminates. An Experimental study carried out to investigate the tool geometry, feed rate and cutting speed that avoids delamination and fiber breakage.

  19. Development of chemical decontamination for low level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Seigo; Omata, Kazuo; Obinata, Hiroshi; Nakajima, Yoshihiko; Kanamori, Osamu.

    1995-01-01

    During routine intermittent inspection and maintenance at nuclear power plants, a considerable quantity of low level radioactive waste is generated requiring release from the nuclear site or treating additionally. To decontaminate this waste for safe release from the nuclear power plant, the first step could be washing the waste in Methylene chloride, CH 2 Cl 2 , to remove most of the paint coating. However, CH 2 Cl 2 washing does not completely remove the paint coating from the waste, which in the next step is shot blasted with plastic bead media to loose and remove the remaining paint coating. Following in succession, in the third step, the waste is washed in a chelate solution, after which most waste is decontaminated and suitable to be released for recycling. The residual chelate solution may be decomposed into nontoxic carbon dioxide and water by an electrolysis process and then safely discharged into the environment. (author)

  20. Rapid one-step selection method for generating nucleic acid aptamers: development of a DNA aptamer against α-bungarotoxin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lasse H Lauridsen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nucleic acids based therapeutic approaches have gained significant interest in recent years towards the development of therapeutics against many diseases. Recently, research on aptamers led to the marketing of Macugen®, an inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF for the treatment of age related macular degeneration (AMD. Aptamer technology may prove useful as a therapeutic alternative against an array of human maladies. Considering the increased interest in aptamer technology globally that rival antibody mediated therapeutic approaches, a simplified selection, possibly in one-step, technique is required for developing aptamers in limited time period. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Herein, we present a simple one-step selection of DNA aptamers against α-bungarotoxin. A toxin immobilized glass coverslip was subjected to nucleic acid pool binding and extensive washing followed by PCR enrichment of the selected aptamers. One round of selection successfully identified a DNA aptamer sequence with a binding affinity of 7.58 µM. CONCLUSION: We have demonstrated a one-step method for rapid production of nucleic acid aptamers. Although the reported binding affinity is in the low micromolar range, we believe that this could be further improved by using larger targets, increasing the stringency of selection and also by combining a capillary electrophoresis separation prior to the one-step selection. Furthermore, the method presented here is a user-friendly, cheap and an easy way of deriving an aptamer unlike the time consuming conventional SELEX-based approach. The most important application of this method is that chemically-modified nucleic acid libraries can also be used for aptamer selection as it requires only one enzymatic step. This method could equally be suitable for developing RNA aptamers.

  1. A two-step crushed lava rock filter unit for grey water treatment at household level in an urban slum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katukiza, A Y; Ronteltap, M; Niwagaba, C B; Kansiime, F; Lens, P N L

    2014-01-15

    Decentralised grey water treatment in urban slums using low-cost and robust technologies offers opportunities to minimise public health risks and to reduce environmental pollution caused by the highly polluted grey water i.e. with a COD and N concentration of 3000-6000 mg L(-1) and 30-40 mg L(-1), respectively. However, there has been very limited action research to reduce the pollution load from uncontrolled grey water discharge by households in urban slums. This study was therefore carried out to investigate the potential of a two-step filtration process to reduce the grey water pollution load in an urban slum using a crushed lava rock filter, to determine the main filter design and operation parameters and the effect of intermittent flow on the grey water effluent quality. A two-step crushed lava rock filter unit was designed and implemented for use by a household in the Bwaise III slum in Kampala city (Uganda). It was monitored at a varying hydraulic loading rate (HLR) of 0.5-1.1 m d(-1) as well as at a constant HLR of 0.39 m d(-1). The removal efficiencies of COD, TP and TKN were, respectively, 85.9%, 58% and 65.5% under a varying HLR and 90.5%, 59.5% and 69%, when operating at a constant HLR regime. In addition, the log removal of Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and total coliforms was, respectively, 3.8, 3.2 and 3.9 under the varying HLR and 3.9, 3.5 and 3.9 at a constant HLR. The results show that the use of a two-step filtration process as well as a lower constant HLR increased the pollutant removal efficiencies. Further research is needed to investigate the feasibility of adding a tertiary treatment step to increase the nutrients and microorganisms removal from grey water. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Course Development Plan: Macro-Level Decisions and Micro-Level Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franker, Karen; James, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    A key step in distance learning project management is the creation of a course development plan. The plan should account for decisions related to materials, curriculum, delivery methods, staffing, technology applications, resources, reporting lines, and project management--issues that may require administrator involvement and support, particularly…

  3. Rapid One-Step Selection Method for Generating Nucleic Acid Aptamers: Development of a DNA Aptamer against alpha-Bungarotoxin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Lasse Holm; Shamaileh, Hadi A.; Edwards, Stacey L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Nucleic acids based therapeutic approaches have gained significant interest in recent years towards the development of therapeutics against many diseases. Recently, research on aptamers led to the marketing of Macugen (R), an inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF......) for the treatment of age related macular degeneration (AMD). Aptamer technology may prove useful as a therapeutic alternative against an array of human maladies. Considering the increased interest in aptamer technology globally that rival antibody mediated therapeutic approaches, a simplified selection, possibly...... in one-step, technique is required for developing aptamers in limited time period. Principal Findings: Herein, we present a simple one-step selection of DNA aptamers against alpha-bungarotoxin. A toxin immobilized glass coverslip was subjected to nucleic acid pool binding and extensive washing followed...

  4. Development and evaluation of a real-time one step Reverse-Transcriptase PCR for quantitation of Chandipura Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tandale Babasaheb V

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chandipura virus (CHPV, a member of family Rhabdoviridae was attributed to an explosive outbreak of acute encephalitis in children in Andhra Pradesh, India in 2003 and a small outbreak among tribal children from Gujarat, Western India in 2004. The case-fatality rate ranged from 55–75%. Considering the rapid progression of the disease and high mortality, a highly sensitive method for quantifying CHPV RNA by real-time one step reverse transcriptase PCR (real-time one step RT-PCR using TaqMan technology was developed for rapid diagnosis. Methods Primers and probe for P gene were designed and used to standardize real-time one step RT-PCR assay for CHPV RNA quantitation. Standard RNA was prepared by PCR amplification, TA cloning and run off transcription. The optimized real-time one step RT-PCR assay was compared with the diagnostic nested RT-PCR and different virus isolation systems [in vivo (mice in ovo (eggs, in vitro (Vero E6, PS, RD and Sand fly cell line] for the detection of CHPV. Sensitivity and specificity of real-time one step RT-PCR assay was evaluated with diagnostic nested RT-PCR, which is considered as a gold standard. Results Real-time one step RT-PCR was optimized using in vitro transcribed (IVT RNA. Standard curve showed linear relationship for wide range of 102-1010 (r2 = 0.99 with maximum Coefficient of variation (CV = 5.91% for IVT RNA. The newly developed real-time RT-PCR was at par with nested RT-PCR in sensitivity and superior to cell lines and other living systems (embryonated eggs and infant mice used for the isolation of the virus. Detection limit of real-time one step RT-PCR and nested RT-PCR was found to be 1.2 × 100 PFU/ml. RD cells, sand fly cells, infant mice, and embryonated eggs showed almost equal sensitivity (1.2 × 102 PFU/ml. Vero and PS cell-lines (1.2 × 103 PFU/ml were least sensitive to CHPV infection. Specificity of the assay was found to be 100% when RNA from other viruses or healthy

  5. Development and evaluation of one step single tube multiplex RT-PCR for rapid detection and typing of dengue viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Parida Manmohan; Shrivastava Ambuj; Santhosh SR; Dash Paban; Saxena Parag; Rao PV

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Dengue is emerging as a major public health concern in many parts of the world. The development of a one-step, single tube, rapid, and multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (M-RT-PCR) for simultaneous detection and typing of dengue virus using serotype specific primers during acute phase of illness is reported. Results An optimal assay condition with zero background was established having no cross-reaction with closely related members of flavivirus (Jap...

  6. Effects of toe-in and toe-in with wider step width on level walking knee biomechanics in varus, valgus, and neutral knee alignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Hunter J; Shen, Guangping; Cates, Harold E; Zhang, Songning

    2017-12-01

    Increased peak external knee adduction moments exist for individuals with knee osteoarthritis and varus knee alignments, compared to healthy and neutrally aligned counterparts. Walking with increased toe-in or increased step width have been individually utilized to successfully reduce 1st and 2nd peak knee adduction moments, respectfully, but have not previously been combined or tested among all alignment groups. The purpose of this study was to compare toe-in only and toe-in with wider step width gait modifications in individuals with neutral, valgus, and varus alignments. Thirty-eight healthy participants with confirmed varus, neutral, or valgus frontal-plane knee alignment through anteroposterior radiographs, performed level walking in normal, toe-in, and toe-in with wider step width gaits. A 3×3 (group×intervention) mixed model repeated measures ANOVA compared alignment groups and gait interventions (pstep width compared to normal gait. The 2nd peak adduction moment was increased in toe-in compared to normal and toe-in with wider step width. The adduction impulse was also reduced in toe-in and toe-in with wider step width compared to normal gait. Peak knee flexion and external rotation moments were increased in toe-in and toe-in with wider step width compared to normal gait. Although the toe-in with wider step width gait seems to be a viable option to reduce peak adduction moments for varus alignments, sagittal, and transverse knee loadings should be monitored when implementing this gait modification strategy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Development of the Multiple Gene Knockout System with One-Step PCR in Thermoacidophilic Crenarchaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoji Suzuki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple gene knockout systems developed in the thermoacidophilic crenarchaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius are powerful genetic tools. However, plasmid construction typically requires several steps. Alternatively, PCR tailing for high-throughput gene disruption was also developed in S. acidocaldarius, but repeated gene knockout based on PCR tailing has been limited due to lack of a genetic marker system. In this study, we demonstrated efficient homologous recombination frequency (2.8 × 104 ± 6.9 × 103 colonies/μg DNA by optimizing the transformation conditions. This optimized protocol allowed to develop reliable gene knockout via double crossover using short homologous arms and to establish the multiple gene knockout system with one-step PCR (MONSTER. In the MONSTER, a multiple gene knockout cassette was simply and rapidly constructed by one-step PCR without plasmid construction, and the PCR product can be immediately used for target gene deletion. As an example of the applications of this strategy, we successfully made a DNA photolyase- (phr- and arginine decarboxylase- (argD- deficient strain of S. acidocaldarius. In addition, an agmatine selection system consisting of an agmatine-auxotrophic strain and argD marker was also established. The MONSTER provides an alternative strategy that enables the very simple construction of multiple gene knockout cassettes for genetic studies in S. acidocaldarius.

  8. A step-by-step workflow for low-level analysis of single-cell RNA-seq data with Bioconductor [version 2; referees: 1 approved, 4 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron T.L. Lun

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq is widely used to profile the transcriptome of individual cells. This provides biological resolution that cannot be matched by bulk RNA sequencing, at the cost of increased technical noise and data complexity. The differences between scRNA-seq and bulk RNA-seq data mean that the analysis of the former cannot be performed by recycling bioinformatics pipelines for the latter. Rather, dedicated single-cell methods are required at various steps to exploit the cellular resolution while accounting for technical noise. This article describes a computational workflow for low-level analyses of scRNA-seq data, based primarily on software packages from the open-source Bioconductor project. It covers basic steps including quality control, data exploration and normalization, as well as more complex procedures such as cell cycle phase assignment, identification of highly variable and correlated genes, clustering into subpopulations and marker gene detection. Analyses were demonstrated on gene-level count data from several publicly available datasets involving haematopoietic stem cells, brain-derived cells, T-helper cells and mouse embryonic stem cells. This will provide a range of usage scenarios from which readers can construct their own analysis pipelines.

  9. Ten Key Steps to Developing a Programme of University Mentoring for Newly Enrolled Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Casado-Muñoz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Peer mentoring or tutoring is an educational guidance method that is growing in universities around the world. Directed at the integration of students over the first year of university studies, it is based on the support and guidance that a more experienced student offers to a recently enrolled fellow student. It is a recent process in Spain which started a little over a decade ago, but each course brings more experiences. This article, derived from research, seeks to identify a series of key steps and ideas to implement this type of programme. The summary of the proposals stems from three main sources: a the experience and assessment of the Mentoring Programme at the University of Burgos; b the review of the peer mentoring programs implemented at 35 Spanish universities; and c the review, comparison and adaptation of formal mentoring to the university according to Perrone (2003.  The outcomes may be especially useful for those universities that wish to start mentoring programmes, and as a source of reflection and comparison for those with greater experience. We believe that special attention should be given on increasing and improving participation in the mentoring of newly enrolled students and on monitoring and assessing the whole process.

  10. Development of a Stair-Step Multifrequency Synchronized Excitation Signal for Fast Bioimpedance Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, He; Du, Fangling; Sun, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Wideband excitation signal with finite prominent harmonic components is desirable for fast bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) measurements. This work introduces a simple method to synthesize and realize a type of periodical stair-step multifrequency synchronized (MFS) signal. The Fourier series analysis shows that the p-order MFS signal f(p, t) has constant 81.06% energy distributed equally on its p  2nth primary harmonics. The synthesis principle is described firstly and then two examples of the 4-order and 5-order MFS signals, f(4, t) and f(5, t), are synthesized. The method to implement the MFS waveform based on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) and a digital to analog converter (DAC) is also presented. Both the number and the frequencies of the expected primary harmonics can be adjusted as needed. An impedance measurement experiment on a RC three-element equivalent model is performed, and results show acceptable precision, which validates the feasibility of the MFS excitation. PMID:24701563

  11. Development of a Stair-Step Multifrequency Synchronized Excitation Signal for Fast Bioimpedance Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxiang Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wideband excitation signal with finite prominent harmonic components is desirable for fast bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS measurements. This work introduces a simple method to synthesize and realize a type of periodical stair-step multifrequency synchronized (MFS signal. The Fourier series analysis shows that the p-order MFS signal f(p,t has constant 81.06% energy distributed equally on its p  2nth primary harmonics. The synthesis principle is described firstly and then two examples of the 4-order and 5-order MFS signals, f(4,t and f(5,t, are synthesized. The method to implement the MFS waveform based on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA and a digital to analog converter (DAC is also presented. Both the number and the frequencies of the expected primary harmonics can be adjusted as needed. An impedance measurement experiment on a RC three-element equivalent model is performed, and results show acceptable precision, which validates the feasibility of the MFS excitation.

  12. Developing a workbook to support the contextualisation of global health systems guidance: a case study identifying steps and critical factors for success in this process at WHO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Elizabeth; Lavis, John N; Brouwers, Melissa; Schwartz, Lisa

    2018-03-02

    Global guidance can help countries strengthen their health systems to deliver effective interventions to their populations. However, to have an impact, guidance needs to be contextualised or adapted to local settings; this process includes consideration of health system arrangements and political system factors. To date, methods to support contextualisation do not exist. In response, a workbook was designed to provide specific methods and strategies to enable the contextualisation of WHO's 'Optimizing health worker roles to improve maternal and newborn health' (OptimizeMNH) guidance at the national or subnational level. The objective of this study was to describe the process of developing the workbook and identify key steps of the development process, barriers that arose and facilitators that helped overcome some of these barriers. A qualitative single case study design was carried out. Interviews, documents and a reflexive journal were used. Constant comparison and an edit-style of organisation were used during data analysis to develop concepts, themes, subthemes and relationships among them. Thirteen interviews were conducted and 52 documents were reviewed. Three main steps were identified in the process of developing the workbook for health systems guidance contextualisation, namely (1) determining the need for and gaining approval to develop the workbook, (2) developing the workbook (taking on the task, creating the structure of the workbook, operationalising its components, undergoing approval processes and editing it), and (3) implementing the workbook both at the WHO level and at the national/subnational level. Five barriers and/or facilitators emerged relevant to each step, namely (1) having well-placed and credible champions, (2) creating and capitalising on opportunities, (3) finding the right language to engage various actors and obtain buy-in, (4) obtaining and maintaining meaningful buy-in, and (5) ensuring access to resources. Understanding the key

  13. Development methodology of the novel Endoscopic stone treatment step 1 (EST s1) training/assessment curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneziano, Domenico; Ahmed, Kamran; Van Cleynenbreugel, Ben S E P; Gözen, Ali Serdar; Palou, Joan; Sarica, Kemal; Liatsikos, Evangelos N; Sanguedolce, Francesco; Honeck, Patrick; Alvarez-Maestro, Mario; Papatsoris, Athanasios; Kallidonis, Panagiotis; Greco, Francesco; Breda, Alberto; Somani, Bhaskar

    2017-07-10

    Background Simulation based technical-skill assessment is a core topic of debate, especially in high-risk environments. After the introduction of the E-BLUS exam for basic laparoscopy, no more technical training/assessment urological protocols have been developed in Europe. Objective We describe the methodology used in the development of the novel Endoscopic Stone Treatment step 1 (EST s1) assessment curriculum. Materials and Methods The "full life cycle curriculum development" template was followed for curriculum development. A CTA was run to define the most important steps and details of RIRS, in accordance with EAU Urolithiasis guidelines. Training tasks were created between April 2015 and September 2015. Tasks and metrics were further analyzed by a consensus meeting with the EULIS board in February 2016. A review, aimed to study available simulators and their accordance with task requirements, was subsequently run in London on March 2016. After initial feedback and further tests, content validity of this protocol was achieved during EUREP 2016. Results The EST s1 curriculum development, took 23 months. 72 participants tested the 5 preliminary tasks during EUREP 2015, with sessions of 45 minutes each. Likert-scale questionnaires were filled-out to score the quality of training. The protocol was modified accordingly and 25 participants tested the 4 tasks during the hands-on training sessions of the ESUT 2016 congress. 134 participants finally participated in the validation study in EUREP 2016. During the same event 10 experts confirmed content validity by filling-out a Likert-scale questionnaire. Conclusion We described a reliable and replicable methodology that can be followed to develop training/assessment protocols for surgical procedures. The expert consensus meetings, strict adherence to guidelines and updated literature search towards an Endourology curriculum allowed correct training and assessment protocol development. It is the first step towards

  14. Conceptual and Critical Development in Student Teachers: First Steps towards an Integrated Comprehension of Osmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viennot, Laurence; Décamp, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    This investigation is focused on possible links between the development of critical attitude and conceptual understanding. We conducted a fine grained analysis of five student teachers' critical and conceptual development during a one hour and a half interaction with an expert. This investigation completes a series of three previous studies…

  15. LAND-USE, ECONOMICS AND HYDROLOGIC IMPACT ASSESSMENT: A SECOND STEP TOWARDS ACHIEVING SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Past and present development and land-use patterns have drastically altered the hydrologic function of our nation's watersheds. What is only now widely recognized is that the increased storm water volume and peak flows resulting from development in watersheds, not just the pollu...

  16. Reconstructing Faculty Roles to Align with Self-Authorship Development: The Gentle Art of Stepping Back

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Deborah A.; Lane, Terry

    2014-01-01

    Student development has connections to important academic purposes in higher education (King, Baxter Magolda, Barber, Kendall Brown & Lindsay, 2009). In particular, a growing body of work on self-authorship, a social-constructive theory of development, has demonstrated relevance to the purposes of higher education (Baxter Magolda, 2001; King…

  17. Development step toward fusion power plant and role of experimental reactor ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiwatari, Ryouji; Asaoka, Yoshiyuki; Okano, Kunihiko

    2005-01-01

    The development of fusion energy is going into the experimental reactor stage, and the thermal energy from the fusion reaction will be generated in a plant scale through the ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) project. The remaining critical issue toward the realization of fusion energy is to map out the development strategy. Recently early realization approach as for the fusion energy development is being discussed in Japan, Europe, and the United States. This approach implies that the devices for a Demo reactor and a proto-type reactor as seen in the fast breeder reactor are combined into a single device in order to advance the fusion energy development. On the other hand, a clear development road map for fusion energy hasn't been suggested yet, and whether that early realization approach is feasible or not is still ambiguous. In order to realize the fusion energy as an user-friendly energy system, the suggestion of the development missions and the road map from the user-side point of view is instructive not only to Japanese but also to other country's development policy after the ITER project. In this report, first of all, the development missions from the user's point of view have been structured. Second, the development target required to demonstrate net electric generation and to introduce the fusion energy into the market is investigated, respectively. This investigation reveals that the completion of the ITER reference operation gives the outlook toward the demonstration of net electric generation and that the completion of the ITER advanced operation gives the possibility to introduce the fusion energy into the market. At last, the electric demonstration power plant Demo-CREST and the commercial power plant CREST are proposed to construct the development road map for fusion energy. (author)

  18. Biomechanical influences on balance recovery by stepping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, E T; Robinovitch, S N

    1999-10-01

    Stepping represents a common means for balance recovery after a perturbation to upright posture. Yet little is known regarding the biomechanical factors which determine whether a step succeeds in preventing a fall. In the present study, we developed a simple pendulum-spring model of balance recovery by stepping, and used this to assess how step length and step contact time influence the effort (leg contact force) and feasibility of balance recovery by stepping. We then compared model predictions of step characteristics which minimize leg contact force to experimentally observed values over a range of perturbation strengths. At all perturbation levels, experimentally observed step execution times were higher than optimal, and step lengths were smaller than optimal. However, the predicted increase in leg contact force associated with these deviations was substantial only for large perturbations. Furthermore, increases in the strength of the perturbation caused subjects to take larger, quicker steps, which reduced their predicted leg contact force. We interpret these data to reflect young subjects' desire to minimize recovery effort, subject to neuromuscular constraints on step execution time and step length. Finally, our model predicts that successful balance recovery by stepping is governed by a coupling between step length, step execution time, and leg strength, so that the feasibility of balance recovery decreases unless declines in one capacity are offset by enhancements in the others. This suggests that one's risk for falls may be affected more by small but diffuse neuromuscular impairments than by larger impairment in a single motor capacity.

  19. Research and development needs in a step-wise process for the nuclear waste programme in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ström, A.; Andersson, J.; Ekeroth, E.; Hedin, A.; Pers, K.

    2016-01-01

    Concluding remarks: • The SKB RD&D Programme 2016 − contains an overview of all the measures that may be necessary for treatment and final disposal of nuclear waste from Swedish nuclear reactors and SKB's facilities; − clarifies how research and technology development are justified and evaluated in a step-wise procedure on the basis of the measures planned; − presents a strategic plan for the research and development necessary to establish and implement future activities; − Published as SKB TR 16-15 in December 2016

  20. Development of social informatics as a step of optimization the higher education process in Kazakhstan

    OpenAIRE

    Lyazzat Tungatarova

    2015-01-01

    The Kazakhstani geopolitical situation raise the concerns on the worsening of the security situation on post-Soviet Central Asia and its involvement into the global informatization demands a development of social informatics as a new educational trend.

  1. Development and Evaluation of a Student-Initiated Test Preparation Program for the USMLE Step 1 Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Lindsay F; Lineberry, Matthew; Park, Yoon Soo; Kamin, Carol S; Hyderi, Abbas A

    2018-01-01

    Studies have documented performance on the United States Medical Licensing Examination® (USMLE) Step 1 exam as an important factor that residency program directors consider when deciding which applicants to interview and rank. Therefore, success on this exam, though only one aspect of applicant evaluation, is important in determining future career prospects for medical students. Unfortunately, mean test scores at the University of Illinois College of Medicine at Chicago (UIC) have historically been below the national average. This retrospective and quasi-experimental mixed-methods study describes the development, evaluation, and effects of a student-initiated USMLE Step 1 preparatory program at UIC. The program provided second year students with First Aid for the USMLE Step 1 at the beginning of the academic year, as well as a six month subscription to the USMLE World question bank midyear. In addition, optional peer review sessions covering basic sciences and organ systems were taught by high-performing upperclassmen. The goals of the program were to raise mean USMLE Step 1 exam scores and increase the percentage of students passing the exam on their first time. The program premiered during the 2012-13 academic year. Data from this cohort as well as four others (N = 830; 2010-2014 examinees) were gathered. Performances between preintervention (2010-12 examinees) and postintervention (2013-14 examinees) cohorts of students were compared. Focus groups and interviews with staff and students were conducted, recorded, and analyzed to investigate the impact that the program had on student interactions and perceptions of the learning environment. There was a significant difference in exam performance pre- versus postintervention, with average USMLE Step 1 scores improving by 8.82 points following the implementation of the student-initiated program, t(5.61) = 828, p Step 1 (odds ratio = 3.08, SE = 1.07, p < .01). Students and staff commented on the sense of community and

  2. Reconstructing Faculty Roles to Align with Self- Authorship Development: The Gentle Art of Stepping Back

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah A. Day

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Student development has connections to important academic purposes in higher education (King, Baxter Magolda, Barber, Kendall Brown & Lindsay, 2009. In particular, a growing body of work on self-authorship, a social-constructive theory of development, has demonstrated relevance to the purposes of higher education (Baxter Magolda, 2001; King & Baxter Magolda, 2004. The conditions which support self-authorship development in academic settings have been studied in detail, drawing attention to what King et al. (2009 frame as developmentally effective educational experiences. Explorations of self-authorship development in academic settings have focused on students’ experiences and outcomes. The classroom experiences of faculty, particularly those working outside institutional initiatives, to support self-authorship have received less attention. This study used a theory-driven (Baxter Magolda, 2001; Pizzolato, 2005, practice-based research framework, to explore a faculty-student affairs collaboration through participant observation as the collaborators sought to align their teaching practices with the tenets of self-authorship development in the context of a senior undergraduate course in Service-Learning. Four themes emerged, which have relevance for those who wish to consider student personal and academic development concurrently. We argue that individual faculty members can collaborate with student affairs professionals and use self-authorship theory to expand their constructions of what it means to be a “good professor” by approaching teaching as a mirror image of the self-authorship journey traveled by students.

  3. Systematic development of small molecules to inhibit specific microscopic steps of Aβ42 aggregation in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habchi, Johnny; Chia, Sean; Limbocker, Ryan; Mannini, Benedetta; Ahn, Minkoo; Perni, Michele; Hansson, Oskar; Arosio, Paolo; Kumita, Janet R; Challa, Pavan Kumar; Cohen, Samuel I A; Linse, Sara; Dobson, Christopher M; Knowles, Tuomas P J; Vendruscolo, Michele

    2017-01-10

    The aggregation of the 42-residue form of the amyloid-β peptide (Aβ42) is a pivotal event in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The use of chemical kinetics has recently enabled highly accurate quantifications of the effects of small molecules on specific microscopic steps in Aβ42 aggregation. Here, we exploit this approach to develop a rational drug discovery strategy against Aβ42 aggregation that uses as a read-out the changes in the nucleation and elongation rate constants caused by candidate small molecules. We thus identify a pool of compounds that target specific microscopic steps in Aβ42 aggregation. We then test further these small molecules in human cerebrospinal fluid and in a Caenorhabditis elegans model of AD. Our results show that this strategy represents a powerful approach to identify systematically small molecule lead compounds, thus offering an appealing opportunity to reduce the attrition problem in drug discovery.

  4. Development of technical information database for high level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, Koji; Takada, Susumu; Kawanishi, Motoi

    2005-01-01

    A concept design of the high level waste disposal information database and the disposal technologies information database are explained. The high level waste disposal information database contains information on technologies, waste, management and rules, R and D, each step of disposal site selection, characteristics of sites, demonstration of disposal technology, design of disposal site, application for disposal permit, construction of disposal site, operation and closing. Construction of the disposal technologies information system and the geological disposal technologies information system is described. The screen image of the geological disposal technologies information system is shown. User is able to search the full text retrieval and attribute retrieval in the image. (S.Y. )

  5. Lifetimes of some 4p levels of Ne I obtained by two-step (electron-photon) excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, M.; Garcia, G.; Blanco, F.; Campos, J.

    1990-01-01

    Radiative lifetimes of some levels belonging to 2p 5 4p configuration of Ne I have been determined using electron excitation followed by selective laser excitation. The experimental results of this work are 123.8±3.6 ns, 120.3±2.8 ns and 135.9±4.5 ns for the 4p'(3/2) 1 , 4p'(1/2) 1 and 4p(5/2) 2 levels respectively. (orig.)

  6. Computational Abstraction Steps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Lone Leth; Thomsen, Bent; Nørmark, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    and class instantiations. Our teaching experience shows that many novice programmers find it difficult to write programs with abstractions that materialise to concrete objects later in the development process. The contribution of this paper is the idea of initiating a programming process by creating...... or capturing concrete values, objects, or actions. As the next step, some of these are lifted to a higher level by computational means. In the object-oriented paradigm the target of such steps is classes. We hypothesise that the proposed approach primarily will be beneficial to novice programmers or during...... the exploratory phase of a program development process. In some specific niches it is also expected that our approach will benefit professional programmers....

  7. THE DECISION TO RECOMMEND YUCCA MOUNTAIN AND THE NEXT STEPS TOWARD LICENSED REPOSITORY DEVELOPMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, L. H.

    2002-01-01

    After more than 20 years of carefully planned and reviewed scientific field work by the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Geological Survey, and numerous other organizations, Secretary of Energy Abraham concluded in January that the Yucca Mountain site is suitable, within the meaning of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, for development as a permanent nuclear waste and spent fuel repository. In February, the Secretary recommended to the President that the site be developed for licensed disposal of these wastes, and the President transmitted this recommendation to Congress. This paper summarizes key technical and national interest considerations that provided the basis for the recommendation. It also discusses the program's near-term plans for repository development if Congress designates the site

  8. A step toward development of printable dosage forms for poorly soluble drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raijada, Dharaben Kaushikkumar; Genina, Natalja; Fors, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to formulate printable dosage forms for a poorly soluble drug (piroxicam; PRX) and to gain understanding of critical parameters to be considered during development of such dosage forms. Liquid formulations of PRX were printed on edible paper using piezoelectric inkjet...

  9. Creativity as a Stepping Stone towards Developing Other Competencies in Classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niluphar Ahmadi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Creativity, as a 21st-century skill, has gained more interest these past years and has become one of the key competencies to be implemented in classrooms. However, some studies highlight teachers’ difficulties to integrate it in a classroom context. For instance, introducing creativity in overloaded school curricula may be a hindrance to developing it. Teachers have to implement other 21st-century competencies (the 4Cs at the same time as well. These educational objectives can be considerable in terms of time and means for teachers and thus do not encourage them to develop these competencies. The purpose of this article is to present links, essentially theoretical, made by researchers between creativity and other 21st-century skills (e.g., critical thinking, metacognition, and collaboration. We considered that if creativity shares some characteristics with other competencies, it can be possible that, by applying only a teaching-for-creativity approach in classroom, we can also contribute to developing the other “C” as well. So choosing only creativity can be a way for teachers to develop their pupils’ skills without falling behind in their curriculum. In this article, we will also discuss our hypothesis taking into account limits from teachers’ classroom practices. Teachers’ training, evaluation, and everyday practices will be considered.

  10. Symposium Introduction: Stepping into Their Power--The Development of a Teacher Leadership Stance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smulyan, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    This introduction to the symposium on Teacher Leadership describes how a group of teachers have developed a definition of teacher leadership as a stance. The article explores how prior definitions of teacher leadership tend to focus on individual skills or roles. Neoliberal educational policies that emphasize market-based policy, privatization,…

  11. A First Step Towards High-Level Cost Models for the Implementation of SDRs on Multiprocessing Reconfigurable Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Moullec, Yannick

    2011-01-01

    -In-Progress paper we introduce our set of high-level estimation models for Area-Time costs of applications mapped onto FPGA-based multiprocessing reconfigurable architectures. In particular, we suggest models for static and dynamic implementations, taking various internal and external architectural elements...... into account. We believe that such models could be used for rapidly comparing implementation alternatives at a high level of abstraction and for guiding the designer during the (pre)analysis phase of the design flow for the implementation of e.g. SDR platforms....

  12. The next step in a development of negative ion beam plasma neutraliser for ITER NBI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulygin, V.M.; Dlougach, E.D.; Gorbunov, E.P.

    2001-01-01

    Injectors of deuterium atom beams developing for ITER plasma heating and current drive are based on the negative ion acceleration and further neutralization with a gas target. The maximal efficiency of a gas stripping process is 60%. The replacement of the gas neutralizer by plasma one must increase the neutral yield to 80%. The experimental study overview of the microwave discharge in a multi-cusp magnetic system chosen as a base device for Plasma Neutralizer realization and the design development for ITER Neutral Beam Injectors are presented. The experimental results achieved at a plasma neutralizer model PNX-U is discussed. Plasma confinement, gas flows, ionization degree were investigated. The plasma in the volume 0.5m 3 with density n e ∼ 10 18 m -3 has been achieved at power density 80kW/m 3 in operation with Argon. (author)

  13. First steps in developing the niche market for PV in conservatories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-06-01

    This report describes the findings of a project commissioned by the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) to review and quantitatively assess the prospects and potential for the integration of photovoltaic (PV) modules and components into conservatories. This is considered one way of expanding the market for domestic PV installations in the UK. The report describes the outputs from the project's various work packages. These included: an assessment of the benefits provided by PVs in conservatories in terms of energy use, shading, simulations and aesthetics; the definition of design requirements for integrating PV; development of designs; market surveys of consumers, the conservatory industry and the house building industry; and the development of user guidelines

  14. Bahrain’s tertiary education reform : a step towards sustainable economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Karolak, Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    Bahrain has been experiencing along with other Gulf Council Cooperation countries a rapid development of its tertiary sector of education. The 2000's were marked by a boom in education with the opening of twelve private universities in this country of roughly 1 million inhabitants. Some institutions were locally based, while others worked in affiliation with foreign based universities. It is in sharp contrast with the 1990's, when only three public universities served as centers of higher edu...

  15. Elise - The next step in development of induction heavy ion drivers for inertial fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E.; Bangerter, R.O.; Celata, C.; Faltens, A.; Fessenden, T.; Peters, C.; Pickrell, J.; Reginato, L.; Seidl, P.; Yu, S.; Deadeick, F.

    1995-01-01

    This document presents the main features of Elise, a future electric-focused accelerator proposed by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The goal of the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research Program is to develop accelerators for fusion energy production. The Elise accelerator would be capable of accelerating and electrostatically focusing four parallel, full-scale ion beams and would be designed to be extendible so as to meet this goal. (TEC). 3 refs., 3 figs

  16. First step in developing a 3D biodegradable fibrin scaffold for an artificial ovary

    OpenAIRE

    Luyckx, Valérie; Dolmans, Marie-Madeleine; Vanacker, Julie; Scalercio, Sarah R; Donnez, Jacques; Amorim, Christiani A

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although transplantation of cryopreserved ovarian tissue is a promising approach to restore fertility in cancer patients, it is not advisable for women at risk of ovarian involvement due to the threat of reintroducing malignant cells. The aim of this study was therefore to find an alternative for these patients by development of an artificial ovary. METHODS: For construction of the artificial ovary matrix, we used a central composite design to investigate nine combinations of fibr...

  17. Customer Discovery as the First Essential Step for Successful Health Information Technology System Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamjamrassri, Punyotai; Song, YuJin; Tak, JaeHyun; Kang, HoYong; Kong, Hyoun-Joong; Hong, Jeeyoung

    2018-01-01

    Customer discovery (CD) is a method to determine if there are actual customers for a product/service and what they would want before actually developing the product/service. This concept, however, is rather new to health information technology (IT) systems. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to demonstrate how to use the CD method in developing a comprehensive health IT service for patients with knee/leg pain. We participated in a 6-week I-Corps program to perform CD, in which we interviewed 55 people in person, by phone, or by video conference within 6 weeks: 4 weeks in the United States and 2 weeks in Korea. The interviewees included orthopedic doctors, physical therapists, physical trainers, physicians, researchers, pharmacists, vendors, and patients. By analyzing the interview data, the aim was to revise our business model accordingly. Using the CD approach enabled us to understand the customer segments and identify value propositions. We concluded that a facilitating tele-rehabilitation system is needed the most and that the most suitable customer segment is early stage arthritis patients. We identified a new design concept for the customer segment. Furthermore, CD is required to identify value propositions in detail. CD is crucial to determine a more desirable direction in developing health IT systems, and it can be a powerful tool to increase the potential for successful commercialization in the health IT field.

  18. Oil and gas in British Columbia : 10 steps to responsible development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-04-01

    The British Columbia government has proposed to double production of oil and gas, the burning of which causes global warming. West Coast Environmental Law (WCEL) claims there is a strong divide between British Columbia's plans to expand the production and use of fossil fuels, and the international scientific consensus regarding the negative aspects of global warming. The impacts of oil and gas production negatively affect the health of local citizens, First Nations rights and the environment. Offshore oil and gas development could also threaten fisheries and pollute sensitive marine ecosystems. WCEL criticizes the fact that the British Columbia government has streamlined environmental regulations, has laid off compliance monitoring staff, and has given subsidies to the highly profitable oil and gas industry. WCEL argues that the impact of fossil fuel production must be mitigated to limit the damage to lands and people in British Columbia. The organization has proposed 10 recommendations to the British Columbia government. The recommendations focus on impacts of land-based oil and gas development rather than offshore impacts. WCEL claims that adoption of the 10-point mitigation plan is vital for putting British Columbia on the path toward sustainable development. 43 refs

  19. A Giant Step for Developing Countries, Lessons Learned from Feasibility Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byoung Youp [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Young Gon [Sanamyung Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    According to the IAEA(International Atomic Energy Agency, hereinafter 'IAEA') research, the booming trend of nuclear renaissance among developing countries have initiated to investigate economic feasibility studies regarding future electricity demand and supply for the introduction of nuclear power generation in massive volume. Although the ambitious dream of public servants in the third nations who desperately want to instill nuclear power generation capacity promising generation abundance in their homeland, it is not easy to calculate economic benefits and its related costs where lots of blurred areas could not defined in plain terminology. For this reason, IAEA urges the new entrant countries should prepare carefully and design cautiously not to deter large lump sum nuclear power plant construction project. Nuclear power generation in civil area can be seen as righteous peaceful usage of nuclear energy in appropriate manner, although the advanced technology, capital intensive characteristics would hinder for the developing countries to implement proper scheduled ambitious nuclear power projects in timely course. In particular, the complicated economic feasibility studies are major tasks for poverty struck sovereigns to fulfill their ambitions. Thus further detailed design might be requested in order to relieve international concerns on possible military usage. This article is exploring to gauge multiple aspects of peaceful usage of nuclear energy and its economic benefits which allow power huger nations to achieve sustainable development and make significant advancement.

  20. Bahrain’s tertiary education reform : a step towards sustainable economic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Karolak

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Bahrain has been experiencing along with other Gulf Council Cooperation countries a rapid development of its tertiary sector of education. The 2000's were marked by a boom in education with the opening of twelve private universities in this country of roughly 1 million inhabitants. Some institutions were locally based, while others worked in affiliation with foreign based universities. It is in sharp contrast with the 1990's, when only three public universities served as centers of higher education. The reasons behind this large-scale expansion of higher education include the growth of local and expatriate population, the planned transition from oil industry to a knowledge-based economy as well as the growing role of women in the workforce. All of these factors need to be addressed in order to assure a stable social and economic development, and education is the backbone of both. This paper examines the recent initiatives undertaken in Bahrain to monitor and ensure the quality of education of cross-border educational institutions as well as that of local education providers.

  1. Human Resource Investment – a Step in the Development of Public Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminita Iordache

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Human capital development supposes important investments in the field of public administration and the assurance of the necessary conditions to provide some quality–services. This paper has as a starting point the statement of the German sociologist Max Weber according to which “a modern society can function efficiently by training and perfecting the experts within a bureaucracy.” Modern societies put into evidence new values of public administration such social responsibility and adaptability. By specializing human resources, we contribute to using them efficiently. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the degree of involvement of the public institutions in developing human capital and to focus on the role of the education of public administration in order to internally increase stability so that we resist the frequent changes which suppose the continuous adjustment to external conditions. Our aim is also to analyse the already-implemented programmes as well as the ongoing ones concerning the training and perfecting of the public servants.

  2. Development of the thermal denitration in-storage-can step in the CEUSP process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vedder, R.J.; Collins, E.D.; Haas, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    A thermal denitration in-the-storage-can process has been developed for use in the Consolidated Edison Uranium Solidification Program Facility. This process is being used to convert approx.1000 kg of highly fissile and radioactive uranium to a solid form for safe long-term storage. The material being solidified also contains approx.300 kg of cadmium and approx.40 kg of gadolinium which had been combined with the uranium to provide criticality safety. The unique thermal denitration process was found to be extremely susceptible to entrainment of solids by splattering, foaming, or expulsion actions. The process connection nozzle, through which the feed solution and purging air are supplied and the emerging off-gases are discharged, and the off-gas handling system were modified extensively to permit operation without development of nozzle or line pluggage due to accumulation of solid deposits. A process study was made to determine the effects of feed components and process variables on the tendency of the reacting mixture to splatter, foam, or be expelled. Because of the equipment modifications and the selection of appropriate processing conditions, the feed material is being denitrated without significant problems

  3. Development Track of Different County-Level Towns

    OpenAIRE

    ZHANG, Haijiao; ZHANG, Zhenghe

    2015-01-01

    County-level town is important space carrier of China’s urbanization and the emphasis and key of strategic distribution for urbanization. Backwardness of county-level towns limits nearby transfer of surplus labor. To promote development of county-level towns, on the basis of classifying county-level towns, this paper analyzed motive and resistance factors of evolution of different county-level towns using historical data collection and statistical method, comparative approach, typical case ...

  4. Development and validation of a local time stepping-based PaSR solver for combustion and radiation modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pang, Kar Mun; Ivarsson, Anders; Haider, Sajjad

    2013-01-01

    In the current work, a local time stepping (LTS) solver for the modeling of combustion, radiative heat transfer and soot formation is developed and validated. This is achieved using an open source computational fluid dynamics code, OpenFOAM. Akin to the solver provided in default assembly i...... library in the edcSimpleFoam solver which was introduced during the 6th OpenFOAM workshop is modified and coupled with the current solver. One of the main amendments made is the integration of soot radiation submodel since this is significant in rich flames where soot particles are formed. The new solver...

  5. Steps in the development of a Vibrio cholerae El Tor biofilm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watnick, Paula I.; Kolter, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Summary We report that, in a simple, static culture system, wild-type Vibrio cholerae El Tor forms a three-dimensional biofilm with characteristic water channels and pillars of bacteria. Furthermore, we have isolated and characterized transposon insertion mutants of V. cholerae that are defective in biofilm development. The transposons were localized to genes involved in (i) the biosynthesis and secretion of the mannose-sensitive haemagglutinin type IV pilus (MSHA); (ii) the synthesis of exopolysaccharide; and (iii) flagellar motility. The phenotypes of these three groups suggest that the type IV pilus and flagellum accelerate attachment to the abiotic surface, the flagellum mediates spread along the abiotic surface, and exopolysaccharide is involved in the formation of three-dimensional biofilm architecture. PMID:10564499

  6. Sustainable Tourism and Eradication of Poverty (Step: impact assessment of a tourism development program in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Cortes Neri

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to evaluate the social impacts of the Tourism Development Program (Prodetur in the northeastern town of Porto Seguro, Bahia, Brazil. The method used is based on the difference in difference technique applied to the 1991 and 2000 Census microdata. The results suggest social advances following from poverty relief based on income - where the benefits are distributed, generally, in a relatively equal manner between the native and migrant population. There is a relative deterioration in the sanitary situation, which consists of a very serious problem in the mid- and long-term, whose costs are mostly borne by the native population. Therefore, maintaining the natural capital is the main aspect that distances Porto Seguro’s tourism supply from the concept of sustainability. The article also relies on difference in difference estimators to assess the impacts of local public policies related to the sector.

  7. LDRD final report on microencapsulated immunoreagents for development of one-step ELISA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, C.C.; Singh, A.K.

    1997-08-01

    Microencapsulation of biological macromolecules was investigated as a method for incorporating the necessary immunoreagents into an improved enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) package that would self-develop. This self-contained ELISA package would eliminate the need for a trained technician to perform multiple additions of immunoreagent to the assay. Microencapsulation by insolution drying was selected from the many available microencapsulation methods, and two satisfactory procedures for microencapsulation of proteins were established. The stability and potential for rapid release of protein from these microencapsulates was then evaluated. The results suggest that the chosen method for protein entrapment produces microcapsules with a considerable amount of protein in the walls making these particular microcapsules unsuitable for their intended use.

  8. Key steps in developing a cognitive vaccine against traumatic flashbacks: visuospatial Tetris versus verbal Pub Quiz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Emily A; James, Ella L; Kilford, Emma J; Deeprose, Catherine

    2010-11-10

    Flashbacks (intrusive memories of a traumatic event) are the hallmark feature of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, however preventative interventions are lacking. Tetris may offer a 'cognitive vaccine' [1] against flashback development after trauma exposure. We previously reported that playing the computer game Tetris soon after viewing traumatic material reduced flashbacks compared to no-task [1]. However, two criticisms need to be addressed for clinical translation: (1) Would all games have this effect via distraction/enjoyment, or might some games even be harmful? (2) Would effects be found if administered several hours post-trauma? Accordingly, we tested Tetris versus an alternative computer game--Pub Quiz--which we hypothesized not to be helpful (Experiments 1 and 2), and extended the intervention interval to 4 hours (Experiment 2). The trauma film paradigm was used as an experimental analog for flashback development in healthy volunteers. In both experiments, participants viewed traumatic film footage of death and injury before completing one of the following: (1) no-task control condition (2) Tetris or (3) Pub Quiz. Flashbacks were monitored for 1 week. Experiment 1: 30 min after the traumatic film, playing Tetris led to a significant reduction in flashbacks compared to no-task control, whereas Pub Quiz led to a significant increase in flashbacks. Experiment 2: 4 hours post-film, playing Tetris led to a significant reduction in flashbacks compared to no-task control, whereas Pub Quiz did not. First, computer games can have differential effects post-trauma, as predicted by a cognitive science formulation of trauma memory. In both Experiments, playing Tetris post-trauma film reduced flashbacks. Pub Quiz did not have this effect, even increasing flashbacks in Experiment 1. Thus not all computer games are beneficial or merely distracting post-trauma - some may be harmful. Second, the beneficial effects of Tetris are retained at 4 hours post-trauma. Clinically

  9. First Steps Toward K-12 Teacher Professional Development Using Internet-based Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryhill, K. J.; Gershun, D.; Slater, T. F.; Armstrong, J. D.

    2012-12-01

    How can science teachers become more familiar with emerging technology, excite their students and give students a taste of astronomy research? Astronomy teachers do not always have research experience, so it is difficult for them to convey to students how researchers use telescopes. The nature of astronomical observation (e.g., remote sites, expensive equipment, and odd hours) has been a barrier to providing teachers with insight into the process. Robotic telescopes (operated automatically with queued observing schedules) and remotely controlled telescopes (controlled by the user via the Internet) allow scientists to conduct observing sessions on research-grade telescopes half a world away. The same technology can now be harnessed by STEM educators to engage students and reinforce what is being taught in the classroom, as seen in some early research in elementary schools (McKinnon and Mainwaring 2000 and McKinnon and Geissinger 2002), and middle/high schools (Sadler et al. 2001, 2007 and Gehret et al. 2005). However, teachers need to be trained to use these resources. Responding to this need, graduate students and faculty at the University of Wyoming and CAPER Center for Astronomy & Physics Education Research are developing teacher professional development programs using Internet-based telescopes. We conducted an online course in the science education graduate program at the University of Wyoming. This course was designed to sample different types of Internet-based telescopes to evaluate them as resources for teacher professional development. The 10 participants were surveyed at the end of the course to assess their experiences with each activity. In addition, pre-test/post-test data were collected focusing specifically on one of the telescopes (Gershun, Berryhill and Slater 2012). Throughout the course, the participants learned to use a variety of robotic and remote telescopes including SLOOH Space Camera (www.slooh.com), Sky Titan Observatory (www

  10. Key steps in developing a cognitive vaccine against traumatic flashbacks: visuospatial Tetris versus verbal Pub Quiz.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A Holmes

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Flashbacks (intrusive memories of a traumatic event are the hallmark feature of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, however preventative interventions are lacking. Tetris may offer a 'cognitive vaccine' [1] against flashback development after trauma exposure. We previously reported that playing the computer game Tetris soon after viewing traumatic material reduced flashbacks compared to no-task [1]. However, two criticisms need to be addressed for clinical translation: (1 Would all games have this effect via distraction/enjoyment, or might some games even be harmful? (2 Would effects be found if administered several hours post-trauma? Accordingly, we tested Tetris versus an alternative computer game--Pub Quiz--which we hypothesized not to be helpful (Experiments 1 and 2, and extended the intervention interval to 4 hours (Experiment 2.The trauma film paradigm was used as an experimental analog for flashback development in healthy volunteers. In both experiments, participants viewed traumatic film footage of death and injury before completing one of the following: (1 no-task control condition (2 Tetris or (3 Pub Quiz. Flashbacks were monitored for 1 week. Experiment 1: 30 min after the traumatic film, playing Tetris led to a significant reduction in flashbacks compared to no-task control, whereas Pub Quiz led to a significant increase in flashbacks. Experiment 2: 4 hours post-film, playing Tetris led to a significant reduction in flashbacks compared to no-task control, whereas Pub Quiz did not.First, computer games can have differential effects post-trauma, as predicted by a cognitive science formulation of trauma memory. In both Experiments, playing Tetris post-trauma film reduced flashbacks. Pub Quiz did not have this effect, even increasing flashbacks in Experiment 1. Thus not all computer games are beneficial or merely distracting post-trauma - some may be harmful. Second, the beneficial effects of Tetris are retained at 4 hours post

  11. Development of sulfur- and nitrogen- free hydrogen odorants - An important step toward a safe hydrogen society -

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, N.; Oshikawa, K.; Hasegawa, H.; Le Lay, M.; Iwase, M.; Braun, N.A.; Eilers, J.; Walz, A.; Vogt, M.; Herr, M.

    2006-01-01

    We have developed four sulfur-free and nitrogen-free odorants, which can be effectively used to odorize hydrogen. The odors were described through an olfactory test as alarming, strange, and chemical, giving sense of danger to the person who smells the odor. The safety of the material has been assessed and has been shown to be safe for usage. Testing the stability of odorized hydrogen in 80 MPa pressurized state, it was shown for a period of 13 weeks that the odorant retained its warning odor. Using the odorized hydrogen, FC duration test at 0.2 A/cm 2 was carried out for over 900 h without significant decrease in performance or the detectable degradation of MEA. The outlet of the fuel cell had no warning odor, suggesting deodorization on the catalyst. Use of activated charcoal as an adsorbent showed that the deodorization could be effectively carried out, ensuring that normal operation conditions are not perceived as a hydrogen leakage. (authors)

  12. Developing a multi-criteria approach for drug reimbursement decision making: an initial step forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionne, Francois; Mitton, Craig; Dempster, Bill; Lynd, Larry D

    2015-01-01

    Coverage decisions for a new drug revolve around the balance between perceived value and price. But what is the perceived value of a new drug? Traditionally, the assessment of such value has largely revolved around the estimation of cost-effectiveness. However, very few will argue that the cost-effectiveness ratio presents a fulsome picture of 'value'. Multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) has been advocated as an alternative to cost-effectiveness analysis and it has been argued that it better reflects real world decision-making. The objective of this project was to address the issue of the lack of a satisfactory methodology to measure value for drugs by developing a framework to operationalize an MCDA approach incorporating societal values as they pertain to the value of drugs. Two workshops were held, one in Toronto in conjunction with the CAPT annual conference, and one in Ottawa, as part of the annual CADTH Symposium. Notes were taken at both workshops and the data collected was analyzed using a grounded theory approach. The intent was to reflect, as accurately as possible, what was said at the workshops, without normative judgement. Results to date are a set of guiding principles and criteria. There are currently ten criteria: Comparative effectiveness, Adoption feasibility, Risks of adverse events, Patient autonomy, Societal benefit, Equity, Strength of evidence, Incidence/prevalence/severity of condition, Innovation, and Disease prevention/ health promotion. Much progress has been made and it is now time to share the results. Feedback will determine the final shape of the framework proposed.

  13. The Child-care Food and Activity Practices Questionnaire (CFAPQ): development and first validation steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubbels, Jessica S; Sleddens, Ester Fc; Raaijmakers, Lieke Ch; Gies, Judith M; Kremers, Stef Pj

    2016-08-01

    To develop and validate a questionnaire to measure food-related and activity-related practices of child-care staff, based on existing, validated parenting practices questionnaires. A selection of items from the Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire (CFPQ) and the Preschooler Physical Activity Parenting Practices (PPAPP) questionnaire was made to include items most suitable for the child-care setting. The converted questionnaire was pre-tested among child-care staff during cognitive interviews and pilot-tested among a larger sample of child-care staff. Factor analyses with Varimax rotation and internal consistencies were used to examine the scales. Spearman correlations, t tests and ANOVA were used to examine associations between the scales and staff's background characteristics (e.g. years of experience, gender). Child-care centres in the Netherlands. The qualitative pre-test included ten child-care staff members. The quantitative pilot test included 178 child-care staff members. The new questionnaire, the Child-care Food and Activity Practices Questionnaire (CFAPQ), consists of sixty-three items (forty food-related and twenty-three activity-related items), divided over twelve scales (seven food-related and five activity-related scales). The CFAPQ scales are to a large extent similar to the original CFPQ and PPAPP scales. The CFAPQ scales show sufficient internal consistency with Cronbach's α ranging between 0·53 and 0·96, and average corrected item-total correlations within acceptable ranges (0·30-0·89). Several of the scales were significantly associated with child-care staff's background characteristics. Scale psychometrics of the CFAPQ indicate it is a valid questionnaire that assesses child-care staff's practices related to both food and activities.

  14. First step in developing a 3D biodegradable fibrin scaffold for an artificial ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyckx, Valérie; Dolmans, Marie-Madeleine; Vanacker, Julie; Scalercio, Sarah R; Donnez, Jacques; Amorim, Christiani A

    2013-11-25

    Although transplantation of cryopreserved ovarian tissue is a promising approach to restore fertility in cancer patients, it is not advisable for women at risk of ovarian involvement due to the threat of reintroducing malignant cells. The aim of this study was therefore to find an alternative for these patients by development of an artificial ovary. For construction of the artificial ovary matrix, we used a central composite design to investigate nine combinations of fibrinogen (mg/ml) and thrombin (IU/mL) (F/T): F1/T4, F12.5/T1, F12.5/T20, F25/T0.1, F25/T4, F25/T500, F50/T1, F50/T20 and F100/T4. From the first qualitative analyses (handling and matrix size), five combinations (F12.5/T1, F25/T4, F50/T20, F50/T1 and F100/T4) yielded positive results. They were further evaluated in order to assess fibrin matrix degradation and homogeneous cell encapsulation (density), survival and proliferation (Ki67), and atresia (TUNEL) before and after 7 days of in vitro culture. To determine the best compromise between maximizing the dynamic density (Y1) and minimizing the apoptosis rate (Y2), we used the desirability function approach. Two combinations (F12.5/T1 and F25/T4) showed greater distribution of cells before in vitro culture, reproducible degradation of the fibrin network and adequate support for isolated human ovarian stromal cells, with a high proportion of Ki67-positive cells. SEM analysis revealed a network of fibers with regular pores and healthy stromal cells after in vitro culture with both F/T combinations. This study reports two optimal F/T combinations that allow survival and proliferation of isolated human ovarian cells. Further studies are required to determine if such a scaffold will also be a suitable environment for isolated ovarian follicles.

  15. DOE low-level waste long term technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barainca, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of the Department of Energy's Low-Level Waste Management Program is to provide a low-level waste management system by 1986. Areas of concentration are defined as: (1) Waste Generation Reduction Technology, (2) Process and Handling Technology, (3) Environmental Technology, (4) Low-Level Waste Disposal Technology. A program overview is provided with specific examples of technical development. 2 figures

  16. Correlation, temperature and disorder: Recent developments in the one-step description of angle-resolved photoemission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Jürgen; Minár, Ján; Ebert, Hubert

    2018-04-01

    Various apparative developments extended the potential of angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy tremendously during the last two decades. Modern experimental arrangements consisting of new photon sources, analyzers and detectors supply not only extremely high angle and energy resolution but also spin resolution. This provides an adequate platform to study in detail new materials like low-dimensional magnetic structures, Rashba systems, topological insulator materials or high TC superconductors. The interest in such systems has grown enormously not only because of their technological relevance but even more because of exciting new physics. Furthermore, the use of photon energies from few eV up to several keV makes this experimental technique a rather unique tool to investigate the electronic properties of solids and surfaces. The following article reviews the corresponding recent theoretical developments in the field of angle-resolved photoemission with a special emphasis on correlation effects, temperature and relativistic aspects. The most successful theoretical approach to deal with angle-resolved photoemission is the so-called spectral function or one-step formulation of the photoemission process. Nowadays, the one-step model allows for photocurrent calculations for photon energies ranging from a few eV to more than 10 keV, to deal with arbitrarily ordered and disordered systems, to account for finite temperatures, and considering in addition strong correlation effects within the dynamical mean-field theory or similar advanced approaches.

  17. Influence Factors of the Economic Development Level Across European Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Ioana POPA

    2016-01-01

    The economic development level of a country refers to the measure of the progress in an economy that could be measured, especially through GDP or GDP per capita. The level of these indicators can be influenced by many factors as a large scale, from social and economical to environmental and government policies factors. The paper aims to investigate some of these influence factors of the economic development level, represented in this case by GDP per capita, across European countries in the...

  18. Transportation of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High Level Waste to Yucca Mountain: The Next Step in Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweeney, Robin L.; Lechel, David J.

    2003-01-01

    In the U.S. Department of Energy's ''Final Environmental Impact Statement for a Geologic Repository for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada,'' the Department states that certain broad transportation-related decisions can be made. These include the choice of a mode of transportation nationally (mostly legal-weight truck or mostly rail) and in Nevada (mostly rail, mostly legal-weight truck, or mostly heavy-haul truck with use of an associated intermodal transfer station), as well as the choice among alternative rail corridors or heavy-haul truck routes with use of an associated intermodal transfer station in Nevada. Although a rail line does not service the Yucca Mountain site, the Department has identified mostly rail as its preferred mode of transportation, both nationally and in the State of Nevada. If mostly rail is selected for Nevada, the Department would then identify a preference for one of the rail corridors in consultation with affected stakeholders, particularly the State of Nevada. DOE would then select the rail corridor and initiate a process to select a specific rail alignment within the corridor for the construction of a rail line. Five proposed rail corridors were analyzed in the Final Environmental Impact Statement. The assessment considered the impacts of constructing a branch rail line in the five 400-meter (0.25mile) wide corridors. Each corridor connects the Yucca Mountain site with an existing mainline railroad in Nevada

  19. Validation of battery-alternator model against experimental data - a first step towards developing a future power supply system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulos, A.M.; Burnham, K.J.; Mahtani, J.L. [Coventry University (United Kingdom). Control Theory and Applications Centre; Pacaud, C. [Jaguar Cars Ltd., Coventry (United Kingdom). Engineering Centre

    2004-01-01

    The electric power system of a modern vehicle has to supply enough electrical energy to drive numerous electrical and electronic systems and components. The electric power system of a vehicle consists of two major components: an alternator and a battery. A detailed understanding of the characteristics of the electric power system, electrical load demands and the operating environment, such as road conditions and vehicle laden weight, is required when the capacities of the generator and the battery are to be determined for a vehicle. In this study, a battery-alternator system has been developed and simulated in MATLAB/Simulink, and data obtained from vehicle tests have been used as a basis for validating the models. This is considered to be a necessary first step in the design and development of a new 42 V power supply system. (author)

  20. Characterizing the Final Steps of Chromosomal Replication at the Single-molecule Level in the Model System Escherichia coli

    KAUST Repository

    Elshenawy, Mohamed M.

    2015-12-01

    In the circular Escherichia coli chromosome, two replisomes are assembled at the unique origin of replication and drive DNA synthesis in opposite directions until they meet in the terminus region across from the origin. Despite the difference in rates of the two replisomes, their arrival at the terminus is synchronized through a highly specialized system consisting of the terminator protein (Tus) bound to the termination sites (Ter). This synchronicity is mediated by the polarity of the Tus−Ter complex that stops replisomes from one direction (non-permissive face) but not the other (permissive face). Two oppositely oriented clusters of five Tus–Ters that each block one of the two replisomes create a “replication fork trap” for the first arriving replisome while waiting for the late arriving one. Despite extensive biochemical and structural studies, the molecular mechanism behind Tus−Ter polar arrest activity remained controversial. Moreover, none of the previous work provided answers for the long-standing discrepancy between the ability of Tus−Ter to permanently stop replisomes in vitro and its low efficiency in vivo. Here, I spearheaded a collaborative project that combined single-molecule DNA replication assays, X-ray crystallography and binding studies to provide a true molecular-level understanding of the underlying mechanism of Tus−Ter polar arrest activity. We showed that efficiency of Tus−Ter is determined by a head-to-head kinetic competition between rate of strand separation by the replisome and rate of rearrangement of Tus−Ter interactions during the melting of the first 6 base pairs of Ter. This rearrangement maintains Tus’s strong grip on the DNA and stops the advancing replisome from breaking into Tus−Ter central interactions, but only transiently. We further showed how this kinetic competition functions within the context of two mechanisms to impose permanent fork stoppage. The rate-dependent fork arrest activity of Tus

  1. The effects of gender, level of co-contraction, and initial angle on elbow extensor muscle stiffness and damping under a step increase in elbow flexion moment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yunju; Ashton-Miller, James A

    2011-10-01

    Flexion buckling of an arm under the large ground reaction loads associated with arresting a fall to the ground increases the risk for head and thorax injuries. Yet, the factors that determine the arm buckling load remain poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis in 18 healthy young adults that neither gender, triceps co-contraction level (i.e., 25, 50, or 75% MVC) nor elbow angle would affect the rotational stiffness and damping resistance to step changes in elbow flexion loading. Data on the step response were gathered using optoelectronic markers (150 Hz) and myoelectric activity measurements (2 kHz), and an inverse dynamics analysis was used to estimate elbow extensor stiffness and damping coefficients. A repeated-measures analysis of variance showed that gender (p = 0.032), elbow flexion angle and co-contraction level (both p initial elbow flexion angle and maximum co-contraction, female stiffness and damping coefficients were 18 and 30% less, respectively, than male values after normalization by body height and weight. We conclude that the maximum extensor rotational stiffness and damping at the elbow is lower in women than in men of the same body size, and varies with triceps co-contraction level and initial elbow angle.

  2. Definition of Technology Readiness Levels for Transmutation Fuel Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jon Carmack; Kemal O. Pasamehmetoglu

    2008-01-01

    To quantitatively assess the maturity of a given technology, the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) process is used. The TRL process has been developed and successfully used by the Department of Defense (DOD) for development and deployment of new technology and systems for defense applications. In addition, NASA has also successfully used the TRL process to develop and deploy new systems for space applications. Transmutation fuel development is a critical technology needed for closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Because the deployment of a new nuclear fuel forms requires a lengthy and expensive research, development, and demonstration program, applying the TRL concept to the transmutation fuel development program is very useful as a management and tracking tool. This report provides definition of the technology readiness level assessment process as defined for use in assessing nuclear fuel technology development for the Transuranic Fuel Development Campaign

  3. Development of reactor water level sensor for extreme conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, K; Ogasawara, T [Sukegawa Electric Co., Ltd., Hitachi, Ibaraki (Japan); Shibata, Akira; Nakamura, Jinichi; Saito, Takashi; Tsuchiya, Kunihiko [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Oarai Research and Development Center, Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2012-03-15

    In the Fukushima accident, measurement failure of water level was one of the most important factors which caused serious situation. The differential pressure type water level indicators are widely used in various place of nuclear power plant but after the accident of TMI-2, the need of other reliable method has been required. The BICOTH type and the TRICOTH type water level indicator for light water power reactors had been developed for in-pile water level indicator but currently those are not adopted to nuclear power plant. In this study, the development of new type water level indicator composed of thermocouple and heater is described. Demonstration test and characteristic evaluation of the water level indicator were performed and we had obtained satisfactory results. (author)

  4. Leader Development Process in Pakistan Army at the Tactical Level

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nawaz, Amer

    2004-01-01

    .... up to a maximum of seven years of service. It analyzes the present leader development process of Pakistan Army to see its effectiveness to train leaders at the tactical level to perform effectively in future...

  5. A Study of Army Civilian Entry Level and Mid-Level Program Management Leadership Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-08

    and mid-grade level positions is an important responsibility for senior leaders. Mentoring and coaching entry level and mid-grade level...Program Management Leadership Development Craig J. Maurice Defense Acquisition University Senior Service College Fellowship 2015-2016 Huntsville...requirements for the Army’s Senior Service College Fellowship (SSCF) under the direction of SSCF Director, Mr. John Daniels and Research Advisor, Mr. Van

  6. A Systematic Review of Reporting Tools Applicable to Sexual and Reproductive Health Programmes: Step 1 in Developing Programme Reporting Standards.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kågesten

    . Development of Programme Reporting Standards (PRS for SRH can fill a significant gap in existing reporting tools. This systematic review is the first step in the development of such standards. In the next steps, we will draft a preliminary version of the PRS based on the aggregate list of identified items, and finalize the tool using a consensus process among experts and user-testing.

  7. Preliminary development of POEAW in enhancing K-11 students’ understanding level on impulse and momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthfiani, T. A.; Sinaga, P.; Samsudin, A.

    2018-05-01

    We have been analyzed that there were limited research about Predict-Observe- Explain which use writing process with conceptual change text strategy. This study aims to develop a learning model namely Predict-Observe-Explain-Apply-Writing (POEAW) which is able to enhance students’ understanding level. The research method utilized the 4D model (Defining, Designing, Developing and Disseminating) that is formally limited to Developing Stage. There are four experts who judge the learning component (syntax, lesson plan, teaching material and student worksheet) and matter component (learning quality and content component). The result of this study are obtained expert validity test score average of 87% for learning content and 89% for matter component that means the POEAW is valid and can be tested in classroom learning. This research producing POEAW learning model that has five main steps, Predict, Observe, Explain, Apply and Write. To sum up, we have early developed POEAW in enhancing K-11 students’ understanding levels on impulse and momentum.

  8. Accident sequence precursor analysis level 2/3 model development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lui, C.H.; Galyean, W.J.; Brownson, D.A.

    1997-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) program currently uses simple Level 1 models to assess the conditional core damage probability for operational events occurring in commercial nuclear power plants (NPP). Since not all accident sequences leading to core damage will result in the same radiological consequences, it is necessary to develop simple Level 2/3 models that can be used to analyze the response of the NPP containment structure in the context of a core damage accident, estimate the magnitude of the resulting radioactive releases to the environment, and calculate the consequences associated with these releases. The simple Level 2/3 model development work was initiated in 1995, and several prototype models have been completed. Once developed, these simple Level 2/3 models are linked to the simple Level 1 models to provide risk perspectives for operational events. This paper describes the methods implemented for the development of these simple Level 2/3 ASP models, and the linkage process to the existing Level 1 models

  9. Microsoft Office professional 2010 step by step

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, Joyce; Frye, Curtis

    2011-01-01

    Teach yourself exactly what you need to know about using Office Professional 2010-one step at a time! With STEP BY STEP, you build and practice new skills hands-on, at your own pace. Covering Microsoft Word, PowerPoint, Outlook, Excel, Access, Publisher, and OneNote, this book will help you learn the core features and capabilities needed to: Create attractive documents, publications, and spreadsheetsManage your e-mail, calendar, meetings, and communicationsPut your business data to workDevelop and deliver great presentationsOrganize your ideas and notes in one placeConnect, share, and accom

  10. Determinants and Levels of Agricultural Development Agents Job ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted with an objective of assessing the level of job satisfaction and its determinants among agricultural development agents working in different kebeles of Kalu Woreda, South Wollo Zone of the Amhara National Regional State. A total of 100 development agents were selected and interviewed using ...

  11. Aspect-Oriented Model Development at Different Levels of Abstraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alférez, Mauricio; Amálio, Nuno; Ciraci, S.; Fleurey, Franck; Kienzle, Jörg; Klein, Jacques; Kramer, Max; Mosser, Sebastien; Mussbacher, Gunter; Roubtsova, Ella; Zhang, Gefei; France, Robert B.; Kuester, Jochen M.; Bordbar, Behzad; Paige, Richard F.

    2011-01-01

    The last decade has seen the development of diverse aspect- oriented modeling (AOM) approaches. This paper presents eight different AOM approaches that produce models at different level of abstraction. The approaches are different with respect to the phases of the development lifecycle they target,

  12. Nascent Entrepreneurship and the Level of Economic Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R.M. Wennekers (Sander); A.J. van Stel (André); A.R. Thurik (Roy); P. Reynolds (Paul)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractBased upon two strands of literature, this paper hypothesizes a U-shaped relationship between a country’s rate of entrepreneurial dynamics and its level of economic development. This would imply a different scope for entrepreneurship policy across subsequent stages of development.

  13. High-level Component Interfaces for Collaborative Development: A Proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Marlowe

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Software development has rapidly moved toward collaborative development models where multiple partners collaborate in creating and evolving software intensive systems or components of sophisticated ubiquitous socio-technical-ecosystems. In this paper we extend the concept of software interface to a flexible high-level interface as means for accommodating change and localizing, controlling and managing the exchange of knowledge and functional, behavioral, quality, project and business related information between the partners and between the developed components.

  14. Development of 8 MW Power Supply Based on Pulse Step Modulation Technique for Auxiliary Heating System on HL-2A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Weidong; Xuan Weimin; Yao Lieying; Wang Yingqiao

    2012-01-01

    The high voltage power supply (HVPS) based on pulse step modulation (PSM) has already been developed for the auxiliary heating system on HL-2A. This power supply consists of many switch power supplies, and its output voltage can be obtained by modulating their delay time and pulse widths. The PSM topology and control principle are presented in this paper. The simple algorithms for the control system are explained clearly. The switch power supply (SPS) module has been built and the test results show it can meet the requirements of the auxiliary heating system. Now, 112 SPS modules and the whole system have already been developed. Its maximum output is about 72 kV/93 A. The protection time is less than 5 μs. The different outputs of this power supply are used for the electron cyclotron resonant heating (ECRH) system with different duty ratios. The experimental results of the entire system are presented. The results indicate that the whole system can meet the requirements of the auxiliary heating system on HL-2A.

  15. Free solar lanterns to below poverty line girls in India: a step toward achieving millennium development goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    Development sectors like health cannot function in isolation. Intersectoral coordination between various departments helps in bringing a positive change in the health-seeking behavior of society in the long run. The decision by the Government of India to provide free solar lanterns (lamps) to the school-going girls of below poverty line families is a welcome step in this context. This initiative would help in reducing the number of school dropout girls and thus help in improving the health indicators that are directly related to women's education. Thus it is an initiative that will help in attainment of Millennium Development Goals through women's education and empowerment. Along with that, the environment-friendly approach will definitely have an impact on health of the girls by switching from kerosene/wood stoves to solar lantern light. Also this initiative would pave the path of real "intersectoral coordination" in the health sector in India that is marred with watertight functioning of various departments. There is an urgent need to popularize the scheme and involve different stakeholders like corporate houses, media, nongovernment organizations, multinational welfare agencies, and local governing bodies for ensuring the availability and utilization of solar lanterns in India.

  16. Development and evaluation of one step single tube multiplex RT-PCR for rapid detection and typing of dengue viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parida Manmohan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue is emerging as a major public health concern in many parts of the world. The development of a one-step, single tube, rapid, and multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (M-RT-PCR for simultaneous detection and typing of dengue virus using serotype specific primers during acute phase of illness is reported. Results An optimal assay condition with zero background was established having no cross-reaction with closely related members of flavivirus (Japanese encephalitis, West Nile, Yellow fever and alphavirus (Chikungunya. The feasibility of M-RT-PCR assay for clinical diagnosis was validated with 620 acute phase dengue patient sera samples of recent epidemics in India. The comparative evaluation vis a vis conventional virus isolation revealed higher sensitivity. None of the forty healthy serum samples screened in the present study revealed any amplification, thereby establishing specificity of the reported assay for dengue virus only. Conclusion These findings clearly suggested that M-RT-PCR assay reported in the present study is the rapid and cost-effective method for simultaneous detection as well as typing of the dengue virus in acute phase patient serum samples. Thus, the M-RT-PCR assay developed in this study will serve as a very useful tool for rapid diagnosis and typing of dengue infections in endemic areas.

  17. Development, reliability, and validity testing of Toddler NutriSTEP: a nutrition risk screening questionnaire for children 18-35 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall Simpson, Janis; Gumbley, Jillian; Whyte, Kylie; Lac, Jane; Morra, Crystal; Rysdale, Lee; Turfryer, Mary; McGibbon, Kim; Beyers, Joanne; Keller, Heather

    2015-09-01

    Nutrition is vital for optimal growth and development of young children. Nutrition risk screening can facilitate early intervention when followed by nutritional assessment and treatment. NutriSTEP (Nutrition Screening Tool for Every Preschooler) is a valid and reliable nutrition risk screening questionnaire for preschoolers (aged 3-5 years). A need was identified for a similar questionnaire for toddlers (aged 18-35 months). The purpose was to develop a reliable and valid Toddler NutriSTEP. Toddler NutriSTEP was developed in 4 phases. Content and face validity were determined with a literature review, parent focus groups (n = 6; 48 participants), and experts (n = 13) (phase A). A draft questionnaire was refined with key intercept interviews of 107 parents/caregivers (phase B). Test-retest reliability (phase C), based on intra-class correlations (ICC), Kappa (κ) statistics, and Wilcoxon tests was assessed with 133 parents/caregivers. Criterion validity (phase D) was assessed using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves by comparing scores on the Toddler NutriSTEP to a comprehensive nutritional assessment of 200 toddlers with a registered dietitian (RD). The Toddler NutriSTEP was reliable between 2 administrations (ICC = 0.951, F = 20.53, p Toddler NutriSTEP were correlated (r = 0.67, p Toddler NutriSTEP questionnaire is both reliable and valid for screening for nutritional risk in toddlers.

  18. Classroom-Level Teacher Professional Development and Satisfaction: Teachers Learn in the Context of Classroom-Level Curriculum Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawer, Saad

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the impact of classroom-level teacher professional development (CTPD) and curriculum transmission on teacher professional development and satisfaction. Based on work with English-as-a-foreign-language college teachers and students, data analysis showed that CTPD significantly improved student-teacher subject,…

  19. Excellent Tribological Properties of Lower Reduced Graphene Oxide Content Copper Composite by Using a One-Step Reduction Molecular-Level Mixing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibin Nie

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Reduced graphene oxide (RGO composite copper matrix powders were fabricated successfully by using a modified molecular-level mixing (MLM method. Divalent copper ions (Cu2+ were adsorbed in oxygen functional groups of graphene oxide (GO as a precursor, then were reduced simultaneously by one step chemical reduction. RGO showed a distribution converting from a random to a three-dimensional network in the copper matrix when its content increased to above 1.0 wt.% The tribological tests indicated that the friction coefficient of the composite with 1.0 wt.% RGO decreased markedly from 0.6 to 0.07 at an applied load of 10 N, and the wear rate was about one-third of pure copper. The excellent tribological properties were attributed to a three-dimensional and uniform distribution, which contributes to improving toughness and adhesion strength.

  20. Development of melt compositions for sulphate bearing high level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahagirdar, P.B.; Wattal, P.K.

    1997-09-01

    The report deals with the development and characterization of vitreous matrices for sulphate bearing high level waste. Studies were conducted in sodium borosilicate and lead borosilicate systems with the introduction of CaO, BaO, MgO etc. Lead borosilicate system was found to be compatible with sulphate bearing high level wastes. Detailed product evaluation carried on selected formulations is also described. (author)

  1. Recent Developments in Low-Level Software Security

    OpenAIRE

    Agten , Pieter; Nikiforakis , Nick; Strackx , Raoul; Groef , Willem ,; Piessens , Frank

    2012-01-01

    Part 1: Keynotes; International audience; An important objective for low-level software security research is to develop techniques that make it harder to launch attacks that exploit implementation details of the system under attack. Baltopoulos and Gordon have summarized this as the principle of source-based reasoning for security: security properties of a software system should follow from review of the source code and its source-level semantics, and should not depend on details of the compi...

  2. Recent Developments in Level 2 PSA and Severe Accident Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ang, Ming Leang; Shepherd, Charles; Gauntt, Randall; Landgren, Vickie; Van Dorsselaere, Jean Pierre; Chaumont, Bernard; Raimond, Emmanuel; Magallon, Daniel; Prior, Robert; Mlady, Ondrej; Khatib-Rahbar, Mohsen; Lajtha, Gabor; Tinkler, Charles; Siu, Nathan

    2007-01-01

    In 1997, CSNI WGRISK produced a report on the state of the art in Level 2 PSA and severe accident management - NEA/CSNI/R(1997)11. Since then, there have been significant developments in that more Level 2 PSAs have been carried out worldwide for a variety of nuclear power plant designs including some that were not addressed in the original report. In addition, there is now a better understanding of the severe accident phenomena that can occur following core damage and the way that they should be modelled in the PSA. As requested by CSNI in December 2005, the objective of this study was to produce a report that updates the original report and gives an account of the developments that have taken place since 1997. The aim has been to capture the most significant new developments that have occurred rather than to provide a full update of the original report, most of which is still valid. This report is organised using the same structure as the original report as follows: Chapter 2: Summary on state of application, results and insights from recent Level 2 PSAs. Chapter 3: Discussion on key severe accident phenomena and modelling issues, identification of severe accident issues that should be treated in Level 2 PSAs for accident management applications, review of severe accident computer codes and the use of these codes in Level 2 PSAs. Chapter 4: Review of approaches and practices for accident management and SAM, evaluation of actions in Level 2 PSAs. Chapter 5: Review of available Level 2 PSA methodologies, including accident progression event tree / containment event tree development. Chapter 6: Aspects important to quantification, including the use of expert judgement and treatment of uncertainties. Chapter 7: Examples of the use of the results and insights from the Level 2 PSA in the context of an integrated (risk informed) decision making process

  3. Low-level radioactive waste management technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Although reviews of disposal practices and site performance indicated that there were no releases to the environment that would affect public health and safety, it became clear that: (a) several burial grounds were not performing as expected; (b) long-term maintenance of closed trenches could be a costly problem, and (c) more cost-effective methods could be developed for the treatment, packing, and disposal of low-level waste. As a result of these reviews, the Department of Energy developed the Low-level Waste Management Program to seek improvements in existing practices, correct obvious deficiencies, and develop site closure techniques that would avoid expensive long-term maintenance and monitoring. Such technology developments provide a better understanding of the physical and technical mechanisms governing low-level waste treatment and disposal and lead to improvement in the performance of disposal sites. The primary means of disposal of low-level waste has been the accepted and regulated practice of shallow land disposal, i.e., placement of low-level waste in trenches 5 to 10 meters deep with several meters of special soil cover. Department of Energy waste is primarily disposed at six major shallow land disposal sites. Commercial waste is currently disposed of at three major sites in the nation - Barnwell, South Carolina; Richland, Washington; and Beatty, Nevada. In the late 1970's public concern arose regarding the management practices of sites operated by the civilian sector and by the Department of Energy

  4. Concept development for saltstone and low level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhite, E.L.

    1987-03-01

    A low-level alkaline salt solution will be a byproduct in the processing of high-level waste at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). This solution will be incorporated into a cement wasteform, saltstone, and placed in surface vaults. Laboratory and field testing and mathematical modeling have demonstrated the predictability of contaminant release from cement wasteforms. Saltstone disposal in surface vaults will meet drinking water standards in shallow groundwater at the disposal area boundary. Planning for new Low-Level Waste (LLW) disposal could incorporate concepts developed for saltstone disposal

  5. A multi-step approach for testing non-toxic amphiphilic antifouling coatings against marine microfouling at different levels of biological complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zecher, Karsten; Aitha, Vishwa Prasad; Heuer, Kirsten; Ahlers, Herbert; Roland, Katrin; Fiedel, Michael; Philipp, Bodo

    2018-03-01

    Marine biofouling on artificial surfaces such as ship hulls or fish farming nets causes enormous economic damage. The time for the developmental process of antifouling coatings can be shortened by reliable laboratory assays. For designing such test systems, it is important that toxic effects can be excluded, that multiple parameters can be addressed simultaneously and that mechanistic aspects can be included. In this study, a multi-step approach for testing antifouling coatings was established employing photoautotrophic biofilm formation of marine microorganisms in micro- and mesoscoms. Degree and pattern of biofilm formation was determined by quantification of chlorophyll fluorescence. For the microcosms, co-cultures of diatoms and a heterotrophic bacterium were exposed to fouling-release coatings. For the mesocosms, a novel device was developed that permits parallel quantification of a multitude of coatings under defined conditions with varying degrees of shear stress. Additionally, the antifouling coatings were tested for leaching of potential compounds and finally tested in sea trials. This multistep-approach revealed that the individual steps led to consistent results regarding antifouling activity of the coatings. Furthermore, the novel mesocosm system can be employed for advanced antifouling analysis including metagenomic approaches for determination of microbial diversity attaching to different coatings under changing shear forces. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Development of a reconversion method for uranyl nitrate to oxide in the reconversion step of reprocessing of irradiated fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govindan, P.; Palamalai, A.; Vijayan, K.S.; Subbuthai, S.; Murugesan, S.; Mohan, S.V.; Subba Rao, R.V.

    2002-01-01

    Ammonium uranyl carbonate (AUC) precipitation is developed for the conversion of uranyl nitrate to oxide in the uranium reconversion step of reprocessing of irradiated fuel by the addition of ammonium carbonate salt. Different precipitation conditions of AUC are studied. The solubility of AUC as a function of uranium concentration in the feed at different temperatures using ammonium carbonate salt as precipitant is studied. This study indicates that 95-99.8% of uranium is recovered as AUC by precipitating 5-125 g/l of uranium with loss of uranium (250-10 ppm) in the filtrate by adding ammonium carbonate salt. It is also observed that the solubility of AUC increased as the concentration of uranium decreased. Thermal decomposition is carried out by thermogravimetry/differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA) and evolved gas analysis-mass spectrometry (EGA-MS) to find out AUC decomposition and gases evolved during decomposition. Studies are also carried out to characterize AUC by using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The data show that AUC obtained by the above conditions is very much consistent with published information. (author)

  7. Development of a Single-Step Subtraction Method for Eukaryotic 18S and 28S Ribonucleic Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie J. Archer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The abundance of mammalian 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA can decrease the detection sensitivity of bacterial or viral targets in complex host-pathogen mixtures. A method to capture human RNA in a single step was developed and characterized to address this issue. For this purpose, capture probes were covalently attached to magnetic microbeads using a dendrimer linker and the solid phase was tested using rat thymus RNA (mammalian components with Escherichia coli RNA (bacterial target as a model system. Our results indicated that random capture probes demonstrated better performance than specific ones presumably by increasing the number of possible binding sites, and the use of a tetrame-thylammonium-chloride (TMA-Cl- based buffer for the hybridization showed a beneficial effect in the selectivity. The subtraction efficiency determined through real-time RT-PCR revealed capture-efficiencies comparable with commercially available enrichment kits. The performance of the solid phase can be further fine tuned by modifying the annealing time and temperature.

  8. Steps that count! : The development of a pedometer-based health promotion intervention in an employed, health insured South African population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pillay Julian D

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity (PA has been identified as a central component in the promotion of health. PA programs can provide a low cost intervention opportunity, encouraging PA behavioral change while worksites have been shown to be an appropriate setting for implementing such health promotion programs. Along with these trends, there has been an emergence of the use of pedometers as a self-monitoring and motivational aid for PA. This study determines the effectiveness of a worksite health promotion program comprising of a 10-week, pedometer-based intervention (“Steps that Count!”, and individualized email-based feedback to effect PA behavioral change. Methods The study is a randomized controlled trial in a worksite setting, using pedometers and individualized email-based feedback to increase steps per day (steps/d. Participant selection will be based on attendance at a corporate wellness event and information obtained, following the completion of a Health Risk Appraisal (HRA, in keeping with inclusion criteria for the study. All participants will, at week 1 (pre-intervention, be provided with a blinded pedometer to assess baseline levels of PA. Participants will be provided with feedback on pedometer data and identify strategies to improve daily PA towards current PA recommendations. Participants will thereafter be randomly assigned to the intervention group (INT or control group (CTL. The INT will subsequently wear an un-blinded pedometer for 10 consecutive weeks. Individualized feedback messages based on average steps per day, derived from pedometer data (INT and general supportive/motivational messages (INT+CTL, will be provided via bi-weekly e-mails; blinded pedometer-wear will be conducted at week 12 (post-intervention: INT+CTL. Discussion The purpose of this paper is to outline the rationale behind, and the development of, an intervention aimed at improving ambulatory PA through pedometer use, combined with regular

  9. Early postnatal docosahexaenoic acid levels and improved preterm brain development

    OpenAIRE

    Tam, Emily W.Y.; Chau, Vann; Barkovich, A. James; Ferriero, Donna M.; Miller, Steven P.; Rogers, Elizabeth E.; Grunau, Ruth E.; Synnes, Anne R.; Xu, Duan; Foong, Justin; Brant, Rollin; Innis, Sheila M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Preterm birth has a dramatic impact on polyunsaturated fatty acid exposures for the developing brain. This study examined the association between postnatal fatty acid levels and measures of brain injury and development, as well as outcomes. Methods A cohort of 60 preterm newborns (24?32 weeks GA) was assessed using early and near-term MRI studies. Red blood cell fatty acid composition was analyzed coordinated with each scan. Outcome at a mean of 33 months corrected age was assessed...

  10. Development of cermets for high-level radioactive waste fixation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaron, W.S.; Quinby, T.C.; Kobisk, E.H.

    1979-01-01

    A method is currently under development for the solidification and fixation of commercial and defense high-level radioactive wastes in the form of ceramic particles encapsulated by metal, i.e., a cermet. The chemical and physical processing techniques which have been developed and the properties of the resulting cermet bodies are described in this paper. These cermets have the advantages of high thermal conductivity and low leach rates

  11. Status of Safeguards and Separations Model Development at Plant and Molecular Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Almeida, Valmor F [ORNL; Hay, Benjamin [ORNL; DePaoli, David W [ORNL

    2009-10-01

    A primary goal of the Safeguards and Separations IPSC effort is the development of process modeling tools that allow dynamic simulations of separations plant operations under various configurations and conditions, and integration of relevant safeguards analyses. A requirement of the effort is to develop codes on modern, expandable architectures, with flexibility to explore and evaluate a wide range of process options. During FY09, efforts at ORNL have been focused on two priority tasks toward achieving the IPSC goal: (1) a top-down exploration of architecture - Subtask 1: Explore framework for code development and integration for plant-level simulation; and (2) a bottom-up fundamental modeling effort - Subtask 2: Development of molecular-level agent design code. Subtask 1 is important because definition and development of architecture is a key issue for the overall effort, as selection of an overall approach and code/data requirements is a necessary first step in the organization, design and development of separations and safeguards codes that will be incorporated. The agent design effort of Subtask 2 is a molecular-level modeling effort that has a direct impact on a near-term issue of the Separations and Waste Forms Campaign. A current focus of experimental efforts is the development of robust agents and processes for separation of Am/Cm. Development of enhanced agent-design codes will greatly accelerate discovery and experimental testing.

  12. Status of Safeguards and Separations Model Development at Plant and Molecular Levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Almeida, Valmor F.; Hay, Benjamin; DePaoli, David W.

    2009-01-01

    A primary goal of the Safeguards and Separations IPSC effort is the development of process modeling tools that allow dynamic simulations of separations plant operations under various configurations and conditions, and integration of relevant safeguards analyses. A requirement of the effort is to develop codes on modern, expandable architectures, with flexibility to explore and evaluate a wide range of process options. During FY09, efforts at ORNL have been focused on two priority tasks toward achieving the IPSC goal: (1) a top-down exploration of architecture - Subtask 1: Explore framework for code development and integration for plant-level simulation; and (2) a bottom-up fundamental modeling effort - Subtask 2: Development of molecular-level agent design code. Subtask 1 is important because definition and development of architecture is a key issue for the overall effort, as selection of an overall approach and code/data requirements is a necessary first step in the organization, design and development of separations and safeguards codes that will be incorporated. The agent design effort of Subtask 2 is a molecular-level modeling effort that has a direct impact on a near-term issue of the Separations and Waste Forms Campaign. A current focus of experimental efforts is the development of robust agents and processes for separation of Am/Cm. Development of enhanced agent-design codes will greatly accelerate discovery and experimental testing.

  13. Physics Identity Development: A Snapshot of the Stages of Development of Upper-Level Physics Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, Paul W.; Sayre, Eleanor C.

    2013-01-01

    As part of a longitudinal study into identity development in upper-level physics students a phenomenographic research method is employed to assess the stages of identity development of a group of upper-level students. Three categories of description were discovered which indicate the three different stages of identity development for this group…

  14. ENDOGENOUS OR EXOGENOUS INNOVATION DEVELOPMENT IN INDUSTRY ON REGIONAL LEVEL?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Świadek

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available At the moment endogenous growth theory has become increasingly popular in the world of science, particularly in developed countries. This article aims to show, for two regions case, the needs and sense of applying this theory in the polish regions. Due to the low level of economic development of many Polish regions, they are unable to growth in a comparable rate as regions in developed countries. This explains the economic divergence between polish regions and the highly developed regions of Europe and the World. Stimulating economic growth is insufficient in such cases, because of the weakness of its internal factors. Therefore it is important to strengthen an external impact to keep internal development. It means that the endogenous growth theory is no reason to exist, in conditions of poor polish regions. Without external inputs there can’t be convergences processes. Therefore, the economic development of the Polish regions should be based on the exogenous growth theory.

  15. Added value of involving patients in the first step of multidisciplinary guideline development: a qualitative interview study among infertile patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Breejen, Elvira M E; Hermens, Rosella P M G; Galama, Wienke H; Willemsen, Wim N P; Kremer, Jan A M; Nelen, Willianne L D M

    2016-06-01

    Patient involvement in scoping the guideline is emphasized, but published initiatives actively involving patients are generally limited to the writing and reviewing phase. To assess patients' added value to the scoping phase of a multidisciplinary guideline on infertility. Qualitative interview study. We conducted interviews among 12 infertile couples and 17 professionals. We listed and compared the couples' and professionals' key clinical issues (=care aspects that need improvement) to be addressed in the guideline according to four domains: current guidelines, professionals, patients and organization of care. Main key clinical issues suggested by more than three quarters of the infertile couples and/or at least two professionals were identified and compared. Overall, we identified 32 key clinical issues among infertile couples and 23 among professionals. Of the defined main key clinical issues, infertile couples mentioned eight issues that were not mentioned by the professionals. These main key clinical issues mainly concerned patient-centred (e.g. poor information provision and poor alignment of care) aspects of care on the professional and organizational domain. Both groups mentioned two main key clinical issues collectively that were interpreted differently: the lack of emotional support and respect for patients' values. Including patients from the first phase of the guideline development process leads to valuable additional main key clinical issues for the next step of a multidisciplinary guideline development process and broadens the scope of the guideline, particularly regarding patient-centredness and organizational issues from a patients' perspective. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care; all rights reserved.

  16. Age differences in the required coefficient of friction during level walking do not exist when experimentally-controlling speed and step length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Dennis E; Franck, Christopher T; Madigan, Michael L

    2014-08-01

    The effects of gait speed and step length on the required coefficient of friction (COF) confound the investigation of age-related differences in required COF. The goals of this study were to investigate whether age differences in required COF during self-selected gait persist when experimentally-controlling speed and step length, and to determine the independent effects of speed and step length on required COF. Ten young and 10 older healthy adults performed gait trials under five gait conditions: self-selected, slow and fast speeds without controlling step length, and slow and fast speeds while controlling step length. During self-selected gait, older adults walked with shorter step lengths and exhibited a lower required COF. Older adults also exhibited a lower required COF when walking at a controlled speed without controlling step length. When both age groups walked with the same speed and step length, no age difference in required COF was found. Thus, speed and step length can have a large influence on studies investigating age-related differences in required COF. It was also found that speed and step length have independent and opposite effects on required COF, with step length having a strong positive effect on required COF, and speed having a weaker negative effect.

  17. Development and application of the variable focus laser leveling gage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Kun; Ma Jinglong

    2005-01-01

    The variable focus laser leveling gage was developed. The performance and structure were introduced. The several alignments and tests in KrF laser angle multi-path optical system were accomplished with them. Its application in other optical equipment was discussed too. (author)

  18. High-Level Development of Multiserver Online Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Glinka

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiplayer online games with support for high user numbers must provide mechanisms to support an increasing amount of players by using additional resources. This paper provides a comprehensive analysis of the practically proven multiserver distribution mechanisms, zoning, instancing, and replication, and the tasks for the game developer implied by them. We propose a novel, high-level development approach which integrates the three distribution mechanisms seamlessly in today's online games. As a possible base for this high-level approach, we describe the real-time framework (RTF middleware system which liberates the developer from low-level tasks and allows him to stay at high level of design abstraction. We explain how RTF supports the implementation of single-server online games and how RTF allows to incorporate the three multiserver distribution mechanisms during the development process. Finally, we describe briefly how RTF provides manageability and maintenance functionality for online games in a grid context with dynamic resource allocation scenarios.

  19. Company Level Commander Development In The US Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    pedagogy and andragogy in instruction can have a significant positive impact on developing combat arms officers to be successful company level commanders...Recommendations to achieve these improvements using andragogy are discussed. In the United States (US) Army, when an officer...use Malcom Knowles’ andragogy framework for understanding adults as learners in order to analyze the trainees and maximize the training outcomes for

  20. The Levels of Leadership and Transcendent Servant Leadership Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Jeffrey L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses the challenges associated with defining and conceptualizing leadership amidst the plethora of theoretical constructs and definitions of leadership and proposes a model for developing transcendent servant-leaders. Based on a review of the literature, three categorical levels of leadership are outlined and discussed that…

  1. Developing knowledge level scale of functional foods: Validity and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to develop a scale to determine the knowledge levels of University students on functional foods and to investigate the validity and reliability of the scale. The research was conducted on 417 (209 girls and 208 boys) undergraduate students in Selcuk University regarding functional foods.

  2. Defining Levels of Learning for Strengths Development Programs in Pharmacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin K. Janke, Ph.D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Clifton StrengthsFinder® is an online measure of personal talent that identifies where an individual’s greatest potential for building strengths exists. This paper describes a framework for strengths education in pharmacy which includes introductory, intermediate and advanced levels of learning. The use of the StrengthsFinder® assessment and supporting workshops aids student pharmacists, pharmacy residents and practitioners in identifying and refining their talents and connecting talents to roles in the profession. Additional learning strategies support a learner’s progression to intermediate and advanced levels of learning, which focus on the application of strengths in teams, leadership, and organizational development. By articulating and recognizing levels of learning around strengths-related content and skills, strong instructional design is fostered. Optimal design includes development of a sequence of learning opportunities delivered over time, a roll-out plan and consideration of the instructional resources required.

  3. Defining Levels of Learning for Strengths Development Programs in Pharmacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Janke

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Clifton StrengthsFinder™ is an online measure of personal talent that identifies where an individual's greatest potential for building strengths exists. This paper describes a framework for strengths education in pharmacy which includes introductory, intermediate and advanced levels of learning. The use of the StrengthsFinder™ assessment and supporting workshops aids student pharmacists, pharmacy residents and practitioners in identifying and refining their talents and connecting talents to roles in the profession. Additional learning strategies support a learner's progression to intermediate and advanced levels of learning, which focus on the application of strengths in teams, leadership, and organizational development. By articulating and recognizing levels of learning around strengths-related content and skills, strong instructional design is fostered. Optimal design includes development of a sequence of learning opportunities delivered over time, a roll-out plan and consideration of the instructional resources required. Type: Idea Paper

  4. Developing European conservation and mitigation tools for pollination services: approaches of the STEP (Status and Trends of European Pollinators) project

    OpenAIRE

    Potts, Simon G.; Biesmeijer, Jacobus C.; Bommarco, Riccardo; Felicioli, Antonio; Fischer, Markus; Jokinen, Pekka; Kleijn, David; Klein, Alexandra-Maria; Kunin, William E.; Neumann, Peter; Penev, Lyubomir D.; Petanidou, Theodora; Rasmont, Pierre; Roberts, Stuart P. M.; Smith, Henrik G.

    2011-01-01

    [ES] Los insectos polinizadores forman un componente clave de la biodiversidad europea, y proporcionan servicios vitales a los ecosistemas de plantas cultivadas y silvestres. Existe una creciente evidencia del declive de polinizadores silvestres y domesticados, y del declive paralelo de las plantas que dependen de ellos. El proyecto STEP (Estado y tendencias de los polinizadores europeos, 2010-2015, www.step-project.net) está documentando elementos críticos en la naturaleza y la extensión de ...

  5. Technology readiness levels for advanced nuclear fuels and materials development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmack, W.J., E-mail: jon.carmack@inl.gov [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Braase, L.A.; Wigeland, R.A. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Todosow, M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • Definition of nuclear fuels system technology readiness level. • Identification of evaluation criteria for nuclear fuel system TRLs. • Application of TRLs to fuel systems. - Abstract: The Technology Readiness process quantitatively assesses the maturity of a given technology. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) pioneered the process in the 1980s to inform the development and deployment of new systems for space applications. The process was subsequently adopted by the Department of Defense (DoD) to develop and deploy new technology and systems for defense applications. It was also adopted by the Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate the maturity of new technologies in major construction projects. Advanced nuclear fuels and materials development is needed to improve the performance and safety of current and advanced reactors, and ultimately close the nuclear fuel cycle. Because deployment of new nuclear fuel forms requires a lengthy and expensive research, development, and demonstration program, applying the assessment process to advanced fuel development is useful as a management, communication, and tracking tool. This article provides definition of technology readiness levels (TRLs) for nuclear fuel technology as well as selected examples regarding the methods by which TRLs are currently used to assess the maturity of nuclear fuels and materials under development in the DOE Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) Program within the Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC).

  6. An Assessment of Engineered Calcium Oxalate Crystal Formation on Plant Growth and Development as a Step toward Evaluating Its Use to Enhance Plant Defense.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A Nakata

    Full Text Available The establishment of new approaches to control chewing insects has been sought not only for direct use in reducing crop loss but also in managing resistance to the pesticides already in use. Engineered formation of calcium oxalate crystals is a potential strategy that could be developed to fulfill both these needs. As a step toward this development, this study investigates the effects of transforming a non-calcium oxalate crystal accumulating plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, into a crystal accumulating plant. Calcium oxalate crystal accumulating A. thaliana lines were generated by ectopic expression of a single bacterial gene encoding an oxalic acid biosynthetic enzyme. Biochemical and cellular studies suggested that the engineered A. thaliana lines formed crystals of calcium oxalate in a manner similar to naturally occurring crystal accumulating plants. The amount of calcium oxalate accumulated in leaves also reached levels similar to those measured in the leaves of Medicago truncatula in which the crystals are known to play a defensive role. Visual inspection of the different engineered lines, however, suggested a phenotypic consequence on plant growth and development with higher calcium oxalate concentrations. The restoration of a near wild-type plant phenotype through an enzymatic reduction of tissue oxalate supported this observation. Overall, this study is a first to provide initial insight into the potential consequences of engineering calcium oxalate crystal formation in non-crystal accumulating plants.

  7. One-Step Cartilage Repair Technique as a Next Generation of Cell Therapy for Cartilage Defects: Biological Characteristics, Preclinical Application, Surgical Techniques, and Clinical Developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chi; Cai, You-Zhi; Lin, Xiang-Jin

    2016-07-01

    To provide a comprehensive overview of the basic science rationale, surgical technique, and clinical outcomes of 1-step cartilage repair technique used as a treatment strategy for cartilage defects. A systematic review was performed in the main medical databases to evaluate the several studies concerning 1-step procedures for cartilage repair. The characteristics of cell-seed scaffolds, behavior of cells seeded into scaffolds, and surgical techniques were also discussed. Clinical outcomes and quality of repaired tissue were assessed using several standardized outcome assessment tools, magnetic resonance imaging scans, and biopsy histology. One-step cartilage repair could be divided into 2 types: chondrocyte-matrix complex (CMC) and autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis (AMIC), both of which allow a simplified surgical approach. Studies with Level IV evidence have shown that 1-step cartilage repair techniques could significantly relieve symptoms and improve functional assessment (P studies clearly showed hyaline-like cartilage tissue in biopsy tissues by second-look arthroscopy. The 1-step cartilage repair technique, with its potential for effective, homogeneous distribution of chondrocytes and multipotent stem cells on the surface of the cartilage defect, is able to regenerate hyaline-like cartilage tissue, and it could be applied to cartilage repair by arthroscopy. Level IV, systematic review of Level II and IV studies. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Control of cyclin C levels during development of Dictyostelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Greene

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Cdk8 and its partner cyclin C form part of the mediator complex which links the basal transcription machinery to regulatory proteins. The pair are required for correct regulation of a subset of genes and have been implicated in control of development in a number of organisms including the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum. When feeding, Dictyostelium amoebae are unicellular but upon starvation they aggregate to form a multicellular structure which develops into a fruiting body containing spores. Cells in which the gene encoding Cdk8 has been deleted fail to enter aggregates due to a failure of early gene expression.We have monitored the expression levels of cyclin C protein during development and find levels decrease after the multicellular mound is formed. This decrease is triggered by extracellular cAMP that, in turn, is working in part through an increase in intracellular cAMP. The loss of cyclin C is coincident with a reduction in the association of Cdk8 with a high molecular weight complex in the nucleus. Overexpression of cyclin C and Cdk8 lead to an increased rate of early development, consistent with the levels being rate limiting.Overall these results show that both cyclin C and Cdk8 are regulated during development in response to extracellular signals and the levels of these proteins are important in controlling the timing of developmental processes. These findings have important implications for the role of these proteins in controlling development, suggesting that they are targets for developmental signals to regulate gene expression.

  9. Practical considerations in the development and application of reference levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selby, J. M.; Kennedy, W. E. Jr.; Swinth, K. L.; Gilbert, R. O.; Soldat, J. K.

    1988-05-01

    Radiological exposures to the public during an accident that releases radioactive materials to the environment occur initially through the air pathway, secondly through a water pathway, and finally, through the food chain. From these exposure pathways, reference levels of radionuclides must be applied to limit public radiation doses. Such reference levels are difficult to develop and apply, particularly if the contaminants are transuranic elements such as plutonium. The reference level must be related to a resultant theoretical dose to the public through generic calculations. However, to permit rapid decisions after an accident, the reference levels need to be related to conditions or media in the environment that can be directly measured. They must also be tied to specific countermeasures such as sheltering, evacuation, or interdiction of drinking water or food supplies. This paper discusses the practical considerations in the development and application of reference levels for transuranic in the environment and the present capability to rapidly detect and quantify their concentrations following accidental contamination events. 16 refs., 3 tabs

  10. Development of a one-step duplex RT-qPCR for the quantification of phocine distemper virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogomolni, Andrea L; Frasca, Salvatore; Matassa, Keith A; Nielsen, Ole; Rogers, Kara; De Guise, Sylvain

    2015-04-01

    Worldwide, stranded marine mammals and the network personnel who respond to marine mammal mortality have provided much of the information regarding marine morbillivirus infections. An assay to determine the amount of virus present in tissue samples would be useful to assist in routine surveying of animal health and for monitoring large-scale die-off events. False negatives from poor-quality samples prevent determination of the true extent of infection, while only small amounts of tissue samples or archived RNA may be available at the time of collection for future retrospective analysis. We developed a one-step duplex real-time reverse transcriptase-quantitative-PCR assay (RT-qPCR) based on Taqman probe technology to quantify phocine distemper virus (PDV) isolated from an outbreak in harbor (Phoca vitulina concolor) and gray seals (Halichoerus grypus) along the northeast US coast in 2006. The glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase (GAPDH) gene was selected to assess RNA quality. This duplex assay is specific for PDV and sensitive through a range of 10(0) to 10(9) copies ds-plasmid DNA. For the GAPDH target, the reaction in duplex amplified 10(0) to 10(9) copies of ds-plasmid DNA and was detectable in multiple seal species. This assay reduced the likelihood of false negative results due to degradation of tissues and well-to-well variability while providing sensitive and specific detection of PDV, which would be applicable in molecular epidemiologic studies and pathogen detection in field and laboratory investigations involving a variety of seal species.

  11. Evaluating the Development Levels of Rural Areas in Koohrang County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    saleh shahrokhi sardo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A better understanding of geographical phenomena and scientific comprehending of geographical locations requires comprehensive information about these areas. In addition, the awareness of the spatial distribution and development levels are considered as prerequisites for rural development plans and programs. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the development levels of rural areas in Koohrang County. Statistical population was over ten households selected among rural areas (132 villages in Koohrang County. The required secondary data were collected and designed from the statistical yearbook of Koohrang County in 2011. In this study, a combination method of VIKOR-AHP was used to measure level of development in the villages. In addition, in order to determine the optimal distribution of indices, the Gini coefficient was used. Data processing was conducted using MATLAB7.10 and Expert Choice software. Results showed that the highest and lowest degrees of development (0.994 and 0.005 were related to "Castle of Ali-Abad" and "Dezak-Cheshmeh" villages, respectively. Moreover, results indicated that there was the unfavorable development in the study area (with average of 0. 217 in the range 0-1 in a way that most of the villages (21.46% with 53.39% of the population in the area were completely undeveloped. Furthermore, the results based on Gini coefficient and coefficient of variability revealed that the conventional indices of rural development weren't distributed properly. Therefore, it is necessary to have special review and reconsider to determine the main service centers based on settlements hierarchical system.

  12. Development of level 2 processor for the readout of TMC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Y.; Ikeno, M.; Murata, T.; Sudo, F.; Emura, T.

    1995-01-01

    We have developed a prototype 8-bit processor for the level 2 data processing for the Time Memory Cell (TMC). The first prototype processor successfully runs with 18 MHz clock. The operation of same clock frequency as TMC (30 MHz) will be easily achieved with simple modifications. Although the processor is very primitive one but shows its powerful performance and flexibility. To realize the compact TMC/L2P (Level 2 Processor) system, it is better to include the microcode memory within the chip. Encoding logic of the microcode must be included to reduce the microcode memory in this case. (J.P.N.)

  13. Development of a bio-chip dedicated to planetary exploration. First step: resistance studies to space conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Postollec, A.; Dobrijevic, M.; Incerti, S.; Moretto, Ph.; Seznec, H.; Desorgher, L.; Santin, G.; Nieminen, P.; Dartnell, L.; Vandenabeele-Trambouze, O.; Coussot, G.

    2008-02-01

    For upcoming exploration missions, space agencies advocate the development of a new promising technique to search for traces of extent or extinct life: the bio-chip use. A bio-chip is a miniaturized device composed of biological sensitive systems fixed on a solid substrate. As space is a hazardous environment, a main concern relies on the resistance of a bio-chip to a panel of harsh constraints among which the resistance to radiations. Within the framework of the BiOMAS (Bio-chip for Organic Matter Analysis in Space) project, our team is currently developing a bio-chip especially designed for planetary exploration. We present here the methodology adopted and the beginning experiments to select the best constituents, to determine resistance levels and to define well-adapted protection for the bio-chip

  14. 1D resistivity inversion technique in the mapping of igneous intrusives; A step to sustainable quarry development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Nwachukwu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of trial pits as a first step in quarry site development causes land degradation and results in more failure than success for potential quarry investors in some parts of the world. In this paper, resistivity, depth and distance values derived from 26 Vertical Electric Soundings (VES and 2 profiling inversion sections were successfully used to evaluate a quarry site prior to development. The target rock Diabase (Dolerite was observed and it had a resistivity range of 3.0 × 104 –7. 8 × 106 Ω-m, and was clearly distinguishable from associated rocks with its bright red color code on the AGI 1D inversion software. This target rock was overlain by quartzite, indurate shale and mudstone as overburden materials. The quartzite, with its off-red colour, has a resistivity range of 2.0 × 103–2.9 × 105 Ω-m, while the indurate shale, with a yellowish-brown colour, showed resistivity values ranging from 6.1 × 102 – 2.8 × 105 Ω-m. Topsoil was clayey, with a resistivity range from 8 – 8.6 × 102u Ω-m and depths of 0.3–1.8 m, often weathered and replaced by associated rocks outcrops. The diabase rock, in the three prospective pits mapped, showed thicknesses of between 40 and 76 m across the site. The prospective pits were identified to accommodate an estimated 2,569,450 tonnes of diabase with an average quarry pit depth of 50 m. This figure was justified by physical observations made at a nearby quarry pit and from test holes. Communities were able to prepare a geophysical appraisal of the intrusive body in their domain for economic planning and sustainability of the natural resource.

  15. Development of low weight self-levelling mortars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padilla, A; Panama, I; Toledo, A; Flores, A

    2015-01-01

    This work shows the development of self levelling mortars, using micro bubbles based on aluminium silicate with a density of 0.25 g/cm 3 . Mortars formulations are composed by 8 different components in order to achieve properties balance between fresh and solid state. The mean objective is development light weight mortars with high fluidity and compression strength using micro bubbles and some additives. Formulations were designed employing Taguchi DOE of 8 variables and 3 states. Result analysis according to Taguchi method lets indentify the preponderant effect of each variable on the cited properties. Several formulations reached fluidity higher than 250%, with compression strength around 100 kg/cm 2 and a low volumetric weigh. Obtained volumetric weights are 20% less than commercial self levelling mortars weight. Finally some relations are presented such: as relation water/cement with fluidity, and micro bubble content versus mortars volumetric weight, and finally compression strength versus the volumetric weight of mortars

  16. Development and evaluation of candidate high-level waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernadzikowski, T.A.

    1981-01-01

    Some seventeen candidate waste forms have been investigated under US Department of Energy programs as potential media for the immobilization and geologic disposal of the high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) resulting from chemical processing of nuclear reactor fuels and targets. Two of these HLW forms were selected at the end of fiscal year (FY) 1981 for intensive development if FY 1982 to 1983. Borosilicate glass was continued as the reference form. A crystalline ceramic waste form, SYNROC, was selected for further product formulation and process development as the alternative to borosilicate glass. This paper describes the bases on which this decision was made

  17. Influence Factors of the Economic Development Level Across European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Ioana POPA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The economic development level of a country refers to the measure of the progress in an economy that could be measured, especially through GDP or GDP per capita. The level of these indicators can be influenced by many factors as a large scale, from social and economical to environmental and government policies factors. The paper aims to investigate some of these influence factors of the economic development level, represented in this case by GDP per capita, across European countries in the context of the most recently crisis, named the Great Recession (2008 and after, when the economies are starting to recover (2013. Using linear regression in R (lm function, the goal is to explain the relationship between the interest variable (GDP per capita and certain independent variables. It is expected that even tough the estimators are to be different – as level – in both cases studied, the relationship type between them to be the same. The goodness of fit for the models used will be made based on ANOVA.

  18. Space Mission Concept Development Using Concept Maturity Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessen, Randii R.; Borden, Chester; Ziemer, John; Kwok, Johnny

    2013-01-01

    Over the past five years, pre-project formulation experts at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has developed and implemented a method for measuring and communicating the maturity of space mission concepts. Mission concept development teams use this method, and associated tools, prior to concepts entering their Formulation Phases (Phase A/B). The organizing structure is Concept Maturity Level (CML), which is a classification system for characterizing the various levels of a concept's maturity. The key strength of CMLs is the ability to evolve mission concepts guided by an incremental set of assessment needs. The CML definitions have been expanded into a matrix form to identify the breadth and depth of analysis needed for a concept to reach a specific level of maturity. This matrix enables improved assessment and communication by addressing the fundamental dimensions (e.g., science objectives, mission design, technical risk, project organization, cost, export compliance, etc.) associated with mission concept evolution. JPL's collaborative engineering, dedicated concept development, and proposal teams all use these and other CML-appropriate design tools to advance their mission concept designs. This paper focuses on mission concept's early Pre-Phase A represented by CMLs 1- 4. The scope was limited due to the fact that CMLs 5 and 6 are already well defined based on the requirements documented in specific Announcement of Opportunities (AO) and Concept Study Report (CSR) guidelines, respectively, for competitive missions; and by NASA's Procedural Requirements NPR 7120.5E document for Projects in their Formulation Phase.

  19. Development of the Level 1 PSA Model for PGSFR Regulatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Hyun Ju; Lee, Yong Suk; Shin, Andong; Suh, Nam Duk

    2014-01-01

    SFR (sodium-cooled fast reactor) is Gen-IV nuclear energy system, which is designed for stability, sustainability and proliferation resistance. KALIMER-600 and PGSFR (Prototype Gen-IV SFR) are under development in Korea with enhanced passive safety concepts, e.g. passive reactor shutdown, passive residual heat removal, and etc. Risk analysis from a regulatory perspective is necessary for regulatory body to support the safety and licensing review of SFR. Safety issues should be identified in the early design phase in order to prevent the unexpected cost increase and the delay of PGSFR licensing schedule. In this respect, the preliminary PSA Model of KALIMER-600 had been developed for regulatory. In this study, the development of PSA Level 1 Model is presented. The important impact factors in the risk analysis for the PGSFR, such as Core Damage Frequency (CDF), have been identified and the related safety insights have been derived. The PSA level 1 model for PGSFR regulatory is developed and the risk analysis is conducted. Regarding CDF, LOISF frequency, uncertainty parameter for passive system CCF, loss of 125V DC control center bus and damper CCF are identified as the important factors. Sensitivity analyses show that the CDF would be differentiated (lowered) according to their values

  20. Developing European conservation and mitigation tools for pollination services: approaches of the STEP (Status and Trends of European Pollinators) project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potts, S.G.; Biesmeijer, J.C.; Bommarco, R.; Felicioli, A.; Fischer, M.; Jokinen, P.; Kleijn, D.; Klein, A.M.; Kunin, W.E.; Neumann, P.; Penev, L.D.; Petanidou, T.; Rasmont, P.; Roberts, S.P.M.; Smith, H.G.; Sorensen, P.B.; Steffan-Dewenter, I.; Vaissiere, B.E.; Vila, M.; Vujic, A.; Woyciechowski, M.; Zobel, M.; Settele, J.; Schweiger, O.

    2011-01-01

    Pollinating insects form a key component of European biodiversity, and provide a vital ecosystem service to crops and wild plants. There is growing evidence of declines in both wild and domesticated pollinators, and parallel declines in plants relying upon them. The STEP project (Status and Trends

  1. Developing a discrimination rule between breast cancer patients and controls using proteomics mass spectrometric data: A three-step approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidema, A.G.; Nagelkerke, N.

    2008-01-01

    To discriminate between breast cancer patients and controls, we used a three-step approach to obtain our decision rule. First, we ranked the mass/charge values using random forests, because it generates importance indices that take possible interactions into account. We observed that the top ranked

  2. Steps and Types: How the MBTI Helped a Treatment Non-Profit Develop an Effective Volunteer Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson-Loney, Jane

    1996-01-01

    An urban nonprofit residential treatment program for chemically dependent teenagers uses the Myers Briggs Type Indicator as a team-building tool for volunteers sponsoring teens through the 12-step recovery process. Training in team building and personality types increases understanding of communication style differences and conflict management.…

  3. Steps towards equal gender representation: TANDEMplusIDEA - an international mentoring and personal development scheme for female scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefli, Bettina; Breuer, Elke

    2010-05-01

    TANDEMplusIDEA was a European mentoring programme conducted by the technical universities RWTH Aachen, Imperial College London, ETH Zurich and TU Delft between 2007 and 2010 to achieve more gender equality in science. Given the continuing underrepresentation of women in science and technology and the well-known structural and systematic disadvantages in male-dominated scientific cultures, the main goal of this programme was to promote excellent female scientists through a high-level professional and personal development programme. Based on the mentoring concept of the RWTH Aachen, TANDEMplusIDEA was the first mentoring programme for female scientists realized in international cooperation. As a pilot scheme funded by the 6th Framework Programme of the European Commission, the scientific evaluation was an essential part of the programme, in particular in view of the development of a best practice model for international mentoring. The participants of this programme were female scientists at an early stage of their academic career (postdoc or assistant professor) covering a wide range of science disciplines, including geosciences. This transdisciplinarity as well as the international dimension of the programme have been identified by the participants as one of the keys of success of the programme. In particular, the peer-mentoring across discipline boarders proved to have been an invaluable component of the development programme. This presentation will highlight some of the main findings of the scientific evaluation of the programme and focus on some additional personal insights from the participants.

  4. Development of a low-level waste risk methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, J.E.; Falconer, K.L.

    1984-01-01

    A probabilistic risk assessment method is presented for performance evaluation of low-level waste disposal facilities. The associated program package calculates the risk associated with postulated radionuclide release and transport scenarios. Risk is computed as the mathematical product of two statistical variables: the dose consequence of a given release scenario, and its occurrence probability. A sample risk calculation is included which demonstrates the method. This PRA method will facilitate evaluation of facility performance, including identification of high risk scenarios and their mitigation via optimization of site parameters. The method is intended to be used in facility licensing as a demonstration of compliance with the performance objectives set forth in 10 CFR Part 61, or in corresponding state regulations. The Low-Level Waste Risk Methodology is being developed under sponsorship of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission

  5. Development of the Nursing Outcome (NOC) label: hyperactivity level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Carol L; Wasson, Dianne; Anderson, Mary Ann; Brighton, Veronica; Dixon, Lois

    2005-01-01

    Hyperactivity, a persistent, severe pattern of inattention or impulsivity, places children at risk for impaired functioning in many developmental areas. This behavior is characterized by short attention span, low frustration tolerance, impulsivity, distractibility, and increased physical activity. Responses from multiple sources in the child's environment must be monitored to manage childhood hyperactivity. Success at school, in peer relationships, and parent-child interactions is frequently affected by hyperactivity. Using a focus group approach, a Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC) label, definition, and indicators were developed for Hyperactivity Level. Review of the literature allowed for a content analysis approach and conceptualization of hyperactivity at several levels. Twenty three (23) measurable indicators were formulated and refined into conceptually and clinically coherent outcomes. Clinical relevance and utility were presented through a case study approach.

  6. The Evolution of the Research - Development Services at the Regional Level in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia-Irina RĂBONȚU

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Research and Development services are the first of the services that support the process of innovation, innovation, and eco-innovation, with a special attention from developing countries that invest a significant percentage of GDP in these type of services. Studying the evolution of R & D services in the territorial profile is a major issue in the current context because these services are the first step in any stage of innovation, development, competitiveness, raising the standard of living of the population, increasing the economic well-being and social issues of a country. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature in the field and to analyze the evolution of the main relevant indicators in describing the level at which R & D services in Romania, and at the regional level, indicators for which there are publicly available statistical data in the official databases. The study, based on fundamental research in the field and the results of numerous bibliographic sources on this topic, uses specific statistical methods of territorial analysis. The obtained results outline an overview of the research and development services in Romania, but also at the level of the NUTS2 regions highlighting the gaps between them.

  7. Development of safeguards information treatment system at the facility level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Doo; Song, Dae Yong; So, Dong Sup; Kwack, Eun Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    Safeguards Information Treatment System(SITS) at the facility level is required to implement efficiently the obligations under the Korea-IAEA Safeguards Agreement, bilateral agreements with other countries and domestic law. In this report, the requirements and major functions of SITS were considered, and the error checking methods and the relationships of safeguards information were reviewed. SITS will be developed to cover the different accounting procedures and methods applied at the various facilities under IAEA safeguards. Also, the resolved result of the Y2K problem in the existing nuclear material accounting program was described. 3 tabs. (Author)

  8. Development of low level alpha particle counting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minobe, Masao; Kondo, Hiraku; Chinuki, Takashi; Hirano, Hiromichi

    1987-01-01

    Much attention has been paid to the trace analysis of uranium and thorium contained in the base material of LSI or VLSI, since the so-called ''soft-error'' of the memory device was known to be due to alpha particles emitted from these radioactive elements. We have developed an apparatus to meet the needs of estimating such a very small quantity of U and Th of the level of ppb, by directly counting alpha particles using a gas-flow type proportional counter. This method requires no sophisticated analytical skill, and the accuracy of the result is satisfactory. The instrumentation and some application of this apparatus are described. (author)

  9. Traces of Discourses and Governmentality within the Content and Implementation of the Western Australian Fundamental Movement Skills Programme (STEPS Professional Development)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson-Buchanan, Rachael

    2016-01-01

    Over the last 20 years or more, a plethora of movement programmes have been adopted within primary physical education in the UK and across Australia. One particular programme, Fundamental Movement Skills (STEPS Professional Development), became of interest to the researcher during her dual role as the UK Fundamental Movement Skills (FMS)…

  10. Development of the Modified Four Square Step Test and its reliability and validity in people with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Margaret A; Reisman, Darcy S; Hicks, Gregory; Rose, William; Rudolph, Katherine S

    2016-01-01

    Adults with stroke have difficulty avoiding obstacles when walking, especially when a time constraint is imposed. The Four Square Step Test (FSST) evaluates dynamic balance by requiring individuals to step over canes in multiple directions while being timed, but many people with stroke are unable to complete it. The purposes of this study were to (1) modify the FSST by replacing the canes with tape so that more persons with stroke could successfully complete the test and (2) examine the reliability and validity of the modified version. Fifty-five subjects completed the Modified FSST (mFSST) by stepping over tape in all four directions while being timed. The mFSST resulted in significantly greater numbers of subjects completing the test than the FSST (39/55 [71%] and 33/55 [60%], respectively) (p < 0.04). The test-retest, intrarater, and interrater reliability of the mFSST were excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient ranges: 0.81-0.99). Construct and concurrent validity of the mFSST were also established. The minimal detectable change was 6.73 s. The mFSST, an ideal measure of dynamic balance, can identify progress in people with stroke in varied settings and can be completed by a wide range of people with stroke in approximately 5 min with the use of minimal equipment (tape, stop watch).

  11. Comparison of real development levels of countries: Genesis and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prekajac Zora

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparison of levels of development among countries is usually done by reducing values in national currencies with a common denominator, using the official exchange rate. Because of its unreality, the values calculated in this way do not illustrate real relations between compared countries. That brings about the launching of the UN International Comparison Project (latter Programme with two fold aims: developing a method for international comparison of real domestic product which could be applied to a number of very heterogeneous countries, and the comparison of growing number of very different countries. Until now six phases of comparisons are finished. Taking into consideration problems that appeared in the realization of the VI ICP phase as well as quality improvement proposals, a decision has been made to launch a new, global round for 2003-2006. Comparison will cover 150 countries (the widest coverage ever. This will give global character to the comparison, which was the end cause of the ICP.

  12. The development of a high level radioactive waste management strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beale, H.

    1979-11-01

    The management of high level radioactive waste, from the removal of spent fuel from reactors to final disposal of vitrified waste, involves a complex choice of operational variables which interact one with another. If the various operations are designed and developed in isolation it will almost certainly lead to suboptimal choice. Management of highly active waste should therefore be viewed as a complete system and analysed in such a way that account is taken of the interactions between the various operations. This system must have clearly defined and agreed objectives as well as criteria against which performance can be judged. A thorough analysis of the system will provide a framework within which the necessary research and development can be carried out in a co-ordinated fashion and lead to an optimised strategy for managing highly active wastes. (author)

  13. Two-step chemical decontamination technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, W.N.

    1992-01-01

    An improved two-step chemical decontamination technique was recently developed at INEL. This memorandum documents the addition of this technology to the SRTC arsenal of decontamination technology. A two-step process using NAOH, KMnO 4 followed by HNO 3 was used for cleaning doorstops (small casks) in the SRTC High Level Caves in 1967. Subsequently, more aggressive chemical techniques have been found to be much more effective for our applications. No further work on two-step technology is planned

  14. Developing patient-specific dose protocols for a CT scanner and exam using diagnostic reference levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, Keith J.

    2014-01-01

    The management of image quality and radiation dose during pediatric CT scanning is dependent on how well one manages the radiographic techniques as a function of the type of exam, type of CT scanner, and patient size. The CT scanner's display of expected CT dose index volume (CTDI vol ) after the projection scan provides the operator with a powerful tool prior to the patient scan to identify and manage appropriate CT techniques, provided the department has established appropriate diagnostic reference levels (DRLs). This paper provides a step-by-step process that allows the development of DRLs as a function of type of exam, of actual patient size and of the individual radiation output of each CT scanner in a department. Abdomen, pelvis, thorax and head scans are addressed. Patient sizes from newborns to large adults are discussed. The method addresses every CT scanner regardless of vendor, model or vintage. We cover adjustments to techniques to manage the impact of iterative reconstruction and provide a method to handle all available voltages other than 120 kV. This level of management of CT techniques is necessary to properly monitor radiation dose and image quality during pediatric CT scans. (orig.)

  15. SYSTEMATIZATION OF THE BASIC STEPS OF THE STEP-AEROBICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darinka Korovljev

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Following the development of the powerful sport industry, in front of us appeared a lot of new opportunities for creating of the new programmes of exercising with certain requisites. One of such programmes is certainly step-aerobics. Step-aerobics can be defined as a type of aerobics consisting of the basic aerobic steps (basic steps applied in exercising on stepper (step bench, with a possibility to regulate its height. Step-aerobics itself can be divided into several groups, depending on the following: type of music, working methods and adopted knowledge of the attendants. In this work, the systematization of the basic steps in step-aerobics was made on the basis of the following criteria: steps origin, number of leg motions in stepping and relating the body support at the end of the step. Systematization of the basic steps of the step-aerobics is quite significant for making a concrete review of the existing basic steps, thus making creation of the step-aerobics lesson easier

  16. The CMS High Level Trigger System: Experience and Future Development

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Gerry; Bowen, Matthew; Branson, James G; Bukowiec, Sebastian; Cittolin, Sergio; Coarasa, J A; Deldicque, Christian; Dobson, Marc; Dupont, Aymeric; Erhan, Samim; Flossdorf, Alexander; Gigi, Dominique; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino, R; Hartl, Christian; Hegeman, Jeroen; Holzner, André; Y L Hwong; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Meschi, Emilio; Mommsen, R K; O'Dell, Vivian; Orsini, Luciano; Paus, Christoph; Petrucci, Andrea; Pieri, Marco; Polese, Giovanni; Racz, Attila; Raginel, Olivier; Sakulin, Hannes; Sani, Matteo; Schwick, Christoph; Shpakov, Dennis; Simon, M; Spataru, A C; Sumorok, Konstanty

    2012-01-01

    The CMS experiment at the LHC features a two-level trigger system. Events accepted by the first level trigger, at a maximum rate of 100 kHz, are read out by the Data Acquisition system (DAQ), and subsequently assembled in memory in a farm of computers running a software high-level trigger (HLT), which selects interesting events for offline storage and analysis at a rate of order few hundred Hz. The HLT algorithms consist of sequences of offline-style reconstruction and filtering modules, executed on a farm of 0(10000) CPU cores built from commodity hardware. Experience from the operation of the HLT system in the collider run 2010/2011 is reported. The current architecture of the CMS HLT, its integration with the CMS reconstruction framework and the CMS DAQ, are discussed in the light of future development. The possible short- and medium-term evolution of the HLT software infrastructure to support extensions of the HLT computing power, and to address remaining performance and maintenance issues, are discussed.

  17. Development of a microlesson in teaching energy levels of atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Cherilyn A.; Buan, Amelia T.

    2018-01-01

    Energy levels of atoms is one of the difficult topics in understanding atomic structure of matter. It appears tobe abstract, theoretical and needs visual representation and images. Hence, in this study a microlesson in teaching the high school chemistry concept on the energy levels of atoms is developed and validated. The researchers utilized backward curriculum design in planning the microlesson to meet the standards of the science K-12 curriculum. The planning process of the microlesson involved a) Identifying the learning competencies in K-12 science curriculum b) write learning objectives c) planning of assessment tools d) making a storyboard e) designing the microlesson and validate and revise the microlesson. The microlesson made use of varied resources in the internet from which the students accessed and collected information about energy levels of atoms. Working in groups, the students synthesized the information on how and why fireworks produce various colors of light through a post card. Findings of the study showed that there was an increase of achievement in learning the content and the students were highly motivated to learn chemistry. Furthermore, the students perceived that the microlesson helped them to understand the chemistry concept through the use of appropriate multimedia activities.

  18. Kalanchoe crop development under different levels of irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Cibele Soares

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Despite its importance in the floriculture sector, irrigation management of kalanchoe is characterized by empiricism, being necessary further studies on the use of water by this crop. Thus, the objective of this study is to analyze the several effects of irrigation levels on the growth of kalanchoe crop conducted in greenhouse in the municipality of Alegrete, state of Rio Grande do Sul. The experiment was conducted in a 7 x 15 m protected environment. The experimental design was completely randomized, with four treatments (irrigation levels corresponding to 40, 60, 80 and 100% of the pot water retention capacity - PC and four repetitions, totaling sixteen plots. The crop cycle was 224 days after transplanting and the applied average depths were: 451.82; 367.38; 282.94; 198.51 mm for treatments: 100; 80; 60 and 40% of PC, respectively. Canopy area and number of leaves per plant were evaluated over the crop cycle. In the end of the cycle, the canopy diameter, number of inflorescences per plant and the number of flowers per plant were evaluated. No significant differences were found only to the canopy area, by the F test. Irrigation water depths between 40 and 70% of the pot capacity were more appropriate for the crop growth in the study region. The cultivar presented the best development at irrigation levels below the maximum vessel water retention capacity, that is, it is resistant to drought.

  19. Human Development Index and Efficiency level of Social Security Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sepehrdost

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Hospitals as one of the main institutions providing health care services play an important role in the health system and allocate a high percentage of health sector's budget to them. This study aimed to answer whether social security hospitals efficiency levels are the same for all provinces in Iran? And whether any relationship exists between the human development indexes (HDI of the provinces and technical efficiency levels of the hospitals?Materials & Methods: Data envelopment analysis model has been used to measure technical efficiency of 65 social security hospitals, including small hospitals (working with lower than one hundred active beds and large hospitals (working with over one hundred active beds during the years 2007 to 2009. Further, the relationship between human development index and technical efficiency of hospitals in the provinces has been analyzed.Results: Results show that the average technical efficiency of small and large hospitals working in low and medium HDI provinces (0.912 and 0.937 are more than the average technical efficiency of hospitals in higher HDI provinces (0.870 and 0.887.Conclusion: It is recommended that social security organization concentrated distribute its hospital services in provinces with lower HDI and higher density of population living under the coverage of organization’s insurance. This will eventually puts its positive effects on per capita income of people, as well as more equitable distribution of income. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2012;19(1:32-38

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF THE LEVEL INDICES SYSTEM OF UNIVERSITY INTERNATIONALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artem R. Denisov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to show possible variants of audit in the higher educational institution while processes of internationalisation (procedures of definition of its level; to find out an estimation method of the received results in the given sphere.Methods. The methods involve comparative analysis, synthesis, range and systematization of information concerning the discussed problem.Results and scientific novelty. The necessity of universities participating in internationalization processes is proved. Existing approaches to internationalization evaluation levels are reviewed, as well as best practices for each criterion. Level indicators of considered process are proposed due to summarising the results of the given review, and also as a result of the coordination of criteria NAFSA and authors’ system of indicators: international programs supporting by a university administration, curricular changes, faculty involving into international research, faculty involving into teaching process, students participation, abroad study support, international students and teachers support. The research demonstrates that to improve the adequacy the system of indicators has to be supplemented with some indicators to evaluate the conformity of a university’s internationalization to its mission; the conformity of a university’s internationalization to the government geopolitics; extracurricular activities of students; cultural aspects of internationalization including communication with local ethnical groups; attractiongetting mechanisms for international students.Practical significance. The proposed system of indicators can be used for an estimation of high school development in internationalisation sphere, and under certain correction and improvement for efficiency definition of development of its academic divisions in the given field.

  1. High-level Waste Long-term management technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jong Won; Kang, C. H.; Ko, Y. K.

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this project is to develop a long-term management system(A-KRS) which deals with spent fuels from domestic nuclear power stations, HLW from advanced fuel cycle and other wastes that are not admitted to LILW disposal site. Also, this project demonstrate the feasibility and reliability of the key technologies applied in the A-KRS by evaluating them under in-situ condition such as underground research laboratory and provide important information to establish the safety assessment and long-term management plan. To develop the technologies for the high level radioactive wastes disposal, demonstrate their reliability under in-situ condition and establish safety assessment of disposal system, The major objects of this project are the following: Ο An advanced disposal system including waste containers for HLW from advanced fuel cycle and pyroprocess has been developed. Ο Quantitative assessment tools for long-term safety and performance assessment of a radwaste disposal system has been developed. Ο Hydrological and geochemical investigation and interpretation methods has been developed to evaluate deep geological environments. Ο The THMC characteristics of the engineered barrier system and near-field has been evaluated by in-situ experiments. Ο The migration and retardation of radionuclides and colloid materials in a deep geological environment has been investigated. The results from this project will provide important information to show HLW disposal plan safe and reliable. The knowledge from this project can also contribute to environmental conservation by applying them to the field of oil and gas industries to store their wastes safe

  2. Biocatalytic conversion of methane to methanol as a key step for development of methane-based biorefineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, In Yeub; Lee, Seung Hwan; Choi, Yoo Seong; Park, Si Jae; Na, Jeong Geol; Chang, In Seop; Kim, Choongik; Kim, Hyun Cheol; Kim, Yong Hwan; Lee, Jin Won; Lee, Eun Yeol

    2014-12-28

    Methane is considered as a next-generation carbon feedstock owing to the vast reserves of natural and shale gas. Methane can be converted to methanol by various methods, which in turn can be used as a starting chemical for the production of value-added chemicals using existing chemical conversion processes. Methane monooxygenase is the key enzyme that catalyzes the addition of oxygen to methane. Methanotrophic bacteria can transform methane to methanol by inhibiting methanol dehydrogenase. In this paper, we review the recent progress made on the biocatalytic conversion of methane to methanol as a key step for methane-based refinery systems and discuss future prospects for this technology.

  3. Stakeholder co-development of farm level nutrient management software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Cathal; Mechan, Sarah; Macken-Walsh, Aine; Heanue, Kevin

    2013-04-01

    Over the last number of decades intensification in the use nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in agricultural production has lead to excessive accumulations of these nutrients in soils, groundwaters and surface water bodies (Sutton et al., 2011). According to the European Environment Agency (2012) despite some progress diffuse pollution from agriculture is still significant in more than 40% of Europe's water bodies in rivers and coastal waters, and in one third of the water bodies in lakes and transitional waters. Recently it was estimated that approximately 29% of monitored river channel length is polluted to some degree across the Republic of Ireland. Agricultural sources were suspected in 47 per cent of cases (EPA, 2012). Farm level management practices to reduce nutrient transfers from agricultural land to watercourses can be divided into source reduction and source interception approaches (Ribaudo et al., 2001). Source interception approaches involve capturing nutrients post mobilisation through policy instruments such as riparian buffer zones or wetlands. Conversely, the source reduction approach is preventative in nature and promotes strict management of nutrient at farm and field level to reduce risk of mobilisation in the first instance. This has the potential to deliver a double dividend of reduced nutrient loss to the wider ecosystem while maximising economic return to agricultural production at the field and farm levels. Adoption and use of nutrient management plans among farmers is far from the norm. This research engages key farmer and extension stakeholders to explore how current nutrient management planning software and outputs should be developed to make it more user friendly and usable in a practical way. An open innovation technology co-development approach was adopted to investigate what is demanded by the end users - farm advisors and farmers. Open innovation is a knowledge management strategy that uses the input of stakeholders to improve

  4. The development of gate monitor for low level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujisawa, Morio; Watanabe, Michito; Kato, Tatsuo

    1994-01-01

    Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated from nuclear power plants in Japan, have been deposited in the yard of each power plant. At present, it is stored in about 500,000 drum cans (200l each). These drum cans are carried to Mutsu-ogawara Port by special transport ships and then transferred to Rokkasho LLW transport trucks (special vehicles) for storage. The gate monitor is used to automatically measure the dose rate on the vehicles loaded with transport vessels from a remote location, to ensure the safe transportation from Mutsu-ogawara Port the Burying Center. It is a new system which has been developed for effective measurement of dose rate on a number of transport vessels in a short time. This system is the first in the world for measuring dose rate on vehicles. Such a system cannot be found in any country of the world. (author)

  5. Development of nanosensors for studying intracellular phosphate levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gu, Hong

    -time monitoring of Pi metabolism in living cells, providing a new tool for fluxomics (measurement of metabolic flux), analysis of pathophysiology or changes of Pi during cell activity. Transformation of plants with FLIPs had resulted in only low expression levels. As an alternative a protein transduction domain......Abstract Inorganic phosphate (Pi) is an essential macronutrient that plays a central role in metabolism and signal transduction in plants. Uptake, compartmentation and transport are important players of cellular Pi homeostasis; however, methods to determine the cellular phosphate concentration...... of a substrate-binding protein linked to two fluorescent reporter proteins. Substrate binding changes the conformation of the nanosensor and, hence, the efficiency of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between the reporter proteins. The aim of the present project was to develop nanosensors for Pi...

  6. The Seven Step Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Connie

    2017-01-01

    Many well-intended instructors use Socratic or leveled questioning to facilitate the discussion of an assigned reading. While this engages a few students, most can opt to remain silent. The seven step strategy described in this article provides an alternative to classroom silence and engages all students. Students discuss a single reading as they…

  7. Developing micro-level urban ecosystem indicators for sustainability assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dizdaroglu, Didem, E-mail: dizdaroglu@bilkent.edu.tr

    2015-09-15

    Sustainability assessment is increasingly being viewed as an important tool to aid in the shift towards sustainable urban ecosystems. An urban ecosystem is a dynamic system and requires regular monitoring and assessment through a set of relevant indicators. An indicator is a parameter which provides information about the state of the environment by producing a quantitative value. Indicator-based sustainability assessment needs to be considered on all spatial scales to provide efficient information of urban ecosystem sustainability. The detailed data is necessary to assess environmental change in urban ecosystems at local scale and easily transfer this information to the national and global scales. This paper proposes a set of key micro-level urban ecosystem indicators for monitoring the sustainability of residential developments. The proposed indicator framework measures the sustainability performance of urban ecosystem in 3 main categories including: natural environment, built environment, and socio-economic environment which are made up of 9 sub-categories, consisting of 23 indicators. This paper also describes theoretical foundations for the selection of each indicator with reference to the literature [Turkish] Highlights: • As the impacts of environmental problems have multi-scale characteristics, sustainability assessment needs to be considered on all scales. • The detailed data is necessary to assess local environmental change in urban ecosystems to provide insights into the national and global scales. • This paper proposes a set of key micro-level urban ecosystem indicators for monitoring the sustainability of residential developments. • This paper also describes theoretical foundations for the selection of each indicator with reference to the literature.

  8. Developing Multi-Level Institutions from Top-Down Ancestors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Dowsley

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The academic literature contains numerous examples of the failures of both top-down and bottom-up common pool resource management frameworks. Many authors agree that management regimes instead need to utilize a multi-level governance approach to meet diverse objectives in management. However, many currently operating systems do not have that history. This paper explores the conversion of ancestral top-down regimes to complex systems involving multiple scales, levels and objectives through the management of the polar bear (Ursus maritimus in its five range countries. The less successful polar bear management systems continue to struggle with the challenges of developing institutions with the capacity to learn and change, addressing multiple objectives while recognizing the conservation backbone to management, and matching the institutional scale with biophysical, economic and social scales. The comparatively successful institutions incorporate these features, but reveal on-going problems with vertical links that are partially dealt with through the creation of links to other groups.

  9. Polyacrylamide Ferrogels with Magnetite or Strontium Hexaferrite: Next Step in the Development of Soft Biomimetic Matter for Biosensor Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander P. Safronov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic biosensors are an important part of biomedical applications of magnetic materials. As the living tissue is basically a “soft matter.” this study addresses the development of ferrogels (FG with micron sized magnetic particles of magnetite and strontium hexaferrite mimicking the living tissue. The basic composition of the FG comprised the polymeric network of polyacrylamide, synthesized by free radical polymerization of monomeric acrylamide (AAm in water solution at three levels of concentration (1.1 M, 0.85 M and 0.58 M to provide the FG with varying elasticity. To improve FG biocompatibility and to prevent the precipitation of the particles, polysaccharide thickeners—guar gum or xanthan gum were used. The content of magnetic particles in FG varied up to 5.2 wt % depending on the FG composition. The mechanical properties of FG and their deformation in a uniform magnetic field were comparatively analyzed. FG filled with strontium hexaferrite particles have larger Young’s modulus value than FG filled with magnetite particles, most likely due to the specific features of the adhesion of the network’s polymeric subchains on the surface of the particles. FG networks with xanthan are stronger and have higher modulus than the FG with guar. FG based on magnetite, contract in a magnetic field 0.42 T, whereas some FG based on strontium hexaferrite swell. Weak FG with the lowest concentration of AAm shows a much stronger response to a field, as the concentration of AAm governs the Young’s modulus of ferrogel. A small magnetic field magnetoimpedance sensor prototype with Co68.6Fe3.9Mo3.0Si12.0B12.5 rapidly quenched amorphous ribbon based element was designed aiming to develop a sensor working with a disposable stripe sensitive element. The proposed protocol allowed measurements of the concentration dependence of magnetic particles in gels using magnetoimpedance responses in the presence of magnetite and strontium hexaferrite ferrogels

  10. Application of stepping motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-10-01

    This book is divided into three parts, which is about practical using of stepping motor. The first part has six chapters. The contents of the first part are about stepping motor, classification of stepping motor, basic theory og stepping motor, characteristic and basic words, types and characteristic of stepping motor in hybrid type and basic control of stepping motor. The second part deals with application of stepping motor with hardware of stepping motor control, stepping motor control by microcomputer and software of stepping motor control. The last part mentions choice of stepping motor system, examples of stepping motor, measurement of stepping motor and practical cases of application of stepping motor.

  11. Development of high level radwaste treatment and conversion technology. Transmutation technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Won Suk; Song, T Y; Kim, Y H

    2001-03-01

    The final disposition of spent fuel has been, and continues to be, an important issue of nuclear industry. The conceptual design for the accelerator driven transmutation system HYPER is scheduled to be completed by the year of 2006. As the first step for the conceptual design, a study to determine 1. sub-critical core characteristics, 2. fuel concept, 3. coolant system concept, 4. spallation target concept for the HYPER was performed from 1997 to 2000. Most of concept studies were done on the literature basis. The major objectives of the study is to give a guid-line for the second stage research which will be performed during 2001-2003. In addition, the technologies related with TRU-Zr fuel and Pb-Bi coolant can be utilized for the future nuclear reactor development such as generation 4.

  12. Development of high level radwaste treatment and conversion technology. Transmutation technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Won Suk; Song, T. Y.; Kim, Y. H.

    2001-03-01

    The final disposition of spent fuel has been, and continues to be, an important issue of nuclear industry. The conceptual design for the accelerator driven transmutation system HYPER is scheduled to be completed by the year of 2006. As the first step for the conceptual design, a study to determine 1. sub-critical core characteristics, 2. fuel concept, 3. coolant system concept, 4. spallation target concept for the HYPER was performed from 1997 to 2000. Most of concept studies were done on the literature basis. The major objectives of the study is to give a guid-line for the second stage research which will be performed during 2001-2003. In addition, the technologies related with TRU-Zr fuel and Pb-Bi coolant can be utilized for the future nuclear reactor development such as generation 4

  13. Baby steps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentein, Jim

    2011-11-15

    The mining business is booming in Yukon. However, Yukon has been thinly explored, both onshore and offshore. The challenge for Yukon's mining industry is that the domestic energy resources are not sufficient to provide power for the mines that are proposed. A natural gas solution is proposed for developing an energy industry in the Yukon. Pipelines are planned to provide access to oil and gas which will be an incentive for companies. Rather than waiting on the construction of pipelines, a project has been launched by the government to map Yukon's hydrocarbon potential. It is believed that natural gas from Eagle Plain could meet Yukon's energy requirements into the foreseeable future. Furthermore, a Chinese company has invested in Northern Cross.

  14. Development of radiation detection and measurement systems - Development of level gauge and density gauge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Su Man; Kim, Sung Hun; Jang, Jung Hun; Yun, Mung Hun; Yun Jun Hyung; Kang, Sung Youn [Techvalley co., Ltd., Research Center, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-03-01

    -Pervasive effect of R and D results. Technical development of level/density measuring instruments has a definitely significant effect on the quality test of various products in the filled on the heavy industry. As measurement of flow increasingly becomes important in the plant design in the chemical industry, development of our products is applicable to various equipment in the field of industries. -Applications of R and D results. Technical development of level/density measurement copes with a technical difficulty in inspecting the internal conditions of chemical plants by transmission through metal materials in a non-destructive manner and thereby enables non-destructive flow and level tests in the field of industries. 11 refs., 19 figs., 4 tabs. (Author)

  15. Anti-idiotypic nanobody-alkaline phosphatase fusion proteins: Development of a one-step competitive enzyme immunoassay for fumonisin B{sub 1} detection in cereal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, Mei [State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Nanchang University, No. 235 Nanjing East Road, Nanchang 330047 (China); Jiangxi-OAI Joint Research Institute, Nanchang University, No. 235 Nanjing East Road, Nanchang 330047 (China); Xu, Yang, E-mail: xuyang@ncu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Nanchang University, No. 235 Nanjing East Road, Nanchang 330047 (China); Jiangxi-OAI Joint Research Institute, Nanchang University, No. 235 Nanjing East Road, Nanchang 330047 (China); Liu, Xing [State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Nanchang University, No. 235 Nanjing East Road, Nanchang 330047 (China); College of Food Science and Technology, Hainan University, No. 58 Renmin Avenue, Haikou 570228 (China); Li, Yanping; He, Qinghua [Jiangxi-OAI Joint Research Institute, Nanchang University, No. 235 Nanjing East Road, Nanchang 330047 (China); Tu, Zhui [State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Nanchang University, No. 235 Nanjing East Road, Nanchang 330047 (China); Fu, Jinheng [Jiangxi-OAI Joint Research Institute, Nanchang University, No. 235 Nanjing East Road, Nanchang 330047 (China); Gee, Shirley J.; Hammock, Bruce D. [Department of Entomology and UCD Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2016-06-14

    A rapid and sensitive one-step competitive enzyme immunoassay for the detection of FB{sub 1} was developed. The anti-idiotypic nanobody–alkaline phosphatase (Ab2β−Nb−AP) was validated by the AP enzyme activity and the properties of bounding to anti-FB1-mAb (3F11) through colorimetric and chemiluminescence analyses. The 50% inhibitory concentration and the detection limit (LOD) of colorimetric enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for FB{sub 1} were 2.69 and 0.35 ng mL{sup −1}, respectively, with a linear range of 0.93–7.73 ng mL{sup −1}. The LOD of the chemiluminescence ELISA (CLIA) was 0.12 ng mL{sup −1}, and the IC{sub 50} was 0.89 ± 0.09 ng mL{sup −1} with a linear range of 0.29–2.68 ng mL{sup −1}. Compared with LC-MS/MS, the results of this assay indicated the reliability of the Ab2β−Nb−AP fusion protein based one-step competitive immunoassay for monitoring FB{sub 1} contamination in cereals. The Ab2β−Nb−AP fusion proteins have the potential to replace chemically-coupled probes in competitive enzyme immunoassay systems. - Highlights: • Ab2β−Nb−AP has the potential to replace chemically-coupled probes. • Ab2β−Nb−AP is homogeneous enzyme-labelled antigen can be prepared reproducibly. • We developed a green and rapid one-step competitive enzyme immunoassay. • The sensitivity of one-step CLIA was 9-folds higher than two-step ELISA.

  16. Anti-idiotypic nanobody-alkaline phosphatase fusion proteins: Development of a one-step competitive enzyme immunoassay for fumonisin B_1 detection in cereal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, Mei; Xu, Yang; Liu, Xing; Li, Yanping; He, Qinghua; Tu, Zhui; Fu, Jinheng; Gee, Shirley J.; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2016-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive one-step competitive enzyme immunoassay for the detection of FB_1 was developed. The anti-idiotypic nanobody–alkaline phosphatase (Ab2β−Nb−AP) was validated by the AP enzyme activity and the properties of bounding to anti-FB1-mAb (3F11) through colorimetric and chemiluminescence analyses. The 50% inhibitory concentration and the detection limit (LOD) of colorimetric enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for FB_1 were 2.69 and 0.35 ng mL"−"1, respectively, with a linear range of 0.93–7.73 ng mL"−"1. The LOD of the chemiluminescence ELISA (CLIA) was 0.12 ng mL"−"1, and the IC_5_0 was 0.89 ± 0.09 ng mL"−"1 with a linear range of 0.29–2.68 ng mL"−"1. Compared with LC-MS/MS, the results of this assay indicated the reliability of the Ab2β−Nb−AP fusion protein based one-step competitive immunoassay for monitoring FB_1 contamination in cereals. The Ab2β−Nb−AP fusion proteins have the potential to replace chemically-coupled probes in competitive enzyme immunoassay systems. - Highlights: • Ab2β−Nb−AP has the potential to replace chemically-coupled probes. • Ab2β−Nb−AP is homogeneous enzyme-labelled antigen can be prepared reproducibly. • We developed a green and rapid one-step competitive enzyme immunoassay. • The sensitivity of one-step CLIA was 9-folds higher than two-step ELISA.

  17. Development of new low level radioactive waste disposal sites: A progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Robert T.; Antonucci, George J.; Ryan, Michael T.

    1992-01-01

    The status of the development of three new low level radioactive waste disposal facilities for the Central Midwest (Illinois), Southeastern (North Carolina) and Appalachian (Pennsylvania) compacts is presented. These three sites will dispose of about 50-65 percent of the commercial low-level waste (LLW) generated in the U.S. annually. Chem-Nuclear, as developer and proposed operator of all three sites has used a common approach to site development. This approach has been based on their twenty-plus years of operating experience and a standard technical approach. The technology employed is an above-grade, multiple engineered barrier design. The paper also contrasts actual progress at each site with a generalized project schedule. Areas of schedule delays are noted along with the steps being taken to accelerate schedule. Finally, we note that continued progress and timely start-up of operations of these new sites is critical on a national basis. This is due to the possibility of near-term closure of the existing LLW disposal sites. (author)

  18. The Step approach to Message Design and Testing (SatMDT): A conceptual framework to guide the development and evaluation of persuasive health messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ioni; Watson, Barry; White, Katherine M

    2016-12-01

    This paper provides an important and timely overview of a conceptual framework designed to assist with the development of message content, as well as the evaluation, of persuasive health messages. While an earlier version of this framework was presented in a prior publication by the authors in 2009, important refinements to the framework have seen it evolve in recent years, warranting the need for an updated review. This paper outlines the Step approach to Message Design and Testing (or SatMDT) in accordance with the theoretical evidence which underpins, as well as empirical evidence which demonstrates the relevance and feasibility of, each of the framework's steps. The development and testing of the framework have thus far been based exclusively within the road safety advertising context; however, the view expressed herein is that the framework may have broader appeal and application to the health persuasion context. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Development of computing code system for level 3 PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Jong Tae; Yu, Dong Han; Kim, Seung Hwan.

    1997-07-01

    Among the various research areas of the level 3 PSA, the effect of terrain on the transport of radioactive material was investigated through wind tunnel experiment. These results will give a physical insight in the development of a new dispersion model. Because there are some discrepancies between the results from Gaussian plume model and those from field test, the effect of terrain on the atmospheric dispersion was investigated by using CTDMPLUS code. Through this study we find that the model which can treat terrain effect is essential in the atmospheric dispersion of radioactive materials and the CTDMPLUS model can be used as a useful tool. And it is suggested that modification of a model and experimental study should be made through the continuous effort. The health effect assessment near the Yonggwang site by using IPE (Individual plant examination) results and its site data was performed. The health effect assessment is an important part of consequence analysis of a nuclear power plant site. The MACCS was used in the assessment. Based on the calculation of CCDF for each risk measure, it is shown that CCDF has a slow slope and thus wide probability distribution in cases of early fatality, early injury, total early fatality risk, and total weighted early fatality risk. And in cases of cancer fatality and population dose within 48km and 80km, the CCDF curve have a steep slope and thus narrow probability distribution. The establishment of methodologies for necessary models for consequence analysis resulting form a server accident in the nuclear power plant was made and a program for consequence analysis was developed. The models include atmospheric transport and diffusion, calculation of exposure doses for various pathways, and assessment of health effects and associated risks. Finally, the economic impact resulting form an accident in a nuclear power plant was investigated. In this study, estimation models for each cost terms that considered in economic

  20. Development of computing code system for level 3 PSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jong Tae; Yu, Dong Han; Kim, Seung Hwan

    1997-07-01

    Among the various research areas of the level 3 PSA, the effect of terrain on the transport of radioactive material was investigated through wind tunnel experiment. These results will give a physical insight in the development of a new dispersion model. Because there are some discrepancies between the results from Gaussian plume model and those from field test, the effect of terrain on the atmospheric dispersion was investigated by using CTDMPLUS code. Through this study we find that the model which can treat terrain effect is essential in the atmospheric dispersion of radioactive materials and the CTDMPLUS model can be used as a useful tool. And it is suggested that modification of a model and experimental study should be made through the continuous effort. The health effect assessment near the Yonggwang site by using IPE (Individual plant examination) results and its site data was performed. The health effect assessment is an important part of consequence analysis of a nuclear power plant site. The MACCS was used in the assessment. Based on the calculation of CCDF for each risk measure, it is shown that CCDF has a slow slope and thus wide probability distribution in cases of early fatality, early injury, total early fatality risk, and total weighted early fatality risk. And in cases of cancer fatality and population dose within 48km and 80km, the CCDF curve have a steep slope and thus narrow probability distribution. The establishment of methodologies for necessary models for consequence analysis resulting form a server accident in the nuclear power plant was made and a program for consequence analysis was developed. The models include atmospheric transport and diffusion, calculation of exposure doses for various pathways, and assessment of health effects and associated risks. Finally, the economic impact resulting form an accident in a nuclear power plant was investigated. In this study, estimation models for each cost terms that considered in economic

  1. Design and development of Low Level RF (LLRF) control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandi, T.K.; Suman, S.; Pandey, H.K.; Bandyopadhyay, A.

    2015-01-01

    All the linear accelerator cavities of Radioactive Ion Beam have separate RF power amplifiers. In these accelerators, high stabilities of the order of ± 0.5% in amplitude and ± 0.5° in phase of RF signal inside the cavities are required for proper and efficient acceleration of RIB. For this purpose, a low level RF (LLRF) control system is being designed which includes amplitude and phase controllers to ensure efficient and stable operation of the RF accelerators. The RF output of the LLRF system is finally amplified and fed to the accelerator cavities. The LLRF system is based on IQ (In-phase and Quadrature) modulation-demodulation technique in which an IQ modulator and a demodulator has been used to control the amplitude and phase of the RF carrier signal. The HigH-speed DAC and ADC have been used for processing the in-phase (I) and quadrature-phase (Q) components of the RF signal. This system is a closed-loop feedback control system. The feedback signal is obtained from the pick-up of accelerator cavity. PID control method is used to regulate the amplitude and phase of the RF signal to the desired/set value. The control system is optimized for minimum response time with satisfactory performance. The transfer function of the PID controller and the RF cavity is compared with the transfer function of a first order system and the values of proportional gain (Kp), integral gain (Ti) and derivative gain (Td) are obtained from Matlab- Simulink Simulation. The PID controller has been implemented into a high speed microcontroller (LPC2478) for fast operation. A GUI has been developed in NI LabView software to monitor the Amplitude and Phase of the RF signal and control manually if required. The detailed design and development of the control system will be discussed in this paper. (author)

  2. Advanced High-Level Waste Glass Research and Development Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peeler, David K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Vienna, John D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schweiger, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fox, Kevin M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection (ORP) has implemented an integrated program to increase the loading of Hanford tank wastes in glass while meeting melter lifetime expectancies and process, regulatory, and product quality requirements. The integrated ORP program is focused on providing a technical, science-based foundation from which key decisions can be made regarding the successful operation of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) facilities. The fundamental data stemming from this program will support development of advanced glass formulations, key process control models, and tactical processing strategies to ensure safe and successful operations for both the low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste (HLW) vitrification facilities with an appreciation toward reducing overall mission life. The purpose of this advanced HLW glass research and development plan is to identify the near-, mid-, and longer-term research and development activities required to develop and validate advanced HLW glasses and their associated models to support facility operations at WTP, including both direct feed and full pretreatment flowsheets. This plan also integrates technical support of facility operations and waste qualification activities to show the interdependence of these activities with the advanced waste glass (AWG) program to support the full WTP mission. Figure ES-1 shows these key ORP programmatic activities and their interfaces with both WTP facility operations and qualification needs. The plan is a living document that will be updated to reflect key advancements and mission strategy changes. The research outlined here is motivated by the potential for substantial economic benefits (e.g., significant increases in waste throughput and reductions in glass volumes) that will be realized when advancements in glass formulation continue and models supporting facility operations are implemented. Developing and applying advanced

  3. Standing operating procedures for developing acute exposure guideline levels for hazardous chemicals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    National Research Council (U.S.). Subcommittee on Acute Exposure Guideline Levels

    2001-01-01

    Standing Operating Procedures for Developing Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Hazardous Chemicals contains a detailed and comprehensive methodology for developing acute exposure guideline levels (AEGLs...

  4. Development of a bionanodevice for detecting stress levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, S; Handri, S; Honda, H

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in molecular analysis techniques have enabled scientists to assess the tiny amounts of biochemical substances secreted in our bodies. This has revealed that the levels of various secretory hormones and immune substances vary sensitively with the mental state of a person. Such hormones and immune substances exhibit transient increases with various psychological stressors. They thus have the potential to be used as a novel biometric for monitoring stress. Biomarkers that occur in saliva can be monitored non-invasively and are thus potentially useful as practical indicators of mental stress. Stress biomarkers are considered to be released into the blood stream or other secretory fluids by physiological stress reactions. Stress biomarkers are expected to be detectable in sweat and other humoral fluids that are exuded from the skin surface. Based on this, we have developed a bionanodevice for detecting stress by capturing stress biomarkers on the skin surface in a non-invasive manner. A prototype bionanodevice is described in which a motor protein is introduced for molecular handling.

  5. Developing micro-level urban ecosystem indicators for sustainability assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dizdaroglu, Didem

    2015-01-01

    Sustainability assessment is increasingly being viewed as an important tool to aid in the shift towards sustainable urban ecosystems. An urban ecosystem is a dynamic system and requires regular monitoring and assessment through a set of relevant indicators. An indicator is a parameter which provides information about the state of the environment by producing a quantitative value. Indicator-based sustainability assessment needs to be considered on all spatial scales to provide efficient information of urban ecosystem sustainability. The detailed data is necessary to assess environmental change in urban ecosystems at local scale and easily transfer this information to the national and global scales. This paper proposes a set of key micro-level urban ecosystem indicators for monitoring the sustainability of residential developments. The proposed indicator framework measures the sustainability performance of urban ecosystem in 3 main categories including: natural environment, built environment, and socio-economic environment which are made up of 9 sub-categories, consisting of 23 indicators. This paper also describes theoretical foundations for the selection of each indicator with reference to the literature [tr

  6. Development of a bionanodevice for detecting stress levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomura, S; Handri, S [Top Runner Incubation Center for Academia-Industry Fusion, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka, Nagaoka 940-2188 (Japan); Honda, H, E-mail: nomura@kjs.nagaokaut.ac.jp, E-mail: hhonda@vos.nagaokaut.ac.jp [Department of Bioengineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka, Nagaoka 940-2188 (Japan)

    2011-03-15

    Recent advances in molecular analysis techniques have enabled scientists to assess the tiny amounts of biochemical substances secreted in our bodies. This has revealed that the levels of various secretory hormones and immune substances vary sensitively with the mental state of a person. Such hormones and immune substances exhibit transient increases with various psychological stressors. They thus have the potential to be used as a novel biometric for monitoring stress. Biomarkers that occur in saliva can be monitored non-invasively and are thus potentially useful as practical indicators of mental stress. Stress biomarkers are considered to be released into the blood stream or other secretory fluids by physiological stress reactions. Stress biomarkers are expected to be detectable in sweat and other humoral fluids that are exuded from the skin surface. Based on this, we have developed a bionanodevice for detecting stress by capturing stress biomarkers on the skin surface in a non-invasive manner. A prototype bionanodevice is described in which a motor protein is introduced for molecular handling.

  7. Defining a List of Accidents to be Considered as a First Step of Forging Effective Level 4 of Defense-in Depth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lankin, M., E-mail: lankin@secnrs.ru [Scientific and Engineering Center for Nuclear and Radiation Safety, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-10-15

    Russian national regulatory documents require consideration of beyond design basis accidents (BDBAs) while organizing defence-in-depth for nuclear power plants. Consideration of BDBAs in plant design analysis forms the basis for development accident prevention and mitigation strategies. Since sheer quantity of possible beyond design basis accidents is limitless, we face a necessity of working out selection criteria for choosing scenarios of such accidents to be taken into consideration while assessing adequacy of Level 4 of Defence-in-Depth for NPPs. This paper presents possible algorithm for defining a list of beyond design basis accidents that are to be taken into account for NPPs. Developing such a list is to include examination of the following criteria: a) Representativity of set of scenarios covered by the list (representativity to be assessed from the point of view of organizing emergency response actions); b) Cumulative occurrence probability of the scenarios not covered by the list (this probability should be low); and c) Necessity to cover scenarios recommended by current international state-of the art practices. (author)

  8. STeP: A Tool for the Development of Provably Correct Reactive and Real-Time Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manna, Zohar

    1999-01-01

    This research is directed towards the implementation of a comprehensive toolkit for the development and verification of high assurance reactive systems, especially concurrent, real time, and hybrid systems...

  9. Study of two step constant current charging method with EV`s valve-regulated lead acid batteries for nighttime load leveling; Yakan denryoku wo yuko katsuyo dekiru denki jidoshayo namari denchi no nidantei denryu judenho no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeya, T.; Mita, Y.; Iwahori, T. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Iwasaki, M.; Takagi, S.; Sugii, Y.; Yada, M.; Sakabe, T.; Kosaka, E.; Tsuchiya, H.; Kanetsuki, M.; Nasu, H.; Ono, M.; Adachi, K.; Narisoko, H.; Nishiyama, K.

    1997-02-01

    In the constant-current/constant-voltage charging method that has been in application for EV (electric vehicle) lead-acid batteries, power load is generated only at the initial part of the charging process, and therefore the method cannot be said to be sufficiently contributory to the levelling of power loads. In this report, a proposed 2-step constant-current charging method is assessed for applicability, and another charging method is introduced, which extends battery life and utilizes low-cost night-time power more effectively. It is found that the proposed 2-step constant-current charging method (1st step: 12A, 2nd step: 3A) completes the charging process in eight hours, that it assumes a charging pattern more suitable for contributing to the effective use of night-time power than the conventional method, and that it extends the battery life of approximately 170 cycles to approximately 300 cycles. In a study seeking for a charging method capable of utilizing night-time power more efficiently, the 1st-step current of 12A is increased to 30A for shortening the charging time, and then it is found that this change extends the battery cycle life and improves on charging efficiency. The conclusion is that possibilities are high that an increase in the 1st-step current prolongs the battery life cycle and shortens the charting time. 16 refs., 28 figs., 8 tabs.

  10. Teacher Learning in a Mathematics and Science Inquiry Professional Development Program: First Steps in Emergent Teacher Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yow, Jan A.; Lotter, Christine

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the role of an inquiry professional development institute in empowering middle school mathematics and science teachers to develop as teacher leaders. Teachers and coaches jointly attended content sessions and participated in practice teaching sessions with students. The coaches led reflection sessions following the practice…

  11. Step-change: how micro-entrepreneurs enter the upcoming middle-class market in developing and emerging countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babah Daouda, Falylath

    2017-01-01

    In developing and emerging (D&E) countries, the large number of poor people, most of whom are female, earn a living based on small-scale self-employed units established in subsistence marketplaces in the large informal sector. With the recent rise of middle-classes in developing and emerging

  12. Steps Forward and Back in Adult Numeracy Teacher Professional Development: A Reflection on a Teacher Workshop Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliga, Linda Marie; Daviso, Al; Stuart, Denise; Pachnowski, Lynne

    2015-01-01

    In this project, a university team of teacher education and mathematics professors conducted eight professional development sessions for General Educational Development (GED) teachers in the area of mathematics teaching. Topics included concretely modeling mathematics concepts in algebra, number sense, geometry, and differentiating instruction in…

  13. Step out - Step in Sequencing Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musegaas, M.; Borm, P.E.M.; Quant, M.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a new class of relaxed sequencing games is introduced: the class of Step out - Step in sequencing games. In this relaxation any player within a coalition is allowed to step out from his position in the processing order and to step in at any position later in the processing order.

  14. Step out-step in sequencing games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musegaas, Marieke; Borm, Peter; Quant, Marieke

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a new class of relaxed sequencing games is introduced: the class of Step out–Step in sequencing games. In this relaxation any player within a coalition is allowed to step out from his position in the processing order and to step in at any position later in the processing order. First,

  15. Microsoft® Visual Basic® 2010 Step by Step

    CERN Document Server

    Halvorson, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Your hands-on, step-by-step guide to learning Visual Basic® 2010. Teach yourself the essential tools and techniques for Visual Basic® 2010-one step at a time. No matter what your skill level, you'll find the practical guidance and examples you need to start building professional applications for Windows® and the Web. Discover how to: Work in the Microsoft® Visual Studio® 2010 Integrated Development Environment (IDE)Master essential techniques-from managing data and variables to using inheritance and dialog boxesCreate professional-looking UIs; add visual effects and print supportBuild com

  16. SPAR-H Step-by-Step Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    April M. Whaley; Dana L. Kelly; Ronald L. Boring; William J. Galyean

    2012-06-01

    Step-by-step guidance was developed recently at Idaho National Laboratory for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission on the use of the Standardized Plant Analysis Risk-Human Reliability Analysis (SPAR-H) method for quantifying Human Failure Events (HFEs). This work was done to address SPAR-H user needs, specifically requests for additional guidance on the proper application of various aspects of the methodology. This paper overviews the steps of the SPAR-H analysis process and highlights some of the most important insights gained during the development of the step-by-step directions. This supplemental guidance for analysts is applicable when plant-specific information is available, and goes beyond the general guidance provided in existing SPAR-H documentation. The steps highlighted in this paper are: Step-1, Categorizing the HFE as Diagnosis and/or Action; Step-2, Rate the Performance Shaping Factors; Step-3, Calculate PSF-Modified HEP; Step-4, Accounting for Dependence, and; Step-5, Minimum Value Cutoff.

  17. Development of good modelling practice for phsiologically based pharmacokinetic models for use in risk assessment: The first steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    The increasing use of tissue dosimetry estimated using pharmacokinetic models in chemical risk assessments in multiple countries necessitates the need to develop internationally recognized good modelling practices. These practices would facilitate sharing of models and model eva...

  18. Steps in preparing and biodiversity section of climate change action plan. Development and evolution of forestry and biodiversity mitigation measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiNicola, A.

    1997-01-01

    Methodic for drawing up of national action plans on prevention of unfavorable consequences of climate change in forestry is described. Approaches to development and measures evolution in these fields on greenhouse effect reduce are considered. (author)

  19. Audiovisual speech perception development at varying levels of perceptual processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalonde, Kaylah; Holt, Rachael Frush

    2016-04-01

    This study used the auditory evaluation framework [Erber (1982). Auditory Training (Alexander Graham Bell Association, Washington, DC)] to characterize the influence of visual speech on audiovisual (AV) speech perception in adults and children at multiple levels of perceptual processing. Six- to eight-year-old children and adults completed auditory and AV speech perception tasks at three levels of perceptual processing (detection, discrimination, and recognition). The tasks differed in the level of perceptual processing required to complete them. Adults and children demonstrated visual speech influence at all levels of perceptual processing. Whereas children demonstrated the same visual speech influence at each level of perceptual processing, adults demonstrated greater visual speech influence on tasks requiring higher levels of perceptual processing. These results support previous research demonstrating multiple mechanisms of AV speech processing (general perceptual and speech-specific mechanisms) with independent maturational time courses. The results suggest that adults rely on both general perceptual mechanisms that apply to all levels of perceptual processing and speech-specific mechanisms that apply when making phonetic decisions and/or accessing the lexicon. Six- to eight-year-old children seem to rely only on general perceptual mechanisms across levels. As expected, developmental differences in AV benefit on this and other recognition tasks likely reflect immature speech-specific mechanisms and phonetic processing in children.

  20. High-rise housing in the city of Samara: the first steps on the path to sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vavilova Tatiana Ya.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines theoretical background of high-rise housing and discusses its design experience. It particularly focuses on environmental, social and economic aspects which are among crucial sustainable development issues. The authors dwell upon the implementation of innovative solutions that meet principles and goals of sustainable development and take construction objects built in Samara (which is one of the largest metropolises in Russia as an example. The research also investigates the quality of project designs and reveals techniques corresponding to the "green standards". It considers the issues of practicing high-rise building construction in specific urban conditions and identifies unresolved architectural problems.

  1. High-rise housing in the city of Samara: the first steps on the path to sustainable development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavilova, Tatiana Ya.; Makeeva, Elena Yu.

    2018-03-01

    This paper outlines theoretical background of high-rise housing and discusses its design experience. It particularly focuses on environmental, social and economic aspects which are among crucial sustainable development issues. The authors dwell upon the implementation of innovative solutions that meet principles and goals of sustainable development and take construction objects built in Samara (which is one of the largest metropolises in Russia) as an example. The research also investigates the quality of project designs and reveals techniques corresponding to the "green standards". It considers the issues of practicing high-rise building construction in specific urban conditions and identifies unresolved architectural problems.

  2. Developing a Geoscience Literacy Exam: Pushing Geoscience Literacy Assessment to New Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, E. A.; Steer, D. N.; Manduca, C. A.

    2012-12-01

    InTeGrate is a community effort aimed at improving geoscience literacy and building a workforce that can use geoscience to solve societal issues. As part of this work we have developed a geoscience literacy assessment instrument to measure students' higher order thinking. This assessment is an important part of the development of curricula designed to increase geoscience literacy for all undergraduate students. To this end, we developed the Geoscience Literacy Exam (GLE) as one of the tools to quantify the effectiveness of these materials on students' understandings of geoscience literacy. The InTeGrate project is a 5-year, NSF-funded STEP Center grant in its first year of funding. Details concerning the project are found at http://serc.carleton.edu/integrate/index.html. The GLE instrument addresses content and concepts in the Earth, Climate, and Ocean Science literacy documents. The testing schema is organized into three levels of increasing complexity. Level 1 questions are single answer, understanding- or application-level multiple choice questions. For example, selecting which type of energy transfer is most responsible for the movement of tectonic plates. They are designed such that most introductory level students should be able to correctly answer after taking an introductory geoscience course. Level 2 questions are more advanced multiple answer/matching questions, at the understanding- through analysis-level. Students might be asked to determine the types of earth-atmosphere interactions that could result in changes to global temperatures in the event of a major volcanic eruption. Because the answers are more complicated, some introductory students and most advanced students should be able to respond correctly. Level 3 questions are analyzing- to evaluating-level short essays, such as describe the ways in which the atmosphere sustains life on Earth. These questions are designed such that introductory students could probably formulate a rudimentary response

  3. Development of one-step Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) for the detection of norovirus in oysters

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this study was to develop a simple and rapid technique for detecting human norovirus (NoV). The loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) technique was evaluated and found to be sensitive, highly specific, and useful for routine oyster testing. Reverse transcription-LAMP (RT-LAMP) pri...

  4. First Steps in the Development of the Inventario de Comportamiento de Estudio: The Spanish Version of the Study Behavior Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, Leonard B.; Vinay, Diana Maria Alejandra

    2004-01-01

    The Inventario de Comportamiento de Estudio (ICE), a Spanish version of the Study Behavior Inventory (SBI), was developed and tested using 594 undergraduate students at la Universidad de las Americas, in the state of Puebla, Mexico. A team of bilingual specialists was assembled to produce a translation that might be generic enough to be understood…

  5. First Steps in the Development of the "Inventario de Comportamiento de Estudio": The Spanish Version of the "Study Behavior Inventory."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, Leonard B.; And Others

    The Inventario de Comportamiento de Estudio (ICE), a Spanish translation of the Study Behavior Inventory (SBI) was developed and tested using a group of 594 undergraduate students from randomly selected classes at a private comprehensive university in Mexico. Both instruments were designed to assess the study behaviors of students in institutions…

  6. Learning autonomy in two or three steps : linking open-ended development, authority, and agency to motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andringa, Tjeerd; van den Bosch, Kirsten; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we connect open-ended development, authority, agency, and motivation through (1) an analysis of the demands of existing in a complex world and (2) environmental appraisal in terms of affordance content and the complexity to select appropriate behavior. We do this by identifying a

  7. Stepping up to the challenge: the development, implementation, and assessment of a statewide, regional, leadership program for school nutrition directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Jacqueline J; Briggs, Marilyn M; Beall, Deborah L; Curwood, Sandy; Gray, Pilar; Soiseth, Scott; Taylor, Rodney K; Zidenberg-Cherr, Sheri

    2015-01-01

    A statewide professional development program was developed and implemented throughout California for school nutrition directors with the goal of creating healthy school environments and regional networks for collaboration and healthy school environment sustainability. Needs of school nutrition directors were identified through a needs assessment questionnaire. Results of the needs assessment questionnaire (n = 256) identified (a) planning cost-effective menus; (b) reducing calories, sodium, saturated fat, and trans fat in menus; and (c) using U.S. Department of Agriculture foods cost-effectively as the most useful topics. Highest rated topics informed the content of the professional development program. A post-professional development questionnaire identified key "insights, inspirations, and strategies" as (a) marketing of school foods program, (b) expansion of salad bars, and (c) collaboration with community partners. A 6-month follow-up questionnaire identified that 86% of participants made progress toward implementing at least one of their five insights, inspirations, and strategies in their school districts. Most common areas that were implemented were marketing and branding (32%), revamping salad bars (18%), and motivating staff (16%). School and Community Actions for Nutrition survey analysis showed a significant increase in the use of marketing methods in school nutrition programs from baseline to 6-month post-program implementation (p = .024). © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  8. Crossroads language skills development at First Certificate level

    CERN Document Server

    Hinton, Michael

    1982-01-01

    Crossroads is an imaginative course for students at First Certificate Level which will improve reading, oral/aural and written competence through a wide range of communicative tasks and provide a good grounding in exam related techniques.

  9. Audiovisual speech perception development at varying levels of perceptual processing

    OpenAIRE

    Lalonde, Kaylah; Holt, Rachael Frush

    2016-01-01

    This study used the auditory evaluation framework [Erber (1982). Auditory Training (Alexander Graham Bell Association, Washington, DC)] to characterize the influence of visual speech on audiovisual (AV) speech perception in adults and children at multiple levels of perceptual processing. Six- to eight-year-old children and adults completed auditory and AV speech perception tasks at three levels of perceptual processing (detection, discrimination, and recognition). The tasks differed in the le...

  10. Transplantation of an alginate-matrigel matrix containing isolated ovarian stromal cells: first step in developing an artificial ovary

    OpenAIRE

    Vanacker, Julie; Dolmans, Marie-Madeleine; des Rieux, Anne; Jaeger, Jonathan; Luyckx, Valérie; Van Langendonckt, Anne; Donnez, Jacques; Andrade Amorim, Christiani; 3rd International Conference “Strategies in Tissue Engineering”

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: For women diagnosed with leukemia, transplantation of cryopreserved ovarian tissue after disease remission is not advisable due to the risk of reintroduction of malignant cells. To restore fertility in these patients, a biodegradable artificial ovary that offers an environment allowing isolated follicles and stromal cells (SCs) to survive and grow needs to be developed. The aim of this study is therefore to test the survival and proliferation of isolated SCs encapsulated in an a...

  11. Understanding plant defence responses against herbivore attacks: an essential first step towards the development of sustainable resistance against pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaria, M Estrella; Martínez, Manuel; Cambra, Inés; Grbic, Vojislava; Diaz, Isabel

    2013-08-01

    Plant-herbivore relationships are complex interactions encompassing elaborate networks of molecules, signals and strategies used to overcome defences developed by each other. Herbivores use multiple feeding strategies to obtain nutrients from host plants. In turn, plants respond by triggering defence mechanisms to inhibit, block or modify the metabolism of the pest. As part of these defences, herbivore-challenged plants emit volatiles to attract natural enemies and warn neighbouring plants of the imminent threat. In response, herbivores develop a variety of strategies to suppress plant-induced protection. Our understanding of the plant-herbivore interphase is limited, although recent molecular approaches have revealed the participation of a battery of genes, proteins and volatile metabolites in attack-defence processes. This review describes the intricate and dynamic defence systems governing plant-herbivore interactions by examining the diverse strategies plants employ to deny phytophagous arthropods the ability to breach newly developed mechanisms of plant resistance. A cornerstone of this understanding is the use of transgenic tools to unravel the complex networks that control these interactions.

  12. Development of a low-level radon reference chamber; Entwicklung einer Low-Level-Radon-Referenzkammer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linzmaier, Diana

    2013-01-04

    The naturally occurring, radioactive noble gas radon-222 exists worldwide in different activity concentrations in the air. During the decay of radon-222, decay products are generated which are electrically charged and attach to aerosols in the air. Together with the aerosols, the radon is inhaled and exhaled by humans. While the radon is nearly completely exhaled, ca. 20 % of the inhaled aerosols remain in the lungs in one breath cycle. Due to ionizing radiation, in a chain of events, lung cancer might occur. Consequently, radon and its decay products are according to the current findings the second leading cause of lung cancer. At the workplace and in the home measurements of radon activity concentration are performed to determine the radiation exposition of humans. All measurement devices for the determination of radon activity concentration are calibrated above 1000 Bq/m{sup 3}, even though the mean value of the present investigation in Germany shows only 50 Bq/m{sup 3}. For the calibration of measurement devices in the range below 1000 Bq/m{sup 3} over a long time period, the generation of a stable reference atmosphere is presented in this work. Due to a long term calibration (t>5 days) of the measurement devices, smaller uncertainties result for the calibration factor. For the calibration procedure, a so-called low-level radon reference chamber was set up and started operation. The generation of a stable reference atmosphere is effected by means of emanation sources which consist of a radium-226 activity standard. On the basis of {gamma}-spectrometry, the effective emanation coefficient ofthe emanation sources is determined. The traceability of the activity concentration in the reference volume is realized via the activity ofthe radium-226, the emanation coefficient and the volume. With the emanation sources produced, stable reference atmospheres within the range of 150 Bq/m{sup 3} to 1900 Bq/m{sup 3} are achieved. For the realization, maintenance and

  13. Professional Culture and Personality Traits of Hospital Pharmacists across Canada: A Fundamental First Step in Developing Effective Knowledge Translation Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Meagen; Hall, Kevin W; Bussières, Jean-François; Tsuyuki, Ross T

    2015-01-01

    Evidence for the value of pharmacists' interventions in the care of patients is strong and continues to grow, but the rate at which these new practice opportunities are being integrated into daily practice has not kept pace. The knowledge translation literature suggests that before effective change strategies can be implemented, a better understanding of the current environment must be obtained. Two important factors within the practice environment are the professional culture and personality traits of group members. To gain insight, at a national level, into the culture of hospital pharmacy, using the Organizational Culture Profile, and into hospital pharmacists' personality traits, using the Big Five Inventory. A cross-sectional survey of hospital pharmacists from across Canada was conducted intermittently over the period August 2012 to September 2013. The online survey contained questions about demographic characteristics and practice setting, as well as questions from the Organizational Culture Profile and Big Five Inventory. The survey link was distributed directly to hospital pharmacists or made available through provincial monthly newsletters. All data were analyzed descriptively and inferentially. In total, 401 surveys were returned. Descriptive analyses from the Organizational Culture Profile revealed that most respondents perceived value in the factors of supportiveness, competitiveness, and stability. Descriptive analyses from the Big Five Inventory revealed that respondents may have been more likely to exhibit behaviours in line with the trait of conscientiousness. Several significant subgroup differences were noted in relation to levels of education, regions of practice within Canada, years in practice, and proportion of time spent conducting clinical duties. The results from this survey provide preliminary insight into the professional culture and personality traits of Canadian hospital pharmacists. It will be important to explore these findings in

  14. Impacts of government subsidies on pricing and performance level choice in Energy Performance Contracting: A two-step optimal decision model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Zhijian; Shao, Shuai

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An ESCO optimal decision model considering governmental subsidies is proposed. • Optimal price and performance level are deduced via a two-stage model. • Demand, profit, and performance level increase with increasing subsidies. • ESCO’s market strategy should firstly focus on high energy consumption industries. • Governmental subsidies standard in different industries should be differentiated. - Abstract: Government subsidies generally play a crucial role in pricing and the choice of performance levels in Energy Performance Contracting (EPC). However, the existing studies pay little attention to how the Energy Service Company (ESCO) prices and chooses performance levels for EPC with government subsidies. To fill such a gap, we propose a joint optimal decision model of pricing and performance level in EPC considering government subsidies. The optimization of the model is achieved via a two-stage process. At the first stage, given a performance level, ESCOs choose the best price; and at the second stage, ESCOs choose the optimal performance level for the optimal price. Furthermore, we carry out a numerical analysis to illuminate such an optimal decision mechanism. The results show that both price sensitivity and performance level sensitivity have significant effects on the choice of performance levels with government subsidies. Government subsidies can induce higher performance levels of EPC, the demand for EPC, and the profit of ESCO. We suggest that ESCO’s market strategy should firstly focus on high energy consumption industries with government subsidies and that government subsidies standard adopted in different industries should be differentiated according to the market characteristics and energy efficiency levels of various industries.

  15. Seven steps to curb global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews, John

    2007-01-01

    Based on best current estimates that the world needs to reduce global carbon dioxide emissions by 70% by 2050, and that there is at best a 10-year window of opportunity available to initiate the enormous changes needed, this paper proposes a set of seven self-contained steps that can be taken at a global level to tackle the problem with some prospect of success. The steps are self-financing and practicable, in that they are based on existing technologies. They involve agreement to create a new international agency charged with formulating and policing a global carbon pricing regime; a complementary step involving global monitoring of greenhouse gas emissions utilizing satellite resources; taking steps to compensate developing countries for preserving rainforest as carbon sinks; the dismantling of newly created trade barriers holding back global trade in biofuels; global promotion of a transition to renewable sources of electricity through facilitation of grid interconnections with independent power producers; a global moratorium on the building of new coal-fired power stations; and recycling of carbon revenues to promote uptake of renewable energy sources in developing countries, particularly Brazil, India and China. Taken as a group, it is argued that these steps are both necessary and sufficient. They call for institutional innovations at a global level that are politically difficult but feasible, given the magnitude of the problems addressed

  16. Implementing the Sustainable Development Goals at University Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albareda-Tiana, Silvia; Vidal-Raméntol, Salvador; Fernández-Morilla, Mónica

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this case study is to explore the principles and practices of sustainable development (SD) in the university curriculum. Design/methodology/approach: To explore the principles linked with the sustainable development goals (SDGs) and the learning and teaching practices in sustainability at the International University of…

  17. A changing world. A changing industry. Session cost efficient solutions for field development. A step forward (Paper G1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taranger, K.P.

    1994-01-01

    Oil companies in Norway and the oil related industry are presently in the middle of a one year long, and quite substantial, efficiency-process named NORSOK. The NORSOK has the objective of finding more cost- and time-efficient ways of exploiting oil and gas from the Norwegian Continental Shelf. The paper discusses the industrial participation in the NORSOK working groups. It presents the changes to be foreseen as a result of experience gained, through previous projects as well as efficiency processes, and which will be applied to the planning and execution of two current field development projects, namely the Vigdis field in the North Sea and the Midgard field in the Haltenbanken area

  18. Development of an Experimental African Drought Monitoring and Seasonal Forecasting System: A First Step towards a Global Drought Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, E. F.; Chaney, N.; Sheffield, J.; Yuan, X.

    2012-12-01

    Extreme hydrologic events in the form of droughts are a significant source of social and economic damage. Internationally, organizations such as UNESCO, the Group on Earth Observations (GEO), and the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) have recognized the need for drought monitoring, especially for the developing world where drought has had devastating impacts on local populations through food insecurity and famine. Having the capacity to monitor droughts in real-time, and to provide drought forecasts with sufficient warning will help developing countries and international programs move from the management of drought crises to the management of drought risk. While observation-based assessments, such as those produced by the US Drought Monitor, are effective for monitoring in countries with extensive observation networks (of precipitation in particular), their utility is lessened in areas (e.g., Africa) where observing networks are sparse. For countries with sparse networks and weak reporting systems, remote sensing observations can provide the real-time data for the monitoring of drought. More importantly, these datasets are now available for at least a decade, which allows for the construction of a climatology against which current conditions can be compared. In this presentation we discuss the development of our multi-lingual experimental African Drought Monitor (ADM) (see http://hydrology.princeton.edu/~nchaney/ADM_ML). At the request of UNESCO, the ADM system has been installed at AGRHYMET, a regional climate and agricultural center in Niamey, Niger and at the ICPAC climate center in Nairobi, Kenya. The ADM system leverages off our U.S. drought monitoring and forecasting system (http://hydrology.princeton.edu/forecasting) that uses the NLDAS data to force the VIC land surface model (LSM) at 1/8th degree spatial resolution for the estimation of our soil moisture drought index (Sheffield et al., 2004). For the seasonal forecast of drought, CFSv2 climate

  19. Tetanus antibody levels among adolescent girls in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brabin, L.; Fazio-Tirrozzo, G.; Shahid, S.; Agbaje, O.; Maxwell, S.; Broadhead, R.; Briggs, N.; Brabin, B.

    2000-01-01

    Neonatal and maternal tetanus infections remain an important cause of death in many countries. Few studies have reported tetanus toxoid antibody levels of adolescent girls. As part of the Expanded Programme on Immunization most girls receive up to 3 injections in early childhood, and many

  20. Level set methods for inverse scattering—some recent developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorn, Oliver; Lesselier, Dominique

    2009-01-01

    We give an update on recent techniques which use a level set representation of shapes for solving inverse scattering problems, completing in that matter the exposition made in (Dorn and Lesselier 2006 Inverse Problems 22 R67) and (Dorn and Lesselier 2007 Deformable Models (New York: Springer) pp 61–90), and bringing it closer to the current state of the art

  1. Attempts to develop a new nuclear measurement technique of β-glucuronidase levels in biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unak, T.; Avcibasi, U.; Yildirim, Y.; Cetinkaya, B.

    2003-01-01

    β-Glucuronidase is one of the most important hydrolytic enzymes in living systems and plays an essential role in the detoxification pathway of toxic materials incorporated into the metabolism. Some organs, especially liver and some tumour tissues, have high level of β-glucuronidase activity. As a result the enzymatic activity of some kind of tumour cells, the radiolabelled glucuronide conjugates of cytotoxic, as well as radiotoxic compounds have potentially very valuable diagnostic and therapeutic applications in cancer research. For this reason, a sensitive measurement of β-glucuronidase levels in normal and tumour tissues is a very important step for these kinds of applications. According to the classical measurement method of β-glucuronidase activity, in general, the quantity of phenolphthalein liberated from its glucuronide conjugate, i.e. phenolphthalein-glucuronide, by β-glucuronidase has been measured by use of the spectrophotometric technique. The lower detection limit of phenolphthalein by the spectrophotometric technique is about 1-3 mg. This means that the β-glucuronidase levels could not be detected in biological samples having lower levels of β-glucuronidase activity and therefore the applications of the spectrophotometric technique in cancer research are very seriously limited. Starting from this consideration, we recently attempted to develop a new nuclear technique to measure much lower concentrations of β-glucuronidase in biological samples. To improve the detection limit, phenolphthalein-glucuronide and also phenyl-N-glucuronide were radioiodinated with 131 I and their radioactivity was measured by use of the counting technique. Therefore, the quantity of phenolphthalein or aniline radioiodinated with 131 I and liberated by the deglucuronidation reactivity of β-glucuronidase was used in an attempt to measure levels lower than the spectrophotometric measurement technique. The results obtained clearly verified that 0.01 pg level of

  2. Development of a one-step immunochromatographic strip test for the detection of sennosides A and B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putalun, Waraporn; Morinaga, Osamu; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Shoyama, Yukihiro

    2004-01-01

    An immunochromatographic strip test was developed to detect sennoside A (1) and sennoside B (2) using anti-1 and anti-2 monoclonal antibodies. The qualitative assay was based on a competitive immunoassay in which the detector reagent consisted of colloidal gold particles coated with the respective sennoside antibodies. The capture reagents were 1- and 2-human serum albumin (HSA) conjugates immobilised on a nitrocellulose membrane on the test strip. The sample containing 1 and 2, together with detector reagent, passed over the zone where the capture reagents had been immobilised. The analytes in the sample competed for binding to the limited amount of antibodies in the detector reagent with the immobilised 1- and 2-HSA conjugates on the membrane and hence positive samples showed no colour in the capture spot zone. Detection limits for the strip test were 125 ng/mL for both sennosides. The assay system is useful as a rapid and simple screening method for the detection of 1 and 2 in plants, drugs and body fluids.

  3. Development of a process envelope for friction stir welding of DH36 steel – A step change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toumpis, Athanasios; Galloway, Alexander; Cater, Stephen; McPherson, Norman

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The friction stir welding speed on DH36 steel has been substantially increased. • Excellent quality welds offering potential economic advantages are obtained. • Friction stir welding of steel generates a very complex metallurgical system. • Slow and intermediate welding speed tensile samples fractured in the parent material. • Increasing traverse speed is seen to improve the impact toughness of the weld. - Abstract: Friction stir welding of steel presents an array of advantages across many industrial sectors compared to conventional fusion welding techniques. However, the fundamental knowledge of the friction stir welding process in relation to steel remains relatively limited. A microstructure and property evaluation of friction stir welded low alloy steel grade DH36 plate, commonly used in ship and marine applications has been undertaken. In this comprehensive study, plates of 2000 × 200 × 6 mm were butt welded together at varying rotational and traverse speeds. Samples were examined microscopically and by transverse tensile tests. In addition, the work was complemented by Charpy impact testing and micro-hardness testing in various regions of the weld. The study examined a wide range of process parameters; from this, a preliminary process parameter envelope has been developed and initial process parameter sets established that produce commercially attractive excellent quality welds through a substantial increase in the conventionally recognised weld traverse speed

  4. Developing Military Human Resources Managers for Senior Level Positions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McPhaul, Jr, John H

    2008-01-01

    Army transformation efforts are focusing on developing an Army capable of responding to a wide range of contingency operations given the unpredictable and complex security environment demands of the world...

  5. The effect of steps to promote higher levels of farm animal welfare across the EU. Societal versus animal scientists’ perceptions of animal welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Averós, X.; Aparicio, M.A.; Ferrari, P.; Guy, J.H.; Hubbard, C.; Schmid, O.; Ilieski, V.; Spoolder, H.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Information about animal welfare standards and initiatives from eight European countries was collected, grouped, and compared to EU welfare standards to detect those aspects beyond minimum welfare levels demanded by EU welfare legislation. Literature was reviewed to determine the scientific

  6. Acomparative Study Comparing Low-dose Step-up Versus Step-down in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Resistant to Clomiphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Peivandi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Polycystic ovary syndrome(PCOS is one of the most common cause of infertility in women. clomiphene is the first line of treatment. however 20% of patients are resistant to clomiphene. because of follicular hypersensitivity to gonadotropins in pcod, multiple follicular growth and development occurs which is cause of OHSS and multiple pregnancy. Our aim of this random and clinical study was comparation between step-down and low dose step-up methods for induction ovulation in clomiphene resistant. Methods: 60 cases were included 30 women in low-dose step-up group and 30 women in step-down group. In low-dose step-up HMG 75u/d and in step-down HMG 225u/d was started on 3th days of cycle, monitoring with vaginal sonography was done on 8th days of cycle. When follicle with>14 mm in diameter was seen HMG dose was continued in low-dose step-up and was decreased in step-down group. When follicle reached to 18mm in diameter, amp HCG 10000 unit was injected and IUI was performed 36 hours later. Results: Number of HMG ampules, number of follicles> 14mm on the day of HCG injection and level of serum estradiol was greater in low dose step up protocol than step down protocol(p<0/0001. Ovulation rate and pregnancy rate was greater in lowdose step up group than step down group with significant difference (p<0/0001. Conclusion: Our study showed that low-dose step-up regimen with HMG is effective for stimulating ovulation and clinical pregnancy but in view of monofollicular growth, the step down method was more effective and safe. In our study multifolliular growth in step-up method was higher than step-down method. We can predict possibility of Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome syndrome in highly sensitive PCOS patients.

  7. Prognosis of the individual course of disease--steps in developing a decision support tool for Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daumer, M; Neuhaus, A; Lederer, C; Scholz, M; Wolinsky, J S; Heiderhoff, M

    2007-05-08

    Multiple sclerosis is a chronic disease of uncertain aetiology. Variations in its disease course make it difficult to impossible to accurately determine the prognosis of individual patients. The Sylvia Lawry Centre for Multiple Sclerosis Research (SLCMSR) developed an "online analytical processing (OLAP)" tool that takes advantage of extant clinical trials data and allows one to model the near term future course of this chronic disease for an individual patient. For a given patient the most similar patients of the SLCMSR database are intelligently selected by a model-based matching algorithm integrated into an OLAP-tool to enable real time, web-based statistical analyses. The underlying database (last update April 2005) contains 1,059 patients derived from 30 placebo arms of controlled clinical trials. Demographic information on the entire database and the portion selected for comparison are displayed. The result of the statistical comparison is provided as a display of the course of Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) for individuals in the database with regions of probable progression over time, along with their mean relapse rate. Kaplan-Meier curves for time to sustained progression in the EDSS and time to requirement of constant assistance to walk (EDSS 6) are also displayed. The software-application OLAP anticipates the input MS patient's course on the basis of baseline values and the known course of disease for similar patients who have been followed in clinical trials. This simulation could be useful for physicians, researchers and other professionals who counsel patients on therapeutic options. The application can be modified for studying the natural history of other chronic diseases, if and when similar datasets on which the OLAP operates exist.

  8. Prognosis of the individual course of disease - steps in developing a decision support tool for Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scholz M

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple sclerosis is a chronic disease of uncertain aetiology. Variations in its disease course make it difficult to impossible to accurately determine the prognosis of individual patients. The Sylvia Lawry Centre for Multiple Sclerosis Research (SLCMSR developed an "online analytical processing (OLAP" tool that takes advantage of extant clinical trials data and allows one to model the near term future course of this chronic disease for an individual patient. Results For a given patient the most similar patients of the SLCMSR database are intelligently selected by a model-based matching algorithm integrated into an OLAP-tool to enable real time, web-based statistical analyses. The underlying database (last update April 2005 contains 1,059 patients derived from 30 placebo arms of controlled clinical trials. Demographic information on the entire database and the portion selected for comparison are displayed. The result of the statistical comparison is provided as a display of the course of Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS for individuals in the database with regions of probable progression over time, along with their mean relapse rate. Kaplan-Meier curves for time to sustained progression in the EDSS and time to requirement of constant assistance to walk (EDSS 6 are also displayed. The software-application OLAP anticipates the input MS patient's course on the basis of baseline values and the known course of disease for similar patients who have been followed in clinical trials. Conclusion This simulation could be useful for physicians, researchers and other professionals who counsel patients on therapeutic options. The application can be modified for studying the natural history of other chronic diseases, if and when similar datasets on which the OLAP operates exist.

  9. Prognosis of the individual course of disease - steps in developing a decision support tool for Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daumer, M; Neuhaus, A; Lederer, C; Scholz, M; Wolinsky, JS; Heiderhoff, M

    2007-01-01

    Background Multiple sclerosis is a chronic disease of uncertain aetiology. Variations in its disease course make it difficult to impossible to accurately determine the prognosis of individual patients. The Sylvia Lawry Centre for Multiple Sclerosis Research (SLCMSR) developed an "online analytical processing (OLAP)" tool that takes advantage of extant clinical trials data and allows one to model the near term future course of this chronic disease for an individual patient. Results For a given patient the most similar patients of the SLCMSR database are intelligently selected by a model-based matching algorithm integrated into an OLAP-tool to enable real time, web-based statistical analyses. The underlying database (last update April 2005) contains 1,059 patients derived from 30 placebo arms of controlled clinical trials. Demographic information on the entire database and the portion selected for comparison are displayed. The result of the statistical comparison is provided as a display of the course of Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) for individuals in the database with regions of probable progression over time, along with their mean relapse rate. Kaplan-Meier curves for time to sustained progression in the EDSS and time to requirement of constant assistance to walk (EDSS 6) are also displayed. The software-application OLAP anticipates the input MS patient's course on the basis of baseline values and the known course of disease for similar patients who have been followed in clinical trials. Conclusion This simulation could be useful for physicians, researchers and other professionals who counsel patients on therapeutic options. The application can be modified for studying the natural history of other chronic diseases, if and when similar datasets on which the OLAP operates exist. PMID:17488517

  10. The temporal structure of pollution levels in developed cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrigón Morillas, Juan Miguel; Ortiz-Caraballo, Carmen; Prieto Gajardo, Carlos

    2015-06-01

    Currently, the need for mobility can cause significant pollution levels in cities, with important effects on health and quality of life. Any approach to the study of urban pollution and its effects requires an analysis of spatial distribution and temporal variability. It is a crucial dilemma to obtain proven methodologies that allow an increase in the quality of the prediction and the saving of resources in the spatial and temporal sampling. This work proposes a new analytical methodology in the study of temporal structure. As a result, a model for estimating annual levels of urban traffic noise was proposed. The average errors are less than one decibel in all acoustics indicators. A new working methodology of urban noise has begun. Additionally, a general application can be found for the study of the impacts of pollution associated with traffic, with implications for urban design and possibly in economic and sociological aspects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger: Status and Development

    CERN Document Server

    Bracinik, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger seeds all the calorimeter-based triggers in the ATLAS experiment at LHC. The inputs to the system are analogue signals of reduced granularity, formed by summing cells from both the ATLAS Liquid Argon and Tile calorimeters. Several stages of analogue then digital processing, largely performed in FPGAs, refine these signals via configurable and flexible algorithms into identified physics objects, for example electron, tau or jet candidates. The complete processing chain is performed in a pipelined system at the LHC bunch-crossing frequency, and with a fixed latency of about 1us. The first LHC run from 2009-2013 provided a varied and challenging environment for first level triggers. While the energy and luminosity were below the LHC design, the pile-up conditions were similar to the nominal conditions. The physics ambitions of the experiment also tested the performance of the Level-1 system while keeping within the rate limits set by detector readout. This presentation will ...

  12. Institutionalizing policy-level health impact assessment in Europe: is coupling health impact assessment with strategic environmental assessment the next step forward?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, John; Parry, Jayne; Scully, Edward

    2005-06-01

    European Union (EU) Member States are interested in using health impact assessment (HIA) as a means of safeguarding their obligations to protect human health under the 1997 Treaty of Amsterdam. However, several have encountered difficulties institutionalizing HIA with the policy-making process. As a consequence, the World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Office for Europe has suggested coupling HIA with strategic environmental assessment (SEA). Traditionally, the incorporation of HIA into other forms of impact assessment has been resisted, for fear of losing its focus on health issues to environmental concerns, and compromising its social model of health with the introduction of biophysical indicators. But can these fears be substantiated? In this paper, we investigate the grounds for such concerns by reviewing the relevant policy documents and departmental guidelines of four non-European countries that have considered the use of integrated assessment. We found that the case for associating HIA with SEA in Europe is strong, and offers potential solutions to problems of screening, theoretical framework, causal pathways and ready entry to the policy process. Coupling HIA with SEA may thus be the next step forward in a longer journey towards institutionalizing HIA as an independent policy-linked device.

  13. The bounded proof property via step algebras and step frames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezhanishvili, N.; Ghilardi, Silvio

    2013-01-01

    We develop a semantic criterion for a specific rule-based calculus Ax axiomatizing a given logic L to have the so-called bounded proof property. This property is a kind of an analytic subformula property limiting the proof search space. Our main tools are one-step frames and one-step algebras. These

  14. Sustainable urban development and the multi-level transition perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næss, Petter; Vogel, Nina

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses some challenges and possible adaptations of transition theory as a framework for analyzing the prospects for environmentally more sustainable development of urban land use and transport infrastructure. Rather than depending first and foremost on niche innovations......, a transition toward sustainable urban development is a matter of changing the composition of existing multisegmented land use and transportation regimes. Those well-experienced forms of built environment and transport infrastructure that are in line with sustainability objectives should be strengthened while...... those that are not should be actively constrained and reduced. Urban development in a Danish provincial city is used as a case to illustrate some of the points made in the theoretical part of the article. Due to the wide gap between present conditions and those required to realize a sustainable urban...

  15. Development and evaluation of novel one-step TaqMan realtime RT-PCR assays for the detection and direct genotyping of genogroup I and II noroviruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Anna Charlotte; Vega, Everado; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundCurrent detection and genotyping methods of genogroup (G) I and II noroviruses (NoVs) consist of a 2-step approach including detection of viral RNA by TaqMan realtime RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) followed by conventional RT-PCR and sequencing of partial regions of ORF1 or ORF2. ObjectiveTo develop ......Man RT-qPCR assays for the sensitive detection and direct genotyping of GI and GII NoVs from clinical and environmental matrices...... novel long-template one-step TaqMan assays (L-RT-qPCR) for the rapid detection and direct genotyping of GI and GII NoVs and to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the assays. Study designGI and GII-specific broadly reactive L-RT-qPCR assays were developed by combining existing NoV primers...... and probes targeting the open reading frame (ORF)1–ORF2 junction as well as region C at the 5′–ORF2. The assays were validated using GI and GII RNA transcripts and a coded panel of 75 stool samples containing NoV strains representing 9 GI genotypes and 12 GII genotypes, as well as sapoviruses, astroviruses...

  16. Assessing soil erosion at landscape level: A step forward in the up-scaling of 137Cs measurements through the use of in-situ lanthanum bromide scintillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsalves, Basil C.; Darby, Iain G.; Toloza, Arsenio; Mabit, Lionel; Kaiser, Ralf B.; Dercon, Gerd

    2014-05-01

    at 2 cm above ground and each measurement was conducted for 900 seconds. A significant positive correlation (i.e. R2=0.82; p measurements. The first results relating to in-situ measurement of 137Cs offer an exciting potential for the application of FRN measurements and their up-scaling in the framework of soil erosion assessments at the landscape level. This includes cost, time, and portability, the potential to work in remote areas, pre-screening to develop more effective sampling strategies and rapid repeat surveys. This work is still in its initial stage and more research is required to validate this innovative in-situ technique.

  17. Entrepreneurial Education at University Level and Entrepreneurship Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Sk. Mahmudul; Khan, Eijaz Ahmed; Nabi, Md. Noor Un

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the literature on effectiveness of entrepreneurship education by empirically assessing the role of university entrepreneurial education in entrepreneurship development and reporting the results. Design/methodology/approach: A quantitative method was applied for this study. This research was…

  18. Teachers' Professional Development from the Perspective of Teaching Reflection Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mingren

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a case study based on Habermas's theory of knowledge and human interest. We analyzed the written reflections of four teachers employed at a school and found that the teachers who had experienced advanced professional development tended to engage in practical and critical reflection, whereas those who had experienced average…

  19. Defining Teachers' Technostress Levels: A Scale Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çoklar, Ahmet Naci; Efilti, Erkan; Sahin, Levent

    2017-01-01

    With the integration of technology in recent years, use of technology has rapidly increased in educational system, and has become almost a must rather than an option. The use of technology in educational processes accompanies some adaptation issues due to the nature of technology (rapid development, cost, need for electricity, change of roles,…

  20. Development of an anaesthesia resident curriculum at the European level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, Helle Thy

    2013-01-01

    The European Section and Board of Anaesthesiology has recently published new guidelines for specialist education. These guidelines have undergone a major revision towards a competence-based approach. Basically, apart from having to take into account the development of the specialty, with enlarged...

  1. Financial development and growth in direct firm-level comparisons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bena, Jan; Jurajda, Š.

    -, č. 6395 (2007), s. 1-26 ISSN 0265-8003 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : access to financial markets * corporate growth * financial development Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cepr.org/pubs/new-dps/dplist.asp?dpno=6395

  2. Financial development and growth in direct firm-level comparisons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bena, Jan; Jurajda, Š.

    -, č. 317 (2007), s. 1-40 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : financial development * corporate growth * access to financial markets Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp317.pdf

  3. Financial development and growth in direct firm-level comparisons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bena, J.; Jurajda, Štěpán

    -, č. 6395 (2007), s. 1-26 ISSN 0265-8003 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : access to financial markets * corporate growth * financial development Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cepr.org/pubs/new-dps/dplist.asp?dpno=6395

  4. Financial development and growth in direct firm-level comparisons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bena, J.; Jurajda, Štěpán

    -, Č. 317 (2007), s. 1-40 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : financial development * corporate growth * access to financial markets Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp317.pdf

  5. Determinants and Levels of Agricultural Development Agents Job ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    between development agents and their jobs, such that extension work is a personally .... appraisal, equality of male and female agents, job security, resource availability ... over the 1994 census, of whom 94,187 are men and 91,994 women; 19,810 or. 10.64% are ..... IOSR Journal of Business and Management (IOSR-JBM),.

  6. Determinants and Levels of Agricultural Development Agents Job ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Job Satisfaction: The Case of Kalu Woreda, South Wollo Zone of the Amhara ... the form of “Agricultural Technology Scaling Up” as part of the national initiative of ... information and skill development, input supply, credit and saving, marketing ... and managed to increase the number of extension agents to more than 60,000.

  7. Development of tags for a general lost-step isotope labeling of biomolecule-based substrates with carbon monoxide: pallado-catalyzed carbonylation and PET application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornilleau, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a powerful molecular-imaging technique for physiological and biological investigations in various areas. Due to the increasing need of this technique for in vivo applications, there is always a demand for the development of new tracers and radiolabeling strategies. In this context an original method was developed to introduce the "1"1C-radioisotope for the labeling of bio-conjugated compounds. The extremely mild conditions of this intramolecular Pd catalyzed alc-oxy-carbonylation allowed to label these structures in the last step of the synthesis. Diversification of the available precursors was investigated by a novel bi-aryl cross coupling using gold catalysis under photo-redox conditions. Finally, preliminary studies for the functionalization of BODIPY cores were realized to obtain innovative bimodal probes. (author)

  8. Low-level radioactive waste management research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DePoorter, G.L.; Abeele, W.V.; Hakonson, T.E.; Nyhan, J.W.; Perkins, B.A.; White, G.C.; Travis, B.J.; Lane, L.J.

    1983-01-01

    In previous years, a 21-acre field site has been developed in which large-scale, but well-controlled, field experiments are performed. Experiments are in progress to measure the effects of biological (plants and animals) intrusion on contaminant transport; to measure the movement of water and contaminants under unsaturated conditions; to field test configurations of natural materials to divert water away from the top of a waste disposal facility (wick effect); to measure the movement of contaminants from the subsurface to the surface caused by evaporation at the surface; to measure and quantify erosion, runoff, and infiltration; and to measure the effects of trench subsidence on some of the methods developed for improved burial facilities. An extensive modeling effort is combined with the large-scale field experiments

  9. Development of Students’ Informal Reasoning across School Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Widodo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Informal reasoning is the basic reasoning frequently used by most people to solve complex daily life problems. Unlike scientific reasoning, informal reasoning includes cognitive and affective processes that the types of reasoning can be intuitive, emotive and rational. This cross sectional study describes the development of students’ informal reasoning at elementary school, junior high school, and senior high school. Moreover, the study also identifies differences between boys and girls reasoning. Participants are 20 elementary school students, 30 junior high school students, and 30 high school students who attend schools managed by the same foundation. Data were collected using five items test on issues found in everyday life. Students’ responses were grouped into intuitive, emotive, or rational reasoning. The results suggest that students’ informal reasoning tend to develop parallel to the school grade. Related to gender, the study finds that girls tend to use rational reasoning while boys tend to use intuitive reasoning.

  10. New developments for medium and low level waste vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boen, A.J.-R.; Pujadas, S.M.-V.

    1997-01-01

    Converting ultimate waste material into a stable, inert product is beneficial, notably in the case of potentially very toxic wastes. Vitrification, in which a glass or glass-ceramic material is fabricated from a particular waste form, is now a proven solution. This high-temperature process uses additives-notably silica-if necessary to form a glass network. Vitrification confines the waste by forming a stable, inert, nontoxic material suitable for safe disposal; it usually also results in a significant volume reduction having a major effect on the disposal cost. France is actively engaged in an ongoing research effort in this area, not only to enhance the production capacity and the containment quality, but also to extend the process to low and medium level wastes such as those produced in nuclear power stations

  11. Derived intervention levels in early stage of nuclear accident development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vladar, M; Fojtik, M [Inst. of Preventive and Clinical Medicine, Bratislava (Slovakia); Stubna, M [Research Inst. of Nuclear Power Plants, Bohunuce (Slovakia)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper the measures for protection of health and property of public in the case of nuclear accident are discussed. They are based on optimal application of so called intervention levels. The actual flow of decision depends on: (1) prognosis of mathematical modelling of possible course of nuclear accident, and (2) results of monitoring of radiation situation.The aim of this contribution was to analyze their mutual cooperation and to suggest such procedure of monitoring or radiation situation which could be used for suggestion of protective measures. In this contribution the zones of protection planning in the accident place surrounding for the urgent measures were specified : (1) regulation of free movement of persons; (2) sheltering; (3) iodine prophylaxis; (4) temporary evacuation; (5) long term or permanent emigration. At the specification of zones of planned protection it is also coming out that regulation of movement of persons, sheltering and iodine prophylaxis were ordered in advance based on the evaluation of the crashed establishment state. In such situation the decision on protective measures in the time interval 6 to 12 hours after the beginning of accidental release is forwarding to: withdrawing the accepted orders on measures and transition from sheltering to temporary evacuation. The criterion for temporary evacuation is: (1) probability of exceeding the effective dose 100 mSv for children up to 10 years of age and pregnant women and 500 mSv for other population within 48 hours after beginning of accidental release; (2) probability of averting the effective dose 50 mSv up to 7 days, 100 mSv up to 15 days and 150 mSv up to 30 days for all population groups. In next part the intervention level, interpretation of values of kerma dose rate in air and determination of the size of planned protection zones are discussed. (J.K.) 3 tabs.

  12. Linear step drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haniger, L.; Elger, R.; Kocandrle, L.; Zdebor, J.

    1986-01-01

    A linear step drive is described developed in Czechoslovak-Soviet cooperation and intended for driving WWER-1000 control rods. The functional principle is explained of the motor and the mechanical and electrical parts of the drive, power control, and the indicator of position are described. The motor has latches situated in the reactor at a distance of 3 m from magnetic armatures, it has a low structural height above the reactor cover, which suggests its suitability for seismic localities. Its magnetic circuits use counterpoles; the mechanical shocks at the completion of each step are damped using special design features. The position indicator is of a special design and evaluates motor position within ±1% of total travel. A drive diagram and the flow chart of both the control electronics and the position indicator are presented. (author) 4 figs

  13. CMS Level-1 Upgrade Calorimeter Trigger Prototype Development

    CERN Document Server

    Klabbers, Pamela Renee

    2013-01-01

    As the LHC increases luminosity and energy, it will become increasingly difficult to select interesting physics events and remain within the readout bandwidth limitations. An upgrade to the CMS Calorimeter Trigger implementing more complex algorithms is proposed. It utilizes AMC cards with Xilinx FPGAs running in micro-TCA crate with card interconnections via crate backplanes and optical links operating at up to 10 Gbps. Prototype cards with Virtex-6 and Virtex-7 FPGAs have been built and software frameworks for operation and monitoring developed. The physics goals, hardware architectures, and software will be described in this talk. More details can be found in a separate poster at this conference.

  14. The Effect of Steps to Promote Higher Levels of Farm Animal Welfare across the EU. Societal versus Animal Scientists' Perceptions of Animal Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averós, Xavier; Aparicio, Miguel A; Ferrari, Paolo; Guy, Jonathan H; Hubbard, Carmen; Schmid, Otto; Ilieski, Vlatko; Spoolder, Hans A M

    2013-08-14

    Information about animal welfare standards and initiatives from eight European countries was collected, grouped, and compared to EU welfare standards to detect those aspects beyond minimum welfare levels demanded by EU welfare legislation. Literature was reviewed to determine the scientific relevance of standards and initiatives, and those aspects going beyond minimum EU standards. Standards and initiatives were assessed to determine their strengths and weaknesses regarding animal welfare. Attitudes of stakeholders in the improvement of animal welfare were determined through a Policy Delphi exercise. Social perception of animal welfare, economic implications of upraising welfare levels, and differences between countries were considered. Literature review revealed that on-farm space allowance, climate control, and environmental enrichment are relevant for all animal categories. Experts' assessment revealed that on-farm prevention of thermal stress, air quality, and races and passageways' design were not sufficiently included. Stakeholders considered that housing conditions are particularly relevant regarding animal welfare, and that animal-based and farm-level indicators are fundamental to monitor the progress of animal welfare. The most notable differences between what society offers and what farm animals are likely to need are related to transportation and space availability, with economic constraints being the most plausible explanation.

  15. The ATLAS High Level Trigger Infrastructure, Performance and Future Developments

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    The ATLAS High Level Trigger (HLT) is a distributed real-time software system that performs the final online selection of events produced during proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is designed as a two-stage event filter running on a farm of commodity PC hardware. Currently the system consists of about 850 multi-core processing nodes that will be extended incrementally following the increasing luminosity of the LHC to about 2000 nodes depending on the evolution of the processor technology. Due to the complexity and similarity of the algorithms a large fraction of the software is shared between the online and offline event reconstruction. The HLT Infrastructure serves as the interface between the two domains and provides common services for the trigger algorithms. The consequences of this design choice will be discussed and experiences from the operation of the ATLAS HLT during cosmic ray data taking and first beam in 2008 will be presented. Since the event processing time at the HL...

  16. Development of a novel and customizable two-solution mixing type spray nozzle for one-step preparation of nanoparticle-containing microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozeki, Tetsuya; Akiyama, Yusuke; Takahashi, Norimitsu; Tagami, Tatsuaki; Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Fujii, Masashi; Okada, Hiroaki

    2012-01-01

    Production of drug nanoparticles is an effective strategy to enhance solubility and oral absorption of water-insoluble drugs. The handling of drug nanoparticles has been an important issue in drug formulation because nanoparticles easily aggregate each other and redispersion of these particles is very difficult. In the present study, we developed a unique two-solution mixing type spray nozzle that can prepare drug nanoparticles in microparticles in one step without any common solvent and surfactant, and then, the prepared formulation were evaluated. Ethylcellulose (EC) and mannitol (MAN) were used as a model polymer of water-insoluble compound and a water-soluble carrier, respectively. We characterized the EC/MAN microparticles produced by the novel spray nozzle when customizing the nozzle parts to mix EC and MAN solution. Relatively smaller EC nanoparticles (customizable parts in the nozzle. In addition, the core of EC nanoparticles (<50 nm) was also observed by atomic force microscopy. We also found that the mixing time in the nozzle parts affected the size and the standard deviation of EC nanoparticles. These results suggest that the size of EC nanoparticles in MAN microparticles is controllable by using this unique nozzle. After all, we could prepare MAN microparticles containing EC nanoparticles in one step by using the novel nozzle. The drug/MAN microparticles formulation produced by the nozzle may be useful for the handling of drug nanoparticles.

  17. Developing novel one-step processes for obtaining food-grade O/W emulsions from pressurized fluid extracts: processes description, state of the art and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Tresinari SANTOS

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIn this work, a novel on-line process for production of food-grade emulsions containing oily extracts, i.e. oil-in-water (O/W emulsions, in only one step is presented. This process has been called ESFE, Emulsions from Supercritical Fluid Extraction. With this process, emulsions containing supercritical fluid extracts can be obtained directly from plant materials. The aim in the conception of this process is to propose a new rapid way to obtain emulsions from supercritical fluid extracts. Nowadays the conventional emulsion formulation method is a two-step procedure, i.e. first supercritical fluid extraction for obtaining an extract; secondly emulsion formulation using another device. Other variation of the process was tested and successfully validated originating a new acronymed process: EPFE (Emulsions from Pressurized Fluid Extractions. Both processes exploit the supercritical CO2-essential oils miscibility, in addition, EPFE process exploits the emulsification properties of saponin-rich pressurized aqueous plant extracts. The feasibility of this latter process was demonstrated using Pfaffia glomerata roots as source of saponin-rich extract, water as extracting solvent and clove essential oil, directly extracted using supercritical CO2, as a model dispersed phase. In addition, examples of pressurized fluid-based coupled processes applied for adding value to food bioactive compounds developed in the past five years are reviewed.

  18. Co-expression of D-glucose isomerase and D-psicose 3-epimerase: development of an efficient one-step production of D-psicose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Men, Yan; Zhu, Yueming; Zeng, Yan; Izumori, Ken; Sun, Yuanxia; Ma, Yanhe

    2014-10-01

    D-Psicose has been attracting attention in recent years because of its alimentary activities and is used as an ingredient in a range of foods and dietary supplements. To develop a one-step enzymatic process of D-psicose production, thermoactive D-glucose isomerase and the D-psicose 3-epimerase obtained from Bacillus sp. and Ruminococcus sp., respectively, were successfully co-expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 strain. The substrate of one-step enzymatic process was D-glucose. The co-expression system exhibited maximum activity at 65 °C and pH 7.0. Mg(2+) could enhance the output of D-psicose by 2.32 fold to 1.6 g/L from 10 g/L of D-glucose. When using high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) as substrate, 135 g/L D-psicose was produced under optimum conditions. The mass ratio of D-glucose, D-fructose, and D-psicose was almost 3.0:2.7:1.0, when the reaction reached equilibrium after an 8h incubation time. This co-expression system approaching to produce D-psicose has potential application in food and beverage products, especially softdrinks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. New developments in low level radioactive waste management in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuloaga, P.

    2006-01-01

    El Cabril disposal facility was commissioned in 1992 and is a key element in LILW Management in Spain. It is a vault-type surface disposal facility with a total internal volume of 100,000 m 3 . The installation also has facilities for waste treatment and conditioning, verification and characterisation, interim storage and other ancillary equipment. This paper includes a brief description of the facility, the operational experience, the design improvements and new developments in waste acceptance procedures, safety assessment and the related research programme. The paper also refers to the new disposal facility intended for very low activity waste, under construction at the same site. This facility, a part of El Cabril nuclear installation, will have a maximum capacity for 130,000 m 3 of very low activity waste. Its construction started in February 2006, after the evaluation of the nuclear safety authority and the environmental impact statement procedure. (author)

  20. Trend of laser research developments in global level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golnabi, H.; Mahdieh, M. H.

    2006-03-01

    An up-to-date progress of the international laser research and development is given in this article. The number of scientific publications and filed patents are considered as a figure of merit and based on these numbers the growth pace and important aspects are investigated. We have used the Science Finder Scholar search engine, which indexes more than 4000 journals, in different languages, and represents most significant published materials in laser science and engineering. The growth of the laser and related fields are described in terms of resulting scientific publications for the period of 1990-2003. The share of top nations in scientific publications, and in particular laser publications in terms of their gross domestic product (GDP) is presented. It is noted that the four countries including the USA, Japan, Germany and China have a laser publication contribution of 58.9% while the rest of the world including 189 countries contribute 41.1%. However, for the case of patent, which is a more important factor, these four countries hold a share of 90.1% while the remaining nations have a small share of 9.9%. The USA heads all the nations in the number of scientific publications, citations, and laser publications, however, in terms of accepted laser patents Japan shows a big lead. Scientific scopes of the laser systems are presented and some requirements to be met in each field are described. The key points in this field of research, which might be helpful in the future development of the laser technology are discussed.

  1. The Effect of Steps to Promote Higher Levels of Farm Animal Welfare across the EU. Societal versus Animal Scientists’ Perceptions of Animal Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averós, Xavier; Aparicio, Miguel A.; Ferrari, Paolo; Guy, Jonathan H.; Hubbard, Carmen; Schmid, Otto; Ilieski, Vlatko; Spoolder, Hans A. M.

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary We studied different EU production standards and initiatives to determine whether there is still room or not for further animal welfare improvement, and which should be the best way to achieve it. Many of the adopted measures in these standards and initiatives are scientifically supported, but other aspects that are equally important for animal welfare are not included in any of them. Animal welfare improvement should consider, for each country, those aspects actually benefiting animals, but also the social expectations within each country. Economic constraints might explain the gap between what society demands, and what farm animals actually need. Abstract Information about animal welfare standards and initiatives from eight European countries was collected, grouped, and compared to EU welfare standards to detect those aspects beyond minimum welfare levels demanded by EU welfare legislation. Literature was reviewed to determine the scientific relevance of standards and initiatives, and those aspects going beyond minimum EU standards. Standards and initiatives were assessed to determine their strengths and weaknesses regarding animal welfare. Attitudes of stakeholders in the improvement of animal welfare were determined through a Policy Delphi exercise. Social perception of animal welfare, economic implications of upraising welfare levels, and differences between countries were considered. Literature review revealed that on-farm space allowance, climate control, and environmental enrichment are relevant for all animal categories. Experts’ assessment revealed that on-farm prevention of thermal stress, air quality, and races and passageways’ design were not sufficiently included. Stakeholders considered that housing conditions are particularly relevant regarding animal welfare, and that animal-based and farm-level indicators are fundamental to monitor the progress of animal welfare. The most notable differences between what society offers and what

  2. The other GHG : steps taken to reduce CO2 emissions may contribute to increased levels of water vapour in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collison, M.

    2008-01-01

    As a result of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the Canadian oil and gas industry and government are now in the midst of a massive overhaul of hydrocarbon energy use and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) management. However, human-enhanced water evaporation (HEWE) may also be a significant contributor to global climate warming. Human-caused distortions of the hydrological cycle can cause multiple localized weather disturbances. There is currently a thousand times more water vapor being emitted than CO 2 , and this is contributing to increased rainfall levels around the world. Expansion of the agriculture and growth of industry has caused significant diversions and redistributions of water. Most of the water used is evaporated in the northern hemisphere. Climate modellers are needed to analyze the impacts of human-enhanced water evaporation local climates and weather. The main sources of water emissions are government-controlled energy projects and subsidized irrigation projects. Current levels of water vapour emissions are between 10 and 100 times the value of warming per tonne as CO 2 . Details of various research projects to use salt water as a fuel for vehicles was provided, as well as methods of improving the water-gas shift reaction method of hydrogen production. 2 figs

  3. The physician/hospital joint venture. Developing a win/win strategy for success. Part I: The first step: developing the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorr, A B

    1987-02-01

    This four part series, "The Physician/Hospital Joint Venture: Developing a Win/Win Strategy," will examine the philosophical basis of marketing to physicians, the options for the organization in formulating a strategy for joint venture development, structuring and negotiating the deal, and finally how to build the physician loyalty and commitment essential for the joint venture's continued success. In this first article, the author emphasizes the organization's need to develop a strategic plan that includes a program for attracting physicians. It also points out the need for sensitivity to physicians' concerns and provides examples of successes and failures.

  4. Internship guide : Work placements step by step

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haag, Esther

    2013-01-01

    Internship Guide: Work Placements Step by Step has been written from the practical perspective of a placement coordinator. This book addresses the following questions : what problems do students encounter when they start thinking about the jobs their degree programme prepares them for? How do you

  5. The way to collisions, step by step

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    While the LHC sectors cool down and reach the cryogenic operating temperature, spirits are warming up as we all eagerly await the first collisions. No reason to hurry, though. Making particles collide involves the complex manoeuvring of thousands of delicate components. The experts will make it happen using a step-by-step approach.

  6. Study on the development of safety regulations for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Fangxin

    2012-01-01

    The development of regulations under Regulations on Safety Management of Radioactive Waste has become necessary as the issuance of it. The regulations related to geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste can promote the progress of research and development on geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste in China. This paper has present suggestions on development of regulations on geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste by analyzing development of safety regulations on geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste in foreign countries and problems occurred in China and discussed important issues related to the development of safety regulations on geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste. (author)

  7. Astatine-211 Radiochemistry: The Development Of Methodologies For High Activity Level Radiosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalutsky, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    radiotherapeutics currently is a daunting task. Our central hypothesis is that improvements in 211At radiochemistry are critically dependent on gaining an understanding of and compensating for the effects of radiolysis induced by 211At α-particles. Because of the widespread interest in labeling antibodies, antibody fragments and peptides with 211At, our proposed work plan will initially focus on reagents that we have developed for this purpose. Part of our strategy is the use of synthetic precursors immobilized on polymeric resins or perfluorous and triarylphosphonium supports. Their use could eliminate the need for a purification step to separate unreacted tin precursor from labeled product and hopefully provide a simple kit technology that could be utilized at other institutions. The specific aims of this project are: (1) To optimze methods for 211At production and isolation of 211At from cyclotron targets; (2) To develop convenient and reproducible methodologies for high activity level and high specific activity radiohalogenation of biomolecules with 211At; (3) to develop a procedure for extending the shelf-life of 211At beyond a few hours so that this radionuclide can be utilized at centers remote from its site of production; and (4) to work out high activity level synthesis methods for utilizing support immobilized tin precursors for 211At labeling. If we are successful in achieving our goals, the radiochemical methodologies that are developed could greatly facilitate the use of 211At-labeled targeted cancer therapeutics in patients, even at institutions that are distant from the few sites currently available for 211At production.

  8. ASTATINE-211 RADIOCHEMISTRY: THE DEVELOPMENT OF METHODOLOGIES FOR HIGH ACTIVITY LEVEL RADIOSYNTHESIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MICHAEL R. ZALUTSKY

    2012-08-08

    -labeled targeted radiotherapeutics currently is a daunting task. Our central hypothesis is that improvements in 211At radiochemistry are critically dependent on gaining an understanding of and compensating for the effects of radiolysis induced by 211At {alpha}-particles. Because of the widespread interest in labeling antibodies, antibody fragments and peptides with 211At, our proposed work plan will initially focus on reagents that we have developed for this purpose. Part of our strategy is the use of synthetic precursors immobilized on polymeric resins or perfluorous and triarylphosphonium supports. Their use could eliminate the need for a purification step to separate unreacted tin precursor from labeled product and hopefully provide a simple kit technology that could be utilized at other institutions. The specific aims of this project are: (1) To optimze methods for 211At production and isolation of 211At from cyclotron targets; (2) To develop convenient and reproducible methodologies for high activity level and high specific activity radiohalogenation of biomolecules with 211At; (3) to develop a procedure for extending the shelf-life of 211At beyond a few hours so that this radionuclide can be utilized at centers remote from its site of production; and (4) to work out high activity level synthesis methods for utilizing support immobilized tin precursors for 211At labeling. If we are successful in achieving our goals, the radiochemical methodologies that are developed could greatly facilitate the use of 211At-labeled targeted cancer therapeutics in patients, even at institutions that are distant from the few sites currently available for 211At production.

  9. Development of a low-level radioactive waste shipper model. National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-03-01

    During 1982, Inter/Face Associates, Inc., conducted a low-level radioactive waste management survey of Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensees in Massachusetts for the US Department of Energy's National Low-Level Waste Management Program. In the process of conducting the survey, a model was developed, based on existing NRC license classification systems, that would identify licensees who ship low-level waste for disposal. This report presents the model and documents the procedures used in developing and testing it. After the model was tested, several modifications were developed with the goal of determining the model's ability to identify waste shippers under different parameters. The report includes a discussion of the modifications

  10. Overvoltages transferred from a network of 220 kV to 15.65 kV level of the step-up transformer in HPP 'Bajina Bašta'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukelja Petar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research in lightning surge waves and switching overvoltages transferred from a network of 220 kV to the 15.65 kV level of the step-up transformer in HPP 'Bajina Bašta'. Analysis of survey results lead to conclusion that transferred overvoltages can endanger 15.65 kV transformer windings and stator winding insulation. It was therefore suggested for the protection of the 15.65 kV isolation to install metal oxide surge arresters at a suitable place between the power generator bus bars and earthing.

  11. Balanced Assessment of the Business Partner’s Potential: Three-step Selection Procedure for the Sustainable Development of the Strategic Alliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Drewniak

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Negotiating a strategic alliance agreement is one of the essential determinants of the success of the entire agreement, and it is also the logical conclusion of the whole building process of the strategic alliance. At the same time, already at this step there is the relationships building process between partners and the need to further maintaining of the alliance. Therefore, a special attention should be paid to the nego­tiating process of a strategic agreement, conditioning the effectiveness of alliance management in the future as well as the scope and quality of relations between the allies. In fact in this phase of the strategic agreement takes place establishing the common strategy, which in turn determines the friendly start of the future cooperation. The aim of this study is to identify the key factors that determine building and sustaining friendly relations between enterprises and at the same time determine the suc­cess of the whole alliance. Considerations were based on the analysis of literature describing the theoretical framework of strategic alliances creation as well as business practices in this area. This allowed to propose a three-step process of selecting the potential company to the alliance, taking into account the profile analysis of the future ally, assessment of its resources and cultural and strategic fit. These issues make possible to ensure the sustainable development of the planned alliance and the success of partners companies. The selection and negotiations process is crucial in maintaining lasting relationships with the allies. It should be foreseen whether the planned cooperation will not hinder or even prevent the alliance continuation in the future, or will cause unwillingness to enter into other cooperative agreements because of the mismatch of strategic partners or excessive cultural differences, and thus ineffective functioning of the alliance in the future.

  12. Developing Major Steps for a Feasibility Study for Upgrading I and C Systems in a Large Scale for an Operating Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Yong Suk; Keum, Jong Yong; Kim, Dong Hoon; Kang, Hyeon Tae; Sung, Chan Ho; Lee, Jae Ki; Cho, Chang Hwan

    2009-01-01

    According to the IAEA report as of Jan. 2008, 436 nuclear power reactors are in operation over the world and 368 nuclear power reactors exceed their operating ages by 20 years. The average I and C equipment's life span is 20 years comparing with that the average reactor's life time is 40 to 60 years. This means that a reactor must be faced with I and C equipment obsolescence problems once or twice during its operating years. The I and C equipment is replaced with new equipment only when the obsolescence problem occurs in a nuclear power plant. This is called an equipment basis upgrade in this paper. This replacement is such a general practice that occurs only when needed. We can assume that most of I and C equipment of a plant will meet with the obsolescence problem almost same time since it started operating. Although there must be a little time difference in the occurrence of the problems among I and C equipment, the replacement will be required in consecutive years. With this assumption, it is recommendable to upgrade the equipment, which is to meet with the problem at the same time, with new equipment at the same time. This is called a system basis upgrade in this paper. The system-basis replacement can be achieved in a large scale by coupling systems whose functions are related each other and replacing them together with a new upto- date platform. This paper focuses on the large scale upgrade of I and C systems for existing and operating NPPs. While performing a feasibility study for the large scale upgrade for Korea standard nuclear power plants (KSNPs), six major steps are developed for the study. This paper is to present what to perform in each step

  13. Control in the Rate-Determining Step Provides a Promising Strategy To Develop New Catalysts for CO2 Hydrogenation: A Local Pair Natural Orbital Coupled Cluster Theory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Bhaskar; Neese, Frank; Ye, Shengfa

    2015-08-03

    The development of efficient catalysts with base metals for CO2 hydrogenation has always been a major thrust of interest. A series of experimental and theoretical work has revealed that the catalytic cycle typically involves two key steps, namely, base-promoted heterolytic H2 splitting and hydride transfer to CO2, either of which can be the rate-determining step (RDS) of the entire reaction. To explore the determining factor for the nature of RDS, we present herein a comparative mechanistic investigation on CO2 hydrogenation mediated by [M(H)(η(2)-H2)(PP3(Ph))](n+) (M = Fe(II), Ru(II), and Co(III); PP3(Ph) = tris(2-(diphenylphosphino)phenyl)phosphine) type complexes. In order to construct reliable free energy profiles, we used highly correlated wave function based ab initio methods of the coupled cluster type alongside the standard density functional theory. Our calculations demonstrate that the hydricity of the metal-hydride intermediate generated by H2 splitting dictates the nature of the RDS for the Fe(II) and Co(III) systems, while the RDS for the Ru(II) catalyst appears to be ambiguous. CO2 hydrogenation catalyzed by the Fe(II) complex that possesses moderate hydricity traverses an H2-splitting RDS, whereas the RDS for the high-hydricity Co(III) species is found to be the hydride transfer. Thus, our findings suggest that hydricity can be used as a practical guide in future catalyst design. Enhancing the electron-accepting ability of low-hydricity catalysts is likely to improve their catalytic performance, while increasing the electron-donating ability of high-hydricity complexes may speed up CO2 conversion. Moreover, we also established the active roles of base NEt3 in directing the heterolytic H2 splitting and assisting product release through the formation of an acid-base complex.

  14. Development of nuclear thermal hydraulic verification tests and evaluation technology - Development of the ultrasonic method for two-phase mixture level measurement in nuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    No, Hee Cheon; Kim, Sang Jae; Kim, Hyung Tae; Moon, Young Min [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    An ultrasonic method is developed for the measurement of the two-phase mixture level in the reactor vessel or steam generator. The ultrasonic method is selected among the several non-nuclear two-phase mixture level measurement methods through two steps of selection procedure. A commercial ultrasonic level measurement method is modified for application into the high temperature, pressure, and other conditions. The calculation method of the ultrasonic velocity is modified to consider the medium as the homogeneous mixture of air and steam, and to be applied into the high temperature and pressure conditions. The cross-correlation technique is adopted as a detection method to reduced the effects of the attenuation and the diffused reflection caused by surface fluctuation. The waveguides are developed to reduce the loss of echo and to remove the effects of obstructs. The present experimental study shows that the developed ultrasonic method measures the two-phase mixture level more accurately than the conventional methods do. 21 refs., 60 figs., 13 tabs. (Author)

  15. Operationalising Ecologically Sustainable Development at the Micro Level Pareto Optimality and the Preservation of Biologically Crucial Levels.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bithas, K.; Nijkamp, P.

    2006-01-01

    The concept of Ecologically Sustainable Economic Development (ESED) has led to relentlessly heated debate. Yet, it still remains without a clear operational framework. At the micro level where a multitude of projects and programmes are designed, the absence of operational principles has serious

  16. [Effects of Square-Stepping Exercise inducing activation of the brain's cognitive function in community-dwelling older Japanese females--Focus on the baseline cognitive function level and age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Takumi; Tsuji, Taishi; Kitano, Naruki; Muraki, Toshiaki; Hotta, Kazushi; Okura, Tomohiro

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the degree of improvement in cognitive function achieved with an exercise intervention in community-dwelling older Japanese women is affected by the participant's baseline cognitive function and age. Eighty-eight women (mean age: 70.5±4.2 years) participated in a prevention program for long-term care. They completed the Square-Stepping Exercise (SSE) program once a week, 120 minutes/session, for 11 weeks. We assessed participants' cognitive function using 5 cognitive tests (5-Cog) before and after the intervention. We defined cognitive function as the 5-Cog total score and defined the change in cognitive function as the 5-cog post-score minus the pre-score. We divided participants into four groups based on age (≤69 years or ≥70 years) and baseline cognitive function level (above vs. below the median cognitive function level). We conducted two-way analysis of variance. All 4 groups improved significantly in cognitive function after the intervention. There were no baseline cognitive function level×age interactions and no significant main effects of age, although significant main effects of baseline cognitive function level (P=0.004, η(2)=0.09) were observed. Square-Stepping Exercise is an effective exercise for improving cognitive function. These results suggest that older adults with cognitive decline are more likely to improve their cognitive function with exercise than if they start the intervention with high cognitive function. Furthermore, during an exercise intervention, baseline cognitive function level may have more of an effect than a participant's age on the degree of cognitive improvement.

  17. The Effects of Promoting Educational Level on the Development of Reading Comprehension Levels in Hearing-Impaired Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Sarmadi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Hearing-impaired students have some delays in learning language skills such as reading because of hearing loss. To study the effect of promoting educational level on the development of reading comprehension, the students of the 4th grade of elementary and last year guidance school were compared based on international test of reading literacy.Methods: The project was cross-sectional and the tool used was the international standard booklet of PIRLS 2001. Thirty-six students selected with moderately severe and severe hearing loss from the 4th grade of elementary and last year guidance school from Shahriar, Robatkarim, Karaj and Hashtgerd, Iran, exceptional schools. Comparative statistical analysis was performed using t-test.Results: The first level (focus on and retrieve explicity information showed a meaningful difference between the last year guidance school and the 4th grade of elementary students (p<0.05, but there were no significant differences in other levels, make straightforward information-interpret and integrate ideas-examine and evaluate content, (p> 0.05.Conclusion: Hearing-impaired students have difficulties in understanding in deep levels of reading despite promoting educational level. Thus, in making policies for special trainings, continuing the rehabilitation in guidance and high school levels to promote the complex levels of comprehension should be taken more into consideration.

  18. Expression of three Trichoderma reesei cellulase genes in Saccharomyces pastorianus for the development of a two-step process of hydrolysis and fermentation of cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, J; Kricka, W; James, T C; Bond, U

    2014-07-01

    To compare the production of recombinant cellulase enzymes in two Saccharomyces species so as to ascertain the most suitable heterologous host for the degradation of cellulose-based biomass and its conversion into bioethanol. cDNA copies of genes representing the three major classes of cellulases (Endoglucanases, Cellobiohydrolases and β-glucosidases) from Trichoderma reesei were expressed in Saccharomyces pastorianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The recombinant enzymes were secreted by the yeast hosts into the medium and were shown to act in synergy to hydrolyse cellulose. The conditions required to achieve maximum release of glucose from cellulose by the recombinant enzymes were defined and the activity of the recombinant enzymes was compared to a commercial cocktail of T. reesei cellulases. We demonstrate that significantly higher levels of cellulase activity were achieved by expression of the genes in S. pastorianus compared to S. cerevisiae. Hydrolysis of cellulose by the combined activity of the recombinant enzymes was significantly better at 50°C than at 30°C, the temperature used for mesophilic yeast fermentations, reflecting the known temperature profiles of the native enzymes. The results demonstrate that host choice is important for the heterologous production of cellulases. On the basis of the low activity of the T. reesei recombinant enzymes at fermentation temperatures, we propose a two-step process for the hydrolysis of cellulose and its fermentation into alcohol using cellulases produced in situ. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Developing a network-level structural capacity index for structural evaluation of pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a structural index for use in network-level pavement evaluation to facilitate : the inclusion of the pavements structural condition in pavement management applications. The primary goal of network-level...

  20. Development of a new Xe-133 single dose multi-step method (SDMM) for muscle blood flow measurement using gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunko, Hisashi; Seto, Mikito; Taki, Junichi

    1985-01-01

    In order to measure the muscle blood flow (MBF) during exercise (Ex), a new Xe-133 single dose multi-step method (SDMM) for leg MBF measurement before, during and after Ex using gamma camera was developped. Theoretically, if the activity of Xe-133 in the muscle immediately before and after Ex are known, then the mean MBF during Ex can be calculated. In SDMM, these activities are corrected through correction formula using time delays between end of data aquisition (DA) at rest (R1) and begining of the Ex (TAB), and between end of Ex and begining of the DA after Ex (R2) (TDA). Validity of the SDMM and MBF response on mild and heavy Ex were evaluated in 11 normal volunteers. Ex MBF calculated from 5 and 2.5 min DA (5 sec/frame) both at R1 and R2 were highly correlated (r=.996). Ex MBF by SDMM and direct(measurement by fixed leg exercise were also highly correlated (r=.999). Reproducibility of the R1 and Ex MBF were excellent (r=.999). The highest MBF was seen in GCM on miled walking Ex and in VLM on heavy squatting Ex. After miled Ex, MBF rapidly returned to normal. After heavy Ex, MBF remaind high in VLM In conclusion, SDMM is simple and accurate method for evaluation of dynamic MBF response according to exercise. SDMM is also applicable to the field of sports medicine. (author)

  1. Integration of multi-level marketing management systems geographically industry development

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandr Lavrov; Lada Polikarpova; Alla Handramai

    2015-01-01

    In the article the authors attempt to develop a multi-level management system territorially industry development in market conditions, built in the widespread use of various types of marketing and their horizontal and vertical integration.

  2. A One-Step Cone-Beam CT-Enabled Planning-to-Treatment Model for Palliative Radiotherapy-From Development to Implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Rebecca K.S.; Letourneau, Daniel; Varma, Anita; Bissonnette, Jean Pierre; Fitzpatrick, David; Grabarz, Daniel; Elder, Christine; Martin, Melanie; Bezjak, Andrea; Panzarella, Tony; Gospodarowicz, Mary; Jaffray, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a cone-beam computed tomography (CT)–enabled one-step simulation-to-treatment process for the treatment of bone metastases. Methods and Materials: A three-phase prospective study was conducted. Patients requiring palliative radiotherapy to the spine, mediastinum, or abdomen/pelvis suitable for treatment with simple beam geometry (≤2 beams) were accrued. Phase A established the accuracy of cone-beam CT images for the purpose of gross tumor target volume (GTV) definition. Phase B evaluated the feasibility of implementing the cone-beam CT–enabled planning process at the treatment unit. Phase C evaluated the online cone-beam CT–enabled process for the planning and treatment of patients requiring radiotherapy for bone metastases. Results: Eighty-four patients participated in this study. Phase A (n = 9) established the adequacy of cone-beam CT images for target definition. Phase B (n = 45) established the quality of treatment plans to be adequate for clinical implementation for bone metastases. When the process was applied clinically in bone metastases (Phase C), the degree of overlap between planning computed tomography (PCT) and cone-beam CT for GTV and between PCT and cone-beam CT for treatment field was 82% ± 11% and 97% ± 4%, respectively. The oncologist’s decision to accept the plan under a time-pressured environment remained of high quality, with the cone-beam CT–generated treatment plan delivering at least 90% of the prescribed dose to 100% ± 0% of the cone-beam CT planning target volume (PTV). With the assumption that the PCT PTV is the gold-standard target, the cone-beam CT–generated treatment plan delivered at least 90% and at least 95% of dose to 98% ± 2% and 97% ± 5% of the PCT PTV, respectively. The mean time for the online planning and treatment process was 32.7 ± 4.0 minutes. Patient satisfaction was high, with a trend for superior satisfaction with the cone-beam CT–enabled process. Conclusions: The cone-beam CT

  3. A One-Step Cone-Beam CT-Enabled Planning-to-Treatment Model for Palliative Radiotherapy-From Development to Implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Rebecca K.S., E-mail: rebecca.wong@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Letourneau, Daniel; Varma, Anita [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Bissonnette, Jean Pierre; Fitzpatrick, David; Grabarz, Daniel; Elder, Christine [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Martin, Melanie; Bezjak, Andrea [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Panzarella, Tony [Department of Biostatistics, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Gospodarowicz, Mary [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Jaffray, David A. [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: To develop a cone-beam computed tomography (CT)-enabled one-step simulation-to-treatment process for the treatment of bone metastases. Methods and Materials: A three-phase prospective study was conducted. Patients requiring palliative radiotherapy to the spine, mediastinum, or abdomen/pelvis suitable for treatment with simple beam geometry ({<=}2 beams) were accrued. Phase A established the accuracy of cone-beam CT images for the purpose of gross tumor target volume (GTV) definition. Phase B evaluated the feasibility of implementing the cone-beam CT-enabled planning process at the treatment unit. Phase C evaluated the online cone-beam CT-enabled process for the planning and treatment of patients requiring radiotherapy for bone metastases. Results: Eighty-four patients participated in this study. Phase A (n = 9) established the adequacy of cone-beam CT images for target definition. Phase B (n = 45) established the quality of treatment plans to be adequate for clinical implementation for bone metastases. When the process was applied clinically in bone metastases (Phase C), the degree of overlap between planning computed tomography (PCT) and cone-beam CT for GTV and between PCT and cone-beam CT for treatment field was 82% {+-} 11% and 97% {+-} 4%, respectively. The oncologist's decision to accept the plan under a time-pressured environment remained of high quality, with the cone-beam CT-generated treatment plan delivering at least 90% of the prescribed dose to 100% {+-} 0% of the cone-beam CT planning target volume (PTV). With the assumption that the PCT PTV is the gold-standard target, the cone-beam CT-generated treatment plan delivered at least 90% and at least 95% of dose to 98% {+-} 2% and 97% {+-} 5% of the PCT PTV, respectively. The mean time for the online planning and treatment process was 32.7 {+-} 4.0 minutes. Patient satisfaction was high, with a trend for superior satisfaction with the cone-beam CT-enabled process. Conclusions: The cone

  4. Step by Step Microsoft Office Visio 2003

    CERN Document Server

    Lemke, Judy

    2004-01-01

    Experience learning made easy-and quickly teach yourself how to use Visio 2003, the Microsoft Office business and technical diagramming program. With STEP BY STEP, you can take just the lessons you need, or work from cover to cover. Either way, you drive the instruction-building and practicing the skills you need, just when you need them! Produce computer network diagrams, organization charts, floor plans, and moreUse templates to create new diagrams and drawings quicklyAdd text, color, and 1-D and 2-D shapesInsert graphics and pictures, such as company logosConnect shapes to create a basic f

  5. Step by step parallel programming method for molecular dynamics code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orii, Shigeo; Ohta, Toshio

    1996-07-01

    Parallel programming for a numerical simulation program of molecular dynamics is carried out with a step-by-step programming technique using the two phase method. As a result, within the range of a certain computing parameters, it is found to obtain parallel performance by using the level of parallel programming which decomposes the calculation according to indices of do-loops into each processor on the vector parallel computer VPP500 and the scalar parallel computer Paragon. It is also found that VPP500 shows parallel performance in wider range computing parameters. The reason is that the time cost of the program parts, which can not be reduced by the do-loop level of the parallel programming, can be reduced to the negligible level by the vectorization. After that, the time consuming parts of the program are concentrated on less parts that can be accelerated by the do-loop level of the parallel programming. This report shows the step-by-step parallel programming method and the parallel performance of the molecular dynamics code on VPP500 and Paragon. (author)

  6. Survey and analysis of the domestic technology level for the concept development of high level waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Chang Sun; Kim, Byung Su; Song, Jae Hyok [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea); Park, Kwang Hon; Hwang, Ju Ho; Park, Sung Hyun; Lee, Jae Min [Kyunghee University, Seoul (Korea); Han, Joung Sang; Kim, Ku Young [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea); Lee, Jae Ki; Chang, Jae Kwon [Hangyang University, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-09-01

    The objectives of this study are the analysis of the status of HLW disposal technology and the investigation of the domestic technology level. The study has taken two years to complete with the participation of forty five researchers. The study was mainly carried out through means of literature surveys, collection of related data, visits to research institutes, and meetings with experts in the specific fields. During the first year of this project, the International Symposium on the Concept Development of the High Level Waste Disposal System was held in Taejon, Korea in October, 1997. Eight highly professed foreign experts whose fields of expertise projected to the area of high level waste disposal were invited to the symposium. This study is composed of four major areas; disposal system design/construction, engineered barrier characterization, geologic environment evaluation and performance assessment and total safety. A technical tree scheme of HLW disposal has been illustrated according to the investigation and an analysis for each technical area. For each detailed technology, research projects, performing organization/method and techniques that are to be secured in the order of priority are proposed, but the suggestions are merely at a superfluous level of propositional idea due to the reduction of the budget in the second year. The detailed programs on HLW disposal are greatly affected by governmental HLW disposal policy and in this study, the primary decisions to be made in each level of HLW disposal enterprise and a rough scheme are proposed. (author). 20 refs., 97 figs., 33 tabs.

  7. Social Competence in Children with Borderline Intellectual Functioning: Delayed Development of Theory of Mind Across All Complexity Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglio, Gisella; Blasi, Valeria; Sangiuliano Intra, Francesca; Castelli, Ilaria; Massaro, Davide; Baglio, Francesca; Valle, Annalisa; Zanette, Michela; Marchetti, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    Borderline intellectual functioning (BIF) is characterized by heterogeneous cognitive difficulties, with an intelligence quotient (IQ) between 70 and 85 points, and a failure to meet the developmental and sociocultural standards for personal independence and social responsibility required in daily life. The fact that this population still remain a marginal clinical category, with no ad hoc diagnostic and therapeutic approaches, has stimulated the present research. Our goal was to study children with BIF investigating the development of Theory of Mind (ToM) as a pillar of social competence. Children with BIF (N = 28, 16 male/12 female, and mean age 9.46 ± 1.26 years) and children with typical development (TD; N = 31, 17 male/14 female; mean age 8.94 years ± 0.99) underwent a neurocognitive assessment and a ToM assessment. Children with BIF showed a significant lower performance across all the levels of ToM development investigated compared to the control group, and a correlation between executive functions and the advanced levels of ToM reasoning. These results constitute a first step in the direction of defining the clinical profile of children with BIF concerning ToM development, opening the way to future interventions in order to support the developmental evolution of this population in an adaptive direction. PMID:27818637

  8. Social Competence in Children with Borderline Intellectual Functioning: Delayed Development of Theory of Mind Across All Complexity Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglio, Gisella; Blasi, Valeria; Sangiuliano Intra, Francesca; Castelli, Ilaria; Massaro, Davide; Baglio, Francesca; Valle, Annalisa; Zanette, Michela; Marchetti, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    Borderline intellectual functioning (BIF) is characterized by heterogeneous cognitive difficulties, with an intelligence quotient (IQ) between 70 and 85 points, and a failure to meet the developmental and sociocultural standards for personal independence and social responsibility required in daily life. The fact that this population still remain a marginal clinical category, with no ad hoc diagnostic and therapeutic approaches, has stimulated the present research. Our goal was to study children with BIF investigating the development of Theory of Mind (ToM) as a pillar of social competence. Children with BIF ( N = 28, 16 male/12 female, and mean age 9.46 ± 1.26 years) and children with typical development (TD; N = 31, 17 male/14 female; mean age 8.94 years ± 0.99) underwent a neurocognitive assessment and a ToM assessment. Children with BIF showed a significant lower performance across all the levels of ToM development investigated compared to the control group, and a correlation between executive functions and the advanced levels of ToM reasoning. These results constitute a first step in the direction of defining the clinical profile of children with BIF concerning ToM development, opening the way to future interventions in order to support the developmental evolution of this population in an adaptive direction.

  9. Social competence in children with borderline intellectual functioning: delayed development of Theory of Mind across all complexity levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisella Baglio

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Borderline intellectual functioning (BIF is characterized by heterogeneous cognitive difficulties, with an Intelligence Quotient (IQ between 70-85 points, and a failure to meet the developmental and sociocultural standards for personal independence and social responsibility required in daily life. The fact that people with BIF still remain a marginal clinical category, with no ad hoc diagnostic and therapeutic approaches, has stimulated the present research. Our goal was to study BIF children investigating the development of Theory of Mind (ToM as a pillar of social competence. Children with BIF (N=28, 16 male/12 female, mean age 9.46 ± 1.26 years and children with typical development (TD (N=31, 17 male/14 female; mean age 8.94 years ± 0.99 underwent a neurocognitive assessment and a ToM assessment. Children with BIF showed a significant lower performance across all the levels of ToM development investigated compared to the control group, and a correlation between executive functions and the advanced levels of ToM reasoning. These results constitute a first step in the direction of defining the clinical profile of BIF concerning ToM development, opening the way to future interventions in order to support the developmental evolution of this people in an adaptive direction.

  10. Free Modal Algebras Revisited: The Step-by-Step Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezhanishvili, N.; Ghilardi, Silvio; Jibladze, Mamuka

    2012-01-01

    We review the step-by-step method of constructing finitely generated free modal algebras. First we discuss the global step-by-step method, which works well for rank one modal logics. Next we refine the global step-by-step method to obtain the local step-by-step method, which is applicable beyond

  11. Diabetes PSA (:30) Step By Step

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-24

    First steps to preventing diabetes. For Hispanic and Latino American audiences.  Created: 10/24/2009 by National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP), a joint program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health.   Date Released: 10/24/2009.

  12. Diabetes PSA (:60) Step By Step

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-24

    First steps to preventing diabetes. For Hispanic and Latino American audiences.  Created: 10/24/2009 by National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP), a joint program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health.   Date Released: 10/24/2009.

  13. Relationships among Physical Activity Levels, Psychomotor, Psychosocial, and Cognitive Development of Primary Education Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isler, Ayse Kin; Asci, F. Hulya; Kosar, S. Nazan

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the relationships of physical activity levels and psychomotor, psychosocial, and cognitive development among Turkish elementary school students. Student evaluations indicated that physical activity level was an important factor in determining student psychomotor development, but it was not important in determining psychosocial and…

  14. Negotiating rural tourism development at the local level : a case study in Pisece, Slovenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbole, A.

    1999-01-01

    This study examines the policy and politics of the development of rural tourism at the local level in Slovenia. Its purpose was to increase our understanding of the socio-political dimensions of the rural tourism development process at the local community level by contributing to the

  15. Perceived Effectiveness of Professional Development Programs of Teachers at Higher Education Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Sufiana Khatoon; Nasim, Uzma; Tabassum, Farkhanda

    2015-01-01

    The major purpose of the study was to assess the perceived effectiveness of professional development programs of teachers at higher educational level. The objectives of the study were: "to assess university level teachers'" opinion about effectiveness of professional development training with reference to quality teaching, to measure…

  16. Development and applications of new type isotope level-meters for cement factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Shiqing; Min Hainian; Zhang Zhaoqing; Fu Heping; Dang Congjun; Wang Jingmin; Xia Junming

    1998-01-01

    According to the situation of current domestic switch isotope level-meters used for the level measurement and control in cement factories, a new type isotope level-meter is developed. The level-meter includes digit display circuit, count detection and control circuit and two ways control export, its response time is less than 1 second. The quenching circuit in the detector lengthens the using lifespan of G-M counter. The application in the factories indicates that the level-meter has the advantages of sensitive, strong anti-disturbance, reliable and adjustment simplicity. The use of the level-meter can make the better economy benefit and society benefit

  17. Development and Evaluation of a Single-Step Duplex PCR for Simultaneous Detection of Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica (Family Fasciolidae, Class Trematoda, Phylum Platyhelminthes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Khue Thi; Nguyen, Nga Thi Bich; Doan, Huong Thi Thanh; Le, Xuyen Thi Kim; Hoang, Chau Thi Minh; De, Nguyen Van

    2012-01-01

    A single-step multiplex PCR (here referred to as a duplex PCR) has been developed for simultaneous detection and diagnosis of Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica. These species overlap in distribution in many countries of North and East Africa and Central and Southeast Asia and are similar in egg morphology, making identification from fecal samples difficult. Based on a comparative alignment of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) spanning the region of cox1-trnT-rrnL, two species-specific forward primers were designed, FHF (for F. hepatica) and FGF (for F. gigantica), and a single reverse primer, FHGR (common for both species). Conventional PCR followed by sequencing was applied using species-specific primer pairs to verify the specificity of primers and the identity of Fasciola DNA templates. Duplex PCR (using three primers) was used for testing with the DNA extracted from adult worms, miracidia, and eggs, producing amplicons of 1,031 bp for F. hepatica and 615 bp for F. gigantica. The duplex PCR failed to amplify from DNA of other common liver and intestinal trematodes, including two opisthorchiids, three heterophyids, an echinostomid, another fasciolid, and a taeniid cestode. The sensitivity assay showed that the duplex PCR limit of detection for each Fasciola species was between 0.012 ng and 0.006 ng DNA. Evaluation using DNA templates from 32 Fasciola samples (28 adults and 4 eggs) and from 25 field-collected stools of ruminants and humans revealed specific bands of the correct size and the presence of Fasciola species. This novel mtDNA duplex PCR is a sensitive and fast tool for accurate identification of Fasciola species in areas of distributional and zonal overlap. PMID:22692744

  18. Development and evaluation of a single-step duplex PCR for simultaneous detection of Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica (family Fasciolidae, class Trematoda, phylum Platyhelminthes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Thanh Hoa; Nguyen, Khue Thi; Nguyen, Nga Thi Bich; Doan, Huong Thi Thanh; Le, Xuyen Thi Kim; Hoang, Chau Thi Minh; De, Nguyen Van

    2012-08-01

    A single-step multiplex PCR (here referred to as a duplex PCR) has been developed for simultaneous detection and diagnosis of Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica. These species overlap in distribution in many countries of North and East Africa and Central and Southeast Asia and are similar in egg morphology, making identification from fecal samples difficult. Based on a comparative alignment of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) spanning the region of cox1-trnT-rrnL, two species-specific forward primers were designed, FHF (for F. hepatica) and FGF (for F. gigantica), and a single reverse primer, FHGR (common for both species). Conventional PCR followed by sequencing was applied using species-specific primer pairs to verify the specificity of primers and the identity of Fasciola DNA templates. Duplex PCR (using three primers) was used for testing with the DNA extracted from adult worms, miracidia, and eggs, producing amplicons of 1,031 bp for F. hepatica and 615 bp for F. gigantica. The duplex PCR failed to amplify from DNA of other common liver and intestinal trematodes, including two opisthorchiids, three heterophyids, an echinostomid, another fasciolid, and a taeniid cestode. The sensitivity assay showed that the duplex PCR limit of detection for each Fasciola species was between 0.012 ng and 0.006 ng DNA. Evaluation using DNA templates from 32 Fasciola samples (28 adults and 4 eggs) and from 25 field-collected stools of ruminants and humans revealed specific bands of the correct size and the presence of Fasciola species. This novel mtDNA duplex PCR is a sensitive and fast tool for accurate identification of Fasciola species in areas of distributional and zonal overlap.

  19. Creation of a competency-based professional development program for infection preventionists guided by the APIC Competency Model: steps in the process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Heather; Hackbarth, Diana; Olmsted, Russell N; Murphy, Denise

    2018-06-07

    Infection Preventionists have varying levels of educational preparation. Many have no prior experience in IP. The diversity makes design of professional development programs challenging. Recent surveys suggest that only about half of practicing IPs are board certified. There is an urgent need to employ competent IP's to drive improvement in patient outcomes. This is a project that utilized the APIC Competency Model to create a professional development program characterizing three career stages. Methods included a review of literature on professional development; a survey of IP competence; an assessment of job descriptions and performance evaluations; and a crosswalk of IP competencies. The professional development program includes competency - based IP job descriptions and performance evaluations for each career stage; a professional portfolio; and a toolkit for supervisors. Participants agreed that application of the model resulted in tools which are more closely aligned with current roles for IPs; and increased satisfaction and motivation with the new program. Competent and knowledgeable IP's are crucial to optimizing efficacy of IPC programs. A professional development program has the potential to guide staff orientation, improve satisfaction and retention, improve patient outcomes and promote a positive trajectory in advancing practice. Copyright © 2018 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Steps to Advanced CANDU 600

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Yongshick; Brooks, G. L.

    1988-01-01

    The CANDU nuclear power system was developed from merging of AECL heavy water reactor technology with Ontario Hydro electrical power station expertise. The original four units of Ontario Hydro's Pickering Generating Station are the first full-scale commercial application of the CANDU system. AECL and Ontario Hydro then moved to the next evolutionary step, a more advanced larger scale design for four units at the Bruce Generating Station. CANDU 600 followed as a single unit nuclear electric power station design derived from an amalgam of features of the multiple unit Pickering and Bruce designs. The design of the CANDU 600 nuclear steam supply system is based on the Pickering design with improvements derived from the Bruce design. For example, most CANDU 600 auxiliary systems are based on Bruce systems, whereas the fuel handling system is based on the Pickering system. Four CANDU 600 units are in operation, and five are under construction in Romania. For the additional four units at Pickering Generating Station 'B', Ontario Hydro selected a replica of the Pickering 'A' design with limited design changes to maintain a high level of standardization across all eight units. Ontario Hydro applied a similar policy for the additional four units at Bruce Generating Station 'B'. For the four unit Darlington station, Ontario Hydro selected a design based on Bruce with improvements derived from operating experience, the CANDU 600 design and development programs

  1. Climate change adaptation under uncertainty in the developing world: A case study of sea level rise in Kiribati

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, S. D.; Webber, S.

    2011-12-01

    Climate change is expected to have the greatest impact in parts of the developing world. At the 2010 meeting of U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change in Cancun, industrialized countries agreed in principle to provide US$100 billion per year by 2020 to assist the developing world respond to climate change. This "Green Climate Fund" is a critical step towards addressing the challenge of climate change. However, the policy and discourse on supporting adaptation in the developing world remains highly idealized. For example, the efficacy of "no regrets" adaptation efforts or "mainstreaming" adaptation into decision-making are rarely evaluated in the real world. In this presentation, I will discuss the gap between adaptation theory and practice using a multi-year case study of the cultural, social and scientific obstacles to adapting to sea level rise in the Pacific atoll nation of Kiribati. Our field research reveals how scientific and institutional uncertainty can limit international efforts to fund adaptation and lead to spiraling costs. Scientific uncertainty about hyper-local impacts of sea level rise, though irreducible, can at times limit decision-making about adaptation measures, contrary to the notion that "good" decision-making practices can incorporate scientific uncertainty. Efforts to improve institutional capacity must be done carefully, or they risk inadvertently slowing the implementation of adaptation measures and increasing the likelihood of "mal"-adaptation.

  2. Development of a non-contextual model for determining the autonomy level of intelligent unmanned systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durst, Phillip J.; Gray, Wendell; Trentini, Michael

    2013-05-01

    A simple, quantitative measure for encapsulating the autonomous capabilities of unmanned systems (UMS) has yet to be established. Current models for measuring a UMS's autonomy level require extensive, operational level testing, and provide a means for assessing the autonomy level for a specific mission/task and operational environment. A more elegant technique for quantifying autonomy using component level testing of the robot platform alone, outside of mission and environment contexts, is desirable. Using a high level framework for UMS architectures, such a model for determining a level of autonomy has been developed. The model uses a combination of developmental and component level testing for each aspect of the UMS architecture to define a non-contextual autonomous potential (NCAP). The NCAP provides an autonomy level, ranging from fully non- autonomous to fully autonomous, in the form of a single numeric parameter describing the UMS's performance capabilities when operating at that level of autonomy.

  3. Critical flux determination by flux-stepping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Søren; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    2010-01-01

    In membrane filtration related scientific literature, often step-by-step determined critical fluxes are reported. Using a dynamic microfiltration device, it is shown that critical fluxes determined from two different flux-stepping methods are dependent upon operational parameters such as step...... length, step height, and.flux start level. Filtrating 8 kg/m(3) yeast cell suspensions by a vibrating 0.45 x 10(-6) m pore size microfiltration hollow fiber module, critical fluxes from 5.6 x 10(-6) to 1.2 x 10(-5) m/s have been measured using various step lengths from 300 to 1200 seconds. Thus......, such values are more or less useless in itself as critical flux predictors, and constant flux verification experiments have to be conducted to check if the determined critical fluxes call predict sustainable flux regimes. However, it is shown that using the step-by-step predicted critical fluxes as start...

  4. Microsoft Office Word 2007 step by step

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, Joyce

    2007-01-01

    Experience learning made easy-and quickly teach yourself how to create impressive documents with Word 2007. With Step By Step, you set the pace-building and practicing the skills you need, just when you need them!Apply styles and themes to your document for a polished lookAdd graphics and text effects-and see a live previewOrganize information with new SmartArt diagrams and chartsInsert references, footnotes, indexes, a table of contentsSend documents for review and manage revisionsTurn your ideas into blogs, Web pages, and moreYour all-in-one learning experience includes:Files for building sk

  5. Step-Up DC-DC converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forouzesh, Mojtaba; Siwakoti, Yam P.; Gorji, Saman A.

    2017-01-01

    on the general law and framework of the development of next-generation step-up dc-dc converters, this paper aims to comprehensively review and classify various step-up dc-dc converters based on their characteristics and voltage-boosting techniques. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of these voltage......DC-DC converters with voltage boost capability are widely used in a large number of power conversion applications, from fraction-of-volt to tens of thousands of volts at power levels from milliwatts to megawatts. The literature has reported on various voltage-boosting techniques, in which......-boosting techniques and associated converters are discussed in detail. Finally, broad applications of dc-dc converters are presented and summarized with comparative study of different voltage-boosting techniques....

  6. High-level enterprise and low-level radioactivity: two hazards in developing-country uranium concessions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, D.M.; Gillis, M.

    1980-01-01

    Multinational uranium-mining activities in developing countries (LDCs) have posed new and important problems for LDCs because of the nature of the extractive enterprises and the nature of the mineral. If the LDCs are to realize their expected financial and growth objectives from uranium exploitation, they will need to exercise as much vigilance in negotiating and monitoring contracts with state-owned multinational enterprises as with privately-owned multinationals. In order for these objectives to be achieved without costly sacrifices in occupational health and the environment, LDC governments will need to develop concession agreements, mining codes, and public-health and labor standards that limit the scope of low-level radioactivity damage. 39 references

  7. A Step towards a Sharable Community Knowledge Base for WRF Settings -Developing a WRF Setting Methodology based on a case study in a Torrential Rainfall Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHU, Q.; Xu, Z.; Zhuo, L.; Han, D.

    2016-12-01

    Increased requirements for interactions between different disciplines and readily access to the numerical weather forecasting system featured with portability and extensibility have made useful contribution to the increases of downstream model users in WRF over recent years. For these users, a knowledge base classified by the representative events would be much helpful. This is because the determination of model settings is regarded as the most important steps in WRF. However, such a process is generally time-consuming, even if with a high computational platform. As such, we propose a sharable proper lookup table on WRF domain settings and corresponding procedures based on a representative torrential rainfall event in Beijing, China. It has been found that WRF's simulations' drift away from the input lateral boundary conditions can be significantly reduced with the adjustment of the domain settings. Among all the impact factors, the placement of nested domain can not only affect the moving speed and angle of the storm-center, but also the location and amount of heavy-rain-belt which can only be detected with adjusted spatial resolutions. Spin-up time is also considered in the model settings, which is demonstrated to have the most obvious influence on the accuracy of the simulations. This conclusion is made based on the large diversity of spatial distributions of precipitation, in terms of the amount of heavy rain varied from -30% to 58% among each experiment. After following all the procedures, the variations of domain settings have minimal effect on the modeling and show the best correlation (larger than 0.65) with fusion observations. So the model settings, including domain size covering the greater Beijing area, 1:5:5 downscaling ratio, 57 vertical levels with top of 50hpa and 60h spin-up time, are found suitable for predicting the similar convective torrential rainfall event in Beijing area. We hope that the procedure for building the community WRF knowledge

  8. space vector pulse width modulation of a multi-level diode clamped

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES Obe

    step by step development of MATLAB /SIMULINK modeling of the space vector ..... Pulse Width Mod. of Multi-Level Diode Clamped Converter 119 powergui. Discrete, .... Load. Figure 22: Block diagram of the three level DCC design. 3 LEVEL ...

  9. Development Scaffolding for Construction of Evaluation Instrument Training Program on The Cognitive Domain For Senior High School Physics Teachers and The Same Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, W.; Suhandi, A.; Kaniawati, I.; Setiawan, A.

    2017-02-01

    The development of scaffolding for evaluation instrument construction training program on the cognitive domain for senior high school physics teacher and the same level that is specified in the test instrument has been done. This development was motivated by the low ability of the majority of physics teachers in constructing the physics learning achievement test. This situation not in accordance with the demands of Permendiknas RI no. 16 tahun 2007 concerning the standard of academic qualifications and competence of teachers, stating that teachers should have a good ability to develop instruments for assessment and evaluation of process and learning outcomes. Based on the preliminary study results, it can be seen that the main cause of the inability of teachers in developing physics achievement test is because they do not good understand of the indicators for each aspect of cognitive domains. Scaffolding development is done by using the research and development methods formulated by Thiagarajan which includes define, design and develope steps. Develop step includes build the scaffolding, validation of scaffolding by experts and the limited pilot implementations on the training activities. From the build scaffolding step, resulted the scaffolding for the construction of test instruments training program which include the process steps; description of indicators, operationalization of indicators, construction the itemsframework (items scenarios), construction the items stem, construction the items and checking the items. The results of the validation by three validator indicates that the built scaffolding are suitable for use in the construction of physics achievement test training program, especially for novice. The limited pilot implementation of the built scaffolding conducted in training activities attended by 10 senior high school physics teachers in Garut district. The results of the limited pilot implementation shows that the built scaffolding have a medium

  10. STEP and fundamental physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overduin, James; Everitt, Francis; Worden, Paul; Mester, John

    2012-09-01

    The Satellite Test of the Equivalence Principle (STEP) will advance experimental limits on violations of Einstein's equivalence principle from their present sensitivity of two parts in 1013 to one part in 1018 through multiple comparison of the motions of four pairs of test masses of different compositions in a drag-free earth-orbiting satellite. We describe the experiment, its current status and its potential implications for fundamental physics. Equivalence is at the heart of general relativity, our governing theory of gravity and violations are expected in most attempts to unify this theory with the other fundamental interactions of physics, as well as in many theoretical explanations for the phenomenon of dark energy in cosmology. Detection of such a violation would be equivalent to the discovery of a new force of nature. A null result would be almost as profound, pushing upper limits on any coupling between standard-model fields and the new light degrees of freedom generically predicted by these theories down to unnaturally small levels.

  11. STEP and fundamental physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overduin, James; Everitt, Francis; Worden, Paul; Mester, John

    2012-01-01

    The Satellite Test of the Equivalence Principle (STEP) will advance experimental limits on violations of Einstein's equivalence principle from their present sensitivity of two parts in 10 13 to one part in 10 18 through multiple comparison of the motions of four pairs of test masses of different compositions in a drag-free earth-orbiting satellite. We describe the experiment, its current status and its potential implications for fundamental physics. Equivalence is at the heart of general relativity, our governing theory of gravity and violations are expected in most attempts to unify this theory with the other fundamental interactions of physics, as well as in many theoretical explanations for the phenomenon of dark energy in cosmology. Detection of such a violation would be equivalent to the discovery of a new force of nature. A null result would be almost as profound, pushing upper limits on any coupling between standard-model fields and the new light degrees of freedom generically predicted by these theories down to unnaturally small levels. (paper)

  12. Classification of the European Union member states according to the relative level of sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna, Bluszcz

    Nowadays methods of measurement and assessment of the level of sustained development at the international, national and regional level are a current research problem, which requires multi-dimensional analysis. The relative assessment of the sustainability level of the European Union member states and the comparative analysis of the position of Poland relative to other countries was the aim of the conducted studies in the article. EU member states were treated as objects in the multi-dimensional space. Dimensions of space were specified by ten diagnostic variables describing the sustainability level of UE countries in three dimensions, i.e., social, economic and environmental. Because the compiled statistical data were expressed in different units of measure, taxonomic methods were used for building an aggregated measure to assess the level of sustainable development of EU member states, which through normalisation of variables enabled the comparative analysis between countries. Methodology of studies consisted of eight stages, which included, among others: defining data matrices, calculating the variability coefficient for all variables, which variability coefficient was under 10 %, division of variables into stimulants and destimulants, selection of the method of variable normalisation, developing matrices of normalised data, selection of the formula and calculating the aggregated indicator of the relative level of sustainable development of the EU countries, calculating partial development indicators for three studies dimensions: social, economic and environmental and the classification of the EU countries according to the relative level of sustainable development. Statistical date were collected based on the Polish Central Statistical Office publication.

  13. Linear, Step by Step Managerial Performance, versus Exponential Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George MOLDOVEANU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes the transition from the potential management concept, which its authors approached by determining its dimension (Roşca, Moldoveanu, 2009b, to the linear, step by step performance concept, as an objective result of management process. In this way, we “answer” the theorists and practitioners, who support exponential management performance. The authors, as detractors of the exponential performance, are influenced by the current crisis (Roşca, Moldoveanu, 2009a, by the lack of organizational excellence in many companies, particularly in Romanian ones and also reaching “the finality” in the evolved companies, developed into an uncontrollable speed.

  14. A step-by-step methodology for enterprise interoperability projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmeta, Ricardo; Pazos, Verónica

    2015-05-01

    Enterprise interoperability is one of the key factors for enhancing enterprise competitiveness. Achieving enterprise interoperability is an extremely complex process which involves different technological, human and organisational elements. In this paper we present a framework to help enterprise interoperability. The framework has been developed taking into account the three domains of interoperability: Enterprise Modelling, Architecture and Platform and Ontologies. The main novelty of the framework in comparison to existing ones is that it includes a step-by-step methodology that explains how to carry out an enterprise interoperability project taking into account different interoperability views, like business, process, human resources, technology, knowledge and semantics.

  15. FIRST STEP towards ICF commercialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saylor, W.W.; Pendergrass, J.H.; Dudziak, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    Production of tritium for weapons and fusion R and D programs and successful development of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) technologies are important national goals. A conceptual design for an ICF facility to meet these goals is presented. FIRST STEP (Fusion, Inertial, Reduced-Requirements Systems Test for Special Nuclear Material, Tritium, and Energy Production) is a concept for a plant to produce SNM, tritium, and energy while serving as a test bed for ICF technology development. A credible conceptual design for an ICF SNM and tritium production facility that competes favorably with fission technology on the bases of cost, production quality, and safety was sought. FIRST STEP is also designed to be an engineering test facility that integrates systems required for an ICF power plant and that is intermediate in scale between proof-of-principle experiment and commercial power plant. FIRST STEP driver and pellet performance requirements are moderate and represent reasonable intermediate goals in an R and D plan for ICF commercialization. Repetition rate requirements for FIRST STEP are similar to those of commercial size plants and FIRST STEP can be used to integrate systems under realistic ICF conditions

  16. Development Situation, Trend and Countermeasure of Consumer-level UAV Market in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Yu-Lei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on the status of Chinese consumer-level UAV(Unmanned Aerial Vehicle market. According to the main problems in Chinese consumer-level UAV market, the author analyses the trends of Chinese consumer-level UAV market. Then, the author put forward some suggestions to develop Chinese consumer-level UAV market. In 21st century, the research and development expenditure presents the explosive growth in Chinese consumer-level UAV market. From the year of 2012, DJI released their first consumer-level UAV product. Amazon, Facebook, Google and other companies have announced their entry into the UAV market. In 2016, Huawei also announced that it will enter the UAV market.

  17. High αv Integrin Level of Cancer Cells Is Associated with Development of Brain Metastasis in Athymic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yingjen Jeffrey; Pagel, Michael A; Muldoon, Leslie L; Fu, Rongwei; Neuwelt, Edward A

    2017-08-01

    Brain metastases commonly occur in patients with malignant skin, lung and breast cancers resulting in high morbidity and poor prognosis. Integrins containing an αv subunit are cell adhesion proteins that contribute to cancer cell migration and cancer progression. We hypothesized that high expression of αv integrin cell adhesion protein promoted metastatic phenotypes in cancer cells. Cancer cells from different origins were used and studied regarding their metastatic ability and intetumumab, anti-αv integrin mAb, sensitivity using in vitro cell migration assay and in vivo brain metastases animal models. The number of brain metastases and the rate of occurrence were positively correlated with cancer cell αv integrin levels. High αv integrin-expressing cancer cells showed significantly faster cell migration rate in vitro than low αv integrin-expressing cells. Intetumumab significantly inhibited cancer cell migration in vitro regardless of αv integrin expression level. Overexpression of αv integrin in cancer cells with low αv integrin level accelerated cell migration in vitro and increased the occurrence of brain metastases in vivo. αv integrin promotes brain metastases in cancer cells and may mediate early steps in the metastatic cascade, such as adhesion to brain vasculature. Targeting αv integrin with intetumumab could provide clinical benefit in treating cancer patients who develop metastases. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  18. Community level composting in a developing country: case study of KIWODET, Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oberlin, A.S.; Szanto, G.L.

    2011-01-01

    Environmentally sustainable waste management practices have a limited relevance and viability in developing countries. Despite a technological potential, composting initiatives often share this fate. Little is known about the functioning of community level composting, which is reportedly the optimal

  19. DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTIONS AS AN EFFECTIVE MODEL AT THE REGIONAL LEVEL (ON THE EXAMPLE REPUBLIC OF TATARSTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leysan Kashapova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article questions of a choice of flexible instruments of government support to territories ensure their economic stability and economic growth. The formation of institutions is one of such approaches of profiling and of the results of operations which depends on the degree of development of territories. You have made the necessary relationship of selection and formation of development institutions from the strategic development priorities of the region We proved that effective implementation and activities of development institutions depends on the achievement of strategic targets set at the regional level and the municipal level.

  20. "Economic Development, Income Inequality and Social Stability in Prewar Japan: A Prefecture-level Analysis"

    OpenAIRE

    Tetsuji Okazaki

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses the relationship between economic development, income inequality and social stability, using the data of prewar Japan. We have made prefecture-level income inequality index, based on tax and wage statistics with respect to four data points, 1888, 1896, 1921 and 1935. Regression analyses of the prefecture-level panel data confirmed that there was an inverse-U shaped relationship between economic development and income inequality. At the same time thorough analyses of the d...

  1. Projets de developpement de curriculum niveau secondaire (Secondary Level Curriculum Development Projects).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Anne L.

    Two Australian language curriculum development projects are discussed: the Australian Language Levels (ALL) Project and the National Assessment Framework for Languages at Senior Secondary Level (NAFLSSL). While distinct, both projects are closely linked. Each project was launched in 1985 in a favorable climate and in response to cost, enrollment,…

  2. SPACE PHYSICS: Developing resources for astrophysics at A-level: the TRUMP Astrophysics project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinbank, Elizabeth

    1997-01-01

    After outlining the astrophysical options now available in A-level physics syllabuses, this paper notes some of the particular challenges facing A-level teachers and students who chose these options and describes a project designed to support them. The paper highlights some key features of the project that could readily be incorporated into other areas of physics curriculum development.

  3. Impact of Professional Development on Level of Technology Integration in the Elementary Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miktuk, Darlynda

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the quantitative study was to evaluate the impact of professional development on the level of technology integration within the elementary classroom using an online survey known as the LoTi (levels of teaching innovation) survey. Information about the history of computers, technology integration, andragogy, and effective…

  4. Women's Education Levels and Its Impact on Their Attitudes towards Children's Health Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorgen, Kathrine

    2011-01-01

    Relations between socio-economic differences and health have previously been well documented, but women's education level and relative attitudes towards children's health development has been seldom found in studies. This paper examines the relation between women's education level and their attitudes in understanding kindergarten children's health…

  5. Maternal Serum and Amniotic Fluid Inhibin A Levels in Women who Subsequently Develop Severe Preeclampsia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Shin-Young; Yang, Jae-Hyug; Kim, Moon-Young; Ahn, Hyun-Kyong; Shin, Joong-Sik; Choi, Jun-Seek; Park, So-Yeon; Kim, Jin-Mi; Lee, Bom-Yi; Kim, Do-Jin

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether maternal serum (MS) and amniotic fluid (AF) inhibin A levels are elevated in patients who subsequently develop severe preecalmpsia, and to investigate the correlation between MS and AF inhibin A levels in the second trimester. The study included 40 patients who subsequently developed severe preecalmpsia and 80 normal pregnant women. Inhibin A levels in MS and AF were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The MS and AF inhibin A levels in patients who developed severe preeclampsia were significantly higher than those in the control group (both for p<0.001). There was a positive correlation between MS and AF inhibin A levels in patients who developed severe preeclampsia (r=0.397, p=0.011), but not in the control group (r=0.185, p=0.126). The best cutoff values of MS and AF inhibin A levels for the prediction of severe preeclampsia were 427 pg/mL and 599 pg/mL, respectively; the estimated ORs that were associated with these cut-off values were 9.95 (95% CI 3.8-25.9, p<0.001) and 6.0 (95% CI 2.3-15.8, p<0.001). An elevated level of inhibin A in MS and AF at the time of second trimester amniocentesis may be a risk factor for the subsequent development of severe preeclampsia. PMID:16778388

  6. Multi-step direct reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koning, A.J.

    1992-07-01

    In recent years a variety of statistical theories has been developed concerning multistep direct (MSD) nuclear reactions. In addition, dominant in applications is a whole class of semiclassical models that may be subsumed under the heading of 'generalized exciton models'; these are basically MSD-type extensions on top of compound-like concepts. In this report the relation between their underlying statistical MSD-postulates are highlighted. A command framework is sketched that enables to generate the various MSD theories through assigning statistical properties to different parts of the nuclear Hamiltonian. Then it is shown that distinct forms of nuclear randomness are embodied in the mentioned theories. All these theories appear to be very similar at a qualitative level. In order to explain the high energy-tails and forward-peaked angular distribution typical for particles emitted in MSD reactions, it is imagined that the incident continuum particle stepwise looses its energy and direction in a sequence of collisions, thereby creating new particle-hole pairs in the target system. At each step emission may take place. The statistical aspect comes in because many continuum states are involved in the process. These are supposed to display chaotic behavior, the associated randomness assumption giving rise to important simplifications in the expression for MSD emission cross sections. This picture suggests that mentioned MSD models can be interpreted as a variant of essentially one and the same theory. 113 refs.; 25 figs.; 9 tabs

  7. Fiscal 2000 project for development of international standards for supporting novel industries. Standardization of production process system (Development of basic STEP standards); 2000 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo. Seisan process system no hyojunka (STEP kiban kikaku no kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Efforts are under way to develop STEP (standard for the exchange of product model data) of ISO-10303 into specifications for expressing the total life cycle of products from designing, manufacturing, to disposition. Japan's study centers about product model expression involving 'thing-making for machine products.' In the study, the functions of the mechanical production process system ranging from designing to manufacturing were analyzed, and the results were built into an integrated application activity model (I-AAM). The I-AAM was analyzed, and an assembly model capable of expressing detailed relations between parts, such as mechanical linking and binding, was developed, and the model was accepted as a new work item at TC184/SC4 in February 2001. In relation to the parametric assembly of Part 108, moreover, the fruit of this research and development effort was adopted. In relation to manufacturing, problems were extracted involving important production designs between the processes of designing and manufacturing. They were raised at SC4, and a data model was proposed. (NEDO)

  8. An interview study of how clinical teachers develop skills to attend to different level learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H Carrie; Fogh, Shannon; Kobashi, Brent; Teherani, Arianne; Ten Cate, Olle; O'Sullivan, Patricia

    2016-06-01

    One clinical teaching challenge is the engagement of learners at different levels. Faculty development offerings mostly address general strategies applicable to all learners. This study examined how clinical faculty members develop the skills to work with different level learners. We conducted semi-structured interviews with medical school faculty members identified as excellent clinical teachers teaching multiple levels of learners. They discussed how they developed their approach to teaching different level learners and how their teaching evolved over time. We performed thematic analysis of the interview transcripts using open and axial coding. We interviewed 19 faculty members and identified three themes related to development of teaching practices: teacher agency and work-based learning of teaching strategies, developmental trajectory of clinical teachers, and interplay between clinical confidence and teaching skills. Faculty members were proactive in using on-the-job experiences to develop their teaching practices. Their teaching practices followed a developmental trajectory towards learner centeredness, and this evolution was associated with the development of clinical skills and confidence. Learning skills to teach multi-level learners requires workplace learning. Faculty development should include workplace learning opportunities and use a developmental approach that accounts for the trajectory of teaching as well as clinical skills attainment.

  9. CAPD Software Development for Automatic Piping System Design: Checking Piping Pocket, Checking Valve Level and Flexibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ari Satmoko; Edi Karyanta; Dedy Haryanto; Abdul Hafid; Sudarno; Kussigit Santosa; Pinitoyo, A.; Demon Handoyo

    2003-01-01

    One of several steps in industrial plant construction is preparing piping layout drawing. In this drawing, pipe and all other pieces such as instrumentation, equipment, structure should be modeled A software called CAPD was developed to replace and to behave as piping drafter or designer. CAPD was successfully developed by adding both subprogram CHKUPIPE and CHKMANV. The first subprogram can check and gives warning if there is piping pocket in the piping system. The second can identify valve position and then check whether valve can be handled by operator hand The main program CAPD was also successfully modified in order to be capable in limiting the maximum length of straight pipe. By limiting the length, piping flexibility can be increased. (author)

  10. The Impact of Sea Level Rise on Developing Countries: A Comparative Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasgupta, S. [World Bank, Washington, DC (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Sea-level rise (SLR) due to climate change is a serious global threat: The scientific evidence is now overwhelming. In this paper, Geographic Information System software has been used to overlay the best available, spatially-disaggregated global data on land, population, agriculture, urban extent, wetlands, and GDP, to assess the consequences of continued SLR for 84 coastal developing countries. Estimates suggest that even a one-meter rise in sea level in coastal countries of the developing world would submerge 194,000 square kilometers of land area, and turn at least 56 million people into environmental refugees. At the country level results are extremely skewed.

  11. The Impact of Sea Level Rise on Developing Countries: A Comparative Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasgupta, Susmita (World Bank, Washington, DC (United States))

    2008-07-01

    Sea-level rise (SLR) due to climate change is a serious global threat: The scientific evidence is now overwhelming. In this paper, Geographic Information System software has been used to overlay the best available, spatially-disaggregated global data on land, population, agriculture, urban extent, wetlands, and GDP, to assess the consequences of continued SLR for 84 coastal developing countries. Estimates suggest that even a one-meter rise in sea level in coastal countries of the developing world would submerge 194,000 square kilometers of land area, and turn at least 56 million people into environmental refugees. At the country level results are extremely skewed

  12. Development of a geoscience database for preselecting China's high level radioactive waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jun; Fan Ai; Huang Shutao; Wang Ju

    1998-01-01

    Taking the development of a geoscience database for China's high level waste disposal sites: Yumen Town, Gansu Province, northwest of China, as an example, the author introduces in detail the application of Geographical Information System (GIS) to high level waste disposal and analyses its application prospect in other fields. The development of GIS provides brand-new thinking for administrators and technicians at all levels. At the same time, the author also introduces the administration of maps and materials by using Geographical Information System

  13. Development of a geoscience database for preselecting China's high level radioactive waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jun; Fan Ai; Huang Shutao; Wang Ju

    2004-01-01

    Taking the development of a geoscience database for China's high level waste disposal sites: Yumen Town, Guansu province, northwest of China, as an example, this paper introduces in detail the application of Geographical Information System (GIS) to high level waste disposal and analyses its application prospect in other fields. The development of GIS provides brand-new thinking for administrators and technicians at all levels. At the same time, this paper also introduces the administration of maps and materials by using Geographical Information System. (author)

  14. Experience from developed and licensing an underground repository for low and intermediate level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebel, K.; Richter, D.

    1988-01-01

    In the German Democratic Republic an abandoned salt mine was selected and reconstructed to serve as a central repository for low and intermediate level wastes from nuclear power plants and radioisotope production and application from all over the country. The decision to establish such a repository was based on safety and technical-economic studies performed in the 1960s. The repository is owned by the main waste producer, the nuclear plant utility. It was designed, constructed and commissioned during 1972-1978. The licensing steps included a site licence (1972), a construction licence (1974), a comissioning licence and a continuous operation licence (1979). The paper reviews the overall choice of the disposal option, the responsibilities in radioactive waste management, the licensing and surveillance activities, the methods for transport and disposal, and the waste acceptance criteria established for the repository. (author)

  15. Development of Speaking Skills through Activity Based Learning at the Elementary Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ul-Haq, Zahoor; Khurram, Bushra Ahmed; Bangash, Arshad Khan

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This paper discusses an effective instructional method called "activity based learning" that can be used to develop the speaking skills of students in the elementary school level. The present study was conducted to determine the effect of activity based learning on the development of the speaking skills of low and high achievers…

  16. The micro-step motor controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Kwang Pyo; Lee, Chang Hee; Moon, Myung Kook; Choi, Bung Hun; Choi, Young Hyun; Cheon, Jong Gu

    2004-11-01

    The developed micro-step motor controller can handle 4 axes stepping motor drivers simultaneously and provide high power bipolar driving mechanism with constant current mode. It can be easily controlled by manual key functions and the motor driving status is displayed by the front panel VFD. Due to the development of several kinds of communication and driving protocol, PC can operate even several micro-step motor controllers at once by multi-drop connection

  17. Focal cryotherapy: step by step technique description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Redondo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction and objective: Focal cryotherapy emerged as an efficient option to treat favorable and localized prostate cancer (PCa. The purpose of this video is to describe the procedure step by step. Materials and methods: We present the case of a 68 year-old man with localized PCa in the anterior aspect of the prostate. Results: The procedure is performed under general anesthesia, with the patient in lithotomy position. Briefly, the equipment utilized includes the cryotherapy console coupled with an ultrasound system, argon and helium gas bottles, cryoprobes, temperature probes and an urethral warming catheter. The procedure starts with a real-time trans-rectal prostate ultrasound, which is used to outline the prostate, the urethra and the rectal wall. The cryoprobes are pretested and placed in to the prostate through the perineum, following a grid template, along with the temperature sensors under ultrasound guidance. A cystoscopy confirms the right positioning of the needles and the urethral warming catheter is installed. Thereafter, the freeze sequence with argon gas is started, achieving extremely low temperatures (-40°C to induce tumor cell lysis. Sequentially, the thawing cycle is performed using helium gas. This process is repeated one time. Results among several series showed a biochemical disease-free survival between 71-93% at 9-70 month- follow-up, incontinence rates between 0-3.6% and erectile dysfunction between 0-42% (1–5. Conclusions: Focal cryotherapy is a feasible procedure to treat anterior PCa that may offer minimal morbidity, allowing good cancer control and better functional outcomes when compared to whole-gland treatment.

  18. Data base system for research and development of high-level waste conditioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masaki, Toshio; Igarashi, Hiroshi; Ohuchi, Jin; Miyauchi, Tomoko.

    1992-01-01

    Results of research and development for High-Level Waste Conditioning are accumulated as large number of documents. Data Base System for Research and Development of High-Level Waste Conditioning has been developed since 1987 to search for necessary informations correctly and rapidly with the intention of offering and transferring the results to organization inside and outside of PNC. This data base system has contributed that technical informations has been correctly and rapidly searched. Designing of devices etc. and making of reports have become easy and work has been efficiently and rationally accomplished. (author)

  19. Development of site suitability criteria for the high level waste repository for Lawrence Livermore Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-06-01

    Results of our mining, geological and geotechnical studies provided in support of the development of site suitability criteria for the high level waste repository are presented. The primary purpose of the work was the identification and development of appropriate geotechnical descriptors and coefficients required for the Site Suitability Repository Model. This model was developed by The Analytic Sciences Corporation (TASC) of Reading, Massachusetts and is not described in this report

  20. Selection of the best security controls for rapid development of enterprise-level cyber security

    OpenAIRE

    Tytarenko, Oleksandr

    2017-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited State-supported cyber attacks, cyber espionage campaigns, and hacktivist movements have forced many states to accelerate their cyber defense development in order to achieve at least a minimum level of protection against expanding threats of cyber space. As with any other development effort, cyber capability development requires resources of time, money, and people, which in most cases are very restricted. To rapidly build up the first ...

  1. Development of site suitability criteria for the high level waste repository for Lawrence Livermore Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-06-01

    Results of our mining, geological and geotechnical studies provided in support of the development of site suitability criteria for the high level waste repository are presented. The primary purpose of the work was the identification and development of appropriate geotechnical descriptors and coefficients required for the Site Suitability Repository Model. This model was developed by The Analytic Sciences Corporation (TASC) of Reading, Massachusetts and is not described in this report.

  2. Analysis of the Level of Development of the Socio-labour Sphere of Ukrainian Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibikova Viktoriia V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article is the study of the level of development of the socio-labour sphere of Ukrainian regions. In order to achieve the goal, the article develops a complex scorecard, which takes into account all elements of the socio-labour sphere (socio-labour relations, labour market system of labour reimbursement, social accompaniment of labour activity, professional development of economically active population, level and quality of labour life, safety and security of labour. On the basis of the use of the developed scorecard, the article conducts an integral assessment of the level of development of the socio-labour sphere of regions. In order to get more objective information about the state of the labour sphere of Ukraine, the article uses its subjective assessments by population. In the result of the analysis, it reveals a lack of progressive changes of the socio-labour sphere in majority (60% of Ukrainian regions, availability of significant differentiation of regions by the level of its development and the irregular character of changes of separate elements of the labour sphere both within one administrative and territorial unit and among different regions of Ukraine. The article justifies a necessity of conduct of regular diagnostics of the state of the socio-labour sphere of Ukrainian regions with the use of a developed scorecard.

  3. Using a High-Performance Planning Model to Increase Levels of Functional Effectiveness Within Professional Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Peggi

    2016-01-01

    Nursing professional practice models continue to shape how we practice nursing by putting families and members at the heart of everything we do. Faced with enormous challenges around healthcare reform, models create frameworks for practice by unifying, uniting, and guiding our nurses. The Kaiser Permanente Practice model was developed to ensure consistency for nursing practice across the continuum. Four key pillars support this practice model and the work of nursing: quality and safety, leadership, professional development, and research/evidence-based practice. These four pillars form the foundation that makes transformational practice possible and aligns nursing with Kaiser Permanente's mission. The purpose of this article is to discuss the pillar of professional development and the components of the Nursing Professional Development: Scope and Standards of Practice model (American Nurses Association & National Nursing Staff Development Organization, 2010) and place them in a five-level development framework. This process allowed us to identify the current organizational level of practice, prioritize each nursing professional development component, and design an operational strategy to move nursing professional development toward a level of high performance. This process is suggested for nursing professional development specialists.

  4. Family and School Influences on Youths' Behavioral and Academic Outcomes: Cross-Level Interactions between Parental Monitoring and Character Development Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Top, Namik; Liew, Jeffrey; Luo, Wen

    2017-01-01

    The authors examined the joint (interactive) roles of the Second Step curriculum (a validated social-emotional learning and bullying prevention program; Committee for Children, Seattle, WA) and parenting practices on students' behavioral and academic outcomes in Grades 5-8. Participants were 763 parents and their children from 22 schools (8 control and 14 treatment). A 2-level random coefficient model was conducted to assess the effect of parental monitoring on school outcomes, as well as the interaction between character development curriculum and parental monitoring. Results indicated that parental monitoring was a significant predictor of school behaviors and school grades. Furthermore, the Second Step curriculum moderated the relationship between parental monitoring and problem behaviors, prosocial behaviors, and grades at school. Specifically, in schools without the Second Step curriculum parental monitoring predicted higher school grades but had no impact on students' school behaviors. By contrast, in schools with the Second Step curriculum, parental monitoring predicted fewer problem behaviors as well as more prosocial behaviors. The study results highlight the joint influences of the family and the school in children's behavioral and academic trajectories. Results have implications for education and intervention, including improving the school climate, student behaviors, and learning or achievement.

  5. Development of a highly sensitive MIP based-QCM nanosensor for selective determination of cholic acid level in body fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gültekin, Aytaç; Karanfil, Gamze; Sönmezoğlu, Savaş; Say, Rıdvan

    2014-01-01

    Determination of cholic acid is very important and necessary in body fluids due to its both pharmaceutical and clinical significance. In this study, a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) nanosensor, which is imprinted cholic acid, has been developed for the assignation of cholic acid. The cholic acid selective memories have been generated on QCM electrode surface by using molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) based on methacryloylamidohistidine-copper (II) (MAH-Cu(II)) pre-organized monomer. The cholic acid imprinted nanosensor was characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and then analytical performance of the cholic acid imprinted QCM nanosensor was studied. The detection limit was found to be 0.0065 μM with linear range of 0.01–1000 μM. Moreover, the high value of Langmuir constant (b) (7.3 * 10 5 ) obtained by Langmuir graph showed that the cholic acid imprinted nanosensor had quite strong binding sites affinity. At the last step of this procedure, cholic acid levels in body fluids were determined by the prepared imprinted QCM nanosensor. - Graphical abstract: QCM responses of the cholic acid imprinted and non-imprinted nanosensors (C CA = 0.1 μM). - Highlights: • The purpose is to synthesize a new cholic acid imprinted QCM nanosensor by MIP. • Analytical applications of QCM nanosensor were investigated. • The cholic acid levels in body fluids were determined by prepared QCM nanosensor

  6. Development of a pressurizer level compensator for use on N Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bussell, J.H.

    1985-07-01

    The instrument described in this report has been developed to compensate the measured water level in the N Reactor pressurizer for temperature effects. N Reactor is a pressurized water nuclear reactor (PWR). The instrument is defined as a pressurizer level compensator (PLC). A pressurizer is used in a PWR to control the primary coolant pressure and provide a surge volume for primary coolant expansion and contraction. A means of compensating for water and steam density is required because of the wide range of pressure and temperature that result from different steady state and transient reactor power levels. The uncompensated level is determined by measurement of differential pressure between the top of the level measurement zone and the bottom of the level measurement zone. Temperature of the water in the pressurizer is the parameter that is used to determine the proper level compensation since water and steam density are primarily functions of temperature in this case. The PLC uses a microprocessor to calculate the compensated level from temperature and differential pressure measurements. This report includes a description of the design, development, and implementation of software and hardware that are in the PLC. 9 refs., 51 figs., 17 tabs

  7. Honeycomb development on Alexander Island, glacial history of George VI Sound and palaeoclimatic implications (Two Step Cliffs/Mars Oasis, W Antarctica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Marie-Françoise; Hall, Kevin

    2005-02-01

    Analysis of three generations of glacial deposits and of a range of geomorphic features including widespread honeycombs and tafonis at Two Step Cliffs/Mars Oasis (71°52‧S, 68°15‧W) provides new insights into the geomorphological evolution of West Antarctica, with special respect to alveolar weathering. At Two Step Terrace, indicators of the inherited character of cavernous weathering were found, such as 97% non-flaking and varnished backwalls, and 80% tafoni floors that are till-covered and/or sealed by lithobiontic coatings. Based on the NE predominant aspect of the alveolized boulder faces, tafoni initiation is attributed to coastal salt spray weathering by halite coming from the George VI Sound during the 6.5 ka BP open water period. The present-day activity of these inherited cavities is restricted to roof flaking attributed to a combination of processes involving thermal stresses. This 6.5 ka BP phase of coastal alveolization is the first step of a six-stage Holocene geomorphological scenario that includes alternatively phases of glacial advance or stationing, and phases of vegetal colonization and/or rock weathering and aeolian abrasion on the deglaciated outcrops. This geomorphic scenario is tentatively correlated with the available palaeoenvironmental record in the Antarctic Peninsula region, with two potential geomorphic indicators of the Holocene Optimum being identified: (1) clusters of centimetric honeycombs facing the sound (marine optimum at 6.5 ka BP); (2) salmon-pink lithobiontic coatings preserved inside cavities and at the boulder surface (terrestrial optimum at 4 3 ka BP).

  8. Developing a New Two-Step Protocol to Generate Functional Hepatocytes from Wharton’s Jelly-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells under Hypoxic Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patcharee Prasajak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The shortage of donor livers and hepatocytes is a major limitation of liver transplantation. Thus, generation of hepatocyte-like cells may provide alternative choice for therapeutic applications. In this study, we developed a new method to establish hepatocytes from Wharton’s jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells (WJ-MSCs cell lines named WJMSCs-SUT1 and WJMSCs-SUT2 under hypoxic condition. This new method could rapidly drive both WJ-MSCs cell lines into hepatic lineage within 18 days. The achievement of hepatogenic differentiation was confirmed by the characterization of both phenotypes and functions. More than 80% MSCs-derived hepatocyte-like cells (MSCDHCs achieved functional hepatocytes including hepatic marker expressions both at gene and protein levels, glycogen storage, low-density lipoprotein uptake, urea production, and albumin secretion. This study highlights the establishment of new hepatogenic induction protocol under hypoxic condition in order to mimic hypoxic microenvironment in typical cell physiology. In conclusion, we present a simple, high-efficiency, and time saving protocol for the generation of functional hepatocyte-like cells from WJ-MSCs in hypoxic condition. The achievement of this method may overcome the limitation of donor hepatocytes and provides a new avenue for therapeutic value in cell-based therapy for life-threatening liver diseases, regenerative medicine, toxicity testing for pharmacological drug screening, and other medical related applications.

  9. Development of Jerusalem artichoke resource for efficient one-step fermentation of poly-(γ-glutamic acid) using a novel strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NX-2S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yibin; Sha, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yatao; Xu, Zongqi; Li, Sha; Lei, Peng; Xu, Zheng; Feng, Xiaohai; Xu, Hong

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to develop non-food fermentation for the cost-effective production of poly-(γ-glutamic acid) (γ-PGA) using a novel strain of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NX-2S. The new isolate assimilated inulin more efficiently than other carbohydrates from Jerusalem artichoke, without hydrolytic treatment. To investigate the effect of inulin on γ-PGA production, the transcript levels of γ-PGA synthetase genes (pgsB, pgsC, pgsA), regulatory genes (comA, degQ, degS), and the glutamic acid biosynthesis gene (glnA) were analyzed; inulin addition upregulated these key genes. Without exogenous glutamate, strain NX-2S could produce 6.85±0.22g/L of γ-PGA during fermentation. Exogenous glutamate greatly enhances the γ-PGA yield (39.4±0.38g/L) and productivity (0.43±0.05g/L/h) in batch fermentation. Our study revealed a potential method of non-food fermentation to produce high-value products. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Developing novel one-step processes for obtaining food-grade O/W emulsions from pressurized fluid extracts: processes description, state of the art and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    SANTOS, Diego Tresinari; MEIRELES, Maria Angela de Almeida

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In this work, a novel on-line process for production of food-grade emulsions containing oily extracts, i.e. oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions, in only one step is presented. This process has been called ESFE, Emulsions from Supercritical Fluid Extraction. With this process, emulsions containing supercritical fluid extracts can be obtained directly from plant materials. The aim in the conception of this process is to propose a new rapid way to obtain emulsions from supercritical fluid extr...

  11. Development of the clearance level verification evaluation system. 2. Construction of the clearance data management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Shintaro; Usui, Hideo; Kawagoshi, Hiroshi

    2014-06-01

    Clearance is defined as the removal of radioactive materials or radioactive objects within authorized practices from any further regulatory control by the regulatory body. In Japan, clearance level and a procedure for its verification has been introduced under the Laws and Regulations, and solid clearance wastes inspected by the national authority can be handled and recycled as normal wastes. The most prevalent type of wastes have generated from the dismantling of nuclear facilities, so the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been developing the Clearance Level Verification Evaluation System (CLEVES) as a convenient tool. The Clearance Data Management System (CDMS), which is a part of CLEVES, has been developed to support measurement, evaluation, making and recording documents with clearance level verification. In addition, validation of the evaluation result of the CDMS was carried out by inputting the data of actual clearance activities in the JAEA. Clearance level verification is easily applied by using the CDMS for the clearance activities. (author)

  12. Accelerators Spanish steps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    In September, the CERN Accelerator School (CAS) held its third General Accelerator Physics Course, the venue this time being Salamanca, the oldest university in Spain. Spain, which rejoined CERN in 1982, now has a vigorous and steadily growing high energy physics community making substantial contributions to physics detector development and successfully involving Spanish industry. However the embryonic accelerator community cannot yet generate an equivalent level of activity, and this important channel for introducing new high technology into industry has yet to be fully exploited

  13. From raw material to dish: pasta quality step by step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicignano, Angelo; Di Monaco, Rossella; Masi, Paolo; Cavella, Silvana

    2015-10-01

    Pasta is a traditional Italian cereal-based food that is popular worldwide because of its convenience, versatility, sensory and nutritional value. The aim of this review is to present a step-by-step guide to facilitate the understanding of the most important events that can affect pasta characteristics, directing the reader to the appropriate production steps. Owing to its unique flavor, color, composition and rheological properties, durum wheat semolina is the best raw material for pasta production. Although pasta is traditionally made from only two ingredients, sensory quality and chemical/physical characteristics of the final product may vary greatly. Starting from the same ingredients, there are a lot of different events in each step of pasta production that can result in the development of varieties of pasta with different characteristics. In particular, numerous studies have demonstrated the importance of temperature and humidity conditions of the pasta drying operation as well as the significance of the choice of raw material and operating conditions on pasta quality. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Step-by-step cyclic processes scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bocewicz, G.; Nielsen, Izabela Ewa; Banaszak, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Automated Guided Vehicles (AGVs) fleet scheduling is one of the big problems in Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) control. The problem is more complicated when concurrent multi-product manufacturing and resource deadlock avoidance policies are considered. The objective of the research is to pro......Automated Guided Vehicles (AGVs) fleet scheduling is one of the big problems in Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) control. The problem is more complicated when concurrent multi-product manufacturing and resource deadlock avoidance policies are considered. The objective of the research...... is to provide a declarative model enabling to state a constraint satisfaction problem aimed at AGVs fleet scheduling subject to assumed itineraries of concurrently manufactured product types. In other words, assuming a given layout of FMS’s material handling and production routes of simultaneously manufactured...... orders, the main objective is to provide the declarative framework aimed at conditions allowing one to calculate the AGVs fleet schedule in online mode. An illustrative example of the relevant algebra-like driven step-by-stem cyclic scheduling is provided....

  15. RELATIVE MPORTANCE OF PAY LEVEL SATISFACTION, CAREER DEVELOPMENT OPPORTUNITIES, AND SUPERVISOR SUPPORT IN PERCEIVED ORGANIZATIONAL SUPPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Hasnu, Muhammed WASEEM SAF

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the relative impact of supervisor support, pay level satisfaction & career growth opportunities on the development of perceived organizational support (POS) of employees. Survey data were collected from banking sector professionals working in the branches of four major private commercial banks of Pakistan in Hazara Division. The findings of this study highlighted that “career growth opportunities” is a stronger predictor of POS than supervisor support and pay level...

  16. Assessment of the level of development of insurance of agricultural enterprises in Ukrainian regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostapenko Olga N.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers application of the taxonomic analysis for identifying the level of development of insurance of agricultural enterprises (in case of its voluntary form in Ukrainian regions through calculation of the taxonomy ratio (development level ratio. On the basis of the conducted study the author identifies those regions of Ukraine where the level of development of insurance of agricultural enterprises, in particular, their agricultural products, is characterised with positive dynamics and those regions where the tariff policy of insurance companies needs to be reconsidered. That is why the article justifies a necessity of replacing the existing tariff policy of insurance companies with a more suitable for modern conditions of farming with the aim to ensure, on the one hand, organisation of efficient management of an insurance company and, on the other hand, taking into account interests and requirements of agricultural enterprises, which are reflected in insurance tariffs.

  17. Development of Human-level Decision Making Algorithm for NPPs through Deep Neural Networks : Conceptual Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Geun; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Development of operation support systems and automation systems are closely related to machine learning field. However, since it is hard to achieve human-level delicacy and flexibility for complex tasks with conventional machine learning technologies, only operation support systems with simple purposes were developed and high-level automation related studies were not actively conducted. As one of the efforts for reducing human error in NPPs and technical advance toward automation, the ultimate goal of this research is to develop human-level decision making algorithm for NPPs during emergency situations. The concepts of SL, RL, policy network, value network, and MCTS, which were applied to decision making algorithm for other fields are introduced and combined with nuclear field specifications. Since the research is currently at the conceptual stage, more research is warranted.

  18. Development of the liquid level meters for the PandaX dark matter detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Jie; Gong Haowei; Lin Qing; Ni Kaixuan; Wei Yuehuan; Xiao Mengjiao; Xiao Xiang; Zhao Li; Tan Andi

    2014-01-01

    The two-phase xenon detector is at the frontier of dark matter direct search. This kind of detector uses liquid xenon as the sensitive target and is operated in two-phase (liquid/gas) mode, where the liquid level needs to be monitored and controlled in sub-millimeter precision. In this paper, we present a detailed design and study of two kinds of level meters for the PandaX dark matter detector. The long level meter is used to monitor the overall liquid level while short level meters are used to monitor the inclination of the detector. These level meters are cylindrical capacitors that are custom-made from two concentric metal tubes. Their capacitance values are read out by a universal transducer interface chip and are recorded by the PandaX slow control system. We present the developments that lead to level meters with long-term stability and sub-millimeter precision. Fluctuations (standard deviations) of less than 0.02 mm for the short level meters and less than 0.2 mm for the long level meter were achieved during a few days of test operation. (authors)

  19. Development of a method to extract and purify target compounds from medicinal plants in a single step: online hyphenation of expanded bed adsorption chromatography and countercurrent chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Wang, Nan; Zhang, Min; Ito, Yoichiro; Zhang, Hongyang; Wang, Yuerong; Guo, Xin; Hu, Ping

    2014-04-01

    Pure compounds extracted and purified from natural sources are crucial to lead discovery and drug screening. This study presents a novel two-dimensional hyphenation of expanded bed adsorption chromatography (EBAC) and high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) for extraction and purification of target compounds from medicinal plants in a single step. The EBAC and HSCCC were hyphenated via a six-port injection valve as an interface. Fractionation of ingredients of Salvia miltiorrhiza and Rhizoma coptidis was performed on the hyphenated system to verify its efficacy. Two compounds were harvested from Salvia miltiorrhiza, one was 52.9 mg of salvianolic acid B with an over 95% purity and the other was 2.1 mg of rosmarinic acid with a 74% purity. Another two components were purified from Rhizoma coptidis, one was 4.6 mg of coptisine with a 98% purity and one was 4.1 mg of berberine with a 82% purity. The processing time was nearly 50% that of the multistep method. The results indicate that the present method is a rapid and green way to harvest targets from medicinal plants in a single step.

  20. Development of computer program ENAUDIBL for computation of the sensation levels of multiple, complex, intrusive sounds in the presence of residual environmental masking noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebich, R. E.; Chang, Y.-S.; Chun, K. C.

    2000-03-31

    The relative audibility of multiple sounds occurs in separate, independent channels (frequency bands) termed critical bands or equivalent rectangular (filter-response) bandwidths (ERBs) of frequency. The true nature of human hearing is a function of a complex combination of subjective factors, both auditory and nonauditory. Assessment of the probability of individual annoyance, community-complaint reaction levels, speech intelligibility, and the most cost-effective mitigation actions requires sensation-level data; these data are one of the most important auditory factors. However, sensation levels cannot be calculated by using single-number, A-weighted sound level values. This paper describes specific steps to compute sensation levels. A unique, newly developed procedure is used, which simplifies and improves the accuracy of such computations by the use of maximum sensation levels that occur, for each intrusive-sound spectrum, within each ERB. The newly developed program ENAUDIBL makes use of ERB sensation-level values generated with some computational subroutines developed for the formerly documented program SPECTRAN.